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Академия управления

при Президенте Республики Беларусь


Система открытого образования

Практическая грамматика
английского языка
для среднего и продвинутого
уровней обучения

Часть I

Учебное пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей


высших учебных заведений

4-е издание, исправленное

Минск
2005
УДК 802.0 (07.5.8)
ББК 81.2
П-69
Серия основана в 2001 году

Рекомендовано к изданию Комиссией по приемке и аттестации электронных версий


учебных и учебно-методических материалов Академии управления при Президенте
Республики Беларусь.
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Академии управления при
Президенте Республики Беларусь.

Рецензенты:
доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры грамматики английского языка
Минского государственного лингвистического университета Д.Г.Богушевич;
заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков Института государственной службы
Академии управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь, кандидат филологических
наук, доцент А.Г.Храмченков.

Авторы: Соколовская, О.В. (глава 6), Лещева, Л.М. (главы 1, 2, 3 и предисло-


вие), Вертаева, Л.В., Бахтадзе, Е.А. (глава 5), Вольвачева, И.Г.,
Рыбальченко, Е.В. (глава 4)
П-69 Практическая грамматика английского языка (для среднего и
продвинутого уровней обучения): учебное пособие для студентов
гуманитарных специальностей высших учебных заведений / На англ. яз.=
English Grammar Review; под общ. ред. д.филол.н., профессора Л.М.Лещевой.
Часть I. – 4-е изд., испр. – Мн.: Акад. упр. при Президенте Респ. Беларусь, 2005.
– 255с.
ISBN 985-457-472-5

Учебное пособие состоит их трех частей. Часть I состоит из 6 глав, посвященных шести
частям речи в английском языке: имени существительному, имени прилагательному,
наречию, местоимению, артиклю и предлогу. Каждая глава включает вводный и
заключительные тесты, описание форм, значения и употребления грамматических категорий
определенной части речи, широкого перечня тренировочных и обзорных упражнений.
Предназначается студентам гуманитарных специальностей неязыковых вузов, а также
всем, кого интересует грамматический строй и функционирование английского языка.

УДК 802.0 (07.5.8)


ББК 81.2

ISBN 985-457-472-5 (ч.1) © Соколовская О.В., Лещева Л.М.,


Вертаева Л.В. и др. , 2004
ISBN 985-457-471-7 © Академия управления при Президенте
Республики Беларусь, 2004
CONTENTS
Предисловие . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 1. NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Entry Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
 Unit 1. Meaning and Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
 Unit 2. Noun Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
 Unit 3. Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
 Unit 4. Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
 Unit 5. Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Progress Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Chapter 2. ADJECTIVES ..................................... 36
Entry Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
 Unit 1. Meaning and Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
 Unit 2. Position of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
 Unit 3. Classes of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
 Unit 4. Comparison of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
 Unit 5. Adjectives Ending in -ing and –ed
(interesting/interested) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
 Unit 6. Substantivation of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Progress Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Chapter 3. ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Entry Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
 Unit 1. Meaning, Classification and Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
 Unit 2. Placing of Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
 Unit 3. Comparison of Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
 Unit 4. Adjectives or Adverbs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Progress Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Chapter 4. PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Entry Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
 Unit 1. Meaning, use and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
 Unit 2. Personal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
 Unit 3. Demonstrative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
 Unit 4. Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
 Unit 5. Reflexive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
 Unit 6. Reciprocal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
 Unit 7. Interrogative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
 Unit 8. Relative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
 Unit 9. Defining, Indefinite and Negative Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . 110
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Progress Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Chapter 5. ARTICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Entry Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
 Unit 1. Meaning and Types of Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
 Unit 2 The Indefinite and Zero Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
 Unit 3. The Definite Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
 Unit 4. The Use of Articles with Proper Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
 Unit 5. The Use of Articles in Set Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Progress Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Chapter 6. PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Entry Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
 Unit 1. Meaning, Use and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
 Unit 2. Prepositions of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
 Unit 3. Prepositions of Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
 Unit 4. Prepositions of Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
 Unit 5. Other Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
 Unit 6. Word and Prepositions Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
 Unit 7. Adjective + Preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
 Unit 8. Verb + Preposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Progress Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Supplement: Differences between Russian
and English prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
K e y s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемая книга “English Grammar Review ” является учебным


пособием по практической грамматике современного английского языка и
предназначена для студентов, продолжающих изучать английский язык
в неязыковом вузе, и в первую очередь, для студентов Академии
управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь. Она имеет целью
удовлетворить потребность в достаточно полном и, в то же время,
простом описании грамматической структуры английского языка, а также
в презентации серии упражнений, необходимых для прочного закрепления
теоретического материала.
В связи с тем, что в данном учебном пособии полно, системно и
доступно представлены как правила, так и упражнения по всему курсу
грамматики английского языка, авторы полагают, что оно окажется
полезным также для абитуриентов, повторяющих школьный курс
грамматики английского языка, для учителей средних школ,
преподавателей вузов и для всех, кто интересуется английским языком.
Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и для
самостоятельной работы.
Принципиальное отличие данного учебного пособия от имеющихся
на сегодняшний день аналогичных пособий состоит в том, что в нем
учитываются потребности студентов, изучающих английский язык на
среднем и продвинутом этапе в неязыковом вузе.
Последовательное использование принципа «Тест – Правила –
Упражнения – Тест» является особенно значимым в условиях работы со
студентами, имеющими разный уровень подготовки, при жестко
ограниченном количестве аудиторных часов и необходимости
организации самостоятельной работы студентов.
Кроме того, авторы пособия последовательно используют принцип
сознательности в обучении, без которого вряд ли возможен процесс
обучения взрослого. В пособии последовательно выстраивается
достаточно большой объем информации о сущности и особенностях
грамматического явления, сознательное овладение которым поможет
понять и правильно использовать ту или иную грамматическую
структуру.
В пособии учтены различия грамматических систем английского и
русского языка: многочисленные пометки (NOTES) в рамках с правилами,
а также следующие за правилами упражнения направлены на
предотвращение ошибок, вызванных интерференцией родного языка.
В данном пособии также суммированы многие нюансы
употребления грамматических форм, которые активно используются в
6

современном английском языке, но которые нашли отражение лишь в


отдельных практических грамматиках английского языка последнего
десятилетия.
Структура учебного пособия позволяет максимально
индивидуализировать учебный процесс и принимать во внимание как
уровень знаний студента, так и его индивидуальный стиль работы. Каждая
глава (Chapter) состоит из вводного теста (Entry Test), ряда разделов
(Units), включающих правила и упражнения, обзорных упражнений
(Review Exercises) и заключительного теста (Progress Test), оценивающего
успехи студентов после работы над главой. Все тесты и обзорные
упражнения снабжены ключами.
Задания вводного теста имеют указание на соответствующий раздел
учебного пособия (Unit), к которому студент может обратиться после
выполнения теста с целью повторения или изучения нужного ему
грамматического материала.
Правила разделов написаны на английском языке, но простом и
доступном для студента вуза. Причинами выбора английского языка для
объяснения грамматических явлений стали, прежде всего, необходимость
активизации студентом уже имеющихся знаний в области иностранного
языка и возникающая в этом случае возможность вести беседу с
преподавателем в аудитории по грамматической теме на английском
языке. Кроме того, знакомство с данным пособием подготовит студента
для работы, в случае необходимости, с аутентичными грамматиками.
Авторы старались избегать большого количества специальных
лингвистических терминов, излагать правила лаконично и интересно,
предлагать наиболее легко запоминающиеся примеры, а материал
располагать наглядно. Поиск главной информации в тексте облегчен за
счет широкого использования различных шрифтов.
Авторам представляется, что в отличие от многих имеющихся
грамматик, фокусирующих основное внимание на изложение
грамматического строя английского языка, в данном учебном пособии
найдено равновесие между теорией и практикой. В каждом разделе
представлено достаточно большое количество разнообразных
упражнений, нацеленных на формирование необходимых грамматических
навыков и использование их в речи. Упражнения строятся по принципу
«от простого к сложному» (хотя лексика достаточно сложна, рассчитана
на студента, по меньшей мере, среднего уровня обучения) с обязательным
наличием упражнений по переводу с русского языка на английский. В
зависимости от результатов предварительно выполненного теста может
быть сделан выбор в пользу выполнения всех предложенных упражнений
или некоторых из них по выбору студента и/или преподавателя.
7

Заключительный тест по главе (Progress Test) построен аналогично


вводному тесту (Entry Test). Это позволяет студенту еще раз самым
тщательным образом проконтролировать свои знания по определенной
теме, самому определить все еще имеющиеся пробелы в знаниях и, в
случае необходимости, вновь вернуться к теории и поработать над
соответствующими разделами пособия.
Таким образом, структура пособия позволяет использовать учебный
материал избирательно в соответствии с индивидуальными
потребностями студента.
Авторы придерживались британского варианта английского языка.
Иллюстрирующий материал в правилах и предложения в упражнениях
пособия тщательно отбирались из многочисленных словарей
современного английского языка, современной художественной
литературы и целого ряда учебных пособий. Список используемых
источников приведен в конце каждой части пособия.
Данное учебное пособие является результатом работы всего
коллектива кафедры иностранных языков Института
государственного управления Академии.
Пособие состоит из трех частей (Parts). Часть первая (Part I)
включает материал по особенностям таких частей речи в английском
языке, как имя существительное, прилагательное, наречие, местоимение,
артикль и предлог. Часть вторая (Part II) посвящена системе времен и
залога английского глагола. Часть третья (Part III) включает материал о
модальных глаголах, неличных формах глагола, наклонениях и
особенностях прямой и косвенной речи в английском языке.
Работой творческого коллектива, работающего над первой частью,
руководила доцент О.В. Соколовская, которая также является автором
главы об английских предлогах. Главы, посвященные имени
существительному, прилагательному и наречию в английском языке
подготовила профессор Л.М. Лещева, глава об артиклях – доцент Л.В.
Вертаева и преподаватель Е.А. Бахтадзе, о местоимениях – преподаватели
И.Г. Вольвачева и Е.В. Рыбальченко.
Коллектив авторов второй части учебного пособия возглавляла
доцент С.М. Володько – автор заключительной обзорной главы о системе
времен в английском языке. Остальные главы второй части подготовили:
профессор Л.М. Лещева (Общая информация о глаголе), старший
преподаватель Е.В. Красовская (Времена группы Indefinite и группы
Continuous), преподаватели В.С. Кипкаева (Времена группы Perfect) и Н.Г.
Алексеева (Страдательный залог).
Работой коллектива авторов третьей части пособия руководила
профессор Л.М. Лещева. Главы этой части подготовили доцент Л.К.
8

Козлова (Неличные формы глагола), преподаватель Е.А. Бахтадзе


(Модальные глаголы), профессор Л.М. Лещева и старший преподаватель
О.С. Симанович (Наклонение), преподаватель Т.В. Кудрейко (Прямая и
косвенная речь) и профессор Л.М. Лещева (Имя числительное).
Общая редакция учебного пособия выполнена заведующей кафедрой
доктором филологических наук, профессором Л.М. Лещевой.
Авторы выражают глубокую благодарность рецензентам учебного
пособия доктору филологических наук, профессору Д.Г. Богушевичу
(Минский государственный лингвистический университет, кафедра
грамматики английского языка) и заведующему кафедрой иностранных
языков Института государственной службы Академии управления
кандидату филологических наук, доценту А.Г. Храмченкову за ценные
замечания, направленные на улучшение пособия.
Особую признательность авторы высказывают методисту I
категории кафедры иностранных языков ИГУ Н.Н. Котовой за ее щедрый
и профессиональный труд, превративший рукопись в данное учебное
пособие.

От имени коллектива авторов -


доктор филологических наук,
профессор Л.М.Лещева
Chapter 1
NOUNS

ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
Convert the words in brackets into nouns by adding noun affixes or by
affixless ways of word formation.
1) Bill was given a medal in (to recognize) of his service.
2) Let’s go for a (to sail) this afternoon.
3) All (to apply) must be received before June 30, 2003.
4) The (to transport) of goods by air is very costly.
5) (Rich people) are not always generous to (poor people).
6) (An adult person) is a person over an age stated by law, usually 18 or 21.
7) I’m sure the whole problem is just a simple (to misunderstand).
8) He gave an illusive (to answer).
9) The meeting adopted a (to resolve) calling for the president to resign.
10) There was a (to collide) between a lorry and a car.
11) We needn’t leave yet. What’s all the (to rush)?
12) Keep a (to record) of how much you spend.
13) Lomonosov was one of the greatest (to think) of the country.
14) The police said that they were waiting further (to develop).
15) Bill assured us that the (to accuse) against him was untrue.
16) We’ve got the enemy on the (to run) now!
17) John is a (to comment) on football matches for local radio.
18) When do you take your (final)?
19) The failure of this scheme would have serious (to imply).
20) What’s the (to use) of worrying?
Unit 2
1. Proofread the following sentences for errors in capitalization.
21) we’re going to have a test next tuesday.
22) the famous professor black teaches at the university of new mexico.
23) the nile river flows into the mediterranean sea.
24) japan is in the far east, east of china.
25) john is a catholic and ali is a muslim.
26) venezuela is a spanish-speaking country.
27) the sun rises in the east.
28) she works for the xerox corporation.
29) the religion of saudi arabia is islam.
30) on valentine’s day (february 14) sweethearts give each other presents.
10 Noun

2. Decide which nouns are countable and which are uncountable and
complete the sentences with their correct form, singular or plural.
31) (chair) I bought some … .
32) (furniture) I bought some … .
33) (fruit) (is, are) good for you.
34) (vegetable) (is, are) good for you.
35) The (money) (is, are) on the table.
36) (knowledge) (is, are) power.
37) (news) There (isn’t, aren’t) any interesting … today.
38) (hair) My wife has dark … .
39) (scenery) We saw a lot of beautiful … on our vacation.
40) (progress) Lena’s English is improving. She’s making a lot of … .

Unit 3
Supply the plural form for the singular nouns listed below.
41) criterion 46) deer 51) swine
42) hero 47) datum 52) analysis
43) day 48) wife 53) foot
44) mouth 49) mother-in-law 54) loaf
45) horse 50) potato 55) life

Unit 4
1. Translate into English the phrases using the possessive case where
possible.
56) мать друга 60) окно комнаты 63) квартира друга
57) нос корабля 61) ножка стола 64) смерть героя
58) платье сестры 62) школа сына 65) экономика страны
59) ноги лошади

2. Put in an apostrophe where necessary.


66) My brothers name is Jack.
67) My brothers friends know English.
68) A mans hands are stronger than a womans.
69) The wolfs howl was heard in the forest.
70) I buy my meat at Johnsons.
71) I shall be at the dentists.
72) Call me at Bills.
73) I spotted the brides fathers uncles silk hat on the seat of a straight chair.
74) A man stepped out from the tobacconists and waved to them.
75) Crime is a product of a countrys social order.
Noun 11

Unit 5
Give female nouns correspondent to the following male nouns:
76) groom 80) drake 83) fox
77) peacock 81) host 84) duke
78) bull 82) nephew 85) waiter
79) cock (Br.) (rooster – Am.)
Review Exercises
Translate into English.
86) Я дам вам все сведения по этому вопросу. Они надежные.
87) Шашки – популярная игра.
88) Деньги на столе.
89) Полиция здесь и уже ищет убийцу. Она сообщила, что он будет найден
в ближайшее время.
90) Скот пасется на лугу.
91) Мои знания английского вполне хорошие.
92) Он делает хорошие успехи.
93) Это такие хорошие новости!
94) Вчерашняя газета напечатала ее фотографию с совершенно седыми
волосами.
95) Это одежда хорошо защищает нас от холода.
96) Крутая лестница ведет к морю.
97) Товар прибыл, но он еще на корабле.
98) Ее советы были мудрыми.
99) Мои часы отстают.
100) Окно комнаты выходило во двор.

100/______

UNIT 1 MEANING AND CREATION

1. A noun is a word used to name a person (a teacher), thing (a cup),


place (London), idea (transparency), event (war) or even an action
(reading).
In English, nouns make up the most numerous class of words. The
potential number of nouns in English is infinite because almost any word
there can be made into a noun with or without affixes: Don’t trouble (v)
trouble (n) until trouble (n) troubles (v) you.
12 Noun

Nouns can be simple (a book, a ship, a window), compound (a


blackbird, a bedroom, a dining-room) or derived (darkness, misprint,
unemployment, a jump).
2. Derivation by suffixation (development) is more typical of nouns
than derivation by prefixation (prehistory, subway, outlook).

The major concepts that are named in English by suffixational


nouns are:
– agent or instrument: -er, -ant, -ee, -ian, and -ist: worker,
assistant, employee, communist; revolver;
– result of an action: -ion, -ment, -ing, -ure, -ance, -age:
revolution, transmission. development, building, pressure, tolerance, coverage;
– abstract quality: -ness, -ancy/-ency,-ism, -ship, -th: darkness,
fluency, modernism, hardship, truth.

Suffixational nouns are also used to name:


– feminine agent: -ess, -ine, -ette: baroness, heroine, cosmonette;
– diminution and endearment: -let, -y, -ling, -ette: booklet,
doggie, duckling, kitchenette;
– the one with a distinctive quality (usu. derogatory): -ard,
-ster, -ton: drunkard, gangster, youngster, simpleton;
– relatedness to a proper name:-an, -ese: Indian, Japanese;
– belonging to, working in or as: -ary: missionary, functionary;
– the state or time of being: -hood: childhood, motherhood;
– collection: -age: baggage, trackage;
– the amount needed to fill a certain container:-ful: a cupful, a
handful.

Here are the most typical suffixes that make nouns:


from verbs:
-er/ -or: speaker, reader, actor, supervisor
-ent/-ant: assistant, student
-ee: employee, interviewee
-ion: education, relation, invasion, revision
-ment: government, development, imprisonment
-ing: building, writing, setting
-ance/-ence: resistance, difference
-ure: departure, pleasure
-age: leakage, marriage
Noun 13

from adjectives:
-ity/-ty: mentality, normality, reality, safety, certainty
-ness: happiness, darkness, deepness
-dom: freedom, wisdom
from nouns:
-hood: childhood, neighbourhood
-dom: kingdom, dukedom
-ship: friendship, leadership
-ism: capitalism, sexism
-ary: missionary, functionary
-age: hostage, orphanage
-ful: handful, cupful
-ette: kitchenette, launderette

3. Besides affixational there are also affixless ways of deriving


nouns. The most common of them are:
conversion for deriving nouns from verbs (usually monosyllabic)
as in to cut (v) – a cut (n), to drop (v) – a drop (n). (Verbs are also derived
from nouns by conversion as in dust (n) – to dust (v). For details see
Chapter II);
substantivation for deriving nouns from other parts of speech as
in poor (adj) – the poor (n), adult (adj) – an adult (n), and
stress-shift for deriving some two-syllable nouns from verbs of
Romance origin borrowed from French: trans`port (v) – `transport (n),
re`cord (v) – `record (n), pre`sent (v) – `present (n).

Exercises
1.1. Single out nouns in the list of words below and in each noun underline
the suffix that indicates the word is a noun.
Apply (v), application (n), qualify, quality, barrister, basement, environment,
circulation, shutter, versatile, expedition, greedy, possibility, governor,
hereditary, shoplifting, burglary, disability, astrology, precision, hostage,
kingdom, brotherhood, education, student, colloquialism, commitment,
competence, compliance, complicate, compiler, creditor, kitchenette, solicitor.
1.2. Think of nouns related to the following words and denoting:
a) agent or instrument: study, work, assist, national, read, impression, reside,
receive, transform, economy, law;
b) result of an action: entertain, govern, develop, transmit, legislate, expose,
appear, perform, accept, leak, cover, swim, write;
c) abstract quality: kind, expect, modern, race, hard.
14 Noun

1.3. Convert the following words into nouns by adding noun suffixes. Some
words may be able to take more than one suffix.
Talk – talker – talking; admit, agree, annihilate, appoint, argue, arrange,
arrogant, bitter, blind, cancel, clean, clear, deliver, develop, destruct, drowsy,
economic, dumb, eliminate, exaggerate, examine, fly, invest, inform, leak,
learn, lease, legislate, mark, moderate, modern, organise, pay, perform, protect,
specify.

1.4. Name other words morphologically related to the nouns below.


Agent – agency, address, advice, advertisement, allowance, arrival, computer,
certificate, competition, corruption, delivery, devaluation, notification, organ,
origin, ship.

1.5. Convert the following verbs and adjectives into nouns without adding
noun suffixes and translate them into Russian.
To answer ‘отвечать’ – an answer ‘ответ’, to bankrupt, blind, to claim, to
cost, to discount, to export, to fine, to forecast, to import, to loan, poor, to love,
to project, to look, to offer, rival, to protest, to sale, to share, to swim, black, to
progress, to supply, to transport, to conduct.

1.6. Convert the following nouns into verbs without adding noun suffixes and
translate them into Russian.
Dust ‘пыль’– to dust ‘убирать пыль, покрываться пылью’, interest, note,
number, nurse, reason, risk, order, sail, stock, tax, value, veto.

1.7. Read the text and put in the right noun derived from the word in brackets
as in the example below.
(1) A (to compute) – computer built at a college in London often suffers from
(2) (to bore). The computer was built to find out about human (3) (to
communicate). The computer acquired a simple vocabulary in the same way as
babies do: through (4) (to babble). It is common (5) (to know) that when babies
babble, it is a (6) (to prepare) for speech. With (7) (to encourage) from their
parents, babies quickly build up their vocabulary. In the same way the computer
learnt to use real words. For example, it learnt to identify a black cat. It was
then shown a white cat to test how good it was at (8) (to recognize). It refused
to co-operate because the (9) (to solve) to the problem was too easy. At first this
(10) (to refuse) puzzled scientists, but then they decided the computer was
having a tantrum. “These computers must also be taught good (11) (to behave),’
a (12) (science) said.
Noun 15

UNIT 2 NOUN CLASSES


Nouns can be proper or common (the latter may be concrete,
abstract, collective or mass), countable or uncountable.

1. According to the type of referent, nouns can be classified into


proper and common.
Proper nouns [from Lat. proprius ‘one’s own’] begin with a capital
letter. They are the names of places (California, the Caucasus), specific
people or deities (Shakespeare, Jupiter), titles used with names (Professor
Higgins), places (Chicago), names of languages, nationalities and
religions (Catholicism, Russians) names of holidays (Christmas), names of
months and weeks (February, Sunday), names of courses (I’m taking
Chemistry), names of specific organizations (Rotary Club), names of parts
of the world (the East ‘mainly Asia’, the West ‘mainly western Europe and
the United States’, Far East).
Proper names may consist of more than one word: New York, Kennedy
Airport, Uncle George (though ‘my/his uncle, my/his uncle George’), Captain
Andrews, the Mississippi River, the French Revolution.
Common nouns [from Lat. communis ‘shared by many’] are nouns
that are not names, such as capital in: The capital of the Netherlands is the
Hague, or west in The sun sets in the west.
There are four different groups of common nouns: concrete nouns
(a computer, a shop), abstract nouns (humour, action), mass nouns (tea,
butter) and collective nouns (fruit, equipment, people).
Depending on the meaning, some proper nouns may be converted
into common nouns: the Thompsons I know. The proper noun Thompson
cannot ordinarily be made plural, but here the Thompsons means ‘the
family with the name Thompson’.
2. According to the grammatical form nouns can be classified into
countable and uncountable.
Countable nouns refer to entities viewed as countable: a student, a
house, and an apple. They can be preceded by a/an or one in the singular
and be accompanied by determiners referring to distinctions in number,
like many, several, a few, or ten.
Uncountable nouns refer to entities we cannot count furniture, music,
speech, water, blood. Uncountable nouns are used either without an
article (Music enriches us) or with the definite article the (This is the music I
like). They are treated as singular and can be accompanied only by
16 Noun

determiners that do not refer to distinctions in number: much, a lot, a


little.
There is not, however, a strict borderline between grammatical noun
classes either.
Nouns that are ordinarily uncountable can be used as countable
nouns in three cases:
a) when the uncountable mass noun refers to a particular kind or
variety of kinds: They export wine and cheese but It is a good wine. The store
has a large selection of wines and cheeses;
b) when the uncountable mass noun refers to units that are obvious
in the situation: I like coffee but I’ll have two coffees, please (‘two cups of
coffee’);
c) when the uncountable abstract noun becomes more concrete in
the situation: Language is a very complicated system but It’s not easy to learn
a foreign language.
And vice versa, some countable nouns may be changed into
uncoutable when they denote mass I like the chicken (‘the bird’) but I
like chicken (‘flesh of a chicken’).
3. There is a tendency for concrete nouns to be countable but for
mass and abstract nouns to be uncountable.
As for collective nouns they may be: countable (a family – families,
a crowd – crowds, a nation – nations) or uncountable.
Uncountable collective nouns may be:
a) always in singular as foliage, machinery;
b) always in plural as clothes, remains;
c) singular in form but plural in meaning: the cattle are grazing, the
poultry are kept in the garden, the people are generous, the police are happy;
d) singular in form but singular and plural in the meaning: The family
has lived here for hundreds of years (‘family’ is thought of as the group as a
whole). The family have all gone for a holiday (‘family’ is thought of as a
number of individuals).
Some of collective nouns can be uncountable in one sense and
countable in another: People ‘люди’ (uncountable) want to live in peace.
All peoples ‘народы’ (countable) of Africa were dreaming about freedom.
NOTE that the results of this grammatical classification of nouns into
countable and uncountable may not coincide in different languages, for
example, English nouns knowledge, progress, news are uncountable and
are used only in singular in contrast to countable Russian знание, успех,
новость
Noun 17

Exercises
2.1. Proofread the following sentences for errors in capitalization.
1) In management, professor Crawford made all his students listen to the
lectures, take notes and understand Management.
2) The english instructor asked his students if they had read look back in
anger.
3) The Senator from California voted against the banking act.
4) Are you going to join the Smith College chapter of the rotary club?
5) The President of the company spoke at my college graduation.
6) Will you meet Grandpa Chuck, please?

2.2. Decide which nouns are countable and which are uncountable.
1) People sell all kinds of things at a flea market. Some vendors sell old
jewelry. Others sell old wine bottles and medicine bottles. Old glass is
interesting because it was blown by hand. Not everything at the market is
antique, however. You can also buy ordinary dishes and glasses, furniture
and used clothing. For example, you can pick up a sweater or a dress for
just a few dollars. You can save money at a flea market, but you can spend a
lot of money, too.
2) The animals on the Bells’ farm provide many things for the family. The
cow produces milk. The sheep produce wool and meat, and the chickens
produce eggs and meat. The horse doesn’t do much work, but it provides
entertainment for the children, who like to ride it.

2.3. Many countable nouns can be used as uncountable. Notice the difference
in their meaning.
1) War is a poor way to solve problems.
2) There have been two world wars in the last century.
3) Wine is very good with good meals.
4) Moldova produces many fine wines.
5) It is a good wine.
6) Please give me a milk and two coffees with cream.
7) Do you speak German?
8) There are two Frenchmen and a German in my class.
9) Language is a fascinating subject.
10) How many languages do you speak?
18 Noun

2.4. Say according to the model if the following nouns, or rather their senses,
are countable [C] or uncountable [U]. Check up an explanatory dictionary:
Model:
Accommodation
1) [U] a place to live; a room, a flat, a house, a hotel room, etc.
2) [U] the act of changing something so that it suits new conditions
3) [U; C] the act of settling a business disagreement or the ending of a
disagreement
4) [C] something that helps, or makes an action easier
People, advice, departure, fear, fish, friendship, frost, fruit, fun, gossip, grass,
hair, homework, joy, job, knowledge, loss, luck, money, news, permission,
progress, scenery, terror, travel, trouble, view, wind, work.

2.5. Translate into Russian and then back into English. Pay attention to the
use of countable and uncountable nouns.
1) Ann hasn’t got accommodation. 19) Don’t walk on the grass.
2) She gave me plenty of good 20) He hid behind some tall grasses.
advice. 21) She has beautiful hair.
3) We shall meet at “Arrivals and 22) There was a hair in the soup.
departures”. 23) There is a lot of homework to do.
4) I have some fears that he would 24) He was filled with joy.
get lost. 25) I saw the joy in her smiling face.
5) It’s a picture of a fish. 26) She is such a great joy to me!
6) I like to eat fish. 27) He is looking for a new job.
7) There are many fish here. 28) Knowledge is power.
8) Real friendship is more valuable 29) Did you report the loss of your
than money. jewellery to the police?
9) His friendships never last very 30) I want to wish you good luck.
long. 31) Money doesn’t always bring
10) Frost has killed our young plants. happiness.
11) Early frosts spoil the last of the 32) I have good news and bad news.
flowers. 33) The good news is that he is alive.
12) Fruit is good for you. 34) The bad news is we don’t know
13) There are many fruits in this where he is now.
store. 35) Bad news doesn’t make people
14) We still have much fruit; don’t happy.
buy any. 36) The ship made slow progress
15) We had a lot of fun. through the rough sea.
16) I don’t listen to gossip. 37) What lovely scenery!
17) She is a gossip. 38) What a lovely view!
18) Grass is green. 39) I am looking for work.
Noun 19

40) We made a loss on these shoes. 43) The new system is a departure
41) It’s a great loss for us. from our usual way of keeping
42) What is the departure time of the records.
flight?

2.6. Translate into English and explain the use of a plural or singular form of
the noun.
1) Правительство не популярно.
2) В этой игре «Манчестер Юнайтид» играет плохо.
3) Математика его любимый предмет.
4) Его одежда старая и грязная.
5) Товар все еще не разгружен.
6) Вся семья в сборе.
7) Книга – источник знаний.
8) Пять километров – небольшое расстояние.
9) В эти минуты полиция допрашивает двух человек.
10) Новости в 6 часов вечера.
11) У нее красивые волосы.
12) Купи 5 кг картошки и полкило морковки.
13) У нас есть разные сыры и вина.
14) Вода замерзает при 0С.
15) Мне нужна новая мебель.

***

English nouns have three grammatical categories: number, case and


gender.

UNIT 3 NUMBER

Most nouns make a distinction between singular and plural numbers,


they are variable (a student – students).
But some nouns are invariable, they have only one form, singular
(news) or plural (trousers).

3. 1. Variable nouns
Regular plurals

1. Most nouns form their plurals by adding -s to the singular: daughter


– daughters, son – sons, mouth – mouths.
20 Noun

2. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z add -es to the singular: a
dish – dishes, a match -- matches.
3. Nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant change the -y to -i
and add -es: a lily – lilies, baby -- babies.
4. Nouns ending in -y preceded by a vowel keep the -y and add -s: a
day – days
5. The majority of nouns ending in -o add -es when forming their
plurals: a hero – heroes.
6. Compound nouns written as one word make their plurals by adding
-s/-es: sunrise – sunrises or by vowel shift if the second part of the
compound needs it: postman – postmen.
7. Compound nouns consisting of a noun plus a modifier pluralize the
modified word, NOT the modifier: passer-by – passers-by. If the first part of
the compound noun is the word man or woman, then both the parts of the
compound become plural: a man-servant – men-servants, a woman-doctor –
women-doctors.
8. Letters, signs, and words as countable items add an apostrophe
plus -s: one l – two l's, one no – three no's, in 1990 – in the 1990's

Exercises
3.1. Put the nouns into plural and explain the use of the form.
a) A star, a cloud, a bird, a bottle, a person, a train, a desk, a student, a teacher,
a dog, an M.A. degree, a speaker, a lecture, a thing, a machine, a lawyer, an
economist;
b) boss, horse, house, gas, class, church, dish, judge, place, prize, tax, waltz;
c) a bottle, a cottage, an egg, an orange, a car, a book, a house, a box, an
elephant, a rose, a waltz, a tax, a doll, a desk, a boss, a glass, a dish, a bee,
a match, an answer;
d) army, factory, penny, laboratory, city, country, spy, lily;
e) day, boy, key, journey, toy, valley, chimney;
f) buffalo, cargo, domino, embargo, echo, hero, mosquito, potato, tomato;
g) cupful, leftover, schoolboy, housewife, postman, sportsman;
h) notary public, brother-in-law, man-of-war, attorney general, editor-in-chief;
hotel-keeper, watch-maker;
i) one c, one but, in 1980.
Noun 21

3.2. Supply the plural form for the singular nouns listed below.
A book, a lecture, a computer, gas, dish, tax, country, army, key, day, hero,
piano, cargo, leftover, notary public, a brother-in-law, editor-in-chief, watch-
maker, drive-in, in 1960.

Irregular plurals

1. Nouns ending in -f or -fe change the -f to -v and add -es: shelf –


shelves; wife – wives but some nouns keep the f and add -s as in roof –
roofs, belief – beliefs, chief – chiefs.
2. There are a few irregular plurals that involve a change of vowel.
They reflect older English forms as in: man – men, mouse – mice, woman –
women, louse – lice, foot – feet, goose – geese.
Some native English words have the –en plural: child – children, ox –
oxen (also oxes), brother – brethren (in special senses).
Some nouns (mainly names of animals) have the same spoken and
written form in both singular and plural: deer – deer, swine – swine, sheep –
sheep, fish – fish (or fishes in special senses).
3. There are many nouns borrowed into English from Latin and
Greek that retain foreign plurals as: stimulus – stimuli, curriculum –
curricula, crisis – crises.

3.3. Put the nouns into plural and explain the use of the form:
a) Elf, half, wife, shelf, scarf, leaf, knife, loaf, wolf, thief;
b) Roof, chief, cliff, proof
3.4. Read the following humorous poem and pay special attention to the
correct form of plural nouns:
THE CRAZIEST LANGUAGE
We’ll begin with a box and the plural is boxes;
But the plural of ox should oxen not oxes.
Then the fowl is a goose, but two are called geese,
Yet the plural of moose should never be meese.
You may find a lone mouse in a nest full of mice;
Yet the plural of house is houses, not hice.
As the plural of man is always called men,
Why shouldn’t the plural of pan be called pen?
If I spoke of my foot and show you my feet,
And if I give you a boot, would a pair be called beet?
If one is a tooth and a whole set are teeth,
22 Noun

Why shouldn’t the plural of booth be called beeth?


Then one may be that, and three would be those,
Yet hat in the plural would never be hose,
And the plural of cat is cats, not cose.
We speak of a brother and also a brethren,
But though we say mother, we never say mothren.
Then the masculine pronouns are he, his and him,
But imagine the feminine, she, shis and shim.
So English (I fancy you will agree),
Is the craziest language you ever did see.

3.5. Learn the irregular plurals of the following nouns:


Singular Plural Singular Plural
alumna –alumnae fungus – fungi
alumnus – alumni goose – geese
analysis – analyses hypothesis – hypotheses
antithesis – antitheses louse – lice
appendix – appendices man – men
axis – axes maximum – maxima (maxims)
bacterium – bacteria minimum – minima
basis – bases mouse – mice
cannon – cannon oasis – oases
child – children ox – oxen
curriculum – curricula parenthesis – parentheses
datum – data phenomenon – phenomena
deer – deer piano – pianos
die – dice radio – radios
dynamo – dynamos sheep – sheep
ellipsis – ellipses swine – swine
emphasis – emphases thesis – theses
fish – fish (fishes – different tooth – teeth
kind of fish) vertebra – vertebrae
focus – foci virtuoso – virtuosi
foot – feet woman – women

3.6. Supply the plural form for the singular nouns listed below and explain
the use of the form:
Criterion, deer, datum, analysis, foot, child, loaf, phenomenon, life, basis,
woman, alumnus, thief, focus, tooth, sheep, louse, goose, hoof, mouse, fish,
swine, elf, ox, curriculum, basis, datum, thesis fisherman, statesman, a woman-
doctor, a house-wife, a pocket-knife.
Noun 23

3.2. Invariable nouns

Always singular (singularia tantum) are:


1) uncountable nouns that may belong to different grammatical
groups: proper nouns (Minsk), mass nouns (butter), most abstract nouns
(music) and some collective nouns (furniture).
2) some nouns ending in -s, naming:
a) some diseases: shingles, measles;
b) subject names in -ics: mathematics, economics;
c) some games: billiards, darts, draughts;
d) some proper nouns: Athens, Brussels, Naples, the Thames, Wales.
e) miscellaneous nouns like a chemical works (‘a place of work’), a
barracks (‘a building that soldiers live in; a big plain and usually ugly
building’), headquarters as in The headquartes consists of the commander and
five members of his staff; customs (in the meaning of ‘the agency for
collecting duties on import and export’).
Always plural (pluralia tantum) are nouns denoting:
1) things consisting of two or more parts: glasses; trousers,
pyjamas, shorts, scissors;
2) other pluralia tantum in -s: thanks, customs (in the meaning of
‘duties, tolls imposed on import and export’), lodgings, auspices, arms (in
the meaning of ‘guns’), quarters (in the meaning of ‘assigned position,
lodgings, esp. for soldiers’), greens, valuables, goods, riches, wages, stairs,
clothes, contents;
3) some proper nouns: the Netherlands;
4) some other collective nouns with no -s at the end: cattle, police,
the rich.
NOTE that the category of number may not coincide in English and
Russian nouns.
Thus, nouns potato, onion, carrot, oat may be plural in English
(potatoes, onions, carrots, oats) while in Russian they are usually singular:
Potatoes are cheap in this country – В этой стране картофель дешевый. ‘A
potato’ means ‘одна картошка’.
The words wages and contents are plural in English but their correlated
words ‘зарплата’, ‘содержание’ are singular in Russian.
The following English words are always singular advice, information,
knowledge, money, news, permission and progress, while their Russian
equivalents are either plural (деньги) or can be both singular and plural
(новость, новости).
24 Noun

The English nouns watch and sledge are regular nouns and can be
used both in singular and plural while Russian часы and сани are pluralia
tantum.

Exercises
3.7. Read the following sentences and remember the singular nouns that take
a singular verb.
1) This is a mere barracks.
2) You can’t expect me to live in a barracks like that!
3) Measles is a catching disease.
4) Mumps is an infectious illness.
5) The news is bad today.
6) Linguistics is very interesting.
7) Billiards is my favourable game.
8) Wales is a beautiful country.
9) Cutlery includes knives and other cutting instruments.

3.8. The following words are always singular and nearly always require
singular verbs: Measles is an infectious disease (unless rather unusual
occasions as in: The measles which the three children have are of different
nature).
Think of sentences with the following nouns paying special attention to the
form of the verb in Present Indefinite.
Acoustics, aeronautics, athletics, comics, dynamics, economics, aesthetics,
linguistics, mathematics, means, measles, mumps, news, politics, the United
States, poetics.
3.9. Read the following sentences and pay special attention to the plural
nouns that take a plural verb.
1) The Middle Ages embrace the period in European history between AD 1100
and 1500.
2) The contents of the book are not much varied.
3) His earnings are very modest.
4) Her wits are well known.
5) Outskirts of the city are still picturesque.
6) Youth are with you, President.
7) The cattle on his farm are taken good care of.
8) Police are after him.
9) The people there are very caring.
Noun 25

3.10. The following nouns are always plural and they require plural verbs,
for example, His clothes are certainly expensive. Think of sentences with the
following nouns paying special attention to the form of the verb in Present
Indefinite.
Ashes, clothes, contents, goods, links, leavings, oats, pants, pliers, remains,
riches, scissors, spectacles, thanks, trousers, vitals, wages.

3.11. Read the story about Jeff, a tramp who begs in the town centre. Put in is
or are.
Old Jeff sits outside the bus station every day and begs for money. His clothes
(1) … old and dirty, his hair (2) … never washed, and his glasses (3) … broken.
He takes $ 10 a day in summer. People (4) … generous. $ 10 (5) … not much to
live on but he never spends any of it. His savings (6) … hidden away
somewhere. Though it is against the law, the police obviously (7) … quite
happy about the situation.
3.12. Translate into English.
1) Его успехи в учебе очевидны.
2) Эта лестница ведет на задний двор.
3) Товар только что прибыл. Он еще на корабле.
4) Ее одежда не новая.
5) Морковь, лук и картошка – полезные и дешевые овощи.
6) Ее зарплата мала, а плата за обучение – высокая.
7) Содержание показывает, что этот учебник очень полезный.
8) Это оружие вполне современное.
9) Знания еще никому не мешали.
10) Ваши советы были весьма полезны.
11) Деньги на столе, возьмите их.
12) Все народы мира желают жить в мире.
13) На востоке страны живут дикие пони, олени и волки.
14) Фермеры выращивают коров и овец.
15) На холмах растет много картофеля и помидоров.
16) Где мои часы?
26 Noun

UNIT 4 CASE

English nouns have a two case system: the common case that is
used ordinarily (a woman, a book) and the possessive case that
generally indicates that the noun is dependent on the noun that follows
it; this case often corresponds to a structure with of (my father’s hat = the
hat of my father, his parents’ consent = the consent of his parents).

4.1. The (determinative) possessive case.

The noun in the possessive case performs the determinative


function for a following noun and has the meaning ‘belonging to’: The
student’s suggestions (‘suggestions belonging to the student’). This is the
determinative possessive or just the possessive case, for short.
The following four animate noun classes normally have the
possessive case:
a) personal names: Nelson’s column, John’s coat;
b) personal nouns: the boy’s shirt, my sister-in-law’s pencil;
c) collective nouns: the government’s decision, the nation’s security;
d) higher animals: the horse’s tail, the lion’s mane.
Some kinds of inanimate nouns may also have possessive case:
a) geographical names: Europe’s future, London’s water supply;
b) temporal and space nouns: yesterday’s newspaper, a mile’s
distance;
c) nouns of special interest to human activity: the ship’s nose, the
game’s history.
All other nouns usually take of -structure to reflect possession: the leg
of the table, the interior of the room, the title of the book.
The possessive case is indicated in writing by an apostrophe (’) plus
-s in the singular (the student’s suggestion) and by an apostrophe following
the plural -s inflection in the plural (the students’ suggestions), though in
speech three of these forms: students, student’s and students’ are
pronounced identically:
Singular Plural
Common case the student the students
Possessive case the student’s the students’
suggestions suggestions
Noun 27

The possessive case for irregular nouns, however, distinguishes all


four forms in speech as well as in writing:

Singular Plural
Common case the child the children
Possessive case the child’s toy the children’s toys

After proper nouns ending in -s possessive case may be formed only


with an apostrophe: Dickens’ novels (though Dickens’s novels is also
possible).

Exercises

4.1. Translate into English the phrases using the possessive case where
possible.
Мать друга; книга брата; платье сестры; ноги лошади; окно комнаты;
ножка стола; школа сына; квартира друга; смерть героя; сеть рыбака; день
рождения матери; рукава пальто (the arms); стена дома; конец фильма;
словарь учителя; хвост лисицы; дверь квартиры; портфель ученика;
название реки; жена брата; шкура медведя; рассказ женщины; вчерашняя
газета.

4.2. Put in an apostrophe where necessary.


1) My brothers name is Jack.
2) Brothers friends know English.
3) A mans hands are stronger than a womans.
4) The wolfs howl was heard in the forest.
5) These are Pushkins poems.
6) Goats milk is good for health.
7) The girls brother is tall enough to reach the tree.
8) I had done two hours work when you were in bed.
9) He is a funny old man with a beard like a goats.
10) This shop has a large number of childrens books.
11) Can you show me the way to the boys school?
12) How many of Dickens novels have you read?
13) Many tourists visit Shakespeares birthplace every year.
14) She followed her mothers advice.
28 Noun

4.2. The Independent Possessive

Sometimes the possessive is independent; that is, it is not


dependent on a following noun. The noun may be omitted because it
can be understood from the context: Your ideas are more acceptable than
Sandra’s (Sandra’s ideas). David’s comments are like Peter’s.
The Independent Possessive is also used to refer to places: The party
is at Alan’s tonight. I am shopping at Macy’s.
Finally, the Independent Possessive may combine with the of-
structure: a friend of Martha’s, a suggestion of Norman’s.
The Independent Possessive in the of -structure differs, however,
from the Determinative Possessive in its meaning: Martha’s friend means
‘The friend that Martha has’ (the speaker assumes that the hearer knows
the identity of the friend) whereas a friend of Martha’s means ‘one of
Martha’s friends’.
Exercises
4.3. Explain the use of the Independent Possessive.
1) "They tell me at the Timothies’", said Nicholas lowering his voice, "that
Dartie has gone off at last".
2) I buy my meat at Johnson’s. 6) He liked living at his daughter’s.
3) I shall be at the dentist’s. 7) Go to the chemist’s.
4) Call me at Bill’s. 8) We buy bread at the baker’s.
5) I am going to my friend’s. 9) A friend of Karen’s.
4.4. Make up sentences using the following nouns in the Independent
Possessive.
A florist’s, a cleaner’s, a hairdresser’s a chemist’s, a butcher’s, a tobacconist’s.

UNIT 5 GENDER

Most English nouns have the same form for masculine and
feminine: a parent, a child, a cousin, a driver, a teacher, a cook, a singer, a
dancer, a journalist. They have common gender.
The nouns for men, boys and male animals are masculine: He is
my brother. Though my dog is twenty, he is still strong.
Noun 29

The nouns for women, girls and feminine animals are feminine:
She is a girl of ten. This is my dog, her name is Calva.
Inanimate things are neuter: It is a house, I like it.
Countries and ships are usually referred to as feminine: The ship got
a hole in her bow. In the war Scotland lost many of her bravest men.

There are also some exclusively male nouns and exclusively


female nouns that need to be remembered, for example:, bridegroom –
bride, brother – sister, boy – girl, boy-friend – girl-friend, bachelor – spinster,
hero – heroine, executor – executrix, bull – cow, cock – hen, drake – duck,
father – mother, fox – vixen, gander – goose, he-wolf – she-wolf, Tom-cat –
Pussy-cat, hero – heroine, horse – mare, lord – lady, nephew – niece, peacock
– peahen, uncle – aunt, widower – widow, actor – actress, baron -- baroness,
duke – duchess, host – hostess, lion – lioness, poet – poetess.
NOTE: In the case of people the -ess ending is becoming rare. In
the interests of sexual equality, words like author and
manager refer to both sexes.

Exercises
5.1. Form the feminine from the masculine by adding -ess. Note that words
ending in -er or -or often drop the e or the o as in "actor – actress":
host, lion, tiger, waiter, prince, manager, poet, giant, conductor.

5.2. Give female nouns correspondent to the following male nouns:


Boy – girl, groom, boy, bull, cock (Am. rooster), drake, duke, father, fox,
gander, he-wolf, Tom-cat, hero, horse, host, lion, peacock, lord, uncle,
widower, baron, bachelor, nephew.

REVIEW EXERCISES
1. Derive nouns from the following verbs and adjectives:
to judge, to acknowledge, to develop, to admire, to explore, to imagine, to
satisfy, normal, distant, real, dark, beautiful, to run, to jump, able, compile.

2. Choose the correct option.


1) Mexico is the southernmost country in North America. It borders the
United States on the north.
a) north America … North b) North America … North
c) North america … north d) No change is necessary
30 Noun

2) The Northern Hemisphere is the half of the earth that lies north of the
Equator.
a) Northern hemisphere … earth … equator
b) Northern hemisphere … Earth … Equator
c) Northern Hemisphere … earth … equator
d) No change is necessary
3) The Koran is considered by Muslims to be the holy word.
a) Koran … muslims b) koran … Muslims
c) koran … muslims d) No change is necessary

3 Identify which of the following words are usually countable [C] or


uncountable [U] or can be in different senses both countable [C] and
uncountable[U].
a) furniture g) scenery m) news
b) dust h) view n) work
c) penny i) hair o) knowledge
d) progress j) gossip p) butter
e) virtue k) joy q) money
f) pizza l) job r) coffee

4. Correct any errors in noun plurals in the following sentences.


1) Two dormitories are being renovated during the summer break.
2) The math instructor said, “Two halfs make a whole”.
3) Dr Shepard read the admission criterias to the incoming freshmen.
4) Mary bought a new pair of skies for the skiing trip.
5) I have three shelfs above my desk.
6) The childrens will trick or treat the whole evening on Halloween.

5. Say if the noun is singular or plural and use the correct form of the verb
(is or are).
1) The news I have received ... 10) Some people ... coming today.
good. 11) His information ... not correct.
2) Where .. the money? 12) The news ... heard on the radio at 7
3) His trousers ... worn out. o’clock.
4) Our furniture ... getting old. 13) The furniture ... of good quality.
5) This pair of scissors ... not sharp. 14) His trousers ... too long for him.
6) The cattle ... grazing in the field. 15) The man’s clothes ... on the chair.
7) His advice ... very wise. 16) Here ... a good piece of news.
8) Your hair ... too long. 17) My advice to you ... to travel and
9) His knowledge ... not good see more of the world.
enough. 18) The advice that you gave me ... good..
Noun 31

19) There ... lots of people on the 22) The police ... there.
platform. 23) Mathematics ... my best subject.
20) The people ... pleased at the 24) There ... a lot of fruit on the table.
news. 25) There ... a lot of vegetables on the
21) His clothes ... new. table.

6. Translate into English using the words in the brackets.


1) Я дам вам все сведения по этому вопросу (information). Они надежные.
2) У девочки такие прекрасные волосы (hair).
3) Не можете ли вы дать мне какие-нибудь сведения об этом человеке
(information)?
4) Сегодня хорошие новости (news).
5) Он делает успехи в английском языке (to make progress).
6) У меня мало денег, их не хватит, чтобы поехать поездом (money).
7) У нее длинные волосы, они закрывают уши (hair).
8) Вот несколько советов (advice).
9) Позвольте мне дать вам один совет (advice).
10) Что нового? (news)
11) Моя одежда совсем промокла (clothes).
12) На станции было много народу (people).
13) Сегодня у меня было много работы (work).
7. Translate into English.
(A)
1) Мои знания английского вполне хорошие.
2) Деньги на столе.
3) Он делает хорошие успехи.
4) Вот хорошая новость.
5) Его волосы совершенно седые.
6) Полиция уже здесь.
7) Наша одежда защищает нас от холода.
8) Публика ждала артистов.
9) Ваши советы мне пригодились.
10) Этот товар прибудет морем.
11) Женщины-водители обычно очень осторожны в вождении.
12) Жирафы едят листья на деревьях.
13) В Австралии овец держат, главным образом, из-за их шерсти.
14) База данных вполне достаточна.
15) Англичане любят сидеть у камина.
16) Полки полны книг.
17) Здесь много мышей.
32 Noun

18) Не забывайте чистить ваши зубы, по меньшей мере, два раза в день.
19) У нас совсем нет фруктов.
20) Не забудь купить помидоров, лука и картошки.
21) Эти явления трудно объяснить.
22) Нидерланды знамениты своими тюльпанами, а Уэльс – красотами
ландшафта.
23) Полиция только что поймала убийцу.
24) Это совсем не Петино дело.
25) Знаю я эти глупые шутки твоего брата.
26) Я хотела бы, чтобы Вы пришли к моей сестре.
27) Его лицо было длинным и белым, как лицо клоуна.
28) После завтрака Вини-Пух отправился к дому Пятачка.

(B)
1) Расстояние в одну милю, 14) детские голоса,
2) мнение юриста, 15) рецепт врача,
3) подпись директора, 16) романы Диккенса,
4) предложение продавца, 17) дети моего друга,
5) инструкция владельцев 18) у зубного врача,
компании, 19) волосы Анны короче, чем
6) карта Европы, волосы Елены,
7) вчерашняя газета, 20) крылья птицы,
8) окно комнаты, 21) стена дома,
9) платья моей сестры, 22) день рождения матери,
10) билеты пассажиров, 23) рассказ женщины,
11) дом моих родителей, 24) картина Репина,
12) название корабля, 25) обложка книги.
13) название реки,

PROGRESS TEST
Unit 1
Convert the words in brackets into nouns by adding noun affixes or by
affixless ways of word formation.
1) Modern (a pot) is usually ornamental.
2) No one should be held in (a slave).
3) The moon is bright only by (to reflect).
4) The new law brought many social (to reform).
5) She complained to the doctor that she had a feeling of (full) after eating.
6) What is your (to assess) of this state of affairs?
7) A person or firm to whom money is owned is a (to credit).
Noun 33

8) Do you have (to specify) for a car?


9) If you want a (to share) in pay you’ll have to do your (to share) of the work.
10) We’ll organize the (to deliver) of goods to your door.
11) To say he was rich was an (to exaggerate).
12) I picked up a (a hand) of letters and began to open them.
13) The act of admitting one’s crimes, faults, etc is called (to confess).
14) A (mission) is a person who is sent usually to a foreign country to spread his
religion there.
15) The (safe) of the ship is the captain’s responsibility.
16) A person who studies at a place of education is a (to study).
17) Your (to judge) of the facts is based on the (to presuppose) that they are
true.
18) The master gave the slave his (free).
19) It must be 5 degrees below (to freeze) now.
20) The government would not even consider his (to claim) for money.

Unit 2
1. Proofread the following sentences for errors in capitalization.
21) On saturday night joe masters and his rhythm boys entertained the yorkville
social club.
22) My cousin robert has a decided french accent.
23) He referred to his section of the southwest as “god’s country”.
24) The street was named sherman street in honour of general sherman.
25) I remember that there was a chinese boy in my class in burton high school.
26) Father and mother both approve of the united nations.
27) Oh, there goes dr jones now!
28) We wrote to captain anderson of the ninety-fifth coast artillery.
29) He has a book about the stone age.
30) They stayed with their uncle from thanksgiving until christmas.

2. Decide which nouns are countable and which are uncountable and
complete the sentences with their correct form, singular or plural. Make
other changes if necessary.
31) (swine) These white … (does, do) not live long.
32) (watch) This … (was, were) a special favourite with Mr Pickwick.
33) (loss) There were small …: a spoon for the baby’s feeding and a pair of
scissors.
34) (people) The … (was, were) asking me what the matter was.
35) (potato) All the … (is, are) big and round.
36) (knowledge) His … (grows, grow) quickly.
37) (news) The war … (is, are) all old!
34 Noun

38) (hair) His … (was, were) grey, and he was fat and short.
39) (fish) I have two red … .
40) (wine and cheese) They export … .

Unit 3
Supply the plural form for the singular nouns listed below.
41) turkey 46) ox 51) tooth
42) cargo 47) man 52) mouse
43) knife 48) echo 53) month
44) swine 49) phenomenon 54) potato
45) son-in-law 50) index 55) roof

Unit 4
1. Translate into English the phrases using the possessive case where
possible.
56) мужская дружба 60) собственность 63) решение
57) стол директора брата правительства
58) страхи ребенка 61) минутная 64) утренняя газета
59) хвост лисы нерешительность 65) расстояние в одну
62) свадьба брата милю

2. Put in an apostrophe where necessary.


66) A womans love is not worth anything until it has been cleaned of all
romanticism.
67) He got twenty-four hours work out of each day.
68) I spent Christmas at my Aunt Emilys.
69) We got some goats milk with us.
70) Why, for Gods sake, we go through all this hell?.
71) He was still thinking of next mornings papers.
72) He was on his two miles walk to Berkley.
73) They were leaving the house without an instants delay.
74) He watched her with a boys enthusiasm.
75) See you at Johns!

