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85
          

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∆G ° 298 = –9,6 d>`fhev (3) D*—H  KH D*  KH2 (7)
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(8)
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<hkklZgh\e_gb_ `_e_ahojhfh\h]h dZlZebaZlhjZ gZ- ebaZlhjZ
qbgZ_lky ijb l_fi_jZlmj_ —180 ƒK b ijhl_dZ_l kh IjbgbfZy \ dZq_kl\_ ebfblbjmxs_c klZ^bb hij_-
agZqbl_evghc kdhjhklvx Ijhp_kk \hkklZgh\e_gby bf_ ^_eyxs_c kdhjhklv kmffZjgh]h ijhp_kkZ j_Zdpbx  
_l Z\lhdZlZeblbq_kdbc oZjZdl_j b khijh\h`^Z_lky \u Z\lhju ij_^eh`beb ke_^mxs__ dbg_lbq_kdh_ mjZ\g_gb_
^_e_gb_f l_ieZ hkh[_ggh \ kemqZ_ bkihevah\Zgby ]Zah  S+ 2 
β
 S+  
− β
\uo kf_k_c kh^_j`Zsbo [hevrh_ dhebq_kl\h fhghhd ω = N  S &2   − N  S &2    (9)
 S+   S+ 2 
kb^Z m]e_jh^Z >  @      
AgZqbl_evgh_ \ebygb_ gZ mkdhj_gb_ ijhp_kkZ \hk ]^_ ω — kdhjhklv j_Zdpbb k1, k2 — dhgklZglu kdhjhklb
klZgh\e_gby hdZau\Z_l \\_^_gb_ \ dZlZebaZlhj hdkb^h\ ijyfhc b h[jZlghc j_Zdpbc jKH, jG2H, jG2, jKH2 — iZj
dZeby b fZ]gby >@
?keb \ dZq_kl\_ kujvy ^ey ihemq_gby dZlZebaZlhjZ pbZevgu_ ^Z\e_gby khhl\_lkl\mxsbo ]Zah\ β — dhwn
[ue \ayl kmevnb^ `_e_aZ lh ijb \hkklZgh\e_gbb dZlZ nbpb_gl jZ\guc 
ebaZlhjZ k_jZ [m^_l \u^_eylvky \ \b^_ k_jh\h^hjh^Z Ba ZgZebaZ mjZ\g_gby  ke_^m_l qlh kdhjhklv j_Zd
Gh [hevrZy qZklv kh^_j`Zs_cky \ dZlZebaZlhj_ k_ju pbb aZ\bkbl hl dhgp_gljZpbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z
k\yaZgZ \ kmevnZl )H624 j_Z]bjmxsbc k \h^hjh^hf b \h^hjh^ \ h[eZklb l_fi_jZlmj —500 ƒK lhjfhabl
\h^yguf iZjhf j_Zdpbx dhg\_jkbb ^bhdkb^ m]e_jh^Z g_ \eby_l gZ
kdhjhklv j_Zdpbb ZgZeh]bqgh bg_jlghfm jZa[Z\bl_ex
FeSO4  G2 )H6  G2O (5) — Zahlm  >bnnmabhggu_ nZdlhju ijb l_fi_jZlmjZo
)H6  G22 )_3O4 + 3H26  G2; 400—500 ƒK g_ \ebyxl gZ kdhjhklv ijhp_kkZ
∆G ° 298 = –75 d>`fhev  Bkke_^h\ZeZkv dbg_lbdZ dhg\_jkbb hdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z
\h^yguf iZjhf gZ `_e_ahojhfh\hf b gbadhl_fi_jZlmj
Dhebq_kl\h k_ju \u^_ey_fhc \ ijhp_kk_ \hkklZgh\ ghf pbgdojhff_^ghf dZlZebaZlhjZo == Sb[jy
e_gby dZlZebaZlhjZ b \ gZqZevguc i_jbh^ _]h wdkiemZ GF Fhjhah\ FB Lëfdbg  Ihemq_ggu_ hiulgu_
lZpbb lZdh\h qlh \hafh`gh kbevgh_ hljZ\e_gb_ gbadh ^Zggu_ \ dbg_lbq_kdhc h[eZklb hibku\Zxlky ke_^mx
l_fi_jZlmjgh]h dZlZebaZlhjZ Ihwlhfm ihke_ \hkklZ sbf mjZ\g_gb_f >@
gh\e_gby dZlZebaZlhjZ ^he`gh [ulv ijh\_^_gh _]h
h[_kk_jb\Zgb_ >@ S &2 S +  2 − .S +  S &2
AZljZlu gZ ijhp_kk ^_kmevnmjbaZpbb fh]ml khklZ ω=N
$S +  2 − S &2 
(10)
\blv — klhbfhklb dZlZebaZlhjZ QZklbqguf j_
r_gb_f ijh[e_fu ^_kmevnmjbaZpbb fh`_l klZlv kgb

86
         !  " 
  ‹
]^_ k — dhgklZglZ kdhjhklb ijyfhc j_Zdpbb D — dhg ]^_ τ — \j_fy dhg\_jkbb k Z0 — kh^_j`Zgb_ KH \
klZglZ jZ\gh\_kby : — dhwnnbpb_gl aZ\bkysbc hl bkoh^ghf ]Za_ ^heb _^bgbpu k — dhgklZglZ kdhjhklb
l_fi_jZlmju < kemqZ_ `_e_ahojhfh\h]h dZlZebaZlhjZ ijyfhc j_Zdpbb n — h[t_fgh_ khhlghr_gb_ \h^yghc
OJ $ = −

+   
iZjdhg\_jlbjm_fuc ]Za o — kl_i_gv dhg\_jkbb KH,
  7 ^heb _^bgbpu M(o) — fgh`bl_ev aZ\bkysbc hl o b
Ihemq_gh lZd`_ ke_^mxs__ dbg_lbq_kdh_ mjZ\g_gb_ khhlghr_gby \ bkoh^ghf ]Za_ KH2 : CO.
dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z iZjZfb \h^u gZ `_e_ Kujv_ ^ey ijhba\h^kl\Z dZlZebaZlhjh\ dhg\_jkbb
ahojhfh\hf dZlZebaZlhj_ gZg_k_gghf gZ hdkb^ fZ]gby fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z b ljZ^bpbhggu_ f_lh^u
<B :ljhs_gdh ; ;b[j 
bo ijb]hlh\e_gby
GS &2 ′
S &2 − S &2 


