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GUIDED aL 2001 PAPER 2 SEC. A Q5 2008 PAPER 2 SEC. A.Q6 2009 PAPER 2 SEC, AGG 2010 PAPER 2 SEC. C 10 Aim )P To determine the heat of neutralisation between ‘Menentukan haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas antara (a) a strong acid and a strong alkalifasid kuat dan alkali huat (b) a weak acid and a strong alkalifasid lemah dan alkali kuat Problem: > Is the heat of neutralisation different for various types of neutralisation reaction? ( Statement”) Adakan haba peneutralan berbeza bagi pelbagaijenistindak balas peneutralan? Hypothesis > ‘The heat of neutralisation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is higher than the heat of neutralisation of ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide. Haba peneutralan bagi asid hidroklorik dan natrium hidroksida adalah lebih tinggi daripada haba peneutralan bagi asid etanoik dan natrium hidroksida Variables!) (a) that is manipulated/yang dimanipulasikan: Hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid/Type of acid Asid hidroklorik dan asid etanoik/Jenis asid (b) that responds/yang bergerak bal Heat of neutralisation/Haba peneutralan (©) that is kept constant/yang dimalarkan: Volume of acid/Volume and concentration of sodium hydroxide solution Tsi padu asid/Tsi padu dan kepekatan larutan natrium hidroksida Material 1B 2 mol dm hydrochloric acid, HCl, 2 mol dm sodium hydroxide @) ufo Gallery, solution, NaOH, 2 mol dm“ ethanoic acid, CHy;COOH re oa ‘ ‘sid hidroklorik, HCI2 mol dm, larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH 2 mol | Mrealiaion dm, asid etanoik, CHyCOOH 2 mol dm l corthere ie tesctione . . A r but not all double Apparatus ) Polystyrene cup (or plastic cup), 50 ml measuring cylinder, decomposition thermometer (0-110 °C/Cawan polistirena (atau eawan plastik, silinder __ "eactions (precipitation) “ rmameter 0110 °C reson peg eas polecine reactions. The double ee fic Semmes tecos between cute coed resis ate nd oh oe styrene cy sodium carbonate \ anon poltera solutions san endothermic reaction. 1m hydroxide solut ‘Semua tindak balas ES iit nian hee peneatoan ich tindok ‘alas eksotermik tetopi 1 Measure 50 cm* of 2 mol dm~ sodium hydroxide solution bukan semua tindak and pour it into a polystyrene cup/Sukat 50 em® larutan natrium alas penguraian gando hidroksida 2 mol dm dan tuangkan ke dalam cawan polistirena. fespea erneta) clot 2 Put the thermometer into the sodium hydroxide solution, _ indokbolas sue Record the initial temperature of the solution. "ganda dia onto Masubkan termometer ke dalam larutan natrium hidroksida. Catatkan _lutan magnesium suhu awal larutan. nit dan artan 3 Measure 50 m® of 2 mol dm hydrochloric acid and record "atrium karbonat al the initial temperature with another thermometer. SS Sukat 50 cm? asid hidroklorik 2 mol dm~* dan catatkan suhu awalnya ‘dengan termometer lain. 4 Pour the hydrochloric acid quickly into the sodium hydroxide solution in the polystyrene cup. Twang dengan cepat asid hidroklorik ke dalam larutan natrium hidroksida dalam cawan polistirena. 5 Stir the mixture with the thermometer and record the highest temperature achieved. Kacau campuran dengan termometer dan catatkan suhu tertinggi yang tercapai. 6 Repeat steps 1 to 5 by replacing the 2 mol dm of hydrochloric acid with 2 mol dm ethanoic acid/Ulangi langkah 1 hingga 5 dengan menggantikan asid hidroklorik 2 mol dm dengan asid etanoik 2 mol dm~. 145 Results. » Experiment I: Experiment U: Hydrochloric acid Ethanoic acid ‘Temperature (strong acid) (weak acid) ‘Suhu Eksperimen I: Eksperimen II: Asid hidroklorik Asid etanoik (asid kuat) (asid lemah) Initial temperature of the sodium hydroxide solution i “ Suhu awal larutan a856 °C atrium hidroksida Initial temperature of the acid 29°C 29°C Suku awal asid Average initial temperature Be nc 29439 _ 09 o of the solutions eee foe Purata suhu awal larutan The highest temperature of the mixture of solution 42°C 41% Suhu tertngg campuran larutan ‘Temperature increase OTe = 12% tastes 42-29 = 13°C 41-29 = 12°C 1 What is meant by the heat of neutralisation? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan haba peneutralan? The heat released when 1 mol of water is formed/The heat released when 1 mol of hydrogen ion neutralises 1 mol of hydroxide ion to form 1 mol of water. Haba yang terbebas apabila 1 mol air terbentuk./Haba yang dibebaskan apabila 1 mol ion hidrogen meneutralkan 1 mol ion hidroksida untuk membentuk I mol air. 2 Write an ionic equation for the reaction between an acid and an alkali. Tulis persamaan ion bagi tindak balas antara asid dengan alkali. H'(aq/ak) + OH(aq/ak) > H,0Wee) 8 Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide solution that reacts in this experiment. Hitung bilangan mol larutan natrium hidroksida yang bertindak balas dalam eksperimen ini. Number of moles of NaOH = + Hy Bilangan mol NaOH eat x 2x50 1.9.1 mol 1000 ri 4 (a) Calculate the heat released in Experiment I (strong acid), {Specific heat capacity of the solution = 4.2 J g"+ °C~; Density of solution = 1 g em~] Hitung haba yang dibebaskan dalam Eksperimen I (asid huat) (Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g! °C-!; Ketumpatan larutan = 1 g em] Heat released/Haba yang dibebaskan = mc® (60 + 50) x 4.2 x 13, 100 x 4.2 x 13 =5 4607 (b) Calculate the heat released in Experiment II (weak acid). Hitungkan haba yang dibebaskan dalam Eksperimen II (asic lemah). Heat released/Haba yarig dibebaskan = m8 (50 + 50) x 4.2 x 12 = 100 x 4.2 x12 =5 0405 146 5 Calculate the heat of neutralisation for the reaction between Hitung haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas antara (a) hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. ‘sid hidroklorik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida, Heat of neutralisation, AH = 5-460 Haba peneutralan, AH mh = —54 600 J mol¥/-54.6 kl mol? (b) ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide solution. sid etanoik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. 5040 Heat of neutralisation, AH = 5 Haba peneutralan, AH = 50 400 J mol/-50.4 ka mot-" 6 (a) State the operational definition of heat of neutralisation in this experiment. Nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi haba peneutralan dalam eksperimen ini. The heat___Teleased__ that causes the temperature _Ti8¢ _ when SE of LoD is formed. Haba yang apes yang menyebabkan suhu pnaninigkeat apabila JOE aE terbentuk. 7 (a) Compare the heat of neutralisation of the reaction between ethanoie acid and sodium hydroxide solution with the heat of neutralisation between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. Bandingkan haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas antara asid etanoik dan tarutan natrium hidroksida dengan haba peneutralan antara asid hidroklorik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. ‘The heat of neutralisation for the reaction between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide solution is lower _____ than the heat of neutralisation between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. Haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas antara asid etanoik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida adatah —_!sbihvendah _ daripada haba peneutralan antara asid hidroklorik dengan larutan natrium hidroksida. (b) Explain your answer in 6(a)./Terangkan jawapan anda di 6(a). Ethanoie acid is a__W*#_ acid, which ionises partially. in water. The concentration of hydrogen ions produced is —__!ow _. Heat needs to be ___280"bedl__t ionise ethanoie acid for the reaction. “Asid etanoik ialah asid "2h yang menggion —__**2"2 _ dalam air. Kepekatan ion hidrogen yang dihasilkan adalah au rendah Haba perlu diserap untuk mengionkan asid etanoik bagi tindak balas. 8 Draw an energy level diagram for the neutralisation of an acid and an alkali. Luhis satu rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas peneutralan antara asid dengan alkali. | H*(aq/at) + OHaq/ak) Energy Tenaga H,00ce) 9 (a) If Experiment I is repeated using a bigger polystyrene cup, predict the rise in temperature that occurs/Jika Eksperimen I diulang dengan menggunakan cawan polistirena yang lebih besar, ramalkan kenaikan suhu yang berlaku. Lower/Lebih rendah 147 10 vy 12 13 (b) Give the reason for your answer in 9(a). Beri sebab kepada jawapan anda di 9a). ‘The exposed area of the solution is _bigser___. More heat is released to ___ the surroundings. Luas permukaan terdedah bagi larutan adalah terbebas ke lebih besar Lebih banyak haba persekitaran. If the experiment is repeated using 100 cm* of 2 mol dm~ hydrochloric acid and 100 cm* of 2 mol dm~ sodium hydroxide solution, predict the rise in temperature. Explain why. Jika eksperimen diulang dengan menggunakan 100 cm asid hidroklorik 2 mol dm™ dan 100 em* larutan natrium hidroksida 2 mol dm~, ramatkan kenaikan suhu. Terangkan mengapa. ‘The rise in temperature isthe _____same ___,_— Two times more heat that is produced is ____sPread_ through ___two times more volume of solution (solution mass). Kenaikan suhu adalah same, _——Dua_ ali ganda lebih banyak haba yang terhasit ___disebarkan melalui ____4"@__ ali ganda isi padu larutannya (jisim larutan). Compare the heat of neutralisation with the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution if the experiment is repeated using hydrochloric acid and ammonia solution. Give a reason. Bandingkan haba peneutralan