Unit 5
Give female nouns correspondent to the following male nouns.
76) actor 79) widower 82) nephew 84) duke
77) fox 80) bachelor 83) lord 85) hero
78) baron 81) uncle
Noun 35

Review Exercises
Translate into English.
86) В моем кармане нет денег.
87) Я знаю, что у меня красивые волосы.
88) Его двухнедельный отпуск пошел ему на пользу.
89) Полиция только что поймала убийцу.
90) Машина – хорошо, а олени – лучше!
91) Мои знания английского вполне хорошие.
92) После смерти жены он навсегда остался вдовцом.
93) Это такие хорошие новости!
94) Все утренние газеты сообщали о его больших успехах.
95) Это одежда очень дорогая.
96) Крутая лестница ведет к морю.
97) Товар прибыл, но таможня его еще не осматривала.
98) Никто не последовал его советам.
99) Мои часы спешат.
100) Материнская любовь бесконечна.
100/______
Chapter 2
ADJECTIVES
ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
1. Convert the following verbs and nouns into adjectives by means of suffixes.
1) A (to compare) car would cost far more abroad.
2) The dollar is (to convert).
3) You’ll find this little tool very (value).
4) Mathematics is an (intellect) subject.
5) He is very (to insist) that he’ll finish in time.
6) The politician’s statement was (to contradict).
7) A (wood) bed will cost more.
8) That was a very (fruit) meeting.
9) It was (courage) of you to save the drowning girl.
10) It was a cold (frost) day.
2. Make the adjectives in brackets negative.
11) She is very (like) her mother.
12) These are (regular) verbs.
13) Keep your broken leg (mobile).
14) It’s (legal) to bring these things into the country.
15) He got his money by (honest) means.
16) (standard) vocabulary is usually not used by educated people.
17) She gave a (gracious) refusal.
18) Their natures are (compatible).
19) (experienced) people lack the knowledge.
20) She used (direct) methods of measurement.
3. Name adjectives related to the following participles:
21) shaved 24) wicked 27) learned 29) ragged
22) drunk 25) legged 28) blessed 30) dogged
23) shrunk 26) crooked

Unit 2
1. Put the adjective in the right place.
31) (something) new today 36) (available) figures on this question
32) (martial) court 37) (public) notary
33) (sweet) the peach tastes 38) (afraid) she is of him
34) (interested) anyone 39) (enough) brave to do it
35) (happy) she seems 40) (nice) you look
Adjectives 37

2. Put the adjectives in the right order.


41) a (woollen, black, extravagant, 46) a (Russian, famous, historic) film
Scottish, expensive) suit 47) a (nice, straight, Roman) nose
42) a (Irish, beautiful, young) woman 48) a (silver, old, impressive) ring
43) a (winter, calm, beautiful) day 49) a (old, nice, little) town
44) a (big, good, black, old) dog 50) a (plastic, red, old, little) toy
45) a (ceramic, antique, expensive)
vase

Unit 4
1. Give the comparative and superlative forms for the following adjectives.
51) clumsy 54) regular 57) far 59) little
52) bad 55) complete 58) old 60) stupid
53) narrow 56) merry

2. Complete the sentences using patterns indicating inequality:


61) My brother is (old) … his brother.
62) Her lips are (red) … his lips.
63) The hotels here are (expensive) … as there.
64) The weather this summer is (good) … as last summer.
65) The snow today is (heavy) … as it was yesterday.
66) She is (pretty) … her mother.
67) The Svisloch is (long) … the Volga.
68) Gold is (heavy) … platinum.
69) St Petersburg is (ancient) … Minsk.
70) This street is (narrow) … that street.
3. Translate into English.
71) самый громкий 76) гораздо более забавный
72) намного красивее 77) намного лучше
73) самый умный 78) чем больше, тем лучше
74) значительно хуже 79) чем больше учишься, тем больше знаешь
75) гораздо выше 80) чем сильнее становишься, тем меньше
устаешь

Unit 5
Choose the right adjective.
81) It was really a (terrifying/terrified) experience.
82) Everybody was (shocking/shocked).
83) His (exciting/excited) story touched my heart.
84) I am (amusing/amused) to find you here.
38 Adjectives

85) I feel (embarrassing/embarrassed) when people ask my age.


86) As he had an (interesting/interested) look on his face I continued.
87) The (depressing/depressed) news discouraged him.
88) She seemed very (worrying/worried) about something.
89) The lesson was (boring/bored) and the students were (boring/bored).
90) I am (fascinating/fascinated) with their ceremonies.

Unit 6
Instead of regular adjectives use substantivized adjectives where possible.
91) Only young people have such moments.
92) The impossible thing has happened.
93) English people like tea.
94) In the trench they met two working wounded persons.
95) A Czech man was waving his hand.
96) Blind people usually have a guide dog.
97) The girls looked wonderful in their national clothes. The Japanese girls
were wearing long kimonos and two Indian girls were wearing saris.
98) She was told not to eat sweet things.
99) The quiet state of Nature was wonderfully poignant.
100) A Dutch man started speaking Dutch.

100/_____

UNIT 1 MEANING AND CREATION

1. An adjective is a word that describes a noun (or a pronoun). It


tells which one or what kind: funny clowns, the nearest house, the school is
new, she is pretty.
Derivationally adjectives may be simple (old, white, dark, blue),
compound (two-year old, snow-white, dark-blue) and derived (dishonest,
useful, undeliverable).
2. The most common adjectival derivational suffixes that are added
to nouns are:
-less: helpless, useless
-ish: womanish, childish
-like: womanlike, childlike
Other productive adjective-forming suffixes that make adjectives are:
from nouns:
Adjectives 39

-al: central, cultural


-ic: patriotic, heroic
-ous: dangerous, courageous
-y: rainy, windy
-en: wooden, woolen
-ish: Polish, Swedish
-ful: careful, doubtful
-ary: elementary, customary
from verbs:
-able/-ible: eatable, convertible
-any/-ent: resistant, different
-ive: active, progressive
-ory: contradictory, satisfactory
from adjectival word-groups:
-ed: blue-eyed, broad-shouldered
3. There are many adjectives that have the same form as
participles: his surprising views, the offended man, a tired face.
A few adjectives, however, are differentiated from participles in
pronunciation – in adjectives the vowel in the suffix –ed is pronounced
while in participles it is not: cf.: crooked (adj) [krukid] – crooked (part)
[krukt]. (See also blessed, dogged, wicked, learned, ragged, etc.). A few
adjectives are differentiated from participles by taking the –en suffix (cf.:
adjectives shaven, drunken, shrunken and participles shaved, drunk,
shrunk).
4. The most common adjectival prefixes are negative in meaning:
un- (unhappy),
in- (inable, indifferent) and its variations im- / ir- / il- (immoral,
impatient, irregular, illegal),
dis- (dishonest), and
non- (non-essential, nonverbal).
There is a certain uncertainty whether a word should be used with
un- or in-. But the general rule is that un- is an English prefix and is
easily added to native English words (unfriendly, unbearable, unbroken)
and in- is Latin and is usually added to words of Latin origin (illegal,
irrelevant, immoral).
Moreover, while un- merely negates what the base word says
(unattractive, unfinished, unmarried), in- has more than mere negation
(cf.: immoral ‘conflicting with moral principles’ – the word implies active
opposition to what is moral, and unmoral ‘not moral, not concerned with
morality or ethics’).
40 Adjectives

The negative prefix dis- implies deprivation, complete lack of


something (disable, dishonest, disconnected).
The negative prefix non- has the meaning of ‘not, lacking the usual
characteristics of the thing specified’. It is less common than un- and is
usually more literal or scientific: nonconvertible, non-infectious, non-native.
The negative suffix a- is added only to words of Greek origin: asexual,
amoral (literary use, unmoral or immoral are more common).

Besides adjectival negative prefixes there are also prefixes of:


time and space: pre-, post-, trans- (pre-war, post-war, transatlantic);
hierarchy and priority: sub-, super-, ultra- (subconscious, supernatural,
ultra-short).

Exercises
1.1. Convert the following verbs and nouns into adjectives by means of
suffixes.
1) You can always rely on John. He is very (depend). – You can always rely on
John. He is very dependable.
2) The doctor gave me a very (favour) report on my health.
3) What a lovely picture! Your daughter must be very (artist).
4) I think it’s very (reason) of him to expect us to work overtime this week.
5) This rule is not (apply) in this case.
6) Don’t tell anyone else. It’s (confide).
7) This (wood) bed is very old.
8) This girl spoke in a (child) voice.
9) Do you speak (Turk)?
10) You may throw it away. It’s (use).
11) It’s tiring and (mind) work.
12) This is a picture of a (want) criminal.
13) She is definitely a (kind heart) woman.

1.2. Read the following poems paying attention to the pronunciation of


adjectives.
There was a crooked man, and he walked a crooked mile,
He found a crooked sixpence against a crooked stile;
He bought a crooked cat, which caught a crooked mouse,
And they lived together in a little crooked house.
In Bethlehem, in Jewry, this blessed Babe was born,
And laid within a manger, upon the blessed morn.
Adjectives 41

1.3. Make the adjectives in brackets negative.


1) Some people were (flexible) in their desire to keep John out of major-league
baseball. – Some people were inflexible in their desire to keep John out of
major-league baseball.
2) John remained (violent) in spite of receiving racial insults.
3) When John retired, he became (patient) to see other black people succeed in
their careers.
4) John’s work against racial prejudice remains (finished).
5) I am afraid he is (conscious).
6) How (credible) it is!
7) Your passport has become (valid).
8) Using other people for one’s own profit is (moral).
9) If he can do this job his age is (relevant).
10) These tribes remain to be (literate).
11) He was (obedient) to his mother.
12) It’s (legal) to park your car here.
13) The forms of (regular) verbs should be learned by heart.
14) He got money by (honest) means.

UNIT 2 POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

1. Usually the adjective in English precedes the noun it describes:


unspeakable joy, available figures. (Not only adjectives but many English
nouns are commonly used as premodifiers of other nouns and thus
resemble adjectives though remain to be nouns: a stone wall, a love
poem.)
2. The adjective may follow the word it modifies in the following
cases:
1) for emphatic use of adjectives (usually ending in –able/-ible):
joy unspeakable;
2) in certain fixed forms, mainly legal terms that must be learned,
such as court martial, attorney general;
3) after the pronouns derived from some, any, no, every: Is there
anything new today?
4) when the adjective is a member of an adjectival group of words:
a steamer ready to sail off; the only figures available on this question. (In
Russian the adjectival group may follow or precede the noun: готовый к
отплытию пароход и пароход, готовый к отплытию);
42 Adjectives

5) the adjective enough may follow or precede the noun it


modifies: We have enough time = We have time enough.

3. In sentences the adjectives may be placed in the predicate,


following a linking verb to be, get, become, seem, smell, sound, taste,
feel, look, etc.: a deep river – the river is deep; a sweet peach – the peach
tastes sweet. However, some adjectives, usually relative ones, for
example, analytical chemistry, can not be transformed into *chemistry is
analytical. (See the next unit).
4. Some adjectives are restricted to predicative position only: asleep,
alone, alive. The most common of them refer to health or lack of health:
ill, well, unwell. Another large group of them take complementation:
afraid (that, of, about), conscious (that, of), fond (of): She is afraid of
him.
5. When two or more adjectives are used, the one that describes a
more objective quality stands closer to the noun: a huge wooden salad
bowl.
The general rule is that purpose and material adjectives stand
closer to the noun, then still further from it goes origin, colour, shape,
age, size and opinion adjectives:
opinion + size+ age+ shape + colour + origin+ material + purpose +
NOUN
as in: a marvelous big old oval brown Swiss wooden plate; two lovely tiny
nineteenth-century circular pink and blue French water-colour paintings.

Exercises
2.1. Put the adjective in the right place and explain the rule:
1) (Ready) a steamer to sail off – A steamer ready to sail off.
2) (general) attorney;
3) (enough) we have time;
4) (sour) milk tastes;
5) (nice) you look;
6) (interested) anyone is most welcome here;
7) (ready) a girl to cry;
8) (martial) court;
9) (enough) he has experience;
10) (sweet) a rose by any other name would smell as;
11) (public) notary;
12) (brave) he is enough to do it;
Adjectives 43

13) (easiest to teach) the boys were in my class;


14) (afraid) she is that she will fail the exam.
2.2. Using linking verbs make the following attributive adjectives predicative:
A hungry wolf – the wolf gets hungry; an angry man; strange tea, a nice friend,
a sweet apple, tired Tom, loud music, good dinner, an ugly dress, good flowers.
2.3. Put the adjectives in the right order:
1) a (silk, white, long, American, expensive) dress – an expensive long white
American silk dress.
2) a (brick, red, high, old) wall.
3) a (Japanese, fast, cool, blue) motorcycle.
4) a (new, wooden, black, huge, comfortable) armchair.
5) a (Irish, sentimental, traditional) song.
6) (clean, dark, wavy, lovely) hair.
7) (smart, snake-skin, hand-made, brown) shoes.
8) a (red, plastic, cheap, Taiwanese) raincoat.
9) a (young, Belarusian, handsome) doctor.
10) (two, white, small, paper) cups.

UNIT 3 CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES


According to their meaning and grammatical characteristics
adjectives are basically divided into qualitative and relative.
Qualitative adjectives (soft, wide, clever) denote qualities directly.
Most of them are gradable and have degrees of comparison (soft – softer
– the softest), derive adverbs by the suffix –ly (softly, widely, cleverly)
and can be used as attributes (a soft voice) or predicatives (the voice is
soft).
Relative adjectives (woolen, analytical, preparatory) denote qualities
through their relation to entities or actions. They do not have degrees of
comparison, usually do not form adjectives with –ly and chiefly are used
as attributes, not predicatives (analytical chemistry).

UNIT 4 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES


The only grammatical category that English adjectives have is the
degrees of comparison. The plain stem of an adjective (slow) is called
the positive form. To compare two persons, places, or things they use
the comparative form (slower) and to compare more than two persons,
places, or things they use the superlative form (the slowest).
44 Adjectives

1. There are three regular ways of forming the comparative and the
superlative degrees:
1) Most one-syllable adjectives (small) add the suffix -er for the
comparative form: The rabbit was smaller than the hat. For the superlative
form this kind of adjectives add -est: That was the smallest rabbit I’ve seen.
2) Some two-syllable adjectives ending in -er, -ow, -y, -le (clever,
narrow, happy, simple) as well as having a stress on the last syllable
(polite, complete) may have two comparative and two superlative forms:
with -er/-est and with more/the most, for e.g.: This street is
narrower/more narrow. This task is simpler/more simple. This time his answer
was politer/more polite. This is the cleverest/the most clever decision. This is
the narrowest /the most narrow street. This is the happiest/the most happy
man. This is the simplest/the most simple task. The politest/the most polite
answer was offered by him.
3) Other adjectives of two and all adjectives of more than two
syllables form the comparative and superlative forms by the use of the
auxiliary adverbs more (or less) and the most (or the least): beautiful –
more beautiful – the most beautiful.
2. Some adjectives are irregular, their comparatives and
superlatives are formed in a special way:
Positive Comparative Superlative
good (well) better the best
bad worse the worst
little less the least
many (much) more the most
far farther farthest
further the furthest
NOTE 1. Farther refers to a greater physical distance (go farther).
Further refers mostly to a greater degree, time, or quality
(further details).
old older the oldest
elder the eldest
NOTE 2. Elder and eldest are used chiefly of people, and then
almost exclusively of family relationship (my elder brother,
his eldest sister but She is the oldest in the family). Older (not
elder) is used with than (She is older than I am).
late later the latest
latter the last
Adjectives 45

NOTE 3. Latter as well as later means ‘nearer to the end' (The latter
years of his life). Latter also refers to ‘the second of two’ (Of
the pig and the cow, the latter animal is more valuable).
Last means ‘final’ (his famous last words). It can also
mean ‘next before the present’ (This is better than his last
film.). But to avoid misunderstanding to mean ‘next before
the present’ a clearer word like previous or latest should
be used (Her latest, but not we hope last, book).
near nearer the nearest
the next
NOTE 4. Next means ’without anything coming before or between;
nearest’ (The next house to ours is a mile away).
3. The as … as pattern indicates equality, and the not as/so … as is
used to indicate inequality: Molly is as smart as Susan. Molly is not as/so
smart as Susan.

4. The words much (many before countable nouns), far, a great deal,
still are used to intensify the quality expressed by the adjective in the
comparative form and are translated into Russian as намного,
гораздо, значительно: much/many more, much longer, far more
interesting.

5. To denote a greater degree of quality the Russian expressions в


два раза, в три раза больше etc. are translated as twice as or three
times as (large/heavy/much). To denote a smaller degree of quality
the expressions half as (large/heavy/much) or half (my age/the size/the
weight).

6. The Russian expressions ‘чем (больше/меньше/темнее и др.),


тем (меньше/больше/светлее)’ are translated into English by
comparative degree with the definite article: The more you have, the
more you want. The nearer the winter, the shorter the days.

7. They use how+an adjective of measure to ask about the degree of


a specific quality (note that preference is given to some adjectives, for
e.g., old to young, large to small, high to low, light to dark): How old are
you? How large is your house? (Cf. in Russian: Сколько Вам лет? Какой
размер Вашего дома?)
46 Adjectives

Exercises

4.1. Read the forms of the adjectives and work out the rules of their spelling
in the comparative and superlative degrees.
Positive Comparative Superlative
big biggest the biggest
hot hotter the hottest
busy busier the busiest
dirty dirtier the dirtiest
gray grayer the grayest
brave braver the bravest
nice nicer the nicest
simple simpler/more simple the simplest/the most simple
free freer the freest

4.2. Add -er or -est to the adjectives in brackets. Write the new forms of the
adjectives.
1) The hand is (quick) than the eye. – The hand is quicker than the eye.
2) That magician is the (great) in the world.
3) This is the (proud) moment of his life.
4) The rabbit is (soft) than the bird.
5) That trick is (old) than this country.
6) Our seats were the (close) to the stage.
7) The magician’s show was (long) than the clown’s.
8) The clown’s shoes were the (funny) of all the shoes.
9) Our laughs were the (loud) in the crowd.
10) The stage was the (big) one I’ve ever seen.
4.3. Give the comparative and superlative forms for the following adjectives:
1) kind – kinder – the kindest, fast, green, hard, tall, sad, cheap, dry, fine, long.
2) early, easy, famous, funny, honest, wealthy, pleasant, dirty, clever,
3) perfect, narrow, simple, friendly, foolish, useful.
4) favourable, wonderful, dangerous, reactionary, comfortable, popular.
5) good, bad, many, late, far, little, near, old.
4.4. Complete the sentences according to the model:
Model: My brother is (old) … his brother.
a) My brother is as old as his brother.
b) My brother is not as/so old as his brother.
c) My brother is older than his brother.
1) The dinner is (good) … lunch. 3) This writer is (famous) … that.
2) Your room is (bright) … hers. 4) This hill is (high) … that.
Adjectives 47

5) The boy was (clever) … his sister. 8) This flower is (beautiful) … a rose.
6) The first story is (interesting) … 9) Your hands are (cold) … his.
the second. 10) The green pencil is (long) … the
7) This way is (short) … that. red one.
4.5. Read the poem and comment on the form of the adjectives.
The more we study, the more we know;
The more we know, the more we forget;
The more we forget, the less we know;
The less we know, the less we forget;
The less we forget, the more we know.
Why study?
4.6. Use much (many with countable nouns) before the comparative forms
for emphasis.
1) Skiing is harder than it looks. – Skiing is much harder than it looks.
2) She has more boyfriends than she knows what to do with. – She has many
more boyfriends than she knows what to do with.
3) That boy is more intelligent than he looks.
4) Joe swam more miles than Richard.
5) That job takes more experience than he has.
6) I have less work than last week.
7) Her pies are better than her cakes.
8) Speaking English is more fun than reading English.
9) New York City has more sky-scrapers than Chicago.
10) It is a better place to live than that.
11) I have more money at the beginning of the month than at the end.
12) English is easier to learn than Chinese.
13) That BMW costs more than a Mercedes.
14) Cars cause more pollution than bicycles.

4.7. Translate into English.


1) Самый чистый, намного чище, самый лучший, значительно лучше,
самый длинный, гораздо длиннее, самый трудный, значительно более
трудный, богаче, намного богаче, хуже, гораздо хуже, серьезнее,
намного серьезнее, более известный, значительно более известный,
интереснее, гораздо более интересный, самый занятый, гораздо более
занятый, более храбрый, самый храбрый, гораздо более храбрый.
2) Чем ярче солнце, тем теплее дни. Чем больше учишься, тем больше
знаешь. Чем скорее вы придете, тем лучше. Чем раньше встанешь, тем
больше сделаешь. Чем меньше читаешь, тем меньше знаешь
48 Adjectives

UNIT 5 ADJECTIVES ENDING IN -ing AND -ed


(interesting/interested)

There are many adjectives that have the same form as participles: his
surprising views, he seemed very surprised.
Pairs of adjectives ending in –ing and –ed may cause confusion.
Adjectives ending with –ed are used to show how people feel about
something: an interested crowd (= something interested them). I was so
excited that I couldn't sleep (= something excited me).
Adjectives ending with –ing are used to describe objects or people
that make people feel excited, interested, etc.: The picture is very
interesting (= it interests me). Skiing is an exciting sport.
Someone is –ed (bored) if something (or someone) is –ing (boring).

Exercises

5.1. Choose the right adjective.


1) We were (horrifying/horrified) to know about the accident. – We were
horrified to know about the accident.
2) Why do you look so (boring/bored)?
3) He easily gets (embarrassing/embarrassed).
4) I was (amazing/amazed) to get such present from him.
5) Are you (interesting/interested) in politics?
6) It’s sometimes (embarrassing/embarrassed) to ask for help.
7) I am (exciting/excited) about moving to a new flat.
8) She is an (interesting/interested) personality.
9) The situation is rather (depressing/depressed).
10) He was (shocking/shocked) to know about it.
11) He is fond of (shocking/shocked) tricks.
12) She looked (worrying/worried).

5.2. Make up sentences with pairs of adjectives ending in -ing and –ed.
amazing – amazed fascinating – fascinated
amusing – amused frightening – frightened
annoying – annoyed horrifying – horrified
astonishing – astonished satisfying – satisfied
confusing – confused shocking – shocked
depressing – depressed worrying – worried
embarrassing – embarrassed exciting – excited
Adjectives 49

UNIT 6 SUBSTANTIVATION OF ADJECTIVES


1. Some adjectives may be used as nouns and acquire some or all of
the characteristics of the noun. In this case they become
substantivized. There are wholly and partially substantivized
adjectives.
Wholly subtantivized adjectives may have the plural form, the
possessive case, and may be used with articles: native (adj) – a native,
the natives, a native’s hut. Some of them may have only the plural form:
valuable – valuables, green – greens.
Partially substantivized adjectives denote a whole class and are
used like nouns with the definite articles: the blind, the poor.
2. Adjectives denoting nationalities may be wholly or partially
substantivized.
Wholly substantivized are the adjectives ending in –an/-ian: a
Russian, two Russians, the Russians; a German, two Germans, the Germans.
The adjectives ending in –se and –ss are partially substantivized and
the same form is used for singular, plural and to denote the nation on
the whole: a Chinese, two Chinese, the Chinese; a Swiss, two Swiss, the Swiss.
The adjectives ending in –sh and –ch are used only to denote the
whole nation: the English, the Irish, the Scotch, the French, the Welsh, the
Dutch. To denote a person of this nationality or two of them the root-man
or -woman is added: an Englishman – two Englishmen; an Englishwoman –
two Englishwomen; a Dutchman – two Dutchmen.
Note the exceptions:
adjective a person two persons nation
Spanish a Spaniard two Spaniards the Spanish
Polish a Pole two Poles the Polish/Poles
Danish a Dane two Danes the Danes
Finnish a Finn two Finns the Finns
Swedish a Swede two Swedes the Swedes
Turkish a Turk two Turks the Turks
Exercises
6.1. Use adjectives as nouns.
1) The extremely old people need a great deal of attention. – The extremely old
need a great deal of attention.
2) We will nurse your sick people and feed your hungry people.
3) The young in spirit people enjoy life.
50 Adjectives

4) The rich people will help only the humble poor people.
5) The wise people look to wiser people for advice.
6) The old people who resist change can expect violence.
7) The industrious Dutch people are admired by their neighbours.
8) You British people and you French people ought to be allies.
9) This Irish man retained all sentimental links with Ireland.
10) The rebellious Polish peasants resisted strongly.
11) The British troops have control of the bridge.
12) The blind people need our support.
13) The native people were very friendly.
14) The Russian sportsmen performed well in figure dancing.
15) Are the German people sentimental?
16) Five Chinese people entered the hotel.
17) The Swiss people are fond of mountains.
18) He is an English man.
19) The Turkish people got their independence only at the beginning of the 20 th
century.
20) The Finnish people live in Finland.
21) A Spanish girl was dancing beautifully.

REVIEW EXERCISES
1. Supply the right adjectival forms for the words in brackets.
1) The scenery is very (to attract).
2) A class of forty is just about (to manage).
3) You are tremendously (energy).
4) The book is full of (humour) stories.
5) How much radiation is (to be permitted)?
6) Driving a car without a license is (legal).
7) The waiting room is a (smoking) area.
8) She doesn’t behave in a responsible way. She is quite (responsible).
9) He cannot read or write. He is (literate).
10) That was the (to conclude) proof that he was the murderer.
2. Give a comparative or a superlative form for the adjectives in italics. Make
other changes if necessary.
1) She is (happy) than I am.
2) She is (happy) person I have ever met.
3) His work was (careless) than mine.
4) His work was (careless) in the class.
5) The problem is (simple) than that one.
6) The problem is (simple) in the book.
Adjectives 51

7) Is your house much (far)?


8) I’ve got the (little)!
9) My flat is (little) than yours.
10) We have got no (far) information.
3. Give the correct forms for the words in brackets: the + adjective or –ed/-
ing adjectives.
A just society is a human ideal. We would all like to live in a place where
(1) (rich) are not too rich and (2) (poor) are not too poor; where no one would
be (3) (shock) or (4) (embarrass) at the way (5) (old) are cared for. (6) (blind)
would have as much opportunity as (7) (sighted). (8) (deaf) would be able to
develop their skills. (9) (unemployed) would not depend on the state, because
no one would be unemployed. The most innocent people in society, (10)
(young), would be protected. In this happy place no one would feel (11)
(depress) or (12) (distress). Unfortunately, in the real world, life can be both
(13) (distress) and (14) (depress). So let’s be thankful for a sense of humour. I
recently saw a notice in an undertaker’s window and I wasn’t sure whether it
was addressed to (15) (living) or (16) (dead). It said: “Once you’ve tried one of
our funerals, you’ll never want to try another!”
(Longman English Grammar Practice, p.85)

4. Use the right word order or choose the right forms.


(1) (Shoes leather Italian expensive handmade): these are my pride and
joy. I own a (2) (old beautiful pair) – or I did until yesterday, when I discovered
that one of the shoes was missing. I had left the shoes on my (3) (doorstep
back) to do some gardening. My neighbour has a (4) (dog friendly large) called
Sam. When I saw that one of my shoes had disappeared, I knew that Sam had
taken it. I can’t say he behaved (5) (bad/badly). He just behaved like a dog.
Leather looks (6) (good/well) and tastes (7) (good/well), too. I unwillingly gave
Sam the (8) (remaining Italian shoe) and then followed him. I not only found
one (9) (Italian unchewed shoe), but also a pile of things Sam had been
borrowing, including my wife’s (10) (slippers fur-lined red), which Sam had
tried for dinner!
(Longman English Grammar Practice, p. 87)

PROGRESS TEST
Unit 1
1. Convert the following verbs and nouns into adjectives by means of suffixes.
1) The doctor gave me a very (favour) report on my health.
2) He has a rather (bush) beard.
3) The girl looked (thought) for a moment and then answered.
52 Adjectives

4) It was (courage) of you to save a drowning man.


5) It’s not (respect) to be drunk in the street.
6) She speaks in a rather (book) way.
7) A paid full-time official responsible for organizing and administrating
activities of an organization is called a (to execute) secretary.
8) She was born to an (intellect) family.
9) You’ll find this little tool very (value) for cutting.
10) It’s a warm (wool) coat.
2. Make the adjectives in brackets negative.
11) John remained (violent) in spite of receiving racial insults.
12) He was (obedient) to his mother.
13) He was an (legitimate) child.
14) (standard) expressions are not usually used by educated native speakers.
15) His (reputable) behaviour made me feel sick.
16) The very idea of cheating him is (tasteful) to me.
17) It was a (decisive) victory.
18) Using other people for one’s own profit is (moral).
19) He is still (mature).
20) I am (comfortable) in this chair.
3. Transcribe the following adjectives.
21) Pressed 24) wicked 27) learned 29) ragged
22) Crooked 25) legged 28) dark-skinned 30) dogged
23) Blessed 26) hooked

Unit 2
1. Put the adjective in the right place.
31) (ready) a steamer to sail off 36) (available) data on this question
32) (general) attorney 37) (concerned) the doctor is on
33) (nice) the music sounds holiday
34) (interested) anyone is most 38) (sweet) a rose smells
welcome here 39) (enough) energy for that
35) (angry) she gets 40) (good) it sounds for me

2. Put the adjectives in the right order:


41) a (cotton, white and pink, long, 46) a (American, famous, funny)
Indian, expensive) dress movie
42) a (English, nice, old) lady 47) a (red, large, ugly) nose
43) a (summer, sunny, nice) day 48) a (gold, new, fashionable) ring
44) a (fat, black, old) cat 49) a (old, lovely, little) village
45) a (metal, antique, expensive) box 50) a (plastic, red, old, big) bag
Adjectives 53

Unit 4
1. Give the comparative and superlative forms for the following adjectives:
51) tender 54) complete 57) big
52) good 55) happy 58) fine
53) noble 56) heavy 59) private

2. Complete the sentences using patterns indicating inequality.


60) (bronzed) The skin was …a Tahiti native’s.
61) (nice) You are … many people think.
62) (hot) Today the sun is … it was yesterday.
63) (proud) The mother is … her daughter.
64) ((musical) John is … as his sister.
65) (interested) You are … in my dress … my dressmaker.
66) (active) She is … her brother.
67) (deep) The Naroch is … the Baikal.
68) (expensive) Gold is … silver.
69) (experienced) This secretary is … as that one.
70) (narrow) This street is … that street.

3. Translate into English.


71) самый чистый 77) намного хуже
72) намного чище 78) чем ярче солнце, тем теплее дни
73) самый лучший 79) чем больше пьешь, тем больше
74) значительно лучше хочется пить
75) гораздо интереснее 80) чем больше женщину мы любим, тем
76) гораздо более занятый меньше нравимся мы ей.

Unit 5
Choose the right adjective.
81) We were (horrifying/horrified) to know about the accident
82) Why do you look so (boring/bored)?
83) The (exciting/excited) children were opening their Christmas presents.
84) He told me an (amusing/amused) story.
85) It’s sometimes (embarrassing/embarrassed) to ask for help.
86) Are you (interesting/interested) in politics?
87) The situation is rather (depressing/depressed).
88) She looked (worrying/worried).
89) The room hasn't been cleaned for a long time. It looks (disgusting/
disgusted).
90) The most (fascinating/fascinated) insect was walking across the paper.
54 Adjectives

Unit 6
Instead of the regular adjectives use substantivized adjectives.
91) Rich people should pay more taxes.
92) This memorial is to dead people.
93) He basked in the company of the young people.
94) It was a surprise to the experienced people.
95) He was wearing green: a garrison hat and the ribbons.
96) He was part of the rich class.
97) The poor people must stand together everywhere.
98) We had to hand over our valuable things.
99) Two Swiss girls were standing near the column.
100) The Scotch people are very proud.

100/______
Chapter 3
ADVERBS

ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
Translate into English.
1) Воздушный шар не поднялся очень высоко.
2) Собака подошла довольно близко.
3) Они очень много (усердно) работают.
4) Вряд ли у них было время на обед.
5) Я почти поймал рыбу.
Unit 2
1. Put the adverbs in their usual position.
6) (usually) Are you at home in the evening?
7) (finally) They have caught the cat.
8) (often) Sally doesn’t listen to the news.
9) (generally) The weather is good here.
10) (probably) David will be there.
11) (never) You take risks.
12) (hardly ever) Jerry is angry.
13) (frequently) I lie awake at night.
14) (seldom) You tell jokes.
15) (always) Mary is late for work.
16) (often) Ray worries.
17) (enough) He did not try hard.
18) (lately). She has been sad.
19) (sometimes) He argues with his wife.
20) (yesterday) He laughed at the comedy show.
21) (never) I wish things were different.
22) (soon) It’ll be 9 o’clock.
23) (just) I have seen a marvelous film.
24) She did not read (enough, then, quickly).
25) (finally) The exam is over.
2. Translate into English placing the adverbs in their right place.
26) Я обычно кладу в чай сахар.
27) «Где Джим?» «Вероятно, он рано ушел домой»
28) Джейн всегда очень щедра.
56 Adverbs

29) Мы всегда вынуждены долго ждать автобус.


30) Салли и Чак оба родились в Лидсе.
31) Джефф хороший пианист. Он может также очень хорошо петь.
32) Наш телевизор часто ломается.
33) Я никак не могу понять, почему он не носит очки.
34) Возможно, я уеду завтра утром.
35) Возможно, я не смогу прийти завтра на вечер.
36) Если бы мы не сели в тот же поезд, мы могли бы никогда не
встретиться.
37) Я тихонько закрыл двери.
38) Обычно я не работаю по субботам.
39) Джек всегда поет, когда он принимает ванну?
40) День был достаточно теплым.

Unit 3
1. Complete each sentence by writing the correct form of the adverb in
brackets.
41) I like this book (well) than that.
42) She visits them (frequently) than us.
43) Who ran (fast) in the racing?
44) Which of the books did you enjoy (much)?
45) Which of these two books do you like (much)?
46) Now I can see the mountain (clearly) than before.
47) You should have told me (early).
48) The fire was put out (quickly) than we expected.
49) She speaks English (well) of all in our group.
50) He walked (fast) of all.
51) He knows English, German and French, but he speaks English (well).
52) He listened to the teacher (attentively) than you did.
53) He visits us (often) than you do.
54) He speaks (slowly) than I do.
55) I read (much) in summer than any other time.

2. Translate into English.


56) Маленькая Маша танцевала даже красивее своей сестры.
57) Джон играл хуже всех.
58) Они играли хуже на прошлой неделе.
59) Тебе надо вставать пораньше.
60) Вы могли бы сказать это помедленнее, пожалуйста?
61) Лучше всего он рисует животных.
62) Он рисует животных лучше всех.
Adverbs 57

63) Она прибежала быстрее всех.


64) Ты можешь плыть дальше, чем Мартин.
65) Дешевле всего ты можешь купить их в магазине

Unit 4
1. Name adverbs that semantically correspond to the following adjectives:
66) happy 68) exact 70) early 72) little 74) high
67) daily 69) fast 71) late 73) hard 75) near
2. Use good or well.
76) We had a very … time. 79) I am not quite … .
77) Jill speaks English very … . 80) She feels … in that suit.
78) I feel quite ... .

3. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form (adjective or


adverb) of the word in brackets:
81) It is not (good) for you to smoke. 89) The coffee tastes very (nice).
82) He spoke (angry). 90) Please, shut the door (quiet).
83) He wrote his dictation (bad). 91) Keep (quiet)!
84) This is not quite (clear). 92) His voice was (quiet).
85) This medicine tastes (bitter). 93) She drives (careless).
86) Two sisters were dressed 94) Speak (loud) and (clear).
(different). 95) Go (slow).
87) The explanation was quite
(simple).
88) She is feeling (bad).

Review Exercises
Translate into English.
96) Она все еще любит его.
97) Мы сейчас почти у дома.
98) Этим утром нам надо уйти рано.
99) Он дешево купил пальто.
100) Раньше я его никогда не встречал.

100/ ______
58 Adverbs

UNIT 1 MEANING, CLASSIFICATION AND CREATION

1. An adverb is a word that modifies a verb as in She dances


beautifully, an adjective (She looked somewhat pale), an adverb (She knew
him very well) or a noun (He is such a monster!).
2. Most adverbs modify a verb and tell us how (adverbs of
manner), when (adverbs of time), where (adverbs of place) or how
often (adverbs of frequency) a certain action takes place: A turtle
crawls slowly. We will eat later. Go there. He often visits us.
Adverbs of degree make the meaning of a verb, an adjective,
adverb or noun stronger or weaker: I like the book very much; I completely
forgot about it; she is incredibly beautiful; he is smoking very heavily; he is
such a bore!
Sentence adverbs refer to the whole phrase to show what the
speaker thinks about the whole utterance (Unfortunately, nobody saw him
do it).

3. Many adverbs, especially adverbs of manner, are formed from


adjectives by adding – ly: theoretically, completely, nicely and scarcely.
Adjectives that end in –ly (costly, friendly, likely, lively, lovely, lonely,
silly, ugly) do not have related adverbial forms and to express manner
they use such adjectival word combinations as in a friendly way, in a lively
manner.
Many adverbs are simple or compound and do not end in –ly: now,
very, yet; nowhere, inside, tenfold. Some of them coincide with adjectives in
form as fast, often, long, straight, far, near.
Some adverbs have two forms – with and without -ly: late and lately,
near and nearly, hard and hardly, high and highly, deep and deeply. But
usually they differ in meaning (cf.: He came late ‘поздно’ and I haven’t seen
him lately ‘последнее время’; He lives quite near ‘близко’ and It’s nearly
‘почти’ 6 o’clock; He works hard ‘усердно’ and He hardly ‘вряд-ли’ ever
works properly; The plane flew very high ‘высоко’ and They have a highly
‘весьма, в высшей степени’ developed industry).
There are also some adverbs that have two forms – one with –ly
ending and one without the –ly ending and no difference in meaning.
Adverbs 59

Adjectives that are commonly used in this way include: cheap, quick,
slow, kind, real. Usually, however, the longer form with –ly is
preferred, especially for writing: Don’t talk so loud/loudly.(See Unit 4).

Exercises
1.1. Say if the words below are adverbs of manner, frequency, time or place.
Write each word under a heading to show if the word tells how, how often,
when, or where.
How how often when where
Quickly, slowly, today, usually, hopelessly, brightly, there, often, yesterday, happily,
later, softly, forward, forever, eastward, always, nowadays, nowhere, twice, abroad,
well, below, far, finally.

1.2. Put the correct form of the adverb.


1) The thief got (clean/cleanly) away and was never seen again.
2) He pulled the cork out of the bottle (clean/cleanly).
3) Stay (clear/clearly) of that man. He'll do you no good.
4) If you look at the situation (clear/clearly) you'll see that I'm right.
5) Take it (easy/easily)! You push yourself too much.
6) He beat me (easy/easily). He was much too good.
7) He (free/freely) admits that he has done the job.
8) Many teenagers try to break (free/freely) from their parents.
9) She left the door (wide/widely) open.
10) His items are (wide/widely) known.
11) He was (wrong/wrongly) accused.
12) Did I do something (wrong/wrongly)?
13) It was raining (hard/hardly).
14) It (hard/hardly) matters now.
1.3. Translate into Russian and back into English.
1) I watched him closely. 8) It’s so deeply true.
2) We were sitting close. 9) His mouth was opened wide.
3) Philip came late to dinner. 10) She must indeed be widely
4) They had not seen her lately. changed from what she once was.
5) The woman held her head high. 11) She hardly dared to breath.
6) It is highly suspicious. 12) He was breathing hard.
7) He put his hands deep into his 13) We’ve been here nearly a week.
pockets. 14) What need have you for coming
so near?
60 Adverbs

UNIT 2 PLACING OF ADVERBS

1. In general, the adverbs must be so placed in the sentence that the


reader (listener) will have no hesitation in deciding which word the
adverb modifies. Hence, the adverb should be placed as near as
possible to that word. (Cf.: The teacher only pointed out one mistake and
The teacher pointed out only one mistake; I am quite sure he is clever and I am
sure he is quite clever).
Still another general tendency is that adverbs usually precede or
follow the verb: We often talked about it. He turned hastily.
Yet different adverbs may be placed differently, and here are some
tendencies and rules for the different types of adverbs which, however,
should be used as a guide, not a firm set of rules, as adverb position is
often changed to show emphasis.
2. In a sentence adverbs are usually placed in:
1) a midsentence position as are the majority of adverbs of manner,
frequency, degree and time (He slowly opened the door. I don’t really like
fish. I often go there. Have you ever seen him? I have not yet read the letter.
I’ve just finished the painting).
2) initial or any other position as:
a) sentence adverbs (Probably she will never come. She will probably
never come. I’ll see you later, probably) and
b) some adverbs of frequency as sometimes, usually, normally,
frequently, generally, occasionally, finally (I sometimes go there.
Sometimes I go there. I go there sometimes);
3) final position as some adverbs of:
a) time (before, lately, recently, soon, yet) (I have not seen him
lately; The mail has not come yet),
b) degree (I sleep little/much, I danced a lot, I don’t love him anymore),
c) manner (I must get money somehow),
d) place (He painted that picture here) and the adverbs often, too
and either (‘также, тоже’) (Do you come here often? I’ll be there too. I don’t
like it either);
4) both in the final and initial positions as some adverbs of time
such as tomorrow, yesterday, today (I’ll see him today. Today I’ll see
him).
3. Midsentence adverbs, in their turn, may premodify, postmodify
the word they are related to or be used between a helping (or modal)
verb and a main verb.
Adverbs 61

Midsentence adverbs that premodify:


1) a verb:
a) some adverbs of frequency (ever, always, seldom, rarely,
hardly ever, never) and the adverb of degree just in the meaning of
“просто”: He always comes early. I just have to go there.
b) the adverb still: I still love him. The letter still hasn’t come.
NOTE: I can still play the piano. She is still at school)
2) an adjective:
a) “view point” sentence adverbs: It is theoretically sound.
b) intensifying adverbs: That was a very funny film.

Midsentence adverbs that are used between a helping (or modal)


verb and a main verb:
a) adverbs of frequency: She doesn’t always eat breakfast. You must
never get off the moving tram, and
b) the adverbs of time just in the meaning of “только что” and the
adverb already: He has just left. He has already come.

Midsentence adverbs that postmodify verb/adjective:


a) the adverbs of frequency after the verb to be: He is always here.
b) the adverbs of manner after an intransitive verb: He walked
slowly to the bar. (If a verb is transitive, the adverb is used either before
the verb or after the object: He slowly answered the question or He answered
the question slowly.)
c) the adverb enough: high enough; to work enough.
d) intensifying adverbs in phrasal verbs: They left him well behind.

4. Adverbs together usually follow the order: Manner, Place, Time:


It rained hard there yesterday. But when in pairs, Place usually precedes
Manner: She arrived here angrily.
Exercises
2.1. Read the sentences with adverbs and translate them into Russian. Work
out general rules of placing the adverbs as in the model generalization. Give
your own examples on analogy.
Adverbs of frequency:
a) She always stays in bed on Sunday morning.
b) He is always in time for meals.
c) I can never understand or I have often been told about it.
d) They sometimes stay up all night or Sometimes they stay up all night or
They stay up all night sometimes.
62 Adverbs

Model generalization:
1. Adverbs of frequency usually precede verbs but follow the verb TO
BE.
2. When a verb is two or more words (can remember, doesn’t smoke, has
been stolen), the adverb is used after the first part of the verb.
3. Adverbs sometimes, usually, normally and occasionally can also
have initial or final position.
Adverbs of place:
a) I looked everywhere c) He ran hastily downstairs
b) He painted that picture here d) I will be here tomorrow.
Adverbs of manner:
a) They walk quickly
b) She ate the porridge quickly or She quickly ate the porridge
c) He spoke English well
Adverbs of time:
a) He is coming tomorrow or Tomorrow he is coming. (less common)
b) She still dislikes him
c) She is still in the bath
d) He hasn’t finished yet or He hasn’t yet finished (less common)
Adverbs of degree:
a) I just love this record
b) I liked his first book very much
c) It was too hot to work
d) He didn’t work quickly enough
e) He has enough knowledge to do it

2.2. Point out the adverbs and explain the place of their use.
1) I never felt better in my life.
2) I sometimes think there is nothing before me just hard work.
3) She consulted her husband at once.
4) He spoke little and listened much.
5) He had never had a love for music.
6) The man must have had diabolically acute hearing.
7) Why had he lived such a life?
8) She was driving too fast.
9) Twice I visited them.
10) The boy was due to go tomorrow.
11) She seems to be simple enough.
12) He looked at her hard.
Adverbs 63

13) Obviously he loved her.


14) They were dancing together.
15) Young people are too self-assured nowadays.
16) They went to the pool afoot.
17) I have just finished the letter.
18) The only thing is to cut the knot for good.
19) He thinks he is always right.
20) She still loves him.
21) She just loves him.
22) He has enough knowledge to do this.
2.3. Put the adverbs in their usual position.
1) (usually) Is Pat at home in the evening? – Is Pat usually at home in the
evening?
2) (finally) They have finished their work.
3) (often) Jack doesn’t write letters.
4) (generally) I don’t stay up late.
5) (probably) Susan will stay at home.
6) (never) You should allow children play with matches.
7) (hardly ever) Jerry is in low mood.
8) (frequently) My chemistry lecturer comes to class late.
9) (seldom) The temperature drops below zero in Miami.
10) (always) Mary rides a bus to school.
11) (often) Our classroom is too hot.
12) (enough) He is old to drive a car.
13) (lately) I have not seen him.
14) (sometimes) I go swimming.
15) (yesterday) I met him at the Barbers’.
16) (never) She should be late for her classes.
17) (always) Does he meet her?
18) (just) Chuck has gone.
19) (always) When abroad I am homesick.
20) (finally) The exercise is over.
21) (still) He works there.
22) (anymore) She doesn’t work there.
23) (already) I have finished my work.
24) (still) I haven’t finished it.
25) (easily) I translated the article.
26) He went (slowly, there).
27) It snowed (yesterday, lightly, there).
64 Adverbs

2.4. Translate into English placing the adverbs in their right place, explain
your choice and then check your answers.
1) Она перевернула быстро She quickly turned the page/ She
страницу. turned the page quickly.
2) Она быстро ходит. She walks quickly.
3) Она хорошо говорит по- She speaks English well.
английски.
4) Он там жил всю свою жизнь. He lived all his life there.
5) Он завтра уезжает. He is leaving tomorrow/ Tomorrow
he is leaving.
6) Он в деревне все еще. He is still in the village.
7) Она его все еще ждет. She is still waiting for him.
8) Она его все еще любит. She still loves him.
9) Только что она пришла. She has just come.
10) Она еще работу не закончила She hasn't finished the work yet/ She
hasn't yet finished the work.
11) Иногда я думаю, что она не Sometimes I think / I think sometimes
вернется никогда. /I sometimes think she will never
come back.
12) Что-нибудь она всегда теряет. She is always losing something.
13) Я никогда не мог понять I could never understand the reason.
причину.
14) Он говорит по-английски She speaks English fluently enough.
достаточно бегло.

UNIT 3 COMPARISON OF ADVERBS


Adverbs can be used to compare actions: I arrived sooner than you did.
1. The comparison forms for adverbs are the same as those for
adjectives:
One-syllable adverbs that compare two actions and the adverb early
end in –er: Ted ran faster today. She got up earlier.
To compare more than two actions, they use the suffix –est: Ted ran
the fastest of all. John got up the earliest.
With a longer adverb and all adverbs in –ly (except early) more and
most are usually used for comparing actions: I see more clearly. I see
most clearly. I drove more carefully than John. Tim drove most carefully of all.
2. The adverb often and some adverbs that can be used in informal
English as adjectives without –ly (e.g. quick/quickly, slow/slowly,
cheap/cheaply see Unit 4) have both the forms of comparison: oftener –
Adverbs 65

oftenest and more often – most often; cheaper – cheapest and more cheaply –
most cheaply: You can buy them cheapest here, and You can buy them more
cheaply here.
3. Some adverbs, as their correspondent adjectives, have irregular
forms of comparison, for example, badly – worse – worst (see Chapter 2.
Adjectives. Unit 4. Comparison, Irregular forms).
4. The adverbs in the superlative degree may be used with or without
the definite article the if the prepositional phrase of all is used or
meant: He ran (the) fastest of all. If this phrase is not meant, the definite
article is not used: I work best in the morning ‘Я работаю лучше всего
утром’.

Exercises

3.1. Complete each sentence by writing the correct form of the adverb in
brackets.
1) Jean worked (fast) than Debbie.
2) Debbie finished (late) that Jean
3) Of all the girls, Lily worked the (late).
4) She worked (carefully) of all.
5) No one tried (hard) than Den.
6) Of all the birds, they flew the (quietly).
7) The swan swam (peacefully) than the duck.
8) The beautiful black swan swam the (near) to me of all the birds.
9) He swam (slowly) than the white swan.
10) I will be back here (soon) than you.
11) Of the three shopping centers, this one has (few) stores.
3.2. Translate the sentences.
1) Лучше всего я знаю английский.
2) Я знаю английский лучше всех.
3) Сейчас я вижу яснее.
4) Я вел машину аккуратнее, чем Джон.
5) Я прибыл быстрее, чем ты.
6) Джон знал предмет хуже всех.
7) Джефф поднялся раньше всех.
8) В этом случае артикль используется чаще.
9) Чаще всего артикль используется в следующих случаях.
10) Это слово употребляется чаще.
11) Здесь вы можете купить фрукты дешевле.
12) Мы продаем свой товар дешевле всех.
66 Adverbs

UNIT 4 ADJECTIVES OR ADVERBS?


Sometimes a word is recognized as an adjective or an adverb by its
function: an adjective modifies mostly a noun or pronoun and an adverb
modifies mostly a verb: Are you a quiet (adj) person? Do you speak quietly
(adv)?
Some adjectives and adverbs are recognized by their form: quiet
(adj) and quietly (adv). Yet the difference between these two parts of
speech is not clear-cut.
1. The same form for adjectives and adverbs
Some adverbs of manner and time have the same form as adjectives (See
also Unit 1):
a) Some derived adjectives like adverbs end in –ly: lovely, lively,
orderly, friendly, daily, monthly, likely. (Cf.: It was his daily duty and
Most newspapers appear daily; It is a likely excuse and The rain is likely to
stop.)
b) A few simple words like fast, slow, deep, early, late, well, long,
hard, right, wrong, high function as either adverbs or adjectives
depending on what they modify:
Adjective Adverb
a fast train (modifies train) he ran fast (modifies ran)
a slow watch (modifies watch) go slow (modifies go)
an early bird (modifies bird) she came early (modifies came)
a well child (modifies child) she played well (modifies played)
a hard chair (modifies chair) she works hard (modifies works)
the late student (modifies student) they slept late (modifies slept)
2. Adverbs with double forms
There are some adverbs that have two forms – one with –ly ending
and one without the –ly ending. Usually the longer form with –ly is
preferred, especially for writing: Don’t talk so loud/loudly. She buys her
clothes cheap/cheaply. The shortened form is more likely to be used in
speaking informally. Examples of these adverbs are:
direct – directly slow – slowly
tight – tightly close – closely
clear – clearly cheap – cheaply
3. Using adjectives after linking and perception verbs
Linking verbs (to be, become, appear, seem, look) and the verbs of
sense (taste, smell, etc.) are followed by adjectives (not adverbs!): This
peach is/looks/tastes so sweet/good/wonderful. All is well that ends well. I am
very well today, and you?
Adverbs 67

4. Using good and well


1) Use the adjective good to mean “better than average”: We had a
good time.
BUT: Use the adverb well to mean “in a good way”: No one slept very
well.
2) Use the adjective well after the verb to be to mean “in good
health”, “comfortable”: I am well.
BUT: Use the adjective good/bad after the verb to feel: I feel
good/bad. It feels good.
NOTE that the linking verb feel requires the adjective well to mean
‘to be satisfactory’ and ‘well-dressed’: She feels well in that suit.

Exercises

4.1. Name adverbs that semantically correspond to the following adjectives.


1) (with –ly): happy, satisfactory, simple, sad, dangerous, helpless, angry,
different, exact;
2) (without –ly): lovely, likely, orderly, friendly, daily, monthly;
3) (without –ly): fast, far, little, much, low, high, straight, early, late, hard,
near, long, well;
4) (with or without –ly): loud, clear, bright, slow, quick, direct, cheap.

4.2. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form (adjective or
adverb) of the word in brackets.
1) The solution seems (clear). 8) The soup tastes very (nice).
2) The student looked (diligent). 9) Please, shut the door (quiet).
3) The driver of the car was hurt 10) He looked at me (angry).
(bad). 11) He looked (angry).
4) John feels (bad). 12) You should drive (careful).
5) The police arrived (quick). 13) Speak (loud) and (clear).
6) Do you feel (nervous) before 14) Drive (slow).
examinations? 15) He walked (slow).
7) Tom cooks very (good).

4.3. Use good or well.


1) We saw a … movie. 4) She made a … pizza for us.
2) Carmen danced very … . 5) Everyone had a … time.
3) Lisa knows how to bake quite … . 6) He is … and will come back to
work soon.
68 Adverbs

4.4. Use good or well correctly.


Ben did not have a (1) … time when he was ill. But the doctor did his job
(2) …, so soon Ben was able to go outside. He went to a (3) … beach to surf.
His (4) … friend Marty went with him. Marty could surf very (5) … . They
ran into the water for a (5) … wave. It was a (6) … day for surfing.
Ben and Marty get along (7) … and always have a (8) … time together.

REVIEW EXERCISES
1. Use the appropriate adjective or adverb.
1) They drove under a (low/lowly) bridge.
2) She has travelled (wide/widely).
3) Make sure you’re here at seven o’clock (sharp/sharply).
4) She loved him (dear/dearly).
5) We’ll be there (short/shortly).
6) I hit him as (hard/hardly) as I could.
7) Hold (tight/tightly)!
8) Feel (free/freely) to ask questions.
9) The boy shouted as (loud/loudly) as he could.
10) We (deep/deeply) regret the move.

2. Translate into English.


1) Moe пальто достаточно теплое.
2) Я тоже буду там.
3) Он очень много читает.
4) Я тоже не видел его.
5) Погода, очевидно, изменится завтра.
6) Раньше я его никогда не видел.
7) Последнее время я там не был.
8) Я еще не читал письмо.
9) Вы когда-нибудь видели его?
10) Он всегда приходит рано.
11) Он всегда здесь в 9 утра.
12) Он только что закончил читать.
13) Я всегда могу доказать это.
14) Он может идти еще быстрее.
15) Я не вполне хорошо себя чувствую.
16) Говорите громко и ясно.
Adverbs 69

17) Он бежал очень быстро.


18) Ярко светит солнце.
19) Он дешево купил часы.
20) Ты не сдашь экзамен, если не будешь достаточно усердно работать.
21) Я тоже тебя люблю.
22) Летом ярко светит солнце.
23) Я тоже не читала эту книгу.
24) Последнее время я очень устаю.
25) Он всегда пьет чай с молоком.
26) Он только что закончил переводить.
27) Я всегда могу помочь ему.
28) Он все еще работает.
29) Она все еще любит его.

PROGRESS TEST

Unit 1
Translate into English.
1) Его рот был широко открыт.
2) Это очень подозрительно.
3) Он пришел поздно.
4) Он едва мог двигаться.
5) Они подошли близко, чтобы лучше его слышать.

Unit 2
1. Put the adverbs in their usual position.
6) (usually) I go to the café.
7) (finally) They have caught the cat.
8) (often) We eat seafood.
9) (generally) This kind of work is well-paid.
10) (probably) He isn’t coming.
11) (never) He tells a lie.
12) (hardly) There is a space here.
13) (very much) I don’t like the book.
14) (seldom) We go there.
15) (always) She stays in bed on Sunday morning.
16) (loudly) Two girls were talking.
70 Adverbs

17) (enough) She thinks he is not good for her.


18) (lately) She has spent a lot of money.
19) (sometimes) I can see what he’s doing.
20) (last year) We had a marvelous holiday in France.
21) (never) I have been there.
22) (soon) I’ll come back.
23) (just) I have done the exercise.
24) (certainly) The money was on the table this morning.
25) (finally) The work is over.
26) (still) She takes a teddy bear to bed with her.
27) (anymore) She doesn’t drive a car.
28) (tomorrow, slightly, here) It will rain.
29) (still) I haven’t talked to him.
30) (easily) We climbed the hill.

2. Translate into English placing the adverbs in their right place.


31) Он, конечно же, хочет продвижения.
32) Вы видели в последнее время какие-нибудь хорошие фильмы?
33) Раньше он всегда навещал ее в день ее рождения.
34) Она сразу же посоветовалась со своим мужем.
35) Он кажется достаточно простым.
36) Она естественно разговаривала с ними.
37) Мальчик завтра приезжает.
38) Он тихонько прошептал ей на ухо: «Я люблю тебя».
39) Он жадно ел еду.
40) Они терпеливо ждали.
41) Письмо уже прибыло?
42) Возможно, Дэйвид там будет.
43) Вы часто сюда приходите?
44) Они громко разговаривали.
45) Вы хорошо танцуете.
Unit 3
1. Complete each sentence by writing the correct comparison form of the
adverb in brackets.
46) I like this colour (well) than that one.
47) She should listen to English (frequently) than you do.
Adverbs 71

48) Which of these cars runs (fast)?


49) The dinner was (delicious).
50) I smoke (much) than I used to.
51) In my new glasses I can see (clearly) than in my old ones.
52) You should get up (early) than you do.
53) It’s becoming (hard) and (hard) to find a job.
54) Anything you can do, I can do (well).
55) Jane worked (hard) of all the girls.
56) Your English is getting (well) and (well).
57) He told the story (interestingly) than you did.
58) Tomorrow I will get up (early) than today.
59) He learns (slowly) than I do.
60) I come home (late) [‘позже всего’] on Mondays.
2. Translate into English.
61) В этом году меньшее количество магазинов оставались открытыми по
вечерам, чем в прошлом.
62) Давайте будем использовать как можно меньше электричества.
63) Из трех книг мне больше всех нравится эта.
64) Здесь меньше дров, чем там.
65) Они слушали преподавателя крайне внимательно.
66) Лучше всего я говорю по-русски.
67) Он думал о ней все реже и реже.
68) Петр пришел домой позже всех.
69) Я лучше всего работаю утром.
70) Дешевле всего вы можете купить у нас.