=N
S+ 
⋅ S+
2
(11) Ihbkd g_^_nbpblgh]h kujvy b ih\ur_gb_ wnn_d
lb\ghklb _]h bkihevah\Zgby \ ijhba\h^kl\_ ijhfur
]^_ τ — \j_fy p′CO — jZ\gh\_kgh_ iZjpbZevgh_ ^Z\e_ e_gguo dZlZebaZlhjh\ y\ey_lky h^gbf ba \Z`g_crbo
gb_ fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z gZijZ\e_gbc \ mkh\_jr_gkl\h\Zgbb l_ogheh]bb ijb]h
:\lhju mklZgh\beb aZ\bkbfhklv dhgklZglu kdhjhklb lh\e_gby dZlZebaZlhjh\ >—30].
j_Zdpbb hl l_fi_jZlmju Hdkb^ `_e_aZ — hkgh\ghc dhfihg_gl dZlZebaZlhjh\

18460 ^ey dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z fh`gh ihemqblv
k = 4, 92 ⋅105 ⋅ e RT
l_jfbq_kdbf jZaeh`_gb_f jZaebqguo kh_^bg_gbc `_e_
Ijhba\h^bl_evghklv dZlZebaZlhjZ \ aZ\bkbfhklb hl aZ ]b^jhdkb^Z gbljZlZ dZj[hgZlZ kmevnZlZ oehjb^Z
^Z\e_gby J jZ\gZ Zedh]heylZ hdkZeZlZ b ^j L_ogbq_kdb_ hdkb^u `_e_aZ
] = ]  3 >d] f ‡q @
3 ihemq_ggu_ l_jfhebahf khe_c jZaebqZxlky fhjnheh
]b_c b ^_n_dlghklvx qZklbp qlh h[mkeh\eb\Z_l jZaebq
]^_ z0 — ijhba\h^bl_evghklv dZlZebaZlhjZ ijb Zlfh gmx Zdlb\ghklv \ obfbq_kdbo j_Zdpbyo b qZklh h]jZgb
kn_jghf ^Z\e_gbb qb\Z_l \hafh`ghklv bo bkihevah\Zgby ^ey ijb]hlh\e_
Ih ^Zgguf ;G @b^dh\Z <B :ljhs_gdh b gby dZlZebaZlhjh\ >—33].
:I AZkhjbgZ kdhjhklv dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh GZb[he__ jZkijhkljZg_gguc f_lh^ ihemq_gby Zd
^Z iZjZfb \h^u gZ `_e_ahojhfh\hf dZlZebaZlhj_ hij_ lb\gh]h hdkb^Z `_e_aZ [Zabjm_lky gZ kh\f_klghf hkZ`
^_ey_lky mjZ\g_gb_f ^_gbb ba jZkl\hjh\ khe_c g_ jZkl\hjbfuo \ \h^_ kh_^b

GS &2
=N
S &2
(12)
g_gbc `_e_aZ ]b^jhdkb^h\ dZj[hgZlh\ ]b^jhdkhdZj
Gτ  
S &2 [hgZlh\ b ^j k ihke_^mxsbf l_jfbq_kdbf jZaeh`_gb
 _f wlbo ijh^mdlh\ < dZq_kl\_ hkZ^bl_e_c bkihevamxl
BamqZebkv dbg_lbq_kdb_ aZdhghf_jghklb ijhp_kkZ jZkl\hju ZffbZdZ b dZj[hgZlZ Zffhgby >@ Ko_fZlb
gZ jZaebqguo Zdlb\guo kj_^g_l_fi_jZlmjguo dZlZebaZ q_kdb l_ogheh]bx hkZ`^_gby fh`gh ij_^klZ\blv
lhjZo BI Dbjbeeh\ <N KZdkbg  IhdZaZgh qlh ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf >@
baf_g_gb_ kh^_j`Zgby \h^hjh^Z \ bkoh^ghc ]Zah\hc
kf_kb \ ij_^_eZo hl  ^h  g_ \eby_l gZ kdhjhklv jZkl\hj khe_c `_e_aZ + hkZ^bl_ev → klZj_gb_ hkZ^dZ→
j_Zdpbb Z ^bhdkb^ m]e_jh^Z lhjfhabl __ Ijbgy\ qlh → ijhfu\dZ → kmrdZ → ijhdZeb\Zgb_
lhjfhays_c klZ^b_c y\ey_lky hdbke_gb_ ih\_joghklb :\lhju jZ[hl > @ \ dZq_kl\_ bkoh^gh]h kujvy
dZlZebaZlhjZ Z\lhju \u\_eb ke_^mxs__ ^bnn_j_gpb hl^Zxl ij_^ihql_gb_ gbljZlm `_e_aZ lZd dZd gbljZl-
Zevgh_ mjZ\g_gb_ kdhjhklb dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_ bhgu g_ y\eyxlky y^hf ^ey dZlZebaZlhjZ b e_]dh m^Zey
jh^Z \h^yguf iZjhf _lky ijb ijhdZeb\Zgbb < kemqZ_ kmevnZlZ `_e_aZ kmev
 S 
 
