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Learning Module:

21st Century literature from the


Philippines and the World

Prepared by:

MICHELLE VALENTINO MADRIAGA


______________________
SHS-Teacher
21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World

Course Description: Study and appreciation of literature of the world originally written in the 21st
century.
II. Table of Contents

ModuleI- LITERARY HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Lesson 1Various dimensions of Philippine literary history from pre-colonial to contemporary.


Lesson 2 Philippine Folk Narratives: Myths, Epic, Legends, and Folktales
Lesson 3. Philippine Folk Lyric and Speech: Songs, Proverbs, and Riddles
Lesson 4. Philippine Literature under the Spanish Colonial Rule
Lesson 5 Philippine Literature under American and the Japanese Colonial Period
Lesson 6 Famous Filipino Writers and their Works
Lesson 7Philippine Literature during Martial Law and Post-EDSA Revolution
Lesson 8 21st Century Philippine Literature
Lesson 9 Philippine National Artists in Literature and Their Works

Module IIUNDERSTANDING DIFFERENT GENRES

Lesson 1Poetry&Prose
Lesson 2 Creative Non-Fiction
Lesson 3 Drama
Lesson 4Various Kinds of Literary Genres

Module III –REGIONS IN LUZON, VISAYAS, MINDANAO

Lesson 1 Literary Texts from Luzon


Lesson 2 Literary Texts from Visayas
Lesson 3 Literary Texts from Mindanao

Module IV–LITERARY GENRES, TRADITIONS AND FORMS FROM DIFFERENT NATIONAL


LITERATURE

Lesson 1 American Literature


Lesson 2 AsianLitearture
Lesson 3 JapanLiterature
Lesson 4African Litearature
MODULE I
LITERARY HISTORY OF THE
PHILIPPINES

Learning Objectives:
 Identify the different literary forms during the pre-colonial period.
 Recognize the influences of the pre-colonial period in Philippine literature.
 Identify the various literary forms in the Spanish period.
 Determine the influences of the Spanish colonization on Philippine literature.
 Identify the literary forms that emerged during American and Japanese Colonial
Period.
 Demonstrate understanding of the development of Philippine literature during
Martial Law and Post-EDSA revolution.
 Identify the significant contributions of various Philippine National Artists for
Literature.
 Explain the value of the contributions of these National Artists in the development
of Philippine literature.

LESSON I

PRECOLONIAL PHILIPPINES: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW


Subtopic:

1. Mythological Age
2. Heroic Age
3. Folktales
4. Ancient Tagalog Deities

Pre-Activity 1:

Directions: Complete the first two columns below.

LITERARY HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES


What I KNOW? What I WANT to know?
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.

Lesson Proper:

PRECOLONIAL PHILIPPINES: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

E. Arsenio Manuel, a literary scholar notable for his studies on Philippine folk literature,
divides pre-colonial literature into three, namely, the Mythological Age, Heroic Age, and
Folktales from all ages.

1. Mythological Age
 This is the period when our ancestors told stories about the creation of
human beings and the world, natural phenomena, and deities and
spirits.
2. Heroic Age
 In this period, the characters in stories evolved. Whereas supreme
beings and deities were the common subjects during the Mythological
Age, ordinary mortals and cultural heroes became the chief subject
matter in this period.
 Epics became a popular genre, and they were chanted during
important events in the community to inspire people. These were also
performed to remind the community of their ideals and values.
3. Folktales
 Philippine folktales are traditional stories that had humans, animals,
and even plants as characters. These are fictional talesthat have been
modified through successive retellings before they were finally
recorded and written down.

Most literary works during the precolonial period were passed down by word of
mouth. But in some cases, our ancestors were able to make use of a writing system to
pen down some works of literature.
 The writing system used by Filipinos during the precolonial period is
the baybayin. This was derived from Kavi, a Javanese (Indonesian)
script.
 To write, the early Filipinos used palm leaves or bamboo, which they
wrote on using knives as pens and sap from plants and trees as ink.
 The ancient Tagalog script had seventeen basic syllables composed of
three vowels and fourteen consonants. The vowels were a, e/i, and
o/u. The consonants were ba, ka, da/ra, ga, ha, la, ma, na, nga, pa, sa,
ta, wa, and ya.
 The symbols used could be modified to present different vowel sounds.
This could be done with the use of the kudlit, which may be a short
line, a dot, or even an arrowhead placed at the top or the bottom of the
symbol being modified.

Important influences in literary texts during the pre-colonial period are the following:

1. Climate
2. Source of income (fishing, farming, etc.)
3. Ideologies, distinct characteristics, and type of government
4. Religious beliefs
5. Geographical location

Ancient Tagalog Deities

Gods and Goddesses of Philippine Mythology


 Filipinos practiced worshipping gods and goddesses during the precolonial
period. This practice is known as animism, which is a belief that souls or spirits
exist in plants, animals, or objects. It comes from the Latin word anima, which,
according to psychologist Carl Jung, means a person’s inner self or soul.
 In the Philippines, deities vary in different regions.

Ancient Tagalog Deities


• Kaluwalhatian is the term used to refer to the home of ancient Philippine gods
and goddesses.
1. Bathala or Bathalang Maykapal is the king of the gods in Tagalog myths.
He married a mortal, with which he had three children: Apolaki (god of war
and guardian of the sun), Mayari (goddess of the moon), and Tala
(goddess of the stars).
2. Apolaki and Mayari (or Adlaw and Bulan in Visayan) ruled the earth at
different times. This is because of a conflict between them when Bathala
died and he did not pass the title to any of his children.
3. Tala is the goddess who warns Mayari that the sun god is gone and that it
is safe for her to come out along with the stars.
4. Amihan is believed to be a bird, which is said to be the first creature that
inhabited the earth. It is linked to the story of creation of the Tagalogs.
5. The Marias
a. Maria Makiling is the diwata who guards Mount Makiling in Laguna.
b. Maria Cacao is the guardian of Mount Lantoy in Cebu. Her realm is the
cacao plants, which are used by Filipinos for famous chocolate
delicacies.
c. Maria Sinukuan is the guardian of Mount Arayat in Pampanga. She
brings abundant harvests from trees in the mountain.
6. Bacunawa, or the “moon eater,” is the god of the underworld. Believed to
have an image of a serpent or dragon, he is the one responsible for eclipses.
Activity 2:

I. Directions: Identify the following items.

_____ 1. Traditional stories that had humans, animals, and even plants as characters.

______ 2. This is the period when our ancestors told stories about the creation of
human beings and the world, natural phenomena, and deities and spirits.

______ 3. In this period, the characters in stories evolved.

______ 4. It is the term used to refer to the home of ancient Philippine gods and
goddesses.

______ 5. It is the writing system used by Filipinos during the


precolonial period.

Post Activity 3:
Directions: Enumerate the six (6) Ancient Tagalog Deities and give a brief description
about them.

References:

Baritugo, Mercedita R., Reynaldo G. Caranguian, Angelita C. Punzalan, and Ernesto


Thaddeus M. Solmerano. 2007. Philippine Literature: An Introduction to Poetry, Fiction,
and Drama. Manila: FEU Publications.

Kahayon, Alicia H., Magdalena P. Limdico, Erlinda M. Santiago. 2010. Panitikang


Filipino: Kasaysayan at Pag-unlad. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store, Inc.

Lorenzo, Carmelita S., Rosario U. Mag-atas, Gloria P. San Juan, Corazon P. San Juan,
Zenaida S. De Leon, Marianne C. Ortiz, and Randy D. Sagun. 2012. Literaturang
Pilipino Tekstong Pangkolehiyo. Quezon City: National Book Store, Inc.

LESSON II

PHILIPPINE FOLK NARRATIVES: MYTHS, EPICS, LEGENDS, AND


FOLKTALES

Pre-Activity 1:

What are the difference between Folktales and Epic? Myths and Legends?
Lesson Proper:

Philippine Folk Narratives: Myths, Epics, Legends, and Folktales

Narratives such as folktales and legends were created to explain natural


phenomena and the origin of things long before science came to be known.

A. Myths
These are stories that make use of gods, goddesses, and other fantastical
creatures as characters. These became a means for our ancestors to explain the
occurrence of supernatural events, the beginning of cultural traditions, and the
existence of mysteries. A myth may also attempt to explain how the world began or how
a group of people originated.
The Creation (Tagalog)

When the world first began, there was no land—there were only the sea and the
sky, and between them is a crow. One day, the bird, which had nowhere to land, grew
tired of flying around, so she stirred up the seas until it threw its waters against the sky.
The sky, in order to restrain the sea, showered upon it many rocks, forming islands until
the sea could no longer rise but instead flow back and forth, making tides. Then the sky
ordered the crow to land on one of the islands to build her nest and to leave the sea and
sky in peace.

Now at this time, the land breeze and the sea breeze were married, and they had
a child, which was a bamboo plant. One day when the bamboo was floating about on
the water, it struck the feet of the crow, who was on the beach. The bird, angry that
anything should strike her, pecked at the bamboo, and out of one section came a man
and from the other a woman.

Then the earthquake called on all the birds and fish to see what should be done
with the man and woman, and it was decided that they should marry. Many children
were born to the couple, and from them came all the different races of people.

After a while, the parents grew very tired of having so many idle, useless children
around. They wished to get rid of them, but they knew of no place to send them. Time
went on, and the children became so numerous that the parents enjoyed no peace. One
day, in desperation, the father seized a stick and began beating them.

The children became frightened and began to hide. Now it happened that those
who went into the hidden rooms of the house later became the chiefs of the islands, and
those who concealed themselves in the walls became slaves, while those who ran
outside were free men. Those who hid in the stove became dark-skinned people. Those
who fled to the sea were gone many years, and when their children came back, their
skins were white.

B. Epics
An epic is a long narrative poem that describes the adventures of a hero, warrior,
god, or king. It is influenced by the traditions, culture, beliefs, moral code, and attitudes
of the people who created it. The characteristics of a classical epic include the following:
• The main character or protagonist of the story is considered a hero.
• The hero’s actions are presented without bias; the epic presents both the character’s
faults and virtues.
• Epics often involve battles, which reveal the extraordinary strength of the protagonist
as he engages in acts of bravery.
• The setting may span several countries, involve the whole world, or even be set in the
universe.
• Gods and other divine beings are portrayed as having a role in the outcome of events.
Examples of these epics include:
1. Hinilawod (Panay)—This is considered as the oldest and longest among the epics of
Panay. It narrates the adventures of three brothers, Humadapnin, Dumalapdap, and
Labaw Dingin.

With care we shall tell, accurately we shall relate


The story of the three princes who were born
To goddess Alunsina of the Eastern Skies!
Strangely, before the mother could open her eyes
The first boy born became a mature man to her surprise
And she called him Labaw Dingin, radiant as the sunrise!
Absoy-y-y-y-y-y-y-y—
Then followed the birth of Prince Humadapnin
Who immediately became a man, a handsome prince
A mighty warrior, the kingdom has ever seen!
And before the marvelous mother could have a sigh
Came the third son, Dumalapdap, who likewise
Became a man, stately in mien-like a cloudless sky!

2. Ibalon (Bicol) - Somehow similar to Hinilawod, this epic is about three brothers:
Baltog, Bantiong, and Handiong.

3. Hudhud (Ifugao) -This epic tells about the lives of native Ifugao heroes, the most
notable of which is Aliguyon of the village Gonhandan. Aliguyon was endowed with
supernatural powers and boundless energy. He has the ability to travel long distances
without needing food and rest. Upon arriving at his destination, he still has the same
energy as he did when he started his journey. Aliguyon was invincible in battle; he could
catch spears in mid-flight and could fight against many combatants.

4. Darangan (Muslim)—This epic is about the sentimental and romantic adventures of


noble Maranao warriors; the most famous is about a warrior/prince named Bantugan.
Prince Bantugan was the brother of the chieftain of a village called Bumbaran.
Bantugan owned a magic shield, was protected by divine spirits, and was capable of
rising from the dead.

5. Biag ni Lam-Ang (Ilocos)—This is an epic that tells the story of Lam-Ang, who
exhibits extraordinary abilities even in his early years.

C. Legends
• Believed to be historical but cannot be verified as true, legends are stories handed
down through generations. These stories are often about famous persons or events.
• These may tell of an encounter with marvelous creatures, which the folks still believe
in: fairies, ghosts, water spirits, the devil, and the like.

The Legend of Maria Makiling (Tagalog)


(Some of the contents of this version may have been influenced by the
Spaniards, as evidenced by the characters and series of events.)

Once upon a time, a diwata lived in a mountain of Laguna. She was called
Maria Makiling. She has light olive skin, long shining black hair, and twinkling
eyes. She was breathtakingly beautiful. Maria was always about, helping other
people. One time, the children of a farmer got sick. When he went to Maria to
seek help, he was given a bilao full of ginger. The farmer sadly went home
carrying the bilao. When he reached his hut,he was greatly surprised. The ginger
had turned to gold! Because of Maria’s kindness, the townsfolk had grown to love
her.

Maria was a great beauty. She was sought after and wooed by many
suitors. Three of them were very much determined to have her. One is Captain
Lara, a Spanish soldier who always brought her gifts from Europe. The other is
Joselito, a Spanish mestizo who was studying in Manila. Every time Joselito
visits Maria, he had many stories to tell her about foreign countries and the things
that he had read in books. He dreamed of going to Spain. He didn’t like to live in
the Philippines. Of the three, it was Juan who is the most industrious. He is a
common farmer. But he is so hardworking, and his fruits and vegetables grew fat
and juicy. He also had many pet animals and birds. But if truth be told, it was
Juan who Maria secretly admired. As time passed, her suitors became more and
more impatient and demanded that Maria tell them who she loves. So the diwata
was forced to promise, “By the night of the full moon, I will tell you my answer.”

When the night of the full moon arrived, all of her suitors climbed up the
mountain to know her decision. All was startled when Maria told them that it was
Juan whom she loved. The suitors went away feeling dejected. On the other
hand, Joselito and Captain Lara were very much angry with Juan. They thought
of a plan against him.

One day, all was surprised when a huge fire devoured the cuartel of the
Spanish. Because of the fire, Captain Lara ordered many Filipinos to be
captured. Secretly, Joselito helped him. Juan was among those who they
imprisoned and tortured.

Many prisoners did not last long from the tortures the Spanish had inflicted
upon them. One night, Captain Lara and Joselito secretly spoke with the
prisoners. The next day, Juan was blamed for the burning of the Spanish cuartel.
“I did not do it!” cried Juan. But the prisoners pointed at him because Captain
Lara and Joselito threatened them.

The soldiers brought Juan to the plaza. In front of hundreds of people,


Juan was shot as the enemy of the Spaniards. He was killed even though he did
not commit the crime. But before he died, he managed to shout out loud Maria’s
name. It was heard by the diwata, so she quickly went down her mountain.
But Juan was already dead when Maria arrived. With tears falling down
her face, she tightly embraced his lifeless body. Afterwards, she faced the crowd.
“Why did you not take care of him?” she shouted.
Meanwhile, Captain Lara and Joselito fled to Manila because they were afraid of
Maria. When she learned of this, she cursed the two. She also cursed those men
who cannot accept failure in love. Soon, the curse took effect. Joselito suddenly
became ill. There was no cure.

Captain Lara, on the other hand, was called back to Laguna when the
Filipinos revolted against the abuse that the Spaniards had inflicted upon them.
The revolution quickly spread to many parts of the Philippines. The revolutionary
Filipinos killed Captain Lara.

From then on, Maria never let herself be seen by the people. Every time
somebody got lost on the mountain, they remember the curse of the diwata. They
remember the great love of Maria Makiling.

D. Folktales
Folktales are prose narratives usually told to amuse or entertain. These are also
instructional in nature, dealing with events set in an indefinite time and space. Examples
of folktales are animal tales or fables and magical tales such as “Ang Pagong at ang
Matsing” and “Ang Alamat ng Pinya.”

Post-Activity 1:

Directions: Answer the following questions.

1. What is your idea about the creation of the world according to the
story?
2. Do you believe that Maria Makiling is real?

Post Activity 2:

Directions: Identify the following items.

____ 1. This is considered as the oldest and longest among the epics of Panay.

____ 2. It is a long narrative poem that describes the adventures of a hero, warrior, god,
or king.

____ 3. This epic is about the sentimental and romantic adventures of noble Maranao
warriors
____ 4. Prose narratives usually told to amuse or entertain.

____ 5. These are stories that make use of gods, goddesses, and other fantastical
creatures as characters.

References:

(Source: http://www.seasite.niu.edu/tagalog/folktales/Tagalog/creation_story.htm)

(Source: aboutphilippines.ph/files/The-Legend-of-Maria-Makiling.pdf)

Manuel, E. Arsenio. 2007. Filipino Myths and Folktales Treasury Stories. Pasig City:
Anvil Publishing, Inc.

LESSON III

PHILIPPINE FOLK LYRIC AND SPEECH: SONGS, PROVERBS, AND


RIDDLES

Pre-Activity 1:

Directions: Complete the graphic organizer below.


Lesson Proper:

Philippine Folk Lyric and Speech: Songs, Proverbs, and Riddles

The base form of Philippine folk lyric and speech is poetry. Poetry is a form of
literature that emphasizes rhythm, metrical structure, and the use of imagery and sound
patterns. Poetry is organized in stanzas, which are groups of consecutive lines in a
poem, with each stanza forming a single unit.

A. FolkSongs
Folk songs are repetitive and sonorous and have a playful melody. They may be
about love and courtship, a long day’s work, or may be songs sung at a funeral.

Doon Po Sa Amin Leron, Leron Sinta


Doon po sa amin Leron, Leron sinta
Bayan ng San Roque Buko ng papaya
May nagkatuwaang Dala dala’y buslo
Apat na pulubi. Sisidlan ng bunga
Nagsayaw ang pilay, Pagdating sa dulo
Kumanta ang pipi, Nabali ang sanga
Nanood ang bulag, Kapos kapalaran
Nakinig ang bingi. Humanap ng iba.
B. Proverbs (salawikain)
Proverbs are short sayings enveloped in rhymed verse that are meant to give
advice to the young, offering words of wisdom or stating how one should live.

Examples:

Huwag magbilang ng sisiw


hanggang di pa napipisa ang itlog.
(Don’t count chicks until the eggs are hatched.)

Matibay ang walis,


palibhasa’y magkabigkis.
(A broom is sturdy because its strands are tightly bound.)

Hangga’t makitid ang kumot,


matutong mamaluktot.
(While the blanket is short, learn how to bend.)

C. Riddles (bugtong)
Riddles are perplexing questions meant to be guessed or solved. These are used for
entertainment, and they require one to observe, analyze, and imagine to provide the
right answer.

LESSON IV

PHILIPPINE LITERATURE UNDER THE SPANISH COLONIAL RULE

Subtopic:

Development of Poetry during the Spanish Colonization

Pre-Activity 1:
Directions: Give your insight about the following pictures.

1. Pasyon
2. Novenas
3. Senakulo
4. Flores de Mayo

Lesson Proper:

Philippine Literature under the Spanish Colonial Rule

The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than 300 years. During that
time, literature was greatly influenced by the Spaniards, and new literary forms
emerged.

I. The Spanish Colonial Period


• On March 31, 1521, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in
Philippine soil. He landed in Limasawa, an island in Southern Leyte, and it was
also there that the first Catholic mass in the country was celebrated.
• On April 14, 1521, after reaching the island of Cebu, Fr. Pedro Valderrama
baptized more than 500 natives along with Raja Humabon.
• Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas, in honor of
Prince Philip II of Asturias, who became the king of Spain from 1556 to 1598.
• In 1565, King Philip II of Spain officially colonized the country and assigned the
new expedition to Gobernador Heneral Miguel López de Legazpi. Six years
later, he established his capital in Manila, a location that offered the harbor of
Manila Bay, a large population, and proximity to the ample food supplies of the
Central Luzon rice lands.
• Spain had two motives in colonizing the Philippines:
1. Spice trade
More valuable than gold, spices were the leading component of ancient
commerce even before the 15th century. Spain, along with other European
countries, funded expeditions in search for cinnamon, clove, ginger,
turmeric, and other priced commodities.
2. Converting Filipinos to Christianity
The Spaniards used a policy called reduccion, which is a means of relocation of
scattered settlements to a large town. This way, Spanish friars were able to
convert natives into Christianity.
• The 333-year Spanish colonization ended with outbreaks of revolution and the
rise of independence. The Propaganda Movement, led by ilustrados (elite
Filipinos who went to Europe to study) along with Andres Bonifacio and Emilio
Aguinaldo, demanded independence from Spain.
• On June 12, 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of
the Philippines from the Spanish colonial rule in his home in Kawit, Cavite. This
freedom, however, was short lived because of the arrival of the Americans in the
land.