Unit 4
1. Name adverbs that semantically correspond to the following adjectives:
71) lovely 74) long 77) little 79) far
72) eager 75) elderly 78) late 80) near
73) slow 76) hard
2. Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct word in brackets.
81) He lives quite (near/nearly)
82) The plane flew very (high/highly)
83) The sun shines (bright/brightly)
84) I can (hard/hardly) understand you.
72 Adverbs

85) This rose smells (sweet/sweetly).


86) He waited (long/longly)
87) They slept (late/lately)
88) She said it (soft/softly)
89) The soup tastes (nice/nicely).
90) Go (straight/straightly) down the street.
91) He speaks very (fast/fastly)
92) Keep (quiet/quietly)!
93) You look (nice/nicely) today!
94) I am (good/well) today and you?
95) She played the piano (good/well).

Review exercise
Translate into English.
96) Мы сейчас почти у дома.
97) Этим утром нам надо уйти рано.
98) Я давно потерял этот словарь.
99) Я не вполне хорошо себя чувствую.
100) Он дешево купил пальто.

100/ ______
Chapter 4
PRONOUNS

ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
Indicate whether the sentence is correct, or it contains an error in pronoun
reference.
1) Julia observed the moon through the telescope until it was covered with
clouds.
2) Al is interested in stamp collecting, so he wants to learn all he can about
them.
3) It was so hot and humid that all we could think about was home, an air-
conditioner, and a tall glass of lemonade.
4) If a person chooses to room alone on the cruise, you will have to pay an
additional fee.
5) I could not pull from my memory the name of the man hurrying across the
lobby of the bank toward me, which had never let me down.
Unit 2
Choose the correct word in brackets.
6) Ms Lee wrote a note on my test paper. (She, her) wanted to talk to (I, me)
after class.
7) Nick ate dinner with (I, me).
8) Nick ate dinner with Betsy and (I, me).
9) (I, me) had dinner with Nick last night.
10) Betsy and (I, me) had dinner with Nick last night.
11) Tom ate dinner with (we, us).
12) Tom ate dinner with the Robertsons and (we, us).
13) My brother drove Emily and (I, me) to the store. He didn’t come in. He
waited for (we, us) in the car. (We, us) hurried.
14) "I want to get tickets to the races." – "You’d better get (it, them) right
away."
15) Alex bought a ticket to the soccer game. He put (it, them) in his pocket and
forgot about (it, them). The next day, he put his shirt in the wash. The ticket
came out of the washing machine and dryer crumpled and nearly illegible.
But when Alex took (it, them) to the game, the ticket collector accepted (it,
them) and let Alex in.
16) Please take these food scraps and give (it, them) to the dog.
74 Pronouns

17) I talked to Jennifer and Mike. I told (they, them) about a birthday party for
Lizzy. (They, them) won’t tell (she, her) about (it, them). (She, her) is really
going to be surprised.
18) Ted invited (I, me) to go to the game with (he, him).
19) Ted invited Adam and (I, me) to the game with Tina and (he, him).
20) Between you and (I, me), I think Brian’s marriage is in trouble. Brian and (I,
me) see things differently.
Unit 3
Use the correct demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those to fill in
the gaps.
21) This costs more than … .
22) Who’s … over there?
23) Hello. … is Elisabeth.
24) Look at … ear-rings! Harry gave them to me.
25) All the time I was in … country I hated it.
26) Listen to … . I’m sure you’ll like it.
27) … was nice. What was it?
28) “Anything else?”– “No, … is all, thanks.”
29) Put ... down – they are dirty.
30) Children today are brighter than … brought up in the days before non-stop
television.
Unit 4
Fill in the gaps using absolute possessive pronouns, e.g. mine, yours, his,
hers, ours, theirs.
31) It belongs to me, it's ... . 36) It belongs to my mother, it's ...
32) It belongs to my father, it's ... . .
33) It belongs to her, it's ... . 37) It belongs to him, it's ... .
34) It belongs to Mr and Mrs Smith, it's ... 38) It belongs to you, it's ... .
. 39) It belongs to us, it's ... .
35) It belongs to me and my wife, it's ... . 40) It belongs to them, it's ... .

Unit 5
Choose a personal pronoun, e.g. he, she, etc., or a reflexive pronoun, e.g.
himself, herself, etc., to complete the sentences.
41) She had cut … so seriously that she had to be rushed to hospital.
42) I could hear someone walking along behind … .
43) He was tired out but he forced … to go on.
44) She realized that the car in front of … had stopped suddenly.
45) They built … a garage behind the house.
Pronouns 75

46) Put it down in front of … .


47) If you’ve got a sleeping bag bring it with … .
48) If you want to do a job right, do it … .
49) On Sunday mornings the children were left to take care of … .
50) I was ashamed of … .
51) You should have your notes in front of … .
52) The kitten tried to bite me but bit … by mistake.

Unit 6
Find and correct a mistake in each sentence.
53) We stopped talking and looked at ourselves.
54) The twins dislike themselves.
55) The boys wore each others' coats.
56) They have forgotten one anothers' names.
57) My mother and I give ourselves a hard time.
58) The scientists in this lab often use one another equipment.
59) They gave books each other.
60) They met each other in 1994.
61) They sat for two hours without talking each other.
62) They married each other in 1991.

Unit 7
Complete the sentences using who, whose, whom, what, which.
63) … is this? – It’s hers. 68) … is that red car?
64) … did she write to? 69) … is she? – She’s a journalist.
65) With … did you go? 70) … is the present for?
66) … is your coat? – Mine is blue. 71) … will help me?
67) … said that?

Unit 8
Fill in the gaps in the following sentences by using either what or which.
72) He didn’t believe … I said … annoyed me very much.
73) In detective stories a murderer is always caught, … doesn’t happen in real
life.
74) He wasn’t surprised at … he saw because I told him … to expect.
75) I did … I could … wasn’t much.
76) The clock struck thirteen, … made everyone laugh.
77) I am sure that … you say is true.
78) I poured him a glass of wine, ... he drank at once.
79) When the mechanic opened the bonnet he saw at once … was wrong with
the car.
76 Pronouns

80) I didn’t buy anything because I didn’t see … I wanted.


81) He was very rude to a customs officer … of course made the things worse.
82) Tell me … you want me to do.
83) She was once bitten by a monkey … made her dislike monkeys for the rest
of her life.

Unit 9
Complete the following sentences with other, others, the other, another.
84) Only two of us are here. … students have already left.
85) I’ve got two sisters. One of them is a nurse, … is still a student.
86) Her two sons were playing in the garden. Ann turned her eyes from one to
….
87) There was … pause.
88) This hat is too small for me. Can you give me … one, a size bigger?
89) Alec whispered something from … side of the table.
90) Some people like spring, … prefer summer.
91) She went to the kitchen and came back with … cup of tea.
92) I’ve brought two of the books you gave me. I’ll bring … books next Friday.
93) I’m not doing any English, I’m busy with … thing now.
94) Three parachutes opened one after … .
95) He entered the room and saw Mike and Martha sitting on the sofa. He
looked first at one, then at … .
96) He wanted to get to … side of the river.
97) I like Agatha Christie. I’ve just finished one of her books and I’m going to
start … one.
98) I broke my mother's vase this morning. Hopefully I can get ... before she
notices.
99) After adding the rice, heat the soup for … 20 minutes.
100) If you look across the lake, you can see Donald’s house on … side.

100/______

Translate the sentences.


1) Он сын моего старого друга.
2) Я встретил ее вчера на улице.
3) Ей самой захотелось сделать что-нибудь особенное перед приездом
родителей.
4) "Вы боитесь темноты или собак?" – "Я не боюсь ни того, ни другого".
5) Ты всегда разговариваешь сама с собой, когда волнуешься.
6) Вчера они взяли наши журналы и оставили нам свои.
7) Оба моих родителя работают в сфере образования.
Pronouns 77

8) Я представил им ее.
9) Ты когда-нибудь разговаривал с соседом, который живёт напротив?
10) В следующий момент ничего не было сказано, а затем Майкл и
Мартин неожиданно улыбнулись друг другу.
11) "Бабушка, мы все здесь", - сказала Люси очень тихо.
12) Ни один корреспондент не писал об этом.
13) В те первые августовские дни у меня было мало дел на работе.
14) Этот хлеб не такой свежий, как тот, что купили вы.
15) Я повернулся к нему лицом. Он был выше меня.
16) Я бы хотела купить эти туфли, хотя они и дороже, чем мои.
17) Мы больше никогда не слышали об этом странном замужестве Элизы.
18) Посмотри на эту птицу. Она всегда прилетает к этому окну.
19) Либо я, либо мой брат проводим тебя домой.
20) Когда все закончили кушать, официанты убрали тарелки.
21) Я порезался, бреясь сегодня утром.
22) Если кто-нибудь из мальчишек позвонит, скажи, что я буду дома к
семи часам.
23) Вы не правы. Он перевёл эту статью самостоятельно.
24) Кто-нибудь видел это собственными глазами? – Никто, кроме меня.
25) Каждая девушка носит то, что ей больше нравится.

UNIT 1 MEANING, USE AND CLASSIFICATION

1. The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and their
qualities without naming them. A pronoun usually refers to something
earlier in the text (its antecedent): When Sarah was fixing the car, she cut
her hand. (Sarah is a noun. She is a pronoun that refers to the
antecedent, Sarah.)
2. A pronoun REFERS BACK to a noun or TAKES THE PLACE OF
that noun, that is why special attention should be paid to the use of the
correct pronoun so that the reader clearly understands which noun our
pronoun is referring to.
Pronouns should:
 refer clearly to a specific noun.
Not: Although the motorcycle hit the tree, it was not damaged. (Is "it" the
motorcycle or the tree?)
78 Pronouns

Not: Vacation is coming soon, which is nice. (What is nice, the vacation or
the fact that it is coming soon?)
Not: If you put this sheet in your notebook, you can refer to it. (What does "it"
refer to, the sheet or your notebook?)
 agree in number;
If the pronoun takes the place of a singular noun, we use a singular
pronoun: If a student parks a car on campus, he has to buy a parking sticker.
(Not: If a student parks a car on campus, they have to buy a parking sticker.)
 agree in person;
If we are writing in the "third person" (he, she, it, they), we mustn’t
switch to the "second person" (you) or "first person" (I): When a person
comes to class, he should have his homework ready. (Not: When a person
comes to class, you should have your homework ready.)
3. Pronouns can be divided into the following groups: personal,
demonstrative, possessive, reflexive, reciprocal, interrogative,
relative, defining, indefinite, and negative.

Exercises

1.1. Mark whether each sentence is correct or contains an error in pronoun


use.
1) Originally fairy tales did not always end "happily ever after"; rather, they
were often extremely violent.
2) In the original version of "Cinderella," for example, after the marriage
between she and the prince, Cinderella has her step-sisters placed in spiked
coffins and dragged around the city behind the wedding procession.
3) Similarly, in the authentic version of "Little Red Riding Hood" at the end of
the story, the wolf attacks and kills the little girl whom was visiting her
grandmother.
4) Both her and her grandmother lose their lives.
5) Some nineteenth-century artists were offended by this violence and refused
to illustrate the tale; thus, it was them, not the publisher, who believed that a
story for children should have a happier ending.
6) One illustrator, to whom modern versions of the tale are indebted, changed
the ending by introducing a woodcutter whose appearance saved Red
Riding Hood – and the tale.
Pronouns 79

UNIT 2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS

1. The personal pronouns are: I, he, she, it, we, you, they. The
personal pronouns have the categories of person, case, number, and
gender (the 3rd person singular).
The personal pronouns in the nominative case are used as the
subject in the sentence and are called subject pronouns (I, you, he,
she, it, we, they): We are going there later. .
2. The personal pronouns in the objective case can be used as the
direct or indirect object of a verb. They are called object pronouns (me,
you, him, her, it, us, them): John showed him the book. Did you give it to
them?
Object pronouns are used rather than subject pronouns after the
verb be: Who is it?’ – ‘It’s me’.
3. It can be used as an impersonal subject in general statements that
refer to the time, the date, or the weather: ‘What time is it?’ – ‘It is half
past three.’ It is January 19th. It is rainy and cold today.
It refers to a person when we are identifying him or her: ‘Is that our
waiter?’ – ‘No, it isn’t.’ (Not ‘No, he isn’t.’)

Exercises
2.1. Use personal pronouns instead of the italic nouns.
1) Jane asked her brother to open the window. – She asked him to open it.
2) Mother will send John to buy the tickets.
3) The man gave the book to the girl.
4) My friend is going to write a letter to his sister today.
5) This book is not suitable for young children.
6) Helen worked hard at history.
7) Jim wanted to visit his grandparents.
8) Diana never drinks milk.
9) The stewardess brought some magazines to my friend.
10) The teacher is helping the students to translate the article.

2.2. Finish the sentences. Use I, we, us, you, he, me, him, her, they,
them.
1) I want to see him but he doesn’t want to see me.
2) They want to see me but … don’t want to see … .
3) We want to see them but … don’t want to see … .
80 Pronouns

4) She wants to see him but … doesn’t want to see … .


5) They want to see her but … doesn’t want to see … .
6) I want to see them but … don’t want to see … .
7) He wants to see us but … don’t want to see … .
2.3. Fill in the gaps using object pronouns.
1) Take this book and read it at home.
2) These photographs are nice. Do you want to look at … .
3) My sister knows German well. I often do my homework with … .
4) I don’t know … . What is his name?
5) They want the money. Give … to … .
6) We’re going out. You can come with … .
7) I like that camera. I’m going to buy … .
8) These are very good exercises. Do … at home.
9) This engineer works with … . I know … quite well.
10) She wants the keys. Please give … to ….

2.4. Add personal pronouns to complete the story and make your own story by
analogy.
The other day I was shopping. A woman stopped me and asked the way to
the post-office. (1) … gave her directions and (2) … thanked (3) … politely,
then ran off quickly in the opposite direction. (4)… put my hand in my pocket
and found that my wallet was missing. (5)… must have taken (6)… while (7)…
were talking. (8)… shouted and ran after (9)… but (10)… was no good. (11)…
disappeared in the crowd.
2.5. Translate the sentences into English.
1) У Майкла новый велосипед. Он купил его вчера.
2) Катя – моя подруга. Я знаю её очень хорошо.
3) Аня встретила Эрика и меня в музее.
4) Эрик и я – хорошие друзья.
5) Студенты уже в классе. Они пишут тест. Он очень сложный.
6) Диана никогда не пьёт молоко. Она его не любит.
7) Где моя газета? – Да ты же сидишь на ней.
8) Мы идём в кино. Не хочешь пойти с нами?
9) Мне нужны те книги. Дай мне их, пожалуйста.
10) Дети, где вы?
11) Он показал картину ей, а не мне.
12) Я совершенно с ним согласен.
13) «Кто там?» – «Это Джон Блейк.»
Pronouns 81

14) Ничего не случилось, не правда ли?


15) Говорят, она опять вышла замуж.
16) Ей очень понравилась эта картина, потому что она напомнила ей о
доме.
17) Все, кроме меня, знают, что случилось.

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Personal Pronouns)
2.1. Each sentence has a mistake. Find it and correct it.
1) Albert took the book and opened her.
2) My father is fat. She weighs over 90 kilos.
3) ‘Who is that over there?’ ‘He is John Cook.’
4) Mary is reach, isn’t he?
5) We’re going for a drink. Would you like to come with her?
6) Dad said Dad didn’t mind.
7) Why don’t I and you go away for the weekend?
8) Anne loved the picture because she reminded her of home.
9) He is a horrible place, London.
10) Can you help they?
11) Is ten miles to the nearest petrol station.
12) Did you give it to they?
13) You say she’s very clever.
14) I spoke to Mr Brown yesterday. I said he’d call me back.
15) Those women, I’ll be glad when I go back home.
16) The ball hit she in the face.

2.2. Here is a story. Make it sound better by putting personal pronouns


instead of nouns where you think necessary.

Sir Isaac Newton’s egg


One of the greatest Englishmen who ever lived was Sir Isaac Newton. No
man of that time, or of almost any other time had greater or wiser mind than
Newton had, but Newton was very absent-minded about small matters when
Newton was thinking about his work. One morning Newton got up very early
because Newton was working on a very difficult problem. Newton was thinking
about the problem so deeply that Newton would not leave the problem to go to
breakfast. But his housekeeper thought Newton needed food so the housekeeper
sent Mary, a servant, to his study with a pan of water and an egg. The
housekeeper told the servant to boil the egg and stay with Newton until Newton
ate the egg. But Newton wanted to be alone, and Newton said, «Mary can leave
the egg with Newton, and Newton will boil the egg.» The servant put the egg
82 Pronouns

on the table by the side of Newton’s watch and the servant said, «Sir Isaac
Newton must boil the egg for four minutes and then the egg will be ready», then
the servant left the room. The servant was afraid, however, that Newton might
forget to boil the egg, so Mary returned about an hour later and found Newton
standing by the fireplace. Newton had put the watch in the saucepan and was
boiling the watch. Newton was holding the egg in his hand, quite unaware of
the mistake that Newton was making.

2.3. Translate the sentences into English.


1) Я представил ее им.
2) Она сказала ему правду.
3) Нам нравится эта книга, потому что она очень интересная и
познавательная.
4) Эта женщина – наша соседка. Я знаю ее очень хорошо.
5) Я бы хотел поиграть с ними в волейбол.
6) Пойдем со мной в театр.
7) Я сделал все, что мог, но этого было недостаточно.
8) Все в порядке, не так ли?
9) Говорят, он хороший юрист.
10) Дождь шел три дня.
11) «Кто там?» – «Это я».
12) Лекция очень интересная. Не пропусти ее.
13) Покажи нам свой новый велосипед, пожалуйста. – Вот он.
14) Я и Эрик хорошие друзья.
15) Когда вы едете, всегда набрасывайте ремень безопасности.
16) На столе грязная посуда. Вымой ее.

UNIT 3 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

1. The demonstrative pronouns are: this, that, such, (the) same.


The pronouns this and that have two numbers:
singular: this, that;
plural: these, those.
2. The demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those are used:
 to point to physical objects (this and these refer to things close to the
speaker, that and those refer to things which are more distant from
the speaker, or not present.): This is a list of rules. Get that cat off the
Pronouns 83

piano. ‘I brought you these,’ Adam held out a bag of grapes. All the time I
was in that country I hated it.
 to identify or introduce people, or asking who they are: Who’s this?
These are my children. Was that Patrick on the phone?
 to refer to things that have already been mentioned or are going to be
mentioned: That was an interesting word to use it just now. This is what I
want to say: it wasn’t my idea
3. They say this one, that one, these ones and those ones: I like
this one better. We’ll have those ones, thank you.
Which one or Which ones are used in questions: ‘Which one do you
prefer?’ Which ones were damaged?’
4. The pronoun such is often used with a noun: such + (adjective)
noun. Note that the indefinite article a/an is used after such: It is such
an interesting book!
Such is not generally used demonstratively to refer to things in the
present situations: Where can I get trousers like those? (Not: … such
trousers?)

Exercises
3.1. Make the plural phrases singular and the singular phrases plural.
1) This door – these doors.
2) These boys. 7) This new bicycle. 12) This new book.
3) That house. 8) Those black hens. 13) These bright red flowers.
4) Those boys. 9) That open 14) That small yellow
5) This red apple. window. orange.
6) Those blue flowers. 10) These stupid boys. 15) That clever boy.
11) That large animal.
3.2. Put a demonstrative pronoun in each of the blank spaces.
1) I like these flowers.
2) I like … flower.
3) … stars are 5000 light years from the Earth.
4) … star is called the North star.
5) Have you read … book which I am reading?
6) Do you like … shoes that I am wearing?
7) Will you give me … pen?
8) … boys on the back seat are not working as hard as … boys on the front
seat.
84 Pronouns

9) I bought … apples from … shop in the High Street.


10) … exercises that we are doing on … page are more difficult than …
exercises that we did on page two.
3.3. Substitute that or those for the repeated nouns
1) Trollope’s novels are more entertaining than Dickens’ novels. – Trollope’s
novels are more entertaining than those of Dickens.
2) Ann’s eyes met the eyes of Grandma.
3) Their poetry was not the poetry of Milton and Byron and Tennyson.
4) The trees in our garden are taller than the trees in the park.
5) But the train seemed to run twice as fast now, and its sound was almost lost
in the sound of John’s sighing.
6) Most people would consider such a marriage as the marriage of Soames and
Irene quite fairly successful.
7) His eyes were melancholy as the eyes of a monkey.
8) His son saw him gravely hanging up his coat, with an expression on his face
like the expression of a boy who intends to steal cherries.
9) The climate in Moscow is better than the climate in St. Petersburg.
10) ‘Oh!’ she said and the disappointment in her voice was the disappointment
of a child who opens a beautifully wrapped package to find it empty.
3.4. Use one or ones instead of the nouns in italics.
1) I think this department store is bigger than that department store. – I think
this department store is bigger than that one.
2) These shoes are less comfortable than those shoes.
3) My watch isn’t working well. I’d like to buy a new watch.
4) I’ve got a pair of black gloves but I have to buy brown gloves to match my
new shoes.
5) I think my watch is ten minutes slow. What’s the time by your watch?
6) These cups are dirty. Can we have some clean cups?
7) That biscuit was nice. That’s why I’m going to have another biscuit.
8) Which car is yours? This car or that car?
9) Is there a bank near here? – Yes, there’s a bank at the end of this street.
10) I want today’s newspaper. This is an old newspaper.
3.5. Answer these questions using one or ones.
1) How many cars are there? – Five. Three big ones and two small ones.
2) What colour are they? – There are three white … and two black … .
3) How many small cars are there? – Two. A black … and a white … .
4) How many big cars are there? – Three. Two white … and a black … .
5) Where is the small white car? – Between the small black … and the big … .
Pronouns 85

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Demonstrative Pronouns)

3.1. Choose the correct variant to fill in the gaps.


1) … costs more than that.
a)These; b) Those; c) This
2) Tell … men to go away.
a) those; b) that; c) this
3) A dog’s intelligence is much greater than … of a cat.
a) this; b) these; c) that
4) ‘I’d like to try on those shoes.’ – ‘Which …?’
a) one; b) ones; c) is
5) There are various ways of composing secret messages. … systems are
called ‘codes’.
a) such a; b) that; c) such
6) … are the Smiths.
a) This; b) That; c) These
7) She’s … baby.
a) so; b) such; c) such a
8) … are going to widen the road soon.
a) Ones; b) They; c) These
9) Look over there! Would you like to have …?
a) a car like that; b) such car; c) such a car
10) Are … the skates he bought last week?
a) those; b) this; c) these
11) … is your Beatles record.
a) These; b) Those; c) This
12) Why did you have … bad day?
a) such a; b) so; c) very
13) Do you like … ear-rings? Bob gave them to me.
a) those; b) these; c) that
14) Get … cat off the piano.
a) this; b) such; c) that
15) Get … cat off my shoulder.
a) this; b) that; c) such
16) Listen to … . You’ll like it.
a) that; b) this; c) those.

3.2. Translate the sentences.


1) В данный момент я занят.
86 Pronouns

2) Я собираюсь зайти к нему в пять часов. Я надеюсь, он будет дома в это


время.
3) Посмотри на маленький дом с зеленой крышей на том берегу реки. Я
родился в этом доме.
4) Это мой словарь, а этот – ваш.
5) Это очень важно. Ты не должен больше ее видеть.
6) Эта контрольная легче, чем та, которую мы писали на прошлой неделе.
7) Ты купил черные карандаши, а я – красные.
8) Никогда не знаешь, что этот ребенок может сделать.
9) Эти цифры можно найти в любом справочнике по данному вопросу.
10) Теперь можно разговаривать по телефону на любом расстоянии.
11) Если у вас нет словаря, вы можете взять словарь в библиотеке.
12) Я предпочитаю холодную погоду жаркой.
13) Мой брат прислал мне несколько английских книг и несколько
немецких.
14) Я потерял свои часы, и мне пришлось купить новые.
15) Это такие интересные книги!
16) Я был в Сочи в 1999 году. То лето было очень жаркое.

3.3. Use the information in the box to complete these conversations. Role-play
the similar dialogues.
the hat is black, the girl is tall with long hair, the hotel is near the station, the
house has got a red door, I took the photos on the beach last week, the car is
opposite the bank, the pen is red, the husband is in jeans, the pictures are on the
wall, the books are on the top shelf, the flowers are yellow, the shoes are green,
the man has got a moustache and glasses, the sweater is red, the young lady is
in black, the coat is grey

1.A: We stayed at a hotel. 5.A: Are those your books?


B: Which one? B: ……………………?
A: The one near the station. A: …………………….
2.A: Those shoes are nice. 6.A: Do you know that young lady?
B: ……………………? B: ……………………?
A: ……………………. A: …………………….
3.A: That’s a nice house. 7.A: Those flowers are beautiful.
B: ……………………? B: ……………………?
A: ……………………. A: …………………….
4.A: I like that hat. 8.A: Who’s that man?
B: ……………………? B: …………………….
A: ……………………. A: …………………….
Pronouns 87

9.A: I like those pictures. 13.A: Have you seen my photographs?


B: ……………………? B: ……………………?
A: ……………………. A: …………………….
10.A: Look at the car. 14.A: I’d like to buy a sweater.
B: ……………………? B: ……………………… ?
A: …………………… . A: …………………….. .
11. A: Can you give me the 15.A: Look at the girl standing by the
pen? window.
B: ………………………. ? B: ……………………….. ?
A: ……………………… . A: ……………………….. .
12. A: It’s my husband. 16.A: That is my coat.
B: ………………………. ? B: ……………………….. ?
A: …………………….. . A: …………………………. .

UNIT 4 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

1. Possessive pronouns have the same categories of person,


number, and gender as personal pronouns. Possessive pronouns have
two forms: proper and absolute:
possessive proper pronouns: my, your, his, her, its, our, their;
possessive absolute pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers ,ours,
theirs.

2. Possessive proper pronouns my, our, your, her, his, their are
followed by a noun: My hands are cold. Ann gave me her umbrella.
Possessive absolute pronouns mine, ours, yours, hers, his, theirs, its
are used without a noun: It’s her problem, not ours. It’s a nice camera. Is it
his?
They say: ‘a friend of mine’, ‘that house of theirs’, etc.; A friend of mine
is coming to see us.
‘He is my friend’ may give the idea that the speaker has only one friend.
A speaker would normally say ‘He is one of my friends or He is a friend of
mine.’

3. After a possessive proper pronoun, they may add own for


emphasis: His own answer may be unacceptable.
88 Pronouns

On my own = alone: I like living on my own (without company).


On my own = by myself: Don’t help him. Let him do it on his own (without
help).
4. Numbers and adjectives are used after a possessive proper
pronoun and in front of the noun: Their two small children were playing
outside.
All and both are used before possessive pronouns: All my pencils
are in that box. Both my brothers live in London.
With personal pronouns all of + object form is used: all of us/ you/
them: All of us can come tomorrow. (Not: All we …). She’s invited all of you.

Exercises
4.1. Complete these sentences appropriately by adding possessive pronouns
with or without own.
1) I left my car in the garage.
2) You must make up … mind.
3) Mary hung … coat on the peg.
4) The children had to cook … supper.
5) Jack had … hair cut.
6) Bill borrowed Jenny’s car. … car was being repaired.
7) I hope you enjoy … holiday.
8) I’ll bring … towels.
9) We’ll invite you round … house sometime.
10) Every dog had … special basket to sleep in.
11) The company has offices in many countries but … head office is in New
York.
12) You should do … washing up.
13) I see that he has lost … pencil; perhaps you can lend him … .
14) Those seats are not …, they are … .
15) Does your father like … job?
16) Sally is married. … husband works in a bank.
17) We’re staying in a very good hotel. … room is very comfortable.
18) They’ve got two children but I don’t remember … names.
19) I’ve eaten all … sandwiches, can I have one of …?
20) Richard has a dog and so do I. … dog and … had a fight.
21) We are going to Paris to stay with a friend of … .
Pronouns 89

4.2. Replace the words in italics by possessive pronouns.


1) The mother told the mother’s little girl a story. – The mother told her little
girl a story.
2) Tom rode Tom’s bicycle to school.
3) The little bird built the little bird’s nest in the tree.
4) Susan made a dress for Susan’s doll.
5) The teacher told Richard to bring Richard’s book to the desk.
6) Mr and Mrs Robinson have just come into Mr and Mrs Robinson’s house.
7) We have sold the motor-car that belonged to us.
8) The dog is in the basket that is the dog’s.
9) I want the book that belongs to me, not the book that belongs to you.

4.3. Make a correct choice.


1) Bob is one of (our, us, ours) best pupils.
2) It isn’t (my, mine) bag. I left (my, mine) at home.
3) Whose book is this? It’s (my, mine, me).
4) Is this Mary’s pen? No, it is (me, mine, my).
5) (You, your, yours) house is not far from (our, ours, us).
6) Whose cigarettes are these? They may be (our, ours) cigarettes.
7) (Our, ours) car is faster than (their, theirs).
8) A friend of (you, yours, your) came to see (we, us, ours).
9) You can do it without (mine, my, me) help but not without (they, their,
theirs).
10) He couldn’t lend me the dictionary because it wasn’t (he, him, his).
11) She is writing a letter to a friend of (her, hers, she).
12) This suitcase isn’t (us, our, ours).
13) This isn’t (my, mine, me) car. (My, mine, me) is a 1980 model.
14) Could you help me sort out these things? I cannot say which are (you, your,
yours) and which are (we, our, ours).
15) (Your, you, yours) ticket is on the table and where is (her, she, hers)?
16) Who told you about it? – A friend of (you, your, yours).
17) Paula had to drive (my, mine) car to work. (Her, hers) had a flat tyre.
18) Julia fell off (her, hers, him) bicycle and broke (him, hers, her) arm.

4.4. Make sentences with a friend of/ friends of.


You have a friend in Chicago. You wrote a letter to this person.
– I wrote a letter to a friend of mine in Chicago.
1) He/she has a friend in a city. He/she wrote a letter to this person.
2) You have a good friend in a city. You wrote a letter to this person.
3) Kate and Jill have friends in London. They visited them.
4) You have a good friend. You want to introduce me to this person.
90 Pronouns

5) You and I have a mutual friend. We ran into this person in the High Street.
6) You have a good friend. You met this person.
7) You have a friend. You invited this person to spend the weekend with your
family.
8) Julia and David have some friends. They usually have dinner with these
people.

4.5. Complete the sentences using my own/your own, etc.


1) I don’t want to share a room. I want to have my own room.
2) Why do you want to borrow my car? Why can’t you use … .
3) I don’t watch television with the rest of my family. I have … TV-set in my
bedroom.
4) Jack and Bill are fed up with working for other people. They want to start
… business.
5) Don’t blame me. It’s not my fault. It’s … .
6) Henry is extremely rich. He has … private jet.
7) Why do you want my pen? Can’t you use … .
8) My grandpa doesn’t buy ready-made cigarettes. He rolls … ones.

4.6. Fill in the gaps translating the pronouns.


1) (Их) family is not very large. – Their family is not very large.
2) Is this (ваша) book? – Yes, it’s (моя).
3) (Его) brother is younger than (мой).
4) These are (ее) problems.
5) (Все) (that) we need is love.
6) Where’s (ваш) teacher?
7) (Он) hasn’t got a camera.
8) Why can’t you give (ему) your pen?
9) The T-shirt isn’t (ее).
10) I don’t have (мою собственную) room.
11) I don’t like to play cards with John because (он) always wins.
12) I’ll go to the pictures with (тобой).
13) This girl lives in our house. I know (ее) quite well.
14) Show (ему) your new picture.
15) (Оба) my parents live in the country now.
16) (Все) I want is a home somewhere.
17) (Все мы) can do that.
Pronouns 91

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Possessive pronouns)
4.1. Make new sentences using a friend of mine, etc.
1) I’m writing to one of my friends.
2) We met one of our relatives.
3) Henry borrowed one of my books.
4) We had dinner with one of our neighbours.
5) Tom invited one of his friends to his flat.
6) Ann is in love with one of her colleagues.
7) They went on holiday with two of their friends.
8) Jack had an argument with his parents.
9) One of her daughters is going to get married next week.
10) My partner has gone on business.
11) That policeman is our friend.
12) I met another Lucy’s boyfriend.
13) He’s the Queen’s cousin.
14) He watched her each gesture as if she was a stranger.
15) I saw my old friend yesterday.
16) She’s been my teacher for the past three years.
4.2. In the following story put possessive pronouns in the blank spaces and in
place of the words in italics. Retell the story.
Dr Swift and the Boy
A wealthy old lady who lived near Dr Swift used to send him presents
occasionally by (1) … servant. Dr Swift took (2) the lady’s presents but never
gave the boy anything for (3) … trouble. One day as Swift was busy with (4) …
writing, the boy rushed into (5) Swift’s room, knocked some books out of the
(6) books’ place, threw (7) … parcel on the desk and said, «(8) … mistress has
sent you two of (9) … rabbits.»
Swift turned round and said, «(10) … boy, that is not the way to deliver (11)
… parcel. Now, you sit in (12) … armchair, watch (13) … way of doing it and
learn (14)… lesson.»
The boy sat down. Swift went out, knocked on (15) Swift’s door and waited.
The boy said, «Come in.» The doctor entered, walked to (16) … desk and said,
«If you please sir, (17) … mistress sends (18) … kind regards and hopes you
will accept these rabbits which (19) … son shot this morning in (20) … fields.»
The boy answered, «Thank you, (21) … boy. Give (22) … mistress and (23)
… son (24) Dr Swift’s thanks for (25) … kindness and here is two shillings for
yourself.» The Doctor laughed, and after that, Swift never forgot to give the boy
(26) … tip.
92 Pronouns

4.3. Translate the sentences into English.


1) Его комнату так же тяжело убрать, как и твою.
2) Я стараюсь заботиться о своём здоровье.
3) Я вижу, что у вас нет своего собственного словаря. Я хочу дать вам
свой.
4) Этот чемодан слишком тяжёл для меня, чтобы нести его самой.
5) Она очень любит рассказывать о своих детях.
6) Он отдал деньги своей жене, а она положила их в свою сумку.
7) Я не люблю клубнику со сливками. Они мне нравятся по отдельности.
8) Джек сел прямо и вытянул ноги.
9) Сэм и Джейн очень преданы своему другу.
10) Его взгляд встретился с моим.
11) Они отдыхали в санатории на берегу Чёрного моря и встретили много
друзей своих родителей.
12) Она отправила детей в ванную, чтобы они вымыли лицо и руки.
13) Сегодня утром мне звонила по телефону одна из моих племянниц.
14) Сегодня я разговаривал с одним из лучших учеников моей тёти.
15) Она одна из моих соседок.
16) Моя подруга вчера порезала палец.

UNIT 5 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

1. Reflexive pronouns end in ~self or ~selves, they may have


singular and plural forms.

Person Singular Plural
1st myself ourselves
2nd yourself yourselves
3rd himself
herself themselves
itself
oneself

2. Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and the object in a
sentence refer to the same person: I saw myself in the mirror. The men
formed themselves in a line.
Pronouns 93

Verbs that describe actions that people do to themselves do not take


reflexive pronouns in English: I usually shave before breakfast. She washed
very quickly and rushed downstairs.
However, reflexives can be used if it is necessary to make it clear who
does the action: The barber shaves all the people in the town who don’t shave
themselves. She’s old enough now to dress herself.
Reflexive pronouns can be used as indirect objects: They were
making fools of themselves. Tell me about yourself.
By + a reflexive pronoun = alone: Greg lives by himself.
By + a reflexive pronoun = without any help from other people: She
was certain she could manage by herself.
Reflexive pronouns can be used for emphasis: I myself have never read
this book. The town itself was so small that it didn’t have a bank.
3. Verbs and phrases commonly followed by a reflexive pronoun.
believe in yourself help yourself take care of yourself
be proud of yourself hurt yourself talk to yourself
blame yourself give yourself smth teach yourself
cut yourself introduce yourself tell yourself
enjoy yourself kill yourself work for yourself
feel sorry for yourself trouble yourself wish yourself (luck)

Exercises
5.1. Complete the sentences with reflexive pronouns.
1) We built most of the houses ourselves.
2) Helen will be very upset. I’ll have to tell her the news … .
3) The chairman announced the news … .
4) The president … appeared on television. She spoke for about ten minutes.
5) The children did most of the work for the school play... .
6) Are you okay, Harry? Did you hurt … ?
7) David was really embarrassed when he had to go to the job interview with a
bandage on his face. He had cut … while he was shaving.
8) Do you ever talk to …? Most people talk to … sometimes.
9) It is important for all of us to have confidence in our own abilities. We need
to believe in … .
10) Sarah is self-employed. She doesn’t have a boss. She works for … .
11) There’s plenty of food on the table. Would all of you please simply help …
to the food?
94 Pronouns

12) Brian, don’t blame … for the accident. It wasn’t your fault. You did
everything you could to avoid it.
13) I couldn’t believe my good luck! I had to pinch … to make sure I wasn’t
dreaming.
14) A newborn puppy can’t make care of … .
15) I know Nicole and Paul have had some bad luck, but it’s time for them to
stop feeling sorry for … and get on with their lives.
16) Jane and I ran into someone she knew. I’d never met this person before. I
waited for Jane to introduce me, but she forgot her manners. I finally
introduced … to Jane’s friend.
17) Did he enjoy … at the party?
18) The dog enjoyed … with the children.
19) One can easily lose … in the wood.

5.2. Complete these sentences with these verbs. Use myself/ yourself, etc.
where necessary.
kill, dry, learn, concentrate, feel, lock, enjoy, look after,
relax, hurt, wash, burn, shave, talk to, meet, blame, cut
1) Tom cut himself while he was shaving this morning.
2) Jack is growing a beard because he doesn’t like ….
3) Be careful! This pan is very hot. Don’t … .
4) I really … well today – much better than yesterday.
5) They couldn’t get back into the house. They had … out.
6) He climbed out of the pool, picked up a towel and … .
7) It isn’t her fault. She really shouldn’t … .
8) I tried to study but I just couldn’t … .
9) What a stupid fool I am! I could … .
10) Jack and I first … at a party five years ago.
11) The boy was lucky when fell down the stairs. He didn’t … .
12) You’re always rushing about. Why don’t you … more?
13) I’m trying to … Spanish but I’m not making much progress.
14) It was a lovely holiday. We really … very much.
15) He spends most of his time alone, so it’s not surprising that he … .
16) I overslept this morning. I didn’t have time to … or have breakfast.
17) Don’t worry about us. We can … .
5.3. Change the sentences using by myself/ by yourself, etc.
1) It looked extremely heavy. I knew I couldn’t lift it on my own. – It looked
extremely heavy. I knew I couldn’t lift it by myself.
2) I went on holiday alone.
3) She hated being in the house on her own.
Pronouns 95

4) John lives in this house alone.


5) If the rest of you can’t help we’ll have to do it on our own.
6) She went to the cinema alone.
7) You can’t expect them to do everything on their own.
8) When I saw him last he was alone.
9) Mother had to go out to work and leave the children in the house on their
own.
10) Don’t go out alone.
11) If there are three of you, you should be able to manage on your own.
12) I had dinner alone today.
13) I hate living on my own.
14) It’s a horror film so children aren’t allowed to see it on their own.
15) John had to walk home on his own.
16) It’s too difficult for me. I can’t do it all on my own.

5.4. Make up sentences with reflexive pronouns.


pinch herself take care of herself feel sorry for myself
wish myself cut himself introduce herself
talk to himself wish yourself believe in myself
hurt myself be proud of yourselves work for themselves
enjoy themselves blame ourselves
When Jenny won the lottery, she pinched herself to make sure she wasn’t
dreaming.
5.5. Complete these sentences using on my own/by myself, etc.
1) Learner drivers are not allowed to drive on their own.
2) I’m glad I live with other people. I wouldn’t like to live on … .
3) The box was too heavy for me to lift it by … .
4) I went over to talk to Tim at the party because he was by … .
5) Very young children should not be allowed to go swimming by … .
6) Hasn’t she got any friends? When I see her, she is always on … .
7) I don’t like strawberries with cream. I like them on … .
8) Do you like working with other people or do you prefer working by … .
9) We had no help decorating the flat. We did it completely on … .

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Reflexive Pronouns)
5.1. Find and correct one mistake in each sentence.
1) I cut me shaving this morning.
2) We got out of the water and dried ourselfes.
3) I’m going to the shops to get my some tennis shoes.
96 Pronouns

4) Talking to himself is the first sign of madness.


5) His letters are all about themselves.
6) I’m going to tell she some facts about herself.
7) I love you for myself, not for your money.
8) It’s quicker if you do it herself.
9) The house oneself is very nice, but the garden’s very small.
10) I like to spend time by me.
11) ’Do they need help?’ – ‘No. They can do it by ourselves.’
12) Do you shave yourself on Sundays?
13) Try to concentrate yourself.
14) I feel myself better today.
15) Hurry yourself!
16) She had to introduce oneself to them.
5.2. Rewrite the following sentences according to the model. Write some
sentences by yourself.
The Chief of police himself made the arrest. – It was the Chief of police
himself who made the arrest.
1) This picture can’t have been painted by Picasso himself. – It can’t have
been Picasso…
2) O. Wilde himself once said: ‘A man cannot be too careful in the choice of
his enemies.’ – It was…
3) It was the headmaster himself who told me about that.
4) The husband himself painted the house.
5) Mary herself solved that problem.
6) The Robinsons themselves printed the card.
7) John himself has never read the book.
8) I myself painted this picture.
9) S. Bach himself composed this fugue.
10) He himself was too weak to do that.
11) You yourself are mature enough for this.
12) This song can’t have been composed by P. McCartney himself.
13) There can be no doubt that E. Hemingway himself wrote this book.
14) The CNN correspondent himself told me the whole truth.
15) Julia herself wrote her examination paper.
16) On Monday the President of the company herself appeared on television.

5.3. Translate into English.


1) Я сам отвечу на это письмо.
2) Он не любит говорить о себе.
3) Я уверена, что она захочет сделать это сама.
Pronouns 97

4) Как вы себя чувствуете?


5) Не брейтесь в темноте. Вы порежетесь.
6) Я оставлю эту книгу для себя.
7) Все были удивлены тем, как он себя вёл.
8) «Будет скандал», – пробормотал Джеймс как будто самому себе.
9) Она себя не понимала.
10) Если ты занят, я могу пойти на вечеринку одна.
11) Вернись, мой мальчик, и закрой дверь. Двери сами не закрываются, не
правда ли?
12) Были такие моменты, когда ему было чрезвычайно жалко самого себя.
13) В этот вечер они должны были обедать одни.
14) Вам самим придется зарабатывать себе на жизнь.
15) Ты всегда сам с собой разговариваешь, когда волнуешься?
16) Не злись! Контролируй себя!

UNIT 6 RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

1. Reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. They


express mutual action in which there is physical contact between people
or relation. The subject to which they refer must be in the plural. Each
other generally implies only two, and one another two or more than two
persons: Tom looked at Ann and Ann looked at Tom. They looked at each
other. There were three ladies sitting close to one another.
But it must be mentioned that this distinction is not always strictly
observed:
We embraced each other. It was the first time they had touched one
another.
2. Reciprocal pronouns have two case forms (the common case
and the genitive case): They looked at the feet of each other / each other’s
feet.
3. Reciprocal pronouns preceded by a preposition are used as a
prepositional indirect object: They parted from each other after only two
weeks. We talk to one another as often as possible. Many countries compete
with each other. Did you compete against each other in yesterday’s race? We
agree with each other sometimes.
98 Pronouns

Exercises
6.1. Use the correct form of the verbs below to complete the sentences.
to argue, to attack, to bump, to compete, to cooperate, to fight, to hurt,
to part, to talk
1) Watch what you’re doing with these sticks. You will hurt each other if you
are not careful.
2) We have to keep these dogs separate. They … each other on sight.
3) The children won’t play peacefully together. They always … with each
other.
4) I wish Jack and Jill could work together but they just refuse to … with one
another.
5) They can never agree. They … with one another about everything.
6) Bob and I usually play together but tomorrow we are going to … with each
other for a change.
7) They’ve had a dreadful quarrel. Now they don’t even … to one another.
8) I met Sally yesterday. We … into each other on the train.
9) They’re twins and they hate to … from one another.

6.2. Complete the sentences with –selves, each other or one another.
1) Tom and Ann stood in front of a mirror and looked at themselves.
2) How long have Tom and Ann known …?
3) At Christmas friends often give … presents.
4) Did the children enjoy … when they were on holiday?
5) Jack and Jill are very happy together. They love … very much.
6) They had an argument last week. They are still not speaking to … .
7) Some people are very selfish. They only think of … .
8) Nora and I don’t see … very often these days.
9) Paul and I live near …
10) He didn’t pay for me after dinner. We paid for … .
11) They parted from … quite suddenly.
12) They kissed … in greeting.
13) They always send … a card at Christmas.
14) Jane and Mary went shopping together and locked … out of the door.
15) Neither John nor Peter would take responsibility for the accident. They both
blame … .
16) John and Peter were dreadfully sorry about the accident. They blamed … .
17) The two children smiled happily at … .
18) A lot of people injure … doing jobs about the house.
Pronouns 99

6.3. Complete the sentences using at, into, of, to, with.
1) John and Helen looked at each other and smiled.
2) The children quarrel a lot but they’re fond … each other.
3) They both talk at the same time. They never seem to listen … each other.
4) They have been corresponding … one another since they left school.
5) They were so angry they just stood and shouted … each other.
6) They were both very sorry. They apologized … each other.
7) The two cars have just crashed … each other.
8) We could just see one another so we waved … each other across the park.
9) They are both very well known but they haven’t heard … each other.
10) It was so funny. They just sat and laughed … each other.

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Reciprocal pronouns)
6.1. Correct the mistakes in the sentences.
1) I knew that two my aunts bitterly disliked themselves.
2) When dear people meet they usually embrace them.
3) Ourselves and the Smiths lived in the same town.
4) We heard about they a lot, but it was the first time we met.
5) Tom and Nicole parted at each other after ten years of marriage.
6) We could talk about one another for hours!
7) At the crossroads a car and a lorry collided into each other.
8) It isn’t pleasant to watch people who are quarrelling against each other.
9) You know, I saw me on TV yesterday.
10) Did Ruth knit sweaters for herself and yourself?
11) We have been friends since childhood. We can rely on ourselves.
12) Juan will do it himselves.
13) Will you help myself and my friend with the classwork that we’ve missed?
14) She cooked her a good meal.
15) Intelligent people should cooperate with themselves.
16) Don’t argue against each other!
6.2. Translate the sentences into English.
1) Они говорят на разных языках и не понимают друг друга.
2) Майкл и Анна мне много рассказывали о том, как они встретили друг
друга.
3) Они никогда не соглашаются друг с другом.
4) Родители никогда не думают о себе, они заботятся только о детях.
5) Они долго махали друг другу руками.
6) Мы давно не виделись и забыли имена друг друга.
100 Pronouns

7) В своих письмах мы всегда справляемся о родственниках друг друга.


8) Мы посмотрели друг на друга и улыбнулись.
9) В нашей семье мы часто дарим подарки друг другу.
10) Во всех проблемах они винят друг друга.
11) Не вините себя! Это не ваша ошибка.
12) Они любят друг друга и никогда не ссорятся.
13) Они расстались друг с другом два года назад.
14) Мы соревновались друг c другом только однажды.
15) Недалеко от нашего дома на какой-то узкой улице столкнулись две
грузовые машины.
16) Мы стояли под дождем и смеялись друг над другом.

UNIT 7 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

1. Interrogative pronouns are used in inquiry, to form special


questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.
2. The interrogative pronoun who refers to human beings: Who won
– Smith or Fitzgibbon? Who are your close friends? –Naomi and Bridget. It
has the category of case: the nominative case is who, the objective
case whom. Whom isn’t often used in informal English: Who did they
arrest?(informal) Whom did they arrest? (formal) With whom did you go?
(very formal)
3. What usually refers to things or animals, but it may be applied to
people when one asks about their occupation: What are you looking for?
What lives in those little holes? – Rabbits (do). What is he? - A painter.
4. Which has a selective meaning: it corresponds to the Russian
‘’который из нас’’ (an individual of the group). It may refer to people
and things: We’ve got white and brown bread. Which will you have? Which
of your teachers do you like best? Which of these coats is yours?
When the speaker is not thinking of a limited number of choices,
what can be used: What language do they speak in Greenland? What is
your telephone number?
5. The questions Who is he? What is he? differ in their meaning. The
first question is about the name of a person: Who is working tomorrow?
– Phil and Lucy (are working tomorrow). The second question inquiries
about the occupation of the person: What’s Paula? – She’s a secretary.
Pronouns 101

6. In the sentence, interrogative pronouns may have various


functions – those of subject, predicative, object, attribute. Who came to
see me? (subject) What has happened? (subject) Who is that boy?
(predicative) What was her father? (predicative) With what did you cut it?
(object) To whom is he married? (object) Whose cars are those outside?
(attribute) Whose garden do you think looks best? (attribute) Which day
should we go there? (attribute)

Exercises
7.1. Complete the sentences with who, whom, whose, what or which.
1) Who will help me? 17) … gloves are these?
2) ... of you will help me? 18) … piece of cake will you have?
3) … of these girls is the youngest? 19) … pencil is yours?
4) … is your hat? 20) … is the way to the theatre?
5) … is your telephone number? 21) … knows his address?
6) … pencil is this, Peter’s or 22) … would you like to drink?
Helen’s? 23) … would you like to drink:
7) … are you drinking? mineral water or lemonade?
8) … are you expecting? 24) … of these cakes may I take?
9) … understands this rule? 25) … is the coldest season of the
10) … of you understands this rule? year?
11) … teaches you English? 26) … shoes do you want to buy?
12) … is he? – He is a doctor 27) … way did he go?
13) … grows in this garden? 28) Here are the books. … is yours?
14) … of you am I to thank for this? 29) … am I speaking to, please?
15) … English books have you read 30) “My shoulder hurts,” I said . “…
this term? shoulder?” I touched my left one.
16) … do you know about him?

7.2. Put questions to the bold words.


1) I am looking at him. Whom did I 7) He is waiting for me.
look at? 8) These boys are my brothers.
2) My best friend is a doctor. 9) I went to the cinema with my
3) They are talking about the sister yesterday.
international situation. 10) The handbag is made of leather.
4) They are painters. 11) The man asked for a cup of tea.
5) That is my sister’s dog. 12) This telegram is from my father.
6) Some English books are lying on 13) Mathematics is the most difficult
the table. subject that I study.
102 Pronouns

14) The children are sitting under the 15) George bought her a necklace.
tree. 16) George bought her a necklace.
7.3. Make questions. Use what, who, whom or whose.
1) A: What did you see?
B: An accident (I saw an accident.)
2) A: _______________
B: An accident. (Mary saw an accident.)
3) A: _______________
B: Mary. (Mary saw an accident.)
4) A: _______________
B: John. (Mary saw John.)
5) A: _______________
B: Mary. (Mary saw John.)
6) A: _______________
B: Pedro’s (I borrowed Pedro’s umbrella.)
7) A: _______________
B: An accident. (An accident has happened.)
8) A: _______________
B: Sue’s (That’s Sue’s.) This one is mine.
9) A: _______________
B: A new coat. (Alice bought a new coat.)
10) A: _______________
B: Alice. (Alice bought a new coat.)
11) A: _______________
B: A map of the world. (I’m looking at a map of the world.)
12) A: _______________these?
B: Eric’s. (These tapes are Eric’s.)
13) A: _______________
B: The secretary. (I talked to the secretary.)
14) A: _______________
B: His problems. (Tom talked about his problems.)
15) A: _______________that?
B: Susan’s. (It’s Susan’s coat.)

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Interrogative Pronouns)
7.1. Choose the correct variant and complete the sentences.
1) In Egypt the nobles (who, whom) ruled were rich.
2) The people, (who, whom) the nobles ruled were extremely poor.
Pronouns 103

3) At the end of the story who married (who, whom)?


4) Dorothea Lange was the woman (who, whom) photographed us.
5) Do you know (who, whom) she is?
6) I consulted Doctor Braun, (who, whom) my mother recommended.
7) Tom Green, (who, whom) sat next to you, fell asleep during the last act of
the play.
8) The man, (who, whom) you met at the party, was Mr Clyde.
9) My mother, (who, which) is sixty-five, is having a party today.
10) Give the job to the person, (who, whom) you can trust.
11) Mr Doyle is a person, (whom, who) young people like.
12) Her elder sister, to (whom, who) she send the card, moved to Madrid.
13) It was Napoleon (who, whom) invaded Spain in 1808.
14) She could hardly guess (who, whom) it was.
15) Mrs Harvey, (who, whom) I work for on Saturdays, owns two farms.
16) Is there anyone (who, whom) plans to get up early tomorrow?

7.2. Translate the sentences into English.


1) Кто оставил словарь на столе?
2) Кто из вас оставил словарь на столе?
3) Кому вы дали свой учебник?
4) На каком этаже вы живёте?
5) На какой стороне улицы ваш дом?
6) Что вам купить: масла или сыру?
7) Какой месяц самый холодный в Лондоне?
8) Кто из студентов вашей группы написал диктант без ошибок?
9) О чём вы разговаривали, когда я вас встретил?
10) Каково население этого города?
11) Что с ним случилось?
12) Который твой отец? – Тот, что в синем пальто.
13) С кем ты идешь гулять? С Лесли или Томом?
14) Что там у тебя в карманах?
15) Кто был на вечеринке вчера? – Очень много моих новых друзей. – А
кто твои самые близкие друзья? – Мои самые близкие друзья – Сэм и
Габби.
16) Актер, о котором вы меня спрашивали, навестит нас сегодня вечером.
104 Pronouns

UNIT 8 RELATIVE PRONOUNS

1. Relative pronouns (who, whose, which, that, as) point to a


noun or a pronoun mentioned before and have conjunctive power, are
used to introduce relative clauses. Unlike conjunctions, relative
pronouns are members of the clauses.
2. Who is used in reference to human beings or animals: Professor
Marvin, who was always early, was there already.
3. Whose is mainly used in reference to human beings or animals,
but it may be applied to things: A child whose mother had left was crying
loudly.
4. Which is used in reference to things and animals: I gave him an
envelope, which he put in his pocket at once.
Which can be used to say something about the whole situation
described in the main clause: I never met Brandy again, which was a pity.
5. That is mainly used in reference to animals and things. It may
also be used in reference to human beings: He was the man that bought
my house. There was the ice-cream that Mum had made herself. The house
that we lived in was huge.
6. As usually introduces attributive clauses when the
demonstrative pronoun such is used in the principal clause (it is a rare
case when as is used without such in the principal case). As may refer
to living things and things: It was crazy for her to think of such a thing as
buying a car.
7. Relative pronouns always perform some syntactical function in
the clause they introduce. The thing that really surprised me was his
attitude. (subject) The car, which caused the accident, drove off. (subject) He
has married somebody, who I really don’t like. (object) You are the only
person here who knows me. (object)
That, who or which can be left out if they are the objects of the
verb in the relative clause: The woman you met yesterday lives next door.
Angela was the only person I could talk to.
BUT: That, who or which cannot be omitted when they are the
subjects of the verb in the relative clause.
8. The words whoever, whatever, whichever, whenever,
however and wherever can be used as relative pronouns.
Pronouns 105

These words have similar meaning to it doesn’t matter


who/what/which, any person who, any thing that, etc, or the unknown
person who/ the unknown thing that etc. Whoever comes to the door, tell
him I’m busy. Whatever you do, I’ll always love you. Whichever of them you
marry, you’ll have problems. People always want more, however rich they
are. You can come whenever you like. Wherever you go, you’ll find Coca-
Cola.