 S &2  
 nZl-bhgu ba hkZ`^_ggh]h ]b^jhdkb^Z ijb ijhfu\d_
ω = N  S +  2  &2  − N S+    (13) m^Zeyxlky k ljm^hf b ^ey dZlZebaZlhjZ hgb y\eyxlky
 S &2   S &2  y^hf Wlb kheb ohjhrh ]b^jhebamxlky h[jZamy dbkeu_
    
jZkl\hju < ijZdlbd_ ijb]hlh\e_gby dZlZebaZlhjh\
JZaebqb_ lhjfhaysbo nZdlhjh\ khhl\_lkl\mxsbo bkihevamxlky jZkl\hju khe_c ih dhgp_gljZpbb [ebadb_
^Zgguf BI Dbjbeeh\Z b <N KZdkbgZ \ebygb_ ^bhd d gZkus_gguf > 30].
kb^Z m]e_jh^Z b ^Zgguf G< Dmevdh\hc b IhdZaZg ihebf_jguc oZjZdl_j kljmdlmju ihemqZ_
FB LëfdbgZ \ebygb_ \h^hjh^Z  ih-\b^bfhfm ke_^m fh]h ]b^jhdkb^Z `_e_aZ > @ LZd ijb hkZ`^_gbb ba
_l h[tykgblv baf_g_gb_f ebfblbjmxs_c klZ^bb \ jZa Zffhgbc-dZj[hgZlgh]h jZkl\hjZ h[jZamxlky ihebf_j
ebqguo l_fi_jZlmjguo mkeh\byo ijh\_^_gby j_Zdpbb gu_ fhe_dmeu lbiZ )_HHG 12±3 dhlhju_ \ k\_`_hkZ`
GZ hkgh\Zgbb nhjfmeu  [ueh ihemq_gh mjZ\g_ ^_gghf hkZ^d_ h[t_^bgyxlky \ Z]j_]Zlu jZa^_ey_fu_
gb_ ^ey hij_^_e_gby \j_f_gb dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z fhghkeh_f \h^u >@ Wlb hkZ^db oZjZdl_jbamxlky \u
m]e_jh^Z iZjZfb \h^u khdhc ^bki_jkghklvx b h[\h^g_gghklvx dhlhjZy m\_
τ=
D
0 [ (14)
ebqb\Z_lky k mf_gvr_gb_f jG jZkl\hjZ H[\h^g_gghklv
N Q − D [ hkZ^dh\ m\_ebqb\Z_lky ijb bo klZj_gbb \ke_^kl\b_
mf_gvr_gby jZaf_jh\ qZklbp ]b^jhdkb^Z `_e_aZ b kh

87
          

2,7 0,8 400 eblbq_kdZy Zdlb\ghklv >—@ K l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdhc


1
lhqdb aj_gby wlh h[tykgy_lky \hajZklZgb_f k\h[h^ghc
Hlghkbl_evgZy kdhjhklv nbevljZpbb