II. Development of Poetry during the Spanish Colonization

• Philippine literature during the Spanish colonial period was mainly dominated by
religious and secular themes.
• If Philippine poems during the precolonial period highlight epics, riddles, folk songs,
and proverbs that depict spiritual beliefs and everyday lives of natives, poetry under the
Spanish colonial period focused on religion and values, which became instruments in
spreading Christianity and Spanish-oriented culture.
• A ladino poem is a bilingual poem characterized by alternating lines or verses in
Tagalog and Spanish with religious themes.
• In Spain, complimentary verses, usually a poem in sonnet form appeared in books to
encourage people to read it. In the Philippines, a book entitled Memorial de la vida
Cristiana en lengua Tagala (Guidelines for the Christian Life in the Tagalog Language)
by Fr. Francisco Blancas de San Jose included a ladino or bilingual complimentary
poem written by Francisco Bagongbanta known by its first line “Salamat nang walang
hangga” (“Unending thanks”).

Salamat nang walang hanga


gracias se den sempiternas,
sa nagpasilang ng tala
al que hizo salir la estrella:
macapagpanao nang dilim
que destierre las tinieblas
sa lahat na bayan natin
de toda esta nuestra tierra.

• Another complimentary poem called “Dalit na Pamucao sa Tauong Babasa Nitong


Libro” (“Song to Awaken the Reader of this Book”) was written by Felipe de Jesus,
which is a Tagalog version of the legend Barlaan and Josaphat by Fr. Antonio de Borja.
• Poetic forms that emerged during the Spanish colonial period include:
A. Pasyon
This is a narrative poem about the passion, death, and resurrection of
Jesus Christ. It consists of five-line stanzas with eight syllables per line. The
earliest known pasyon is the Ang Mahal na Pasión ni Jesu Christong
Panginoon natin na Tola in 1704.
B. Awit and Kurido
• An awit is a narrative poem that consists of 12 syllables per line and four
lines per stanza. The rhythm is slow and is usually accompanied by the
use of a guitar or bandurya. It expresses adoration of the Blessed Virgin
Mary, platonic, and courtly love. A famous example of an awit is
Francisco Balagtas’s Florante at Laura.
• A kurido is another narrative poem that consists of eight syllables per line
and four lines per stanza. The rhythm is faster compared with that of an
awit. An example of a kurido is Ibong Adarna, which contains 1,722
stanzas and has five parts.
C. Dalit
This is a religious poem in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

III. Development of Prose during the Spanish Colonization

• During the precolonial period, natives created stories about the supernatural,
creatures, spirits, deities, and even the origin of things. But during the Spanish
colonization, Spanish friars attempted to eliminate these stories and replaced them with
religious ones to convert natives to Christianity.
• Spanish missionaries published meditations, translations, and studies on the
Philippine languages.
• In 1593, a prayer book called the Doctrina Christiana en lengua Española y tagala
(Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Tagalog Languages) was one of the first books
printed in the Philippines.
• Spanish friars also made an attempt to learn the different languages in the Philippines
to communicate with the natives. The first book explaining the principles of the Tagalog
language was Arte y reglas de la lengua tagala (The Art and Rules of the Tagalog
Language).
• Tomas Pinpin’s Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla (A
Book for the Tagalog to Study the Spanish Language) was the first published work by a
Filipino and contains a preface that is probably the first essay written by a Filipino.
• Prose forms that emerged during the Spanish colonial rule include:
A. Anecdotes
• These are short and amusing stories that contain lessons in life. Priests often
use anecdotes as part of their sermons.
• An example of an anecdote is the Tagalog translation and adaptation of Daniel
Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe entitled Ang Bagong Robinson, Historiang Nagtuturo
nang Mabuting Caugalian, na Guinauang Tanungan (The New Robinson, a Story
That Teaches Good Conduct, Done in Primer Form) by Joaquin Tuason.
B. Planticas (Sermons)
• These are lectures presented by Spanish priests that dealt with religious,
biblical, and moral topics.
• In 1864, Padre Modesto de Castro compiled 25 of his sermons in Planticas
Doctrinales (Sermons on Doctrines).
C. Novenas
• These are a series of prayers repeated for nine consecutive days and are
usually prayers for petition and thanksgiving.
D. Novels
• Novels are long narrative stories, usually with fictional characters and with a
sequence of events divided into chapters. Examples of novels during the Spanish
colonial period include Pedro Paterno’s Ninay (considered the first Filipino novel),
Padre Modesto de Castro’s Urbana at Feliza, Padre Miguel Lucio y Bustamante’s
Si Tandang Basio Macunat, and Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere and El
Filibusterismo.
E. Essays
• These are personal pieces of writing that uses the point of view of the writer.
One of the most important essays during this period is “Ang Dapat Mabatid ng
mga Tagalog” by Andres Bonifacio. It was published in the newspaper Kalayaan.

IV. Influences of the Spanish Colonization on Philippine Literature

• Spanish priests believe that stories about mythical creatures, spirits, deities, and
rituals contain works of the devil, which is why they instructed the natives to burn them.
They also told them to undergo baptism and embrace Christianity.
• The Spanish culture became highly noticeable with the use of characters similar to
kings and queens, and princes and princesses. For example, in Ibong Adarna,
characters were addressed as Don and Donya. Even the setting is influenced by
European culture.
• Members of the Reform Movement led by Jose Rizal (Dimasalang, Laong Laan),
Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel), and Mariano Ponce (Tikbalang, Kalipulako) wrote for La
Solidaridad, whereas revolutionaries Andres Bonifacio (May Pag-asa) and Emilio
Jacinto (Dimasilaw) wrote for Kalayaan. These newspapers contributed to secular
writings in this period and ignited the desire of the Filipinos to be free from Spain.
• Types of drama that emerged during the Spanish colonial period include:
1. Karagatan -It is a form of poetic contest usually played as part of the rites held in
connection with the death of a person. It is based on a legend about a lady’s ring that
fell in the middle of the sea. The lady’s hand is offered in marriage as a reward to any
young man who could retrieve the ring.
2. Duplo -It is another poetic contest held when a person dies or during the wake.
Duplo consists of puns, jokes, and riddles in the vernacular to relieve sadness.
3. Senakulo -It is a play that portrays the life, passion, and crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
4. Flores de Mayo -Also known as tibag, it tells about how Reyna Elena and her son
Constantino searched for Jesus’s cross in Mount Calvary.
5. Moriones -It is a festival in celebration of the life of Saint Longinus. Saint Longinus
was a blind Roman soldier tasked to drive a spear through Jesus to make sure he was
dead. A miracle happened when Jesus’s blood touched him. He regained his eyesight
and converted to Christianity. Because of this change of faith, Saint Longinus was
beheaded as ordered by Pontius Pilate.
6. Moro-moro -It is a play written about the capture of a Christian Filipino army. In
1637, Gran Comedia de la Toma del Pueblo de Corralat y Conquista del Cerro written
by Padre Geronimo Perez was the first moro-moro performed in Manila.
7. Sarswela -It is a play with songs and dances with up to five acts, portraying the
whimsies of romantic love.

Directions: Complete the graphic organizer below.

Philippine Literature under the


Spanish Colonial Rule
Prose Forms Poetic Forms Drama

1. 1. 1.

2. 2. 2.

3. 3. 3.

4. 4.

5. 5.

6.

References:

Aguilar, Celedonio G. 2000. Readings in Philippine Literature. Manila: Rex Bookstore.


Bernad, Miguel A. 1998. The King’s Phrase: Some Philippine Literary and Cultural
Perspectives. Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University.

Eugenio, Damiana. 1982. Philippine Folk Literature: An Anthology. Quezon City:


University of the Philippines Press.

Macansantos, Francis C., and Priscilla S. Macansantos. “Philippine Literature in the


Spanish Colonial Period.” National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Last modified
April 14, 2015. http://ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-
sca/literary-arts/ philippine-literature-in-the-spanish-colonial-period/.

LESSON V

Philippine Literature under the American Colonial


Period and the Japanese Colonial Period

Pre-Activity1:
What are the influences of the Americans and the Japanese to Filipino people?

Americans Japanese
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.

Lesson Proper:

I. Literature under the US Colonial Period: An Overview


Treaty of Paris—On April 11, 1899, an agreement was signed by John Hay, the US
Secretary of State, after the Spanish–American War. In this agreement, Spain
surrendered the remaining Spanish empire, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
Philippines to the United States, which also involved a payment of 20 million dollars to
Spain.
• The Spanish language is still dominant among Filipinos.
• Education was first headed by American soldiers. In 1901, around 600 teachers who
arrived onboard the ship USS Thomas replaced the soldiers.
• Ironically, a great portion of Spanish literature written by Filipinos emerged during the
American Commonwealth period.
• Newspapers like El Tiempo, El Pueblo de Iloilo, La Vanguardia, La Democracia,
and El Renacimiento were published in Spanish.
• Other newspapers and magazines helped with the boost of the English language in
thePhilippines. Some of these were The Manila Times, Manila Daily Bulletin, Cable
News,The Independent, Philippines Free Press, Philippine Review, The Philippine
Herald, TheManila Tribune, and the Graphic, among others.
• Tagalog drama also transformed from merely a form of entertainment to an expression
of revolt against the Americans.
• Famous playwrights were Juan Abad (Tanikalang Guinto), Juan Matapang Cruz (Hindi
Aco Patay), Aurelio Tolentino (Kahapon, Ngayon, at Bukas), Severino Reyes (Walang
Sugat),Julian Cruz Balmaceda (Sa Bunganga ng Pating), and Precioso Palma
(Paglipas ng Dilim).
• Sarswela, a musical famous during the 1920s up to the 1930s, later became written ni
English by Filipino playwrights Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero (Three Rats) and Alberto
Florentino (The World is an Apple).
• Famous Spanish-language writers or poets during this period were Claro M. Recto
(Bajo los Cocoteros), Antonio M. Abad (El Ultimo Romantico), and Jesus Balmori (Mi
Casa de Nipa)among many others.
• School publications also emerged during this period such as The Filipino Students’
Magazine, UP College Folio, The Coconut of the Manila High School, and The Torch of
the Philippine Normal School.
• Famous short stories in English emerged like “Dead Stars” (Paz Marquez-Benitez),
“Footnote to Youth” (José Garcia Villa), and “How My Brother Leon Brought Home a
Wife” (Manuel Arguilla).
• Comics started appearing on magazines as a series like Si Kiko at Angge in
Telembang. Others were satirical editorial cartoons like in Lipang Kalabaw, a Tagalog
magazine owned by Lope K. Santos. Album ng mga Kabalbalan ni Kenkoy also
appeared in the entertainment section of the magazine Liwayway.

II. Philippine Literature under the Japanese Colonial Period


• During World War II, the Philippines were colonized by the Japanese from 1941 to
1945. It allbegan when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 8, 1941.
• With the rising tension between Japan and the United States, President Manuel L.
Quezon and Douglas MacArthur fled to the United States. But before leaving,
MacArthur left a promise to the Filipino people, “I shall return,” which is popular up to
this day.
• Meanwhile, the Japanese ordered that the misa de gallo (simbang gabi) be suspended
for the first time on Christmas of 1941.
• Under the Japanese rule came the Fall of Bataan and the Death March, which killed
thousands of Filipinos and Americans.
• The Mickey Mouse money became the national currency. It is practically invaluable,
more or less like play money.
• HUKBALAHAP or Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon was a group of Filipinos who
foughtagainst the Japanese. However, there were also Filipino spies known as the
Makapili. These people were known to cover their heads with bayong to conceal their
faces.
• As promised, Douglas MacArthur came back in Leyte in 1944 and fought for our
country once more.
• Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day, 1945) was declared after Japan surrendered to the
United States on August 15, 1945.
• Lastly, there came the Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic on July 4, 1946.
• Without Seeing the Dawn, a novel written by Stevan Javellana, was published in the
United States in 1947. It depicts the experiences of Filipinos during the war between the
Americans and the Japanese. This novel was later on adapted into a movie entitled
Santiago!, directed by Lino Brocka, which stars Fernando Poe Jr. and Hilda Coronel.
• Among the most gruesome stories during the war was about comfort women, and
among them was María Rosa Henson or Nana Rosa as she was fondly known. She
wrote an autobiography Comfort Woman: Slave of Destiny, which was published in
1996.
• Some famous Filipino writers who lived during this period are Bienvenido Santos
(Scent of Apples), Marcelo Agana, Jr. (New Yorker in Tondo), and Nick Joaquin (“The
SummerSolstice”).

Excerpt from “The Summer Solstice” by Nick Joaquin

This was the time when our young men were all going to Europe and bringing back with
them, not the Age of Victoria, but the Age of Byron. The young Guido knew nothing of
Darwin and evolution; he knew everything about Napoleon and the Revolution. When
DoñaLupeng expressed surprise at his presence that morning in the St. John’s crowd,
he laughed in her face.
“But I adore these old fiestas of ours! They are so romantic! Last night, do you
know,we walked all the way through the woods, I and some boys, to see the procession
of the Tadtarin.”
“And was that romantic too?” asked Doña Lupeng.
“It was weird. It made my flesh crawl. All those women in such a mystic frenzy!
And shewho was the Tadtarin last night—she was a figure right out of a flamenco!”
“I fear to disenchant you, Guido—but that woman happens to be our cook.”
“She is beautiful.”
“Our Amada beautiful? But she is old and fat!”
“She is beautiful—as that old tree you are leaning on is beautiful,” calmly insisted
theyoung man, mocking her with his eyes.
They were out in the buzzing orchard, among the ripe mangoes; Doña Lupeng
seated onthe grass, her legs tucked beneath her, and the young man sprawled flat on
his belly, gazing up at her, his face moist with sweat. The children were chasing
dragonflies. The sun stood still in the west. The long day
refused to end. From the house came the sudden roaring laughter of men playing cards.
“Beautiful! Romantic! Adorable! Are those the only words you learned in
Europe?” criedDoña Lupeng, feeling very annoyed with this young man whose eyes
adored her one moment and mocked her next.
“Ah, I also learned to open my eyes over there—to see the holiness and the
mystery ofwhat is vulgar.”
“And what is so holy and mysterious about—about the Tadtarin, for instance?”
“I do not know. I can only feel it. And it frightens me. Those rituals come to us from
theearliest dawn of the world. And the dominant figure is not the male but the female.”
“But they are in honor of St. John.”
“What has your St. John to do with them? Those women worship a more ancient
lord.Why, do you know that no man may join those rites unless he first puts on some
article of women’s apparel and—”
“And what did you put on, Guido?”
“How sharp you are! Oh, I made such love to a toothless old hag there that she
pulled off her stocking for me. And I pulled it on, over my arm, like a glove. How your
husband would have despised me!”
“But what on earth does it mean?”
“I think it is to remind us men that once upon a time you women were supreme
and we men were the slaves.”
“But surely there have always been kings?”
“Oh, no. The queen came before the king, and the priestess before the priest,
and the moon before the sun.”
“The moon?”
“—who is the Lord of the women.”
“Why?”
“Because the tides of women, like the tides of the sea, are tides of the moon.
Because the first blood—But what is the matter, Lupe? Oh, have I offended you?”
“Is this how they talk to decent women in Europe?”
“They do not talk to women, they pray to them—as men did in the dawn of the
world.”
“Oh, you are mad! mad!”
“Why are you so afraid, Lupe?”
“I afraid? And of whom? My dear boy, you still have your mother’s milk in your
mouth. Ionly wish you to remember that I am a married woman.”
“I remember that you are a woman, yes. A beautiful woman. And why not? Did
you turn into some dreadful monster when you married? Did you stop being a woman?
Did you stopbeing beautiful? Then why should my eyes not tell you what you are—just
because you are married?”
“Ah, this is too much now!” cried Doña Lupeng, and she rose to her feet.
“Do not go, I implore you! Have pity on me!”
“No more of your comedy, Guido! And besides—where have those children gone
to! Imust go after them.”
As she lifted her skirts to walk away, the young man, propping up his elbows,
draggedhimself forward on the ground and solemnly kissed the tips of her shoes. She
stared down in sudden horror, transfixed—and he felt her violent shudder. She backed
away slowly, still staring; then turned and fled toward the house.
On the way home that evening Don Paeng noticed that his wife was in a mood.
Theywere alone in the carriage: the children were staying overnight at their
grandfather’s. The heat had not subsided. It was heat without gradations: that knew no
twilights and no dawns; that was still there, after the sun had set; that would be there
already, before the sun had risen.
“Has young Guido been annoying you?” asked Don Paeng.

One of the story’s themes is the contrast between Christian beliefs and pagan rituals.

Post-Activity 1:

What are the contrasting beliefs of young Guido and Doña Lupeng in the story?
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Activity 2:

Questions:
1. What was the agreement signed by John Hay after the Spanish–American War?
2. According to Nick Joaquin’s “The Summer Solstice,” what is the Tadtarin?
Post-

3. What was the most gruesome struggle that occurred during the Japanese colonial
period that concerns women? Who wrote an autobiography which describes what she
experienced along with other girls her age?

References:

Baritugo, Mercedita R., Reynaldo G. Caranguian, Angelita C. Punsalan, and Ernesto


Thaddeus M. Solmerano. 2007. Philippine Literature: An Introduction to Poetry, Fiction
and Drama. Manila: FEU Publications.

Lumbera, Bienvenido and Cynthia Nograles Lumbera. 2000. Philippine Literature: A


History and Anthology. Manila: Anvil Publishing.

LESSON VI

FAMOUS FILIPINO WRITERS AND THEIRWORKS

Pre-Activity:1
Questions:




Do you still read a Tagalog pocketbook?
What is the title of the book that you have read previously?
Who is your favorite Filipino author?
Pre-Activity:2
Directions:Give 5 characteristics about a writer.

WRITER

Lesson Proper:

Famous Filipino Writers Who Wrote in Tagalog and theirWorks

A. Juan Abad
• He was born in Sampaloc, Manila on February 8, 1872.
• He wrote his first play, Senos de Mala Fortuna, at the age of 16.
• He founded three newspapers as a sign of revolt against the Americans: Republicang
Tagalog, which he founded with Emilio S. Reyes; Laon-Laan, which caused
hisimprisonment for a month; and Dimas-Alang, which is dedicated to Filipino workers.
• He was imprisoned for 2 years and fined $2000 for his play Tanikalang Guinto. It was
a symbolic play encouraging Filipinos to rebel against the Americans.
Tanikalang Guinto
Characters:
K’Ulayaw—symbolizes revolution
Liwanag—symbolizes love for one’s country
Maimbot—symbolizes the Americans
Dalita—Inang Bayan Nagtapon—
symbolizes Filipino traitors

The play is about lovers K’Ulayaw and Liwanag who are planning to get married.
However, Maimbot does not agree with this union. So Maimbot, along with Nagtapon,
decided to convince Liwanag to cancel the wedding and gave her a chain of gold
(tanikalang guinto). In the end, K’Ulayaw was killed in the hands of Nagtapon. Liwanag
attempted to kill herself, too, but she was saved by Diwa.
B. Aurelio Tolentino
• He was born in Guagua, Pampanga on October 13, 1867.
• He obtained a bachelor of arts degree at Colegio de San Juan de Letran and took up
law at the University of Santo Tomas. He stopped schooling when his father died.
• He helped in the printing and distribution of the newspaper La Solidaridad.
• He became acquainted with Andres Bonifacio, and was imprisoned for 9 months
duringthe 1896 revolution.
• He also affixed his signature as among the witnesses who signed the Declaration of
Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898.
• He became known as the Father of Tagalog Drama for his play Kahapon,
Ngayon, at Bukas.
• He also founded El Parnaso Filipino, a school that promotes Tagalog literature.
• Below is an excerpt from Aurelio Tolentino’s Dakilang Asal.
VII. Sa Mga Piging
Kung mapithaya ka sa alin mang piging,
Huag kang mapauna sa ibang panauhin;
Ngunit huag ka namang mahuling dumating:
Isipin mong ikaw ay doon hihintin.