Exercises
8.1. Complete the sentences with that, who or which. In some sentences
more than one pronoun can be used.
1) Do you know the man who wrote this letter?
2) The magazine … you lent me is very interesting.
3) The street … leads to the station is very wide.
4) The doctor … she visited told her to stay in bed.
5) The man … you want to see has just left.
6) The girl … you see at the door is my sister.
7) This is the only example … I can give you.
8) Yesterday I met my brother, … showed me a letter … he had received from
our parents.
9) I went fishing last Sunday, … is one of the most pleasant ways of spending
one’s free time.
10) They reached the street in … she lived.
11) The last thing … any of us wants is breakfast.
12) He was late, … made her angry.
13) Have you got back the things … were stolen?
14) You shouldn’t believe all the things … you read in the newspaper.
15) We are moving to Manchester, … is in the north-west.
16) This is one of the songs … the Beatles recoded in 1966.
17) We cannot provide the information … you asked for
8.2. Match the main clauses with the relative clauses.
1) I had to travel first class, … a) which is pretty good for a woman of
2) It snowed heavily at night, … 75.
3) The car uses very little petrol, … b) which meant we had to cancel the
4) He didn’t get up until after eight match next day.
o’clock, c) which meant we had to eat out in the
5) A puzzle is a problem … evenings.
6) The food in the hotel was not d) which will interest the children of all
very good, ages.
106 Pronouns

7) He kept complaining, … e) that is difficult to solve.


8) Both the girls were late, … f) which really annoyed everyone.
9) Michelle always did very well at g) which certainly pleased her mother.
school, h) which means it is quite cheap to run.
10) She cycled from London to i) which meant he was almost late for
Glasgow, … work.
11) It’s a book … j) which meant we had to leave without
them.
k) which was very expensive.
8.3. Omit the relative pronoun where possible.
1) He returned to his desk and dialed a number which he knew by heart. – He
returned to his desk and dialed a number he knew by heart.
2) His eyes, which were hot and inquisitive, looked from Martin to me.
3) In the dark and the cold of the morning they drove out the country road
through the mist that hung heavy over the flat plain.
4) He was the architect of this very house that we live in.
5) The telephone, which was on a side table beside Guy’s chair, mercifully rang
out.
6) All that I can then do was to sit back and wait.
7) He offered a cigarette which a pilot refused.
8) It was the first time that I heard John talk about Jack.
9) She came into the room in which a child was sleeping and drew the
curtains.
10) Often they discussed things about which he knew nothing.
11) Do you like the boy that is talking to Jennifer?
12) I like the barber that usually cuts my hair.
13) The students that came late missed the quiz.
8.4. Take out the relative pronouns whom or which and re-write the
sentences putting the prepositions in their proper places.
1) This is the train by which I came. - This is the train I came by.
2) Do you know the boy to whom I am referring?
3) This is the man to whom I wrote the letter.
4) Who is the boy to whom you were talking?
5) This is the tree about which I told you.
6) The children to whom you spoke are learning grammar.
7) The man from whom I got the information is the pilot.
8) The chair on which he sat had just been painted.
9) The people with whom I live are very pleasant.
10) That is the box out of which he took the money
Pronouns 107

8.5. Combine the two sentences into one.


1) (a) Do you know the people? (b) They live next door.
Do you know the people who live next door.
2) (a) The woman gave me some information. (b) I called her.
3) (a) The waitress was friendly. (b) She served us dinner.
4) (a) I don’t know the man. (b) He is talking to Rita.
5) (a) Do you like the mechanic? (b) He fixed my car.
6) (a) I talked to the people. (b) They were sitting next to me.
7) (a) The soup was too salty. (b) I had it for lunch.
8) (a) The bus is always overcrowded. (b) I take it to work every morning.
9) (a) The woman predicted my future. (b) She read my palm.
10) (a) The woman pays me a fair salary. (b) I work for her.
11) (a) I want to tell you about the party. (b) I went to it last night.
12) (a) The bananas were too ripe. (b) My husband bought them.
13) (a) The office is on Main Street. (b) Mary works in it.
14) (a) Here is the brochure. (b) You asked me about it.
15) (a) The market has fresh vegetables. (b) I always go to it.
16) (a) The woman is my teacher. (b) You met her husband.
17) (a) I have a friend. (b) Her brother is a police officer.
18) (a) The boy wants to be a violinist. (b) His mother is a famous musician.
19) (a) The woman shouted, “Stop, a thief!” (b) Her purse was stolen.
20) (a) The girl is a good friend of mine. (b) I borrowed her camera.

8.6. Add relative clauses to the main sentence.


(A) MAIN SENTENCE: The man was nice.
Example: I met him yesterday.
Response: The man (whom/that) I met yesterday was nice.
1) You introduced me to him.
2) He helped me yesterday.
3) I spoke to him on the phone.
4) I had dinner with him last week.
5) He opened the door for me.
6) I told you about him.
7) He gave me directions to the post office.
8) He visited our class yesterday.
9) I borrowed his pen.
10) I met him at the party last night.
(B) MAIN SENTENCE: Do you know the woman?
Example: She is standing over there.
Response: Do you know the woman who/that is standing over there?
1) (…) is talking to her.
108 Pronouns

2) Her car was stolen.


3) (…) is going to marry her.
4) (…) is talking about her.
5) She is waving at us.
6) Her apartment was burglarized.
7) She works at that office.
8) She is sitting over there.
9) My brother is engaged to her.
10) Her son was arrested by the police.

8.7. Fill the gaps in the following sentences with one of the following words:
however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever.
1) Whatever you do, don’t mention my name. (I particularly don’t want
you to.)
2) He lives in Wick, … that is. (I don’t know and don’t much care.)
3) You’ll never escape. He’ll find you, … you hide yourself (no matter
where).
4) … of you broke this window will have to pay for it.
5) … broke this window will have to pay for it.
6) The lift works perfectly for Tom, but … I use it, the doors stick. (every
time)
7) I’d rather have a room of my own, … small, than share with someone.
8) … told you I’d lend you $500 was pulling your leg.
9) You’re wanted on the phone! – I can’t come now. Ask … it is to leave his
number and I’ll ring him back.
10) … rich you are, you can’t buy happiness.
11) He’s a phrenologist, … that is.
12) We must finish tonight, … long it takes us.(no matter how long)
13) … it rains, my roof leaks.
14) Mothers in this district are not letting their children out alone till …
committed these murders has been arrested.
15) … fast you drive, you won’t catch him up.
16) … my friend is cooking, there is a smell of burning.
17) If I say, «Heads, I win; tails, you lose,» I will win … happens. Or I will win
… way the coin falls.
18) A married man to his bachelor friend: You can do … you like in the
evenings but I have to go home to my wife.
Pronouns 109

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Relative Pronouns)
8.1. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.
1) The book which I bought it at the bookstore was very expensive.
2) The woman was nice that I met yesterday.
3) The people which live next door to me are friendly.
4) I met a woman who her husband is a famous lawyer.
5) Do you know the people who lives in the house?
6) The professor teaches Chemistry is very good.
7) I wrote a thank-you note to the people who visited their house on
Thanksgiving day.
8) The people who I met them at the party last night were interesting.
9) I enjoyed the music which we listened to it.
10) The man was very angry whose bicycle was stolen.
11) The mother which child was hurt rushed to the hospital.
12) The pen whom I lost was a birthday present.
13) Paris who is so attractive in spring is too hot in summer.
14) I’ll have to talk to him, what I hate.
15) She is the only person which I can trust.
16) I invited whomever wanted to come.

8.2. Complete the sentences with your own words.


1) My friend knows a man who … . 9) The book I … .
2) I have a friend whose … . 10) The person to whom … .
3) I returned the book that … . 11) One of the places I … .
4) The person who … . 12) Some of the things I … .
5) The people I … . 13) I can’t remember who … .
6) The movie we … . 14) I want to know whose … .
7) The people whose … . 15) This is a girl whose… .
8) Do you know the woman who … 16) London is a city which… .

8.3. Translate into English.


1) Девушка, о которой он говорил вам, – сестра моего приятеля.
2) Он отказался помочь своему другу, что меня очень удивило.
3) Это студент, сочинение которого я вам вчера показывал.
4) Мы прошли мимо комнаты, дверь которой была открыта.
5) Он помог мне нести мой чемодан, что было очень любезно с его
стороны.
6) В лесу было много деревьев, листья которых были совсем жёлтые.
7) Это та книга, которую вы ищете?
8) Магазин, в котором мы покупаем овощи, закрыт по понедельникам.
110 Pronouns

9) Покажи мне, что у тебя в руке.


10) Ты будешь наказан за то, что ты сделал.
11) Она замужем за человеком, который мне совсем не нравится.
12) Ты знаешь причину, почему она не пришла.
13) Дороти, которая меня стрижет, перешла в другую парикмахерскую.
14) Я встретил девушку, чья красота меня поразила.
15) Вот дом, в котором прошло моё детство.
16) Студенты, которые желают принять участие в конференции, должны
обращаться за информацией к своим преподавателям.
8.4. Oral/Written. Imagine that you are in a room full of people. You know
everyone who is there. Tell who these people are. Describe them using relative
pronouns. Begin your story with:
I’m glad you came. Let me tell you about the people who are here. The
woman who ….

UNIT 9 DEFINING, INDEFINITE and NEGATIVE


PRONOUNS

9.1. DEFINING PRONOUNS

The defining pronouns are: all, each, every, everybody, everyone,


everything, either, both, other, another.
1. All is a generalizing pronoun, it takes a group of things or
persons as a whole: All luggage will be searched. All children need love.
All may be used as subject, predicative, object, attribute: All is said
and done. (subject) He just loved me, that is all. (predicative) He forgot all
about it. (object) All doors were closed. (attribute)
2. Both points out two living beings or things, mentioned before.
The pronoun may be used as subject, object, attribute: Both came, Ann
and Kate. (subject)You can study French or German or both. (object) He held
both ends of the thread. (attribute)
3. Each, every refer to all members of the group of living beings or
things, mentioned before and taken one by one.
Each may be subject, object and attribute, it requires a verb in
singular: Each felt happy. (subject) He gave a flower each. (object) Each
word was carefully chosen. (attribute)
Pronouns 111

Every is used only as an attribute: Every child needs care.


Everybody, everyone refer to all members of the group of living
beings, mentioned before and taken one by one: Everybody enjoyed the
party. Everyone looks tired today.
Everything may be applied to things, animals, abstract notions:
Everything will be all right.
4. Either has two meanings - each of the two, one or the other:
There are houses on either side of the river. Would you like tea or juice? -
Either.
5. Other denotes some object different from the one mentioned
before: You are not fair to the others. Where are the other photos? Other
has two numbers: singular – other; plural – others.
Another has two meanings – 'a different one' and 'an additional one':
I usually drink another kind of tea. Could I have another piece of bread?

9.2. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS


Indefinite pronouns point out some person or thing indefinitely.
These pronouns are some, any, somebody, anybody, someone,
anyone, something, anything, one.
1. Some and its compounds are chiefly used in affirmative
sentences while any and the compounds are used in negative and
interrogative sentences and in conditional clauses: Ann has bought some
new shoes. They haven’t got any children. Have you got any money? I don’t
want anything.
Some and its compounds, not any, are used in special and general
questions expressing a request or proposal: Do you want some water?
Will someone help me?
Any and its compounds may be used in affirmative sentences with
the meaning of “every”: Any woman loves flowers. Anybody can see it.
2. The pronoun one is often used in the sense of any person or
every person: One has to think of the practical side of things.
One may be a word-substitute, used in the singular and in the
plural: Are the new curtains longer than the old ones? Which is your boy? –
"The one in the blue coat". I’d like a cake. A big one with lots of cream.
112 Pronouns

9.3. NEGATIVE PRONOUNS


Most of the indefinite pronouns correspond to negative pronouns:
some – no, none; something – nothing, none; somebody, someone –
nobody, no one, none.
Some defining pronouns also correspond to negative pronouns:
everything – nothing; all, everybody, each – no, none, nobody; both,
either – neither: “Where are you going?” – “Nowhere. I’m staying here.”
“Is he British or American?” – “Neither. He is Australian.”
Nobody (no one) came to visit me when I was in hospital. I saw nothing. We
had to walk because there were no buses. There were no shops open. Nobody
phoned, did they? Neither man knew what he was doing. Neither report
mentioned the Americans.

Exercises
9.1. Change the given sentences into negative sentences and questions.
1) There is something on the desk. – There is nothing on the desk. Is there
anything on the desk?
2) I have already done some of these exercises.
3) There were some apples in the vase.
4) Somebody phoned you yesterday in the afternoon.
5) There was some water in the bottle.
6) Some of his early novels impressed me greatly.
7) There was somebody in their room.
8) Somebody might have seen him leaving the house.
9) She has read some of the books from the list given by the teacher.
10) Somebody brought this letter for you.
11) John gave Mary some books for her friends.
12) After dinner some students went home.
13) There are some serious mistakes in your essay.
14) Before going I shall leave here something for you.
15) There are some small cosy rooms in this building.
16) Some people prefer to spend their holidays at home.
17) Somebody gets annoyed by loud sounds.
18) This book can be bought in some shops.
19) My mother baked some delicious cakes for my birthday.
20) I have got something very interesting to tell you.
Pronouns 113

9.2. Supply some or any.


1) Are there any more potatoes? Yes, there are … potatoes in the dish.
2) Have you got … sugar? – I expect we have. Yes, there’s … sugar in this
bowl.
3) … people just don’t know how to mind their own business.
4) I didn’t get … shoes at the sales. They were too expensive.
5) There are never … taxis when you want one.
6) There isn’t … point at all in getting upset about it.
7) I’ve met … people but I don’t have … real friends yet.
8) There are … biscuits left, but there isn’t … cake.
9) I know you speak … French, but do you speak … German?
10) Have you got … idea what time it is?
11) … child can learn to read and write.
12) I don’t have … free time now but I will be free … day next week.
13) You can buy this at … good bookshop.
14) I’d like to give you … advice.
15) I like … fruit except bananas.
9.3. Insert some, any or nor, making the appropriate compounds if
necessary.
1) There’s some milk in the jug.
2) She wanted … stamps but there weren’t … in the machine.
3) I’m afraid there isn’t … coffee left; will you grind … ?
4) Is there … here who can speak Italian?
5) I’d like to buy … new clothes but I don’t have … money.
6) Nobody told me … of the details.
7) When would you like to come? – … day would suit you.
8) Don’t let … in. I’m too busy to see … .
9) … tells me you’ve got … bad news for me.
10) I can’t see my glasses … .
11) We didn’t think he'd succeed but he managed … .
12) You’re looking very miserable; has … upset you?
13) If you had … sense you wouldn’t leave your car unlocked.
14) … who believes what Jack says is a fool.
15) She put her handbag down … and now she can’t find it.
16) Will you have … pudding or fruit?
17) Haven’t you got … friends in Rome? I feel sure you mentioned them once.
18) Haven’t you got … friends here? You should join the club and get to know
people.
19) I see you haven’t maps. Would you like to borrow … of mine?
20) Come and have supper with us if you aren’t doing … tonight.
114 Pronouns

21) All the salaries are being paid much later now; it’s … to do with the
computer.
22) He lives … in Paris now.
23) You can’t expect just … student to solve the problem. It requires a
mathematician.
24) Where shall we sit? – Oh, … will do.
25) Is there … moving about downstairs? I heard … falling.
26) Is there … living in that house? It looks deserted.
9.4. Insert none or no making appropriate compounds.
1) I met nobody in the library.
2) There has been … rain for several weeks.
3) He said … about it in his last letter.
4) I’d like to give my book to … at all.
5) We all got wet because … of us had an umbrella.
6) When the post arrived, she looked through it hopefully but there were … for
her.
7) How many of these people do you know? – … of them.
8) … of this money is mine.
9) … in the class did their homework.
10) Where did you go for your holiday? – …, I stayed at home.
11) I couldn’t make an omelet because we had … eggs.
12) The accident looked serious but fortunately … was injured.
13) The town was still the same when I returned years later. … had changed.
14) We took a few photographs but … of them were good.
15) What did you have for breakfast? – … . I usually have … breakfast.
16) How many cinemas are there in your town? – … . The last one closed six
months ago.
9.5. Translate the sentences.
1) Вам добавить сахару в чай? – Да, спасибо.
2) Если у них и было, что сказать, они не говорили.
3) Дайте мне, пожалуйста, молока.
4) Кто-то взял мою книгу.
5) Вы куда-нибудь ходили вчера?
6) Если кто-то позвонит мне, скажи, что я приду через час.
7) Не хотите ли чаю?
8) Приходите ко мне в любое время.
9) Бабушка пыталась рассказать нам что-нибудь приятное.
10) Можно мне взять бумаги? - Да, конечно.
11) Вам удалось найти какие-нибудь статьи по этому вопросу?
12) Мы что-нибудь можем для вас сделать?
Pronouns 115

13) Никто не знал их адреса.


14) Он ничего не написал мне об этом.
15) Я никого не жду сегодня вечером.
16) На этой улице нет почтового отделения.
17) Никто из нас не пойдёт туда сегодня.
18) У него нет телефона дома.
19) Никто из них не знал этого.
20) Никто из нас не был там.
21) Не о чем сожалеть, Том.
22) Никто не спрашивал меня об этом.
23) Никого не было дома, когда я вернулся.
24) Если вам нечего делать, идите гулять.
9.6. Complete the sentences with all, everything, everyone/everybody
and the whole.
1) Ann knows everyone in her street.
2) … I have eaten today is a sandwich.
3) My little brother ate … box of chocolates.
4) Tom is very popular. … likes him.
5) … was very kind to us. They did … they could to help us.
6) Jill doesn’t do any of the housework. Her husband does … .
7) The police searched … house looking for evidence.
8) Can … write their names on a piece of paper?
9) She worked … day yesterday. That’s why she needs a rest.
10) I didn’t spend much money in the shop. … I bought is a pair of gloves.
11) Why are you always thinking of money? Money is not … .
12) The weather was terrible … day yesterday and we couldn’t go out.
13) He didn’t say where he was going. … he said was that he was going away.
14) … has got their faults. Nobody is perfect.
9.7. Supply each, every, both or all in the sentences
1) Nearly every home in the country has television.
2) Here is something for … of you.
3) Not … student is capable of learning English.
4) The admission ticket cost us $5 … .
5) They seem to be repairing … road in the country.
6) … tyres on my bicycle are flat.
7) … people are immortal.
8) … salt in this bag is damp.
9) ... drinking water must be pure.
10) … windows in the house are open.
11) … addresses in this list are out of date.
116 Pronouns

12) … is clearly signposted.


13) There is a fire extinguisher on … floor in the building.
14) … floor of the building has its own fire extinguisher.
15) They are … fortunate to have such a good start in life.
16) … twins want to go to the party.
17) … cars need regular servicing
9.8. Translate into English.
1) Каждый школьник знает правила дорожного движения.
2) Я принёс вам все книги, которые вам нужны для этого сообщения.
3) Каждую неделю я проводил несколько дней в деревне.
4) Я провёл с ними весь вечер.
5) Он продолжал смотреть на часы каждые пять минут.
6) Вы выпили всё молоко, которое было в бутылке?
7) Хотя в комнате никто не жил, тётя Керри убирала её каждый день.
8) Все дикие животные боятся огня.
9) Каждый из нас должен был выполнить свою работу вовремя.
10) Он навещает нас каждое воскресенье.
11) Они все были взволнованы перед встречей с известным писателем.
12) Преподаватель сказал, что каждый из нас должен прочесть эту статью.
9.9. Insert either, neither or both.
1) They both laughed and Dan looked down at his desk.
2) We were … in the room, but … of us spoke for some time.
3) I guess we’re … a little overtired.
4) He looked from Sam to Philip, but … answered.
5) Hatton took … the plates in one hand, and Neville’s hand in the other, and
led the way from the room.
6) They were … running hard, but someone was ahead of them.
7) It was a very good football match. … of the teams played very well.
8) Which of the films do you prefer? The first one or the second one? –
Actually I didn’t like … of them.
9) We didn’t like the hotel. It was … clean … comfortable.
10) He lost … his book and glasses.
11) … of two pictures is satisfactory.
12) … of the people I met were English.
13) I like both jackets. I’ll take … of them.
14) Is it your car or your sister’s? – … . It’s my father’s.
15) After the accident … cars stopped. … drivers got out and started shouting at
each other. … of them were very aggressive.
16) «Is today the 18th or the 19th?» – «… . It’s 20th today.»
Pronouns 117

9.10. Translate into English.


1) Обе мои сестры – врачи.
2) Ни один из нас не мог оставаться здесь.
3) Я не могу согласиться ни в коем случае.
4) Он дал мне две книги. Обе были очень интересными.
5) Гости сели по обе стороны длинного стола.
6) Попроси их всех прийти вовремя.
7) Мы с мамой обе остались здесь ждать старшего брата.
8) Она посмотрела вокруг и увидела, что по обеим сторонам дороги были
прекрасные современные высокие здания.
9) Ким спросила Джона и Джека, где они так долго были. Ни тот, ни
другой ничего не ответили.
10) «Они все для меня одинаковы», - сказал Филипп.
11) Он разглядывал ее, а она разглядывала его, и ни тот, ни другой ничего
не говорили.

9.11. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of other or another.
1) This pen won’t write. Please, give me … . (singular)
2) If you are still thirsty, I’ll make … pot of coffee.
3) This dictionary has a page missing. Please, give me … .
4) He does not need those books. He needs … .(all the remaining)
5) There are thirty people in the room. Twenty are from Latin America and …
are from … countries.
6) Six people were in the store. Two were buying meat; … was looking at
magazines; … was eating a candy bar. … were walking around looking for
more food. (notice the verbs)
7) This glass of milk is sour. … glass of milk is sour, too.
8) The army was practicing its drills. One group was doing artillery practice.
… was marching; … was at attention; and … was practicing combat tactics.
9) These are seven students from Japan. … are from Iran, and … are from …
places.
10) We looked at four cars today. The first two were far too expensive, but …
ones were reasonably priced.
9.12. Translate into English using one, where possible.
1) Это очень интересная книга, но та ещё интереснее.
2) Мне не нравится это зелёное пальто. Покажите мне то синее.
3) Здесь нет чашки. Принесите чашку, пожалуйста.
4) Ты купил красные карандаши, а я чёрные.
118 Pronouns

5) Где можно взять кусок мела? – На моём столе лежит кусок мела,
возьмите его.
6) Это платье красивее того.
7) Эти кресла удобнее тех.
8) Эта ручка очень плохая. Дайте мне хорошую.
9) Мой брат прислал мне несколько английских книг и несколько
немецких.
10) Мои часы отстают, и мне пришлось купить новые.
11) Следует принять во внимание, что этот вопрос довольно сложный.
12) Никогда не следует откладывать на завтра то, что можно сделать
сегодня.

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Defining, Indefinite, and Negative Pronouns)
9.1. Change the following sentences and
a) make them positive:
1) Is there much ink left in my pen?
2) Did the storm do much damage to the house?
3) Is there much milk left in the jug?
4) Were many passengers see-sick?
5) We don't have much time to go to the station.
6) I don’t have many books in my library.
7) This train does not stop at any station.
8) We didn’t expect many people to visit us.
b) make them negative:
1) Both answers were correct.
2) There was somebody at the piano.
3) There is something unpleasant in his voice.
4) I want to speak to some of them.
5) We hear something interesting there.
6) We saw somebody working on the road.
7) Something is being done for her.

9.2. Complete the sentences choosing the correct word.


1) I can’t stand him. He disagrees with (all, everything, anything) I say.
2) This town isn’t very well known. And there isn’t much to see, so (few, a
few) tourists come here.
3) Where’s my grammar book? I need (one, it). – I don’t know. Did you lend
(one, it) to someone? Ask Joy if she has (one, it).
Pronouns 119

4) This car is expensive to run. It uses (many, much) petrol.


5) I need a Korean-English dictionary. Where can I get (one, it)? – At the
University bookstore.
6) I see you have a Korean-English dictionary. May I borrow (one, it)? – Sure.
Here you are. I’m not using it right now.
7) I don’t think Jill will be a good teacher. She’s got (little, a little) patience
with children.
8) Where did you get this photograph of a tiger? – I took (one, it) myself when
I was in Nepal.
9) Have you ever seen a tiger in the wild? – Yes, I saw (one, it) when I visited
the National park in southern Nepal.
10) I’ve phoned him twice, but he’s been out on (each, every) occasion.
11) I’ve been phoning him all week, but he’s been out on (each, every)
occasion.
12) Do you have a bicycle? – Not yet, but I’ve been planning to get (one, it) for
quite a while.
13) (Both, Every) front legs of the chair are shaky.
14) Do you mind which sandwich I take? – No, take (either, neither).

9.3. Translate into English


1) На столе есть масло? – Да, есть немного.
2) Такие простые вещи может понять всякий.
3) Если кто-нибудь пойдёт в магазин, купите мне, пожалуйста, кофе.
4) Ничего ещё не известно об этом.
5) Никто не ожидал, что он придёт.
6) Никто из детей ещё не спал.
7) Я получил много полезных советов по этому вопросу.
8) Многие из этих книг принадлежали ещё моему дедушке.
9) В моём кофе очень мало сахару. Я добавлю ещё.
10) Сейчас в школе мало детей. Сейчас каникулы.
11) Известно, что почти каждый ребёнок любит яблоки. Мы дали каждой
девочке и каждому мальчику по яблоку.
12) Она видела, как он выходил из дома с чемоданами в каждой руке.
13) Оба ехали молча или обсуждали такие вещи, которые не интересовали
ни того, ни другого.
14) Только два студента нашей группы сделали ошибки в тесте. Другие
написали тест без ошибок.
15) У него два брата. Один живёт в Минске, а другой в Киеве.
16) Эта ручка очень плохая. Дайте мне хорошую.
120 Pronouns

9.4. Put in one, either, neither, other, others, the other or some. Retell
the story.
Halt!
The (1) ... day the Prime Minister appointed a new Minister of Transport.
(2) ... ministers like to travel everywhere by car; (3) ... prefer to use public
transport. (4) ... of these means of transport is fine, but the new minister is (5)
... of those who goes everywhere by bicycle. When he arrived at the House of
Commons yesterday, he was stopped by two security guards. (6) ... of them was
sure he had seen him before. «I know you, don’t I?» asked one of the guards.
«You’re (7) ... of these messengers, aren’t you?» «Well, no, actually,» the
minister replied. «I’m (8) ... of the ministers.» «I knew you were (9) ... or (10)
...!» the guard replied.

PROGRESS TEST
1. Make a correct choice.
1) Despite her parents’ complaints, she decided to live by ___ in New York
City.
a) her; b) herself;
2) I don't care ___ takes responsibility for this accident, but somebody should.
a) whoever; b) who;
3) I lent him “The Old Man and the Sea”, ___ is really easy to read.
a) which; b) that;
4) He should be ashamed of ___ .
a) himself; b) him;
5) Mary was worried about the children, so she convinced ___ husband not to
accept the job abroad.
a) his; b) her;
6) We came across a friend of ___ at the mall yesterday.
a) ours; b) us;
7) I can't find ___ pencil. Can I use ___ , Mary?
a) my, yours; b) mine, your;
8) I cut ___ when I was peeling the potatoes.
a) me; b) myself;
9) Neither Teresa nor _____ am responsible for this mess.
a) I; b) me;
10) Each plan has ___ merits.
a) it; b) its;
11) … us is going to do the washing up?
Pronouns 121

a) Which of; b) Who of;


12) I do my work and they do ___ .
a) their; b) theirs;
13) Give it back to ___ . It's ___.
a) me, mine; b) me, my;
14) We’ve got white and brown bread. __ will you have?
a) Which; b) What;
15) - ___? – She is a doctor.
a) What is she? b) Which is she?
16) I’m not opening the door, ___ you are.
a) whoever; b) whatever;
17) The politician from the third district tried to make a good impression on
________ was still sitting in the auditorium.
a) whomever; b) whichever;
18) I have two packs of cards. One is on the table, ___ is in my drawer.
a) another; b) the other;
19) ___ of my parents could be there.
a) Neither; b) None.

2. Choose the suitable pronoun.


21) I’ve got (no, not, neither) money at all.
22) Some people like the sea, (other, others, no) prefer the mountains.
23) Only (few, a few, the few) people are perfectly bilingual.
24) I invited them both but (none, no one, neither) agreed to come.
25) I opened the door but I couldn’t see (nobody, somebody, anybody).
26) (Nobody, any, someone) can do it but you.
27) I think rock music is just (a lot, many, much) of noise.
28) There’s hardly (some, any, no) tea left.
29) Yesterday we had supper with the neighbours of (our, us, ours).
30) He washed and dressed (him, himself).
31) She left the house without saying (something, anything, nothing) to
(somebody, nobody, anybody).
32) His worried look met (mine, my, myself).
33) (None, no, not) of the people I met there were English.
34) You can do it without (mine, my, me) help but not without (they, their,
theirs).
35) (Both, all) the Earth and the Moon go round the sun.
36) The cinema was almost empty. There were very (few, little) people there.
37) He always puts (much, many) salt on his food.
38) We’ll be staying with Adrian, (which, whose) brother is my closest friend.
122 Pronouns

39) This secret will be between you and (I, me, myself).
40) (None, some, any) people don’t like to spend their time outdoors.
41) We couldn’t go to a restaurant because (neither, both) of us had money.
42) I can’t lend you the money. (all, the whole) I’ve got is a pound and I need
that.
43) Would you like (something, nothing, anything) to drink?
44) There’s (any, some, no) good juice in the fridge.

3. In this dialogue you have to fill in the gaps with pronouns.


The Best Critic
Artist: (to his friend) I am afraid (45) …can’t keep (46) … company today.
I have (47) … of work to do.
Friend: The same thing again! Why do (48) … spend so (49) … time on
(50) … pictures? Do (51) … think to please the public (52) … way?
(53) … of (54) … don’t understand true art. They simply like to be
in fashion.
Artist: You are right. Very often (55) … is easy to please the public, but I
have (56) … critic hard to please.
Friend: (57) … do (58) … mean?
Artist: I mean (59) ….

4. In this story you have to fill in pronouns, where necessary.


A rich businessman was dying. He asked (60) … the members of his
family to leave (61) … alone with (62) … partner, (63) … had run the business
with (64) … for years. The dying man did not want (65) … to hear (66) …
conversation.
"George," he whispered when (67) … remained alone, "I’ll soon die, (68)
… can’t wait, I must tell (69) …. Listen. When you were away on business five
years ago, I took eighty thousand dollars from the safe, and never put the
money back…"
"I’ve always tried not to let you be successful in business. I’ve disliked
(70) … greatly all (71) … life. You remember (72) … plan of (73) … (74) …
ended in failure? You explained the failure by changes in business conditions,
but the real reason was quite different: I had sold (75) … secret to McKay and
Co. for 150 thousand dollars. Forgive me, George. "
"Don’t worry, Jim, " said George. "It’s all right. I’ve also got to tell you
(76) …: I put (77) … poison into (78) … soup at dinner yesterday. "
5. Translate the sentences paying attention to different pronouns.
79) Они принесли мне два билета в Большой театр. Каждый билет стоил
пятьсот рублей.
Pronouns 123

80) Никто не может описать её дом. Боюсь, что я не смогу его найти.
81) Ни один из этих ключей не откроет вашу дверь.
82) Может быть, ты знаешь причину, почему я ей не нравлюсь?
83) Я знал, что этот человек был одним из родственников отца, которого
он давно не видел.
84) Он говорил ей о своей работе в больнице, а она рассказывала ему, что
оно делала в тот день в университете.
85) Он удивлялся самому себе.
86) Следующие три дня ни Филипп, ни Джейн не разговаривали друг с
другом.
87) Она не солгала вам, но и не сказала правды.
88) Или вы уйдёте из этого дома, или я позвоню в полицию.
89) Она вышла замуж за молодого архитектора, с которым познакомилась
в метро.
90) Он разглядывал её, а она разглядывала его, но ни тот, ни другой
ничего не говорили.
91) Приходите завтра в любое время.
92) Когда она наклонила голову, её тёмные волосы упали по обе стороны
лица.
93) У меня было какое-то странное чувство, когда мы говорили с его
друзьями.
94) Какую бы ты предпочел плиту – электрическую или газовую? –
Любую.
95) Есть ли вообще какая-нибудь разница между «хотеть» и «желать»?
96) Эта контрольная легче, чем та, что мы писали на прошлой неделе.
97) Он не потратил много времени на домашнее задание. Он знает этот
предмет очень хорошо.
98) Эти туфли слишком малы. Есть ли у вас другая пара?
99) Мы никого не знали на этом вечере.
100) Расскажи мне всё, что ты знаешь об этом происшествии.

100/ ______
Chapter 5
ARTICLES

ENTRY TEST
Units 2, 3
1. Choose the most suitable word in brackets.
1) (The/–) problem for (the /–) today’s students is how to survive financially.
2) Let me introduce Sally Parker, (a/the) niece of Mr Briggs.
3) Please do not turn on (a/the) water-heater in (a/the) bathroom.
4) Jane has been laid up with (–/the) pneumonia for (a/–) fortnight.
5) I have (a/–) terrible cold and am staying in (the/–) bed today.
6) I earn $5 (an/the) hour as (a/–) supermarket cashier on (the/–) Saturdays.
7) (The/–) charge for (an/–) excess luggage is $10 (a/the) kilo.
8) (A/the) train would be best; it leaves every hour.
9) Since they built the bridge no one uses (a/the) ferry any more.
10) Next year you'll be able to go by hovercraft; they're starting a new service.
It'll be much quicker than (a/the) boat.

2. In the sentences below choose the article which is appropriate.


1) There are many ways for tourists to get around London. If you don't mind
travelling in tunnels, take an/the underground; if you like to see where
you're going, sit on the top deck of a/ the bus; and if you're in a hurry, take
a/the taxi.
2) He was a supreme master of –/ a ballet.
3) She has returned to a /the theatre after an absence of five years.
4) Our lives are dominated by –/ a television.
5) This town is boring. What we need is a / the cinema.
6) You're dressed up! – Yes, we're going to –/ the opera.

3. Where you find a noun phrase without an article put in a/an or the if
necessary.
One hundred and thirty-six years after his death Turner’s great gift of his
paintings has found permanent home in Clore Gallery, newly built extension to
Tate Gallery on Millbank. Here in splendid suite of rooms entire contents of his
studio can be seen arranged in beautiful and instructive sequence following
central themes of Turner’s art. Book provides readable and accessible
introduction to display, and includes account of collection of works on paper,
together with guide to use of Study Room in which they can be examined by
public.
Articles 125

4. Fill in the gaps with a/an or the if necessary.


My aunt Vanessa is (1) ….. artist. She lives in (2) ….. beautiful old cottage
by (3) ….. sea and she paints (4) ….. small pictures of wild flowers and birds.
She doesn't like leaving (5) ….. cottage, but once (6) ….. year she travels by (7)
….. train to London and has (8) ….. tea with me at (9) ….. Savoy Hotel. At the
moment I’m quite worried about her because she’s in (10) ….. hospital, but I’m
sure she’ll be better soon. I’m going to visit her (11) ..... next week.

5. Insert a/an or the if necessary.


1) People have always wanted to be able to fly like birds in ..... sky.
2) Every solar system has ..... sun.
3) ..... equator runs round the middle of ..... earth.
4) I'm looking for ..... atlas. Do you know where I can get one?
5) She's ..... mother of my best friend.
6) ..... height of Mont Blanc is 4807 metres.
7) She's ..... woman of great ability.
8) We knew who the murderer was at ..... end of the first act.
9) He's ..... cousin on my father's side.
10) We were surprised at ..... size of the bill.
11) Many children have ..... fear of injection.
12) When they reached ..... top of the mountain, they sat down.

Unit 4
Correct any misuses of the article.
1) French enjoy spending holidays in a countryside.
2) Sue bought a Picasso I was telling you about the last week.
3) Go down Kingston Street and turn right into the Mill Road.
4) She was the first woman to cross Atlantic in the canoe.
5) Harrods is probably the biggest store in Europe.
6) It is actually the same with a number of corporations like IBM, RCF and
Xerox.
7) The warm waters of Gulf Stream make British climate fairly mild.
8) You are not Marlon Brando, are you?
9) Rudolf Nureyev had been dancing on the stage of the Covent Garden for
more than 10 years.
10) My mother is always happy to get Christian Dior perfume for her birthday.
11) We hope this time our tennis players will be more successful in Australian
Open.
126 Articles

Unit 5
Complete these sentences using a/an or the if necessary.
1) He could hardly discern the outline of a house roof in ..... distance.
2) When you are put in ..... charge of people ...... set of essential skills will
help you become ..... good manager.
3) If you don't mind I could give ..... hand with packing.
4) Who would think Colonel Baxter could take ..... fancy to this poor little
creature?
5) It isn’t easy but I think we’re making ….. progress.
6) I lost ….. control of the car and crashed into a wall.
7) Make ….. love, not ….. war.
8) If you make ….. promise, you must keep it.
9) When buying a house, you should take into ….. consideration how near it is
to public transport.
10) He set ….. fire to his factory so that he could claim the insurance.

100/_____

Translate form Russian into English.


1) В Милане Леонардо очень мало занимался живописью, зато его
научная деятельность процветала.
2) Пока Донато Браманте строил собор Святого Петра, Рафаэль
расписывал последнюю комнату новых Папских апартаментов.
3) Впервые Минск был упомянут в летописях 1067 года в связи с битвой
на реке Немиге.
4) Здание Парламента – символ Лондона – величественно расположилось
на северном берегу Темзы.
5) Гавр – второй порт Франции после Марселя, расположенный на
северном побережье.
6) Старый Смит заплатил все свои долги, кроме долга некоему господину
Грину.
7) Вы не хотели бы пойти в кукольный театр?
8) Мне, наконец, удалось посмотреть “Лебединое озеро”.
9) "Раненные уже прибыли", – сказала девушка, вбегая в комнату.
10) В 1980 году моя семья переехала жить в Ливан.
Articles 127

Unit 1 MEANING AND TYPES OF ARTICLES


The articles are important for the English language. Not only are they
among the most common words in English, they are often vital for
successful communication. Changing one article for another, or leaving
one out, can often cause misunderstanding, for example, if you say "I
like English" (the language), when you mean "I like the English" (the
people). Articles can help you make the meaning clearer or choose
between meanings. Mistakes with articles do not always cause
misunderstanding, but they can let the rest of your English down.
There are two articles in English: the Indefinite Article a/an and the
Definite Article the.
The Indefinite Article is derived from the Numeral "one". It is never
used with a noun in the plural.
The Indefinite Article has two forms both in speech and writing: a [ ]
book; a [ ] student; an [ n] apple; an [ n] hour.
A is used before consonants and an is used before vowels.
The Definite Article is derived from the Pronoun that. It is used with
a noun in the singular and in the plural. It has only one form in writing
the: The rug was stained. But there are two pronunciations: [ð ] is used
before consonant sounds; [ði:] is used before vowel sounds: The same
name was given to this island [ð ]. The emphasis is on discipline [ði:].
You cannot use an article on its own: I like the idea. But not "I like the"
The articles go only with nouns, or words that behave like nouns.
They are therefore a kind of determiner: The town is small and
undistinguished. It is only a gesture.
There may be several words between the article and its noun: for a
fairly long period.
Not every noun has to have an article. There may be another
determiner, like this or that, his or my, or some, or no, or there may be
no article at all (sometimes called the zero article). He stuck to this story.
She ate some soup and that was all. They have no money to buy a house. The
flower needs water.
The articles occur as part of noun groups. A noun group is a group of
words based around a head, which is usually a noun:
Determiner modifier head qualifier
The tall girl with black hair.
Normally in speech the articles are not stressed.
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Unit 2 THE INDEFINITE AND ZERO ARTICLES


2.1. The use of the indefinite articles A/AN

The indefinite article a/an is the normal, neutral and most typical way
of referring to a single example of something, to one member of a class
of things. It is also used to refer to a thing for the first time.
A/An is used:
1. To refer to a group of people, animals or things: We could call it a
sort of romance between just a man and a woman. A dolphin lives in the sea.
NOTE: In this case the article has the meaning any or every.
1) in classification by means of descriptive labels:
a) origins: He is a Frenchman.
b) occupation: I'm an architect.
c) religion: She's a Catholic.
d) politics: He is a Socialist.
NOTE: Adjectival equivalents (where they exist) can be used in place
of nouns for all the above examples except occupation: He's American /
Catholic /Socialist.
2) with any kind of typical characterization: You are an angel/ a saint / a
beauty/ a chatter-box/ a lunatic.
3) with nouns in apposition to state that the object expressed by the
noun in apposition belongs to a certain class: I'd like to introduce you to
Mr Smith, a great friend of mine.
4) with pairs of nouns which are considered to accompany each
other naturally: a cup and saucer; a hat and coat. It's cold outside, take a hat
and coat with you.
NOTE: Take a hat and a camera when you go on holiday (here a hat and
a camera do not form a pair.)
2. With nouns in certain syntactical positions:
1) with nouns modified by:
a) a descriptive attribute: I spent a sleepless night. It was a cold
spring. We left the place after a hearty breakfast.
b) a descriptive infinitive: I made an attempt to smile.
2) with a noun followed by a qualifier, such as a prepositional phrase
or a relative clause: The information was contained in an article on biology. I
chose a picture that reminded me of my own country.
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3. 1) To preserve its old original meaning of one: A stitch in time saves


nine. In some languages, one and a/an are the same. In English a/an is
more common. One is only used:
a) when we want to be particularly emphatic or dramatic, meaning
"no more than one":. He's got one son. (not two or three);
b) when we are explicitly contrasting numbers, e.g. two kilos of
flour and one litre of water; She's got one Rolls-Royce and two Cadillacs or in
technical mathematical contexts;
c) when we want to highlight something or someone in a report or
story, and make them an important topic we are going to talk about. The
expressions like One day ... and One morning... are familiar openings
to important events in stories.
2) with uncountable nouns to mean one: There is a hair in my soup.
4. With abstract nouns:
1) with abstract nouns used in a particular sense: a love of music, a
love of nature.
2) with some abstract nouns like regret, comfort, pity, horror,
shame, relief, wonder, etc.: It's a pity/relief/ shame/ wonder/ horror, etc
3) with abstract nouns to denote a certain kind of a quality, feeling,
state, etc., which are modified by a descriptive attribute or an attributive
clause: We saw an eagerness in her eyes, which could hardly be forgotten.
5. With numerals:
1) with numerals hundred, thousand, million to mean one and
the nouns that refer to whole numbers, fractions, money, weights or
measures, time: A week has passed. The case weighs a hundred pounds. We
go there twice a fortnight.
NOTE: In measuring per can replace a/an: He was paid $30 a/per day.
2) with ordinal numerals meaning one more or another: He must have
a third attempt.
3) with the nouns period, population, distance, height, salary, etc
followed by of + numeral + noun: She was working for a period of ten days.
So far we have covered a distance of thirty miles.
4) with some expressions of quantity: a pair of, a little, a couple of, a
few; three times a day; forty miles an hour; He bought a pair of shoes.
6. In exclamations with What + a countable noun: What an idea!
What a lovely day! What a beautiful sight!
7. After half, many, quite, such, rather: There was half a cup of coffee
left. He spent many a lonely day there. She is quite a child.
NOTE: A or an either precedes or follows rather: Seaford is rather a
pleasant town. He told me a rather long story.
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8. To follow the attribute expressed by an adjective after as, how,


so, too: It was as black a house inside as outside. She is too a good woman for
him.
9. With uncountable nouns to express the meaning 'a type of' or 'a
portion of': a gin, an ice-cream, a soup.
10. With some illnesses: a cold, a headache, a sore throat, a weak heart,
a broken leg.
NOTE: A is optional in the expressions like catch (a) cold, have (a)
backache/ stomach-ache/ toothache/ earache, e.g.: I'm afraid the baby's got (a)
cold. I've had (a) toothache all night.

2.2. The use of the ZERO ARTICLE (no article)

No article is used for general, open-ended reference to any or all


members of a class.
Articles are not used with:
1) plural countable nouns: They packed goods in bags. These can be
modified by adjectives or other phrases: people throughout the country,
local museums, world nations.
2) uncountable nouns (always singular):
a) abstract: Knowledge is power.
b) colours: Yellow seems to be very warm.
c) food and drink: I like cheese. Lemonade has too much sugar in it.
d) substances / materials: The house is made of stone. Water boils at
100C.
e) activities: Reading is a real pleasure.
f) sports/ games: Millions of fans all over the world enjoy watching
hockey.
g) politics/philosophy: Feudalism is a political and economic system
of Medieval Europe. Positivism claims that sciences are the only
source of true knowledge.
h) languages: English, German, Chinese; but: the English language.
i) academic subjects and related topics: He is good at literature.
But: We study the literature of the 20th century; with adjectival
combinations: Renaissance Art, Medieval Theatre, Ancient
philosophy.
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3) names of days, months, seasons and holidays: She'll come on


Wednesday. I'm going on business in spring. June is the loveliest summer
month. Easter is my favourite holiday. But in the expressions in (the)
summer/ autumn/ winter/ spring the can be used.
4) names of meals: breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner, supper. They sat
down to tea. Breakfast begins at 8 o'clock. But: The lunch we ate in that bar
was modest (the meal is specified). She gave us a very nice dinner. (the meal
is classified)
5) names of places at home, in bed, at work, in hospital, at
college, in prison, in church when we refer to their "primary purpose",
that is the activity associated with them: She is taken to hospital. (to be
treated) He was sent to prison ( to serve the term of punishment).
NOTE: to be in the bed = an article of furniture is meant;
to go to the prison = the building is meant;
to leave the college = to leave the building;
The workmen went to the church to repair the roof (They didn't go to a
religious service.)
6) transport: by air, by car, by plane, by train, by tube, on foot,
etc.: Travelling by air is very convenient.
7) names of illnesses: bronchitis, pneumonia, quinsy, malaria, etc. But:
the can be used with some common infectious diseases: (the) flu, (the)
measles, (the) mumps.
8) "pairs" joined by and: day and night, father and son, husband and
wife, light and dark, young and old, son and moon: She couldn't stop thinking
about it day and night.
9) an uncountable noun or a plural countable after what and such:
What lovely weather! What chatter-boxes you are! They were such idlers! Such
love can only be seen in films.
10) the words television or TV when we refer to the medium itself or
programmes: Sally played small parts on television. But: Will you turn down
the TV? (the TV set is referred to).
11) the words radio, cinema, movies, opera, ballet, theatre when
we refer to them in very general terms as art forms or as professions:
Television is one of the greatest inventions of the post-Second World War time.
Amateur theatre was actually the first step in his artistic career
NOTE: When we are going to enjoy a form of entertainment we use
the definite article: Why not go to the movies for a change? Last Sunday I
went to the opera with my son and we had an enjoyable night.
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There are many instances in everyday life when both articles are
deliberately omitted to save space, time and money. This is usually
done in newspaper headlines, small advertisements, instructions,
shopping lists, labels, some dictionary definitions and notices: Bomb
Explosion Accident (newspaper headline); "Compact residence in select
suburb; 3 bed.(bedrooms), 2 recept. (reception rooms), kitchen and bathroom,
garage space, nice garden" (advertisement); Cut along dotted line (instruction).

Exercises
2.1. Rewrite the sentences using singular nouns with a or an if necessary
instead of plural nouns in italics.
1) Dogs make good pets. – A dog makes a good pet.
2) Lawyers usually earn more than policemen.
3) You don't often see good programmes on TV nowadays.
4) Sons are always a lot more trouble than daughters.
5) Nowadays you can buy computer-controlled washing machines.
6) I hate to hear children crying or dogs barking.
7) Has anyone seen newspapers in the sitting room?
8) It's not easy to learn foreign languages which are very different from your
own language.
9) Last night I saw interesting TV programmes about Eastern Europe.
10) Sheep are grass-eating animals kept for their flesh and wool.
11) Modern physical science is unable to explain phenomena of this sort.
12) Mice are small and shy animals but they can do a lot of harm.
13) The old gentleman gave Phillip six pennies. (шесть монет достоинством в
один пенс каждая. Употребите слово, обозначающее одну монету достоинством в
шесть пенсов).

2.2. Correct any errors. Put in a/an or nothing.


1) I'll try to give you a decent lunch.
2) They must have the third game to decide who is the real winner.
3) Have you got shampoo for a dry hair?
4) He made the effort to collect himself.
5) It was real pleasure to him to give a pleasure to others.
6) She was curious sort of girl.
7) The plane was flying at the height of 3.000 feet above sea level.
8) On the table the bottle of port was ready for him.
9) The third man entered the room.
10) I have wonderful clock, which is one hundred years old.
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2.3. Insert a/an, one if necessary.


1) One of my friends advised me to take ..... taxi; another said that there was
quite ….. good service.
2) ….. friend of mine lent me ….. book by Meredith. I've only ….. more
chapter to read. Would you like ….. loan of it afterwards? – No, thanks. I
read ….. of his books ….. few years ago and didn't like it. Besides I have …..
library book to finish. If I don't take it back tomorrow I'll have to pay …..
fine.
3) ….. man I met on the train told me ….. rather unusual story.
4) Most people like ….. rest after hard day's work, but Tom seemed to have …..
inexhaustible supply of energy.
5) I've told you ….. hundred times not to come into ….. room with ….. hat on.
6) It's unlucky to light three cigarettes with ….. match. – That's only …..
superstition. Only ….. idiot believes in superstitions.
7) He says ….. caravan is no good, he needs ….. cottage.
8) ….. plate is no good, we need ….. dozen.

2.4. What are these things?


An ant? – It is an insect.
1) A cauliflower? – It' s ….. 6) A skyscraper? – It's …..
2) A pigeon? – It's ….. 7) A pike? – It's .....
3) A dandelion? – It's ….. 8) A Rolls-Royce? – It's .....
4) A snake? – It's ..... 9) A fly? – It's .....
5) A rat? – It's ..... 10) A tower? – It's .....
Who are/were these people?
Beethoven? – He was a composer.
11) Pele? – He was ….. 15) Einstein? – He was …..
12) Shakespeare? – He was ….. 16) Marilyn Monroe? – She was…..
13) Paul McCartney? – He is ...... 17) Stephen Spielberg? – He is .....
14) Titian? – He was ..... 18) Elizabeth II? – She is .....
2.5. Write what his or her job is.
Ron flies an aeroplane. – He's a pilot.
1) Vera types letters in an office.
2) Tim arranges people's holidays for them.
3) Stella looks after patients in hospital.
4) Mary teaches mathematics.
5) Martha directs films.
6) John translates what people are saying from one language into another so
that they can understand each other.
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2.6. Where you find a noun phrase with a singular noun but no article, put in
a/an or one if necessary.
1) A/ (One) Chop won't be enough for Tom; he'll want two; he's small man but
he's got big appetite.
2) "I want volunteers for dangerous job," said the captain. There was long
silence. "Isn't there even man who will take risk?" he asked. Voice called
out from the back, "Will there be reward?"
3) I have flat on the top floor. You get lovely view from there.
4) Day new director arrived. He was ambitious, bad-tempered man, and the
staff took instant dislike to him.
5) Suddenly bullet struck street lamp little to Bill's left. He looked up and saw
man with gun standing at open window.
6) Bill fired twice. Bullet hit the wall, the other broke pane of glass. He heard
angry shout.
7) Day – it was dry day with good visibility – Tom was driving along country
road in borrowed car.
8) You're making mistake after another. Have you hangover or something? –
No, but I had very bad night last night. The people next door were having
party. – Bad night shouldn't have such effect on your work. I often have
three bad nights in succession. I live in very noisy street.
2.7. What is the difference between (a) and (b) in each pair?
1) a) Have some sauce with your hot dog.
b) Shall I make a sauce with the fish?
2) a) Plant and heavy machinery crossing only! (a road sign)
b) I've bought you a house plant.
3) a) Can I have some light?
b) Can you give me a light?
4) a) This is a work by a Flemish master of the 16th century.
b) Over there you can see the premises of the local glass works.
5) a) Spring seems to be coming.
b) There is no spring in his muscles.
6) a) Raspberry jam is really good when you catch colds.
b) Living in a big city you can hardly avoid the pest called a traffic jam.
2.8. Fill each gap with one suitable collective noun from the table. Mind the
articles.
a group, a gang, a crowd, a shoal, a swarm, a set, a pack, a flock, a bunch
1) There are swarms of mosquitoes in the forests of Scandinavia in the summer.
2) As we looked over the side of the boat, we saw ….. of brightly coloured fish
swimming just below the surface.
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3) There was ….. of youths standing on the corner; they didn't look at all
friendly.
4) You'll see ….. of cards on the bookshelf . Will you fetch them for me,
please?
5) The government has appointed ….. of biologists to look into the problem.
6) There is ….. of people waiting outside.
7) ….. of sheep had escaped from a field.
8) She gave me ….. of six sherry glasses.
9) She gave me ….. of beautiful roses.
2.9. Correct any errors. Put in a/an or nothing.
1) Last time there was fog here a plane crash-landed on the field near the
airport. The crew had lucky escape. A man broke his leg. The rest were
unhurt.
2) You've been great help to me; a day I will repay you.
3) My car broke down near bus stop. There was one man waiting for a bus so I
asked him for an advice.
4) He took one quick look at my car and said, "Buy new one".
5) – There was one woman here. The rest were men. – There shouldn't have
been even a woman. It was meant to be stag party.
6) Don't tell one soul! Not even your wife! – Of course not! I'd never tell a
secret to one woman.
7) Most of the staff had been there for only very short time, but a man had been
there an year and one half, so he knew little more than the rest.
8) Could you lend me one dictionary, please? I'm trying to do crossword
puzzle. – I'm afraid I've only got a dictionary, and Tom's borrowed it.
2.10. Rewrite these sentences with rather a/an or quite a/an.
1) The book was rather interesting – It was rather an interesting book.
2) The house we lived in was quite big.
3) The film was quite exciting.
4) My childhood was rather sad.
5) The car was rather expensive.
6) The school is quite good.
7) I met a man who was quite interesting.
8) When she was a child she was rather naughty.
9) The problem was rather difficult.
10) The letter she wrote him was quite rude.
Now rewrite sentences 1), 4), 5), 9) with a rather:
1) It was a rather interesting book.
2) etc.
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2.11. Put in a/an or some or nothing.


1) I've seen some good films recently.
2) Have you got ….. headache?
3) Are most of your friends ….. students?
4) Have you got ….. camera?
5) Would you like to be ….. actor?
6) Bill's got ….. big feet.
7) Do you collect ….. stamps?
8) Tom always gives Ann ….. flowers on her birthday.
9) Those are ..... really nice trousers. Where did you get them?
10) What ….. beautiful garden!
11) My neighbour is ….. photographer; let's ask him for ….. advice about
colour films.
12) We had ….. fish and chips for ….. lunch. That doesn't sound ….. very
interesting lunch.
13) I had ….. very bad night; I didn't sleep ….. wink.
14) He is ….. vegetarian, you won't get ….. meat at his house. He'll give you
….. nut cutlet. – Last time I had ….. nut cutlet I had ….. indigestion.
15) ….. travel agent would give you ….. information about hotels.

2.12. Answer these remarks using the words in brackets, as in the example.
Mind the articles.
1) Oh dear! I've split water on the floor! (to mind, cloth; to wipe up) – Never
mind! Here is a cloth; just wipe it up.
2) How did you get that puncture in your tire? (to be; glass; road)
3) I was surprised to hear that old Mrs Jones doesn't live with her family any
more. (to live; home- дом престарелых)
4) What do you think my son should do? He's just left school and he's not really
academic. He needs a job. (to get; trade)
5) Why did you choose this house in the end? (to have; land)
6) Mum, what's the Mona Lisa? (work; art; painting)
7) Now can I find out what the restrictions are on this car insurance? (to look
at; policy)

2.13. Fill the gaps with a/an, or some where necessary.


1) We had some delicious food last night.
2) We had ….. delicious meal last night.
3) There is ….. beautiful furniture in that shop.
4) There is ….. beautiful table in that shop.
5) I'm thirsty. I need ….. drink.
6) I'm thirsty. I need ….. water.
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7) She's just bought ….. expensive clothes.


8) She's just bought ….. expensive dress.
9) They booked ….. room in advance.
10) They booked …..accommodation in advance.

2.14. You are talking about the holiday you had with a friend. Use these
words:
accommodation, awful journey, beautiful scenery, chair, fun,
good weather, meal
Mind the article!
1) (It was quite easy to book a place to stay.) – Booking accommodation was
quite easy. But my room wasn't very nice. It didn't even have a chair in it.
2) (You were in a beautiful part of the country.) – It was a lovely place. There
was ….. all around us.
3) (The weather was good.) – And we had ….. while we were there.
4) (One evening you went to a restaurant with some other people.) – One
evening we had ….. with some people we met.
5) (You enjoyed yourselves at the disco.) – We went to a disco. We had …..
there.
6) (Travelling home was awful.) – We had ….. home last Saturday.