2,4 0,7 350 wg_j]bb kbkl_fu aZ kq_l m\_ebq_gby dhgp_gljZpbb ^_


n_dlh\ djbklZeebq_kdhc j_r_ldb >@ QZklh g_ h[sZy

%
^_n_dlghklv Z lhevdh hij_^_e_gguc __ lbi fh`_l ba

3 ,
0,6


2,1 300
f_gblv j_Zdpbhggmx kihkh[ghklv \_s_kl\Z \ dhgdj_l

Kh^_j`Zgb_ 

Sm^, f2/]
0,5
1,8 250 ghc j_Zdpbb Ihwlhfm ijb bkke_^h\Zgbb \ebygby f_oZ
2 0,4 ghZdlb\Zpbb gZ j_Zdpbhggmx kihkh[ghklv hdkb^h\ \Z`
1,5
200 gh \uy\e_gb_ g_ lhevdh h[s_c bo ^_n_dlghklb gh b
0,3 ^_n_dlh\ \ebyxsbo gZ ^Zggmx j_Zdpbx AZ^ZqZ wlZ
1,2
3 150 hkeh`gy_lky fgh]hh[jZab_f y\e_gbc ijhbkoh^ysbo
ijb f_oZghZdlb\Zpbb b hdZau\Zxsbo \ebygb_ gZ j_Zd
0,2
0,9
0,1 100 pbhggmx kihkh[ghklv
4 5 6
pH
7 8
F_oZghobfbq_kdZy Zdlb\Zpby ^hklZlhqgh rbjhdh
bkihevam_lky \ l_ogheh]bb ijb]hlh\e_gby ]_l_jh]_gguo
Jbk  AZ\bkbfhklv hlghkbl_evghc kdhjhklb nbevljZpbb
ghkbl_e_c b dZlZebaZlhjh\ >—@ < jZ[hlZo ihk\y
(1 kh^_j`Zgby ijbf_kgh]h ZgbhgZ NO3– (2 b m^_evghc s_gguo dZlZebaZlhjZf kj_^g_l_fi_jZlmjghc dhg\_jkbb
ih\_joghklb hkZ^dZ ]b^jhdkb^Z `_e_aZ 3 hl jG jZkl\hjZ KH >   @ ihdZaZgh qlh f_oZgbq_kdZy Zdlb\Z
hl\_lkl\_ggh nhjfbjh\Zgby kljmdlmj k [he__ \ukhdhc pby kihkh[kl\m_l memqr_gbx kfZqb\Z_fhklb qZklbp
m^_evghc ih\_joghklvx hdkb^Z `_e_aZ ojhfh\hc dbkehlhc qlh ijb\h^bl d jZa
H[jZah\Zgb_ \ukhdh^bki_jkghc lj_of_jghc kljmd \blbx ]b^jZlguo h[hehq_d gZ klZ^bb kf_r_gby j_Z]_g
lmju hkZ^dZ k \ukhdbf kh^_j`Zgb_f bffh[bebah\Zg lh\ memqr_gbx kljmdlmjgh-f_oZgbq_kdbo k\hckl\ fZk
ghc \eZ]b b ijbf_kguo Zgbhgh\ j_adh mom^rZ_l mkeh\by ku gZ klZ^bb wdkljmabhggh]h nhjfh\Zgby m\_ebq_gbx
_]h ijhfu\db b nbevljZpbb jbk   Hlghkbl_evgZy f_oZgbq_kdhc ijhqghklb ]jZgme
kdhjhklv nbevljZpbb j_adh m\_ebqb\Z_lky k jhklhf jG H^gh ba gZijZ\e_gbc bkke_^h\Zgbc ijh\h^bfuo k
kj_^u b mf_gvr_gb_f m^_evghc ih\_joghklb hkZ^dh\ p_evx mkh\_jr_gkl\h\Zgby ijhba\h^kl\Z ZffbZdZ b
LZd fZl_jbZeu k m^_evghc ih\_joghklvx [he__  f2] \h^hjh^Z dZkZ_lky ihbkdZ iml_c mf_gvr_gby l_jfh^b
nbevljmxlky hlghkbl_evgh iehoh k gbadhc kdhjhklvx gZfbq_kdbo b ^bnnmabhgguo h]jZgbq_gbc ijhp_kkZ
GZb[he__ agZqbl_evgh_ \ha^_ckl\b_ gZ m^_evgmx dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z aZ kq_l ih\ur_gby
ih\_joghklv hkZ^dZ hdZau\Z_l kh^_j`Zgb_ \ g_f kh_^b Zdlb\ghklb dZlZebaZlhjZ b hilbfbaZpbb _]h ihjbklhc
g_gbc Zffhgby gZoh^ysboky \ \b^_ djbklZeeh\ kljmdlmju > 49]. < jZfdZo wlbo bkke_^h\Zgbc bamqZ
1G4NO3  jZkiheh`_gguo gZ ih\_joghklb dZlZeblbq_
xlky n_jjblu kh kljmdlmjhc i_jh\kdblZ — ribg_eb
kdbo qZklbp b ijbf_kguo Zgbhgh\ \oh^ysbo \ kljmd h[eZ^Zxsb_ mgbdZevgufb nbabq_kdbfb b obfbq_kdbfb
lmjm i_j\bqguo qZklbp ijbq_f h[Z lbiZ ijbf_k_c hdZ k\hckl\Zfb >—@ KhklZ\ wlbo kh_^bg_gbc oZjZdl_jb
au\Zxl ijbf_jgh h^bgZdh\h_ hljbpZl_evgh_ \ebygb_ gZ am_lky kms_kl\h\Zgb_f rbjhdhc h[eZklb g_kl_obhf_ljbb
\_ebqbgm m^_evghc ih\_joghklb >ey ihemq_gby ijh ih dbkehjh^m qlh ^Z_l \hafh`ghklv j_]mebjh\Zgby kljmd
^mdlZ k gbadbf kh^_j`Zgb_f gbljZl-bhgh\ dhebq_kl\h lmju jZaebqgufb kihkh[Zfb.
ijhfu\guo \h^ ^he`gh khklZ\eylv g_ f_g__  fe] Keh`gu_ hdkb^u kh kljmdlmjhc i_jh\kdblZ y\eyxl
hkZ^dZ >  @ ky i_jki_dlb\gufb kbkl_fZfb ^ey aZf_gu dZlZebaZlh
< aZdexq_gb_ hlf_lbf hkgh\gu_ g_^hklZldb f_lh^Z jh\ kh^_j`Zsbo [eZ]hjh^gu_ f_lZeeu 3W 3G  bkihev
am_fuo \ jy^_ \ukhdhl_fi_jZlmjguo ijhp_kkh\ hdbke_
ijb]hlh\e_gby hkZ`^_gguo dZlZebaZlhjh\ [hevrhc gby D wlhfm deZkkm kh_^bg_gbc hlghkblky n_jjbl dZev
jZkoh^ j_Z]_glh\ g_h[oh^bfhklv kljh]h]h dhgljhey pby &D2Fe2O5 dhlhjuc gZoh^bl ijbf_g_gb_ \ dZq_kl\_
iZjZf_ljh\ hkZ`^_gby l_fi_jZlmjZ jG kdhjhklv keb dZlZebaZlhjZ hdbke_gby fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z m]e_\h
\Zgby jZkl\hjh\ khe_c  gZebqb_ agZqbl_evgh]h dhebq_ ^hjh^h\ ZffbZdZ < kljmdlmjghf hlghr_gbb hg ij_^
kl\Z klhqguo \h^ klZ\ey_l kh[hc mihjy^hq_gguc ih ihebw^jZf dbkehjh
:dlb\Zpby kbgl_aZ dZlZeblbq_kdbo kbkl_f
^h^_nbpblguc i_jh\kdbl \ dhlhjhf h^bg kehc hdlZw^
N_jjblu dZd i_jki_dlb\gu_ dZlZebaZlhju jh\ )H26 q_j_^m_lky k h^gbf keh_f l_ljZw^jh\ )H24.
dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z Bhgu dZevpby jZaf_sZxlky \ imklhlZo f_`^m hdlZw^
jZfb b l_ljZw^jZfb Fh`gh h`b^Zlv qlh kbkl_fZ k
Ba\_klgh qlh bkihevah\Zgb_ jZaebqguo f_lh^h\ lZdhc kljmdlmjhc klZ[bebah\Zgghc dZlbhgZfb dZevpby
Zdlb\Zpbb ijb kbgl_a_ \ g_jZ\gh\_kguo mkeh\byo lZdbo [m^_l ijhy\eylv \ukhdmx dZlZeblbq_kdmx Zdlb\ghklv b
dZd ieZafhobfbq_kdbc f_oZghobfbq_kdbc djbhobfb l_jfhklhcdhklv \ j_Zdpbb dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_
q_kdbc iha\hey_l baf_gylv j_Zdpbhggmx \ qZklghklb jh^Z \h^yguf iZjhf
dZlZeblbq_kdmx Zdlb\ghklv ihemqZ_fuo kbkl_f Ijh[e_fZ ijh^he`bl_evghklb `bagb kljmdlmj k
LZd \ kemqZ_ f_oZghobfbq_kdhc h[jZ[hldb m\_ebqb ih\ur_gghc j_Zdpbhgghc kihkh[ghklvx ijbh[j_l_g
\Z_lky j_ZdpbhggZy kihkh[ghklv hdkb^h\ \ ijhp_kkZo ghc \ j_amevlZl_ f_oZgbq_kdhc Zdlb\Zpbb bamq_gZ g_
jZaeh`_gby jZkl\hj_gby l\_j^hnZagh]h kbgl_aZ dZlZ ^hklZlhqgh Ijbgylh kqblZlv qlh ^_n_dlu bkq_aZxl

88
  
           ‹ 
ijb gbadbo l_fi_jZlmjZo H^gZdh dZlZebaZlhju gZ hk ]^_ α — kl_i_gv ij_\jZs_gby j_Z]_glh\; β — dhwnnb 

gh\_ n_jjblh\ ijhy\eyxl \ukhdmx dZlZeblbq_kdmx pb_gl ijhihjpbhgZevghklb ,^ — dhgklZglZ kdhjhklb 