Sa mesang pagkain kung tumatawag nga,


Hayaang mauna ang mga dakila;
At gayon din naman huag kang magkusang
Maunang tumikim sa alin mang handa.

Huag kang magmadali’t ang subo’y huag lakhan


Ang ulam ay huag mong amuyin o hipan;
Ang mga kubiertos ay paka-ingatan,
Upang huag kumatog na lubha sa pingan.

Huag mong titigan ang alin mang hain,


At gayon din naman kasalong panauhin
Paka-ingatan mo’t huag sasambitin Ang
bagay na baka nakaririmarim.

Ang iyong mga siko ay huag mong isampa


Magpakailan pa man sa kakanang mesa,
Kahit anong ulam ay huag humingi ka,
Huag naming pintasan ang kahit alin pa.
This excerpt of Dakilang Asal is about how we should behave if we are invited to a
partyor a small gathering. The first stanza tells us to always come on time. The second
stanza tells us to give way to guest of honors. The third stanza tells us not to play with
our food and to take care of the utensils. The fourth stanza tells us not to stare at food
and not talk about topics that seem inappropriate. In the fifth stanza, our elbows should
not rest on the table. It is also telling us not to provide negative comments toward the
food.

C. Severino Reyes
• He was born in Sta. Cruz, Manila on February 11, 1861.
• He is known as the Father of Sarswela.
• He had his secondary education at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and continued
his studies at the University of Santo Tomas.
• In 1902, Reyes wrote his first play entitled R.I.P. at the age of 41.
• Walang Sugat was also written in 1902, which was turned into movies in 1939 and
1957.
• Aside from the sarswela, Severino Reyes is also known for his collection of short
stories
Mga Kuwento Ni Lola Basyang.

Ang Binibining Tumalo sa Mahal na Hari


(Kuwento ni Lola Basyang, Muling Isinalaysay ni Christine Belen)

Tagapagsalita: Noon sa isang kaharian sa Tundo ay may isang dalagang maganda


atmatalino. Siya ay si Sharay, anak ng isang utusan ng hari. Maraming lalaking
nanliligaw sa kanya, at isa rito ang prinsipeng anak ni Datu Abdul. Bawal mag-asawa
ang prinsipe at ang anak ng utusan. Ngunit hindi mapigilan ng datu ang prinsipe.
Prinsipe: Si Sharay ay hindi lamang maganda. Matalino pa siya at may mabuting ugali.
Tagapagsalita: Nagplano ang datu. Bibigyan niya ng pagsubok si Sharay. Inutusan
niya si Lamukot, isang utusan na kaibigan ni Sharay.
Datu: Hindi ito dapat malaman ninuman.
Tagapagsalita: Malungkot na pumunta si Lamukot kay Sharay.
Lamukot : Nag-utos ang datu na lutuin mo ang pipit na ito ng labindalawang putahe.
Kung hindi mo sinunod, kamatayan ang parusa.
Sharay (magtanggal ng payneta): Pakisabi sa mahal na datu na gawin muna niyang
labindalawang pinggan at sandok ang aking payneta upang mapaglagyan ng
labindalawang putahe ng pipit.
Tagapagsalita : Sa kinabukasan, bumalik si Lamukot kay Sharay.
Lamukot: Nag-utos ang datu na ipagpalit mo ng ginto ang tupang ito, e ibalik sa kanya
ng buhay pagkatapos.
Tagapagsalita: Tinanggal ni Sharay ang balahibo ng tupa. Nagbenta siya ng balahito
kapalit ng ginto. Pagkatapos, pumunta siya sa datu upang isauli ang tupa at ibigay ang
ginto. Ngunit hindi pa tapos ang pagsubok.
This story is about Sharay who outsmarted the king. She is a daughter of a servant in
the castle who has many suitors. One of them is a prince, the son of Datu Abdul.
Because of her status in life, the Datu is not in favor of his son marrying a peasant. To
be worthy, the Datu decided to put Sharay to the test. In the end, Sharay was
triumphant and the Datu was finally convinced that she is the right woman for the
prince.

Post-Activity 1:

Directions: Write a brief story about your favorite book that you have read and share it
in class.(10pts)

Post-Activity 2:
Direction: With a small group consist of 4 persons. Think a simple story that you know
and create your own mini “Lola Basyang book” using your art materials.

RUBRIC
Content – 50 %
Organization – 20 %
Creativity – 30 %

Post Activity 3:
If you were be given a chance to be a writer, what would be the title of your work that
may depict the Filipino lives during the period of colonization?(10pts)

References:

Baritugo, Mercedita R., Reynaldo G. Caranguian, Angelita C. Punsalan, and Ernesto


Thaddeus M. Solmerano. 2007. Philippine Literature: An Introduction to Poetry, Fiction
and Drama. Manila: FEU Publications.

Lumbera, Bienvenido and Cynthia Nograles Lumbera. 2000. Philippine Literature: A


History and Anthology. Manila: Anvil Publishing.

FAMOUS FILIPINO WRITERS AND THEIRWORKS

Pre-Activity:1
Questions:

 Do you still read a Tagalog pocketbook?


 What is the title of the book that you have read previously?
 Who is your favorite Filipino author?

Pre-Activity:2
Directions:Give 5 characteristics about a writer.

WRITER
Lesson Proper:

Famous Filipino Writers Who Wrote in Tagalog and theirWorks

A. Juan Abad
• He was born in Sampaloc, Manila on February 8, 1872.
• He wrote his first play, Senos de Mala Fortuna, at the age of 16.
• He founded three newspapers as a sign of revolt against the Americans: Republicang
Tagalog, which he founded with Emilio S. Reyes; Laon-Laan, which caused
hisimprisonment for a month; and Dimas-Alang, which is dedicated to Filipino workers.
• He was imprisoned for 2 years and fined $2000 for his play Tanikalang Guinto. It was
a symbolic play encouraging Filipinos to rebel against the Americans.
Tanikalang Guinto
Characters:
K’Ulayaw—symbolizes revolution
Liwanag—symbolizes love for one’s country
Maimbot—symbolizes the Americans
Dalita—Inang Bayan Nagtapon—
symbolizes Filipino traitors

The play is about lovers K’Ulayaw and Liwanag who are planning to get married.
However, Maimbot does not agree with this union. So Maimbot, along with Nagtapon,
decided to convince Liwanag to cancel the wedding and gave her a chain of gold
(tanikalang guinto). In the end, K’Ulayaw was killed in the hands of Nagtapon. Liwanag
attempted to kill herself, too, but she was saved by Diwa.
B. Aurelio Tolentino
• He was born in Guagua, Pampanga on October 13, 1867.
• He obtained a bachelor of arts degree at Colegio de San Juan de Letran and took up
law at the University of Santo Tomas. He stopped schooling when his father died.
• He helped in the printing and distribution of the newspaper La Solidaridad.
• He became acquainted with Andres Bonifacio, and was imprisoned for 9 months
duringthe 1896 revolution.
• He also affixed his signature as among the witnesses who signed the Declaration of
Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898.
• He became known as the Father of Tagalog Drama for his play Kahapon,
Ngayon, at Bukas.
• He also founded El Parnaso Filipino, a school that promotes Tagalog literature.
• Below is an excerpt from Aurelio Tolentino’s Dakilang Asal.
VII. Sa Mga Piging
Kung mapithaya ka sa alin mang piging,
Huag kang mapauna sa ibang panauhin;
Ngunit huag ka namang mahuling dumating:
Isipin mong ikaw ay doon hihintin.
Sa mesang pagkain kung tumatawag nga,
Hayaang mauna ang mga dakila;
At gayon din naman huag kang magkusang
Maunang tumikim sa alin mang handa.

Huag kang magmadali’t ang subo’y huag lakhan


Ang ulam ay huag mong amuyin o hipan;
Ang mga kubiertos ay paka-ingatan,
Upang huag kumatog na lubha sa pingan.

Huag mong titigan ang alin mang hain,


At gayon din naman kasalong panauhin
Paka-ingatan mo’t huag sasambitin Ang
bagay na baka nakaririmarim.

Ang iyong mga siko ay huag mong isampa


Magpakailan pa man sa kakanang mesa,
Kahit anong ulam ay huag humingi ka,
Huag naming pintasan ang kahit alin pa.
This excerpt of Dakilang Asal is about how we should behave if we are invited to a
partyor a small gathering. The first stanza tells us to always come on time. The second
stanza tells us to give way to guest of honors. The third stanza tells us not to play with
our food and to take care of the utensils. The fourth stanza tells us not to stare at food
and not talk about topics that seem inappropriate. In the fifth stanza, our elbows should
not rest on the table. It is also telling us not to provide negative comments toward the
food.

C. Severino Reyes
• He was born in Sta. Cruz, Manila on February 11, 1861.
• He is known as the Father of Sarswela.
• He had his secondary education at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and continued
his studies at the University of Santo Tomas.
• In 1902, Reyes wrote his first play entitled R.I.P. at the age of 41.
• Walang Sugat was also written in 1902, which was turned into movies in 1939 and
1957.
• Aside from the sarswela, Severino Reyes is also known for his collection of short
stories
Mga Kuwento Ni Lola Basyang.

Ang Binibining Tumalo sa Mahal na Hari


(Kuwento ni Lola Basyang, Muling Isinalaysay ni Christine Belen)

Tagapagsalita: Noon sa isang kaharian sa Tundo ay may isang dalagang maganda


atmatalino. Siya ay si Sharay, anak ng isang utusan ng hari. Maraming lalaking
nanliligaw sa kanya, at isa rito ang prinsipeng anak ni Datu Abdul. Bawal mag-asawa
ang prinsipe at ang anak ng utusan. Ngunit hindi mapigilan ng datu ang prinsipe.
Prinsipe: Si Sharay ay hindi lamang maganda. Matalino pa siya at may mabuting ugali.
Tagapagsalita: Nagplano ang datu. Bibigyan niya ng pagsubok si Sharay. Inutusan
niya si Lamukot, isang utusan na kaibigan ni Sharay.
Datu: Hindi ito dapat malaman ninuman.
Tagapagsalita: Malungkot na pumunta si Lamukot kay Sharay.
Lamukot : Nag-utos ang datu na lutuin mo ang pipit na ito ng labindalawang putahe.
Kung hindi mo sinunod, kamatayan ang parusa.
Sharay (magtanggal ng payneta): Pakisabi sa mahal na datu na gawin muna niyang
labindalawang pinggan at sandok ang aking payneta upang mapaglagyan ng
labindalawang putahe ng pipit.
Tagapagsalita : Sa kinabukasan, bumalik si Lamukot kay Sharay.
Lamukot: Nag-utos ang datu na ipagpalit mo ng ginto ang tupang ito, e ibalik sa kanya
ng buhay pagkatapos.
Tagapagsalita: Tinanggal ni Sharay ang balahibo ng tupa. Nagbenta siya ng balahito
kapalit ng ginto. Pagkatapos, pumunta siya sa datu upang isauli ang tupa at ibigay ang
ginto. Ngunit hindi pa tapos ang pagsubok.
This story is about Sharay who outsmarted the king. She is a daughter of a servant in
the castle who has many suitors. One of them is a prince, the son of Datu Abdul.
Because of her status in life, the Datu is not in favor of his son marrying a peasant. To
be worthy, the Datu decided to put Sharay to the test. In the end, Sharay was
triumphant and the Datu was finally convinced that she is the right woman for the
prince.

Post-Activity 1:

Directions: Write a brief story about your favorite book that you have read and share it
in class.(10pts)

Post Activity 3:
If you were be given a chance to be a writer, what would be the title of your work that
may depict the Filipino lives during the period of colonization?(10pts)

References:

Baritugo, Mercedita R., Reynaldo G. Caranguian, Angelita C. Punsalan, and Ernesto


Thaddeus M. Solmerano. 2007. Philippine Literature: An Introduction to Poetry, Fiction
and Drama. Manila: FEU Publications.

Lumbera, Bienvenido and Cynthia Nograles Lumbera. 2000. Philippine Literature: A


History and Anthology. Manila: Anvil Publishing.
LESSON VII

PHILIPPINE LITERATURE DURING MARTIAL LAW AND


POST-EDSA REVOLUTION

Pre-Activity 1:

Questions:

 What significant event happened during Martial Law? Edsa Revolution?


 What are the movies or stories adapted from Martial Law and Edsa Revolution?

Lesson Proper:

I. Philippine Literature during Martial Law and Post-EDSA Revolution

A. Philippine Literature during Martial Law


• Former president Ferdinand Marcos issued Proclamation No. 1081 on September 21,
1972, placing the country under Martial Law. Prominent political figures and media
personalities who openly criticized the government were arrested, incarcerated, and
went missing. As a form of protest and expression to this grim period, different literary
works emerged, aiming to expose, narrate, or express anomalies, conspiracies, and
leftist views about “military abuses against citizens, economic plunder by bureaucrats
and cronies of the regime, and impoverishment of the masses” (Lumbera, p. 196).
• These literary works are classified into the following:

◦ Protest literature, sometimes called as revolutionary literature, refers to works that


express distaste, disagreement, or transgression to the present government, applicable
to the current political, social, and/or economic conditions of the country when the works
were written. A notable example was Lualhati Bautista’s Dekada ’70.
o Below is Jose “Pete” Lacaba’s poem entitled “Prometheus Unbound.” Lacaba
proved to be a staunch critic of the Marcosian dictatorship as he wrote this poem
in protest, also mentioning Hitler, a dictator as well. In the guise of the pen name
Ruben Cuevas, the poem “Prometheus Unbound” was published by Focus
Magazine in 1973. Take a look at the first letter of every line and you will get
MARCOS HITLER DIKTADOR TUTA.
Prometheus Unbound

I shall never exchange my Emancipation’s breath


fetters for slavish servility. Reeks of death, death, death.
‘Tis better to be chained to
the rock than be bound to
the service of Zeus. Death shall not unclench me.
—Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound I am earth, wind, and sea!
Kisses bestow on the brave
Mars shall glow tonight, That defy the damp of the grave
Artemis is out of sight. And strike the chill hand of
Rust in the twilight sky Death with the flaming sword of love.
Colors a bloodshot eye,
Or shall I say that dust Orion stirs. The vulture
Sunders the sleep of the just? Retreats from the hard, pure
Thrust of the spark that burns,
Hold fast to the gift of fire! Unbound, departs, returns
I am rage! I am wrath! I am ire! To pluck out of death’s fits
The vulture sits on my rock, A god who dared to resist.
Licks at the chains that mock

Proletarian literature refers to literary works written by working-class authors.


According to Salvador P. Lopez, it is “the interpretation of the experience of the working
class in a world that has been rendered doubly dynamic by its struggle.”
◦ Prison literature refers to literary works produced by an author who is incarcerated or
confined in a secluded area such as a prison cell. During Martial Law, the government
arrested not only political and media dissidents, but also
writers and scholars such as Bienvenido Lumbera, Ninotchka Rosca, Ricardo Lee, Jose
Ma. Sison, among others. Some examples of prison literature include Pintig Sa
Malamig na Bakal: Poems and Letters from Philippine Prisons (1979) and Mila Aguilar’s
Why Cage Pigeons? (1984).
◦ Circumvention literature refers to literary works that express social and political
transgression through metaphors, allegories, symbolisms, etc. Some examples of
circumvention literature include Jose “Pete” Lacaba’s Sister Stella L. (1984) and Bayan
Ko: Kapit sa Patalim (1985).

B. Post-EDSA Revolution
• In Lumbera’s Philippine Literature: A History & Anthology, he mentioned notable
events of the Philippine literary scene when Martial Law finally ended and a new
government was established. He also noted the two creative writing centers that seek to
hone and further a writer’s craft.
• These notable events were:
◦ Critics such as Virgilio Almario, Isagani Cruz, and Soledad Reyes embarked on
different approaches, post-structuralist and postcolonial, in reading Philippine
writing.
◦ Publishers who produced and embarked on nontraditional projects (anthologies,
novels, poems, etc.) emerged, such as Anvil Publishing, New Day Publishers,
and Solidaridad Publishing House.
◦ Gay and women writings, including male authors writing about women, and gay
and feminist discourses developed. Below is a poem entitled “The Way We Live”
(1992) by Danton Remoto. It was one of the early poems during the 1990s that
was written by an author from the gay community:
◦ Post-EDSA writings paved the way for the development of vernacular literature,
a source of regional literary histories.

Post-Activity 1:

1. Watch the movie Dekada ‘70.


2. Describe the characters and analyze the themes/motifs presented in the text.
3. Wriate a reaction paper, and discuss family dynamics and gender roles during the
Martial Law.

Post-Activity 2:

1. After watching the movie Dekada 70, choose a famous scene and portray it on class.
2. The teacher will divide the class into four.
3. Make a short explanation about the scene.
4. Each group will be given 5-10 minutes to present their work.

Post-Activity 3:

 How are the literary works emerged during Martial Law classified?

References:

Maranan, Edgardo, “Against the Dying of the Light: The Filipino Writer and Martial Law,”
Our Own Voice, accessed April 6, 2016, http://www.oovrag.com/essays/essay2007b-
1.shtml.

LESSON VIII
21ST CENTURY PHILIPPINE LITERATURE
Subtopic: Literary Workshops and Awards

Pre-Activity 1:
Questions:
Who among you knows Bob Ong?
What is the famous line from Bob Ong that you know?

Pre-Activity 2:
Are you fond of reading stories in wattpad app?
What is your favorite story that you have read?

Lesson Proper

21st Century Philippine Literature


• As Danton Remoto put in his article in The Philippine Star, “Philippine writing in the
21st century has taken a new turn.” From conservative plots, literary works nowadays
are gender sensitive, exploring the plurality of culture and challenging social
normativities.
• Technology plays an important role. From blogs, stories materialized and turned into
books; such is the case for Bob Ong, a pseudonym. Some of Bob Ong’s works include
ABNKKBSNPLAko?! (2001), Stainless Longganisa (2005), and Alamat ng Gubat
(2003).
• Stories uploaded via Wattpad not only dmaterialize into books but also adapted into
movies, such as Diary ng Panget, Talk Back and You’re Dead, She’s Dating the
Gangster, Your Place Or Mine?, among others.
• Women, lesbian and gay writings continue to flourish.
• More regional works are being recognized, including in workshops and awards.
• Artists write both in English and in Filipino.
• Writers also embark on translating their works into another language or dialect or
translating a foreign work into Filipino, such as Remoto’s translation of John Greene’s
The Fault in Our Stars.
• Graphic novels, including comics, are gaining quite a following. Some examples
include Carlo Vergara’s Ang Kagilagilalas na Pakikipagsapalaran ni Zsazsa Zaturnnah
(2004), Manix Abrera’s Kikomachine Komix, and Pol Medina Jr.’s Pugad Baboy.
• Oral poetry is revived through poetry readings or open mic readings, giving it a modern
twist.
• An unusual kind of poetry genre has emerged through textula, mastered by Frank
Rivera, where the entirety of the poem is written and read in mobile phones. An excerpt
below was published in The Philippine Star:
Literary Workshops and Awards

A. Literary Workshops
Literary workshops accept entries from aspiring writers who wish to hone their craft.
They are required to submit original unpublished works (one-act plays, poems, novels
or novels in progress, short stories, etc.), which will be evaluated and critiqued by
panelists.
• Iligan National Writers Workshop
◦ It was established in 1993.
◦ It is an annual workshop organized by the Mindanao State University-Iligan
Institute of Technology and the Mindanao Creative Writers Group. The workshop
accepts works in any of the following languages: Filipino, English, Chabacano,
Cebuano, Waray, Akyanon, Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a, Maranao, or Higaunon.
• Silliman University National Writers Workshop
◦ It was founded in 1962 by Edilberto K. Tiempo and Edith Tiempo.
◦ It is the oldest creative writing workshop in Asia.
• IYAS Creative Writing Workshop
◦ It was first introduced in 2001 as a supplementary workshop in Negros Summer
Workshops in Multimedia.
◦ It is an annual event managed by the University of St. La Salle in collaboration
with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and Bienvenido
N. Santos Creative Writing Center of De La Salle University Manila.
◦ It accepts entries from any of the following languages: English, Tagalog or
Filipino, Hiligaynon, Kiniray-a, and Cebuano.
• UP National Writers Workshop
◦ It is an annual event founded by Likhaan: The University of the Philippines
Institute of Creative Writing.
◦ It accepts entries written in English, Filipino, or other Philippine languages.
• UST Creative Writing Workshop
◦ It is an annual workshop of the University of Santo Tomas Center for Creative
Writing and Literary Studies.
◦ It accepts works written in English or Filipino and is limited to 12 fellows.