2.15. Complete each sentence with one suitable word from the list. Use each
word once only.
accommodation, bread, cookery, lightning, spelling, advice,
cash, information, luggage, parking
1) I can't cut this loaf. Do you have a proper bread knife?
2) I'm afraid that "neice" is ….. mistake.
3) There's usually ….. space opposite the church.
4) We need ..... box to keep the money in.
5) The tourist board have built ….. centre near the castle.
6) We decided to put ….. conductor on the roof.
7) Marjorie used to write ….. column in a magazine.
8) These suitcases are heavy. We must find ….. trolley.
9) I must rush. I'm going to ….. lesson.
10) Julie found her flat through ….. agency.

2.16. Complete these sentences using the noun in brackets in the singular or
plural form. Mind the article!
1) He gave me a box of my favourite chocolates . (chocolate)
2) His favourite food is ….. . (chocolate)
3) She bought ….. on her way to work. (paper)
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4) He placed all the important ….. in his briefcase. (paper)


5) I need some ….. to write this message on. (paper)
6) Hurry up! We don't have much ….. . (time)
7) She has visited us several …. (time)
8) He has no ….. but he is keen to learn. (experience)
9) We went for a walk in ….. after lunch. (wood)
10) His desk is made of ….. . (wood)

2.17. Choose one word from the words below to complete each sentence.
Mind the article if the word is countable or make it plural as appropriate.
chicken, dislike, improvement, language, life, success, education
1) Mary used to keep chickens in her garden until they started to get out.
2) A score of 40% may not be very good but it's certainly ….. on her last mark.
3) After so many previous ….. it was inevitable that one of his films would be
unpopular.
4) ….. is too short to worry about keeping your house spotlessly clean.
5) I've had ….. of green vegetables ever since I was a child.
6) Our students study both ….. and literature in their English degree.
7) I had to go through very strict and traditional ….. .

2.18. Translate form Russian into English.


1) Они были здесь час назад.
2) Большое количество молодых людей поступают в высшие учебные
заведения.
3) Не спеши! У нас много времени!
4) Раз в год мы стараемся навестить наших родителей.
5) Врач велел ему есть все без соли и пить больше воды.
6) Никто не любит плохую погоду.
7) Жизнь невозможна без воды и воздуха.
8) Он прожил долгую жизнь.
9) У него глубокие знания по истории. Знания можно приобрести
упорным трудом.
10) Передайте соль, пожалуйста!
11) Не сидите у окна, вы простудитесь.
12) Он указал на маленькое окно на пятом этаже.
13) Погода была прекрасная.
14) Я не могу плавать в такой холодной воде.
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REVIEW EXERCISES
2.1. Complete the sentences. Put in a/an, or some
1) I really ought to do some housework.
2) The people who camped in the field have left ….. rubbish.
3) I've been working on the business plan. I've made ….. progress.
4) The visitors are here for two nights. They are booking for …..
accommodation.
5) That shop has ….. nice sofa.
6) You'll have to pay extra for the taxi because you've got ….. luggage.
7) The flat is quite empty. I need ….. furniture.
8) I can't possibly fit this guitar into ….. suitcase.
9) You need ….. luck to win at this game.

2.2. Complete these sentences with a/an where necessary.


1) They have sold cargo of 6.000 tons of wheat.
2) He bought few books yesterday.
3) My friend, teacher of history, has been awarded a prize.
4) His sister has become doctor.
5) He opened the letter with excitement that he couldn't conceal.
6) We must charter second vessel.
7) I've bought pound of sugar.
8) Mrs Mirell has come while you were out.
9) What pity!
10) We're going to stay there for period of 5 days.

2.3. Insert a/ an if necessary


1) You'll get ..... shock if you touch ..... live wire with that screwdriver. Why
don't you get ..... screwdriver with ..... insulated handle?
2) It costs fifty-five and ..... half pence and I've only got ..... fifty pence piece. –
You can pay by ..... cheque here. But can I write ..... cheque for ..... fifty-
five and ..... half pence? –
3) ..... Mr Smith is ..... old customer and ..... honest man. – Why do you say
that? Has he been accused of ..... dishonesty?
4) I'm not ..... wage-earner; I'm ..... self-employed man. I have ..... business of
my own. – Then you're not ..... worker; you're ..... capitalist!
5) When he was charged with ..... murder he said he had ..... alibi.
6) – ..... friend of mine is expecting ..... baby. If it's ..... girl she's going to be
called Etheldreda. – What ..... name to give ..... girl!
7) I have ..... hour and ..... half for lunch. – I only have ..... half ..... hour –
barely ..... time for ..... smoke and ..... cup of coffee.
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8) I wouldn't climb ..... mountain for $1,000! I have ..... horror of ..... heights.
9) ..... few people know (hardly anyone know) that there is ..... secret passage
from this house to ..... old smugglers' cave in the cliffs.
10) I'm having ..... few friends in to ..... coffee tomorrow evening. Would you
like to come? – I'd love to, but I'm afraid I'm going to ..... concert.
11) He broke his leg in ..... skiing accident. It's still in ..... plaster.
12) I want ..... assistant with ..... knowledge of French and ..... experience of .....
office routine.
2.4. Fill in the gaps if necessary.
1) I see that your house is built of ..... wood. Are you insured against ..... fire?
2) The escaping prisoner camped in ..... wood but he didn't light ..... fire
because ..... smoke rising from the wood might attract ..... attention.
3) I had ..... amazing experience last night. I saw ..... dinosaur eating ..... meat
pie in ..... London park – You mean you had ..... nightmare. Anyway,
dinosaurs didn't eat ..... meat.
4) I'll pay you ..... hundred ..... week. It's not ..... enormous salary but after all
you are ..... completely unskilled man.
5) ..... little (hardly anything) is known about the effect of this drug; yet .....
chemist will sell it to you without ..... prescription.
6) I have ..... little money left; let's have dinner in ..... restaurant.
7) Would it be ..... trouble to you to buy me ..... newspaper on your way home?
8) ..... man is .....reasoning animal.

2.5. Translate from Russian into English.


1) У Анны завтра день рождения. Она собирается пригласить нескольких
друзей. Ее брат собирается пойти в универмаг. Он должен купить ей
подарок. Он хочет купить ей темно-синие перчатки.
2) Я попросил его купить бумагу и краски.
3) Детям необходимо молоко.
4) Добавь немного масла в суп.
5) Поставь соль на стол.
6) Я не пью молоко, я пью только сок.
7) Вчера я купил сахар и ягоды, буду варить варенье. Я очень люблю пить
чай с вареньем.
8) В этом районе производят добычу угля и нефти.
9) В этом районе добывают железную руду?
10)Генри начал работать в банке мелким служащим.
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Unit 3 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Most uses of the show that I (the writer/speaker) can assume that
you (the listener/ the reader) know who /what I am referring to.
Once a topic has been introduced, a speaker/writer can use the to
refer to people/things that are normally present in that situation. For
example, if someone is telling a story about a flight they were on, they
can refer to the pilot, the plane, the airport, the food, etc., without
having to be more explicit.
The is used:
1. To make a general statement about all things of that class (generic
reference): The dolphin is an intelligent animal (a certain class of sea
animals as distinct from other classes, such as the whale or the seal).
NOTE 1: The noun man is used without the when referring
generically to all human beings (not only all male human
beings): This will lead to a disaster if man doesn't face reality.
NOTE 2: Referring to a class is also done with:
a) a/an+ singular noun: A dolphin lives in the sea (a dolphin as
an example of a class of sea animals known as "dolphin");
b) no article + plural noun: Dolphins live in the sea (all creatures
with the characteristics of sea animals called "dolphins").
Using the here is more formal than using a or a plural.
2. When it is clear from the context/ situation what person or thing is
meant: Jill didn't turn round and the boy coughed quietly (the reader is
supposed to know what boy). Pass me the salt, please (the one on the
table).
3. When the noun is mentioned for a second time ("back reference"):
They had a son and a daughter. The son was in the Army.
4. To specify the thing or person:
1) by means of clauses and phrases: The book I recommended now
costs $5. The attempt to persuade her left him exhausted. He is the student you
wanted to speak to.
2) by an "of" phrase: The independence of my country is of primary
importance for me. The life of great people can teach us a lot.
3) with the meals when they are specified: The dinner at the Trenchers'
was enjoyable.
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4) with names of languages when they are specified: The English of


America differs from the English of England.
NOTE special uses: It is a translation from the French. What is the
English for "сосна"?
5. With nouns in certain syntactical positions:
1) with nouns in apposition or nouns forming part of an apposition
modified by a particularising attribute: Jenkins, the student you have
mentioned, has come. Pushkin, the great Russian poet, died in 1837.
NOTE: But if the person or the work of art is not widely known the
indefinite article is used: ‘Pericles’, a comedy by Shakespeare, is
hardly ever staged.
2) with nouns which follow the attribute expressed by the pronouns
both, all: Both the stories were interesting. All the girls looked charming.
6. With adjectives:
1) with adjectives without a noun to refer to all the people with that
characteristic , e.g. the sick means "people who are sick": It seems that
the unemployed can be kept out of sight. Many adjectives can be used this
way. Here are some common ones: aged, dead, disabled, elderly,
handicapped, homeless, old, poor, rich, sick, unemployed, young.
2) with adjectives meaning general abstract notions: No one can
achieve the impossible (things which are impossible). The following
adjectives are often used this way: impossible, incredible, inevitable,
new, obvious, old, possible, supernatural, unexpected, unknown, unreal,
unthinkable.
3) with comparative adjectives: The larger the biscuit, the longer the
baking time.
4) with nouns modified by adjectives in the superlative degree: Clair
is the prettiest girl I have ever met.
7. With ordinal numerals: Our seats were in the third row.
NOTE: In dates the is spoken, but not written: He came on March, 12th
(spoken as March the 12th); (on a letter) 12(th) March (spoken
as the 12th of March).
8. With the words meaning time sequences: the beginning, the middle,
the end; the first/last; the next; the following day; the present/ past/ future; in
the past he used to be an army officer.
NOTE: next and last are used without the in time expressions (next
week, last year, etc.)
9. In measuring expressions with by: by the pound/ kilo/dozen, etc.
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10. With parts of the day in the morning/afternoon/ evening: The


night was warm and beautifully still (specified by the particularising
attributes).
11. With musical instruments: Chris plays the violin.
NOTE: No article is used to talk about roles in a musical group or in a
piece of music: I don't know of any duets for piano and trumpet.
12. To refer to the systems of media: I don't like using the telephone
(phone).
Other words of this type are: the newspapers (papers), the press, the
post, the mail, the news.
NOTE: by phone (telephone), by post (mail).
13. With unique items (only one example or one set of them exists):
the devil, the Earth/earth, the equator, the sun, the moon, the
North/north Pole, the South/ south Pole, the Pope, the sky, the solar
system, the stars, the universe, the world.
But: A/an is used when there is an attribute before the sun, the
moon, the sky, etc.: A pearl-white moon smiles through the green trees.
NOTE: Some of them are like proper names and there is a tendency
to use a capital letter with them.
14. With the names of the seasons the is optional: (the) spring/
summer/ autumn/ winter.
NOTE: the + weather/ climate/ temperature is used in a general
sense: I believe that the weather can influence people's mood.

Exercises
3.1. Choose the correct form, with or without the.
1) Life/The life would be very difficult without electricity/the electricity.
2) Skiing/The skiing is my favourite sport but I also like swimming/the
swimming.
3) Second World War/The Second World War ended in 1945.
4) Do you know people/the people who live next door?
5) Are you interested in art/the art or architecture/the architecture?
6) All books/All the books on the top shelf belong to me.
7) Don't stay in that hotel. Beds/The beds are very uncomfortable.
8) Two of the biggest problems facing our society are crime/the crime and
unemployment/the unemployment.
9) I hate violence/the violence.
3.2. Answer these questions.
1) Was it a good film? – Yes. It was the best film I've ever seen.
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2) Is it a big hotel? – Yes, it is ..... in the city.


3) Is he a rich man? – Yes, he is ..... I've ever met.
4) Was it a bad accident? – Yes, it was ..... I've ever seen.
5) Is it a cheap restaurant? – Well, it is ..... you will find.
6) It's hot today, isn't it? – Yes, it is ..... day of the year.
7) What is you favourite flower? –The rose.
8) What is your favourite tree? – .....
9) Which bird do you like most? – .....
10) What is your favourite car? – .....
11) What is your favourite musical instrument? -– .....

3.3. Complete these sentences using the with the adjectives in the box. Some
of them can be used more than once.
rich, sick, blind, poor, injured, unemployed, dead, disabled
1) Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch for the blind.
2) Many people were killed in the plane crash. The bodies of ..... were taken
away. ..... were taken to hospital.
3) Every English child knows the story of Robin Hood. It is said that he
robbed ..... and gave the money to ..... .
4) Those people with jobs have enough money but life is not so easy for ..... .
5) Agnes has been a nurse all her life. She has spent life caring for ..... .
6) It is said that we should never speak ill of ….. .
7) Buildings should be specially designed so that can be used by ….. .
8) It is only fair that ….. should pay higher taxes than ….. .
9) In St. John's Park there is a special garden for ….. with strongly scented
flowers.
10) Life is found to be difficult for ……

3.4. Insert the where necessary.


Three learned Christian monks were travelling through Turkey hoping to
meet wisest man in whole country. Monks explained that they wanted to meet
him because they each had a question to ask him. Sultan sent for Nasreddin
Hodja who came to palace at once. First monk stepped up and asked his
question. "Where is centre of earth?" – At this moment centre of earth is exactly
below front right foot of my donkey". "How can you possibly know that?"
asked monk. If you measure earth carefully you'll find that I'm correct," replied
Hodja. Second monk stepped up and asked his question. "How many stars are
there in sky?" "As many as there are hairs on my donkey," replied Hodja. "As
you'll see if you count them." Third monk came forward. "How many hairs are
there in my beard?" he asked. "That is easy", said Hodja. " As many as there are
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hairs in donkey's tail. If you do not believe me step forward and we can pull out
hairs from your beard and hairs from donkey's tail one by one and count them."
Third monk was not very keen on this idea so he had to admit he was
beaten, so everyone could see that Hodja was wisest man of all.

Now answer these questions and retell the story.


1) Which man? – The wisest man.
2) Which country? 5) Which sultan? 8) Which donkey?
3) Which monks? 6) Which centre? 9) Which hairs?
4) Which palace? 7) Which foot? 10) Which tail?

3.5. Put in a/an, the where necessary. Retell the story.


Michael Jordan is American professional basketball player. He is often
considered greatest player in history of game. He led Chicago Bulls of National
Basketball Association (NBA) to five championships.
Jordan was born on 17th of February, 1963 in Brooklyn, New York. He grew
up in Wilmington, N.C., and entered University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill in 1981. As freshman, he made winning basket in 1982 national
championship game. Jordan was named College Player of Year in both his
sophomore and junior years. He left North Carolina after his junior year. Two
times Jordan led U.S. basketball team to Olympic gold medals in 1984 in Los
Angeles and in 1992 in Barcelona, Spain.
In 1984 Jordan was drafted by Chicago Bulls. In his first season as
professional (1984-1985), he led league in scoring and was named Rookie of
year. He missed following season because of injury. When he returned, he was
again success, scoring 32 points per game. He was only second player (after
Wilt Chamberlain) to score 3,000 points in single season (1986-1987). Jordan
was named NBA's Most Valuable Player (MVP) four times (1988, 1991, 1992,
1996) and was also named Defensive Player of Year in 1988.
In October 1993 Jordan retired briefly to pursue career in professional
baseball. But 1995 he returned to basketball again. In the 1995-1996 season
Jordan led Bulls to regular season record, best in history in NBA. Following
season he won his fifth championship with Bulls and was named MVP of NBA
Finals.
At 1.98 m, Jordan, guard, was exceptionally talented shooter and passer and
tenacious defender. His nickname is "Air Jordan" because of his extraordinary
leaping ability and acrobatic manoeuvres he used to evade defenders as he
approached basket.
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3.6. What do you think about these things? Work in pairs. Use:
In my opinion…./ I think…/ I don't think…/ I don't agree with …/
I'm against…./ I'm in favour of …
1) (divorce) – I think divorce is something necessary.
– I don't agree with you. You say silly things!
2) (terrorism) – ….. 6) (nuclear power) – …..
3) (smoking) – ….. 7) (modern art) – …..
4) (examination) – ….. 8) (horror films) – …..
5) (capital punishment) – …..
3.7. Put in the definite article where necessary.
1) The youngest boy has just started going to ….. school; …..eldest boy is at
….. college.
2) She lives on ….. top floor of an old house. When ….. wind blows, all …..
windows rattle.
3) ….. darkness doesn't worry ….. cats; ….. cats can see in ….. dark.
4) My little boys say that they want to be ….. spacemen, but most of them will
probably end up in ….. less dramatic jobs.
5) Do you know ….. time? – Yes, ….. clock in ….. hall has just struck nine. –
Then it isn't time to go yet.
6) He was sent to ….. prison for ….. six months for ….. shoplifting. When …..
six months are over he'll be released.; ….. difficulty then will be to find …..
work. – Do you go to ….. prison to visit him?
7) I went to ….. school to talk to ….. headmistress. I persuaded her to let Ann
give up ….. gymnastics and take ….. ballet lessons instead.
8) ….. ballet isn't much use for ….. girls; it is much better to be able to play
….. piano.
9) I'm on ….. night duty. When you go to ….. bed, I go to ….. work.
10) Peter's at ….. office but you could get him on ….. phone. There is a
telephone box just round ….. corner.

3.8. Complete these sentences. Put in the where necessary.


1) Two people were injured in the accident and were taken to hospital.
2) I was very tired and it was very late, so I went ….. .
3) Fred robbed a bank but was caught by the police. He was sent ….. .
4) Tom doesn't often go out in the evenings. He usually stays ….. .
5) Jill isn't a religious person. She never goes ….. .
6) In Britain, children from the age of five have to go ….. .
7) Children sometimes get into trouble if they are late for ….. .
8) There is a lot of traffic in the morning when everybody is going ….. .
9) Mrs Grimes has just had an operation. She is still ….. .
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10) When David leaves school, he wants to study economics at ..... .


11) Bill never gets up before 9 o'clock. It's 8.30 now, so he is still ….. .

3.9. Insert the if necessary.


1) He got ….. bronchitis and was taken to ….. hospital. I expect they'll send
him home at ….. end of ….. week. – Have you rung ….. hospital to ask how
he is?
2) Ann's habit of riding a motorcycle up and down ….. road early in …..
morning annoyed ….. neighbours and in ….. end they took her to ….. court.
3) He first went to ….. sea on a Swedish ship, so as well as learning …..
navigation he had to learn ….. Swedish.
4) ….. family hotels are ….. hotels which welcome ….. parents and …..
children.
5) On ….. Sundays my father stays in ….. bed till ten o'clock reading …..
Sunday papers. Then he gets up, puts on ….. old clothes, has ….. breakfast
and starts ….. work in ….. garden.

3.10. Complete these sentences using "the + noun".


1) It was getting dark in the room, so I turned on the light.
2) There were no chairs so we all had to sit on ….. .
3) As soon as I saw the fire, I called ….. .
4) We didn't have any stamps, so we had to go to ….. .
5) I had a toothache, so I made an appointment with ….. .
6) Ann had to catch a train, so I took her to ….. .
7) When we found that someone had broken into our house, we called ….. .
8) Bill wasn't feeling well, so he went to ….. .
9) We didn't have any money, so we had to go to ….. .
10)The plane was delayed, so we had to wait at ….. for three hours.

3.11. Complete these sentences. Put in the where necessary.


1) What ….. wonderful weather we are having today!
2) What ….. charming people your parents are!
3) ….. wood is much dearer than it used to be. In fact, ….. wood I used to make
….. shelves in ….. living room cost me a pretty penny.
4) ….. pollution is one of ….. greatest problem facing ….. mankind.
5) ….. moon and ….. earth both go round ….. sun.
6) How delicious ….. cake is!
7) They have two holiday homes, one in ….. mountains and ….. other at …..
seaside.
8) She is wearing …..jeans. In fact they are ….. jeans she wore last year.
9) ….. room was really tiny. We had to stand on ….. bed to close ….. door.
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10) Don't eat in this restaurant. ….. food is awful.


11) When I was at ….. school I was really bad at ….. History.
12) ….. flood did a lot of ….. damage to ….. monuments of ….. city.

3.12. Where you find a noun phrase without a determiner, put in a/an or the
if necessary. Retell the story.
Which was the fastest?
This is a story about Frenchman, Englishman and American who were
once travelling by train in Europe. Conversation was about how fast trains were
in their countries. Frenchman said, "In my country trains go so fast that
telegraph posts by railway line look like garden fence". Englishman said, " At
home trains run so fast that we have to pour water on wheels to stop them from
getting hot." American said, "That's nothing! I was once taking trip and my
daughter came on to platform to see me off. While I was getting into
compartment train started. I leaned out of window to give her kiss and kissed
instead cow in fields six miles down railway line."

3.13. Complete these sentences. Dramatize the story.


Once (1) a poor flower-girl, one of those whom one can so often run into in
(2) ….. suburbs of London, quite by (3) ….. chance overheard (4) …..
conversation between (5) ….. two gentlemen. One of (6) ….. gentlemen was (7)
….. professor of phonetics. He was saying to (8) ….. other that he could teach
(9)….. uneducated people to speak good English.
(10) ….. two men were having (11) ….. private talk, but (12) ….. girl, who
was hidden in (13) ….. shadow of (14) ….. house nearby was so interested in
what they were saying that she stepped forward, trying not to miss (15) …..
word. (16) ….. fact was that she had for (17) ….. long time been thinking of
learning to speak correctly, and now she saw (18) ….. excellent chance for
herself. If she improved her manner of speaking (19) ….. owners of (20) …..
big flower shops would not turn her down any longer. She asked (21) ….. two
gentlemen to buy (22) ….. few flowers from her and tried to speak to them, but
they didn't listen to her and soon went away.
Great was (23) ….. professor's surprise when (24) ….. next day (25) ….. girl
came to his house and had (26) ….. courage to ask him to give her lessons. At
first (27) ….. professor refused to teach her, saying it was no use even trying,
but (28) ….. girl insisted and finally he gave in.
(29) ….. first lessons, however, were rather discouraging: (30) ….. pupil's
lips were stiff, (31) ….. endless exercises tired her, and (32) ….. results were
poor: she failed to produce educated English sounds.
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(33) ….. professor was cross with his pupil and could not forgive himself
for giving in to (34) ….. girl. After (35) ….. while, however, he discovered that
she was clever . Soon she learned to give (36) ….. excellent imitation of his
own pronunciation. She took (37) ….. great interest in her lessons. She never
missed (38) ….. single chance of practising the sounds. In spite of all (39) …..
difficulties she never lost courage or gave up hope. As (40) ….. result her
English became so good that (41) ….. people who met her never guessed that
she was not (42) ….. real lady. Neither her manner of speaking nor (43) …..
way she behaved gave her away.
(44) ….. story of (45) ….. girl is to be found in one of Bernard Shaw's
most popular plays, which has been produced successfully both in (46) …..
country of (47) ….. author and in many other countries of (48) ….. world.

3.14. Insert a/an, the or nothing. Dramatize the story.


The man said to Hilary Graven, "My name's Jessop. I'm from (1)….. British
Intelligence Service. I think you've read in (2)….. papers about (3)…..
disappearance of young scientists from time to time. Quite (4) ….. few
physicists, chemists, biologists and other scientists with (5) ….. knowledge of
(6) ….. state security matters seem to disappear here, there and everywhere. Did
they intend to go? Were they kidnapped? These are (7) ….. questions you might
help us to find out!"
Hilary stared at Mr Jessop, "Me? How?"
The latter went on, "I'm coming to (8) ….. case of Thomas Betterton. He's
(9) ….. young brilliant physicist. His research was connected with (10) …..
security matters. Two months ago he left for Paris to attend (10)….. scientific
conference. (11)….. few days later he disappeared. His wife said she had no
idea where he had gone or why. She didn't seem to be anxious about (12) …..
husband. (13)….. short while ago she left London saying to her friends that her
health was badly affected and she needed a rest. We arranged to have her
followed. It was bad luck that (14) ….. plane crashed here on landing last night.
Mrs Betterton was taken to (15) ….. hospital with (16) ….. bad injury. She will
die in (17) ….. day or two.
"How horrible!" said Hilary.
Jessop continued speaking, "(18) ….. fact is that you resemble Mrs
Betterton very much. We'd like you to substitute for her and do what she
intended to."
"But that's a gigantic hoax," said Hilary slowly. "I'm sure they'd recognize
me."
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"That would depend on your acting properly. Do you feel like (19) …..
trying?" Jessop asked her.
"All right. I'll try to do this," Hilary answered.

3.15. Use the proper article if necessary. Retell the story.


One day while Newton was sitting in his garden under apple-tree, he saw
apple fall to ground. Of course, fall of apple is very common thing. Great many
people before Newton had seen apple fall to ground, but they had never taken
trouble to investigate such everyday occurrence. Newton was first man to ask:
"Why does apple fall to ground? What makes it fall? Why does it not go up into
sky? Or why does it not go sideways when it leaves tree?"
He thought matter over for long time. It took him many years to solve
problem. At last he found out that earth pulls all things towards its centre, and
that this was reason why apple had fallen towards earth and not away from it.
Newton also found that sun attracts earth and all planets, and that each
planet attracts other planets, just in same way as earth attracts apples.

3.16. Use the proper article where necessary. Dramatize the story.
A Man with No Juice
Like I've always said it seems my main job in Paris is to book people at (1)
– hotels, to make (2) – reservations for them at (3) ..... restaurants and to act as
(4) ..... guide.
(5) ..... other day I received (6) ..... call from (7) ..... two Hollywood song-
writers Sammy Cahn and Jimmy Van Hansen. "Look, Ben, we are coming to
Paris for the week-end. Can you help us with (8) ..... reservation?"
(9) ..... only hotel I could name was "George V". I had made (10) .....
reservations at most of (11) ..... Paris hotels for (12) ..... Americans who never
checked in and their managers did not speak to me.
"O'key," Mr Cahn said. "Get us two bedrooms and (13) ..... sitting-room."
"That may be difficult, because (14) ..... hotels are full now," I said.
"Well, use some juice, will you?" Mr Cahn asked.
"Juice" is (15) ..... Hollywood expression which means "influence".
I did manage to get (16) ..... accommodation and on Friday morning I went
to (17) ..... hotel not to miss the celebrities. By nine in the evening they had not
arrived. When I was leaving (18) ..... lounge (19) ..... room-clerk did not even
look at me.
On Monday (20) ..... same cheerful voices phoned me. Their colleague had
made (21) ..... reservation for them in another hotel and they were happy there.
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Cahn did not offer (22) ..... apology and I thought it would be rude to remind
them of the Hotel "George V".
At lunch Mr Cahn asked: "Do you have any juice at the "Excelsior Hotel" in
Rome?"
"No," I said in (23) ..... firm voice. "None at all."

3.17. Translate from Russian into English.


1) Директор завода сейчас занят, он проводит собеседование с одним из
кандидатов на пост управляющего кадрами.
2) Директор школы просит учителей (школы) заполнить анкету.
3) Моему сыну 6 лет, но он уже пробует учиться играть на флейте. Он
посещает музыкальные занятия. На дорогу автобусом у него уходит
целый час.
4) Любимый цветок моей матери – ирис.
5) Колледж стал одним из первых учреждений в государственном
образовании.
6) Сегодня удивительно ясное небо! Вечером можно будет увидеть четкое
очертание луны.
7) Почему в вашей комнате горел ночью свет?
8) Мы посетили выставку картин художника N на днях.
9) Вам бы лучше сделать эту работу сейчас, иначе вам придется работать
ночью.
10) Сначала мы хотели пойти в субботу в театр, но утром наши планы
изменились, и мы решили поехать за город на субботу и воскресенье.
11) Почему ты не можешь сказать мне правду? Ты можешь мне доверять.
12) Преподаватель выписал все ошибки студентов в последней
контрольной работе и составил несколько упражнений для тренировки
грамматических правил.
13) Молодой человек, написавший эту комедию, – автор нескольких
интересных пьес.
14) Вы читали сегодняшнюю газету?
15) Господин Попов сейчас не работает, он взял месячный отпуск, чтобы
подготовиться к экзаменам.
16) Я получил большое удовольствие от матча.
17) Петр купил билеты в театр на вечерний спектакль.
18) Студентов пригласили принять участие в конференции.
19) Проработав в больнице более десяти лет, Иванов стал опытным
врачом.
20) После тщательной проверки чертеж был принят.
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REVIEW EXERCISES
3.1. Insert a/an or the if necessary. Retell the story.
It has been announced that for (1) ..... third consecutive month there has
been (2) ….. rise in (3) ….. number of unemployed, rather than (4) ….. fall that
had been predicted. (5) ….. rise was blamed on (6) ….. continuing uncertainty
over (7) ….. government economic policy, and couldn't come at (8) ….. worse
time for (9) ….. Prime Minister, who is facing (10) ….. growing criticism over
(11) ….. way (12) ….. present crisis being handled. (13) ….. MPs are
increasingly voicing (14) ….. fears and despite recent devaluation of (15) …..
pound and cuts in (16) ….. interest rates, (17) ….. government still expects (18)
….. recovery of the economy to take three or even four years. To make (19) …..
matters worse, (20) ….. number of small businesses going into (21) …..
liquidation is still at (22) ….. record level, and (23) ….. housing market is
showing no signs of recovery. Some people expect a general election before
(24) ….. end of (25) ….. winter unless there is (26) ….. rapid change of (27)
….. fortune.
3.2. Insert a/an, the if necessary. Retell the story.
Lovesick teenager snatched from cliff.
(1) ..... lovesick teenager, threatening to jump seventy feet from (2) .....
cliffs at (3) ..... seaside resort, was saved by (4) ..... human chain of (5) .....
policemen today. (6) ..... eighteen-year old boy had driven from his home in (7)
..... Lake District to Langhorn, near (8) ..... Bournemouth, to talk his girlfriend
out of breaking off their three-month romance. He threatened to jump off (9)
..... balcony at her house, but when she dialed (10) ..... 999 he dashed to (11)
..... edge of (12) ..... cliffs below (13) ..... Metropol Hotel. (14) ..... police
found him sitting on (15) ..... edge. They chatted to him for twenty minutes in
(16) ..... darkness, then clung together and grabbed him. He was later released
after (17) ..... treatment by (18) ..... hospital doctor. (19) ..... police spokesman
said, "There was (20) ..... high wind, it was pitch dark at about 2 a.m., and (21)
..... grass on (22) ..... cliff top was wet and slippery. It was (23) ..... brave
rescue. It was (24) ..... case of (25) ..... unrequited love. The youngster was
upset after his romance broke up, but he has now recovered his senses."
3.3. Correct errors in these sentences.
1) A new campaign against the smoking is directed at the young women.
2) A half the time I get phone call it's wrong number.
3) I saw brilliant rock band perform at the Isle of Wight rock festival.
4) Do you know what the difference there is between the stoat and the weasel?
5) At the half-time the both teams seemed in a difficulty.
6) The earthquake could easily damage the Channel Tunnel.
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3.4. Translate from Russian into English.


1) Где конфеты, которые я вчера купил? – Они в вазе с печеньем.
2) Вода в этой реке очень холодная.
3) В авиации используют горючее высшего качества.
4) Чернила в моей чернильнице очень плохие.
5) Дети любят читать книги о приключениях и волшебстве, научную
фантастику и детективы.
6) Книги помогают нам больше узнать о природе, о мире вокруг нас и о
многих других вещах.
7) Это совсем другая точка зрения.
8) Дело в том, что на следующей неделе я буду очень занят.
9) Солнце садилось, становилось темно, и было похоже на то, что пойдет
дождь.
10) Они увидели, как хорошо одетый мужчина подошел к полицейскому и
что-то шепотом сказал ему.
11) Я так любила театр, что решила стать актрисой после того, как окончу
школу.
12) Это был самый счастливый день в моей жизни.
13) Я родилась в небольшом городе на Волге.

Unit 4 THE USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS

4.1. The Use of Articles with Personal Names

The names of people usually have no article: Anna Flintstone,


Christian Dobbs, Mr Taylor, Dr Stone, Captain Farrell, Lord Chesterton, etc.
Referring to family members normally requires no article either:
Father, Dad, Mother, Mum, Granny, Grandpa, Uncle, Aunt, etc.
1. THE is used:
1) to refer to a whole family or some of its members: the Davises, the
Dicksons, etc. The Price sisters have opened a boutique.
2) with names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute: You
are not the Andrew Manson I once married.
3) with names of persons modified by adjectives or participles: The
astonished Tom couldn't say a word.
NOTE: a) No article is used when personal names are preceded by the
adjectives old, young, poor, good, mad, kind. The
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adjectives can be capitalized and become part of the name:


Young Forsyte, Poor Uncle Roger.
b) The is optional when the title is a complement: Nixon became
(the) President of the USA. Blair became (the) Premier of the UK.
c) The is omitted when as is used or implied: Schroeder was
elected Chancellor of Germany.
4) with names of persons used as common nouns: Mozart has been
called the Raphael of music.
5) to emphasise uniqueness (with names of famous people): – I saw
Richard Geare the other day. – Do you mean the Richard Geare, the
Hollywood star?
6) in certain titles: the Reverend Peter Collins, the Prince of Wales (but
Prince Charles), the Duke of Westminster, the Duchess of York. Also: William
the Conqueror, Ivan the Terrible, Alfred the Great.
NOTE: If a title is followed by a proper name no article is used: Queen
Elizabeth II (the second), Prince Philippe, General Powell, Colonel
Bridges.
2. A/AN is used:
1) when the speaker or writer is suggesting that the reader or listener
does not know the person, something like "a certain" or "someone
called...": A Mr Jones called while you were out (некий, какой-то).
2) with a well-known name associated with typical features: He is a
Newton in his field.
3) to denote a representative of a family: "Florence will never be a
Domby," said Mrs Chick.
4) to refer to a product or work by someone: a Chaplin film, a
Channell perfume, a Laura Ashley dress, a Steinway piano, a Hemingway
novel, etc. Would you recognize a Titian? (a painting)
5) to refer to a copy or instance of something, especially a
newspaper or magazine: Could you buy a Cosmopolitan for me on your way
home?

4.2. The Use of Articles with Geographical/Topographical Features.

With place names the use of articles is fixed; some have the definite
article and some have no article. There are some hints:
a) plural nouns have the: the Bahamas, the Pennines
b) constructions made up of two nouns separated by of tend to
have the: the Strait of Dover.
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1. THE is used:
1) with cardinal points and regions: the North /South/West/East, The
Middle East, the west of England, the Balkans, the Lake District, the Prairies,
the Mongolian Stepps.
2) with a few countries that have plural nouns as their names: the
Netherlands, the Philippines.
3) with a few countries where the is optional: (the) Sudan, (the)
Lebanon, (the) Yemen, (the) Gambia.
4) with the countries: the Argentine (or Argentina), the Vatican.
5) with the countries whose names include the words kingdom,
republic, state, union: the United Kingdom, the United States of America,
the Republic of Ireland, the Soviet Union.
This is the same with abbreviated alternatives: the UK, the USA, the
USSR, etc.
6) with oceans, seas, rivers, canals: the Atlantic (Ocean), the
Mediterranean (Sea), the Danube (River), the Panama Canal.
7) with deserts: the Sahara(Desert), the Gobi (Desert), the Kara-Kum
(Desert).
8) with mountain ranges: the Rockies, the Himalayas, the Carpathians,
the Alps, the Grampian Hills.
9) with groups of islands: the British Isles, the Channel Islands.
10) with other sea features: the Gulf Stream, the English Channel, the
Bosporus, the Strait of Gibraltar, etc.
2. No article is used:
1) with names of continents, most countries, cities, towns and
villages: Asia, Europe, Germany, Manchester, Tonbridge, Singleton.
NOTE: a) the City (of London), the Hague (the is a fixed part of the
place name);
b) the is used to pick out a particular "version" of something:
The Paris of my youth no longer exists. This isn't the London I
used to know.
2) with geographical areas and administrative regions of countries:
Central Asia, Inner London, North (South) Carolina, Upper Austria, Bavaria,
Quebec.
3) with lakes, individual mountains, islands and bays: Lake Geneva,
Lake Baikal, Lake Ontario (but: the Lake of Geneva, the Ontario, the Great
Salt Lake); Everest, Mont Blanc, Kilimanjaro, Ararat (but: the Matterhorn, the
Eiger); Easter Island, Malter, Cyprus, Haiti (but: the Isle of Capri, the Isle of
Man.); San Francisco Bay (but the Bay of Biscay).
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4.3. The Use of Articles with Other Proper Names

1. THE is used:
1) a) with nationality words when the adjective ends in -sh, -ch, -
ese, or -ss: the British, the Dutch, the Chinese, the Swiss (referring to the
group as a whole)
b) the same meaning is expressed by plural nationality nouns with
the or without it: (the) Americans, (the) Russians, (the) Italians.
2) with historical references: the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Dark
Ages, the Bronze Age; but: Ancient Greece, Medieval Europe, Roman Britain,
pre-war Germany, post-war France.
3) with historical events: the Industrial Revolution, the Civil War, the
Great Patriotic War.
4) with public bodies and political institutions: the Army, the
Government, the Police, the Supreme Council, the High Court; the House of
Commons/Lords, the Foreign Ministry; but: Parliament, Congress.
5) before the names of the universities with of: the University of
Edinburgh, the University of London; but: London University, Moscow
University.
6) before some places, buildings with of: the Bank of England, the
House of Parliament, the Tower of London.
7) with pubs: the White Horse, the Green Rider, the Three Mariners.
8) with cinemas: the Odeon, the Gaumont, the Classic.
9) with hotels, restaurants, theatres, hospitals: the Savoy (Hotel), the
Ritz (Hotel), the Bombay Restaurant, the Coliseum (Theatre), the London
Hospital. But if a place-name includes another name no article is used:
Bertram's Hotel, Leon's (Restaurant) Her Majesty's Theatre, Guy's (Hospital),
Covent Garden, Carnegie Hall.
10) with museums and galleries: the British Museum, the Fine Arts
Museum, the Tate Gallery, the National Gallery.
11) with names of ships and trains: the Titanic, the Queen Elizabeth, the
Orient Express.
NOTE: Spacecraft tend to have no article: Challenger, Shuttle, Apollo,
Soyuz.
12) with newspapers: the Times, the Guardian, the Daily Telegraph.
13) with the names of musical groups which have a plural noun: the
Rolling Stones, the Beatles, the Eagles, but: Pink Floyd, Queen, Smokey.
14) with names of sporting events: the Olympic Games, the World Cup,
the Cup Final, the Grand National, the British Open. But names taken from
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the place where the event occurs take no article: Wimbledon (for tennis),
Ascot and Epsom (for horse-racing events).
15) with titles of stories and novels: "The Lord of the Flies" by W.
Golding, "The Catcher in the Rye" by D. Salinger, "The Apple Tree" by
J.Galsworthy.

2. No article is used:
1) with airports, bridges, chains of shops, parks, stations: Heathrow,
Waterloo Bridge, Selfridges (shops), Harrods (store), Central Park, Hyde
Park, Paddington Station, but the Golden Gate Bridge, the Scotch House
(shop).
2) with names of business and charities (even when an abbreviation
is used): General Motors, Sony, Shell, BA (British Airways), IBM, Oxfam,
Christian Aid. If the word "company" is mentioned the is used: the Bell
Telephone Company, the General Electric Company, but General Electric
(GEC).
3) with streets and squares: Bond Street, Portobello Road, Piccadilly
Circus, Madison Avenue; but: the High Street, the Strand, the Drive, the Mall.
4) with titles of magazines: Newsweek, Punch, Which, Time.
5) with some places of interest: Buckingham Palace, Westminster
Abbey, Windsor Castle.
6) with names of religious and other festivals: Christmas, Easter,
Victory Day, Thanksgiving Day, etc.

Exercises
4.1. Read the sentences and mark where the should be.
1) I have been to United Kingdom, Germany and Soviet Union, but never to
Poland. (the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union) (2)
2) Amazon in Brazil is the longest river in South America.
3) Japan and United States are separated by Pacific Ocean.
4) Liverpool is in north of England, fairly close to Wales.
5) I would love to go to Jamaica, Bahamas or somewhere else in Caribbean.
6) Suez Canal flows through north of Egypt from Port Said to Suez, joining
Mediterranean to Gulf of Suez and Red Sea.
7) Lake Windermere in north-west of England is one of the largest lakes on
British Isles.
8) Iran has borders with Iraq, Turkey, Russia, Afghanistan and West Pakistan.
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9) Mount Everest is in Himalayas on the border between Nepal and Tibet


which is part of People's Republic of China.
10) Biarritz stands on the mouth of Adour river which flows into Gulf of
Gascony in Bay of Biscay.

4.2. Insert the proper articles where necessary.


1) – John Din, ….. British exchange postgraduate, is studying ….. Russian
dialects. He has been staying at ….. Moscow university for over six months.
John has spent ….. great deal of his time in ….. library.
2) Mr Brown invited Victorov to visit ….. Houses of Parliament. Mr Brown is
….. M.P. for Leeds.
3) There are over 900 peers in ….. House of Lords.
4) There are 630 members in ….. House of Commons.
5) No ….. King or ….. Queen of England can come into ….. House of
Commons.
6) They saw ….. front bench on ….. Speaker's right. This bench is for …..
Prime Minister and ….. leading members of ….. government.
7) I wonder what the members of ..... Parliament shout when they like what …..
speaker is saying.
8) My train leaves from ….. Waterloo Station at 7.10 p.m.
9) ….. Queen Elizabeth II won't speak on TV tomorrow.
10) ….. West End is the symbol of wealthy and luxurious life.

4.3. Correct any errors. Put in the where necessary.


1) While we were in London we stayed at The Royal Hotel in the Albert Street
near the Trafalgar Square.
2) On the first morning we went to British Museum and had lunch at
McDonald's in the Church Street.
3) In the evening we went to a pub just off the Leicester Square , then we went
to a play at the National Theatre.
4) Next day we went to Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey and had
lunch at the Peking Restaurant.
5) We looked in Evening Standard newspaper and found there was a good film
at Odeon cinema near Piccadilly Circus.

4.4. Insert the if necessary.


1) I went to ….. France last year, but I haven't been to ..... Netherlands yet.
2) I live in ….. Tverskaya Street.
3) ….. Thames flows through ….. London.
4) ….. United Kingdom includes ….. Great Britain and ….. Northern Ireland.
5) St. Bernard dogs are named after a monastery high up in ….. Alps.
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6) ….. USA is ….. fourth largest country in ….. world after ….. Russia, …..
Canada and ….. Republic of China.
7) ….. English Channel is between ….. Great Britain and ….. France.
8) ….. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of ….. London.
9) When a student, Tom spent two years in ….. Africa.
10) ….. Houses of Parliament has over 1.000 rooms, and 2 miles of corridors.
11) Where's ….. John's raincoat?

4.5. Insert the where necessary.


1) Milan is in the north of Italy.
2) Everest was first climbed in 1953.
3) Last year we visited Canada and United States.
4) Africa is much larger than Europe.
5) South of England is warmer than north.
6) We went to Spain for our holidays and swam in Mediterranean.
7) Tom has visited most countries in western Europe.
8) A friend of mine used to work as a reporter in Middle East.
9) Next year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps.
10) Malta has been a republic since 1974.
11) Nile is longest river in Africa.

4.6. Fill in the blanks where necessary.


1) Does – Mark speak – Spanish?
2) Show me ….. Canary Islands on this map, please.
3) How much does it cost to stay at ….. Grand Hotel?
4) ….. Volga flows into ….. Caspian Sea.
5) Although the north of Scotland is called ….. Highlands the mountains aren't
high there – ….. Ben Nevis (1343 m) is ….. highest peak.
6) I've made up my mind to go to ….. Black Sea next summer.
7) ….. Lake Baikal is the deepest one in the world.
8) On Wednesday ….. Moscow Times published an article about ….. Marcus
Webb.
9) ….. Urals are old and not very high.
10) Every morning during breakfast bagpipes are played outside ….. Queen's
dining-room in ….. Buckingham Palace.

4.7. Answer these questions. Find out the answers if you don't know them.
1) What is the longest river in the world? (Amazon/ Nile/ Rhine). – The Amazon
is the longest river in the world.
2) Where is Bolivia? (Africa/ South America/ North America) –…..
3) Where is Ethiopia? (Asia/ South America/ Africa) – …..
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4) Of which country is Manila the capital? (Indonesia/ Philippines/ Japan) – …..


5) Of which country is Stockholm the capital? (Norway/ Denmark/ Sweden) – …..
6) Which country lies between Mexico and Canada? ( Venezuela/ El Salvador/
United States of America) – …..
7) Which is the largest country in the world? (United States of America/ China/
Russia) – …..
8) Which is the largest continent? (Africa/ South America/ Asia) – …..
9) What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America?
(Rocky Mountains/ Andes/ Alps) – …..
10) What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia (Atlantic/ Pacific/
Indian Ocean) – …..
11) What is the name of the ocean between Africa and Australia? (Atlantic/
Pacific/ Indian Ocean) – …..
12) What is the name of the sea between England and France? (Mediterranean
Sea/ English Channel/ French Sea) – …..
13) What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe? (Black Sea/ Red
Sea/ Mediterranean) – …..
14) What is the name of the sea between Britain and Norway? (Norwegian Sea/
English Channel/ North Sea) – …..
15) Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade? – (Rhine/
Danube/ Volga) – …..
16) What joins the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans? (Suez Canal/Panama Canal) –
…..

4.8. Complete these sentences if necessary.


1) I'd like to see – MrSmith please. – Do you mean the MrSmith who works in
….. box office or ….. other Mr Smith?
2) Did you come by ….. air? – No, I came by ….. sea. I had a lovely voyage on
….. Queen Elizabeth II.
3) ….. most of ….. stories that ….. people tell about ….. Irish aren't true.
4) When ….. Titanic was crossing ….. Atlantic she struck an iceberg which
tore a huge hole in her bow. ….. captain ordered ….. crew to help …..
passengers into ….. boats.
5) We're going to ….. tea with ….. Smiths today, aren't we? Shall we take …..
car? – We can go by ….. car if you wash ….. car first. We can't go to …..
Mrs Smith's in a car all covered with ….. mud.
6) Would you like to hear a story? – No, I've heard ….. stories about …..
Englishmen, ….. Irishmen, and ….. Scotsmen before and they are all …..
same.
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7) But my is not a typical story. In my story ….. Scotsman is generous, …..


Irishman is logical and ….. Englishman is romantic. – Oh, if it's a fantastic
story I'll listen with ….. pleasure.

4.9. Insert the where necessary and retell the story.


There is more water than land on our planet. (1) The largest and deepest
ocean in (2) ….. world is (3) ….. Pacific. Then comes (4) ….. Atlantic. (5) …..
Indian ocean is only a little smaller. (6) ….. smallest ocean is (7) ….. Arctic.
One of (8) ….. longest rivers in (9) ….. world is (10) ….. Mississippi, (11) …..
largest sea is (12) ….. Mediterranean, (13) ….. deepest lake is (14) ….. Lake
Baikal. Large masses of (15) ….. land are called (16) ….. continents. They are
(17) ….. Europe and Asia, (18) ….. North and South America, (19) …..
Australia and Antarctica.
There are mountain chains in many parts of (20) ….. world. Some of them
such as (21) ….. Urals are old, others like (22) …..Caucasus are much younger.
(23)….. highest mountain chain, which is called (24) ….. Himalayas, is situated
in (25)….. Asia.

4.10. Use the proper article where necessary.


(A) The USA occupies southern part of North America and stretches for
thousands of kilometres from Pacific Ocean in west to Atlantic Ocean in east. It
has area of over 9.8 mln sq km.
In north USA borders on Canada and in south it borders on Mexico.
Rocky Mountains in west have many high ranges. High at peak is Mount
Whitney 14,495 feet.
Among longest rivers is Mississippi which flows into Gulf of Mexico.
Population of USA is over 237.2 mln.
USA is highly industrial country. It is leading state.
(B) Netherlands is situated in north-western Europe. Country has area of over
41,000 sq km.
Netherlands borders on Germany in east and on Belgium in south. It is
washed by North Sea in west.
Population of country is over 14 mln.
Netherlands is not very rich in mineral resources. It is a highly industrialized
state.

4.11. Translate from Russian into English. Retell the story.


Венгрия расположена в Центральной Европе. Площадь – 93 тыс. кв.
км. Население – более 10 млн. человек. Будапешт (Budapest), столица
Венгрии, – один из красивейших городов Европы.
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Более 4/5 поверхности страны – низменная равнина. На севере


расположены Карпатские горы (The Carpathians) . На западе находится
большое озеро Балатон (Balaton), которое венгры (Hungarians) называют
"Венгерским морем". Озеро богато рыбой. Многочисленные туристы
приезжают отдыхать на озеро. По территории Венгрии протекает одна из
крупнейших рек Европы – Дунай (The Danube).
Венгрия – индустриально-аграрная страна.
4.12. Translate from Russian into English.
1) Какой климат в Шотландии? – Климат в Шотландии не такой мягкий,
как в Англии.
2) Северные ветры, которые дуют с Северного Ледовитого океана,
оказывают влияние на климат Финляндии.
3) Павловы редко ходят в гости.
4) Мне требуется двадцать минут, чтобы добраться до станции метро
"Пушкинская".
5) Беларусь находится почти в центре Европы, в самой западной части
Восточно-европейской равнины в бассейне Днепра. Западной Двины и
верхнего течения Немана.
6) Американцы считают, что качество жизни зависит от качества
образования.
7) Посреди Трафальгарской площади мы видим колонну со статуей
адмирала Нельсона на вершине.
8) В 1066 году герцог Вильгельм Нормандский разбил англичан в битве
под Гастингсом и стал королем Англии, известным под именем
Вильгельм Завоеватель.
9) В 1992 году королева Елизавета II посвятила Эндрю Ллойда Веббера в
рыцари.
10) Вашингтон, столица США, расположен на реке Потомак. Вашингтон –
политический центр страны. Вашингтон не очень большой город, его
население менее 1 млн. человек. Большая часть населения Вашингтона
– афро-американцы.
11) Г-н Бертон (Burton) сказал мне, что он пробудет в Москве недолго. Он
надеялся, что сможет посетить наиболее важный исторические
памятники, музеи и выставки.
12) Гид сказал нам, что известный русский архитектор итальянского
происхождения Растрелли (Rastrelli) спроектировал несколько
великолепных дворцов в Санкт-Петербурге.
13) Джордж сказал, что Москва очень изменилась с тех пор, как он ее
видел в 1999.
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REVIEW EXERCISES

4.1. Choose the correct form, with or without the.


1) When we were in London, we visited National Gallery/ The National
Gallery.
2) The British Prime Minister lives in Downing Street/ The Downing Street.
3) One of the nicest parks in London is St.James's Park/ The St.James's Park,
which is very near Buckingham Palace/ The Buckingham Palace.
4) Frank is a student at Liverpool University/ the Liverpool University.
5) Mr Jenkins reads Daily Telegraph/ The Daily Telegraph but his wife reads
Times/ The Times.
6) If you want to buy some new clothes, the shop I would recommend is
Harrison's/ The Harrison's.
7) We flew from London to Orly Airport/ the Orly Airport in Paris.
8) Tate Gallery/ The Tate Gallery is the main modern art museum in London.
9) My local pub is called Prince of Wales/ The Prince of Wales.
10) Have you ever visited Tower of London/ The Tower of London?
11) "Which hotel are you staying at?" "At Sheraton/ The Sheraton."
12) Diana and George got married in St. Matthew's Church/ the St. Matthew's
Church.
13) You must visit Science Museum/ the Science Museum when you are in
London.
14) Did you see the film at Classic/ The Classic (cinema)?

4.2. Correct any errors.


1) I'm very interested in the history, especially the history of Western Europe.
2) I've been to all the countries of the Europe with exception of Albania.
3) If you're in Paris, take opportunity to visit Louvre.
4) Crossing English Channel can be quite unpleasant in bad weather.
5) There is very difficult crossword in Times.
6) We took trip around London and saw the Tower Bridge.
7) Most main roads in this part of country follow line of the roads built by
Romans.
8) Address is: the Park Hotel, 42 the Castle Road, the Dover.
9) Have you got latest record by Gipsy Kings?
10) We spent pleasant evening having drink at a Robin Hood.
11) Nile flows right through city.
12) Summer I spent in USA was one of best in my life.
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4.3. Translate from Russian into English.


1) В России много больших рек: Лена, Обь, Енисей и другие.
2) Город Будапешт, столица Венгрии, стоит на Дунае.
3) В Гааге часто проводят международные встречи и симпозиумы.
4) Греки очень гордятся своей национальной кухней.
5) Муж моей сестры любит ездить отдыхать на Балтийское море.
6) На севере нашей страны лесов больше, чем на юге.
7) Восточная Чехия славится прекрасными озерами и свежим горным
воздухом.
8) Когда мы путешествовали по Тибету, нам удалось побывать в
Гималайских горах.
4.4. Translate from Russian into English.
Норвегия расположена на севере Европы. Площадь Норвегии – 324
тыс. кв. км. Население Норвегии составляет свыше 4 млн. человек.
Норвегия граничит с Финляндией и Швецией на востоке и
омывается Северным и Норвежским морями на западе.
Климат Норвегии мягкий на западном побережье, но на востоке
зима бывает холодной.
Озера и реки занимают 1/25 площади Норвегии, около 5000 кв. миль.
Большую часть территории занимают леса.
В стране имеются залежи меди, железа, никеля и цинка.

Unit 5 THE USE OF ARTICLES IN SET EXPRESSIONS

5.1. Set Expressions with A/AN


at a time do smb a favour have a swim
at a gulp fly into a passion have a wash
at a speed of for a long (short) time in a loud (low) voice
at a distance get (be) in a fury in a whisper
at a glance give a hand it is a pleasure
a hell of a fright go for a walk/ ride/ dance it is a shame/ pity/ pleasure/
nuisamce
a kind of; a sort of have a bath/ a shower make a promise
all of a sudden have a cold once a year/week/month
as a matter of fact have a fever take a fancy to
as a result have a headache take a seat
as a rule have a look tell a lie
be at a loss have a mind to keep a secret
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be in a hurry have a rest many a time ( on many


be on a par with have a smoke occasions)
be a success be on a diet

5.2. Set Expressions with THE


all the same= just the same keep the bed /to make the bed
be on the safe side keep the house
by the way lay the table
do the shopping on the one (other) hand
get the sack on the right/left
in the country on the whole
in the daytime pass the time
in the distance take the opportunity
in the doorway take the trouble to do smt
in the middle the day before yesterday
in the morning/afternoon/evening the other (of two)
in the night(during) the other day
in the original the same opinion
in the affirmative/ negative the right/ wrong side
in the past/ present/ future to tell the truth
in the singular/ plural What's the time?
It is out of the question by the kilo/ dozen …

5.3. Set Expressions with NO ARTICLE

arm in arm from beginning to end in time/ on time


ask for permission from east to west into consideration
at dawn from head to foot keep house
at daybreak from morning till night lose control
at dinner from side to side lose touch with
at dusk from time to time make fun of / love/ war
at first sight get out of bed/ town make progress
at noon/ midnight/ go down town move house
night
at peace/ at war go on board (a ship) on behalf of
at present go to sea/ be at sea on business
at random hand in hand on condition that
at sunrise/ sunset have good /bad luck on account of
at twilight have great fun on demand
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be at home/ school in addition to on sale


be/to stay in bed in charge of on tiptoe/ on foot
by chance in (for) fun out of date/fashion
by heart in debt out of order
by mail in demand out of place
by means of in detail out of sight
by mistake in fact pay attention to
by name in favour of shake hands with
by order of in honour of step by step
day and night in search of take care of
do business in sight to/at sea
find fault with in spite of take notes of
for hours run risks take advantage of

Exercises
5.1. Fill in the gaps using a/an or the if necessary.
1) I bought a hat and a pair of shoes at ….. shop. Unfortunately ….. shoes are
….. wrong size. I'll take them back tomorrow.
2) How much are the driving lessons? – Fifteen pounds ….. hour.
3) But I had ….. suspicion that he wasn't speaking ….. truth because ….. meter
readers usually wear ….. peaked caps.
4) He said, "As ….. matter of ….. fact, there was ….. explosion in ….. last
house I visited; and Mr Smith, ….. owner of ….. house, was burnt in …..
face."
5) By this time I had come to ….. conclusion that he wasn't ….. genuine meter
reader; and ….. moment he left ….. house I rang ….. police.
6) ….. fog was so thick that we couldn't see ….. side of ….. road. We followed
….. car in front of us and hoped that we were going ….. right way.
7) I don't know what ….. price ….. owners are asking. But Dry and Pot are …..
agents. You could give them ….. ring and make them ….. offer.
8) ….. postman's little boy says that he'd rather be ….. dentist than ….. doctor,
because ….. dentists don't get called out at ….. night.
9) Just as ….. air hostess (there was only one on the plane) was handling me
….. cup of ….. coffee ….. plane gave ….. lunch and ….. coffee went all
over ….. person on ….. other side of ….. gangway.
10) There was ….. collision between ….. car and ….. cyclist at crossroads near
….. my house early in ….. morning. ….. cyclist was taken to ….. hospital.
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5.2. Correct any errors where necessary.