Zdlb\ghklv b ijb \ukhdbo l_fi_jZlmjZo LZd dZlZebaZ hl`b]Z beb \hagbdgh\_gby ^_n_dlh\ βN0 = Kp — dhg  

lhju ]em[hdh]h hdbke_gby khojZgyxl ih\ur_ggmx klZglZ kdhjhklb l\_j^hnZagh]h \aZbfh^_ckl\by 

Zdlb\ghklv ijb \ukhdbo l_fi_jZlmjZo  °K  ijbh[ N0 — gZqZevgZy dhgp_gljZpby ^_n_dlh\ AgZq_gb_ iZ  

j_l_ggmx \ j_amevlZl_ f_oZghobfbq_kdhc Zdlb\Zpbb \ jZf_ljZ n nhjfZevgh ZgZeh]bqgh]h ihjy^dm j_Zdpbb \




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hkgh\_ n_jjblZ dZeby \ j_Zdpbb ^_]b^jbjh\Zgby C-[m- klbq_kdbo jZkq_lh\ iml_f fbgbfbaZpbb ^bki_jkbhggh 

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>@ 

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Kms_kl\m_l g_kdhevdh kihkh[h\ ihemq_gby n_jjblh\


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[50—52]: 1) gZ hkgh\_ f_oZgbq_kdhc kf_kb hdkb^h\ b


jZ dhlhjuc ijhihjpbhgZe_g qbkem Zdlb\guo p_gljh\ Z
 

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dbg_lbdm l\_j^hnZagh]h \aZbfh^_ckl\by Z \lhjh_ – 

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p_kkh\ 

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! ƒ 

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ij_^klZ\e_gbyo — dZd ijZ\beh g_ ijb]h^gu ^ey



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> @

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obfbq_kdbc kbgl_a < dZq_kl\_ bkoh^guo dhfih
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>@
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Q −  β.  1  g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh \ f_evgbp_ [_a dZdhc-eb[h ^hihegb  

=  + Q −  β1 τ −

τ + l_evghc h[jZ[hldb fh`_l [ulv hkms_kl\e_g \ ke_^mx
 
− α 3 − 

sbo kemqZyo _keb j_Z]_glu bf_xl [ebadmx djb
>@ 

Q −  β.  1  klZeebq_kdmx kljmdlmjm _keb \hafh`gh dbkehlgh-


+ τ (15) hkgh\gh_ \aZbfh^_ckl\b_ l _ _keb h^bg ba j_Z]_glh\
  

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pby [jZmgfbee_jbl h[uqgh jZkkfZljb\Zxl dZd Zgbhg-


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^_nbpblguc i_jh\kdbl k mihjy^hq_ggufb dbkehjh^gu  gh —52]. >

fb \ZdZgkbyfb hkgh\gufb kljmdlmjgufb we_f_glZfb



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f_oZghobfbq_kdh]h kbgl_aZ — mihjy^hq_gb_ > @ N_jjbl dZevpby ijhy\ey_l \ukhdmx dZlZeblbq_kdmx
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dbkehjh^guo \ZdZgkbc ijb\h^bl ihke_^mxsZy l_jfh  bkihevah\Zgbb kl_i_gv ij_\jZs_gby KH \ j_Zdpbb dhg 

h[jZ[hldZ Bamq_gb_ kljmdlmju n_jjblZ dZevpby


 \_jkbb khklZ\ey_l — N_jjbl f_^b gZb[he__
 

Ca2Fe2O5 kbgl_abjh\Zggh]h f_oZghobfbq_kdbf f_lh


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gby dbkehjh^guo \ZdZgkbc \ gbo _s_ g_ aZ\_jr_gu ihdhe_gby >@

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76
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280 300 320 340 360 380 400
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KH  G2 KG3KHG  G2H ! !   τ   ! + ! τ
ε′ = +   − H[S  −  +
 (16)
KH  G2 K3G7HG  G2H     η   η
KH  G2 KG3KHHKG3  G2H
]^_ ε′ — hlghkbl_evgZy kmffZjgZy ^_nhjfZpby J —
KH  G2 K4G9HG  G2H
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LZdbf h[jZahf ^ey h[_ki_q_gby gZ^_`ghc jZ[hlu
rZy ieZklbq_kdZy \yadhklv η2 — \yadhklv mijm]h]h
iZjh\uo dhleh\ dZlZebaZlhj dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z
ihke_^_ckl\by τ — \j_fy ^_ckl\by gZ]jmadb
m]e_jh^Z ^he`_g h[eZ^Zlv \ukhdhc k_e_dlb\ghklvx ih
< nhjfh\hqghc fZkk_ ijbkmlkl\mxl \k_ ljb \b^Z
hlghr_gbx d hkgh\ghc j_Zdpbb — h[jZah\Zgbx \h^h
^_nhjfZpbc [ukljZy weZklbq_kdZy mijm]Zy εmi f_^
jh^Z IhdZaZgh qlh [he__ \ukhdmx k_e_dlb\ghklv \
j_Zdpbb  ijhy\ey_l n_jjbl f_^b ih kjZ\g_gbx k e_ggZy weZklbq_kdZy εwe ieZklbq_kdZy εie DZ`^h_ keZ
n_jjblhf dZevpby >@ ]Z_fh_ \ mjZ\g_gbb  khhl\_lkl\m_l i_j_qbke_gguf
\b^Zf ^_nhjfZpbc l_ ε′ = εmi + εwe + εie Hlkx^Z fh`
MijZ\e_gb_ j_heh]bq_kdbfb k\hckl\Zfb fZkk gh jZkkqblZlv ^hex dZ`^h]h \b^Z ^_nhjfZpbc \ h[s_f
dZlZebaZlhjh\ gZ klZ^bb [ZeZgk_ ijbgbfZy \_ebqbgm ε′ aZ 
wdkljmabhggh]h nhjfh\Zgby Fh^_ev  fh`_l [ulv bkihevah\ZgZ ^ey bamq_gby
Wdkljm^bjh\Zggu_ dZlZebaZlhju \uau\Zxl ih\u kljmdlmjgh-f_oZgbq_kdbo k\hckl\ nhjfh\hqguo dZlZ
r_gguc bgl_j_k m bkke_^h\Zl_e_c b nbjf ijhba\h^y ebaZlhjguo fZkk Z ih ihemq_gguf ba g__ ^Zgguf fh`
sbo dZlZebaZlhju >_eh \ lhf qlh wnn_dlb\ghklv jZ gh ijh]ghabjh\Zlv ijb]h^gZ eb fZkkZ d wdkljmabhgghfm
[hlu dZlZebaZlhjh\ aZ\bkbl g_ lhevdh hl bo nbabdh- nhjfh\Zgbx >@
obfbq_kdbo k\hckl\ gh b \h fgh]hf hij_^_ey_lky ]_h MklZgh\e_gh qlh fZkkZ `_e_ahojhfh\h]h dZlZebaZ
f_ljbq_kdhc nhjfhc bo ]jZgme Wlh klZgh\blky ihgyl lhjZ ijb]hlh\e_ggZy ih ljZ^bpbhgghc l_ogheh]bb im
guf _keb mq_klv qlh ]_hf_ljbq_kdZy nhjfZ dZlZebaZ l_f kf_r_gby ojhfh\h]h Zg]b^jb^Z k hdkb^hf `_e_aZ b
lhjh\ b khj[_glh\ kms_kl\_ggh \eby_l gZ oZjZdl_j ijh \h^hc hlghkblky d gme_\hfm kljmdlmjgh-f_oZgbq_kdhfm
p_kkh\ fZkkh- b l_iehh[f_gZ \ keh_ Z lZd`_ gZ ]Zah^b lbim k ij_h[eZ^Zgb_f [ukljuo weZklbq_kdbo ^_nhjfZ
gZfbq_kdh_ khijhlb\e_gb_ B a^_kv k emqr_c klhjhgu pbc jbk  h[jZa_p   H[jZ[hldZ wlhc `_ fZkku ih ^\mo
aZj_dhf_g^h\Zeb k_[y dZlZebaZlhju b khj[_glu keh` klZ^bcghc l_ogheh]bb \ ^bki_j]bjmxsbo mkljhckl\Zo
ghc ]_hf_ljbq_kdhc nhjfu \ lhf qbke_ [ehdb khlh\hc baf_evq_gb_ qZklb α-Fe2O3 \ ojhfh\hc dbkehl_ k ihke_