B. Literary Awards
A literary award is an award given to an author in recognition of his or her exceptional
work/s. The following are some literary awards in the Philippines:
• National Artist Award
- It was established in 1972.
- It is the highest distinction given to Filipinos for their remarkable contributions in
the field of arts and letters.
- The NCCA and Cultural Center of the Philippines accept nominations, screen
them, and then deliberate. They then submit a recommendation list to the
president. The award is conferred through a presidential proclamation.
• National Book Awards
- It was established in 1982.
- The National Book Development Board and Manila Critics Circle present the
National Book Awards to outstanding works published in the country.
• Gintong Aklat (or Golden Book) Awards
- It was established in 1981.
- The Book Development Association of the Philippines presents this biennial
award to books evaluated based on design and content.
- Its main categories include Arts and Culture, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences,
Literature, Religion, Children’s Book, Trade Books, and Textbooks.
• Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards
- It was established in 1950. - It aims to “become a treasury of the Philippine’s
literary gems from our gifted writers; and to assist in their eventual dissemination to our
people, particularly students.”
- It also aims to provide grants to writers.
- Below is a poem by Paolo Manalo, “Jolography,” from his Palanca Award-
winning book of poems of the same title. Manalo made use of the everyday stuff
that we see, hear, and say—all that mirrors daily life—and successfully
incorporated it to his poem through the use of playful or “punny” language.

O, how dead you child are, whose spoiled


Sportedness is being fashion showed
Beautifuling as we speak—in Cubao
There is that same look: Your Crossing Ibabaw,
Your Nepa Cute, Wednesdays
Baclaran, “Please pass. Kindly ride on.”
Tonight will be us tomorrowed—
Lovers of the Happy Meal and its H,
Who dream of the importedness of sex as long as it’s
Pirated and under a hundred, who can smell
A Pasig Raver in a dance club. O, the toilet
Won’t flush, but we are moved, doing the gerby
In a plastic bag; we want to feel the grooves
Of the records, we want to hear some scratch—
In a breakaway movement, we’re the shake
To the motive of pockets, to the max.
The change is all in the first jeep
Of the morning’s route. Rerouting
This city and its heart attacks; one minute faster
Than four o’clock, and the next
Wave that stands out in the outdoor crowd
hanging with a bunch of yo-yos—
A face with an inverted cap on, wearing all
Smiles the smell of foot stuck between the teeth.

Post-Activity 1

Instructions: The class will be divided into four groups. Each group is assign to
analyse and interpret the meaning of the lines from the poem “Jolography” by Paolo
Manalo.

Group 1: 1st to 3rd stanzas


Group 2: 4th to 6th stanzas
Group 3: 7th to 9th stanzas
Group 4: 10 to 12th stanzas

Post-Activity 2

Direction: Complete the two columns below by listing each important detail.

Gintong Aklat (or Golden Book) National Book Awards


Awards
Post Activity 3:

Questions:

What are the different characteristics of a 21st Century Literature?

References:

“23rd Iligan National Writers Workshop - Call for Manuscripts,” Mindanao State
University—Iligan Institute of Technology, accessed March 24, 2016,
https://www.msuiit.edu.ph/announcements/ detail.php?id=1027.
“55th Silliman University National Writers Workshop,” Silliman University, accessed on
March 24, 2016, http://su.edu.ph/nww/?uri=nww.

https:// www.academia.edu/3366293/The_World_the_Text_and_S._P._Lopez.

Bautista, Cirilo F., “In Focus: Impact of Creative Writing Workshops,” National
Commission for Culture and the Arts, accessed March 24, 2016,
http://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/ in-focus/impact-of-creative-writing-
workshops/.

“Brief History of the Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature,” Carlos Palanca
Memorial Awards for Literature, accessed March 24, 2016,
http://palancaawards.com.ph/newPalanca/ history.php.

Cruz, Isagani, “21st century literature,” The Philippine Star, last modified October 24,
2013, accessed April 10, 2016, http://www.philstar.com/education-and-
home/2013/10/24/1248724/21st -century-literature.

LESSON IX

PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ARTISTS IN LITERATURE AND THEIR WORKS

Pre-Activity 1:
Directions:Give descriptions about the following artists. (The Teacher will flash pictures
on board)

1. Lea Salonga
2. Efren ‘Bata’ Reyes
3. Manny Pacquiao

Lesson Proper:

Philippine National Artists in Literature and Their Works

I. Nick Joaquin

Nick Joaquin, whose real name is Nicomedes


Marquez Joaquin, was born on May 4, 1917, in Paco, Manila. He is one of
the greatest Filipino writers in English of all time. He
loved reading at a very young age because of the
poems and stories his mother, who is a teacher, read to
him. He read extensively with the books he found in the
family library and the country’s public libraries. Nick
started writing in the late 1930s; his first poem was
published in 1934, a piece about Don Quixote,
and his first short story, “The Sorrows of Vaudeville,”
was published in 1937 both in the Sunday Tribune
Magazine.

Some of Nick Joaquin’s notable works are the following:


• The Woman Who Had Two Navels (1961), novel
• A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino (1966), play
• Cave and Shadows (1983), novel
• “The Summer Solstice” (1972), short story
• “May Day Eve” (1947), short story
Aside from being awarded as a National Artist, Nick Joaquin also received numerous
awards and recognitions. Among these are the following:
• Ten Most Outstanding Young Men of the Philippines (Awardee for Literature) in
1955.
• Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative
Communication Arts in 1996
• Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature in 1957, 1958, 1965, and 1976
• S.E.A. (Southeast Asian Writers) Write Awards in 1980
Nick Joaquin received the honor of National Artist for Literature in 1976. He died
on April 29, 2004 at the age of 86.

II. Francisco Arcellana


Francisco Arcellana was born on September 6,
1916, in Sta. Cruz, Manila. He is one of the most important
forerunners of Philippine fiction in English. He was
one of the pioneer fiction writers who experimented
with the traditional form of the short story. His
short stories were often described as having the
same lyricism as that of poetry.
In the 1930s, Arcellana, together with 12 other
fiction writers, formed the group the Veronicans
who deviated from the traditional forms and
themes of fiction. Among the members of the
group were fellow National Artists Hernando
Ocampo and N.V.M. Gonzalez, and other prominent
figures in Philippine literature in English like
Estrella Alfon, the only female member in the
group, and Narciso Reyes. Because national publications
thought their stories were too controversial
and would not publish their works, the group started their own
magazine Expression, with Arcellana as the editor.
Arcellana’s narratives are lyrical and poetic with vivid images that
represent his thoughts on love and death. Two of his most anthologized
short stories are “The Mats” and “The Flowers of May.”
Among his notable works are the following:
• Selected Stories (1962)
• Poetry and Politics: The State of Original Writing in English in the Philippines
Today (1977)
• The Francisco Arcellana Sampler (1990)
He was the founder and first director of the UP Creative Writing Center, now called the
UP Institute of Creative Writing. He was proclaimed as National Artist for Literature in
1990.
Francisco Arcellana died on August 1, 2002, in Quezon City.

III. N.V.M. Gonzales

Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez, or more popularly known as N.V.M.,


was born on September 8, 1915, in Romblon. He is a
teacher, fictionist, journalist, and essayist.
Although he did not finish his undergraduate
degree, he received a Rockefeller Foundation
Fellowship to Stanford University in 1948. He started his
writing career at the age of 19.

Two of N.V.M. Gonzalez’s novels are A Season of


Grace (1956) and The Bamboo Dancers (1957). His
most famous and most anthologized short story is “The
Bread of Salt.” According to fellow National Artist
Bienvenido Lumbera, N.V.M. Gonzalez’s works “probe the problem of identity in the
experience of the Filipino middle class intellectual. His pull, however, is towards the
acceptance of an economic fact about Philippine life, not history.”

Aside from being awarded as a National Artist for Literature in 1997, N.V.M.
Gonzalez was also given numerous awards, which include the following:
• Philippines Centennial Award for Literature in 1998
• Gawad Para sa Sining from the Cultural Center of the Philippines in 1990
• Diwa ng Lahi Award from the City of Manila in 1996
• Gawad Pambansang Alagad ni Balagtas from the Unyon ng mga Manunulat sa
Pilipinas in 1989
• Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature in 1952, 1953, 1959, and 1971
N.V.M. Gonzalez died on November 28, 1999, in Quezon City.

IV. Edith Tiempo and Cirilo Bautista


Edith L. Tiempo and Cirilo Bautista are both celebrated writers in
English.

Edith L. Tiempo was born on April 22, 1919, in


Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. Her two most popular
and anthologized poems are “Bonsai” and “The
Little Marmoset.” She also wrote several published
novels which include the following:
• A Blade of Fern (1978)
• His Native Coast (1979)
• The Alien Corn (1992)
• One, Tilting Leaves (1995)
• The Builder (2003)

Edith Tiempo, together with her husband Edilberto, founded the Silliman University
National Writers Workshop in Dumaguete City in 1962. The annual workshop has
become one of the most prominent writers’ workshops of the country.

Edith Tiempo was conferred as National Artist in 1999 and died on August 21,
2011, in Dumaguete City.

Cirilo Bautista was born in 1941 to a poor family,


but this was not a hindrance for him to do what he
loved best: reading. He read what was available in
their neighborhood. This love for words and
reading helped him in his studies, and he
graduated magna cum laude from the University of
Santo Tomas when he obtained his degree in
Literature.
His works include the epic trilogy The Trilogy of Saint Lazarus, which took him
more than 30 years to complete. The last book in the trilogy, Sunlight on Broken
Stones, won the Centennial Prize for the epic in 1998 and the National Book Award
in 1999. Some of his major works also include the poetry collection Summer Suns
(1963), novel Galaw ng Asoge (2003), and a collection of literary essays Words and
Battlefields (1998).
He was also instrumental in the founding of several creative writing centers and
writing workshops in the country, including De La Salle University’s Bienvenido Santos
Creative Writing Center, Iligan Writers Workshop, and the Baguio Writers Group.
He received his National Artist for Literature award in 2014, and for Cirilo
Bautista, being named a National Artist is “the greatest achievement of [his] career” and
“the best award that you can win as a Filipino citizen.”
Even though he has retired from teaching in 2006, Cirilo Bautista is still
continuing his love affair with words and launched his new poetry collection, Things
Happen, in 2015.

V. Alejandro Roces and Carlos P. Romulo


Aside from being writers, National Artists for Literature Alejandro R. Roces and Carlos
P. Romulo are public servants who held important positions in the Philippine
government.

Alejandro Roces was born on July 13, 1924, in Manila. He earned


his degree in Fine Arts from the University of Arizona, and he
earned several doctoral degrees from Toyo University in
Japan, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, and Ateneo
de Manila University.

He served as the Secretary of Education from 1961 to


1965 during the term of President Diosdado
Macapagal. Roces was also among the people
who urged President Macapagal to change the Philippine Independence
Day from July 4 to June 12, and to change the language in Philippine
passports, stamps, and currency from English to Tagalog.
Alejandro Roces is best known for his short stories “We Filipinos
Are Mild Drinkers” and “My Brother’s Peculiar Chicken.” He is known
for using humor in showing the Filipino culture, our hopes, our dreams, and
spirit.
Aside from the humorous stories, Alejandro Roces also published a collection of
essays entitled Fiesta about the origins of Philippine folk festivals.
Alejandro Roces received his National Artist for Literature award in 2003.
He died on May 23, 2011.

Here is an excerpt from “My Brother’s Peculiar Chicken.”


My brother Kiko once had a very peculiar chicken. It was peculiar because no one could
tell whether it was a rooster or a hen. My brother claimed it was a rooster. I claimed it
was a hen. We almost got whipped because we argued too much.
The whole question began early one morning. Kiko and I were driving the
chickens from the cornfield. The corn had just been planted, and the chickens were
scratching the seeds out for food. Suddenly we heard the rapid flapping of wings. We
turned in the direction of the sound and saw two chickens fighting in the far end of the
field. We could not see the birds clearly as they were lunging at each other in a
whirlwind of feathers and dust.
“Look at that rooster fight!” my brother said, pointing exactly at one of the
chickens. “Why, if I had a rooster like that, I could get rich in the cockpits.”
“Let’s go and catch it,” I suggested.
“No, you stay here. I will go and catch it,” Kiko said.
My brother slowly approached the battling chickens. They were so busy fighting
that they did not notice him. When he got near them, he dived and caught one of them
by the leg. It struggled and squawked. Kiko finally held it by
both wings and it became still. I ran over where he was and took a good look at the
chicken.
“Why, it is a hen,” I said.
“What is the matter with you?” my brother asked. “Is the heat making you sick?”
“No. Look at its face. It has no comb or wattles.”
“No comb and wattles! Who cares about its comb or wattles? Didn’t you see it in
fight?”
“Sure, I saw it in fight. But I still say it is a hen.”
“Ahem! Did you ever see a hen with spurs on its legs like these? Or a hen with a
tail like this?”
“I don’t care about its spurs or tail. I tell you it is a hen. Why, look at it.”
The argument went on in the fields the whole morning. At noon we went to eat
lunch. We argued about it on the way home. When we arrived at our house Kiko tied the
chicken to a peg. The chicken flapped its wings and then crowed.

Carlos P. Romulo was an author, journalist, soldier, and diplomat. He was born on
January 14, 1898, in Intramuros, Manila, but he grew up in
Camiling, Tarlac. He was the aide-de-camp of General Douglas
MacArthur during World War II, and he was a colonel of the U.S.
Army. Because he was also a journalist, he wrote a series of
articles about Japanese imperialism just before the war. His
articles earned him a Pulitzer Prize in Journalism in 1942. He
is the first Filipino and the first Asian to win the Pulitzer Prize.

As an author, he wrote and published several books.


Some of his books are the following:
• I Saw the Fall of the Philippines (1942)
• Mother America (1943)
• My Brother Americans (1945)
• I See the Philippines Rise (1946)

Carlos P. Romulo was also a public servant, serving a total of eight presidents.
He was the first Asian to be elected president of the Fourth Session of the United
Nations General Assembly in 1949–1950.
He was awarded as a National Artist for Literature in 1982. He died on
December 15, 1985.

Below is an excerpt from Carlos P. Romulo’s “The White Man in the Orient.”
These are small differences. I cite them to show how small are the hurts that create
differences. Despite them the American changed our opinion of the white race. He was
our friend. In turn, our attitude toward him has changed the opinion of the entire Orient.

The rest of the Orient came to understand how matters stood between us in the
Philippines. They realized that the American was one white man “whose face was not
money.” Where other men exploited, he spent too freely. In fact, he was disliked and
condemned for his free spending by other white men, for it raised living standards
wherever he might be.
A white man who did not live for money was a paradox to the Oriental. The
Oriental in his own fashion said of the American, “He is a queer fellow!”
The American talked to natives wherever he traveled and did not expect them to
kowtow. This, too, made him queer—different from other white men.
The Orientals of other countries knew that Filipino leaders who were for
independence were not shot or imprisoned by the Americans. Instead, they were
honored. They knew, when war broke out between Japan and China, that American
sympathies were with China. They knew, when Stimson wished to show a firm hand in
Manchukuo, that other white men, not Americans, refused to uphold this American
protest against the criminal invasion by the Japanese.
The American was for the underdog.
The Oriental from elsewhere in the Orient who visited us in the Philippines found
us dining and dancing with the Americans in clubs and hotels and homes, and returned
to his home in the Far East filled with wonder. This, to him, was the final realization of
democracy. For while the Occidental may judge the progress of colonization by tall
buildings and economic advantages, the Oriental sees it in the simple term—how well
do the white race and the brown regard each other?

VI. F. Sionil Jose


Francisco Sionil Jose, more widely known as
F. Sionil Jose, is one of the most-read
contemporary writers in the Philippines. He
was born on December 3, 1924, in
Rosales, Pangasinan. He attended the
University of Santo Tomas where he studied
Journalism.
F. Sionil Jose is most known for his Rosales Saga. The Rosales Saga consists
of five novels that talk about the story of two families from Rosales, Pangasinan. The
story spanned through several generations from the Spanish period until the declaration
of Martial Law in the 1970s. The two families are the Samson family (who are poor
farmers) and the Asperri family (who are rich mestizos).

The novels talk about our history, politics, and social struggles. The novels, arranged
chronologically, are:
• Po-on (1984)
• Tree (1978)
• My Brother, My Executioner (1973)
• The Pretenders (1962)
• Mass (1978)
Although they are part of one connected universe, the five novels can be read
individually. What binds the novels together is their overall theme that deals with social
class oppression. The Rosales Saga deals with contemporary oppression despite the
“absence” of colonial rule in the country.
He also wrote many other novels and short stories such as “Waywaya” and
“Arbol de Fuego.” One of his most anthologized short stories is “The God Stealer,”
which is about the friendship of an Ifugao named Philip Latak and an American named
Sam Christie who wanted to buy a genuine bulol, or a sculpture of an Ifugao god, as a
souvenir. F. Sionil Jose’s short stories and novels often explore the effects of
colonization on society.
He was awarded the National Artist for Literature award in 2001. He also
received numerous national and international awards, including the Ramon Magsaysay
Award for Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communications in 1980, the CCP
Centennial Honors for the Arts in 1999, and the Pablo Neruda Centennial Award in
2004.
F. Sionil Jose is now ninety-one years old and lives in Manila with his family. He
also owns a bookshop in Manila called Solidaridad.

Here is an excerpt from F. Sionil Jose’s My Brother, My Executioner (1979).


Luis smiled wryly, “How I wish that I could really do something—but what, Eddie? As my
father said, it is not the truth that gives us strength. I’m not even half the man that I
should be. I am a God-forsaken bastard. Go to my hometown and ask anyone you meet
in the street. He will tell you how my mother was a maid in my father’s house. I had to
live that lie in this city and I tried to belong. Everything is a sham and I wish I’d never
been born.”
Eddie stood up and embraced him, but Luis pushed him brusquely away. “I don’t
need your sympathy,” Luis said.
“It is not sympathy,” Eddie said. “It is gratitude—for trusting me.”
“I don’t have to be a hypocrite anymore. I can now live the way I like. If I must, I
will tell the story all over again. Let us say that I am a mourner and that no one can
comfort me except the truth and the damnation that goes with it.”

VII. Virgilio S. Almario


Virgilio S. Almario, also known as Rio Alma, was born on March 9, 1944, in San
Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan. He is a poet, translator, editor, critic, teacher, and
cultural propagator. He obtained a degree in AB Political Science from the University of
the Philippines in 1963. He taught social studies right after graduation in his alma mater,
San Miguel High School, in Bulacan.