dengan tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik dan natrium hidroksida Jika eksperimen diulang dengan menggunakan asid hidroklorik dan larutan ammonia. Berikan alasan. Lower weak alkali Lebih rendah alkali lemah . Ammonia solution is a lebih renda___ tarutan ammonia ialah —_Alali ema Predict the temperature rise if hydrochloric acid in this experiment is replaced by the same volume and concentration of nitric acid. Explain your answer. Ramalkan perubahan suhu jika asid hidroklorik dalam eksperimen ini digantikan dengan asid nitrik dengan isi padu dan kepekatan yang sama. Terngkan jawapan anda. The same/13°C___ Nitrate and chloride dine! are not involved in the reaction. The reaction that takes place only involves Se hydrogen: Ss! snd _-~ hydroxides jong, Samal 43°C fon —__nitrat_ dan ion _orida __ tidak terlibat alam tindak balas. Tindak balas yang berlaku hanya melibatkan ion ——_hidrogen __ dan ion hidrolesida Give two reasons why a metal container such as copper container cannot replace the polysyrene cup in this experiment. Berikan dua sebab mengapa bekas logam seperti bekas kuprum tidak boleh menggantikan cawan polistirena dalam eksperimen ini. (a) Metal container is a 800d heat conductor _ Bekas logam ialah ___konduktor haba yang baik (b) Metal container will __&bs0rb__ part of the heat released from the reaction. Bekas logam akan —_™@NV°"0P__ sebahagian daripada haba yang ——!erbebas daripada tindak balas. Can the hypothesis made be accepted? /Adakah hipotesis yang dibuat diterimat Yes/Ya What conclusion can be made?/Apakah kesimpulan yang dapat dibuat? ‘The heat of neutralisation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution is higher than that of the reaction between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide solution. Haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas antara_asid hidroklorik dan larutan natrium hidroksida adalah lebih tinggi daripada tindak balas antara asid etanoik dan larutan natrium hidroksida. 148 20 cm’ of 2.0 mol dmv thermometer hydrochloric acid termometer sid hidrotlork car) \ | [polystyrene cup ‘awan polstrena | — 20 cm? of 0.5 mol dir Sodium hydroxide solution larutan natrium hidroksida 20 cm? of 2.0 mol dm® hydrochloric acid, HCl is poured into a polystyrene cup and the initial temperature of acid is measured. After measuring the initial temperature of the 20 cm? of 0.5 mol dm~ sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH, the solution is poured into the acid in the polystyrene cup. The solution mixture is stirred slowly and the highest temperature is recorded. The recorded temperatures are shown below. 20 em? asid hidroklorik, HCI, 2.0 mol dmv? dituangkan ke dalam cawan polistirena dan suhu awal asiddisukat 20 cm! larutan natrium hidroksida, NaOH, 0.5 mol dm™ yang suhu awalnya telah disukat, dituanghan ke dalam asid dalam cawan polistrena. Campuran larutan dikacau perlahan-lahan dan sul tertinggidicatat, Suhu yang telah dicatat ditunjulkan di bawah ini Initial temperature of hydrochloric acid/Suhu awal asid hidroklorik = 30 °C Initial temperature of sodium hydroxide solution/Suhu awal larutan natrium hidroksida =30 °C The highest temperature of the solution mixture/Suhu tertinggi campuran larutan = 33 °C 1. Calculate the heat released in the experiment. Hitung haba yang dibebaskan dalam eksperimen ini. Heat released/Haba yang dibebaskan/ = mc8 = (20 + 20) x 4.2 x (33 30) = 40x 423 = 504 J 2 Calculate the heat of neutralisation for the reaction. [Specific heat capacity of the solution = 4.2 J g °C-!; Density of solution = 1 g cm™] Hitung haba peneutralan bagi tindak balas ini. [Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J ¢! °C; Ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cnt HCI(aq/ak) + NaQH(aq/ak) —> NaCI(aq/ak) + H,0(ce) Mv__ 220 1.000 ~~ 1.000 ‘Number of moles of HCl = 0.04 mol Bilangan mol HCL MV_ _ 05x20 Number of moles of NaOH = . Bilangan mol NaOH 1000 1,000 Therefore, the heat of neutralisation, AH = 204 Maka, haba peneutralan 0.01 = 0.01 mol 50 400 J mol/-50.4 ky molt The experiment is repeated by replacing sodium hydroxide solution by the same volume and concentration of ammonia solution. The heat of neutralisation obtained in this experiment is 48.5 kJ mol Esperimen diulang dengan menggantikan larutan natrium hidroksida dengan larutan ammonia dengan isi padu dan kepekatan “yang sama. Haba peneutralan yang diperoleh dalam eksperimen ini ialah 48.5 kf mot! Explain the above statement /Terangkan pernyataan di atas. weak alkali ionise/dissociate partially Ammonia molecules —_ionise/dissociate partially _ in water to concentration of —PY4roxide ion Heat needs to be —_—*Ps0rbed__ to ammonia molecules for the reaction. alah __