kljmdlmju H[sZy ihjbklhklv wdkljm^bjh\Zgguo dZlZ ^mxsbf ^h[Z\e_gb_f g_h[oh^bfh]h dhebq_kl\Z hdkb^Z
ebaZlhjh\ gZ — \ur_ q_f m lZ[e_lbjh\Zgguo `_e_aZ b jZkl\hjZ \h^hjZkl\hjbfh]h ihebf_jZ iha\hey_l
F_lh^ nhjfh\Zgby wdkljmab_c hlebqZ_lky hlghkbl_ev kgbablv \_ebqbgm [ukljuo weZklbq_kdbo ^_nhjfZpbc k 
ghc ijhklhlhc b g_ lj_[m_l ijbf_g_gby ^hjh]hklhys_]h ^h  jbk  h[jZa_p   Ijb wlhf f_^e_ggu_ weZklbq_
h[hjm^h\Zgby h[_ki_qb\Zy ihemq_gb_ dZlZebaZlhjh\ k kdb_ b ieZklbq_kdb_ ^_nhjfZpbb \hajZklZxl khhl\_lkl\_g
^hklZlhqgh \ukhdhc f_oZgbq_kdhc ijhqghklvx gh k  ^h  b k  ^h  >@
Kms_kl\_gguc g_^hklZlhd wdkljmab\ghc l_ogheh]bb Hkgh\ghc ijbqbghc memqr_gby j_heh]bq_kdbo
k\yaZg k l_f qlh ih^[hj fZkk ^ey nhjfh\Zgby ]jZgme k\hckl\ gZjy^m k nZdlhjhf baf_evq_gby qZklbp hdkb^Z
dZlZebaZlhjh\ ijh\h^blky dZd ijZ\beh wfibjbq_kdbf `_e_aZ y\ey_lky \hajZklZgb_ obfbq_kdh]h \aZbfh^_ckl
iml_f qlh aZqZklmx aZljm^gy_l \u[hj hilbfZevghc \by dhfihg_glh\ Z lZd`_ \ha^_ckl\b_ \h^hjZkl\hjbfh
j_p_ilmju b kihkh[Z ihemq_gby nhjfh\hqghc fZkku ]h ihebf_jZ iheb\bgbeh\uc kibjl beb dZj[hdkbf_
GZ gZr \a]ey^ jZajZ[hldZ gh\uo b mkh\_jr_gkl\h\Zgb_ lbep_eexehaZ  MklZgh\e_gh qlh dZlZebaZlhjgZy fZkkZ
kms_kl\mxsbo kihkh[h\ ijb]hlh\e_gby dZlZebaZlhj ihemq_ggZy ba n_jjblh\ dZevpby b f_^b h[eZ^Z_l \u

91
k  jã ÒÓ s s väÒ¯Óºm k k jã ÒÓ

4. FheqZgh\ < < ;mygh\ J : Mki_ob obfbb l


εie
       

‹ k  —492.
 

5. >abkvdh < : Hkgh\u f_lh^h\ ijb]hlh\e_gby dZlZebaZlh


  

jh\ Gh\hkb[bjkd GZmdZ


 k     

IV V 6. Ijhba\h^kl\h ZffbZdZ Ih^ j_^ < I K_f_gh\Z F Ob       

fby k
   

7. HqbkldZ l_ogheh]bq_kdbo ]Zah\ Ih^ j_^ L : K_f_gh\hc     

B E E_cl_kZ F Obfby
  k      

2 8. K_f_gh\ < I K_f_gh\Z L : Ijhba\h^kl\h ZffbZdZ ih wg_j]h


    

III 3 II l_ogheh]bq_kdhc ko_f_ F GBBLWOBF k      

9. H\kb_gdh H E b ^j DZlZeba \ ijhfure_gghklb


    

1 ‹ k —45.
  