Almario met poets Rogelio Mangahas and Lamberto Antonio


at the University of the East, and they
eventually started the new modernist
movement in Filipino poetry.
His first poetry collection, Makinasyon, was published in
1968, and he also wrote what is considered the first
book of literary criticism in Filipino, Ang Makata sa
Panahon ng Makina, in 1972. His other works
include Peregrinasyon and Doktrinang
Anakpawis.
He also translated many literary works in Filipino including the play of
fellow National Artist Nick Joaquin, Fathers and Sons (Mga Ama, Mga Anak)
with Jose Lacaba, and Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo.
Rio Alma was conferred as National Artist for Literature in 2003. He also
received numerous awards including:
• Makata ng Taon of the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino
• Carlos Palanca Memorial Award for Literature
• Ten Outstanding Young Men for Literature
• S.E.A. Write Award
Almario is currently the chairman of the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino.
One of the poems in his first collection, Makinasyon is “Ngayong Gabi.” It is the
shortest among the poems in the collection.

Li Po, ang buwan


Ay sanghiwang papaya.
Diwa’y naglaway.

The poem, although very short, is rich with imagery. It combines and alludes to three
traditions of poetry in Asia: classical Chinese poet Li Po and his moon
poems, the Japanese haiku, and the Filipino bugtong.

VII. Bienvenido Lumbera and Rolando Tinio


The two National Artists discussed in this chapter have
significant contributions in both theater and poetry.

Bienvenido L. Lumbera was born on April 11, 1932,


in Lipa, Batangas. He attended the University of Santo Tomas and
studied Literature, and graduated in 1950. He also
received a Fulbright Scholarship and earned his PhD in Comparative Literature from the
University of Indiana in 1968.
He writes poetry, and he published several poetry collections including Likhang
Dila, Likhang Diwa (1993) and Poetika/Pulitika (2008). He has also done a number of
librettos (the texts used for the musical theater) such as Nasa Puso ang Amerika, a
musical adaptation of Carlos Bulosan’s America is in the Heart; Bayani; Noli Me
Tangere: The Musical; Hibik at Himagsik Nina Victoria Laktaw; and Tales of the
Manuvu. He also wrote several textbooks and anthologies on Philippine literature and
helped in the restoration of the stories and poems written in various vernacular
languages in the Philippines.

Bienvenido Lumbera received the National Artist for Literature Award in 2006.
He also received various awards including the Ramon Magsaysay Award for
Journalism, Literature, and Creative Communications in 1993, the Gawad
Pambansang Alagad ni Balagtas from the Unyon ng Manunulat ng Pilipinas in 1993,
and the Centennial Honors for the Arts from the Cultural Center of the Philippines in
1998.

Rolando Tinio is not just a National Artist for Literature, as he is also named as
National Artist for Theater because of his contributions in both fields. He was born on
March 5, 1937, in Gagalangin, Tondo, Manila. He attended the University
of Santo Tomas and graduated magna cum laude with a
degree in Philosophy at eighteen years old in 1955.

His poetry collection, Kristal na Uniberso, won the


National Book Award in 1990. One of his well-known
plays is May Katwiran ang Katwiran wherein he used the
techniques and elements of Brechtian Theater, or the epic
theater. In Brechtian theater, the characters are often
presented as stereotypes or archetypes. Rolando Tinio used
this technique in the landlord and the kasama. The play
talks about the two types of classes in Philippine society:
the pampered rich and the poor lower class. It shows
the injustice that the poor people are suffering from
because of the selfishness of the rich.

Rolando Tinio is also known for translating Western classic plays


into Filipino. He translated works of Arthur Miller (Death of a Salesman, Pahimakas sa
Isang Ahente, 1966), Tennessee Williams (The Glass Menagerie, Laruang Kristal
1966), and Samuel Beckett (Waiting for Godot, Paghihintay kay Godot, 1967), among
others.
Rolando S. Tinio was proclaimed as National Artist for Theater and Literature in
1997. He is the third to be named as a National Artist in two fields. He died on July 7,
1997.
Let’s read Tinio’s “Sa Poetry.”

Sa Poetry
by Rolando Tinio
Sa poetry, you let things take shape,
Para bang nagpapatulo ng isperma sa tubig,
You start siyempre with memories,
Yung medyo malagkit, kahit mais
Na mais: love lost, dead dreams,

Rotten silences, and all


Manner of mourning basta’t murder.
Papatak yan sa papel, ano. Parang pait,
Kakagat ang typewriter keys.
You sit up like the mother of anxieties.
Worried na worried hanggang magsalakip
Ang odds and ends ng inamag mong pag-ibig.
Jigsaw puzzle. Kung minsan, everything fits.
Kung malas ka, magkakalintik-lintik.
Pero sige ang pasada ng images
Hanggang makuha perfectly ang trick.

At parang amateur magician kang bilib


Sa sleight-of-hand na pinapraktis:

Nagsilid ng hangin sa buslo, dumukot,


By golly, see what you’ve got--
Bouquet of African daisies,
Kabit-kabit na kerchief,
Kung swerte pa, a couple of pigeons,
Huhulagpos, beblend sa katernong horizon,
You can’t say na kung saan hahapon.

Post-Activity 1: (Pair Activity)


Instructions:
 Choose a literary work of any of the National Artists discussed in this lesson.
 Create a comic strip about the literary work you have chosen.
 Think of a catchy title for your output.

RUBRIC
Content 50%
Organization 25%
Creativity 25%

Post-Activity 2:
Directions: Identify the following artists that being described in each item.

1. He is known for using humor in showing the Filipino culture, our hopes, our
dreams, and spirit.
2. Known for translating Western classic plays into Filipino.
3. His first poem was published in 1934, a piece about Don Quixote, and his first
short story, “The Sorrows of Vaudeville,” was published in 1937 both in the
Sunday Tribune Magazine.
4. Known for his Rosales Saga.
5. His most famous and most anthologized short story is “The Bread of Salt.”

References:

“Biography of Edith L. Tiempo,” on Silliman University’s official website, accessed


February 13, 2016, http://su.edu.ph/page/113-biography-of-edith-l.

Chua, Jonathan. “In His Own Words: An Interview with Francisco Arcellana on Jose
Garcia Villa.” Kritika Kultura (online), 0.2 (2002): 107–123, accessed February 13,
2016, http://journals.ateneo. edu/ojs/kk/article/view/1597/1622

Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s.v. “Nick Joaquin,” accessed February 12, 2016,
http://www. britannica.com/biography/Nick-Joaquin.

“The Order of National Artists | GOVPH,” Official Gazette of the Republic of the
Philippines, accessed February 13, 2016, http://www.gov.ph/the-order-of-national-
artists/.

Module II
UNDERSTANDING MAJOR
LITERARY GENRES

Learning Objectives:

 Distinguish one literary genre from another.


 Identify the elements of each literary genre.
 Analyze the different elements in various literary texts.
 Differentiate genre fiction, emerging literary genres, electronic literature, and graphic
literature from one another.
 Identify the different kinds of genre fiction, emerging literary genres, and electronic
literature.

LESSON I

POETRY and PROSE

Subtopic:
 Types of Poetry and Prose
 Elements of Poetry and Prose

Pre-Activity 1:

What is Poetry? What is Prose?


Lesson Proper:

I. Poetry
The term poetry is derived from the Latin word poema, which means “to create.” It is a
literary genre that uses the sound, meaning, and rhythm of language to express feelings
and ideas. A poem typically has mood (sad, happy, angry, etc.), follows a verse form,
and uses literary devices (allegory, metonymy, metaphor, irony, etc.). It allows the
reader to use his or her imagination to interpret and analyze a text.

There are three types of poetry:


• Narrative Poetry
These are poems that tell a story. Examples of these are epics and ballads.

• Lyric Poetry
These are poems that are supposedly sung with a musical accompaniment.
They express the poet’s or the persona’s (the person speaking in the poem)
feelings and emotions. Examples of lyric poetry are sonnets, psalms, elegies,
songs, and odes.
• Dramatic Poetry
These are poems that are usually performed onstage, and they can be sung or
spoken. The classic plays Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and
Oedipus the King by Sophocles are some examples of dramatic poetry.

The three general elements of poetry are the following:


• Imagery
Imagery is the use of language that evokes any of the senses—visual,
auditory, gustatory, tactile, and olfactory. It may also employ the use of
metaphor, personification, simile, and other figures of speech.

When, in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes,


I all alone beweep my outcast state
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries
And look upon myself and curse my fate,
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
Featured like him, like him with friends possess’d,
Desiring this man’s art and that man’s scope,
With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,
Haply I think on thee, and then my state,
Like to the lark at break of day arising
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven’s gate;
For thy sweet love remember’d such wealth brings
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.

“Sonnet 29” by William Shakespeare

• Sound Pattern
Sound patterns include rhyme, rhythm, and other literary devices that pertain
to sounds, such as onomatopoeia (using words that imitate the sound of what
they refer to), alliteration (repetition of initial sounds), and assonance
(repetition of vowel sounds within neighboring words).

>Rhyme is the repetition of similar or identical sounds at the end of poetic


lines. The rhyme scheme is the pattern of the rhyme placed at the end of each
line or stanza in a poem.

Example:

Whose woods these are I think I know. a


His house is in the village though; a
He will not see me stopping here b
To watch his woods fill up with snow. a

My little horse must think it queer b


To stop without a farmhouse near b
Between the woods and frozen lake c
The darkest evening of the year. b

He gives his harness bells a shake c


To ask if there is some mistake. c
The only other sound’s the sweep d
Of easy wind and downy flake. c

The woods are lovely, dark and deep. d


But I have promises to keep, d
And miles to go before I sleep, d
And miles to go before I sleep. d
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost

Aside from rhymes, the poem’s musicality is also achieved through its rhythm.
• Theme
The theme is the central idea of a poem. It is usually stated as a philosophical
truth in life.

Prose is simply any writing that does not have a metrical structure and rhythmical
pattern like that of poetry. It is composed of sentences and paragraphs instead of lines
and stanzas.
Prose is divided into two: fiction and nonfiction. For this chapter, we will be
discussing only fiction.
The term fiction comes from the Latin word fictio, which means “to invent or make
up.” A fiction is a story that is made up or invented by an author. This means that the
events in the story are not real; they are products of the author’s imagination. Examples
of fiction are novels and short stories.

There are five basic elements of fiction. They are as follows:


1. Plot
This is the framework or structure of a story that consists of causally related
events. By “causally,” it means that all events and actions that happen in the story are
linked together.
The basic and common plot structure of a story follows a linear format:
beginning, middle, and end. However, some stories follow a nonlinear format. It means
that some stories start in the middle or in the end.

Plot structure

The exposition introduces the story’s settings and characters. It also hints at a coming
conflict. The exposition includes an inciting incident or an event that signals the
beginning of a conflict. This incident, leading to a conflict or a problem that the main
character faces, sets the story in motion.

The rising action is where the tension builds because of the conflict. The conflict, or a
series of conflicts, leads to the climax.

The climax is the turning point in the story.

Denouement is the sudden drop of the tension toward the final stretch of the story
toward the resolution of the conflict. At this stage, all loose ends are tied up.
The plot is initiated by the conflict or the problem in the story. There are four general
types of conflict:

Types of Conflict

• Man vs. self—Also known as internal conflict; the main character struggles with
himself or herself. This type of conflict deals with the main character’s response to the
struggles he or she is faced with.
• Man vs. man—The main character encounters a problem with another character in
the story.
• Man vs. nature—The main character faces the forces of nature, such as a natural
disaster, any naturally occurring event (e.g., freezing temperature, drought), or actual
objects in nature (e.g., mountain, river).

2. Character
Characters perform the action in a story. They can be human or nonhuman. They are
critical to the development of conflict and its resolution.

There are different types of characters classified according to the following:


• Protagonist—This is the main character in the story.
• Antagonist—This is the character who struggles against the protagonist. The
antagonist can be a person or persons, things, conventions of society, nature, fate, or
just about anything or anyone that causes the protagonist to struggle.
• Flat or static—This is a noncomplex character who does not change in the course of
the story.
• Round or dynamic—This is complex character who is changed by the conflict that he
or she encounters.

3. Setting
Setting refers to the place, time, and the general environment in which the story takes
place.

4. Point of view
Point of view is the perspective from which the story is presented.

There are four basic types of points of view.


• First person
In the first-person point of view, the narrator is usually the protagonist. It uses the
pronoun “I” to refer to the narrator. This POV allows the readers to have access to the
character’s inner thoughts and feelings, thus involving the readers in the story’s action.
• Objective or dramatic
In the objective or dramatic point of view, the observer narrator is limited to narrating
what the characters say and do, and does not tell the readers what the character is
thinking or feeling.
• Second person
In the second-person point of view, the narrator uses the pronoun “you” to narrate the
story. The narrator or author directly addresses the readers.
• Third person
In the third-person point of view, the reader gets to be an observer. The narrator does
not refer to himself/herself or acknowledges the reader. It does not use the pronouns “I”
and “you” in narrating the story. Instead, the narrator uses “he/she,” “their/theirs,” etc.

5. Theme
The theme is the general claim or universal truth that may be explicitly or implicitly
stated in a story.

Direction:Answer the following questions:

1. What is poetry and prose? (5 pts)


2. Give and define the three types of poetry. (10 pts)
3. Give at least 1 general elements of prose and discuss it. (5 pts)

References:

Abad, Gémino H. 1998. The Likhaan Anthology of Philippine Literature in English from
1900 to the Present. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Dalisay, Jose Y. 2006. The Knowing Is in the Writing: Notes on the Practice of Fiction.
Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Enriquez, Delia C. 2012. Philippine Literature: A Regional Approach, 3rd ed. Manila:
National Book Store.

Jose, F. Sionil. 2000. “The God Stealer.” In The Best Philippine Short Stories of the
Twentieth Century: An Anthology of Fiction in English. Edited by Isagani R. Cruz.
Manila: Tahanan Books.

New York Writers Workshop. 2006. The Portable MFA in Creative Writing: Improve
Your Craft with the Core Essentials Taught to MFA Students. Cincinnati, OH: Writer’s
Digest Books.

Oliver, Mary. 1994. A Poetry Handbook. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company.
LESSON II

Topic: CREATIVE NONFICTION

Subtopic:
 Formal Essay
 Informal Essay

Pre-Activity 1:
Hi I’m Dora and I love to explore different
places. I am always with boots. How
about you? Would you like to tell
something about yourself?

Lesson Proper

Creative Nonfiction
The other type of prose is nonfiction. Unlike fiction, nonfiction narratives talk about
factual events and factual information. Some examples of nonfiction narratives are
autobiographies, biographies, and personal essays.
Works of creative nonfiction are usually essays. Essays are generally any piece
of nonfiction writing written from the writer’s point of view or opinion. It came from the
French verb essayer, which means “to try” or “to attempt.”
The earliest known essay is said to be the Japanese Zuihitsu. They were
popular writings during the Heian period (794−1185) to the Edo period (1603−1868).
Zuihitsu were personal writings that explore current issues. Some of the notable
Zuihitsu are The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon (1000), Tsurezuregusa by Yoshida
Kenkō (1330), and Hōjōki by Kamo no Chōmei (1212).
The essay in the West became popular only in the 1550s. The two writers who
were attributed with the “invention” of the form are Michel de Montaigne and Francis
Bacon.

• Michael de Montaigne
— He published Essai, a collection of 107 essays, in 1580.
— He was said to have essentially invented the literary form of the essay.
• Francis Bacon
— He published the collection of essays, Essayes: Religious Meditations.
Places of Perswasion and Disswasion. Seene and Allowed, in 1597.
— Bacon’s essays cover a wide range of styles and topics drawn from public
and private life.
— In 1625, Bacon expanded Essays from the original ten to fifty-eight essays.
Since then, writers used the essay in various ways, and the form flourished.

There are two general types of essays:


• Formal essay
This is a serious discussion in which a writer talks about a subject. It follows the strict
structure of introduction—discussion—conclusion. The tone of the writing is often
objective.
• Informal essay
This is a lighter approach that talks about a specific issue. Its purpose is usually to
engage the reader in a casual discussion of the subject. The tone may be light or
serious, and is personal most of the time. The language may be informal, sometimes
conversational, and the writer’s personality is often reflected in the essay.
Characteristics Informal Formal
Subject/Content Reflects about everyday Varied forms of knowledge
life
Tone Personal and subjective; Objective;
Conversational and casual sometimes academic
Structure Appears to be more Follows a structure of
loosely structured than introduction—discussion—
formal essays conclusion
Idea May be implied or stated Stated explicitly in the first
anywhere in the essay or second paragraph
Vocabulary Everyday language that Highly technical language;
may include slang and generally avoids slang and
colloquialisms colloquialisms
Purpose Entertainment or reflection Imparts information or
sometimes provokes
action and thought
Post-Activity 1

Directions: Write your own Autobiography in a short bond paper.

Directions: Write your own Autobiography in a short bond paper.

References:

Abad, Gémino H. 1998. The Likhaan Anthology of Philippine Literature in English from
1900 to the Present. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
LESSON III

Topic: DRAMA

Subtopic:
 Types of Drama

Pre-Activity

What is Drama?

Lesson Proper

Dramas are stories in verse or prose forms that are meant to be performed onstage in
front of a live audience. They usually tell a serious story that involves conflicts and
strong emotions. Authors who write dramas are called dramatists or playwrights.

Types of Drama
• Tragedy
The central character in a tragedy has a tragic flaw, making this character a tragic hero.
It means that he or she possesses a characteristic that can lead to his or her downfall.

• Comedy
Comedic plays aim to make the audience laugh. Comedic stories are lighthearted. They
often take place in unusual circumstances, and it is typical for characters in these plays
to utter witty remarks.
• Musical drama
The characters in musical drama dance and sing. Various themes are presented, from
serious to comedic.
• Farce
Farce is a nonsensical kind of drama that employs slapstick humor. It is mainly comedic
and is characterized by absurd conditions or situations and ardent actions.
• Melodrama
A melodrama is characterized by the characters’ exaggerated emotions in various
situations.

Dialogue refers to the characters' speech and is considered the lifeblood of drama. The
members of the audience get to understand the story, not only by the characters’
actions but also by their speech. Dialogue may take the following forms:
• Dialogue—These are the conversations of two or more characters onstage.
• Monologue—This is a long speech given by one character onstage .
• Soliloquy—This is the speech of a character who is alone onstage. It would seem as
if the character is talking to himself or herself or to the audience during a soliloquy.
• Aside—This is a remark that a character makes that is meant only for the audience to
hear. The other characters onstage do not hear asides.
Since it is meant to be performed, there are additional elements in drama that
deal with bringing the story to life. These are the following:
• sets
• lighting
• costumes
• props

When you read a play, always remember that it is meant to be performed and will have
stage directions.

Post Activity 2:

 Enumerate and define the types of drama.


 Dialouge vs. Monologue vs. Soliloquy

Post Activity 3
Watch the movie Romeo and Juliet and make a reaction paper about it.

References:
Abad, Gémino H. 1998. The Likhaan Anthology of Philippine Literature in English from
1900 to the Present. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Dalisay, Jose Y. 2006. The Knowing Is in the Writing: Notes on the Practice of Fiction.
Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Enriquez, Delia C. 2012. Philippine Literature: A Regional Approach, 3rd ed. Manila:
National Book Store.

Jose, F. Sionil. 2000. “The God Stealer.” In The Best Philippine Short Stories of the
Twentieth Century: An Anthology of Fiction in English. Edited by Isagani R. Cruz.
Manila: Tahanan Books.

LESSON IV

VARIOUS KINDS OF LITERARY GENRES

Subtopic:
 Genre Fiction
 New and Emerging Literary Genres
 Electronic Literature
 Graphic Literature

Pre-Activity 1 (Comparison)

What is the difference of Wattpad and Pocketbook?