1) After lunch, we went for walk by sea.
2) I'm not very hungry. I had big breakfast.
3) John was only person I talked to at the party.
4) We shook hands with host.
5) He is thoroughly selfish man; he wouldn't lift finger to help anyone.
6) I come to the school by the bus.
7) My favourite subject is the History, but I'm not very good at the Maths.
8) Leave early if you want to miss a rush hour.
9) Last night we had the dinner in the restaurant.
10) I went to bed late.
11) He took his shoes off and entered on tiptoe.
12) I have headache.
13) I have pain in my shoulder.

5.3. Use the proper article where necessary


1) If the Mrs Hillier phones, say I'm away on trip.
2) The burglaries are definitely on increase.
3) They'll go on trip to Caspian Sea.
4) They'll go to London by train.
5) I hope weather will be fine on Sunday. Then we shall be able to go to
country.
6) They will stay in Odessa for couple of weeks, then they go to Black Sea for
their holiday.
7) My sons are fond of football. They are football fans. They support same
team.
8) I have come here on business. I shall go home as soon as I settle some
business matters.
9) "Dixon has opened score," John shouted.
10) Has he gone to Sochi for pleasure or on business?

5.4. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary. Dramatize the story.
An Urgent Call
At about two o'clock on (1) a cold winter morning, (2) ….. doctor drove
seven miles in answer to (3) ….. telephone call. When he reached (4) ….. place,
(5) ….. man who had called him in said:
"Doctor, I must have strained myself. I haven't got (6) ….. sore throat, I'm
not running (7) ….. temperature, but I'm suffering from (8) ….. terrible feeling
that (9)….. death is near."
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(10) ….. doctor felt (11) ….. man's pulse, examined him and took his
temperature.
Have you made your will?" he asked at last.
"Why, no, doctor," (12) ….. man looked frightened. "Oh, doctor, it can't be
true, can it? You must prescribe (13) ….. medicine for me."
"Have you got any children? Send for them at once. Your father, too, should
be called, your…"
"I say, doctor, do you really think I'm going to die?"
(14) ….. doctor looked at him carefully.
"No, I don't", he replied. "You are as fit as anything. But I hate to be (15)
….. only man you've made a fool of on (16) ….. night like this."

5.5. Fill in the gaps with a/an or the if necessary.


1) The child is likely to be having ..... fever, his forehead feels hot.
2) The road was empty and our car was travelling at ..... speed of over a
hundred miles.
3) The film was so exciting that we enjoyed every bit of it from..... beginning
to ..... end.
4) When he left home for rather long periods Mrs Fairfax was keeping .....
house and did it fairly well.
5) A big box from the luggage rack tumbled down on our heads. It wasn't
heavy though, but gave us ..... hell of ..... fright.
6) It was dark and cold and a dog was heard barking in ..... distance.
7) Emmie laid ..... table, put some cold snack and a pot of coffee and they sat
down for the evening meal.
8) A barrister specializes in arguing cases in front of a judge on..... behalf of
his/her client.
9) Well, on..... one hand, it's good to be able to live on your own, but on.....
other hand, you may start feeling lonely very soon.
10) You won't believe, but I saw Kevin just ..... other day!
11) Sarah's mother was in..... favour of strict discipline and old classical
education.
12) Only the 5th film by Shephen Spielberg was ..... success but it enabled him
to choose what films he would like to make in the future.
13) Every country controls its news reporting when it is at ..... war.
14) The car raced down the road and soon was out of ..... sight.
15) This product is ready to be supplied on..... demand.
16) It was a good idea to have a picnic on this lovely island and all of us had
great ..... fun.
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5.6. Translate into English:


1) У существительного sheep одна форма для единственного и
множественного числа.
2) На наш запрос в швейцарское посольство пришел утвердительный
ответ.
3) Вы дойдете до площади Победы и справа увидите булочную, а слева
молочный магазин.
4) Эта дорога тянется с востока на запад более чем на 2 тыс.км.
5) Джейн стала на цыпочки и заглянула в окно.
6) Такие платья уже давно вышли из моды.
7) Кто позаботится об этом бедном ребенке?
8) Время от времени от Мартина приходили письма, и мы был рады, что
он жив.
9) Часами сидела старая женщина на скамейке в парке и смотрела, как
играют дети, а их няни судачат (сплетничают) о своих хозяевах.
10) Очень жарко! Почему бы нам не пойти искупаться?
11) Они, по сути дела, предали Тима, который так доверял им.
12) Последние дни он так нервничал и переживал, что в результате с ним
случился сердечный приступ.
13) Эта площадь названа в честь знаменитого мореплавателя.
14) Она открыла дверь и увидела двух мальчиков лет 10-11 в легкой
одежде, которые стояли, держась за руки.
15) Обменявшись быстрым рукопожатием, детективы тотчас направились
к машине.
16) Такие вещи не происходят случайно.
17) Политические разногласия не должны разрешаться путем войны.

5.7. Translate from Russian into English. Reproduce the dialogue.


A: Что ты собираешься делать в эту субботу и воскресенье?
В: Я еще не решил. А что ты предлагаешь?
А: Я бы предложил съездить за город на машине. Было бы очень
хорошо съездить на озеро. Ты ведь бывал там, да?
В: Да, собственно говоря; я был там в прошлое воскресенье. Меня
всегда поражает красота озера, но дворец мне не нравится.
Такая архитектура не в моем вкусе.
А: Тогда мы могли бы выбрать что-нибудь другое. Во всяком
случае, это прекрасная мысль. Только нам следовало бы
отправиться часа в два- три, чтобы избежать часа пик.
В: Встретимся завтра и договоримся о поездке. Хорошо?
А: Я согласен.
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5.8. Translate from Russian into English.


1) Сначала мы хотели пойти в субботу в театр, но утром наши планы
изменились, и мы решили поехать за город на субботу и воскресенье.
2) Мы больше не можем ждать его и подвергать всю группу наших
сотрудников риску.
3) Почему ты не можешь сказать мне правду? Ты можешь мне доверять.
4) Между прочим, дождь прекратился, светит солнце и стало совсем
тепло. Я бы с радостью поехал за город!
5) С одной стороны, я Вам очень признателен, а с другой, Вы ставите
меня в неловкое положение.
6) По правде говоря, я несколько растерялся.

REVIEW EXERCISES

5.1. Insert articles where necessary.


1) He drunk his whisky at gulp and ordered another one.
2) We approve of this report on whole though a couple of points need to be
reconsidered.
3) The question caught Larry by surprise and he seemed to be at loss fishing
for words to give a reply.
4) I tell you again and again to do one thing at time.
5) There was a long silence, then Irene's voice came in whisper asking me the
time.
6) If you've got flu, keep to your bed and have plenty of rest and hot drinks.
7) It isn't for the first time that he stays off work without any valid reason. I
won't be surprised if he gets sack in the end.
8) Why? You are always finding fault with me!
9) Moving house can be exciting, but if it happens too often it can make your
life hell.
10) I don't believe in love at first sight.
11) Who could think she will take fancy to this short, plain-looking man?
12) I'm afraid, we can sell them only by dozen.
13) As soon as Mathew turned out 16, he went to sea with his father and the two
elder brothers.

5.2. Correct any errors if necessary.


1) Knowing foreign languages gives you one of the greatest pleasures of
reading good literature in original.
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2) In a spite of all our efforts, we failed to get there on time.


3) I wonder what made you tell lie to your mother.
4) Robert would like to buy a small cottage in a country and live there after he
has retired.
5) Jurors are ordinary members of the public (between the ages of 18 and 70)
who are selected at random.
6) City dwellers lose the touch with the land and rhythm of nature. In addition
to this, they live under constant strain.
7) Her remark was obviously out of a place and she blushed.
8) Could you do me the favour, please?
9) – We couldn't buy tickets for today's performance. – Oh, what shame!
10) We might as well go for the ride in the country as long as you drive.
11) He looks like a man who can keep secret, I'd trust him.
12) Three factors at least should be taken into the consideration at this point.

5.3. Complete these sentences with a/an, the where necessary.


1) Why should you fly into passion? I didn't mean to insult you.
2) To tell you truth, I'm not very keen on fantasy films.
3) Marion is on diet, she is slimming.
4) We'd better check it once more, just to be on safe side.
5) We expect the committee to start its work day after tomorrow.
6) Every weekend I try to go out of town to feel the breath of nature.
7) I'm grateful to you for taking trouble to do it for me.
8) We needn't be in hurry, the train is due in 40 minutes.
9) The police interrogated more than 20 people in search of the evidence.
10) I'm glad to say you've made progress in learning English.

5.4. Translate into English.


1) Под его руководством группа из 10 человек работала над очень
важным заданием (проектом).
2) Больной опять позвал медсестру, на этот раз громким голосом.
3) Одевайся потеплее, иначе простудишься.
4) Пойду наверх взглянуть, чем занимаются дети.
5) В мастерстве Эндрю не уступал (был наравне с) этим двум известным
спортсменам.
6) Мне все равно, любишь ты меня или нет.
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7) У них обоих одинаковое мнение насчет того, как можно зарабатывать


деньги.
8) Я могу помочь вам в саду, если вы не возражаете.
9) Когда у меня болит голова, я стараюсь полежать и успокоиться.
10) Вы окажете мне услугу, если передадите эту записку мистеру Филби.
11) Мальчики остались без присмотра взрослых и к вечеру явились домой
в грязи с головы до ног.
12) Он вернулся на рассвете, тихонько повернул ключ в замке входной
двери и почти неслышно прошел в свою спальню.
13) С первого взгляда было очевидно, что в комнате кто-то побывал.
14) Когда меня нет, все идет точно так же.
15) Лиза делает покупки всегда именно в этом супермаркете.
16) Ты сам должен уметь заправлять постель.
17) Кстати, не одолжишь ли ты мне денег на пару недель?
18) Уже очень поздно. Не может быть и речи о том, чтобы идти на
дискотеку!
19) У меня плохое зрение. Я могу делать эту работу только в дневное
время.
20) Я получил это сообщение по электронной почте от моего друга с
Ближнего Востока.

PROGRESS TEST
1. Choose the correct alternative in each of the following sentences.
1) We're planning to go to Far East/ the Far East on holiday.
2) Dialyses is used for purifying blood/the blood if your kidneys don't work
properly.
3) I started learning to play violin/ the violin when I was five.
4) She'd always dreamed of going on stage/the stage, or at least working in
theatre/the theatre.
5) The roof of church/the church was blown off in the hurricane.
6) We went to church/the church last Sunday, as usual.
7) The Members of government/the government are most concerned about
economy/the economy at the present.
8) Apples/The apples are good for you.
9) Look at apples/the apples on that tree! They're very large.
10) Women/The women are often better teachers than men/the men.
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11) In Britain coffee/the coffee is more expensive than tea/the tea.


12) We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. Cheese/The cheese was
especially good.
13) Most people/ The most people still believe that marriage/the marriage and
family life/the family life are the basis of our society.
14) They got married but marriage / the marriage wasn't successful.

2. Use the proper article where necessary.


1) Bronte children – five girls and a boy – lived with their father and aunt in
Yorkshire.
2) National Gallery is situated in Trafalgar Square.
3) Londoners have particular affection for St.Paul's Cathedral, largest
Protestant Church in England.
4) In New Stone Age, the hunters crossed the sea to west of Channel and
settled along Western Shores in search of food.
5) She was not Jessica he married six years ago.
6) "Have sent you cheque 5.000 pounds. Please ship goods immediately" (a
cable).
7) This scholar was awarded Nobel Prize.
8) United Kingdom is a member of United Nations Organization, North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Commonwealth.
9) There is a splendid view of Lake Geneva from this hotel.
10) What joins Red Sea and Mediterranean?
11) David attended Princeton University.
12) Mrs White is waiting for you.
13) We can see unique pictures of "Titanic" buried in the depth of the ocean.
14) He left for Germany to study at University of Marburg.
15) NASA had a setback in 1986.
16) They are calling him new Elvis.

3. Fill in the gaps if necessary.


1) She spoke with ..... warmth about her friends.
2) ..... Thought of going to his native town filled him with ..... excitement.
3) Last night I heard ..... Rigoletto and enjoyed ..... music.
4) Have you ever met such ..... stupid boy?
5) Don't sit in ..... draught or you'll catch ..... chill.
6) They displayed ..... courage which amazed all of us.
7) To ..... joy of his friends he recovered very quickly.
8) He readily gives ..... advice to everybody who asks for it.
9) After he had done the same thing, ..... third time, his master decided to cure
the lazy animal of his tricks.
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10) Ann gets excited very easily and it takes her ..... long time to pull herself
together.
11) He isn't here now, but we keep in ..... touch with him.
12) John' s quite grown up now and has ..... strong sense of ..... responsibility.
13) My mother bought a hat for me ..... other day, but ..... style is quite out of
..... fashion now.
14) Jack seemed to be telling his new friend ..... truth, Bob had ..... feeling that
he was being deceived.
15) Jane went to Oxford and Mary took a course at a college, ..... two friends
never lost ..... sight of each other.
16) In your place I'd take ..... advantage of it.
17) We cannot stop producing these machines, they are in ..... great demand
now.
18) She is ..... kind of ..... person who never gives in, in ..... spite of all .....
difficulties.
19) I must ignore it as .…. serious threat.
20) I had meat for my main course yesterday, so I'll have ..... fish for .....
change.
21) Shall we order ..... sweet straight ..... way? What would you like?
22) It would be better to follow ..... path you've chosen.
23) I think you're running ..... awful risks.
24) Look at me. Don't I sit before you, just as much ..... man as you are?
25) She is ..... mother of my best friend.
4. Put in a/an, the or nothing.
1) I got ..... postcard from Anne yesterday. Sometimes, ..... postcards can be
boring but ..... one she picked out is lovely.
2) She went to ..... doctor because she had ..... terrible cold, but he said she had
..... flu and told her to stay in ..... bed.
3) I'd always wanted to play ..... piano, so we went out and bought ..... old one
for ..... children and luckily we've managed to get hold of ..... fantastic
teacher.
4) In ..... past, ..... lot of time was spent making ..... fire to warm ..... rooms, but
now with ..... central heating ..... fires are becoming a thing of ..... past.
5) What is ..... capital of India? – ..... Delhi.

100/____

5. Translate from Russian into English.


1) Куда вы едете в отпуск? – В Рим. Мы никогда там не были, и нам бы
хотелось осмотреть достопримечательности этого интересного города.
Articles 175

2) Прошлое лето мы провели в Крыму. Мы остановились в Ялте на


неделю, а потом поехали в Феодосию. Мы купались в море, загорали
на пляже и катались на лодке.
3) Вы будете присутствовать на лекции сегодня? – Да. Где она будет? – В
25-й аудитории.
4) Завтра Петр должен будет пойти в Бюро путешествий и заказать
билеты на пароход.
5) Они надеются, что путешествие доставит им большое удовольствие.
6) Нам нужно будет решить эти(деловые) вопросы завтра.
7) "Мы собираемся пойти на прогулку в горы. Хотите пойти с нами?" –
прервал его Петр. "С удовольствием. Я очень люблю бродить по горам
(ходить на прогулки в горы)," – ответил Николай.
8) Гаага славится своим Ботаническим садом.
9) Вам понравилось путешествие? – Да, погода была теплая, море
спокойное.
10) Какая сегодня погода? – День очень теплый.
11) Мне показать им дорогу в Ботанический сад? – Да, пожалуйста.
Chapter 6
PREPOSITIONS

ENTRY TEST

Unit 2
Put in the missing prepositions of time where necessary.
1) My brother got married ….. 10 November.
2) She won’t be out very long. She’ll be back ….. ten minutes. She'll be back
..... 12 o'clock.
3) How can the cars run ….. time with all these traffic jams ..... the mornings?
4) I was up very early, ….. time to see the sun rise.
5) I’ll be moving to a new address ..... Sunday morning ….. the end of March.
6) I waited ages for a taxi. I gave up ….. the end and walked home.
7) I’m going to see some old friends. I haven’t seen them ….. five years ..... I
left the University.
8) ..... winter ..... New Year's Eve people wish each other "Happy New Year!"
9) Nice Gothic cathedrals were built ..... the Middle Ages.
10) The students didn't speak ..... the meeting, but after it was over they started
speaking ..... the same time interrupting each other.
11) We won't be in town ..... the weekend. We are going to the countryside .....
next Saturday.
12) He usually pays me ..... Friday but ..... last week he didn't pay me ..... the
following Monday.

Unit 3
Complete the sentences using the prepositions of place.
13) There was a list of names ..... the notice-board. Our names were ….. the
top of the list.
14) Is Alex ….. this photograph? I can’t find him.
15) It’s a very small village ….. the south of England. You probably won’t find
it ….. your map.
16) I prefer to sit ….. the front of the car.
17) I love to look up at the stars ….. the sky at night.
18) You’ll find the weather forecast ….. the back page of the newspaper.
19) Sign your name ….. the bottom of the page, but write your address ..... the
left-hand corner.
20) My sister was seriously ill and she had to stay ..... bed for two weeks.
21) I'm hungry. What's ..... the menu?
Prepositions 177

22) There is a nice portrait of my aunt ..... the wall ..... the living room.
23) Why didn’t the bus-driver stop ….. the bus-stop ..... the end of the High
Street?
24) The office was ..... the tenth floor ..... the right , but the lift didn't work.
Unit 4
Put in the missing prepositions of movement where necessary.
25) They walked ..... the museum and saw a lot of interesting things.
26) He had lost his key but he managed to climb ..... the house ..... a window.
27) Welcome ..... the USA! Have you ever been ..... Chicago?
28) We are tired. As soon as we get ..... home, we are going ..... bed.
29) Shall we take a taxi ..... the restaurant or shall we walk?
30) When does your boss usually arrive ..... the office?
31) The boys jumped ..... the river and swam ..... the other side.
32) The stranger went ..... the shadowy alley ..... a small cottage.
33) The terrorists let the passengers get ..... the plane.
34) She got ..... the train and I never saw her again.
Unit 5
Complete the sentences using the prepositions in the box.
at, in, on, by, for, with
35) You mustn’t eat too much. You are ….. a diet.
36) ….. my opinion, violent films should not be shown ….. TV.
37) We are going to India ….. a short holiday next month. – Will you go there
..... air?
38) My grandmother died recently ….. the age of 85.
39) The house was ..... fire. It had been badly damaged ..... lightning.
40) It takes about an hour to get home ..... my bike and about half an hour .....
my car.
41) A fat man..... fair hair ..... a dark blue suit came out of the bank ..... a black
briefcase.
42) Will you pay ..... cash or ..... credit card?
43) Fill in the form ..... block letters and hand it to the receptionist. – Is it OK if
I write ….. pencil?
44) I liked sitting ..... the shadow of a huge tree ..... good weather. ….. general I
enjoyed my holiday last month..
45) I didn't mean to hurt you. I didn't say that ..... purpose.
46) When I was ..... holiday I spoke to my mother ..... the phone every week.
47) The books ..... Agatha Christie were read ..... millions of people. ….. the
whole most people find them rather interesting.
48) Did you read about an accident ..... the newspaper?
178 Prepositions

Unit 6
Put in the correct preposition after the noun.
49) The cause ..... the fire at the hotel last night is still unknown.
50) There has been an increase ….. the amount of cars.
51) Money isn’t the solution ….. every problem.
52) Can you take a photograph ….. me?
53) When she left home, her attitude ….. her parents seemed to change.
54) The advantage .... having a car is that you don't have to rely on public
transport.
55) What was the answer ….. that question?
56) I’m sorry I haven’t met you at the airport. The reason ….. this is that I’ve
been ill.
57) The damage ..... the car was serious.
58) We got an invitation ..... the wedding yesterday.

Unit 7
Complete the sentences. Use adjective + preposition combinations.
59) I felt sorry ….. my friends when they went for a journey to Scotland. It
rained every day and they had to stay indoors. They were very disappointed
….. their holiday.
60) Are you upset ….. what I said to you yesterday? Sometimes I feel a bit
jealous ….. my successful friend
61) I’m bored ….. my present job. I start my new job next week. I am quite
excited ….. it.
62) The neighbours next door are furious ….. us ….. making so much noise last
night.
63) I am fed up ….. the same food every day. – The fridge is full ….. different
food.
64) Why are you always so rude ….. your friends? Can’t you be nice …..
them?
65) These days everybody is aware ….. the danger of explosion. We are sorry
….. the situation but there is nothing we can do.
66) I suggested going out for a drink but nobody else was keen ….. the idea.
Nobody seemed interested ….. what I said.
67) It was very nice ….. you to do the shopping for me.
68) Why don’t you like him? – Because I’m dependent ….. him.
69) Who was responsible ….. all that noise last night? I got angry ..... all that
row.
70) Are you annoyed ….. me ….. being late?
71) My brother has just got engaged ….. his girlfriend. I am not aware ..... that.
Prepositions 179

72) You are very good ...... explaining things.


73) Three pupils were suspected ….. cheating in the examination.
Unit 8
Put in the correct preposition after the verb. If no preposition is needed, leave
the space empty.
74) Nick has applied ….. a job at the toy company . I'm sure he’ll get it.
75) My friend knows that he can rely ….. me if he ever needs any help.
76) Is he going to apologise ….. what he did?
77) He hasn’t got a job. He depends ….. his parents ..... money.
78) We don’t want to go out yet. We are waiting ….. the post to arrive.
79) Please, don't shout ..... me. – Sorry, forgive me ..... being rude.
80) Tomorrow evening the tourists have to catch a plane. They are leaving the
hotel ….. the airport at 8.30.
81) You'd better phone ...... the restaurant to reserve a table.
82) He apologised ….. his boss ..... the misunderstanding.
83) Don’t forget to write ….. us while you’re away.
84) She thanked ….. everybody ..... all the help they had given her.
85) He explained ….. everybody what they had to do.
86) The police described ….. me how the accident happened.
87) We only invited a few people ….. the wedding.
88) Can I speak ….. you for a moment? That’s urgent.
89) Are you thirsty? Would you care ….. something to drink?
90) I don’t care ….. the examination. I am not worried whether I pass or fail.
91) Please let me borrow your book. I promise I’ll take good care ….. it.
92) They looked ….. their keys but they couldn’t find them anywhere.
93) Why can’t he look ...... the problem ….. another point of view?
94) I had a strange dream last night. – Did you? What did you dream …..?
95) She loves this music. It reminds her ….. nice days in Spain.
96) Have you heard ….. a writer called Christie? – Yes, I have.
97) Thank you for your letter. It was good to hear ….. you again.
98) Do you want to hear ….. our trip? – Not now. Tell me later.
99) Don't blame other people ...... your own mistakes.
100) She dreams ..... becoming an actress.

100/____

Translate into English using different types of prepositions.


1) Я сейчас занят, но присоединюсь к вам через минуту.
2) В канун Нового года всегда много встреч (вечеринок).
3) Мы всю ночь ехали до Парижа и прибыли в 5 часов утра.
180 Prepositions

4) Семестр начинается 7 января и заканчивается в апреле.


5) Вы дарите друг другу подарки на Рождество?
6) Мы с братом прибыли в одно и то же время.
7) Мэри и Хенри всегда справляют годовщину свадьбы вне дома.
8) Я научился водить машину через 4 недели.
9) Они поженились в прошлом месяце.
10) Я люблю вставать вовремя, чтобы успеть позавтракать.
11) Железнодорожная служба работает недостаточно хорошо, поэтому
поезда редко приходят вовремя.
12) Я пытался выучить немецкий, но это слишком трудно. Наконец я
бросил.
13) Студенты провели вечер в конце семестра.
14) Не открывай дверь поезда, пока он не остановится.
15) Я живу в этом доме с 7 лет.
16) На следующей неделе я собираюсь в Париж на 4 дня.
17) Я заснул, когда смотрел телевизор.
18) Он почувствовал себя плохо во время полета.
19) Кто этот человек, стоящий у двери?
20) В Британии ездят по левой стороне дороги.
21) Я встретил свою двоюродную сестру по пути домой.
22) Я снял картину со стены.
23) Они проехали через мост и повернули налево.
24) Он перепрыгнул через забор в сад.
25) Она прошла мимо меня, не сказав ни слова.
26) Он вложил пленку в фотоаппарат, а затем вынул ее снова.
27) В котором часу он прибыл в гостиницу?
28) Я встретил Кэт на вечеринке.
29) Птица залетела на кухню через окно.
30) Они сели в поезд и больше их никто не видел.
31) Ты когда-нибудь был на футбольном матче?
32) Сегодня нет поездов. Железнодорожные рабочие бастуют.
33) Было слишком жарко сидеть на солнце, поэтому мы сели в тень.
34) Пожалуйста, заполните бланк печатными буквами.
35) Ты ездил в Германию по делам или в отпуск?
36) Машина двигалась со скоростью 120 км/час.
37) Я бы хотел однажды поехать в мировое турне.
38) Иногда у меня бывают проблемы на работе, но в целом я ею доволен.
39) Извините, я не хотел доставить вам неприятности. Я сделал это
ненамеренно.
40) Ты оплатил счет наличными или чеком?
Prepositions 181

41) Ты когда-нибудь влюблялся в кого-нибудь?


42) Мы встретились случайно. Мы не планировали встретиться.
43) Где выключатель? – У двери.
44) Сколько времени требуется, чтобы пересечь Атлантический океан по
морю?
45) Мы ехали шестичасовым поездом.
46) Вы видели заметку (объявление) на доске объявлений?
47) Вы видели эту статью в газете?
48) В котором часу ты добрался до работы?
49) Я видел Лиз утром. – Где? – В автобусе.
50) Я не расположен идти в школу пешком. Я лучше поеду на своем
велосипеде.
51) Они послали мне чек на $75.
52) Никто не знает, в чем была причина взрыва.
53) Прошлый год был плохим для компании. Был большой спад продаж.
54) Ты полагаешь, мы найдем решение этой проблемы?
55) Фабрика закрылась, потому что не было спроса на ее продукцию.
56) Его отношение к работе очень негативное.
57) Поезд опаздывал, но никто не знал причины опоздания.
58) Я был виноват в аварии, поэтому мне пришлось заплатить за
повреждение другой машины.
59) Существуют различия между английским и американским языками.
60) Мы получили приглашение на свадьбу.
61) Ты боишься собак? – Они приводят меня в ужас.
62) Большое спасибо. Было очень мило с вашей стороны помочь мне.
63) Глупо сердиться на вещи, которые не существенны.
64) Извините, что накричал на вас вчера.
65) Все были удивлены новостью.
66) Я уверен, что ты способен сдать экзамен.
67) Я под впечатлением от ее английского. Он превосходен.
68) Почему ты всегда завидуешь другим людям?
69) Я была в восторге от подарка, который ты мне преподнес.
70) Надеюсь, что ты не был шокирован тем, что я сказал.
71) Итальянский город Флоренция известен сокровищами искусства.
72) Рим был переполнен туристами.
73) Я не хочу ни от кого зависеть.
74) Думаю, что она приедет сегодня вечером, но я не уверен в этом.
75) Он эгоист. Он не заботится о других людях.
76) Я ищу Тома. Ты видел его?
182 Prepositions

77) Машина Линды старая, но в отличном состоянии. Она хорошо


заботится о ней.
78) Ты мне снилась прошлой ночью.
79) Я всегда мечтаю быть богатым.
80) Мы пожаловались менеджеру ресторана на еду.
81) Мы вызвали врача, так как моя дочь жаловалась на боль в животе.
82) Всех предупредили об опасности курения.
83) Начальник рассердился и начал кричать на меня.
84) Она крикнула мне с другой стороны улицы.
85) Они обвинили меня в том, что я эгоист.
86) Его родители не одобряют того, что он делает.
87) Все обвиняли меня в несчастном случае.
88) Моя зарплата слишком мала. Она недостаточна, чтобы прожить.
89) Я поздравил ее с успешно сданным экзаменом.
90) Сколько денег ты тратишь на еду каждую неделю?

UNIT 1 MEANING, USE AND CLASSIFICATION


1.1. Definition/ position of prepositions
Prepositions are words or a group of words (e.g. in, for, to, in front
of, etc.) used to show the relationship of one word to another. The word
"preposition" means "placed before" as prepositions are normally
placed before nouns or pronouns to show place, time, direction, etc.
Prepositions can also be followed by the gerund form. He is talking of
emigrating. They succeeded in escaping.
But there are some other possible alternative positions. Certain
nouns, adjectives and verbs can be followed by a preposition (advantage
over smb., proud of smth., interfere with smth., etc.). In two constructions it is
possible to move the preposition to the end of the sentence:
1) In questions beginning with a prepositions + whom/ which/what/
whose/ where: To whom were you talking? (formal) Who were you talking
to? (informal).
2) In relative clauses a preposition placed before whom/ which can
be moved to the end of the clause. The relative pronoun is then often
omitted: the people with whom I was travelling (formal); the people I was
travelling with (informal).
In phrasal verbs the preposition remains after its verb: The plane took
off (left the ground) He came round (recovered consciousness).
Prepositions 183

1.2. Prepositions/ adverbs, conjunctions


Many words used mainly as prepositions can be used as adverbs or
conjunctions: They were here before 6 o'clock (preposition). I've seen him
somewhere before (adverb). Read this document properly before you sign it
(conjunction).

1.3. Types of prepositions

English prepositions are classified as follows:


1) prepositions of time: I left school in 1980. The train starts at 6.30
2) prepositions of place: They live in Spain. There's a car-park in front
of the hotel.
3) prepositions of movement: When are you coming back to England?
They climbed into the lorry.
4) word and preposition combinations:
a) noun + preposition: I got an invitation to dinner yesterday. Our
company has a good relationship with the bank.
b) adjective + preposition: It was very nice of you to help me. The city
was crowded with tourists.
c) verb + preposition: The book is divided into 3 parts. The bus
collided with a car.

1.4. Problems of using

1. Russian and English prepositions can differ. That is why the


student has to know:
a) whether a preposition is required or not: influence smb. (влиять на
кого-либо), say to smb. (говорить кому-либо);
b) which preposition to use: medicine for smth. (лекарство от чего-
либо), work at smth (работать над чем-либо).
(see the list of differences between Russian and English prepositions
in Supplement)
2. There are few rules governing the use of prepositions. Learning to
use the correct preposition is a matter of developing a good sense of
what sounds right. Yet there are some aspects of preposition use that
can be formalized and they are presented in the Units below.
184 Prepositions

UNIT 2 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

AT/ ON/ IN (TIME)


At: 1) for the time of day: at 5 o’clock, at midnight, at lunchtime, etc.;
2) in these expressions: at night, at the weekend/at weekends, at Christ-
mas/at Easter (but on Christmas Day), at the moment/at present, at the
same time
On: for days and dates: on Friday, on 12 March 1991, on my birthday;
In: 1) for longer periods (months, years, seasons): in October, in winter,
in 1980, in the past, etc.
Compare: in the morning(s), in the afternoon(s), in the evening(s) but on
Friday morning(s), on Sunday afternoon(s).
2) to say how long it takes to do smth: I learnt to drive in four weeks (it
took me four weeks to learn.)
also in a few minutes / in six months, etc. (in six months’ time, in a week’s
time, etc.)= a time in the future
Do not use at/ on/ in before last/ next/ this/ every.

Exercises
2.1. Write at/on/in.
1) on Wednesday 9) ….. spring 16) ….. the morning
2) ….. October 10) ….. Christmas Day 17) ….. the end of my holiday
3) ….. 1999 11) ….. half past two 18) ….. Tuesday afternoon
4) ….. 10 o’clock 12) ….. next Monday 19) ….. the weekend
5) ….. the 1980s 13) ….. 8 July 20) ….. two weeks
6) ….. Christmas 14) ….. my birthday 21) ….. the past
7) ….. night 15) ….. the moment 22) ..... Sunday night
8) ….. the same time
2.2. Write at/on/in.
1) I like looking at the stars in the sky at night.
2) I often go away ….. the weekend.
3) The company started ….. 2000.
4) ….. autumn the leaves fall from the trees.
5) I will send you the parcel ….. the end of this month.
6) Jane’s birthday is ….. May.
7) Tom isn’t here ….. the moment.
8) I’m starting my new job ….. 1 September.
Prepositions 185

9) Let’s meet ….. 5.30 tomorrow evening.


10) Do they often go out ….. the evenings?
11) Did she go out ….. Saturday evenings?
12) Did you go out ….. Sunday?
13) We got up ….. 7 o’clock this morning.
14) Goodbye! See you ….. lunch-time.

2.3. Write at/on/in if necessary.


1) What does he usually do at the weekend?
2) They went to England ….. last summer.
3) Will you be at work ….. this morning.
4) I always feel tired ….. the evening.
5) I’m leaving ….. 2 days..... Monday.
6) I don’t like going out alone ….. night.
7) I go to bed late ….. every night.
8) Can you play golf ….. next Sunday?

2.4. Compete the sentences. Each time use at, on or in + one of the
following.
Sundays, the Middle Ages, 10 seconds, night, the same time, the 1920s,
12 April 1961, the moment, Christmas, 1989, about 15 minutes, the evening
1) John is a very fast runner. He can run 100 metres in 10 seconds.
2) Many of Europe’s great cathedrals were built ….. .
3) In Europe people send each other cards ….. .
4) “Can I speak to Ann?” “I’m afraid she’s not here ….. .”
5) We are just going out to the shop. We’ll be back ….. .
6) Jazz became popular in the United States ….. .
7) It’s difficult to listen if everyone is speaking ….. .
8) The first man flew into outer space ….. .
9) After a long working day I like to relax ….. .
10) If the sky is clear, you can see the stars ….. .
11) In Belarus most people do not work ….. .
12) The Berlin Wall came down ..... .

2.5. Two business people are arranging a meeting. Use at, on or in. Write
your own dialogue. Act it out.
A: I’m free (1) ..... the 20th March. Can we meet then?
B: That’s Sunday, isn’t it? No, I’m afraid I can’t see you (2) .....
Sunday. I’ll be in London.
A: I’d like to have a meeting this month. I shall be very busy (3) .....
April.
186 Prepositions

B: I’m having an extra couple of day’s holiday (4) ..... Easter, so


perhaps the week after. Shall we meet (5) ..... the 28 th ? That’s
Monday.
A: Well, I’ve got an appointment (6) ..... the morning but nothing (7)
..... the afternoon. How about (8) ..... Monday afternoon (9) .....
about half past four?
B: Yes, that’ll be fine.

2.6. Translate into English. Use the prepositions at, on, in.
1) Я не видел Кэт несколько дней. В последний раз я видел ее во вторник.
2) Цена на электричество возрастет в следующем году.
3) Я был приглашен на свадьбу 14 февраля.
4) Поторопись. Мы должны выйти через 5 минут.
5) Брат Джемми – инженер, но он сейчас (в данный момент) не работает
6) Надеюсь, что погода будет хорошая на выходные.
7) Я не люблю путешествовать зимой.
8) Это была тонкая книга, и я прочитал ее за день.
9) Моя машина ремонтируется в гараже. Она будет готова через 2 часа.
10) Телефон и дверной звонок зазвонили одновременно (в одно и то же
время).

ON TIME/ IN TIME AT THE END/ IN THE END

On time = punctual, not late.


If something happens on time, it happens at the time which was
planned.
The opposite of on time is late. Be on time. Don’t be late.
In time (for something/to do something) = soon enough.
The opposite of in time is too late. I want to get home in time to see the
football match on TV (= soon enough to see the football match).
At the end (of something) = at the time when something ends: at the end
of the film / month / course / concert
The opposite of at the end is at the beginning: at the beginning of
June, at the beginning of the concert.
In the end = finally
The opposite of in the end is usually at first: At first we didn’t like
each other very much, but in the end we became friends.
Prepositions 187

Exercises
2.7. Complete the sentences with in time, on time, just in time.
1) She was going to sit on the chair I had just painted. I stopped her just in
time.
2) A child ran across the road so I managed to stop my car ….. .
3) The train service isn’t very good. The trains are rarely ….. .
4) The bus will be here at ten thirty, if it’s ….. .
5) The post goes at five.. We are hoping to get this letter written ….. .
6) If the train is late, we won’t get to London ….. for our connection.
2.8. Translate into English. Use on time or in time.
1) Мы хотим начать собрание вовремя, поэтому не опаздывайте,
пожалуйста.
2) Я только что выстирал рубашку. Хочу надеть ее вечером. Надеюсь, что
она высохнет вовремя.
3) Я чуть не опоздал на самолет сегодня утром. Я прибыл в аэропорт как
раз вовремя.
4) Предполагалось, что фильм начнется в 8.30, но он не начался вовремя.
5) Почему ты никогда не бываешь вовремя. Ты всегда заставляешь всех
ждать.
2.9. Put in at or in.
1) He couldn’t decide what to give his mother for her birthday. He didn’t buy
her anything in the end.
2) Are you going away ….. the beginning of May or ….. the end?
3) It took her a long time to find a job. ….. the end she got a job in a hotel.
4) They are going away ….. the end of the month.
5) She didn’t know what to do. What did she do ….. the end?
6) My friend is going away ….. the end of this week.
7) At first Mark didn’t want to go to the party but he came with us ….. the
end.
2.10. Translate into English. Use at the end or in the end.
1) У нас были большие проблемы с машиной. Наконец мы их разрешили.
2) Все игроки пожали руки в конце игры.
3) Обычно я плачу за квартиру в конце месяца.
4) Джуди все больше и больше не нравилась ее работа. Наконец она
оставила ее.
5) Два бегуна сошли с дистанции в конце забега.
188 Prepositions

FROM…TO UNTIL SINCE FOR


From … to …: (from 1980 to 1990)
From … until …: (from 1980 until 1990)
Until (= till) + the end of a period: until Friday, until 10.30, until I come
back
Since + the beginning of a period (from the past to now): since Monday,
since 2 o’clock, since I arrived
Compare: We lived in Canada from 1985 to 1998. We have lived in England
since 1998 (= from 1998 until now)
For + a period of time: for 3 days, for 10 years, for 15 minutes, for a long
time

Exercises
2.11. Complete the sentences with for, since, from …to, until.
1) You ought to wash your jeans. You haven’t washed them for ages.
2) Alice lived in Canada ….. 1990 ….. 1999, didn’t she?
3) We could have a barbecue. We haven’t had one ….. last summer.
4) Aren’t you going to meet Jim? You haven’t met him ….. about six
months.
5) Let’s watch a video, shall we? We haven’t watched one ….. quite a while.
6) I think I’ll ring my mother. I haven’t rung her ….. the weekend.
7) Mary will work as a teacher ….. she is retired.
2.12. Put in for or since. Write your own dialogue. Act it out.
A: How long have you been learning English?
B: Well, I did it (1) ..... seven years at school, and I’ve been having
evening classes (2) ..... then.
A: And you’re staying here (3) ..... three months, aren’t you?
B: That’s right. I’ve been here (4) ..... the end of September. Then I’m
going to London (5) ..... a week afterwards.
2.13. Translate into English. Use until/ since/ for/ from…to.
1) Келли и Дик женаты с 1960 года.
2) Мы ждали полчаса, но он не пришел.
3) Как давно вы здесь? – С 8.30.
4) Как долго вы были на вечеринке вчера вечером? – До полуночи.
5) Джон и я – хорошие друзья. Мы знаем друг друга уже 10 лет.
6) Я устал. Я хочу лечь на несколько минут.
7) Джек уехал. Его не будет до следующей среды.
Prepositions 189

8) Обычно я заканчиваю работу в 5.30, но иногда я работаю до 6.00.


9) Я работаю с понедельника по пятницу.

BEFORE AFTER DURING WHILE AGO


Before-ing and after-ing: I always have breakfast before going to work
(=before I go to work). I started work after reading the newspaper (= after I
read the newspaper).
During + noun: during the film
While + verb: We didn’t speak while we were eating.
Ago refers to past time (one year ago = one year since it happened):
Five years ago I went to the tropics.

Exercises
2.14. Complete the sentences. Use before/during/after + the best ending
from the box.
before the end, the course, work, the night, lunch, the examination,
during + you cross the road, they went to the USA
after
1) Always look both ways before you cross the road.
2) Are you going home ….. ? – No, we’re going to a restaurant.
3) Somebody broke a window ….. . Did you hear anything?
4) My children lived in Paris ….. .
5) Carol went to evening classes to learn French. She learnt a lot ….. .
6) The play was very boring. We left ….. .
7) My husband usually has lunch at 12.00 and ….. he goes back to work.
8) I was nervous ….. .

2.15. Put in during or while.


1) He fell out of bed while he was asleep.
2) They don’t eat much ….. the day, but they always have a big meal in the
evening.
3) She read the magazine ….. she was waiting for her daughter.
4) The students looked very bored ….. the lesson.
5) I visited a lot of places of interest ….. I was on holiday.
6) Your husband telephoned ….. you were out.
7) They didn’t speak ….. they were watching the film.
190 Prepositions

2.16. Put in before or ago.


1) This film looks familiar. Didn’t we see it at the cinema two years ago?
2) A young girl threw herself off this bridge last week. Her boyfriend had left
her some days ….. .
3) The Smith family went back to live in London in 1990. They had lived there
five years ….. .
4) My radio is working now. They repaired it a week …... .

2.17. Translate into English. Use before/during/after/while.


1) Прежде чем съесть яблоко, она тщательно его вымыла.
2) Не забудь закрыть окно, перед тем как уйти.
3) Пока мы играли в теннис, начался дождь.
4) Кто-то за ночь украл машину.
5) Мы многому научились за курс обучения испанскому языку.
6) После посещения магазинов они пошли домой.

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Prepositions of time)

2.1. Put in the missing prepositions of time where necessary.


1) A new line of goods is due to appear on the market ..... half a year.
2) The tourists got to the hotel just ..... time. Some minutes later a terrible
storm broke out.
3) ..... the end of the match it started raining.
4) We tried to persuade him to accept our proposal. ..... the end he agreed.
5) The lesson didn't start ..... time, because the electricity was cut off for some
time.
6) Don't write a report ..... you get all the necessary information.
7) This information may be very useful ..... the near future.
8) The mountains looked fantastic ..... sunset.
9) May I phone you ..... eleven? Isn't it too late?
10) ..... present our group is working out a new management strategy.
11) They'll get married ..... next summer.
12) We have to wait for the answer ..... Friday. It's too late.
13) Mr and Mrs Smith have been married ..... 1961.
14) They didn't say a word to each other ..... they were travelling.
15) The first man walked on the Moon ..... 21 July 1969.
16) Rock-n-roll became popular in the United States ..... the 1960s.
Prepositions 191

2.2. Correct the mistakes.


1) My interview is on 4 o’clock in Friday.
2) We’ve been waiting here from ten minutes.
3) Are you leaving at Sunday morning?
4) He worked in a bank during three years.
5) My friends are on holiday on August.
6) I always visit my parents in Christmas.
7) Tom usually plays football in the weekend.
8) They’ve known me on my childhood.
9) She was born in March 3rd at 1970.
10) Kate was listening to the radio during she was taking a bath.
11) The doctors operated on the man just on time to save his life.
12) Are you doing anything in the end of next week?
13) Ken fell asleep in front of the TV in the football match.
14) The clock stopped in midnight.
15) He found his new contact lenses strange at first, but he got used to them at
the end.
16) The President of the firm is busy in the moment. He'll let us know when he
is free.

2.3. Complete the news item about the British runner Stan Crowe. Put in the
missing prepositions.
Stan Crowe hopes to run against James Boto of Kenya in a 1500 metres race
in Paris (1) ….. June 16th. Both men will want to break Cliff Holding’s world
record. Holding ran the 1500 metres (2) ….. 3 minutes 28 seconds last year.
Holding will also be running in Seattle (3) ….. June 14 th, two days (4) ….. the
Paris meeting.
British fans have been hoping (5) ….. several months to see Crowe win
back his record. He last ran against Boto (6) ….. April, when he fell and hurt
himself (7) ….. the race. He was just behind Boto (8) ….. the time. The two
men had not met (9) ….. the last Olympic Games in Peking. Crowe has had to
rest (10) ….. his accident, but he was back in action (11) ….. seven o’clock
(12) ….. Saturday evening when he won a rather slow race in Edinburgh. He
hopes to be fully fit by the end of this month at the latest . If he is not fit for
Paris, he will have to wait (13) ….. the Commonwealth Games. These Games
take place in Ottawa (14) ….. August 14th (15) ….. 20th.

2.4. Translate into English using the prepositions of time.


1) Моцарт родился в Зальцбурге в 1756 году.
2) В субботу вечером я лег спать в 11 часов.
192 Prepositions

3) Возможно, меня не будет дома во вторник утром, но я, вероятно, буду


днем.
4) Хэнри 63 года, и он уходит на пенсию через 2 года.
5) Сегодня утром автобус опоздал, хотя обычно он приходит вовремя.
6) Я чуть не забыл о дне рождения Мэри. К счастью, я вовремя вспомнил.
7) Я не мог решить, пойти ли мне на вечеринку. Наконец я решил не
ходить.
8) К моему удивлению, в конце собеседования мне предложили работу.
9) Утром я чувствовал себя уставшим. Я оставался в постели до 10 часов.
10) Как давно ты знаком с Алисой?– Со школы.
11) Где ты был? Я жду тебя уже 20 минут.
12) В последний раз я посещал зубного врача 10 лет назад.
13) Все очень нервничали перед экзаменом.
14) Мы устали после посещения музея.
15) Она написала письмо, пока была в отпуске.
16) Мой друг будет здесь в выходные.

UNIT 3 PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

IN/ AT/ ON/ (PLACE) (1)

Study these examples:


In: in a room, in a garden, in a building, in a town/city, in a box, in a
country
At: at the bus stop, at the top (of the page), at the bottom (of the page), at the
door, at the window, at the end of the street
On: on the floor, on her nose, on the wall, on a page, on the door, on an
island, on the table, on top of the mountain.
Compare in and at: There were a lot of people in the shop. It was very
crowded.
But: Go along this road, then turn left at the shop (somebody giving
directions).
Compare in and on: There is some water in the bottle.
But: There is a label on the bottle.
Compare at and on: There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see
who it is?
But: There is a notice on the door. It says "Don’t disturb".
Prepositions 193

IN/ AT/ ON/ (PLACE) (2)

In: when somebody/something is: in a line, in a row, in a queue, in a


street, in the mountains, in the north/east, etc.;
but: at 10 the High Street
in a photo, in a picture, (look at yourself) in a mirror;
in the sky, in the world;
in a book, in a newspaper, in a magazine, in a letter but: on a page
On: when somebody/something is: on the left, on the right; on the ground
floor, on the first floor; on a map, on the menu (in a restaurant), on a list,
on a farm
when a place is: on the river, on the lake, on the road, on the coast; on
the beach, on the way to another place
Compare: in the corner of a room, but at the corner (or on the corner) of a
street; in the front, in the back of a car, but at the front, at the back of a
building (cinema, group of people, etc.); also on the front, on the back of a
letter (piece of paper etc.)

IN/ AT/ ON/ (PLACE) (3)


In: with cities, towns and villages: in Paris, in Helston;
but at or in with the place as a point or station on a journey: We
stopped at (or in) a small village on the way to London.
when somebody is: in bed, in hospital, in prison;
but at home, at work, at school, at university, at college; at sea (= on a
voyage).
Compare: It was a long voyage. We were at sea for 30 days.
I love swimming in the sea.
At: when somebody is at an event: at a party, at a conference etc.; or to
say where an event takes place: at the Odeon (cinema), at the Royal
Hall
also at the station, at the airport; at somebody’s house (I was at Judy’s house
last night.);
but in is used to say about the building itself: The rooms in Judy’s house
are very small. It was very cold in the cinema.
On
Compare: on a bus, on a train, on a plane, on a ship; on a bicycle,
on a motorcycle, on a horse; but in a car, in a taxi.
194 Prepositions

BETWEEN NEXT TO OPPOSITE


BEHIND IN FRONT OF (PLACE) (4)

Look at the plan. Read the sentences and translate them.


The telephone box

The Bank The Gift Shop The Restaurant

The H i g h S t r e e t The bus stop


The Sports Shop The Travel Agency The Art Gallery

1) The bank is next to the gift shop.


2) The sports shop is opposite the bank
3) The travel agency is between the sports shop and the art gallery.
4) The telephone box is behind the restaurant.
5) The bus stop is in front of the Art Gallery.

Exercises
3.1. Write in or at.
1) She usually does her shopping in the city centre.
2) My granny is ….. hospital. She’s going to have an operation tomorrow.
3) My cousin is coming by train. I’m going to meet him ….. the station.
4) Do you work? – No, I’m still ….. school.
5) Will you be ….. home next week?
6) Where does your father live? – ….. Moscow.
7) My friend is studying English ….. London University.
8) Were there many people ….. the party on Friday?
9) What is the longest river ….. the world?
10) There was a big carpet ….. the middle of the room.
11) Go straight and turn right ….. the church.

3.2. Complete the sentences with in, at or on.


1) Is there anything interesting in the paper today? – Well, there’s an unusual
photograph on the back page.
2) My neighbours normally use the front entrance but there’s another entrance
….. the back.
Prepositions 195

3) My office is ….. the second floor. It’s ….. the right as you come out of the
lift.
4) If you walk to the end of the street, you’ll see a small church ….. the
corner.
5) It can be dangerous when children play ….. the street.
6) Where shall we sit? – Over there, ….. the corner of the restaurant.
7) Loretta was wearing a golden ring ….. her finger.
8) The man the police are looking for has a scar ….. his right cheek.
9) My parents live ….. a small village ….. the north-west of England.
10) He wouldn’t like an office job. He couldn’t spend the whole day sitting …..
a desk.
11) ….. the end of the road there is a path leading to the lake.
12) She wasn’t sure whether she had come to the right room. There was no
name ….. the door.
13) There was an accident ….. the crossroads last night.
3.3. Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following.
the back of the envelope, the back of the classroom, his way to
work, the west coast, the world, the front row, the left, my guitar,
the lake, the island, the next garage, the window, your tea,
the mountains, that tree
1) There’s something wrong with the car. We’d better stop at the next garage.
2) One of the strings ….. is broken.
3) Look at those people swimming ….. .
4) I spend most of the day sitting ….. and looking outside.
5) There’s nobody living …… It’s uninhabited.
6) Last week we had a wonderful skiing holiday ….. .
7) The leaves ….. are a beautiful colour.
8) Would you like sugar …..?
9) When you send a letter, you need to write your name and address ….. .
10) We couldn’t hear the lecturer very well. He spoke quietly and we
were sitting ….. .
11) We went to the concert last night. We had seats ….. .
12) San Francisco is ….. of the United States.
13) He usually buys a business newspaper ….. .
14) What is the tallest building …..?
15) In Britain people drive …... .
3.4. Complete the following sentences using in, at or on.
1) Hello. This is Tom. I’m in London at the Savoy Hotel.
2) He’s applied for a job ….. the United Nations ….. Geneva.
196 Prepositions

3) Meet me ….. the entrance to the Supermarket …..the High Street.


4) Her diary is ….. the table ….. the sitting room.
5) When my friends were ….. the south they stayed ….. a small cottage …..
the coast.
6) We live ….. Polegate, a small village ….. the road to Brighton.
7) Meet me ….. the bus-stop ….. the end of Main Road.
8) He has left his case ….. the office. He thinks he left it ….. the chair …..
the corner.
9) Alex works ….. Oxford ….. the University.
3.5. Correct the mistakes where necessary, using in, at or on.
1) I spent the whole holiday on at the beach.
2) We had to change planes in Heathrow airport.
3) The passengers had to stand on a queue.
4) There weren’t many books at the shelves.
5) London is on the Thames.
6) We were standing in the counter in the pet's shop, waiting to be served.
7) My friend now lives in 32 The Avenue.
8) We’ll meet you in the station.
9) A child was holding a small bird on his hands.
10) Our flat is at the first floor.
3.6. Use the plan of your city/town. Complete the sentences using the
prepositions:
next to, in front of, behind, between, opposite etc.

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Prepositions of place)
3.1. Fill in the correct prepositions.
1) Sarah was lying ….. the lawn reading a book.
2) There was a big crowd ….. the shop waiting for it to open.
3) There’s a cafe ….. the mountain. You can have a coffee there before you
walk down again.
4) We live ...... the High Street ..... the sixth floor.
5) Would you like to study ….. college?
6) I was tired this morning. I stayed ….. bed until 10 o’clock.
7) Write your name ….. the top of the page and your address ..... the back page.
8) I was sitting ….. the back of the car when it crashed.
9) I talked to some nice people ….. the party.
10) Where were you this morning? – I was ….. the airport.
Prepositions 197

11) Will you be ….. work this afternoon?


12) Where’s Tom? – He’s ….. the kitchen making some coffee.
13) John lives ….. a small village ….. the South-West of England.
14) Kevin’s sister is very ill. She’s ….. hospital.
15) Would you like to live ….. another country?
16) Tom's brother is a sailor. But now he is not ..... sea. He's having days off.
3.2. Put in the missing prepositions of place.
1) My mother lives ..... the farm and my children stay with her every summer.
2) We met ..... the bus-stop.
3) The car stopped ..... the traffic lights and some passengers got out.
4) I was sitting ..... the bank of the river watching the sunrise.
5) The man has got an alibi. He was ..... the dentist's between 2 and 3 o'clock.
6) Last week we were ..... the disco.
7) Mary is studying law ..... university.
8) The Romans founded a small settlement ..... the river Thames and called it
Londinium.
9) My parents prefer to live ..... the country because it's healthier there.
10) In most countries people drive ..... the right.
11) There was a signature ..... the bottom of the page.
12) The television is ..... the corner of the room.
13) Who's that girl ..... the photo? I can't recognise her.
14) Walk along the street then turn right ..... the corner and there you'll see the
market.
15) It was hot last summer, so the children enjoyed swimming ..... the sea.
16) We read about this invention ..... the magazine.

3.3. Complete this story of an imaginary person who spent three years alone
on an island. Put in the missing prepositions of place and time.
(1) ..... Thursday evening (2) ..... October 1931 (3) ..... about eight o'clock
the ship "Voyager" sank. The ship had been sailing (4) ..... the end of
September, when she left London, and was on her way (5) ..... England (6) .....
Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called Batly, who saved
himself by swimming two miles. He spent three years (7) ..... an island (8) .....
the middle of the Indian Ocean.
The island was quite small, and he could walk round the whole of it (9) .....
an hour. He climbed up the one hill and put a flag (10) ..... it as a signal. (11)
..... night Batly slept (12) ..... a cave, where he felt quite (13) ..... home. (14) .....
the day, he often fished with a home-made net. He cooked the fish (15)..... a
wood fire.
198 Prepositions

Batly stayed (16) ..... the island (17) ..... almost three years, (18) ..... August
1934. A ship was sailing past the island, and the captain saw Batly's signal. The
sailor found a man looking rather like a gorilla. Batly was soon (19).....
Australia.
3.4. Translate into English. Use the prepositions of place.
1) Никого нет в саду.
2) На твоей рубашке грязное пятно.
3) Когда я хожу в театр, я предпочитаю сидеть в переднем ряду.
4) Мюнхен – большой город на юге Германии.
5) Телевизор находится в углу комнаты.
6) На углу улицы есть телефон-автомат.
7) Я сидел на заднем сидении машины, когда мы потерпели аварию.
8) Напиши свое имя на обратной стороне конверта.
9) Я буду на работе до 5.30, а дома весь вечер.
10) Я видел Джона на футбольном матче в прошлую субботу.
11) Я была у Джуди дома прошлым вечером.
12) Мне понравился фильм, но в кинотеатре было очень холодно.
13) Встреча прошла в королевском зале.
14) Вот список покупок. Не покупай того, чего нет в списке.
15) Собрание проходило в штаб-квартире компании.
16) Дом Анжелы находится в конце улицы.

UNIT 4 PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT

UP OVER THROUGH etc.

to(towards) from

into (in) out of

on off

up down

over under
Prepositions 199

through round

along across

past

Exercises
4.1. Put in a preposition up, off, through etc.
1) Don't forget to put a stamp on the postcard before you post it.
2) I looked ..... the window and watched the people in the street.
3) I didn't have a key, so I climbed ..... a window ..... the house.
4) You can put your coat ..... the back of the chair.
5) Do you know how to put a film ..... this camera?
6) He jumped ..... the bridge ..... the water.
7) Some idiot pushed her ..... the swimming-pool.
8) I went ..... the chemist's just now, but I didn't notice if it was open.
9) The sheep got out ..... a hole in the fence.