10. K_f_gh\Z L : b ^j DZlZebaZlhju ZffbZqgh]h ijhba\h^kl


εmi I εwe \Z F GBBLWOBF k
   

0      

11. KijZ\hqgbd ZahlqbdZ F Obfby k      

12. KijZ\hqgh_ jmdh\h^kl\h ih dZlZebaZlhjZf ^ey ijhba\h^kl


Jbk  >bZ]jZffZ jZa\blby ^_nhjfZpbc \ fZkk_ dZlZeb

\Z ZffbZdZ b \h^hjh^Z Ih^ j_^ < I K_f_gh\Z E Obfby




aZlhjZ dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z gZ klZ^bb wdkljm

k
      

abhggh]h nhjfh\Zgby
  

13. L_ogheh]by dZlZebaZlhjh\ Ih^ j_^ B I Fmoe_gh\Z E      


DZlZebaZlhj b kihkh[ ijb]hlh\e_gby fZkku ^ey wdkljmabb Obfby k
   
1 — `_e_ahojhfh\uc dZlZebaZlhj ijhfure_ggZy l_ogheh 14. :e_dk__\ : F FboZceh\Z G I ;_kdh\ < K Obf ijhf
       
]by 2 — `_e_ahojhfh\uc dZlZebaZlhj bkihevah\Zgb_ ^bk  ‹ k —103.   
i_j]bjh\Zgby b \h^hjZkl\hjbfh]h ihebf_jZ 3 — gZ hkgh\_ 15. Dhfh\Z A < DZlZeba \ ijhfure_gghklb
  ‹ k     
n_jjblh\ dZevpby b f_^b 16. FZjdbgZ F B b ^j Lj =B:I  \ui k —84.
        

0, I,...,V — kljmdlmjgh-f_oZgbq_kdbc lbi fZkku 17. FZjdbgZ F B b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba  l


 ‹      

k
 —871.
18. Bevbg : I b ^j <hij dbg_lbdb b dZlZebaZ B\Zgh\h
      
khdbfb j_heh]bq_kdbfb oZjZdl_jbklbdZfb ^Z`_ [_a
k —114.
 
^h[Z\hd ihebf_jh\ Ijb wlhf \_ebqbgu [ukljuo b 19. Nmj_g W E b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba
  l ‹ k  .       
f_^e_gguo weZklbq_kdbo ^_nhjfZpbc b ieZklbq_kdhc 20. Nmj_g W E b ^j Obf ijhf-klv
  ‹ k —288.       
^_nhjfZpbb khklZ\eyxl khhl\_lkl\_ggh   21. Nmj_g W E b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba
  l ‹      

 jbk  h[jZa_p 3). k


 —456.
LZdbf h[jZahf jZ\ghf_jgh_ jZa\blb_ \k_o \b^h\ 22. Rbjhdh\ X = Bevbg : I <hij dbg_lbdb b dZlZebaZ
     

^_nhjfZpbc h[_ki_qb\Z_l \hafh`ghklv wdkljmabhggh]h B\Zgh\h k —110.


   

nhjfh\Zgby dZlZebaZlhjguo fZkk \ ]jZgmeu 23. :ljhs_gdh < B b ^j L_ogheh]by k\yaZggh]h ZahlZ OZjv
    

:gZeba ijhp_kkZ dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z dh\ k


   

24. Dhfh\Z A < b ^j MdjZbgkdZy gZmqgh-l_ogbq_kdZy dhgn ih


   
\h^yguf iZjhf \ ^_ckl\mxs_c l_ogheh]bq_kdhc ko_f_
dZlZebam k —69.
   
ijhba\h^kl\Z ZffbZdZ b bkke_^h\Zgby ijh\h^bfu_ \ 25. DZeZrgbd : < b ^j LZf `_ k —50.      
B\Zgh\kdhf ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghf obfbdh-l_ogheh]bq_kdhf 26. Dmevdh\Z G < Lëfdbg F B @ nba obfbb   l        
mgb\_jkbl_l_ ^Zxl hkgh\Zgby kqblZlv qlh ^ey klZ^bb ‹ k   

kj_^g_l_fi_jZlmjghc dhg\_jkbb fhghhdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z 27. Sb[jy = = b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba


  l ‹      

i_jki_dlb\gufb y\eyxlky dZlZebaZlhju gZ hkgh\_ n_j k


  —1068.
jblh\ dZevpby b f_^b ijb]hlZ\eb\Z_fu_ ih f_lh^m 28. Dhfh\Z A < b ^j <hij dbg_lbdb b dZlZebaZ B\Zgh\h
     

f_oZghobfbq_kdh]h kbgl_aZ Wlhl f_lh^ iha\hey_l ih  k 14—119. 

emqZlv \ukhdh^bki_jkgu_ ihjhrdb n_jjblh\ dZevpby b 29. >abkvdh < : Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba
  l ‹ k       

f_^b Z lZd`_ kms_kl\_ggh kgbablv l_fi_jZlmjm ihke_ 30. Rbjhdh\ X = >bkk ^hdl l_og gZmd B\Zgh\h
  k         

^mxs_c l_jfhh[jZ[hldb N_jjbl dZevpby ijhy\ey_l 31. Kl_iZgh\ ? = Dhl_evgbdh\ = J DZlZeba \ ijhfure_ggh
    

\ukhdmx dZlZeblbq_kdmx Zdlb\ghklv \ h[eZklb l_fi_ klb ‹ k —56.