Lesson Proper

I. Genre Fiction
Genre fiction, or popular fiction, refers to plot-driven works that allow the readers to
escape from reality. It does not mainly focus on thematic exploration and in-depth
characterization.
The following are the kinds of genre fiction:
• Science fiction, or simply sci-fi, explores society and human knowledge often
involving imaginary technological innovations or scientific advancements of the
future. Some examples of science fiction include George Lucas’s Star Wars
series, Ray Bradbury’s The Martian Chronicles, and Isaac Asimov’s I, Robot.
• Fantasy fiction deals with magic and/or other supernatural elements. The story
takes place in an entirely different world (Middle Earth, Westeros, Hogwarts).
Some examples of fantasy fiction include J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series,
J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings trilogy, and C.S. Lewis’s The Chronicles
of Narnia.
• Horror fiction intends to create a feeling of fear and terror. Some examples of
horror fiction include Stephen King’s The Shining and Pet Sematary, Bram
Stoker’s Dracula, and William Peter Blatty’s The Exorcist.
• Historical fiction, or period fiction, refers to bodies of work that are set in the
past. They are sometimes based on historical events such as war, catastrophe,
etc. Some examples of historical fiction include Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of a
Geisha, Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, and Markus Zusak’s The Book
Thief.
• Chick literature, or more popularly known as chick lit, deals with issues in
women’s lives; thus, it appeals mostly to women. Some examples of chick lit
include Sophie Kinsella’s Confessions of a Shopaholic, Lauren Weisberger’s The
Devil Wears Prada, and Helen Fielding’s Bridget Jones’s Diary.
• Romantic fiction focuses on the relationship between two individuals.
However, it is not limited to the love story of the characters. Its subplots are
essential to the story as a whole. Some examples of romance fiction include
John Green’s The Fault in Our Stars and Nicholas Sparks’s A Walk to
Remember.
• Mystery fiction and crime fiction are different genre fictions although they are
sometimes used interchangeably. Crime fiction involves a crime story where
there is a perpetrator or a killer and a victim, whereas mystery fiction appeals
to the mind and deals with solving a puzzle such as a mysterious death, a
missing person, etc. Some examples of mystery and crime fictions include
Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes and Agatha Christie’s Murder on the
Orient.
• Thriller fiction, or suspense fiction, is action-paced and creates feelings of
suspense, excitement, and apprehension on the readers or the audience.
Some examples of thriller fiction include Thomas Harris’s Silence of the
Lambs, Gillian Flynn’s Gone Girl, and S.J. Watson’s Before I Go to Sleep.
• Young adult fiction, or YA, focuses on characters, experiences, and issues or
conflicts that appeal to teenagers or young adults. Some examples of young
adult fiction include Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower, John
Green’s The Fault in Our Stars, Suzanne Collins’s The Hunger Games series,
Veronica Roth’s Divergent series, and Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight saga.

II. New and Emerging Literary Genres


New and emerging literary genres are works written by authors that deviate from
traditional writing methods. Often, these works are related to other genres.
The following are the different kinds of new and emerging literary genres:
• Flash fiction, also known as short short, microfiction, postcard fiction, and
sudden fiction, is usually composed of not more than 1,000 words. Despite its
brevity, it is a complete story— it has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Some
examples of flash fiction include Lydia Davis’s “Spring Spleen” from The
Collected Stories of Lydia Davis, Ernest Hemingway’s “For Sale: baby shoes,
never worn,” and Edith Pearlman’s “Golden Years” from Hint Fiction.
• Fan fiction or “fan fic” is literally fiction written by a fan of an original work,
usually found on the Internet. A fan fic could have a narrative that exists either
in the canonical universe of the subject or outside of it. Usually, fans write
stories based on best-selling novels, with some writing alternative endings or
situating it in a parallel universe. Most prominent examples are fan fiction
written about the Harry Potter series or Twilight.
• Metafiction is a “fiction about a fiction.” In this type of fiction, the author, the
narrator, or the main character directly speaks to the reader. The reader also
plays a part in the story. Some examples of metafiction include Jostein Gaarder’s
Sophie’s World and Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose.
• Slipstream, also considered as “the fiction of strangeness,” is a nonrealistic
fiction that crosses science fiction and fantasy or mainstream literary fiction.
However, not all slipstream stories do. Slipstream stories often employ elements
of the surreal and antireality. Some examples of slipstream fiction include Kelly
Links’s Stranger Things Happen, Neil Gaiman’s Neverwhere, and Haruki
Murakami’s The Wind-up Bird Chronicle.

III. Electronic Literature


Electronic literature, or simply e-lit, as defined by the Electronic Literature Organization,
are literary works that maximize the features and explore the contexts of personal and
network computers. Most works are not for printing formats as they are designed to be
fully experienced digitally, such as graphics, animations, games or quests, and sounds.
However, electronic literature is different from e-books as e-books are a digital version
of a paperback.
The following are the kinds of electronic literature:
• Digital fiction
 Hypertext fiction is nonlinear and reader centered. The readers are provided
with different links of the story, thereby deciding on what order to read the pages
of the story and choosing how a story will pan out. In some hypertext works, the
readers can even add their own version of the story, which allows for different
plots. One of the earliest examples of this is Douglas Cooper’s Delirium, which
allowed the reader to navigate four parallel stories.
 Interactive fiction is an adventure story in a software-simulated environment,
usually a video game (role-playing game or RPG), where the reader or the player
controls how the story will develop. It has multiple story lines and endings may
vary. An example of this is 80 Days, an adventure game based on Jules Verne’s
Around the World in Eighty Days.
• Digital poetry
 Hypertext poetry is characterized by links wherein a word, a phrase, or a line is
linked to another page, which describes or elaborates on the idea conveyed in
the poem. Some hypertext poems link sounds, visual images, and other poems to
help in the readers’ interpretation. An example of this is the hypertext version of
T.S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” which enables a reader to
experience the poem in another way by providing links to photos, web sites, and
content that can be associated with the images in the text.
 Interactive poetry allows readers to contribute to the content or form of a
poem. Readers can collaborate or work together to create a poem or interact with
it. One prominent example is JABBER: The Jabberwocky Engine, a site that
allows a visitor to create neologisms or an invented word or phrase.
 Code poetryis written in a programming language format (C++, Java, HTML)
that is not, in reality, executable. For example, Kenny Brown’s “Creation?”
mimics the start of our solar system by using rule sets and variables found in
coding.
 V i s u a l
concrete poetryuses visual presentation to enhance the meaning of the poem.
Simply put, the layout, or how the words/lines/verses are placed or shown, is as
important as the content. Some examples of visual or concrete poetry include
Lewis Carroll’s “The Mouse’s Tale,” George Herbert’s “Easter Wings,” and Eugen
Gomringer’s “Silence.”
 Kinetic poetryuses kinesthesia, a literary device that describes the action or
movement of a person or an object. In modern times, writers use technology for a
more visual expression of their works. They employ the use of kinetic typography
or moving text for an elaborate expression of an emotion or thought. Kinetic
poetry is often produced in videos. A current example of this type is by an
Australian group called 313RGB, where one stands in front of the screen and
“moves” words with the use of one’s hands.

IV. Graphic Literature

Graphic literature, also called sequential storytelling, is literature in the form of comics.
Commonly referred to as the “graphic novel,” the term has come to encompass not just
works of fiction, but also autobiographical narratives, nonfiction, and even poetry. Usually
credited as being first coined by Will Eisner in A Contract with God and Other Tenement
Stories (1978), the term graphic novel is distinguished from “comic book” simply because it
is presented in book format. Although the definitions of the terms graphic literature and
graphic novel are points of contention, most critics have used the term to refer to novel-
length works or compilations of previously serialized narratives. Here are some of the most
popular graphic novels as mentioned in comic studies:

 Frank Miller’s The Dark Knight Returns (1986) is a four-issue comic book compiled
into a single volume. It tells the story of Batman, specifically a 55-year-old Bruce
Wayne who comes out of retirement to fight crime once again. The narrative
introduces a female Robin in the form of Carrie Kelley. It also uses as central
conflict Batman’s confrontation with Superman.
 Alan Moore’s Watchmen (1986–1987) is a DC comic book series that focused on
superhero stereotypes and America’s anxieties over the Cold War and the Vietnam
War. It mostly deconstructed the idea of a superhero, and presented superheroes
who were already past their prime. It has become part of the graphic literature
canon and is included in Time Magazine’s List of the 100 Best Novels.
 Art Spiegelman’s Maus (1980–1986) is a graphic novel about the Holocaust. It
features Spiegelman’s father as he recounts his experience as a Polish Jew. In this
graphic novel, Jews are portrayed by mice, whereas Germans and Poles were cats
and pigs. Praised for its postmodern techniques and its effective mix of genres such
as memoir, history, fiction, and comics, Maus won the Pulitzer Prize in 1992.
 Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman (1989–1996) is an American comic book series that
follows the lives of and those touched by the seven Endless—the main character
Dream, also known as Morpheus; Destiny; Death; Despair; Delirium (who used to
be Delight); Desire; and Destruction. Gaiman personifies the metaphysical concepts
through the use of anthropomorphism and mixes mythology and history in the
narrative. The series also references popular works such as William Shakespeare’s
The Tempest and Aeschylus’ Oresteia. One of the most critically acclaimed graphic
novels of all time, The Sandman has entered the New York Times Best Seller list
and continues to be Vertigo’s most popular series.
 Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis takes a look at Satrapi’s childhood up until her young
adult years in Iran during the Islamic revolution. Her narratives are drawn from
actual experience, such as the one given in the example. Here, we could see the
young Marji (based on Marjane) struggle with her nation’s culture (represented by
the women who were “guardians of the revolution”) and that of the Western
influence (her Malcolm X pin). By depicting her story in graphic novel form, she is
able to provide the reader with actual visual representation of what it means to be a
young Iranian.

Let’s take a look at this excerpt from the autobiographical graphic novel Persepolis by
Marjane Satrapi.
Post-Activity 1:

What are the differences and similarities of Electronic Literature and Graphic
Literature? (10pts)

Electronic Literature Graphic Literature

Post-Activity 2:

Give 3 examples of each of the following:

1. Genre Fiction
2. New and Emerging Literary Genres
3. Electronic Literature
4. Graphic Literature

References:

Abad, Gémino H. 1998. The Likhaan Anthology of Philippine Literature in English from
1900 to the Present. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Dalisay, Jose Y. 2006. The Knowing Is in the Writing: Notes on the Practice of Fiction.
Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

MODULE iiI
LITERARY text IN DIFFERENT
REGIONS

Learning Objectives:
• Identify some of the major literary works from different regions.

• Describe the major literary works from a particular region.


• Appreciate a literary work by analyzing an epic.

LESSON I

LITERARY TEXTS FROM LUZON

Pre-Activity 1:

Name some literary stories/texts from Luzon and share something about these
stories/texts.
Lesson Proper

I. Literary Texts from Luzon


• Luzon is the largest island group in the Philippines. It is divided into eight regions:
Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley Region, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR),
National Capital Region (NCR), Bicol Region, Central Luzon, MIMAROPA (Mindoro,
Marinduque, Romblon, and Palawan), and CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas,
Rizal, and Quezon).
• The major regional languages in Luzon are Bikolano, Ilokano, Kapampangan,
Pangasinense, and Tagalog.
• Some ethnic groups that can be found in Luzon are Aetas, Igorots, Ibalois, Mangyans,
Apayaos, Kalingas, and Itnegs.
• Below are some of the major literary works from Luzon:
 Ibalon or Ibalong (Bicol Region)—This is an epic about three heroes—Baltog,
Handiong, and Bantong—who all defeated their adversaries.
 Hudhud (Cagayan Valley Region)—This is an epic chanted by the Ifugaos
during harvest. It is about a folk hero named Aliguyon and his 3-year battle with
Pumbakhayon.
 “The Legend of Maria Makiling” (CALABARZON)—This is a story about a
mountain in Laguna named Makiling that was guarded by a fairy named Maria.
The townsfolk fondly called her Mariang Makiling.
 Biag ni Lam-ang (Ilocos Region)—This is an epic about Lam-ang, a man with
extraordinary strength who sets out to find his missing father Don Juan.

Biag ni Lam-ang excerpt (Luzon)

Lam-ang told his wife Kannoyan, “And I have a premonition that a monster fish,
berkakan, will catch and eat me up. And for a sign that I have been eaten up, our
staircase will dance, our kasuuran will topple down, and our stove will break to pieces.”
Lam-ang prepared himself for the task the next day. He sought the place where rarang
were abundant. When he saw one creeping at the bottom, he dived but could not find it.
He dived for the second time and fell exactly into the mouth of a big berkakan.

Analysis:
Despite Lam-ang’s premonition, he proceeded to fulfill the task of fishing for rarang,
which led to his demise. From Lam-ang’s actions, we can infer that aside from knowing
the turn of events, he probably knew that he can still be brought back to life with the
help of his pet dog and rooster, which was why he did not hesitate to proceed with
accomplishing the task.

Post-Activity 1:

Instructions:
1. Form a group with three or four members.
2. Analyze the epic Biag ni Lam-ang.
3. With your group, discuss the answers to the following:
a. Describe Lam-ang and his abilities.
b. What Filipino traits are shown in the story?
c. Describe the plot.
d. Identify and describe the conflict(s) in the story.
e. What is the theme(s)?
4. Present it on class

Post Activity 2:

What are the common characteristics of literary texts from Luzon? (5pts)

References:

Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, s.v. “Luzon,” accessed April 7, 2016,


http://www.britannica.com/ place/Luzon.

Macasantos, Francis C. and Priscilla S. Macasantos, “Philippine Literature in the Post-war


and Contemporary Period,” National Commission for Culture and the Arts, accessed
March 11, 2016, http://ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-
sca/literary-arts/ philippine-literature-in-the-post-war-and-contemporary-period/.

LESSON II

LITERARY TEXTS FROM VISAYAS

Pre-Activity 1:

1. Describe the culture of the Visayan people.


2. What are the beliefs of the Visayan?
3. Describe their personalities.

Lesson Proper
Literary Texts from Visayas
• Visayas is the smallest island group in the Philippines. It is divided into three regions:
Western Visayas, Central Visayas, and Eastern Visayas.
• The major regional languages in Visayas are Cebuano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Kinaray-
a, and Waray.
• The seven main islands in Visayas are Bohol, Cebu, Panay, Samar, Negros, Leyte,
and Masbate.
• Below are some of the major literary works from Visayas:
 Hinilawod (Western Visayas)—This is an epic that tells about the adventures
of three demigod brothers, namely, Dumalapdap, Labaw Donggon, and
Humadapnon. This 28,000- verse epic is one of the longest epics in the world.
 “Sicalac and Sicavay” (Central Visayas)—This is a creation myth about how
man (Sicalac) and woman (Sicavay) came into existence through a bamboo
shoot.
 “Tungkung Langit and Alunsina” (Western Visayas)—This is a creation myth
about the gods Tungkung Langit and Alunsina.

Tungkung Langit and Alunsina (Visayas)

Once upon a time when the earth was but a shapeless, formless void appeared the god
called Tungkung Langit (“ Pillar of Heaven”) and the virgin goddess of the eastern skies,
Alunsina (“ The Unmarried One”). 

The old Visayan folklore states that Tungkung Langit fell in love with Alunsina. After he
had courted her for many years, they married and made their home in the highest part
of heaven. There the water was always warm and the breeze was forever cool, not a
bad weather was in sight, and the couple was happy. In this place in the heavens, order
and regularity began.
Tungkung Langit was a loving, hard-working god. He wanted to impose order over the
confused world. He decided to arrange the world so that the heavenly bodies would
move regularly. On the other hand, Alunsina was a lazy, jealous, selfish goddess. She
sat at the window of their home all day doing nothing but brush her long beautiful hair.
Sometimes she would leave her home, sit down by a pool near the door, and comb her
long, jet-black hair all day long. One day Tungkung Langit told his wife that he would be
away for some time. He said he must make time go on smoothly and arrange everything
in the world and did not return for a long time. Alunsina thought he was off to see a
lover, so she summoned the breeze to spy on Tungkung Langit. Tungkung Langit
caught the spying breeze and he became very angry with Alunsina. After he returned
home, he told her that it was ungodly of her to be jealous since there were no other
gods in the world except the two of them. 

Alunsina resented this reproach, and they quarreled all day. In his anger, Tungkung
Langit drove his wife away. And with that, Alunsina suddenly disappeared, without a
word or a trace to where she went. A few days passed, Tungkung Langit felt very lonely
and longed for his wife. He realized that he should not have lost his temper. But it was
too late, Alunsina is gone.  Their home which was once vibrant with Alunsina's sweet
voice, his home became cold and desolate. In the morning when he woke up, he would
find himself alone. In the afternoon when he came home, he would feel loneliness
creeping deep
within him.

For months Tungkung Langit lived in utter desolation. Try as he did he could not find
Alunsina. And so in his desperation, he decided to do something to forget his sorrow
and win back his wife’s favor. So he came down to earth and planted trees and flowers
that she may notice it, but she still didn’t come home. Then in desperation, he took his
wife's jewels and scattered them in the sky. He hoped that when Alunsina should see
them she might be induced to return home. 
Alunsina's necklace became the stars, her comb the moon, and her crown the sun. But
in spite of all his efforts, Alunsina did not return home. Until now, as the story goes,
Tungkung Langit lives alone in his palace in the skies and sometimes, he would cry out
for Alunsina and his tears would fall down upon the earth as rain and his loud voice,
calling out for his wife, was believed to be the thunder during storms, begging for her to
come back to their heavenly palace once more.

Analysis:
Although this was a creation myth, the story presented above was applicable to present-
day situation on how gender roles were stereotyped—the woman as emotional/ jealous,
and the man as emotionally distant and responsible (doing the hard labor).

Post-Activity 1:

Read Tunungkung Langit and Alunsina

Questions:

1. Who are the characters in the story? Describe them in two words.
2. Why did Tungkung get angry with his wife?
3. Do you think Alunsina’s action towards her husband is fair and just? Support your
answer.
4. If you were Tungkung Langit would you have done the same? Explain your
answer.

References:
Macasantos, Francis C. and Priscilla S. Macasantos, “Philippine Literature in the Post-
war and Contemporary Period,” National Commission for Culture and the Arts,
accessed March 11, 2016, http://ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-
arts-sca/literary-arts/ philippine-literature-in-the-post-war-and-contemporary-period/.

LESSON III

LITERARY TEXTS FROM MINDANAO

Pre-Activity 1:

1. Describe the culture of the people in Mindanao.


2. What are the beliefs that originate from Mindanao?
3. Describe their personalities.

Lesson Proper

Literary Texts from Mindanao


• Mindanao is the second largest island group in the Philippines. It is divided into six
regions: Davao Region, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Soccsksargen
(South Cotabato, Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani and General Santos), ARMM
(Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao), and Caraga Region.
• The major regional languages in Mindanao are Chavacano, Maguindanao, Maranao,
and Tausug.
• The region is generally inhabited by Muslims. Although they are no longer a majority,
the Islamic culture is still evident.
• Large groups of ethnic minorities can be found in Mindanao, such as Maranao,
Magindanao, Ilanun, and Sangil. These groups are also referred to as Moro. Meanwhile,
the following groups are found in the uplands: the Bagobo, Bukidnon, Manadaya,
Manobo, and Subanon.
• Below are the major literary works from Mindanao:
o Bantugan—This is a Maranao epic that tells about the brave Prince Bantugan of
Bumbaran whom no one dares to challenge. King Madali is jealous of his brother
Bantugan and commands his people not to talk to Bantugan. This prompts
Bantugan to leave their kingdom.
o Ag Tobig nog Keboklagan or The Kingdom of Keboklagan—This is a Subanen epic that is
chanted or performed during their week-long buklog festival. It tells the life and
adventures of an extraordinary hero named Taake.
o Ulahingan—This is a Manobo epic about Agyu and his family who fled due to a conflict
with their rulers. A fairy guides them and promises to grant them immortality after they
surpass various challenges.
o Indarapatra at Sulayman—This is an epic about four creatures that came to wreak havoc
in Mindanao. King Indarapatra sends his brother Prince Sulayman to save the land from
the creatures.
o Tuwaang Attends a Wedding—This is a Bagobo epic about a hero named Tuwaang who
attends the wedding of the Maiden Monawon.