4.2. Work in pairs. Use the map of your city. Look at the map. Somebody asks
you the way to a place and you tell him/her which way to go.

4.3. Work in pairs. Think of a place near your Academy.


A: Give your partner directions, but don't say what the place is.
B: Listen to the directions. Where are you?

TO/ AT/ IN/ INTO

Study these examples: go/ come/ travel (etc.) to a place or event


go to America, return to Italy, drive to the airport, go to the bank, take
(somebody) to hospital, come to my house, be sent to prison
In the same way: on my way to ..., a journey to ..., a trip to ..., welcome to ...
etc.
Compare: to (for movement) and in/at (for position): They are going to
England; but They live in England. See you at the party.
NOTE: I've been to a place.
Compare: get to a place, but: arrive in (a country or town/city), arrive at
(for other places or events).
200 Prepositions

Compare: go home, come home, get home, arrive home, on the way home etc.
(no preposition), but be at home, stay at home, do something at home;
go into, get into etc. = "enter" (a room, a building, a car etc.)
NOTE: enter a building, enter a room etc. (not "enter into").
Also in may be used instead of into: Come in the house or Come into the
house.
The opposite of into is out of (войти/ выйти): get out of the car.
NOTE: get on/off a bus (сесть на/ сойти) a train, a plane, etc.

Exercises
4.4. Put in to, at, in, into.
1) They got stuck in a traffic jam on their way to the airport.
2) I was born ..... England but my family moved ..... Scotland when I was
three. I still live ..... Scotland.
3) Are you going ..... our party next week?
4) Brian is English. He has just returned ..... England after two years ..... the
USA.
5) Has she got her camera? – No, she left it ..... home.
6) The river Rhine flows ..... the North Sea.
7) He went .....the bank yesterday to change some money.
8) Five children were taken ..... hospital after the accident.
4.5. Write sentences using get into, out of, on, off.
1) You were travelling by train. At the end of your journey the train arrived at
the station and stopped. The doors were opened, you took your bags and
stood up. What did you do then? – I got off the train.
2) You needed a taxi. After a few minutes a taxi stopped for you. You opened
the door. What did you do then?
3) You were travelling by air to London. When the plane landed at the airport,
what did you do?
4) You drove home in your car. You arrived at your house and parked the car.
What did you do then?
5) You were waiting for the bus. At last your bus came. The doors opened.
What did you do then?
6) You were walking home. A friend passed you in his car. He saw you,
stopped and offered you a lift. He opened the door. What did you do?
4.6. Have you ever been to these places? If so, how many times? When? Write
10 sentences using "been to":
Athens, England, London, Paris, Rome, Sweden, the United States and others
Prepositions 201

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Prepositions of Movement)

4.1. Put in the right preposition where necessary.


1) It was very late when I arrived ..... home.
2) A group of people went ..... the hall ..... the entrance door.
3) The thief ran ..... the house and jumped ..... the car.
4) They passed the park which stretched ..... the river bank ..... the bridge.
5) How often do you go ..... the dentist?
6) The boys got ..... the garden ..... a hole in the fence.
7) There were no taxis, so they walked ..... home.
8) Does she usually walk ..... work? – No, she goes by bicycle.
9) The helicopter flew ..... the houses and landed ..... the lawn.
10) Are you going ..... the party on Saturday evening?
11) We were walking ..... Park Avenue when we saw a dreadful accident.
12) Linda is ill. She has been ..... the doctor.
13) The train left Brussels at 7 o'clock and arrived ..... Paris at 9.30.
14) What time do you usually go ..... bed?
15) My parents have never been ..... Rome. They are going there this week.
16) Hardly had I got ..... the train when it departed.

4.2. Complete the sentences using the prepositions (of place and movement)
in the box. The same preposition can be used several times.
between, into, opposite, over, in, on, above, from, to, at, below,
along, in front of, out of, outside, round, behind, off, inside,
under, down, up, on top of, past, through, across, towards
1) I got ..... the crowded train and sat down ..... a young man.
2) The children got ..... the yard by climbing ..... the fence.
3) The boy has got a poster of Madonna ..... his room ..... the wall ..... his bed.
4) Mary drove ..... London ..... Liverpool ..... her friend's car yesterday. She
arrived ..... Liverpool at 8 o'clock.
5) My parents live ..... 30 High Road, ..... a flat ..... the top floor. A very nice
young couple live ..... the floor ..... them.
6) We'd been driving ..... London Street for a few minutes when the car ..... us
stopped suddenly and we crashed into it.
7) The robbers ran ..... the bank and jumped ..... the motor bike waiting ......
Then they drove off ..... the corner.
8) When I got back ..... my hotel bedroom, I locked the door ..... me, took .....
my dressing-gown and got ..... bed.
9) Don't walk ..... that ladder. Something may fall ..... ..... you.
202 Prepositions

10) The lorry drove ..... the factory, then it went ..... the tunnel and started to
climb ..... the hill.
11) Sam got ..... the taxi and sat down ..... the driver ..... the back seat.
12) London is ..... the River Thames, which flows ..... the city ..... west ..... east.
13) Mrs Smith got ..... the bus and walked ..... the street ..... the supermarket.
14) My boyfriend and I often meet ..... the Espresso Cafe ..... East Street. Do
you know the Espresso? It's ..... the bank and the school, ..... the Grand
Hotel.
15) She looked ..... the window and watched the people ..... the countryside
walking ..... and ..... the hills.
16) He ran ..... the corner ..... the road ..... the other side and ..... the street.

4.3. Supply the missing prepositions of place and movement.


Two Legs in One Boot
It was late in the afternoon. Inspector Mathew had an hour to go before he
finished work (1) ..... the police station. He sat (2) ..... his police car watching
the traffic go by. Suddenly he sat up! A woman (3) ..... a blue car drove slowly
(4) ..... and the inspector clearly saw a pair of man's legs sticking (5) ..... the
boot. Inspector Mathew immediately gave chase. The woman drove (6) .....
Station Road, (7) ..... the bridge then she turned (8) ..... the corner (9) ..... the
traffic lights. The blue lamp (10) ..... the police car was flashing, but the woman
paid no attention to it. The inspector finally got (11) ..... her car and made her
stop. "What's the matter?" the woman asked. "You've got a body (12) ..... the
boot!" the inspector said. There was a loud laugh (13) ..... the boot. "But I'm
alive!" the voice said. "I'm a car mechanic and I'm trying to find the cause of a
strange noise (14) ..... the back of this car.

4.4. Translate into English. Use the prepositions up, through, past, to, at,
in, into, out of, on or no preposition.
1) Ребенок упал на пол и стал плакать.
2) Я выглянула из окна. Вид был прекрасный.
3) Мы повернули за угол и увидели красивую церковь.
4) Она шла по (вдоль) главной улице очень быстро.
5) Мы вышли из библиотеки и пошли по направлению парка.
6) Мы ходили вверх и вниз по холмам каждое утро.
7) Когда темнеет, мы включаем свет.
8) После аварии несколько людей были доставлены в больницу.
9) Я был в Италии четыре раза, но ни разу не был в Риме.
10) Я устал. Давай пойдем домой.
11) Она вышла из машины и зашла в магазин.
12) У Джека есть деньги. Он только что был в банке.
Prepositions 203

13) Поздно. Я пойду спать.


14) Он сел в машину и уехал.
15) Ты сможешь прийти на вечеринку? – Нет, увидимся дома.
16) Не стой снаружи. Заходи в дом.

Unit 5 OTHER PREPOSITIONS

ON/ IN/ AT/ (OTHER USES)


Expressions with on: on television, on the radio, on the phone; (be/go) on
strike, on a diet; (be) on fire; on the whole (= in general); on purpose (=
intentionally).
(Be/go) on holiday, on business, on a trip, on a tour, on a cruise etc.; but:
go to a place for a holiday, for my holiday(s).
Expressions with in:
in the rain, in the sun, in the shade, in the dark, in bad weather etc.;
(write) in ink, in biro, in pencil;
in words, in figures, in BLOCK LETTERS etc.;
(pay) in cash, but by cheque, by credit card;
(be/fall) in love with somebody;
in (my) opinion.
Expressions with at: at the age of…, at a speed of…, at a temperature of….

Exercises
5.1. Complete the sentences using on or in + one of the following.
strike, a tour, television, fire, holiday, a diet, the phone, purpose,
block letters, cash, my opinion, love, pencil, the shade, cold weather
1) Look! That house is on fire. Somebody called the fire brigade.
2) I like to keep warm, so I don’t go out much ….. .
3) It’s difficult to contact Alice because she’s not ….. .
4) I never use a pen. I always write ….. .
5) Workers at the factory have gone ….. for better pay and conditions.
6) Soon after they arrived, they were taken ….. of the city.
7) They fell ….. with each other almost immediately.
8) I’m going ….. next week. – Are you? Where are you going?
9) We felt bored yesterday evening. There was nothing worth watching ….. .
10) Please write your address clearly, preferably ….. .
204 Prepositions

11) My sister doesn’t like the sun. She prefers to sit ….. .
12) I’m sorry. I didn’t do it ….. .
13) My brother thinks the restaurant is OK, but ….. it isn’t very good.
14) I have put on a lot of weight recently. I should go ….. .
15) People in Belarus hardly ever use a credit card or cheques. They prefer to
pay for things ….. .
5.2. Put in the correct prepositions: on, in, at or for.
1) The Earth travels round the Sun at a speed of 107,000 kilometres an hour.
2) In Belarus children start school ….. the age of seven.
3) My friends wouldn’t like to go ….. a cruise. They think they’d get bored.
4) There is an interesting programme ….. TV this evening.
5) She got married ….. 17, which is rather young to get married.
6) We won’t be here next week. We are going ..... a trip to Scotland.
7) I didn’t go ….. business last month. I stayed at home.
8) Can you turn on the light, please? We don’t want to sit ….. the dark.
9) Did you enjoy your holiday? – Not every minute, but ….. the whole, yes.

BY
By is used in a number of different ways:
a) to say how to do something: send smth by post, do smth by hand, pay
by cheque;
b) to say that something can happen by mistake, by accident, by chance
(in these expressions by + noun is used without "a" or "the");
c) to say how somebody travels:
by car, by train, by plane, by boat, by ship, by bus, by bicycle;
by road, by rail, by air, by sea, by underground (in these expressions
by + noun is used without "a/ the/my", etc.) but on foot
Compare:
in + noun is used with "a/ the/my", etc. for cars and taxis: They
came in a taxi (in my car)
on + noun is used with "a/ the/my", etc. for bicycles and public
transport (buses, trains, etc.): We travelled on the 6.45 train (on the
train)
d) to say that something is done by somebody/something (passive):
Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
Compare by and with: The door must have been opened with a key (=
somebody used a key to open it). The door must have been opened by
somebody with a key.
NOTE: a play by Shakespeare, a painting by Rembrandt, a novel by Tolstoy
Prepositions 205

By also means “next to/ besides”: Come and sit by me (= beside me).
Note the following use of by: My salary has increased by $100 (by ten per
cent). John and Roger had a race over 100 meters. Roger won by about five
metres.

Exercises
5.3. Put in the correct preposition by/ in/ on or with.
1) These photographs were taken with a very good camera.
2) These photographs were taken ..... a friend of mine.
3) They managed to put the fire out ..... a fire engine.
4) Their team lost the game only because of a mistake ..... one of their players.
5) There was a small table ..... the bed ..... a lamp and a clock on it.
6) What's that music? – It's ..... Beethoven.
7) Shall we get a taxi or shall we go ..... foot?
8) We don't mind going ..... car but we don't want to go ..... your car.
5.4. Complete the sentences using by + one of the following
chance, cheque, hand, mistake, satellite
1) It was only by chance that she found out what had happened.
2) The two countries were connected ..... for a television programme.
3) If you haven't got any cash, you can pay ...... .
4) She didn't put the blouse in the washing machine. She washed it ..... .
5) I didn't intend to take your briefcase. I took it ..... .

5.5. Write your own sentences using by.


1) I went to my friend's house to see my friend but he had gone out 5 minutes
before I arrived. I missed him by 5 minutes.
2) There was an election. Bob got 55 votes and Robert got 53.
3) The daily newspaper used to cost 60 pence. From today it costs 80 pence.
4) My salary was $500 a month. Now, it is $600.

5.6. Write 10 sentences as in the example. Say about a book, a song, a


painting, a film etc.
"War and Peace" is a book by Tolstoy.

5.7. Put in by/ in/ on (transport).


1) Shall we go in your car or mine?
2) The family arrived at the guest house ..... a taxi.
3) We usually go back home ..... bus. It's much cheaper than going ..... train.
4) It gets so crowded in the rush hour that it's quicker to go ..... foot than .....
car.
206 Prepositions

5) We can take five people ..... the car and the others will have to go ..... the
train.
6) I often travel ..... plane but I've never been ..... a jumbo jet.
7) Let me help you get your things ..... the car.
8) We went for a trip up the Thames ..... a big boat.

WITH/IN

with (=having) and in (= wearing)

Exercises
5.8. Put in with or in.
1) He often goes to work in his jeans.
2) I'd like to have a house ..... a garden.
3) London is a large city ..... a population of over 10 million.
4) Who's that woman ..... the black dress.
5) We are looking for a flat ..... three bedrooms.
6) The police are looking for a short man ..... black curly hair and brown eyes.
7) She's a lively woman ..... a great sense of humour.

REVIEW EXERCISES
5.1. Fill in the correct prepositions.
1) Our boss often goes ..... business to different countries.
2) The ferry left the pier ..... the dark.
3) Last winter we went ..... our holiday to Spain.
4) My sister never watches TV. She usually listens to the news ..... the radio.
5) The note was written ..... pencil ..... a blue sheet of paper.
6) Shall we send a letter ..... air?
7) It was not far from the country house. We went there ..... foot.
8) Many people go to work ..... underground.
9) We don't want to watch this film again. We saw it ..... TV.
10) When I was approaching the village I saw our house ..... fire.
11) The coach crashed ..... a high speed.
12) We met ..... chance. It was an unpleasant surprise.
13) My granny died ..... the age of 92.
14) Suddenly we saw a nice girl ..... fair hair ..... the red dress.
15) Where is the light switch? – ..... the door.
16) The journey is uphill all the way so it is very tiring ..... bike.
Prepositions 207

5.2. Translate into English. Use the correct prepositions : on, in, at, for, by.
1) Том отсутствует. Он в отпуске во Франции.
2) Я не смотрел новости по телевизору, но я слышал их по радио.
3) Джил оставила школу в 16 лет.
4) Я никогда не встречался с ней, но говорил по телефону.
5) Не выходи в дождь. Подожди, пока он прекратится.
6) Вода кипит при температуре 1000С.
7) Куда ты отправляешься в свой отпуск следующим летом?
8) Я сильно набрал вес. Мне следует сесть на диету.
9) Смотри! Машина горит!
10) На экзамене вам не разрешается писать карандашом.
11) По моему мнению, фильм был неинтересный.
12) Ты предпочитаешь путешествовать самолетом или поездом?
13) Они приехали не на своей машине, а на такси.
14) Программу смотрели миллионы людей.
15) Извините за опоздание. Мы опоздали на автобус, и нам пришлось
идти пешком.
16) Вы когда-нибудь читали книги Шекспира?

UNIT 6 WORD AND PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

NOUN + PREPOSITION

Study these examples:


Noun + for ... a cheque for (a sum of money); a demand for; a need for; a
reason for; a request for;
Noun + of ... an advantage/a disadvantage of; a cause of; a photograph/ a
picture/ a map/ a plan/ a drawing (etc.) of;
Noun + in ... an increase/ a decrease/ a rise/ a fall in (prices etc.); a success
in, an interest in; belief in;
Noun + to ... a damage to; an invitation to (a party, a wedding, etc.); a
solution to (a problem); a key to (a door); an answer to (a question); a reply
to (a letter); a reaction to; an attitude to (or towards);
Noun + with .../ between … a relationship/ a connection/ a contact with
but a relationship/ a connection/ a contact/ a difference between two things or
people.
208 Prepositions

Exercises
6.1. Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the
first.
1) In what way is your business different from mine? What is the difference
between your business and mine?
2) Nobody wants to buy jeans like these any more. There is no demand ….. .
3) The number of rich people fell last month. Last month there was a fall …..
4) We don’t think that a new car is necessary. We don’t think there is any
need ….. .
5) I don’t know how to answer your question. I can’t think of an answer ….. .
6) Prices have gone up a lot. There has been a big increase ….. .
7) I get on well with my sister. I have a good relationship ….. .
8) We’re trying to solve the problem. We’re trying to find a solution ….. .
9) What caused his death? What was the cause …..?
6.2. Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.
1) The fact that I was offered a job has no connection with the fact that my
father is the managing director.
2) The manager has rejected the workers' demands ….. a rise ….. pay.
3) I showed her a photograph ….. the house where I lived as a child.
4) What was her reaction ….. the news?
5) There has been a great rise….. the cost of living in the past few years.
6) My sister and I used to be good friends but I don’t have much contact …..
her now.
7) The advantage ….. having a car is that you don’t have to rely on public
transport.
8) I was given a cheque ….. $500.
9) Everything can be explained. There’s a reason ….. everything.
10) Is there very much difference ….. Russian and Belarussian languages?
6.3. Put in for, in or to.
1) There is a need for a new house.
2) After so much fighting there was a great desire ….. peace.
3) Some people don’t have much belief ….. modern medicine.
4) We couldn’t understand his negative attitude ….. the project.
5) I’ve received a request ….. help.
6) We felt some sympathy ….. the baseball team.
6.4. Complete the sentences. Use a preposition after these nouns:
answer, cause, damage, difficulty, invitation, matter, tax, way.
1) The television won’t come on. What’s the matter with it?
2) There was some ….. the arrangements.
Prepositions 209

3) The government has introduced a new ….. luxury goods.


4) The ….. the explosion is still unknown.
5) I can’t think of an ….. the problem, I’m afraid.
6) Let’s think of the best ….. getting this piano upstairs.
7) The accident caused some ….. the train.
8) She has had an ….. the party.
6.5. Complete the advertisement for a supermarket. Put in between, for, of,
in or with. Write your own advertisement. Read it in front of the class.
Why not shop at Supersave? You'll find the cost (1) ….. your
weekly shopping is much lower. There’s quite a contrast (2) …..
other stores. Here’s one example (3) ….. this: from today we have
made a reduction (4) ….. five per cent (5) ….. all our meat prices.
But this is not the only reason (6) ….. Supersave’s success. We’re
proud of our good relationship (7) ….. our customers. And we
believe there is simply no substitute (8) ….. quality. That’s the
difference (9) ….. us and ordinary stores. So come to Supersave
and see the difference.

6.6. Put in at, in or of. Write your own dialogue. Act it out for the class.
A: What’s the job you’ve applied for?
B: It’s with a travel company. But the advert says that you need some
experience (1) ….. work in tourism. I haven’t got that. And I don’t
think my knowledge (2) ….. foreign languages will be good enough.
I’m having no success at all (3) ….. my attempts to get a job.
A: What about your interest (4) ….. computers? And your skill (5) …..
typing? That’s the sort of things employers are looking for.
B: What skill? I can only type with two fingers.

PREPOSITION + NOUN

Study these examples:


By: (a book/ film/ painting etc.) by someone.
For: for sale; (to go/come) for a drink/ a meal/ a walk/ a swim; (to have
something) for breakfast/ lunch/ dinner.
In: in someone’s opinion, in advance.
On: on the market.

See some more examples in Unit 5.


210 Prepositions

Exercises
6.7. Put in by, for, with, in or on.
1) We were lucky. We found the solution by accident.
2) Could you be quiet for a minute, please? I’m …… the phone.
3) I fell ill while I was ….. a trip to England.
4) We booked our seats a month ….. advance and paid ….. cheque.
5) Were you there ….. holiday or ….. business?
6) She dialed the wrong number ….. mistake.
7) Would you mind moving? You’re rather ….. the way here.
8) There’s something I want to hear ….. the radio tomorrow.
9) Would you like to go ..... a meal.
10) I'm reading a book ..... James Joyce
11) Jimmy is ..... love ..... Angela.
6.8. Put in the noun on the right with the correct prepositions (on, in, for, at,
by). You may also need to use the or my.
1) Is it all right if I pay by credit card? – Well, if you don’t credit card
mind, I’d prefer it in cash. cash
2) Was it an interesting talk? – ….. it was boring, but opinion
everyone clapped ….. of it. end
3) These houses are still …… – Yes, they’ve been ….. for sale
over a year now. market
4) Is there anything ….. tonight? – No, but there’s TV
something ….. I want to listen to. radio
5) Did the others lock you out of the house …..? – No, it purpose
happened quite ….. . chance

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Noun +preposition/ preposition + noun)

6.1. Put in the correct preposition.


1) I heard an interesting programme ….. the radio last night.
2) My friend has decided to give up her job. She is having no success .....
business.
3) We could pay you ….. cheque or ..... cash. Which would you prefer?
4) Thank you for the invitation ….. your party next weekend.
5) I didn’t mean to do that, I did it ….. mistake.
6) ….. chance, I happened to have her address with me.
7) I wrote to my parents last month, but I still haven’t received a reply ….. my
letter.
Prepositions 211

8) My parents have gone away ….. holiday for two weeks.


9) The plane was late, but nobody knew the reason ….. the delay.
10) Does she have a good relationship ….. her parents?
11) Last year there was a big fall ….. sales.
12) The firm closed down because there wasn’t enough demand ….. its
product.
13) The boss was surprised at our reaction ….. his suggestion.
14) My uncle is very generous. He gave me a cheque ..... $ 1000.
15) My computer is out of order. What's the matter ..... it?
16) Have you had a reply ….. your letter?

6.2. Complete the sentences using the words in the box. In one sentence two
answers are possible.
towards, of, between, for, in, with, to
1) The artist drew a picture ….. an actress.
2) Nobody knows his reaction ..... the news.
3) There is no need ….. him to shout. We can hear him.
4) His attitude ….. me was rather unpleasant.
5) She is very shy and has great difficulty ….. making friends.
6) The company wants to improve the relationship ….. the Board of Directors
and the shareholders.
7) Has there been an increase ….. unemployment recently?
8) Smoking is one of the causes ….. heart disease.
9) We need a solution ….. the world’s population problem.
10) What are the main differences ….. these cultures.
11) I refused to give him an answer ….. his question.
12) Speed, comfort and safety are the main advantages ..... trains and planes.
13) Since I left home, I have had little contact ….. my family.
14) Tom and Marea are very much ….. love ….. each other.
15) I can’t open the door. Have you got a key ….. the other door?
16) It was a bad accident. The damage ….. the car was serious.

6.3. Translate into English. Use noun + preposition or preposition +


noun constructions.
1) Преимущество жить одному состоит в том, что ты можешь делать все,
что пожелаешь.
2) Я положил соль в кофе по ошибке.
3) На завтрак я ел яйцо с беконом.
4) У тебя хорошие отношения с родителями?
5) Джимми влюблен в Анну.
6) Полиция полагает, что нет связи между двумя преступлениями.
212 Prepositions

7) Она показала мне несколько фотографий своей семьи.


8) Я собираюсь в отпуск в апреле. Я бы хотела поехать в отпуск на
Ямайку.
9) Что идет по телевизору сегодня вечером?
10) Ты получил приглашение на вечер?
11) По моему мнению, тебе следует позвонить в полицию.
12) Не хочешь ли сходить на прогулку?
13) Я был удивлен ее реакцией на мое предложение.
14) Полиция хочет задать вопрос мужчине в связи с ограблением.
15) Я хотел бы заплатить кредитной картой.
16) У меня была карта города, поэтому я смог найти дорогу.

UNIT 7 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION

Study these examples:


a) Adjective (nice, kind, etc.) + of/ to: (be) nice/ kind/ good/ generous/
polite/ silly/ stupid etc. of somebody (to do something); but (be) nice/ kind/
good/ polite/ friendly/ cruel etc. to somebody.
b) Adjective + about/ with: angry/ annoyed/ furious about something; but
angry/ annoyed/ furious with somebody for doing something;
excited/ worried/ upset/ nervous/ happy etc. about something;
delighted/ pleased/ satisfied/ disappointed with something;
crowded with (people etc.).
c) Adjective + at/ by / with:
good/ bad/ excellent/ brilliant/ hopeless etc. at …;
surprised/ shocked/ amazed/ astonished at/by something;
impressed with/ by somebody/something; fed up/ bored with something.
d) Sorry + about/ for: to feel/ to be sorry for somebody; sorry about
something;
but sorry for doing something;
also I’m sorry I did something.
e) Adjective + of: afraid/ frightened/ terrified/ scared of …;
fond/ proud/ ashamed/ jealous/ envious of …
suspicious/ critical/ tolerant of …
aware/ conscious of …; capable/ incapable of …; full of …/ short of …;
typical of …; tired of …; certain/ sure of or about.
Prepositions 213

f) Adjective + to/ from/ in/ on/ for: married/ engaged to (an American), but
married with (three children); similar to…; different from (or to)…;
interested in …; keen on …; dependent on … (but independent of) …;
famous for …; responsible for

Exercises
7.1. Put in the correct preposition.
1) She was delighted with the book you gave her.
2) The girl I interviewed for the job was intelligent but I wasn’t very
impressed ….. her appearance.
3) She was shocked ….. what she saw. She’d never seen anything like it
before.
4) We are sorry ….. the smell of paint in this room. We’ve just decorated it.
5) She is sorry ….. what she said. She hopes you’re not angry ….. her.
6) My granny doesn’t look very well. I’m worried ….. her.
7) He’s been trying to learn English but he’s not very satisfied ….. his
progress.
8) They were surprised ….. the way he behaved.
9) Our friends enjoyed their holiday, but they were a bit disappointed ….. the
weather.
10) I can’t understand people who are cruel ….. animals.
11) He didn’t reply to her letter. It wasn’t very polite ….. him.
12) It was a bit careless ….. us to leave the door unlocked when we went out.
7.2. Complete the sentences using one of the following adjectives + the correct
preposition:
responsible, bored, astonished, annoyed, excited,
impressed, sure, interested, proud, kind, sorry, annoyed,
afraid, different, similar
1) They are excited about going on holiday next month.
2) They had never seen so many people before. They were ….. the crowds.
3) My younger brother isn’t happy at college. He’s ….. the course he’s doing.
4) My friends weren’t very ….. the service in the restaurant. They had to wait
ages before their food arrived.
5) Why does he always get so ….. little things?
6) What has she done wrong? Why are you ….. her?
7) I wouldn’t like to be in her position. I feel ….. her.
8) Thank you for your help. You’ve been very ….. me.
9) I think my cousin is arriving this evening but I’m not ….. that.
10) My car is ….. yours but it isn’t exactly the same.
214 Prepositions

11) I’ll look after you. There’s nothing to be ….. .


12) Do you want to listen to the news on the radio? – No, I’m not ….. the news.
13) The editor is the person who is ….. what appears in a newspaper.
14) My grandmother is a very keen gardener. She’s very ….. her garden.
15) We were surprised when we met him for the first time. He was ….. what
we expected.
7.3. Fill in the correct prepositions: of/ for/ in/ to/ on/ with.
1) The form he filled in was full of mistakes.
2) The children have no money of their own. They are totally dependent …..
their parents.
3) Nobody is surprised she changed her mind at the last moment. That’s typical
….. her.
4) I don’t think he is capable ….. telling a lie.
5) Do you know anyone who might be interested ….. buying a house?
6) We are tired ….. doing the same things every day. We need a change.
7) The bus stop was crowded ….. people waiting for the bus.
8) She is not ashamed ….. what she did. In fact she is quite proud ….. it.
9) Kate is engaged ….. a friend of mine.
10) I don’t like walking up the mountains. I’m afraid ….. heights.
11) John is very fond ….. his new computer.
12) His home town is not famous ….. anything.

7.4. Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first
one.
1) There is a lot of furniture in the room. The room is full of furniture.
2) I like sport very much. I’m keen ….. .
3) I haven’t got enough time. I’m a bit short ….. .
4) I’m a very good chess player. I’m good ….. .
5) Marea’s husband is French. Marea is married ….. .
6) I don’t trust my partner. I’m suspicious ….. .
7) Her problem is not the same as mine. Her problem is different ….. .
8) There are lots of people in the hall. The hall is crowded ….. .

7.5. Write sentences about yourself. Are you good at these things or no?. Use:
brilliant, very good, quite good, not very good, hopeless.
Repairing things; remembering names; telling jokes; writing poems;
speaking; English; playing games etc.
Prepositions 215

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Adjective + preposition)

7.1. Put in the right preposition.


1) I don't want to be dependent ..... anybody.
2) He’s very good ….. languages. He speaks English, French and Italian.
3) I’m sorry ….. your broken window. It was an accident.
4) A lot of children are afraid ….. spiders.
5) It was very nice ….. you to lend me the money.
6) Do you want to watch this programme? – No, I’m fed up ….. it.
7) Life today is very different ….. life 50 years ago.
8) I’m sorry ….. not phoning you last night. I completely forgot.
9) I am upset ..... not being invited to the wedding.
10) Sarah is married ….. an American.
11) The city was crowded ….. tourists.
12) I was delighted ….. the present you gave me.
13) The letter he wrote was full ….. mistakes.
14) She didn’t trust me. She was suspicious ….. my intentions.
15) Why are you always so jealous ….. other people?
16) I am sorry ….. shouting at you yesterday.

7.2. Complete the sentences using the words in the box


of, by, with, on, about, in, for, at, to
1) My mother was very angry ….. me ….. losing her key.
2) Your hairstyle is quite similar ….. mine.
3) I'm sick and tired ..... all that routine work. I need a change.
4) My younger brother is very fond ….. music.
5) We’re a bit short ….. petrol. We’d better stop at the next petrol station.
6) Everybody was very much impressed ..... the latest invention of the
scientists.
7) I was shocked ….. the news of the accident.
8) It's typical ..... him to be cruel ..... animals.
9) It was very kind ….. them to give us a lift to the station.
10) He’s not very keen ….. football.
11) Are you interested ….. playing golf tomorrow?
12) We’re getting really excited ….. our holiday.
13) He’s quite capable ….. doing the job.
14) Sydney in Australia is famous ….. its Opera House.
15) Are you worried ….. your driving test?
16) My friends are very proud ….. their children.
216 Prepositions

7.3. Translate into English. Use adjective + preposition combinations.


1) Ты знал, что он женат? – Нет, я не имел представления.
2) Ты взволнован тем, что уходишь в отпуск на следующей неделе?
3) Я не очень способен к математике.
4) У меня не хватает денег. Ты мог бы мне одолжить немного?
5) Мне жаль Марию. У нее много проблем.
6) Он опять опоздал. Для него характерно заставлять всех ждать.
7) Мне больше не нравится моя работа. Я сыт ею по горло.
8) Твой почерк похож на мой.
9) Почему ты так недружелюбен с Томом?
10) Глупо с ее стороны выходить без пальто в такую холодную погоду.
11) Он не доверял мне. Он с подозрением относился к моим намерениям.
12) Кэйт расстроена тем, что ее не пригласили на вечер.
13) Извините за шум вчера вечером. У нас была вечеринка.
14) Кто вчера был ответственен за концерт?
15) Мы остались дома, так как моя жена не желала выходить.
16) Пойдем, я устал ждать!

UNIT 8 VERB + PREPOSITION

Study these examples:


1) Verb + at ...: look/ have a look/ stare/ glance (etc.) at…; laugh/ smile
at…; aim/point (something) at…, shoot/ fire (a gun) at… (= in the direction of).
2) Verb + to ...: talk/ speak to (somebody) (“with” is also possible but
less usual); listen to, write (a letter) to…, but phone somebody (no
preposition);
invite (somebody) to (a party/ a wedding, etc.); happen to…; prefer one
thing /person to another; explain something to somebody;
also explain/describe to somebody that/ what/ how/ why…; apologise to
somebody.
3) Verb + of ...: accuse/ suspect somebody of …; approve of …,/ die of (an
illness), consist of ….
4) Verb + for ...: ask (somebody) for …;
but ask somebody a question / ask somebody the way to … (no preposition);
apply (to a person/a company etc.) for (a job, etc.), pay somebody for …;
but pay a bill/ a fine/ a tax/ a fare/ rent/ a sum of money etc. (no preposition);
Prepositions 217

thank/ forgive somebody for…; apologise (to somebody) for …; blame


somebody / something for …; somebody is to blame for …; also blame
something on (someone/something);
wait for somebody; wait for something to happen; search (a person/ a
place/ a bag) for…; leave ( a place) for (another place).
5) Verb + from ...: suffer from (an illness etc.); protect somebody
/something from (or against).
6) Verb + on ...: depend on … / rely on…; depend + when/ where/ how
etc. (question words with or without on): (It depends how much it is (or
depends on how much); live on (money/ food); congratulate (somebody) on ,
compliment (somebody) on …; concentrate on…; insist on…; spend (money)
on ... .
7) Verb + in ...: believe in …/ specialise in…/ succeed in….
8) Verb + into ...: break into …; crash/ drive/ bump/ run into…; divide/
cut/ split something into (two or more parts); translate (a book etc.) from one
language into another.
9) Verb + with ...: collide with…; deal with ...; agree with; fill something
with…; provide/ supply somebody with….
10) Verb + about ...: talk about …/ read about…/ tell somebody about…/
have a discussion about…; but discuss something (no preposition);
also do something about something (= do something to improve a bad
situation).

Exercises
8.1. Put in the correct preposition. If no preposition is needed, leave the space
empty (–).
1) She isn’t going out yet. She’s waiting for the snow to stop.
2) Don’t ask me ….. money, please. Ask somebody else for a change.
3) My granny is often not well. She suffers ….. very bad headaches.
4) If they want a job at the plant, who do they apply …..?
5) It is dreadful that some people are dying ….. hunger while others eat too
much.
6) She has searched everywhere ….. her child but she hasn’t been able to find
him.
7) They don’t want to talk ….. what happened yesterday evening.
8) The accident was his fault, so he had to pay ….. the damage.
9) I don’t want to discuss ….. what happened last night. Let’s forget it.
10) They didn’t have enough money to pay ….. the bill.
218 Prepositions

11) The teacher complimented him ….. his English. He spoke fluently and
made very few mistakes.
12) They discussed ….. the problem but they didn’t reach a decision.
13) She doesn’t know whether she’ll go out tonight. It depends ….. how she
feels.
14) My friends are touring the USA. They’re in New York at the moment, but
tomorrow they leave ….. Florida.
15) The children wore warm clothes to protect themselves ….. the cold.
16) The house is in very bad condition. I think we ought to do something ….. it.
17) The house consists ….. three rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom.
18) My brother has just got engaged ….. his girlfriend.

8.2. Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs + preposition.
Change the form of the verb where it is necessary.
(A) explain, invite, laugh, listen, point, glance, speak, write,
accuse, apologise, approve, congratulate, depend, live, pay
1) He looks stupid with this haircut. Everybody will laugh at him.
2) My parents don’t ….. what I do, but they can’t stop me.
3) They don’t understand what this means. Can you ….. it ..... them?
4) When you went to the theatre with Max, who ….. the tickets?
5) He ….. his watch to see what the time was.
6) It’s not very pleasant when you are ….. something you didn’t do.
7) They’ve been ….. the party but unfortunately they can’t go.
8) Are you playing golf next Sunday? – I hope so. It ….. the weather.
9) Please ….. me! I’ve got something important to tell you.
10) Things are very cheap there. You can ….. very little money.
11) Tom and Ann had an argument and now they’re not ….. one another.
12) When I saw my friend, I ….. him ….. passing his driving test.
13) He ….. Linda last week but she hasn’t replied to his letter yet.
14) He was very rude to his mother. He should ….. her.
15) Be careful with those scissors. Don’t ….. them ….. me!
(B) believe, concentrate, divide, drive, fill, happen, insist, succeed,
apply, ask, do, leave, search, talk, wait
1) He wanted to go alone but his wife insisted on coming with him.
2) Police are ….. the man who escaped from prison.
3) I haven’t seen my classmates for ages. I wonder what has ….. them.
4) I’m still ….. a reply to my letter. I haven’t heard anything yet.
5) He couldn’t stop in time when the car in front of him stopped suddenly, so
he ….. the back of the car.
Prepositions 219

6) He likes his job but he doesn’t ….. it much.


7) It’s a very big house. It’s ….. 4 flats.
8) When we had finished our meal, we ….. the waiter ….. the bill.
9) Some people ….. ghosts. I think they only imagine that they see them.
10) I am unemployed. I have ….. several jobs but I haven’t had any luck.
11) She gave me an empty bucket and told me to ….. it ….. water.
12) If something is wrong, why doesn’t he ….. something ….. it?
13) Don’t try to do two things together. ….. one thing at a time.
14) Tom is from England but now he lives in the USA. He ….. England …..
the USA when he was 20.
15) It wasn’t easy but in the end they ….. finding a solution to the problem.

8.3. Put in the correct preposition.


1) Could I have a look at your newspaper, please.
2) The man sitting opposite me on the train kept staring ….. me.
3) The school provides all its pupils ….. books.
4) They filled the tank but unfortunately they filled it ….. the wrong kind of
petrol.
5) The teacher decided to split the class ….. four teams.
6) What happened ….. the money I lent you? What did you spend it …..?
7) Sometimes it’s difficult to translate ….. one language ….. another.
8) Somebody broke ….. my house and stole some money.
9) She prefers travelling by coach ….. driving.
10) Belarus is divided ….. six regions.
11) My wife spends much money ….. clothes.
12) My brother is a photographer. He specialises ….. sports photography.
13) There was an awful noise as the bus crashed ….. a tree.
14) As they were coming out of the hotel, they collided ….. their friends who
were coming in.
15) I hope she succeeds ….. getting what she wants.
16) His present job isn’t good but he prefers it ….. what he did before.
17) Many people don’t believe ….. working very hard. It’s not worth it.
18) Alice decided to give up sport so that she could concentrate ….. her
studies.
19) A strange thing happened ….. my sister a few days ago.
20) I know who he is but I’ve never spoken ...... him.
21) They like to listen ….. the radio while they are having breakfast.
22) She’s a bit lonely. She needs somebody to talk ….. .
220 Prepositions

8.4. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use
verb + preposition combinations.
1) There was a collision between a car and a van. A car collided with a van.
2) I don’t mind big parties, but I prefer small company. ..... (prefer)
3) I got all the information I needed from my friend. ..... (provide)
4) This morning I bought a new hat which cost $ 30. ..... (spend)
5) I think the increase in violent crime is because of mass media. ..... (blame)
6) Do you think the economic crisis is the fault of the government? ..... (blame)
7) She eats only bread and eggs. ..... (live)
8) There are 11 players in a football team. ..... (consist)
9) You always say everything is my fault. ..... (blame)
10) The pop star has enemies but she has a bodyguard to protect her. .....
(protect)
11) My friend won the tournament, so I congratulated her. ..... (congratulate)
12) He said that what happened was his wife's fault. ..... (blame)
13) The misunderstanding was my fault so I apologised. ..... (apologise)
14) The girl said he was selfish. ..... (accuse).

VERB + PREPOSITION (2)

These verbs are followed by prepositions with a difference of


meaning:
a) care about somebody/something (= think that somebody/ something is
important), but care what/ where/ how, etc. (without “about”); care for
somebody /something 1) like something (usually in questions and
negative sentences: Would you like … ?) 2) look after somebody
b) complain to (somebody) about … (= say that you are not satisfied);
complain of a pain, an illness etc. (= say that you have a pain etc.);
c) dream about something (when somebody is asleep); dream of being
something/ doing something (= imagine);
d) hear about … (= be told about something); hear of … (= know that
somebody/something exists); hear from... (= receive a letter or phone
call from somebody);
e) look for … (= search for, try to find); look after … (= take care of);
f) remind somebody about … (= tell somebody not to forget); remind
somebody of … (= cause somebody to remember);
g) shout at somebody (when you are angry); shout to somebody (so that
they can hear you);
h) take care of … (= look after);
Prepositions 221

i) think about … (= to consider something; to concentrate your mind on


it)); think of … 1) when the idea comes to you mind; 2) to ask or give
an opinion; think of or think about doing something (for possible future
actions);
j) throw something at somebody/ something (in order to hit); throw something
to somebody (for somebody to catch).
k) warn somebody of / about a danger, something bad which might happen;
warn somebody about somebody/something which is dangerous,
unusual etc.;

Exercises

8.5. Put in the correct preposition after the verb.


1) My sister is very selfish. She doesn’t care about other people.
2) Don’t throw stones ….. the birds. It’s cruel.
3) If you don’t want to eat that sandwich, throw it ….. the birds. They’ll eat it.
4) Please don’t shout ….. me! Be nice to me!
5) I saw my sister as I was driving along the road. I shouted ….. her but she
didn’t hear me.
6) I’ve never heard ….. Michael Jackson. Who is he?
7) Did you hear ….. the accident last week. – Yes, I did.
8) My classmate used to write to me quite often but I haven’t heard ….. her for
ages now.
9) I like to have time to make decisions. I like to think ….. things carefully.
10) She’s a very selfish person. She only thinks ….. herself.
11) I don’t know what to get my friend for her birthday. Can you think …..
anything.
12) Do you like this hat? – Not really. I don’t care ….. the colour.
13) Don’t worry about arranging our departure. I’ll take care …..it.
14) He wants to have a good holiday. He doesn’t care ….. the cost.
15) I am looking ….. a job. I hope to find one soon.
16) Who looked ….. you when you were ill?
17) She loves her job. She thinks ….. her job all the time. She dreams ….. it,
she talks ….. it and I’m fed up with hearing ….. it.
18) My neighbour complained ….. me ….. the noise I made last night.
19) My granny was complaining ….. pains in her chest, so she went to the
doctor.
20) They warned me ….. the water. They said it wasn’t safe to drink.
21) I warned my daughter ….. the dangers of playing in the street.
222 Prepositions

8.6. Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs + the correct
preposition. The same verb can be used twice.
complain, dream, hear, remind, think, warn, look.
1) That’s a good idea. Why didn’t I think of that?
2) Do you see that girl over there? Does she ….. you ….. anybody you know?
3) I would have forgotten my appointment if you hadn’t ….. me ….. it.
4) You wouldn’t go away without telling me, would you? – Of course not. I
wouldn’t ….. it.
5) He’s a well-known singer. Many people have ….. her.
6) Before you go into the yard, I must ….. you ….. the dog.
7) He can’t make a decision yet. He needs time to ….. my proposal.
8) John is never satisfied. He is always ….. something.
9) A baby-sitter is somebody who ….. other people’s children.
10) All the car parks were full, so I had to ….. somewhere to park.

VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION (3)

Study these examples:


borrow something from someone;
congratulate someone on (doing) something;
inform someone about /of something.
invite someone to something;
tell someone about something;
thank someone for something;
warn someone about something/ someone;
See some more examples mentioned above.

Exercises
8.7. Complete the sentences using the words in the box:
from, on, to, about, of
1) They blamed the accident on the driver of the car.
2) They’ve warned me ….. swimming in that part of the lake.
3) She has invited me ….. her house for lunch.
4) The police accused the man ….. trying to steal the bag.
5) She borrowed some money ….. a friend of hers.
6) We congratulated Peter ….. getting a new job.
7) Will you remind me ….. the party next Sunday.
8) This place reminds me ….. the place where I was born.
Prepositions 223

8.8. Put in about, of or to.


1) I had to remind him about the money that he owed me.
2) The interviewer asked the novelist ….. his latest book.
3) The manager would like to inform the clients ….. a number of
improvements in the service.
4) There is a sign warning the drivers ….. the danger.
5) I’m just writing a letter ….. my mother.
6) The man explained ….. the court that he had some personal problems.
7) That girl over there reminds me ….. someone I knew.
8) They have told the police ….. people making a noise at night.
8.9. Complete these short conversations. Use verb + object + preposition.
Write your own conversations and act them out.
1) I’ve bought a lot of books. I’ve spent $100. – What! You’ve spent $100 on
books!?
2) The team won a victory, but no one congratulated them. – …..
3) It’s my cousin’s wedding today, but he didn’t invite me. – …..
4) We had no towels. The hotel didn’t provide them. – …..
5) The police say it’s murder. They’re accusing the headmaster. – …..
6) I gave my sister the present, but she didn’t thank me. – …..
7) Have you heard about the accident? Well, everyone’s blaming me. – …..
8) I don’t like brandy. I prefer beer. – …..
8.10. Complete the sports commentator’s words. Put in the correct
prepositions.
“So Australia’s Mark Breadley wins the gold medal ahead of Germany’s
Klaus Schliemann. We are just congratulating him (1) ….. his victory.
Breadley’s speed over the first kilometre split the runners (2) ….. two groups
and in the end it was a race between the two leaders. Everybody regards
Breadley as a great athlete. Some people compare him (3) ….. the great Emil
Kristo himself. There’s no doubt now that Breadley will be invited (4) …..
Japan for next year’s World Championship. So the Australian runner adds
another medal (5) ….. his collection. And Australia are doing really well in the
medals table. In fact, they share fourth place (6) ….. the United States..."

REVIEW EXERCISES
(Verb + preposition / verb + object + preposition)
8.1. Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.
(A)
1) The bus went out of control and crashed ….. the back of a car.
224 Prepositions

2) I called the doctor because my son was complaining ..... a pain in his
stomach.
3) I searched through my bag ….. a pen.
4) She dreamt ….. her grandmother last night.
5) She dreams ….. being an actress one day.
6) A lot of people don’t believe ….. horoscopes.
7) Thank you for looking ….. my granny while she was ill.
8) Excuse me. I’m looking ….. the sports centre. Could you tell me how to get
there?
9) Do you know a disco called “The Zap Club”? – No, I’ve never heard ….. it!
10) Look ..... Tom. Who does he remind you ..... ?
11) I am a vegetarian. I prefer vegetables ..... meat.
12) I’ve written ….. the company and applied ….. the job.
13) I won’t tell anyone what happened. You can rely ….. me.
14) She complained ….. the children ….. the mess they’d made.
15) Selfish people only care ….. themselves.
16) When my boss gets angry he always starts shouting ….. everyone.
(B)
1) Everybody blamed me ..... the accident.
2) My friend accused me ..... being selfish.
3) I congratulated them ..... the engagement.
4) I remember his face, but I can’t think ….. his name.
5) Barry is thinking ….. changing his job.
6) She’s alone all day . She never talks ….. anybody.
7) Don’t forget to ring up ….. your mother this evening.
8) We waited ….. John until 3 o’clock but he didn’t come.
9) Please listen ….. me. I have something very important to tell you.
10) Do you like going to museums? – It depends ….. the museum.
11) They asked the waiter ….. coffee but he brought them tea.
12) Did you hear ….. our experiment at the Quick Burger Cafe?
13) What happened ….. John last night? Why didn’t he come to the party?
14) Hello, can I speak ….. the manager, please?
15) This is not my house. It belongs ….. a friend of mine.
16) Thank you very much ….. your help.

8.2. Put in the verbs and add a preposition if necessary:


(A) agree, applied, ask, care, caring, concentrate, decided, pay,
suffering
I’m working at Grand Hospital now. I (1) ….. a nurse’s job last May and
started in July. I don’t earn much money and I even had to (2) ….. my uniform
Prepositions 225

out of my own money. Perhaps I should (3) ….. a pay rise. But I don’t really (4)
….. the money. The work is the important thing. Of course, it’s very hard work
(5) ….. the patients, and at the moment I’m (6) ..... backache. But I knew it
would be like this when I (7) ….. a career in nursing. I just try to forget all the
problems and (8) ….. the job. I think it’s a worthwhile thing to do; I hope you
(9) ….. me.
(B) reached, deal, apologised, left , laughing, listening, believed,
Tom and Marea had arranged to go to Sarah’s party. Tom had to stay at
work to (1) ….. one or two problems. Marea was sitting in the Paradise Cafe (2)
….. the juke box. Tom finally arrived at the cafe and (3) ….. the delay. After a
short walk they (4) ….. Sarah’s flat. At the party Marea met a man who kept (5)
….. his own jokes. Tom talked to a young lady who (6) ….. ghosts and had
seen one the night before. They (7) ….. the party early and got a taxi home.
8.3. Translate into English. Use verb + preposition combinations.
1) Кто тот человек, с которым ты разговаривал?
2) Мы видели несколько мужчин с ружьями, стреляющих в птиц.
3) Извини, что я не писал тебе так долго.
4) Они пригласили несколько друзей на свадьбу.
5) Ты можешь объяснить мне это слово?
6) Позволь мне описать тебе то, что я видел.
7) Он извинился передо мной за грубость.
8) Мы обсудили многие вещи на собрании.
9) Приятного отдыха. Берегите себя!
10) Мне кажется, тебе эта работа подойдет. Почему бы тебе не подать
заявление?
11) Я обыскал весь дом в поисках ключей, но все еще не могу их найти.
12) Я не виделся с ней с тем пор, как ушел из дома на работу сегодня
утром.
13) Ты слышал о драке в клубе в субботу вечером?
14) Кто такой Том Круз? Я никогда о нем не слышал.
15) Ты недавно получил известие от мамы? – Да, я получил письмо от нее
два дня назад.
16) Что ты думаешь об этом фильме?
17) Ты выглядишь серьезным. О чем ты думаешь?
18) Я рад, что ты напомнил мне о собрании.
19) Фильм напомнил мне о моем детстве.
20) Кто-то бросил в министра помидором.
21) Моя мама бросила мне ключи из окна.
22) От чего он умер? – От сердечного приступа.
226 Prepositions

23) Обед состоял из трех блюд. Но у нас не было достаточно денег, чтобы
заплатить за еду.
24) Ты веришь в Бога?
25) Она юрист и специализируется по семейному праву.
26) Не выглядывай из окна. Сконцентрируйся на работе.
27) Возьми чашку и наполни ее водой.

PROGRESS TEST

1. Fill in the correct prepositions.


1) My friends first went ….. France ….. a short holiday ….. 1990.
2) We complained ….. the shop assistant ….. the hole ….. the sweater.
3) People are angry ….. the increase ….. food prices.
4) He’s always wanted his parents to be proud ….. him.
5) Is there very much difference ….. the two word processors?
6) Newcastle is a large, commercial and industrial city ….. a population of
about 300,000. It is ….. the north-east of England, ….. the River Tyne.
7) Do you know a pop star called Madonna? – No, I’ve never heard ….. her.
8) The police accused the man ….. stealing the money.
9) I’m looking ….. a house ….. two bedrooms and a garden.
10) She’s very different ….. her mother, but quite similar ….. her father.
11) There is no need ….. you to worry ….. me. I’ll be all right.
12) We have a very good relationship ….. our cousins.
13) They’ve arranged to meet ….. a cafe ….. a drink ….. 9 o’clock this
evening.
14) You can depend ….. him to arrive ….. time; he’s never late.
15) My mother found an old photograph ….. the floor ….. the bed ….. her
room.
16) David worked as a tourist guide ….. London ….. three months ….. the
summer.
17) At first the boy didn’t want to go swimming ...... the river, but ….. the end
he changed his mind.
18) Bob has suffered ….. bad headaches ….. he had the accident.
19) I’ve been staying ….. the Grand Hotel ..... Oxford Street ….. I arrived …..
England.
20) We went away ….. holiday ….. the end of last week.
21) ….. my opinion they show too many old films ….. TV.
22) He took a lot of photographs ….. his visit ….. Paris last summer.
23) My friends live ..... 20 High Road. Their flat is ….. the second floor.
Prepositions 227

24) I had great difficulty ….. finding a job when I was living ….. the south of
England.
25) He’s been studying ….. the University ….. Liverpool ….. the past three
years.
26) We’re thinking ….. going ….. the concert ….. Saturday. Are you interested
….. coming?
27) She went shopping ….. town ….. the morning.
28) We’re meeting ….. the clock tower ….. North Street ….. lunchtime.
29) We went ..... Athens ..... my car.
30) Where is the light switch? – It's ..... the wall ..... the door.

2. Choose the correct prepositions – A, B, or C (word and preposition


combinations).
31) That smell always reminds me ….. hospitals.
A) on B) of C) about
32) I’ve warned you ….. taking my things without asking me.
A) for B) of C) about
33) She congratulated them ….. getting engaged.
A) on B) of C) in
34) The doctor is taking very good care ….. your son in hospital.
A) about B) for C) of
35) When Robert was younger, he dreamt ….. being a famous footballer one
day.
A) to B) of C) in
36) He apologised ….. losing my letter.
A) to B) in C) for
37) I can’t concentrate ….. anything at the moment.
A) on B) to C) about
38) I am thinking …… selling my car.
A) to B) of C) on
39) The film “The Birds” was made ….. Alfred Hitchcock.
A) with B) of C) by
40) My friends will be ….. holiday soon.
A) on B) in C) at
41) I met an old friend in town quite ….. chance yesterday.
A) on B) by C) with
42) He has had some difficulty …… his new computer.
A) with B) of C) in
43) There has been a rise ….. the number of homeless people.
A) in B) of C) with
228 Prepositions

44) Who’s responsible ….. these children?


A) of B) for C) in
45) There’s no need ….. you to worry.
A) to B) for C) of
46) He’s not really interested ….. stamp collecting.
A) in B) on C) by
47) Pisa in Italy is famous ….. its “Leaning Tower”.
A) about B) from C) for
48) Are you afraid ….. snakes?
A) by B) to C) of
49) She used to be quite good ….. dancing.
A) in B) at C) on
50) My sister is feeling rather nervous …… her interview tomorrow.
A) of B) to C) about

3. Fill in the correct prepositions.


51) I wonder what's ..... TV this evening? – The TV programmes are ..... the
back page of the newspaper.
52) How do you get there? ..... bus? – No. ..... foot.
53) I like that photo hanging ..... the wall ..... the living room.
54) She's a middle aged woman ..... blue eyes and short blonde hair.
55) He apologised ….. me….. losing his temper.
56) This car isn’t mine. It belongs ….. Nick.
57) She was sick and tired of arguing with her parents. ..... the end she left the
house.
58) I saw my friend ..... Christmas Day but I haven't seen her ..... then.
59) Look at the leaves ..... that tree. They are beautiful.
60) I took a key ..... my bag and opened the door.
61) ..... summer I ride ..... my bike.
62) I can't decide what to eat. There is nothing ..... the menu that I like.
63) Water freezes ..... 0 degree Celsius.
64) Two robbers were arrested ..... the police and taken ..... the police station.
65) The train arrives ..... the station ..... midnight.
66) In Britain people drive ..... the left.
67) The conference starts ..... 9.00. I must be ..... time. My report goes first.
68) Have you ever thought ….. moving to another country?
69) My grandfather died ….. pneumonia .
70) Would you rather go home ..... a taxi or ...... the bus.
71) The ship should be here ..... five days.
72) When you write a cheque you have to write the amount ..... words and
figures.
Prepositions 229

73) ..... Easter British children receive chocolate eggs.


74) We were woken up by a loud noise ..... the night.
75) I've got some relatives staying with me ..... the moment. They are staying
..... Sunday.
76) Are you ..... this photo? – Yes, that's me ..... the right.
77) We went ..... a party ..... Tom's house ..... Saturday evening.
78) A film was boring. ..... the end of it only a few people stayed in.
79) Where is Carol? She is not ..... work. Is she ..... holiday?
80) ..... the south-west coast of England there are a lot of valleys.
4. Complete the sentences using the prepositions in the box. If no preposition
is needed, leave the space empty (–).
for, on, in, at, by, with, to, of, after, about
81) Thank you ….. phoning. Goodbye!
82) Van Gogh is famous ..... his paintings.
83) They will laugh ..... me when I tell them the whole story.
84) It was so stupid ..... you to act that way.
85) The foreigners were greatly impressed ..... the Russian ballet.
86) I am looking ..... my niece. My sister is ..... work.
87) My uncle is shocked ..... the news that his son committed a crime.
88) Our boss insists ..... making a new market research.
89) My sister is married ..... a famous film director.
90) At night I was dreaming ..... something horrible.
91) It is not good to be jealous ..... other people's success.
92) The recent research provides us ..... useful data.
93) My friend was blamed ..... the car crash.
94) We are bored ..... politics.
95) Don't speak to her. She is ..... bad mood.
96) At university he specialised ..... marketing.
97) I don't want to work with him. He often shouts ..... me.
98) They were disappointed ..... the results of the research.
99) Do you know much ..... economics? – Yes, I studied it ..... University.
100) Are you writing a letter? – Yes, I am writing ….. my pen-friend.