    

jZlmj — ƒK Z n_jjbl f_^b gZb[he__ Zdlb\_g \ 32. Dhl_evgbdh\ = J @ ijbde obfbb l ‹         

[he__ gbadhl_fi_jZlmjghc h[eZklb — ƒK DZlZ


k
 —282.
33. Kl_iZgh\ ? = b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba  l ‹      
ebaZlhjgZy fZkkZ ihemq_ggZy ba n_jjblh\ dZevpby b
k
 —944.
f_^b h[eZ^Z_l \ukhdbfb j_heh]bq_kdbfb oZjZdl_jb
34. Dmgbg : < b ^j Ba\ \ukr mq_[ aZ\_^_gbc Obfby b
      
klbdZfb b g_ gm`^Z_lky \ bkihevah\Zgbb ^h[Z\hd iheb obfbq_kdZy l_ogheh]by ‹ k —89.     
f_jh\ N_jjblu dZevpby b f_^b fh]ml [ulv bkihevah 35. Djb\hjmqdh H I Ju`bd B : Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba      
\Zgu ^ey kha^Zgby dZlZebaZlhjh\ dhg\_jkbb KH gh\h]h l
 ‹ k —477.
  

ihdhe_gby 36. ;mjqbgZ ? ; b ^j @ kljmdl obfbb   l ‹        

EBL?J:LMJ: k
 —497.
37. QZeuc < I =b^jhhdbkb f_lZeeh\ Db_\ GZmdh\Z ^mfdZ
    
1. I_ljh\ E : DZlZeba \ ijhfure_gghklb
  ‹ k     
  k 
2. Imlbeh\ : < Obfby b jughd
  ‹ k —35.     
38. :\\Zdmfh\ ? = F_oZgbq_kdb_ f_lh^u Zdlb\Zpbb obfbq_
3. IZjfhg < G Obfby \ bgl_j_kZo mklhcqb\h]h jZa\blby
  
  
kdbo ijhp_kkh\ Gh\hkb[bjkd GZmdZ k
l ‹ k
     
     

92
  
           ‹ 
39. Eyoh\ G A ;he^uj_\ < < Ba\ KH :G KKKJ  l 
    58. IZ\exobg XL b ^j Ba\ :G KH :G KKKJ  l 
‹  k —8. ‹  k —20.
40. F_oZghobfbq_kdbc kbgl_a \ g_hj]Zgbq_kdhc obfbb K[ 59. Bkmih\Z E: b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba  l  ‹ 
gZmqg lj Ih^ j_^ ?= :\\Zdmfh\Z Gh\hkb[bjkd GZmdZ k —320.
  k 60. Bkmih\Z E: b ^j LZf `_  l  ‹  k —480.
41. Rbjhdh\ X = Bevbg : I Ba\ KH :G J:G KKKJ  ‹ 
    61. Hkljhmrdh :: Rm[_jl W @ ijbde obfbb  l 
k —38. ‹  k —1320.
42. ;mly]bg I X Mki_ob obfbb  l  ‹  k —1780.
  62. Lj_lvydh\ X> L\_j^hnZagu_ j_Zdpbb F Obfby 
43. ;he^uj_\ < < :\\Zdmfh\ ? = LZf `_  l  ‹ 
     k
k —1856. 63. >_evfhg ; Dbg_lbdZ ]_l_jh]_gguo j_Zdpbc F Fbj 
44. ;mygh\ J : FheqZgh\ < < Obf ijhf  ‹  k —158.
     k
45. Rbjhdh\ X = F_oZghobfby \ l_ogheh]bb dZlZebaZlhjh\
  64. Ijh^Zg ? : G_hj]Zgbq_kdZy lhihobfby Fbgkd GZmdZ b
 

B\Zgh\h   k l_ogbdZ   k


46. :\\Zdmfh\ ? = Obf l_ogheh]by  ‹  k —17.
  65. He_cgbdh\ G G b ^j G_hj]Zg fZl  l  ‹ 
  

47. :g^jbZgZkmem G L b ^j Ba\ \ukr mq_[ aZ\_^_gbc Obfby


   k —486.
b obfbq_kdZy l_ogheh]by  ‹  k —59. 66. Bevbg : I Kfbjgh\ G G Bevbg : : GZmqgu_ hkgh\u
     

48. Bevbg : I b ^j GZmqgu_ hkgh\u ijb]hlh\e_gby dZlZebaZ


   ijb]hlh\e_gby dZlZebaZlhjh\ Hfkd  k 
lhjh\ Gh\hkb[bjkd  k —185. 67. Bevbg : : Kfbjgh\ G G Bevbg : I Wg_j]hk[_j_]Zxsb_
     

49. <Zkbev_\Z G : Rbjhdh\ X = LZf `_  k —75.


    l_ogheh]bb wdheh]bq_kdb [_ahiZkguo ijhba\h^kl\ B\Zgh
50. E_\bg ; ? Lj_lvydh\ X > Nbabdh-obfbq_kdb_ hkgh\u
    \h  k 
ihemq_gby b ijbf_g_gb_ n_jjblh\ F F_lZeemj]by   68. IZjn_gh\ < < GZabih\ J : G_hj]Zg fZl  l 
   

51. ;eykk_
k @ DjbklZeehobfby n_jjhribg_e_c F F_lZeemj
 ‹  k —106.
]by   k 69. Bevbg : : Kfbjgh\ G G Bevbg : I L_jfh^bgZfbdZ
     

52. E_lxd E F @mjZ\e_\ = B Obfby b l_ogheh]by n_jjblh\


    ih\_joghklguo y\e_gbc b Z^khj[pbb B\Zgh\h  k —47.
E Obfby   k 70. IZl_gl JN ‹  2005.
53. Dhkh\Z G < b ^j G_hj]Zg fZl  l  ‹  k —484.
   71. Bevbg : I Ijhdhnv_\ < X DZlZeba \ ijhfure_gghklb
   

54. Bkmih\Z E : b ^j Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba  l  ‹ 


    ‹  k —51.

k —139. 72. Bevbg : I Rbjhdh\ X = <hijhku dbg_lbdb b dZlZebaZ


   

55. :[Zdmfh\ : F b ^j Mki_ob obfbb  l  ‹ 


   B\Zgh\h BOLB  k —55.
k —139. 73. Djm]ebpdbc G G Hkgh\u nbabdh-obfbq_kdhc f_oZgbdb
 

56. FheqZgh\ < < ;mygh\ J : Dbg_lbdZ b dZlZeba 


    Db_\ <ukrZy rdheZ  q   k
l  ‹  k —1423. 74. Bevbg : I Ijhdhnv_\ < X Nbabdh-obfbq_kdZy f_oZgbdZ \
   

57. IZ\exobg X L b ^j >hde :G KKKJ  l  ‹ 


   nhjfh\Zgbb dZlZebaZlhjh\ B\Zgh\h B=OLM   k
k —864. 75. :\l k\b^ KKKJ ‹  

93