Tuwaang Attends a Wedding by E. Arsenio Manuel

Tuwaang received a message of invitation from the wind saying that he


should attend the long waited wedding of the Dalaga ng Monawon.His aunt
warned him not to go but he insisted. Tuwaang just shrugged his shoulder and
prepared to attend the grand wedding. He wore the clothes the goddesses made
for him. He got the heart-shaped basket that could make the lightning move. He
took along with him his sharp spear and shield and the long knife.
He rode in the lightning and he soon reached the beautiful boundless plain
of Kawkawangan. There, he found a Gungutan, a bright colored bird that could
talk. The bird wanted to go with him to the grand wedding so he took it along with
him. When they reached the town of Monawon, they were politely let into the hall
where the wedding would take place.The guests started coming one by one.
First to come was the young Binata ng Panayangan, then the charming
Binata ng Sumisikat na Araw. Last to come was the groom, the Binata ng
Sakadna who was with his one hundred well trained men. As soon as he arrived,
the groom ordered all his men to drive away the guests who should not be there
or those uninvited guests. Insulted, Tuwaang told the groom that they, the guests
were all pulang dahon, which meant heroes.
In short time, the ceremony started with the guests being offered several
precious things that they should top with what they had. Two were left for the
groom but the Binata ng Sakadna admitted that he didn’t have a gold flute and a
gold guitar to top what were left. Tuwaang came to the quick rescue. With his
mysterious breath, he produced a gold flute, guitar and gong.
The beautiful bride came out of her room and started offering a bowl
containing nganga to every guest. Then she sat beside Tuwaang that put the
groom in a very embarrassing situation. The groom felt insulted and degraded.
He went out the hall and challenged Tuwaang to a fight.Tuwaang accepted the
challenge but the bride held him and combed his hair dearly. Tuwaang stared at
the bride and saw her feelings for him.
‘Be careful out there. The bride warned him. He does not know how to fight
fairly.’ Tuwaang held the bride and kissed her. ‘For you my lady, I will be careful’
said he who went outside the hall to start the fight.Tuwaang and the Gungutan
fought the Binata and Sakadna and his hundred men. They fought with each other
and after a short time, Tuwaang and the Gungutan defeated 94 men. They easily
defeated the six remaining men and after a while, only Tuwaang and the Binata ng
Sikadna were left.
The groom threw a big boulder on Tuwaang but it became dust even before
it hit Tuwaang. An earthquake happened because of the bloody fight. All the trees
were uprooted. The groom took Tuwaang ang threw him at the ground until
Tuwaang reached Hades. In Hades Tuwaang saw Tuhawa, the god of Hades.
Tuhawa told him that the groom’s life is in the golden flute. Tuwaang rose from
the ground then he got hold of the golden flute and broke it.
After that, he kissed and hugged the bride. And because of his triumph, the
Dalaga of Monawon accepted Tuwaang’s invitation for their own wedding. They
went to Kuaman and lived happily ever after.

Post-Activity 1:
Direction:Read the story entitled, Tuwaang Attends a Weddingby E. Arsenio
Manuelandarrange the following events in order of the occurrence. (1-10)

___ The ceremony started with the guests being offered several precious things
that they should top with what they had.
___ They easily defeated the six remaining men and after a while, only Tuwaang
and the Binata ng Sikadna were left.
___ He found a Gungutan, a bright colored bird that could talk.
___ Tuwaang received a message of invitation from the wind saying that he
should attend the long waited wedding of the Dalaga ng Monawon
___ Tuwaang rose from the ground then he got hold of the golden flute and broke
it.
___ The beautiful bride came out of her room and started offering a bowl
containing nganga to every guest.
___ He rode in the lightning and he soon reached the beautiful boundless plain of
Kawkawangan.
___ Tuwaang and the Gungutan fought the Binata and Sakadna and his hundred
men.
___ The groom took Tuwaang ang threw him at the ground until Tuwaang reached
Hades.
___ First to come was the young Binata ng Panayangan, then the charming
Binata ng Sumisikat na Araw.

Post Activity 2:

Describe the following characters:

1. Tuwaang
2. Binata ng Sakadna
3. Dalaga ng Monawon

Reference:

Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, s.v. “Mindanao,” accessed April 7, 2016,


http://www.britannica. com/place/Mindanao.
MODULE IV

literature from
the world
Learning Objectives:





nineteenth century to post–World War II.

Identify the different literary periods of the Western tradition.


Identify the literary forms of Japanese Literature
Examine the texts in terms of literary traditions.

?
Identify some of the notable American authors and their literary works from the

Identify the literary movements or periods in American literature: American renaissance,


romanticism, realism, modernism, and postmodernism.

Identify representative texts andExplain the texts in terms of their literary

LESSON I
AMERICAN LITERATURE

Pre-Activity 1:

What are the influences of the Americans to the Filipinos?

Lesson Proper:

I. Colonial and Revolutionary Periods


A. Colonial Period
• The first writers of American literature were Englishmen.
• The beginning of American literature was credited to John Smith, captain of
Jamestown Colony. His works include A True Relation of Virginia (1608) and The
Generall Historie ofVirginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624). These texts
were focused on exploiting the colonies to Englishmen.
• Puritanism was a religious movement within the Church of England. Its main purpose
was to eradicate the doctrines of the Roman Catholic church. The Puritans attempted to
establish a theocratic government in America. (Theocracy refers to a government ruled
by religious leaders or by officials who are seen as guided by the divine.)
• Discourse about the separation of the state and the church arose. Nathaniel Ward, a
Puritan minister, wrote The Simple Cobbler of Aggawam in America (1647), in which he
defended the current state of affairs and complained about colonists who subsidized
modern philosophies. Several counterarguments emerged, such as John Winthrop’s
journal (1630–1649), in which the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s attempt to establish a
theocratic movement was exposed.
• Basically, American literature during the colonial period was composed of biographies,
narrations about expeditions, and sermons, among others.
• During the colonial period, American writings were patterned on that of the British—
AnneBradstreet’s poetic style and William Bradford’s “cadences of the King James
Bible” (Britannica).
• Some notable works during this period include Anne Bradstreet’s The Tenth Muse
Lately Sprung Up in America (1650), William Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation (1646),
andMichael Wigglesworth’s The Day of Doom (1662).

B. Revolutionary Period
• During the American Revolution (1775–1783), poetry became a weapon of protest.
• Philip Freneau was a notable poet during this period. Some of his works include “The
Wild Honey Suckle” and “The Indian Burying Ground.”
• It was during this time that the first novel was produced—William Hill Brown’s The
Power of Sympathy (1789). Gothic narratives also existed, with the prominent being
CharlesBrockden Brown’s Edgar Huntly (1799) and Wieland (1798).
• Below is Freneau’s poem “The Wild Honey Suckle”:

“The Wild Honey Suckle”

Fair flower, that dost so comely grow,


Hid in this silent, dull retreat,
Untouched thy honied blossoms blow,
Unseen thy little branches greet:
No roving foot shall crush thee here,
No busy hand provoke a tear.

By Nature’s self in white arrayed, She


bade thee shun the vulgar eye, And
planted here the guardian shade, And
sent soft waters murmuring by;
Thus quietly thy summer goes,
Thy days declining to repose.

Smit with those charms, that must decay, I


grieve to see your future doom;
They died—nor were those flowers more gay,
The flowers that did in Eden bloom;
Unpitying frosts and Autumn’s power
Shall leave no vestige of this flower.

From morning suns and evening dews


At first thy little being came;
If nothing once, you nothing lose,
For when you die you are the same;
The space between is but an hour,
The frail duration of flower.

II. American Renaissance

Romanticism
• The end of the American Revolution marked the beginning of the romanticist
movement.
• Romanticism was a period when the United States was trying to rebuild its identity as
a nation apart from the British rule.
• Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that spanned from the
late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century. It was chiefly characterized by
the following:
◦ intense emotion (emotion over reason);
◦ self-expression;
◦ individual uniqueness;
◦ acclamation of a primitive or a commoner (commoner as a hero);
◦ deepened appreciation of nature (nature as a source of knowledge and
spirituality);
◦ heightened imagination; and
◦ escapism (seeking distraction from everyday reality).
• Writers produced works that are native in nature. Some of these writers include
William Cullen Bryant (Thanatopsis), James Fenimore Cooper (The Last of the
Mohicans), Washington Irving (The Legend of Sleepy Hollow), and Edgar Allan Poe
(The Raven).

Brahmins
• Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and James Russell Lowell—
collectively called as the Brahmins—dominated the literary scene.
• The name “Brahmins” was coined based on the highest caste (Brahmin or Brahman)
in Hindu society. It refers to the abovementioned Europe-educated aristocrats who then
became professors at Harvard University.
• The Brahmins became the “arbiters of literary taste” and were responsible for
transforming Boston into the literary capital of America.
• They were interested in producing refined American literature based on foreign
models. Although their works supported democratic concepts, they maintained
conservative philosophies.
• Some of their notable works include Holmes’s “Breakfast Table” series (1888–1891),
and Lowell’s The Biglow Papers (1848–1867) and “Harvard Commemoration Ode”
(1865)

Transcendentalism
• The American renaissance gave birth to transcendentalism, a movement led by Ralph
Waldo Emerson. In 1835, Emerson moved to Concord, Massachusetts, where his
friendship with Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David
Thoreau began.
• Transcendentalism emerged from Unitarianism, an ideal that emphasized the “unity” of
God, contrary to the “trinity.” Unitarianism believed in the “essential unity of all creation,
the innate goodness of man, and the supremacy of insight over logic and experience for
the revelation of the deepest truths” (Augustyn, p. 231).
• Transcendentalists rejected the tenets of Unitarianism. Instead, they pushed for
reformative movements that focused on “anarchistic, socialistic, and communistic
schemes for living” (Britannica).
• The Dial (1840–1844) was a transcendentalist literary magazine, first edited by
MargaretFuller, which published the works of the early transcendentalists.
• Some notable literary works of transcendentalism are Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Nature
(1836), “Self-Reliance” (1841), “Divinity School Address” (1838), “The Over-Soul”
(1841), and “The American Scholar” (1837); Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth
Century (1845); and Henry David Thoreau’s Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854), A
Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849), and “Civil Disobedience” (1849).

American Abolitionist Movement


• The American abolitionist movement was an effort to emancipate African slaves. Slave
narratives were prevalent during this period.
• William Lloyd Garrison founded the American Anti-Slavery Society (1833–1970). He
also founded The Liberator in 1831, wherein he expressed and published his perception
about the immediate release of the African slaves, “without colonization of the freed or
compensation for their masters” (Gray, p. 70).
• Some of the important persons who joined the movement were Theodore Dwight
Weld, Theodore Parker, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, Lydia Maria
Child, Frederick Douglass, and William Wells Brown.
• Some of the notable works include Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
(1852), Frederick Douglass’s Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American
Slave (1894), and John Greenleaf Whittier’s “First-Day Thoughts” (1857) and Snow-
Bound (1866).
• Other remarkable authors who have emerged during the American renaissance were
Nathaniel Hawthorne (The Scarlet Letter [1850] and The House of the Seven Gables
[1851]), Herman Melville (Moby-Dick [1851]), and Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass
[1819–1892]).

• Below is Whitman’s poem “When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer”:

When I heard the learn’d astronomer,


When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me,
When I was shown the charts and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure
them,
When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured with much
applause in thelecture-room,
How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick,
Till rising and gliding out I wander’d off by myself,
In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,
Look’d up in perfect silence at the stars.
III. Realism
• Realism is an attempt to depict people and events as they are in real life. It is
characterized by an attempt to replicate real life, the use of vernacular language, the
importance of setting or place, and the presentation of American domestic life, among
others.
• As a response to the American industrialization, regional writers emerged, infusing
“localcolor” into their works. Regionalism, or local color, is a style of writing that focuses
on the characteristics of a specific locale and its inhabitants.
• One of the most noteworthy writers during this period was Mark Twain. His greatest
work, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), a sequel to The Adventures of Tom
Sawyer(1876), was about “the historical injustice of slavery and the social inequity of
racism, the human use or denial of human beings” (Gray, p. 117).
• Some notable works during this period include Henry James’s The American (1877);
Kate Chopin’s The Awakening (1899); Mark Twain’s Life on the Mississippi (1883); and
William Dean Howells’s Their Wedding Journey (1872), Annie Kilburn (1888), and A
Hazard ofNew Fortunes (1890).

Naturalism
• Naturalism is a dark and scientific form of realism. Naturalist writers exposed the
darker side of life to improve human conditions.
• Works that illustrate naturalism are usually characterized by the following:
◦ pessimism;
◦ determinism;
◦ objectivity (the tone of the narrator is objective, detaching from the story); and
◦ “survival of the fittest.”

IV. Modern and Postmodern Periods

A. Modern Period
• Modernist literature is characterized by the characters’ stream of consciousness (or
interior monologue) and reminiscence, and it also incorporates fragments of thought.
Often, it lacks dialogues, as the reader is taken into the depths of each character’s
thoughts and self-reflections.
• Additionally, it presents the complexity of a character’s mind, constantly shifting from
outward reality to his or her consciousness through reminiscence.
• Some notable works during this period are F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby
(1925), William Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily” (1930), Ezra Pound’s “The Garden”
(published in Lustra in 1916), and T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land (1922).
• Below is an excerpt from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald:

Excerpt from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

He sat down miserably, as if I had pushed him, and simultaneously there was the sound
of a motor turning into my lane. We both jumped up, and, a little harrowed myself, I went
out into the yard.
Under the dripping bare lilac-trees a large open car was coming up the drive. It
stopped.Daisy’s face, tipped sideways, beneath a three-cornered lavender hat, looked
at me with a bright ecstatic smile.
‘Is this absolutely where you live, my dearest one?’
The exhilarating ripple of her voice was a wild tonic in the rain. I had to follow the
sound ofit for a moment, up and down, with my ear alone, before any words came
through. A damp streak of hair lay like a dash of blue paint across her cheek, and her
hand was wet with glistening drops as I took it to help her from the car.
‘Are you in love with me,’ she said low in my ear, ‘or why did I have to come
alone?’
‘That’s the secret of Castle Rackrent. Tell your chauffeur to go far away and
spend anhour.’
‘Come back in an hour, Ferdie.’ Then in a grave murmur: ‘His name is
Ferdie.’ ‘Does the gasoline affect his nose?’
‘I don’t think so,’ she said innocently. ‘Why?’
We went in. To my overwhelming surprise the living-room was deserted.
‘Well, that’s funny,’ I exclaimed.
‘What’s funny?’
She turned her head as there was a light dignified knocking at the front door. I
went outand opened it. Gatsby, pale as death, with his hands plunged like weights in his
coat pockets, was standing in a puddle of water glaring tragically into my eyes.
With his hands still in his coat pockets he stalked by me into the hall, turned
sharply as if hewere on a wire, and disappeared into the living-room. It wasn’t a bit
funny. Aware of the loud beating of my own heart I pulled the door to against the
increasing rain.
For half a minute there wasn’t a sound. Then from the living-room I heard a sort
ofchoking murmur and part of a laugh, followed by Daisy’s voice on a clear artificial
note:
‘I certainly am awfully glad to see you again.’
A pause; it endured horribly. I had nothing to do in the hall, so I went into the
room.
Gatsby, his hands still in his pockets, was reclining against the mantelpiece in a
strainedcounterfeit of perfect ease, even of boredom. His head leaned back so far that it
rested against the face of a defunct mantelpiece clock, and from this position his
distraught eyes stared down at Daisy, who was sitting, frightened but graceful, on the
edge of a stiff chair.
‘We’ve met before,’ muttered Gatsby. His eyes glanced momentarily at me, and
his lipsparted with an abortive attempt at a laugh. Luckily the clock took this moment to
tilt dangerously at the pressure of his head, whereupon he turned and caught it with
trembling fingers and set it back in place. Then he sat down, rigidly, his elbow on the
arm of the sofa and his chin in his hand.
‘I’m sorry about the clock,’ he said.
My own face had now assumed a deep tropical burn. I couldn’t muster up a
singlecommonplace out of the thousand in my head.
‘It’s an old clock,’ I told them idiotically.
I think we had all believed for a moment that it had smashed in pieces on the
floor.
‘We haven’t met for many years,’ said Daisy, her voice as matter-of-fact as it
could ever be.
‘Five years next November.’
The automatic quality of Gatsby’s answer set us all back at least another minute.
I hadthem both on their feet with the desperate suggestion that they help me make tea
in the kitchen when the demoniac Finn brought it in on a tray.

B. Postmodern Period
• Postmodernist literature is characterized by pastiche, intertextuality, antinarrative,
hyperrealism, and metafiction, among others.
• Some postmodernist writers tend to “borrow” concepts or ideologies from the works of
other writers to add more profound meanings in their texts. When you read those texts,
considering that you are also familiar with the works the postmodernist writers have
utilized, they convey various meanings, usually different from the source texts. Simply
put, intertextuality (coined by Julia Kristeva in the 1960s) refers to the relationship
between texts, how they are similar or different, and how one influences the other to
produce different meanings or interpretations.
• A form of intertextuality is pastiche, in which a text is obviously drawn from or
influenced by different source texts. An example of this is David Mitchell’s Cloud Atlas
(2004) wherein he uses six fictional genres in one novel, including cyberpunk,
period,sci-fi, and mystery.
• Jean Baudrillard, a French author and philosopher, was the proponent of the concepts
“hyperreality” and “simulacrum,” which have influenced postmodernist literary works and
criticisms. In some postmodernist texts, authors employ hyperreality, which dissolves
the demarcation between the real and the imaginary. The concept of hyperreality
suggests that in the attempt to create reproductions of events, experiences, objects,
etc., these copies become the preferred realities over the actual reality.
• Most postmodernist texts are antinarrative. An antinarrative refers to a narrative that
questions or avoids the normative concepts of a narrative (such as coherence in plot).
Oftentimes, it is up to the readers to make sense of the fragmented narratives. This
novel explored the layers of reality and identity, posing questions about what is real.
This novel also has other works of fiction within it, which is one of the features of
metafiction.
• Some notable postmodernist works are John Hawkes’s The Lime Twig (1961), Donald
Barthelme’s Snow White (1967), John Barth’s The End of the Road/

Post-Activity 1:

Read the excerpt, The Great Gatsby.

Directions: Complete the chart for each character. For the Descriptive Phrase and
Memorable Quote columns, choose direct quotes from the excerpt, the Great Gatsby.

Descriptive Memorable First One Word Relationship


Phrase Quote Impression Description to other
Characters
Nick
Carraway
Daisy
Buchanan
Tom
Buchanan
Jordan
Baker

Reference:

Echevarría, Roberto González, “Latin American Literature—The 18th Century,”


Encyclopedia Britannica Online, accessed March 31, 2016,

LESSON II

ASIAN LITERATURE

Subtopic:
 Indian Literature
 Thai Literature
 Indonesian Literature
 Chinese Literature

Pre-Activity 1

Describe the different countries in terms of culture, religion, language, etc.


INDONESIA SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRY
Lesson Proper:

Indian Literature
Most literary forms and works in Indian literature incorporate philosophical and religious
concepts. Often, these works are viewed as extensions of Hindu teachings.
• Considered to be the oldest Hindu writings, the Vedas (meaning “knowledge” in
Sanskrit) are a collection of sacred books written in Sanskrit. There are four Vedas:
◦ Rig Veda (“knowledge of the verses”)—a collection of 1,028 sacred hymns and is
divided into ten books called Mandalas
◦ Yajur Veda (“knowledge of the sacrifice”)—a handbook for priests in the performance
of sacrificial rituals
◦ Sama Veda (“knowledge of the melodies”)—a collection of chants and melodies drawn
from the Rig Veda and are to be sung during worship
◦ Atharva Veda (“knowledge of the fire priest”)—a collection of charms, spells, and
hymns, largely outside of the scope of worship and Vedic sacrifice
• Mahabharata and Ramayana are two great Sanskrit epics in Indian literature.
• Mahabharata, whose authorship is traditionally attributed to Vyasa, is composed of
about one hundred thousand couplets divided into eighteen sections, making it longer
than Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey combined. Mahabharata focuses on the conflict
between the Pandava and the Kaurava princes.
• Ramayana, written by the poet Valmiki, contains twenty-four thousand couplets
divided into seven books. It centers on the life and adventures of the couple
Ramachandra and Sita.
• The origins of the Indian drama were attributed to the Hindu deities. It was believed
that Brahma, the creator, created drama to please the deities; Shiva, the destroyer,
introduced dance; and Vishnu, the preserver, introduced the four types of drama.