100/______
230 Prepositions

Translate into English. Use different types of prepositions.


1) Мы всегда стремимся уехать куда-нибудь на Рождество.
2) Они приготовили сюрприз на мой день рождения.
3) Что ты будешь делать в выходные?
4) В 16 лет я понял, что никогда не стану врачом.
5) Почему ты не приходишь вовремя, а всегда заставляешь всех ждать.
6) Я чуть не забыл о Дне рождения Джонни. К счастью, я вспомнил
вовремя.
7) У нас было много проблем с машиной. Наконец мы ее продали.
8) Мы переезжаем по новому адресу в конце сентября.
9) После посещения магазинов они вернулись домой.
10) В последний раз я видела Кэт на свадьбе у Дэвида.
11) Пол живет в Лондоне. Он студент Лондонского университета.
12) Поверни налево у светофора.
13) Я живу на Центральной улице № 23.
14) Ты читал статью в газете?
15) Вот список покупок. Не бери то, чего нет в списке.
16) Кто та женщина на фотографии?
17) Я плохо вижу. Давай сядем впереди (в кинотеатре).
18) Мы остановились в маленькой деревне по пути в Лондон.
19) Мы были на море 30 дней. Я люблю купаться в море.
20) Том проехал на лошади мимо нас.
21) Ты влюблялась в кого-нибудь?
22) По моему мнению, фильм неудачный.
23) Заполните бланк печатными буквами , пожалуйста.
24) Вы будете расплачиваться наличными или кредитной картой?
25) Я набрала вес. Мне следует сесть на диету.
26) Извините за шум. У нас ремонт.
27) Мне жаль Мэри. У нее много проблем.
28) Я ненавижу свою работу. Я сыта ей по горло.
29) Он опять опоздал. Он привык заставлять всех ждать.
30) Ты уверена, что способна сдать экзамен по английскому языку?
31) Я не хочу от них зависеть.
32) Поторопись. У нас мало времени.
33) Мне кажется, она приезжает вечером, но я не уверена.
34) Кто отвечает за эту выставку?
35) Экспоцентр был переполнен туристами.
36) Фильм сильно отличался от книги.
37) У меня нет денег заплатить за еду.
38) Никогда не прощу им того, что они сделали.
39) Все обвиняли его в катастрофе.
Prepositions 231

40) Число людей, страдающих сердечными заболеваниями, увеличилось.


41) Крем для загара может защитить кожу от солнца.
42) Когда вы приедете? – Не знаю. Все зависит от транспорта.
43) Я могу положиться на друга.
44) Я поздравил ее с успешным окончанием экзамена.
45) Надеюсь, ты преуспеешь в работе.
46) Несколько дней назад в наш дом залезли воры, но ничего не было
украдено.
47) Он не справился с управлением и врезался в стену.
48) Я предпочитаю кино театру.
49) Сколько денег вы тратите на еду?
50) Школа предоставляет всем ученикам книги.
51) Она отправила письмо в пятницу, 25 июня.
52) Ты уезжал на каникулы на прошлой неделе? – Нет, я собираюсь в
поездку в следующем месяце.
53) Твой друг звонил вчера вечером, он перезвонит днем.
54) Мы пришли в кинотеатр как раз к началу фильма (вовремя).
55) Мы должны начать урок вовремя. Не опаздывайте, пожалуйста.
56) В конце представления были аплодисменты.
57) Я не мог решить, куда поехать на каникулах. В конце концов я остался
дома.
58) Кемпинг находится в деревне у моря. Все отдыхающие любят
купаться в море.
59) Я был у Питера прошлым вечером. Комнаты в доме Питера очень
уютные. Есть сад позади дома.
60) Они женаты уже 10 лет и живут в Париже со дня свадьбы.
61) Она устала, пока ходила по магазинам.
62) Они завтра утром уезжают, и их не будет до понедельника.
63) Что ты думаешь об этом фильме? – В целом, он мне понравился.
64) Ты придешь домой вовремя к обеду?
65) Одиннадцатичасовой поезд прибыл вовремя.
66) На Рождество англичане украшают свои дома рождественскими
елками.
67) Не вини меня за то, что произошло.
68) Пожалуйста, уберите учебники со стола.
69) Самолет пролетел над горами.
70) Давай прогуляемся вдоль реки до моста.
71) Фильм, который я хочу посмотреть, идет в кинотеатре "Одеон".
72) Что у тебя в руках? Положи это в карман.
73) Когда я хожу в театр, я предпочитаю сидеть в переднем ряду.
74) Это было долгое путешествие. Они находились в море месяц.
232 Prepositions

75) Вдруг мы увидели высокого черноволосого мужчину в сером


костюме.
76) Должно быть, машина была открыта кем-то с помощью отмычки.
77) Ты добрался сюда на машине или пешком? – Я приехал на такси.
78) Ты когда-нибудь смотрел пьесы Шекспира?
79) Он вынул деньги из кармана и положил их в кошелек.
80) Будь осторожен, не упади с велосипеда.
81) Мальчик прыгнул через забор в сад.
82) Старая дорога ведет через деревню к лесу.
83) Он влюбился (был очарован) в ее приятный голос.
84) Они вышли из магазина и сели в автобус.
85) Мы встретились по пути домой.
86) Мой дом находится между турагентством и банком напротив
ресторана. Ты не сможешь пройти мимо.
87) Мы прочитали об этом изобретении в журнале.
88) Не встречай меня на станции. Я доберусь на такси.
89) Мне писать адрес на обратной стороне конверта или внизу?
90) Я предпочитаю сидеть в машине впереди.
91) На углу улицы рядом с рестораном есть почта.
92) Мы живем на Королевской улице на втором этаже.
93) Кто этот человек на фотографии?
94) Что у вас в меню?
95) Кто-то у двери. Пойди, посмотри.
96) Когда будете уходить из гостиницы, оставьте свой ключ
администратору.
97) В здании никого нет, только объявление на двери.
98) Ты учишься в университете? – Нет, я работаю в фирме.
99) Ты не сможешь открыть машину ключом, так как замок сломан.
100) Нелегко жить без денег.
Supplement

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH


PREPOSITIONS

возражать против чего-либо object to smth.


вылечить от чего-либо cure smb. of smth.
получать выгоду от чего-либо make a profit on smth.
газета от 12 мая 2002 года newspaper of May 12, 2002
готовиться к чему-либо prepare for smth.
готовый к чему-либо ready for smth.
граничить со страной border on a country
дублировать фильм на русский, dub a film in Russian, English, etc.
английский и т.п.
жаловаться на что-либо complain of (about) smth.
женатый на ком-либо married to smb.
жениться по любви, по расчету marry for love, for convenience
заботиться о ком-либо take care of smb.
зависеть от кого-либо depend on smb.
закрывать глаза на факты close one's eyes to the facts
играть на деньги play for money
избавляться от кого-либо get rid of smb.
извиняться перед кем-либо apologize to smb.
интерес к чему-либо smb.'s interest in smth.
кандидат на пост candidate to a post
критически относиться к чему-либо be critical of smth.
купить что-либо на (за) деньги buy smth. with money
купить (продать) по какой-либо buy (sell) smth at a certain price
цене
лекарство от чего-либо medicine for smth., remedy for smth.
лечить от чего-либо treat smb. for smth.
на чье-либо имя in smb.'s name
направленный на что-либо aimed at smth.
обвинять в чем-либо accuse smb. of smth., charge smb.
with smth.
отвечать на что-либо reply to smth.
открыть книгу на (первой, второй и open the book at page one, two, etc.
т.п.) странице
234 Prepositions

быть в хороших (плохих) be on good (bad) terms with smb.


отношениях с кем-либо
от первого лица in the first person
оценивать что-либо в какую-либо value smth., estimate smth. at a certain
сумму sum
поздравлять с чем-либо congratulate smb. on smth.
подозревать в чем-либо suspect smb. of smth.
призывать к чему-либо call for smth.
писать на полях write in the margin
пользоваться популярностью у be popular with (among) smb.
кого-либо
право на что-либо a right to smth.
путеводитель по городу, стране guide book to a city, a country
преимущество перед кем-либо advantage over smb.
продавать (покупать) на фунты, sell (buy) smth. by the pound, by the
ярды и т.п. yard, etc.
происходить с кем-либо happen to smb.
распространяться на другие города, spread to other cities, countries
страны
работать над чем-либо work at smth.
в чьем-либо распоряжении at smb.'s disposal
реагировать на что-либо react to smth., respond to smth.
сделанный из чего-либо made of (from) smth.
согласие на что-либо smb.'s consent to smth.
соглашаться на что-либо agree to smth.
сердиться на кого-либо be angry with smb.
по секрету in confidence
от всего сердца with all my (his, etc.) heart
в соответствии с чем-либо according to smth.
с течением времени in the course of time
типичный для кого-либо typical of smb.
уверенный в чем-либо sure of smth.
упрекать в чем-либо reproach smb. with smth.
характерный для кого-либо characteristic of smb.
цены на что-либо price of smth., prices for smth.
сыграть шутку с кем-либо play a joke (a trick) on smb.
Prepositions 235

IN ENGLISH NO PREPOSITION MUST BE USED

влиять на кого-либо influence smb., affect smb.


возражать против чего-либо oppose smth.
встречаться с кем-либо. meet smb.
вторгаться в страну invade a country
выкрашенный в красный, painted red, blue, etc.
синий и т.п. цвет
входить в комнату, дом и т.п. enter a room, a house, etc.
догадываться о чем-либо guess smth.
докладывать о чем-либо report smth.
жениться на ком-либо marry smb.
играть в игру play a game
играть на пианино, скрипке и т.п. play the piano, the violin, etc.
наблюдать за кем-либо watch smb.
нападать на кого-либо attack smb
нуждаться в чем-либо need smth.
обращаться с кем-либо treat smb. well, badly, etc.
хорошо, плохо и т.п.
обращаться с чем-либо handle smth.
объявлять о чем-либо announce smth., declare smth.
отвечать на вопрос answer a question
отказываться от чего-либо refuse smth.
охотиться за чем-либо hunt smth.
оштрафовать кого-либо на fine smb. a certain sum
какую-то сумму
помнить о чем-либо remember smth.
подходить к чему-либо (по match smth.
цвету, стилю)
претендовать на что-либо claim smth.
приближаться к чему-либо approach smth.
признаваться в чем-либо confess smth.
присоединяться к кому-либо join smb.
продвигаться вперед на несколь- advance several miles, kilometres, etc.
ко миль, километров и т.п.
разводиться с кем-либо divorce smb.
советоваться с кем-либо consult smb.
сомневаться в ком-либо/чем-либо/ doubt smb. /smth.
увеличиваться в несколько раз increase several times
упоминать о чем-либо mention smth.
236 Prepositions

IN ENGLISH A PREPOSITION MUST BE USED


1 говорить кому-либо say
диктовать кому-либо dictate
доказывать кому-либо prove
докладывать кому-либо report
жаловаться кому-либо complain
казаться кем-либо seem to smb.
лгать кому-либо lie
объявлять кому-либо announce
объяснять кому-либо explain
описывать что-либо кому-либо describe
отвечать кому-либо reply
принадлежать кому-нибудь belong
2 богатый чем-либо rich in smth.
вытирать руки чем-либо wipe one's hands on smth.
гордиться чем-либо be proud of smth.
догонять кого-либо catch up with smb.
застигнутый дождем caught in the rain
затрагивать вопрос touch upon a question
комментировать что-либо comment on smth.
лишать чего-либо deprive smb. of smth.
мешать кому-либо interfere with smb.
навязывать что-либо кому-либо impose smth. on smb.
напоминать кому-либо что- remind smb of smth
либо
написанный чьим-либо written in smb.'s handwriting
почерком
оканчиваться чем-либо end in smth.
оперировать кого-либо operate on smb.
отомстить кому-либо revenge oneself upon smb.
полный чего-либо full of smth.
просить что-либо ask for smth.
соответствовать чему-либо correspond to smth.
сочувствовать кому-либо sympathize with smb.
способствовать чему-либо contribute to smth.
торговать чем-либо trade in smth.
умываться холодной wash in cold (hot) water
(горячей) водой
KEYS

Chapter 1 NOUNS

ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
1. recognition 2. sail 3. applications 4. transportation 5. the rich, the poor 6. an adult
7. misunderstanding 8. answer 9. resolution 10. collision 11.rush 12. record 13.
thinkers 14. development 15. accusation 16. run 17. commentator 18. finals 19.
implications 20. use

Unit 2
1. 21. We, Tuesday 22. The, Professor Black, University of New Mexico 23. The
Nile River, Mediterranean Sea 24. Japan, Far East, China 25 John, Catholic, Ali,
Muslim 26 Venezuela, Spanish-speaking 27. The 28. She, Xerox Corporation 29.
The, Saudi Arabia, Islam 30.Valentine’s, (February 14)
2. 31. chairs [C] 32. furniture [U] 33. fruit is [U] 34. vegetables are [C] 35. money
is [U] 36. knowledge is [U] 37. there isn’t any news [U] 38. hair [U] 39.
scenery [U] 40. progress [U]

Unit 3
41. criteria 42. heroes 43. days 44. mouths 45. horses 46. deer 47. data 48. wives 49.
mothers-in-law 50. potatoes 51. swine 52. analyses 53. feet 54. loaves 55. lives

Unit 4
1. 56. friend’s mother 57. ship’s nose 58. sister’s dress 59. horse’s legs 60. window
of the room 61. leg of the table 62. son’s school 63. friend’s flat 64. death of a
hero/hero’s death 65. country’s economy
2. 66. My brother’s 67. Brother’s friends 68. A man’s, a woman’s 69. The wolf’s
70. at Johnson’s 71. at the dentist’s 72. at Bill’s 73. the bride’s father’s uncle’s
74. the tobacconist’s 75. a country’s

Unit 5
76. bride 77. peahen 78. cow 79. hen 80. duck 81. hostess 82. niece 83. vixen 84.
duchess 85. waitress

Review Exercises
86. I’ll give you all the information on this question. It’s reliable. 87. Draughts is a
popular game. 88. The money is on the table. 89. The police are looking for the
murderer. They say he will be found in the nearest future. 90. The cattle are grazing
in the meadow. 91. My knowledge of English is quite good. 92. She is making good
progress. 93. The news is so good! 94. Yesterday’s newspaper published her picture
238 Keys

with completely grey hair. 95. These clothes protect us well from cold. 96. The steep
stairs lead to the sea. 97. The goods have arrived but they are still on the board of the
ship. 98. Her advice was wise. 99. My watch is slow. 100. The window of the room
faced the yard.

REVIEW EXERCISES 1
1. Judgment, acknowledgement, development, admiration, exploration, imagination,
satisfaction, normalization, distance, reality, darkness, beauty, a run, a jump,
ability, compilation.
2. 1. d) No change is necessary 2. a) Northern hemisphere … earth … equator 3. d)
No change is necessary
3. a) furniture [U] b) dust [U] c) penny [C] d) progress [U] e) virtue [U] [C] f) pizza
[C] g) scenery [U] h) view [U] [C] i) hair [U] [C] j) gossip [U] [C] k) joy [U] [C]
l) job [C] m) news [U] n) work [U] o) knowledge [U] p) butter [U] q) money [U]
r) coffee [U]
4. 1. Two dormitories are being renovated during the summer break. 2. The math
instructor said, “Two halves make a whole”. 3. Dr Shepard read the admission
criteria to the incoming freshmen. 4. Mary bought a new pair of skies for the
skiing trip. 5. I have three shelves above my desk. 6. The children will trick or
treat the whole evening on Halloween.
5. 1. is 2. is 3. are 4. is 5. is 6. are 7. is 8. is 9. is 10. are 11. is 12. is 13. is
14. are 15. are 16. is 17. is 18. is 19. are 20. are 21. are 22. are 23. is 24. is
25. are.
6. 1. I’ll give you all the information on this question. It is reliable. 2. The girl has so
beautiful hair. 3. Would you give me any information about this man? 4. Today’s
news is good. 5. She is making progress in English. 6. I have too little money, it’s
not enough to go by train. 7.She has long hair; it covers her ears. 8.Here are some
pieces of advice. 9. Let me give you advice. 10. What’s the news? 11. My clothes
are wet through. 12. There were many people at the station. 13. Today I had a lot
of work.
7.
(A) 1.My knowledge of English is quite good. 2. The money is on the table. 3. He is
making good progress. 4. Here is good news. 5. His hair is completely grey. 6.
Police are already here. 7. Our clothes protect us from cold. 8. The public were
waiting for the actors. 9. Your advice was of good use for me. 10. These goods are
arriving by sea. 11. Women-drivers are usually very careful in driving. 12.
Giraffes eat leaves on trees. 13. In Australia they keep sheep mainly for their wool.
14. The data base is quite enough. 15. The English like to sit at the fireplace. 16.
The shelves are full of books. 17. There are lots of mice here. 18. Do not forget to
clean your teeth at least twice a day. 19. We do not have any fruit. 20. Don’t forget
to buy tomatoes, onions and potatoes. 21. These phenomena are difficult to
explain. 22. The Netherlands are famous for their tulips and Wales is famous for
its scenery. 23. Police have just caught the murderer. 24. It’s none of Pete’s
business. 25. I know your brother’s silly jokes. 26. I would like you to come to my
Keys 239

sister’s. 27. His face was long and white as a clown’s one. 28. After breakfast he
started for Piglet’s house.
(B) 1.one mile’s distance, 2.the lawyer’s opinion, 3.the director’s signature, 4.the
seller’s suggestion, 5.the company owners’ instruction, 6.Europe’s map,
7.yesterday’s newspaper, 8.the window of the room, 9.my sister’s dress, 10.the
passengers’ tickets, 11.my parents’ house, 12.the ship’s name, 13.the name of the
river, 14.children’s voices, 15.the doctor’s prescription, 16.Dickens’s novels,
17.my friend’s children, 18.at the dentist’s, 19.Ann’s hair is shorter than Helen’s,
20.the bird’s wings, 21.the wall of the house, 22.mother’s birthday, 23.the
woman’s story, 24.Repin’s pictures, 25.the cover of the book.

PROGRESS TEST
Unit 1
1. pottery 2. slavery 3. reflection 4. reforms 5. fullness 6. assessment 7. creditor 8.
specification 9. share, share 10. delivery 11. exaggeration 12. handful 13. confession
14. missionary 15. safety 16. student 17. judgement; presupposition 18. freedom 19.
freezing 20. claim

Unit 2
1. 21. On Saturday night Joe Masters and his Rhythm Boys entertained the Yorkville
Social Club. 22. My cousin Robert has a decided French accent. 23. He referred to
his section of the Southwest as “God’s Country”. 24. The street was named
Sherman Street in honour of General Sherman. 25. I remember that there was a
Chinese boy in my class in Burton High School. 26. Father and Mother both
approve of the United Nations. 27. Oh, there goes Dr Jones now! 28. We wrote to
Captain Anderson of the Ninety-fifth Coast Artillery. 29. He has a book about the
Stone Age. 30. They stayed with their uncle from Thanksgiving until Christmas.
2. 31. These white swine do not live long. 32. This watch was a special favourite
with Mr Pickwick. 33. There were small losses: a spoon for the baby’s feeding
and a pair of scissors. 34. The people were asking me what was the matter. 35. All
the potatoes are big and round. 36. His knowledge grows quickly. 37. The war
news is all old! 38. His hair was grey, and he was fat and short. 39. I have two red
fish. 40. They export wine and cheese.

Unit 3
41. turkeys 42. cargoes 43. knives 44. swine 45. sons-in-law 46. oxen 47. men 48.
echoes 49. phenomena 50. indexes or indices 51. teeth 52. mice 53. months 54.
potatoes 55. roofs

Unit 4
1. 56. men’s friendship 57. headmaster’s desk 58. child’s fears 59. fox’s tail 60.
brother’s property 61. minute’s hesitation 62. brother’s marriage 63.
government’s decision 64. morning’s paper 65. a mile’s distance
240 Keys

2. 66. A woman’s love is not worth anything until it has been cleaned of all
romanticism. 67. He got twenty-four hours’ work out of each day. 68. I spent
Christmas at my Aunt Emily’s. 69. We got some goat’s milk with us. 70. Why,
for God’s sake, we go through all this hell? 71. He was still thinking of next
morning’s papers. 72. He was on his two miles’ walk to Burkley. 73. They were
leaving the house without an instant’s delay. 74. He watched her with a boy’s
enthusiasm. 75. See you at John’s!

Unit 5
76. actress 77. vixen 78. baroness 79. widow 80. spinster 81. aunt 82. niece 83. lady
84. duchess 85. heroine

Review Exercises:
86. There is no money in my pocket. 87. I know my hair is beautiful. 88. His
fortnight’s vacation did him a lot of good. 89. The police have just caught the
murderer. 90. A car is good but the deer are better! 91. My knowledge of English is
quite good. 92. After his wife’s death he remained a widower for ever. 93. It’s such
good news! 94. All the morning (’s) papers reported about his great success. 95.
These clothes are very expensive. 96. The steep stairs go to the sea. 97. The goods
have arrived but customs officers have not expected them yet. 98. Nobody followed
his advice. 99. My watch is fast. 100. Mother’s love is endless.

Chapter 2 ADJECTIVES

ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
1. 1.comparable 2.convertible 3.valuable 4.intellectual 5.insistent 6.contradictory
7.wooden 8.fruitful 9.courageous 10.frosty
2. 11.unlike 12. irregular 13.immobile 14.illegal 15.dishonest 16.non-standard
17.ungracious 18.incompatible 19.inexperienced 20.indirect
3. 21.shaven 22.drunken 23.shrunken 24.wicked [-id] 25.legged [-id] 26.crooked
[-id] 27.learned [-id] 28.blessed [-id] 29.ragged [-id] 30.dogged [-id]

Unit 2
1. 31. something new today 32.court martial 33.the peach tastes sweet 34.anyone
interested 35.she seems happy 36.figures available on this question 37.notary
public 38.she is afraid of him 39. brave enough to do it 40.you look nice
2. 41.an extravagant expensive black Scottish woollen suit 42.a beautiful young Irish
woman 43.a beautiful calm winter day 44.a good big old black dog 45.an
expensive antique ceramic vase 46.a famous Russian historic film 47.a nice
straight Roman nose 48.an impressive old silver ring 49.a nice little old town
50.a little old red plastic toy
Keys 241

Unit 4
1. 51.clumsy – clumsier/more clumsy – the clumsiest/the most clumsy 52.bad –
worse – the worst 53.narrow – narrower/more narrow – the narrowest/the most
narrow 54. regular – more regular – the most regular 55.complete –
completer/more complete – the completest/ the most complete 56.merry –
merrier/more merry – the merriest/the most merry 57.far – father/further – the
farthest/the furthest 58.old – older/elder – the oldest/the eldest 59.little – less –
the least/the last 60.stupid – more stupid – the most stupid
2. 61.not so/as old as 62. not so/as red as 63. not so/as expensive as 64.not so/as
good as 65.not so/as heavy as 66.not so/as pretty as 67.not so/as long as 68.not
so/as heavy 69.not so/as ancient 70.not so/as narrow as
3. 71. the loudest 72. much more beautiful 73. the cleverest 74. much worse 75.
much/far higher 76. much funnier 77. much better 78. the more the better 79. the
more you learn the more you know 80. the stronger you become the less you get
tired
Unit 5
81. terrifying 82. shocked 83. exciting 84. amused 85. embarrassed 86. interested
87. depressing 88. worried 89. boring, bored 90. fascinated
Unit 6
91.Only the young have … . 92.The impossible has … . 93.The English 94.the
wounded 95.A Czech 96.The blind 97.The Japanese, two Indians. 98.the sweets
99.The quiet 100.A Dutchman
REVIEW EXERCISES
1. 1. Attractive 2. manageable 3.energetic 4.humourous 5.permissible 6.illegal 7.non-
smoking 8.irresponsible 9.illiterate 10.conclusive.
2. 1. happier, 2.the happiest, 3.more careless, 4.the most careless, 5.simpler/more
simple, 6.the simplest/the most simple, 7.farther/further, 8.least, 9.smaller,
11.further
3. 1.the rich, 2.the poor, 3.shocked, 4.embarrassed, 5.the old, 6.the blind, 7.the
sighted, 8.the deaf, 9.the unemployed, 10.the young, 11.depressed, 12.distressed,
13.distressed, 14.depressed, 15.the living, 16.the dead.
4. 1.expensive Italian handmade leather shoes (or Expensive handmade Italian leather
shoes) 2.beautiful old pair 3.backdoorstep 4.large friendly dog (exceptionally,
size comes before the general adjective here) 5.badly 6.good 7.good 8.
remaining Italian shoe 9.unchewed Italian shoe 10.red fur-lined slippers
PROGRESS TEST
Unit 1
1. favourable, 2.bushy, 3.thoughtful, 4.courageous, 5.respectful, 6.bookish, 7.
executive, 8.intellectual, 9.valuable, 10.woolen
2. 11. non-violent, 12. disobedient, 13. illegitimate, 14. non-standard, 15.disreputable,
16.tasteless, 17.indecisive, 18.immoral, 19.immature, 20.uncomfortable.
242 Keys

3. 21. -t 22. -id 23. -id 24. -id 25. -id 26. -t 27. -id 28. -d 29. -id 30. -id.
Unit 2
1. 31. a steamer ready to sail off 32. attorney general 33. the music sounds nice 34.
anyone interested 35. she gets angry 36. data available on this question 37. the
doctor concerned is on holiday 38. a rose smells sweet 39. energy enough for
that 40. it sounds good for me
2. 41. an expensive long white and pink Indian cotton dress 42. a nice old English
lady 43. a nice sunny summer day 44. a fat old black cat 45. an expensive
antique metal box 46. a famous funny American movie 47. an ugly large red
nose 48. a fashionable new gold ring 49. a lovely little old village 50. a big old
red plastic bag
Unit 4
1. 51. tenderer – the tenderest/more tender – the most tender 52. better – the best 53.
nobler – the noblest/more noble – the most noble 54. completer – the
completest/more complete – the most complete 55. happier – the happiest/more
happy – the most happy 56. heavier – the heaviest/more heavy -- the most heavy
57. bigger – the biggest 58. finer – the finest 59. more private – the most private
2. 60. was not as/so bronzed 61. not as/so nice 62. not as/so hot 63. not as/so
proud 64. not as/so musical 65. not as/so interested 66. not as/so active 67. not
as/so deep 68. not as/so expensive 69. not as/so experienced 70. not as/so
narrow
3. 71. the cleanest 72. much cleaner 73. the best 74. much better 75. much more
interesting 76. much busier 77. far worse 78. the brighter the sun, the warmer
the days 79. the more you drink, the more you are thirsty 80. the more we love a
woman, the less we are liked by her

Unit 5
81. horrified, 82.bored, 83.excited, 84.amusing, 85.embarrassing, 86.interested,
87.depressing, 88.worried, 89.disgusting 90.fascinating

Unit 6
91.the rich, 92.the dead, 93.the young, 94.the experienced, 95. greens, 96.the rich,
97.the poor, 98.valuables, 99.Swiss, 100.the Scotch

Chapter 3 ADVERBS

ENTRY TEST
Unit 1
1.The balloon didn’t go very high. 2.The dog came quite near. 3.They work very
hard. 4.They hardly had any time for lunch. 5.I nearly caught the fish.
Keys 243

Unit 2
1. 6. Are you usually at home in the evening? 7. They have finally caught the cat. 8.
Sally doesn’t often listen to the news. 9. The weather is generally good here.
Generally the weather is good here. The weather is good here, generally. 10. David
will probably be there. Probably David will be there. 11. You never take risks. 12.
Jerry is hardly ever angry. 13. I frequently lie awake at night. Frequently I lie
awake at night. 14. You seldom tell jokes. 15. Mary is always late for work. 16.
Ray worries often. Ray often worries. 17. He did not try hard enough. 18. She has
been sad lately. 19. He sometimes argues with his wife. Sometimes he argues with
his wife. He argues with his wife sometimes. 20. Yesterday he laughed at the
comedy show. He laughed at the comedy show yesterday. 21. I never wish things
were different. 22. It’ll be 9 o’clock soon. 23. I have just seen a marvelous film.
24. She did not read quickly enough then. 25. The exam is finally over.
2. 26. I usually take sugar in my tea. 27. ‘Where’s Jim?’ ‘He has probably gone home
early. 28. Jane is always generous. 29. We always have to wait a long time for a
bus. 30. Sally and Chuck were both born in Leeds. 31. Jeff is a good pianist. He
can also sing very well. 32. Our television set often breaks down. 33. I can never
understand why he doesn’t wear glasses. 34. I will probably be leaving early
tomorrow. 35. I am afraid I will probably not be able to come to the party
(Probably I won’t be). 36. If we hadn’t taken the same train, we might never have
met each other. 37. I closed the door quietly. (I quietly closed the door). 38. I don’t
usually have to work on Saturdays. (Usually I don’t..) 39. Does Jack always sing
when he is in the bath? 40. The day was warm enough.

Unit 3
1. 41. better 42.more frequently 43.the fastest 44.most 45.more 46.more clearly
47.earlier 48.more quickly /quicker 49.(the) best 50.the fastest 51.best 52.more
attentively 53.more often/oftener 54.more slowly 55.most
2. 56. Little Masha danced even more beautifully than her sister. 57. John played the
worst. 58. They played worse than last week. 59. You have to get up earlier. 60.
Could you say it more slowly, please? 61. He draws animals best. 62. He draws
animals the best. 63. She ran the fastest. 64. You can swim father/further than
Martin. 65.You can buy them the cheapest/most cheaply at the shop.

Unit 4
1. 66. happily 67daily 68.exactly 69.fast 70.early 71.late 72.little 73.hard 74.high
75. near
2. 76. good 77. well 78. good/well 79. good 80. well
3. 81.good 82.angrily 83. badly 84.clear 85.bitter 86.differently 87.simple.
88.bad 89.nice 90.quietly 91.quiet 92.quiet.93.carelessly 94.loudly/loud,
clearly/clear 95.slowly/slow
244 Keys

Review Exercises:
96. She still loves him. 97. We are nearly at the house now. 98. We have to leave
early this morning. 99. He bought the coat cheaply/cheap. 100. I have not met him
before.

REVIEW EXERCISES
1. low 2. widely 3. sharp 4. dearly 5. shortly 6. hard 7. tight/tightly 8. free 9.
loud/loudly 10. deeply
2. My coat is warm enough. 2. I’ll be there too. 3. He reads a lot. 4. I have not seen
him either. 5. The weather will evidently change tomorrow. 6. I have not seen him
before. 7. I have not been there lately. 8. I have not read the letter yet. 9. Have you
ever seen him? 10. He always comes early. 11. He is always here at 9 o’clock. 12.
He has just finished reading. 13. I can always prove it. 14. He can walk still (yet)
faster. 15. I am not quite well. 16. Speak loudly/loud and clearly/clear. 17. He ran
very quickly/quick. 18. The sun is shining brightly/bright. 19. He bought the
watch cheaply/cheap. 20. You will not pass your exam if you don’t work hard
enough. 21. I love you too. 22. The sun shines brightly/bright in summer. 23. I
have not read the book either. 24 I get very tired lately. 25. He always has his tea
with milk. 26. He has just finished translating. 27 I can always help him. 28. He is
still working. 29. She still loves him.

PROGRESS TEST
Unit 1
1.His mouth was open wide. 2.It is highly suspicious. 3.He came home late. 4. He
could hardly move. 5.They came near to hear him better.

Unit 2
1. 6. I usually go to the café. 7.Finally they have caught the cat. 8.We often eat
seafood. 9.Generally this …. 10.Probably he isn’t coming. 11.He never tells a lie.
12.There is hardly a space here. 13.I don’t like the book very much. 14.We seldom
go there. 15.She always stays … . 16.Two girls were talking loudly. 17.She thinks
he is not good enough for her. 18.She has spent a lot of money lately.
19.Sometimes I can … . 20.Last year we had a marvelous holiday in France. 21.I
have never been there. 22.I’ll come back soon. 23.I have just done … 24.The
money was certainly on the table … 25.The work is finally over. 26.She still takes
… 27.She doesn’t drive a car anymore. 28.It will rain slightly here tomorrow. 29.
I still haven’t talked to him. 30.We climbed the hill easily/We easily climbed the
hill

2. 31.Surely he wants promotion. 32.Have you seen any good films lately? 33.He
had always visited her on her birthday before. 34.She consulted her husband at
once. 35.He seems to be simple enough. 36.She talked to them naturally. 37.The
boy is coming tomorrow. 38.He whispered softly in her ear, ‘I love you’. 39.He ate
Keys 245

his food greedily. 40.They were waiting patiently. 41.Has the letter come yet?
42.David will probably be there/Probably David/will be there, probably 43.Do
you come here often? 44.They talked loudly. 45.You are dancing well.

Unit 3
1. 46.better 47.more frequently 48.(the) fastest 49.most delicious 50.more 51.more
clearly 52.earlier 53.harder and harder 54.better 55 (the) hardest 56.better and
better 57.more interestingly 58.earlier 59.more slowly 60.I come home latest on
Mondays.
2. 61. Fewer stores remained open in the evenings this year than last. 62. Let's use the
least electricity possible. 63. Of the three books, I like this one the best. 64. Here
is less wood than there. 65. They listened to the teacher most attentively. 66. I
speak Russian best. 67. He thought about her less and less often. 68. Peter came
home (the) latest. 69. I work best in the morning. 70. You can buy cheapest at
our’s.

Unit 4
1. 71.lovely; 72.eagerly; 73.slowly 74.long 75.elderly 76.hard 77.little 78.late 79. far
80. near
2. 81. near 82. high 83. bright(ly) 84. hardly 85. sweet 86. long 87. late 88.softly
89. nice 90. straight 91. fast 92. quiet 93. nice 94. well 95. well

Review exercise:
96. We are nearly at the house now. 97. We have to leave early this morning. 98. I
lost the dictionary long ago. 99. I am not quite well./I don’t feel quite good. 100. He
bought the coat cheap/cheaply

Chapter 4 PRONOUNS

ENTRY TEST
1. 1. Incorrect – It is unclear whether the antecedent of ‘it’ is ‘telescope’ or ‘moon’.
2. Incorrect – The pronoun should be singular, not plural, because the antecedent
is ‘stamp collecting’. 3. Correct – ‘It’ does not need an antecedent when it stands
in for time, distance, or weather. 4. Incorrect – He or she is the correct pronoun to
refer to ‘a person’ since both are singular. ‘You’ changes the voice from 3rd
person to 2nd person. 5. Incorrect – In this sentence it is unclear what is the
antecedent of ‘which’. Normally, pronouns refer to the closest noun.
2. 6. she, me; 7. me; 8. me; 9. I; 10. I; 11. us; 12. us; 13. me, us, we; 14. them; 15. it,
it, it, it; 16. them; 17. them, They, her, it, she; 18. me, him; 19. me, him; 20. me, I.
3. 21. that; 22. that; 23. This; 24. these; 25. that; 26. this; 27. That; 28. that; 29.
those; 30. those.
246 Keys

4. 31. mine; 32. his; 33. hers; 34. theirs; 35. ours; 36. hers; 37. his; 38. yours; 39.
ours; 40. theirs.
5. 41. herself; 42. me; 43. himself; 44. her; 45. themselves; 46. you/ me/ him, etc.; 47.
you; 48. yourself; 49. themselves; 50. myself; 51. you; 52. itself.
6. 53. looked at each other; 54. dislike each other; 55. each other’s coats; 56. one
another’s names; 57. give each other a hard time; 58. one another’s equipment; 59.
books to each other; 60. They met in 1994; 61. talking to each other; 62. They
married in 1991.
7. 63. Whose; 64. Who; 65. whom; 66. Which; 67. Who; 68. Whose; 69. What; 70.
Who; 71. Who.
8. 72. what, which; 73. which; 74. what, what; 75. what, which; 76. which; 77. what;
78. which; 79. what; 80. what; 81. which; 82. what; 83. which.
9. 84. Other; 85. the other; 86. the other; 87. another; 88. another; 89. the other; 90.
others; 91. another; 92. other; 93. another; 94. another; 95. the other; 96. the other.
97. another; 98. another; 99. another; 100. the other.

Review 2
1. 1. Albert took the book and opened it. 2. My father is fat. He weighs over 90 kilos.
3. ‘Who is that over there?’ ‘It is John Cook.’ 4. Mary is reach, isn’t she? 5. We’re
going for a drink. Would you like to come with us? 6. Dad said he didn’t mind. 7.
Why don’t you and I go away for the weekend? 8. Anne loved the picture because
it reminded her of home. 9. It is a horrible place, London. 10. Can you help them?
11. It is ten miles to the nearest petrol station. 12. Did you give it to them? 13.
They say she’s very clever. 14. I spoke to Mr Brown yesterday. He said he’d call
me back. 15. These women, I’ll be glad when I go back home. 16. The ball hit her
in the face.
2. One of the greatest… , but he was very absent-minded about small matters when
he was thinking about his work. One morning Newton got up very early because
he was working on a very difficult problem. Newton was thinking about the
problem so deeply that he would not leave the problem to go to breakfast. But his
housekeeper thought he needed food so he/ she sent Mary, a servant, to his
study… stay with Newton until he ate the egg. But Newton wanted to be alone,
and he said, «You can leave it with me, and I will boil the egg.» The servant put
the egg on the table by the side of Newton’s watch and she said, «Sir Isaac
Newton must boil the egg for four minutes and then the egg will be ready», then
she left the room. The servant was afraid, however, that Newton might forget to
boil the egg, so she returned about an hour later and found Newton standing by the
fireplace. He had put the watch in the saucepan and was boiling the watch. He was
holding the egg in his hand, quite unaware of the mistake that he was making.

Review 3
1. c; 2. a; 3. c; 4. b; 5. c; 6. c; 7. c; 8. b; 9. a; 10. c; 11. c; 12. a; 13. b; 14. c; 15. a;
16. b.
Keys 247

Review 4
1. 1. I’m writing to a friend of mine. 2. …a relative of ours. 3. …a book of mine. 4.
…a neighbour of ours. 5. …a friend of his. 6. …a colleague of hers. 7. They went
on holiday with those friends of theirs. 8. …a parent of his. 9. A daughter of hers.
10. A partner of mine. 11. … a friend of ours. 12. a/ that boyfriend of Lucy’s. 13. a
cousin of the Queen. 14. He watched each gesture of hers. 15. … an old friend of
mine. 16. …a teacher of mine.
2. 1. her; 2. her; 3. his; 4. his; 5. his; 6. their; 7. his; 8. my; 9. her; 10. my; 11. your;
12. my; 13. my; 14. your; 15. his; 16. his; 17. my; 18. her; 19. her; 20. her; 21. my;
22. your; 23. her; 24. my; 25. their; 26. his.

Review 5
1. 1. I cut myself…. 2. … dried ourselves. 3. … get myself some tennis shoes. 4.
Talking to oneself … . 5. … about himself. 6. … to tell her… . 7. I love you for
yourself… . 8. … do it yourself. 9. The house itself … . 10. … by myself. 11. …
They can do it by themselves. 12. Do you shave on Sundays? 13. Try to
concentrate. 14. I feel better today. 15. Hurry! 16. ... introduce herself to them.
2. 1. It can’t have been Picasso himself who painted this picture. 2. It was O. Wilde
himself who said: ‘A man cannot be too careful in the choice of his enemies.’ 3. I
was told about that by the headmaster himself. 4. It was the husband himself who
painted the house. 5. It was Mary herself who solved that problem. 6. It was the
Robinsons themselves who printed the card. 7. It was John himself who has never
read the book. 8. It was I myself who painted this picture. 9. It was S. Bach
himself who composed this fugue. 10. It was he himself who was too weak to do
that. 11. It is you yourself who are mature enough for this. 12. It can’t have been
P. McCartney himself who composed this song. 13. There can be no doubt that
this book was written by E. Hemingway himself. 14. It was the CNN
correspondent himself who told me the whole truth. 15. It was Julia herself who
wrote her examination paper. 16. It was the President of the company herself who
appeared on television on Monday.

Review 6
1. … bitterly disliked each other. 2. … they usually embrace each other. 3. We and
the Smiths … . 4. We heard about them a lot … 5. Tom and Nicole parted from each
other … . 6. We could talk to one another for hours! 7. … collided with each other. 8.
… who are quarrelling with each other. 9. … I saw myself on TV yesterday. 10. …
for herself and you? 11. … We can rely on each other. 12. Juan will do it himself. 13.
Will you help me and my friend … 14. She cooked herself … . 15. … cooperate with
each other … . 16. Don’t argue with each other!
Review 7
1.who; 2.whom; 3.whom; 4.who; 5.who; 6.whom; 7.who; 8.whom; 9.who; 10.whom;
11.whom; 12.whom; 13.who; 14.who; 15.whom; 16.who
248 Keys

Review 8
1.The book which/that I bought at the bookstore was very expensive. 2. The woman I
met yesterday was nice. 3. The people who live next door to me are friendly. 4. I met
a woman whose husband … . 5. Do you know the people who live … ? 6. The
professor who/that teaches … .7. … who visited my/our house on Thanksgiving day.
8. The people who/whom I met at the party last night were interesting. 9. I enjoyed
the music which/that we listened to. 10. The man whose bicycle was stolen was very
angry. 11. The mother whose child was hurt rushed to the hospital. 12. The pen
which/that I lost was a birthday present. 13. Paris which/that is so attractive in spring
is too hot in summer. 14. I’ll have to talk to him, which I hate. 15. She is the only
person whom/that I can trust. 16. I invited whoever wanted to come.

Review 9
1. a) 1. There is much ink left in my pen. 2. The storm did much damage to the
house. 3. There is much milk left in the jug. 4. Many passengers were see-sick. 5.
We have little time to go to the station. 6. I have few books in my library. 7. This
train stops at any station. 8. We expected few people to visit us.
b) 1. Neither of the answers was correct. 2. There was nobody at the piano.
3.There is nothing unpleasant in his voice. 4. I don’t want to speak to any of them.
5.We hear nothing interesting there. 6. We saw nobody working on the road. 7.
Nothing is being done for her.
2. 1.everything; 2.few; 3.it, it, one; 4.much; 5.one; 6.it; 7.little; 8.it; 9.one; 10.each;
11.every; 12.one; 13.both; 14.either.
4. 1.other; 2.some; 3.others; 4.either; 5.one; 6.neither; 7.one; 8.one; 9.one; 10.the
other.

PROGRESS TEST

1. 1-b; 2-b; 3-a; 4-a; 5-b; 6-a; 7-a; 8-b; 9-a; 10-b; 11-b; 12-b; 13-a; 14-a; 15-a; 16-a;
17-a; 18-a; 19-b; 20-a.
2. 21.no; 22.others; 23.few; 24.neither; 25.anybody; 26.nobody; 27.a lot; 28.any;
29.ours; 30.himself; 31.anything, anybody; 32.mine; 33.none; 34.my,theirs;
35.both; 36.few; 37.much; 38.whose; 39.me; 40.some; 41.neither; 42.all;
43.something; 44.some.
3. 45.I; 46.your; 47.some; 48.you; 49.much; 50.your; 51.you; 52.this; 53.most;
54.them; 55.it; 56.one; 57.who; 58.you; 59.myself.
4. 60.-; 61.him; 62.his; 63.he; 64.him; 65.anybody/anyone; 66.their; 67.they; 68.I;
69.you; 70.you; 71.my; 72.one; 73.ours; 74.which; 75.our; 76.something; 77.some;
78.your.
5. 79.They brought me two tickets to the theatre. Each ticket cost five hundred rubles.
80.Nobody can describe her house. I’m afraid I won’t be able to find it. 81.None
of these keys will open your door. 82.Maybe you know why she doesn’t like me.
83.I knew that this man was one of my father’s relatives, whom he hadn’t seen for
Keys 249

long. 84.He told her about his work in the hospital and she told him what she had
done that day at the university. 85.He was surprised at himself. 86.The next three
days neither Phillip nor Jane spoke to each other. 87.She didn’t lie to you, she
didn’t tell you the truth either. 88.Either you leave the house or I call the police.
89.She married a young architect, with whom she got acquainted in the metro.
90.He stared at her and she stared at him, but neither said anything. 91.Come
tomorrow any time. 92.When she inclined her head her dark hair fell on both sides
of the face. 93.I had some strange feeling when we spoke to his friends. 94.Which
stove would you prefer – electric or gas? – Either. 95. Is there any difference
between “to want” and “to wish”? 96. This test is easier than the one we wrote last
week. 97.He didn’t spend much time on homework. He knows this subject very
well. 98. These shoes are too tight. Have you got another pair. 99.We knew
nobody .../We didn’t know anybody at that party. 100.Tell me all/everything you
know about that event.

Chapter 5 ARTICLES

ENTRY TEST
Unit 2,3
1. 1. the, – 2. a 3. the, the 4. –, a 5. a, – 6. an, a, – 7. the, –, a 8. the 9. the 10. the
2. 1. the, a, a 2. – 3. the 4. – 5. a 6. the
3. a permanent home, the Clore Gallery, a newly built, the Tate Gallery, a splendid
suite, the entire contents, a beautiful, the central themes, the book, a readable, the
display, an account, the collection, the works, a guide, the use, the Study Room,
the public
4. 1. an 2. a 3. the 4. – 5. the 6. a 7. – 8. – 9. the 10. – 11. –
5. 1.the 2.a 3.the, the 4.an 5.the 6.the 7. a 8. the 9. a 10. the 11. a 12.the

Unit 4
1. the French, the countryside 2. The Picasso, last week 3. Mill Road, 4. The
Atlantic, a canoe 5. No correction is necessary 6. No correction is necessary 7. The
Gulf Stream, the British climate 8. The Marlon Brando 9. Covent Garden 10. A
Christian Dior perfume 11. the Australian Open

Unit 5
1. the 2. –, a, a 3. a 4. a 5. – 6. – 7. –, – 8. a 9. – 10. –

Review 2
1. 1. some 2. some 3. some 4. some 5. a 6. some 7. some 8. a 9. some
2. 1. a cargo 2. a few books 3. a teacher 4. a doctor 5. an excitement 6. a second 7.
a pound 8. a Mrs 9. a pity 10. for a period
250 Keys

3. 1. a, a, a, an 2. a, a, –, a, – a 3. –, an, an, – 4. a, a, a, a, a 5. –, an 6. a, a, a, a, a
7. an, a, –, an, –, a, a 8. a, a, – 9. –, a, an 10. a, –, a 11. a, – 12. an, a, an, –
4. 1. –, – 2. a, a, –, , – 3. an, a, a, a, a, – 4. a, a, an, a 5. –, a, a 6. a, a 7. a, a 8. –, a

Review 3
1. 1. the 2. a 3. the 4. the 5. the 6. the 7. – 8. a 9. the 10. – 11. the 12. the 13. –
14. – 15. the 16. – 17. the 18. the 19. – 20. the 21. – 22. a/– 23. the 24. the
25. the 26. a 27. –
2. 1. a 2. the 3. a 4. a 5. – 6. the 7. the 8. – 9. the 10. – 11. the 12. the 13. the
14. the 15. the 16. the 17. –. 18. a 19. a 20. a 21. the 22. the 23. a 24. a 25 –
3. 1. – smoking; at – young 2. – half; a phone; a wrong 3. a brilliant 4. – difference;
a stoat and a weasel 5. – half; – both; in – difficulty 6. an earthquake

Review 4
1. 1. the National Gallery 2. Downing Street 3. St. James's Park, Buckingham Palace
4. Liverpool University 5. The Daily Telegraph; The Times 6. Harrison's 7. Orly
Airport 8. The Tate 9. The Prince 10. The Tower 11. The Sheraton 12. St.
Matthew's 13. The Science Museum 14. The Classic
2. 1. in history 2. – Europe, the exception 3. the opportunity, – Louvre 4. The
English Channel 5. a very difficult, The Times 6. a trip, – Tower Bridge 7. The
country, the line, – roads, The Romans 8. the address, – Park Hotel, – Castle
Road, – Dover 9. the latest, the Gipsy Kings 10. a pleasant, a drink, the Robin
Hood 11. the Nile, the city 12. the summer, the USA, the best

Review 5
1. 1. at a gulp 2. on the whole 3. to be at a loss 4. at a time 5. in a whisper 6. the
bed, (the) flu 7. the sack 8. (right) 9. (right) 10. (right) 11. take a fancy 12.
by the dozen 13. (right)
2. 1. in the original 2. in spite 3. to tell a lie 4. the country 5. (right) 6. lose touch
7. out of place 8. a favour 9. a shame 10. for a ride 11. a secret 12. into
consideration
3. 1. into a passion 2. the truth 3. on a diet 4. the safe side 5. the day after 6.
(right) 7. the trouble 8. in a hurry 9. (right) 10. (right)

PROGRESS TEST

1. 1) the; 2) – ; 3) the; 4) the, the; 5) the; 6) – ; 7) the/–, the; 8) – ; 9) the; 10) – ,


–; 11) –, – ; 12) the; 13) –, –, –; 14) the.
2. 1. The Bronte; 2. The National; 3. a particular, the largest; 4. The New Stone,
The Channel, The Western; 5. The Jessica; 6. right; 7. The Nobel Prize; 8. The
U.K., the UNO, the NATO, the Common; 9. right; 10. The Red, the
Keys 251

Mediterranean; 11. right; 12. A Mrs White; 13. The Titanic; 14. the University;
15. The NASA; 16. the new Elvis.
3. 1. –; 2. the, –; 3. –, the; 4. a; 5. a, a; 6. a; 7. the; 8. –; 9. a; 10. a; 11. –; 12. a, –; 13.
the, the, –; 14. the, a; 15. the, –; 16. –; 17. –; 18. the, –, –, –; 19. a; 20. –, a; 21. the,
a; 22. the; 23. –; 24. a; 25. the.
4. 1. a, –, the; 2. the, a, the, –; 3. the, an, the, a; 4. the, a, a, the/–, –, –, the; 5. the, –.

CHAPTER 6 PREPOSITIONS

ENTRY TEST

1. on 2. in, at 3. on, in 4. in 5. on, at 6. in 7. for, since 8. in, on 9. in 10. during, at


11. at, – 12. on, – , till/until 13. on, at 14. in 15. in, on 16. in 17. in 18. on 19. at,
in 20. in 21. on 22. on, in 23. at, at 24. on, on 25. round 26. into, through 27. to,
to 28. –, to 29. to 30. at 31. into, to 32. along, to/towards 33. off 34. on 35. on
36. in, on 37. for, by 38. at 39. on, by 40. on, in 41. with, in, with 42. in, by 43. in,
in 44. in, in, in 45. on 46. on, on 47. by, by, on 48. in 49. of 50. in 51. to 52. of
53. to/towards 54. of 55. to 56. for 57. to 58. to 59. for, with 60. about, of 61.
with, about 62. with, for 63. with, of 64. to, to 65. of, about 66. on, in 67. of 68.
on 69. for, about 70. with, for 71. to, of 72. at 73. of 74. for 75. on 76. for 77.
on, for 78. for 79. at, for 80. for 81. – 82. to, for 83. to 84. –, for 85. to 86. to
87. to 88. to 89. for 90. about 91. of 92. for 93. at, from 94. about 95. of 96. of
97. from 98. about 99. for 100. of

Review Exercises 2
1. 1. in 2. in 3. at 4. in 5. on 6. until 7. in 8. at 9. after/at 10. At 11. – 12. until
13. since 14. while 15. on 16. in
2. 1. at, on 2. for 3. on 4. for 5. in 6. at 7. at 8. since 9. on, in 10. while 11. in
12. at 13. during 14. at 15. in 16 at
3. 1. on 2. in 3. on 4. before 5. for 6. in 7. during 8. at 9. since 10. after/since
11. at 12. on 13. until/till 14. from 15. to/till/until

Review Exercises 3
1. 1. on 2. outside/at 3. on (top of) 4. in, on 5. at 6. in 7. at, on 8. in 9. at 10. at
11. at 12. in 13. in, in 14. in 15. in 16. at
2. 1. on 2. at 3. at 4. on 5. at 6. at 7. at 8. on 9. in 10 on 11. at 12. in 13. in 14.
at 15. in 16. in
3. 1. On 2. in 3. at 4. since 5. from 6. to 7. on 8. in 9. in 10. on 11. at 12. in 13.
at 14. during/in 15. on/over 16. on 17. for 18. until/till 19. in
252 Keys

Review Exercises 4
1. 1. – 2. across, to/towards 3. out of, into 4. along, to 5. to 6. into, through 7. – 8.
to 9. over. on 10. to 11. along 12. to 13. in 14. to 15. to 16. on
2. 1. into, opposite 2. into, over 3. in, on, above 4. from, to, in, in 5. at, in, on, on,
below 6. along, in front of 7. out of, into, outside, round 8. into, behind, off, into
9. under, down, on (top of) 10. past, through, up 11. into, behind, in 12. on,
through, from, to 13. off, along, to/towards 14. at, in, between, opposite 15. out
of/through, in, up, down 16. round, across, to/towards, along/down/up
3. 1. at 2. in 3. in 4. past 5. out of 6. along 7. over 8. round 9. at 10. on (top of)
11. in front of 12. in 13. from 14. in

Review Exercises 5
1. on 2. in 3. for 4. on 5. in, on 6. by 7. on 8. by 9. on 10. on 11. at 12. by 13.
at 14. with, in 15. by 16. by

Review Exercises 6
1. 1. on 2. in 3. by, in 4. to 5. by 6. By 7. to 8. on 9. for 10. with 11. in 12. for
13. to 14. for 15. with 16. to
2. 1. of 2. to 3. for 4. to/towards 5. in 6. between 7. in 8. of 9. to 10. between
11. to 12. of 13. with 14. in, with 15. to 16. to

Review Exercises 7
1. 1. on 2. at 3. about 4. of 5. of 6. with 7. from 8. for 9. about 10. to 11. with
12. with 13. of 14. of 15. of 16. for
2. 1. with, for 2. to 3. of 4. of 5. of 6. by/with 7. by/at 8. of, to 9. of 10 on 11. in
12. about 13. of 14. for 15. about 16. of

Review Exercises 8

1. (A). 1. into 2. of 3. for 4. about 5. of 6. in 7. after 8. for 9. of 10. at, of 11. to


12. to, for 13. on 14. to, about 15. about 16. at
(B) 1. for 2. of 3. on 4. of 5. of/ about 6. to 7. to 8. for 9. to 10. on 11. for 12.
about 13. to 14. to 15. to 16. for
2. (A). 1. applied for 2. pay for 3. ask for 4. care about 5. caring of 6. suffering
from 7. decided on 8. concentrate on 9. agree with
(B). 1. deal with 2. listening to 3. apologised for 4. reached – 5. laughing at 6.
believed in 7. left –.
Keys 253

PROGRESS TEST

1. 1. to, for, in 2. to, about, in 3. about, in 4. of 5. between 6. with, in, on 7. of 8.


of 9. for, with 10. from/to, to 11. for, about 12. with 13. in/at, for, at 14. on, on
15. on, under, in 16. in, for, in/during 17. in, in 18. from, since 19. at/in, in,
since, in 20. on, at 21. In, on 22. during, to 23. at, on 24. in, in 25. at/in, in, for
26. of/about, to, on, in 27. in, in 28. at, in, at 29. to, in 30. on, by
2. 31. of 32. about 33. on 34. of 35. of 36. for 37. on 38. of 39. by 40. on 41.
by 42. with 43. in 44. for 45. for 46. in 47. for 48. of 49. at 50. about
3. 51. on, on 52. by, on 53. on, in 54. with 55. to, for 56. to 57. in 58. on, since
59. on 60. out of/from 61. In, on 62. on 63. at 64. by, to 65. at, at 66. on 67.
at, on 68. of/about 69. of 70. in, on 71. in 72. in 73. At 74. during/in 75. at,
until 76. in, on 77. to, at, on 78. at 79. at, on 80. on
4. 81. for 82. for 83. at 84. of 85. with/by 86. after, at 87. at/by 88. on 89. to 90.
about 91. of 92. with 93. for 94. with 95. in 96. in 97. at 98. with 99. about,
at 100. to
254

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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256

Учебное издание

Соколовская О.В.
Лещева Людмила Модестовна
Вертаева Л.В. и др.

Практическая грамматика английского языка


(для среднего и продвинутого уровней обучения)
Учебное пособие для студентов гуманитарных
специальностей высших учебных заведений
(на английском языке)
Часть 1

4-е издание, исправленное


под общей редакцией д.филол.н., профессора Л.М.Лещевой

Ответственный за выпуск Л.М.Лещева.


Технический редактор Т.С.Баранова.
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