• Four types of ancient Indian drama:


◦ Nataka—inspired by the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana; the highest form of
drama
◦ Prakaranas—inspired by the daily life of mortals, including their virtues and
weaknesses
◦ Prahsanas—inspired by the lower castes’ ridicule of the upper class
◦ Yatra—inspired by the lewd escapades of the deity Krishna, as told by the
traveling bards
• Bhavabhuti, Harsha, and Kalidasa were renowned Sanskrit writers.
• Kalidasa wrote Abhijñanashakuntala, or simply Shakuntala. It is a play about the love
story of Shakuntala and King Dushyanta from the epic Mahabharata. Sir William Jones
translated it to English.
• Bhavabhuti was known for his three plays, namely Mahaviracharita, Malatimadhava,
and Uttararamacharita.
• Harsha was an Indian emperor and a poet. He wrote Nāgānanda, Priyadarśikā, and
Ratnāvalī.
• Some of the notable contemporary authors of Indian literature include Arundhati Roy
and Rabindranath Tagore. Roy was known for her famous novel, The God of Small
Things (1997). It won the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in 1997. Meanwhile, Tagore was
awarded with the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. Some of his remarkable works
include Mānasī (1890), Chitrāṅgadā (Chitra, 1892), and Sonār Tarī (The Golden Boat,
1894).

Thai Literature
• The earliest form of Thai literature existed during the Sukhothai period (from the
thirteenth to the fourteenth century). These works were carved in stones, providing
descriptions of how life was back then. The Ram Khamhaeng is distinguished among
these stone inscriptions, written by King Ram Khamhaeng himself, which is about the
economic condition of the kingdom during his rule.
• During the Ayutthaya period (1351−1767), written verses emerged, focusing on
religion,history, and romance, among others. Some examples include “Maha chat” (“The
Great Birth”), “Lilit Yuan phai” (“The Defeat of the Yuan”), and “Lilit phra Lo” (“The Story
of Prince Lo”).
• The renaissance of Thai literature began during King Narai’s reign (1656−1688). The
royal court recognized writers, and various writing genres developed, such as nirat
poems. These poems focus on “journeying, separating, and love-longing” (David Smyth,
EncyclopaediaBritannica). One of the noteworthy works is “Nirat khlong kamsuan” (“A
Mournful Journey”) by Si Prat, a personal account of the author’s journey into exile.
• When Thailand recovered from the defeat it suffered from Myanmar’s Hsinbyushin
(1767), significant literary texts were rewritten, such as Ramakien, Thailand’s national
epic based on Ramayana; Sunthorn Phu’s Phra Aphai Mani; and Khun Chang Khun
Phaen, an epic based on amorous and military feats (Smyth, Encyclopaedia Britannica).
• In the twentieth century, translated works of Western texts dominated the literary
scene (e.g., works of Marie Corelli, Arthur Conan Doyle, Anthony Hope). Series stories
surfaced by the mid-1920s, chiefly focusing on “rich girl meets poor boy” narratives, or
vice versa, which usually have a happy ending.
• Notable works such as Akatdamkoeng Raphiphat’s Lakhon haeng chiwit (The Circus
Life), Siburapha’s Songkhram chiwit (The War of Life), and K. Surangkhanang’s Ying
khon chua(The Prostitute) were examples of narratives that tackle social issues, which
blossomed
during the latter part of the 1920s.
• By the 1940s, writers were producing works influenced by social realism. These works
commonly reflect social injustice. Meanwhile, freedom of speech was suppressed from
the 1950s to the 1960s, which was considered as a “dark age” of Thai literature.
Escapist fiction, one that allows the reader to escape his everyday reality, was the only
literary genre to have survived. It was also referred to as “stagnant water literature.” The
most successful among these escapist writers was Khamsing Srinawk, who, under the
pen name Lao Kham Hom, wrote the masterpiece, Fa bo kan (The Politician and Other
Stories), which was able to conceal the true nature of the reality it was trying to portray
but managed to deliver a transgressive message. In 1992, the award for National Artist
of Thailand was bestowed on Khamsing Srinawk.
• Social realism was rediscovered in the late 1960s, paving the way for “literature for
life.” This movement played a significant role in helping to overthrow the military
government in 1973.
• Chart Korbjitti proved to be successful among his contemporaries in terms of
commercial and artistic accomplishments. His notable works include Chon trork (The
End of the Road, 1980) and Kham phiphaksa (The Judgment, 1982).

Indonesian Literature
• Indonesian literature is composed of oral and written works. The modern Indonesian
literature was characterized by works with Western influences, which have emerged in
the twentieth century.
• Prose narratives vary and are influenced by Indian literature and those of the
neighboring countries. They usually focus on “beast fables,” legends, riddles, adventure
stories, and more.
• Texts were written in various languages, chiefly in Javanese and Malay.
• Early Javanese literature works existed between the ninth and the tenth century CE. Proseand poems
were prevalent, which merely served as varieties of the famous Indian epics,
Mahabharata and Ramayana. Moreover, the Javanese adapted the Sanskrit court
poetry and developed it as their own.
• The onset of Dutch colonization from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century led to
the decrease in Javanese and Malay works.
• The nationalist movement and the development of Bahasa Indonesia as the national
language were associated with modern Indonesian literature.
• Some of the modern writers include Muhammad Yamin, Abdul Muis, Chairil Anwar,
and Pramoedya Ananta Toer.
• When Suharto rose to power in 1965, the government ordered censorship and
suspended the freedom of expression in literary works. The situation of the writers
eased when he resigned in 1998.

II. Chinese Literature


This chapter will focus on the literary forms that have emerged during the Tang dynasty
(AD 618–960). Additionally, this chapter will include a brief overview of Confucian
literature.
• Chinese literature, especially poetry, flourished during the Tang dynasty.
• Lüshi (“regulated verse”) was a rigid alternative to gushi. It is composed of eight lines
with five to seven characters. In addition, it follows a certain format: the first two lines
should focus on the exposition. As the theme progresses, the structure (body, second,
and third couplets) should be parallel; the conclusion should be apparent in the final
couplet. (Gushimeans “ancient style poetry,” which has a lesser metrical limitation and a
more extensive rhyme than yuefu; yuefu refers to poems based on folk-ballad tradition.
The term yuefu
means “music bureau,” which Emperor Wudi established to collect songs and their
scores “for ceremonial occasions in court.”)
• Jueju (“severed sentence”) is a concise form of lüshi. Instead of eight lines, it is
composed of a quatrain. It maintains the tonal quality of lüshi but removes either the first
or the last four lines.
• Ci is a song-like poem, or lyric poem, with uneven lengths of lines. It has rhythmic and
tonalpatterns that are musical in nature. The ordinary people were the first to sing a ci,
but it waspopularized by professional women singers during the Tang dynasty. Li Yu,
the last ruler of Nan, was the greatest among ci poets.
• Bianwen is a combination of prose and poetry, retelling Buddha’s life. It was believed
to be the earliest form of vernacular prose, as Buddhist missionaries employed a
manner of storytelling using a common language that was understood by everyone to
channel their messages.
• Han Yu led the movement that encouraged writers to look up to Zhou philosophers and Han authors
as models for writing in prose, instead of complying with the limitations of
pianwen(“parallel prose”). The reform was liberating, leading to a modern style of prose
writingwherein writers can freely create texts in various lengths and patterns. Some
importantauthors of this mode include Liu Zongyan, Shen Yazhi, and Bai Xingjian.
(Pianwen ischaracterized by unconventional structure and balanced but nonrhyming
patterns. It wasgenerally used in addressing religious issues or philosophical
arguments.)
• Some of the notable writers during this period include Wang Wei, Du Fu, and Li Bai.
Du Fu’sfamous works include “Bingqu xing” (“The Ballad of the Army Carts”) and “Liren
xing” (“The Beautiful Woman”).
• Below are examples of Li Bai’s poems, as translated by the celebrated American poet
Ezra Pound.

Taking Leave of a Friend


Blue mountains to the north of the walls,
White river winding about them;
Here we must make separation
And go out through a thousand miles of dead grass.

Mind like a floating wide cloud,


Sunset like the parting of old acquaintances Who
bow over their clasped hands at a distance. Our
horses neigh to each others as we are departing.

The Jewel Stairs’ Grievance


The jeweled steps are already quite white with dew,
It is so late that the dew soaks my gauze stockings,
And I let down the crystal curtain
And watch the moon through the clear autumn.

Confucian Literature
• Confucian literature was considered as the earliest form of literature, which has
existed even before the Qin dynasty. Some texts were attributed to Confucius himself,
while some were regarded as those of his followers. The two most important texts of the
Confucian literature include the Five Classics or Wujing and The Analects. The
Analects are a collection of sayings and/or teachings of Confucius, his contemporaries,
and followers.
• The Five Classics contain the norms of Chinese society.
◦ Shijing (“Classic of Poetry”) is the earliest collection of poetry, comprising
roughly threehundred poems.
◦ Yijing (“Book of Changes”) is an ancient divination text that existed during the
Zhoudynasty. The writers of the Warring States period attempted to explain the
world and its moral principles through the commentaries found in additional
sections of the text.
◦ Shujing (“Book of Documents”) is a compilation of the ancient history of China,
whichincludes philosophies and recollections of the great deeds of the rulers.
◦ Liji (“Book of Rites”) is a collection of texts about ethics in rituals, music,
education, etc. Itwas written during the Warring States period. Dai De and his
nephew Dai Sheng compiled the chapters of the texts.
◦ Chunqiu (“Spring and Autumn Annals”) is a chronological history of the state of
Lu. Itcontains monthly narrations of important events during the rule of the twelve
leaders of Lu.

Post-Activity 1
Direction:Enumerate the following:

(a) Four Vedas


(b) Types of Ancient Indian Dramas
(c) The Five Classics

References:

Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, s.v. “Indonesian literature,” accessed April 22, 2016,
http://www.britannica.com/art/Indonesian-literatures.

“Mahabharata,” last modified February 19, 2015, accessed April 12, 2016, http://www
.britannica.com/topic/Mahabharata.

“Ramayana,” last modified February 27, 2015, accessed April 12, 2016, http://www
.britannica.com/topic/Ramayana-Indian-epic.

LESSON III

JAPANESE LITERATURE
Pre-Activity

Tell something about the following pictures:

Lesson Proper

Japanese Literature
• The Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) and Nihon shoki (Chronicles of Japan)
comprise the oldest written documents about the history of Japan. Consisting of three
books, Kojiki (completed in AD 712) is a compilation of myths about the origins of the
islands of Japan, and of the genealogy of the imperial family. Nihon shoki (completed in
AD 720), a collection of thirty books written in Chinese, contains the complete existing
historical records of Japan, chronicling the reigns of emperors of Japan from the earliest
times to AD 697.
• The oldest existing anthology of Japanese poetry, Man’yōshū (Collection of a Myriad
Leaves), was produced during the Asuka and Nara periods (AD 538–794). Man’yōshū is
a collection of more than 4,500 poems, in twenty volumes, written in various forms and
lengths.
• The Kokin Wakashū or Kokinshū (Collection of Ancient and Modern Poems), is a
collection of 1,111 poems completed in AD 905 during the Heian period (AD 794–1185).
• Most literary works in the Heian period were dominated by noble women and their
culture. Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji), which was
considered to be the world’s first novel. Sei Shōnagon, another famous court lady, wrote
the Makura nososhi (The Pillow Book), which was a detailed record of life at the
Japanese imperial court.
• Tanka (“short song”) is a five-line poem with thirty-one syllables and follows a 5–7–5–
7–7 pattern. Ono no Komachi, one of Japan’s greatest female poets of the Heian
period, was renowned for her poems in tanka form. Here is an example:
The flowers withered
Their color faded away
While meaninglessly
Hana no iro wa
I spent my days in the world
Utsurinikeri na
And the long rains were falling
Itazura ni
—Translated by Donald Keene
Wa ga mi yo ni furu
Nagame seshi ma ni
—Ono no Komachi

• Haiku is a traditional Japanese poem that gained recognition during the Edo or
Tokugawaperiod (1603–1868). It is a short verse composed of three lines with five,
seven, and five syllables, respectively, making a total of seventeen syllables. Haiku,
unlike conventional Western poetry that focus heavily on rhythm and meter, depends on
the melodic syllable count and ignores rhyme. Its subjects are often about the essence
of life, a feeling or an emotion, and the beauty of nature. Kigo is an important element of
a haiku. It is a word or a phrase that indicates the season a haiku is written.
• Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694), a Japanese poet in the seventeenth century, was
consideredthe greatest master of the haiku. Other great haiku poets include Yosa
Buson (1716–1783) and Kobayashi Issa (1763–1827).
• Here are some examples of famous haikus:

furu ike ya The quiet pond


kawazu tobikomu A frog leaps in,
mizu no oto The sound of the water.
—Matsuo Bashō —Translated by Edward Seidensticker

yuki tokete The snow is melting


mura ippai no and the village is flooded
kodomo kana with children.
—Kobayashi Issa —Translated by Robert Hass

Japanese traditional theater is chiefly characterized by movement and dance. Two of


themost popular forms of traditional Japanese theater are the Noh and the Kabuki.

Noh
• Noh is the oldest existing form of Japanese theater, having started in the fourteenth
century. It was a combination of dance, music, and drama.
• It is characterized by the slow movement of the characters, poetic dialogues,
andmonotonous tone.
• The main plot varies from legends/mythologies to historical events to current events.
• Noh characters wear costumes that are heavy, colorful, and have intricate
details/design, among others. The main character of the play, shite, wears a mask. The
mask tells the audience what role or character the shite was trying to portray. Below are
the following characters in Noh theater (note that these roles are all portrayed by men):
◦ shite—leading character; portrays a demon, deity, spirit, living man, etc.
◦ waki—supporting character; portrays a samurai, monk, etc.
◦ hayashi—musicians; provide musical accompaniment for the act
◦ jiutai—the narrators; assist the shite in narrating the story
◦ koken—stage crew; assist the performers
• Zeami Motokiyo, a playwright, popularized Noh during the Muromachi period
(1333−1573). Along with his father, Kan’ami, they were noted as the founders of Noh
theater.
• There are six types of Noh plays:
◦ kami (“god”)—sacred stories about deities
◦ shura mono (“battle play”)—warrior stories
◦ katsura mono (“woman play”)—a woman is the central character of the story
◦ gendai mono (“present-day play”)—narratives are modern and realistic
◦ kyojo mono (“madwoman play”)—stories involving loss of a child that led to
theprotagonist’s insanity
◦ kichiku (“demon”)—features beasts or evil creatures
• Some of the notable Noh plays include Kan’ami’s Matsukaze (Wind in the Pines);
Zeami Motokiyo’s Kakyō (The Mirror of the Flower), Sandō (The Three Ways),
Takasago, and Izutsu(The Well Head); and Komparu Zechiku’s Yōkihi.
• Some of the famous Noh playwrights include Komparu Zenpō, Komparu Zenchiku,
andKanze Kojiro Nobumitsu.
• The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) listed
Nôgaku Theater, which covers Noh and Kyôgen, as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral
and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001. (Kyôgen is a comical piece performed
during intervals in a Noh play.)

Kabuki
• Kabuki originated in Kyoto. It is a combination of singing, dancing, and acting. It is
known for the actors’ exaggerated manner of presentation.
• The actors wear white makeup with odd details, big and peculiar wigs, and elaborate
costumes.
• The main plot usually includes historical events, conspiracies, and moral issues,
among others. Another distinct feature of Kabuki is that the characters only perform a
part of an entire story. Thus, members of the audience are encouraged to read about
the story first before watching a show.
• There were three early variants of Kabuki, namely onna kabuki, wakashū kabuki,
andyaro kabuki.
◦ onna kabuki (“women’s kabuki”)—It was described as an erotic performance of
the actors,associating it with prostitution. It was banned in 1629.
◦ wakashū kabuki (“young men’s kabuki”)—Young boys replaced women.
In 1652, it was banned due to widespread homosexuality.
◦ yaro kabuki (“male’s kabuki”)—It had an all-male cast. This variant endures up
to thepresent day.
• Actors who play male roles are called tachiyaku, whereas others who play female
roles arecalled onnagata.
• There are three main types of Kabuki theater:
◦ jidaimono (“historical play”)—It is a play that chiefly depicts samurai battles. It is
usuallyset in a period before the Tokugawa shogunate.
◦ sewamono (“domestic play”)—It portrays the life of the common people of the
Edo period.
◦ shosagato (“dance play”)—It refers to the dance-drama performed by the
onnagata.
• Some of the notable Kabuki plays include Chūshingura (The Treasury of Loyal
Retainers; adapted into film as 47 Ronin); Okamoto Kidō’s Banshō Sarayashiki; and
Takeda Izumo I, Miyoshi Shôraku, Takeda Izumo II, and Namiki Sôsuke’s Sugawara
denju tenarai kagami(Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy).
• Some of the famous Kabuki playwrights include Kawatake Mokuami and Chikamatsu
Monzaemon.
• In 2005, UNESCO named the Kabuki Theater as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral
and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Japanese Modern Literature (from 1898 to present)


• Some of the notable writers of modern Japanese literature include Mori Ōgai, Natsume
Sōseki, Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Yasunari Kawabata, Jun’ichirō Tanizaki, Haruki
Murakami, and Ryū Murakami.
• Former Harvard professor Jay Rubin translated Akutagawa’s famous work Rashomon
andOther Stories (1915), which was published by Penguin in 2006. The 1950 film
adaptation ofAkira Kurosawa, Rashomon, was based on “Rashomon” and “Yabu no
naka” (“In a Grove,”1921). The Akutagawa Prize, a tribute to Akutagawa, was
established in 1935, which was asprestigious as the Naoki Prize.
• In 1968, Yasunari Kawabata won a Nobel Peace Prize in Literature. His famous novel,
Yukiguni (Snow Country, 1948), was a striking collaboration of a haiku and a novel.
Below is an excerpt of Snow Country. A house was burning while onlookers gathered to
watch. What do you think is the significance of the “Milky Way” in this passage? Does it
suggest the season of the year? What can you infer with the Milky Way moving in the
opposite direction of the smoke?

The sparks spread off into the Milky Way, and Shimamura was pulled up with them. As
the smoke drifted away, the Milky Way seemed to dip and flow in the opposite direction.
Occasionally a pump missed the roof, and the end of its line of water wavered and
turned to a faint white mist, as though lighted by the Milky Way.

Post-Activity 1:

Directions: Draw your favorite Japanese anime or characters, and then write a brief
description.

Post- Activity 2:

Answer the following:


1. He was considered the greatest master of the haiku.
2. Enumerate the characters in Noh Theater.
3. What are the six types of Noh plays?
4. Define Kabuki.
5. Enumerate the three types of Kabuki Theatre.
References:

“Kabuki,” Yokohama Noh Theater, accessed April 20, 2016, http://ynt.yafjp.org/en/


performing-arts/#kabuki.

“Kabuki: A vibrant and exciting traditional theater,” Japan Fact Sheet, accessed April
20, 2016, http://web-japan.org/factsheet/en/pdf/e30_kabuki.pdf.

“Kabuki Theater,” Japan Zone, accessed April 20, 2016, http://www.japan-


zone.com/culture/kabuki .shtml.
“Kabuki, Theatre as Spectacle,” Asian Traditional Theatre & Dance, accessed April 20,
2016, http://www.xip.fi/atd/japan/kabuki-theatre-as-spectacle.html.

Keene, Donald, “Japanese literature,” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, last modified


December 16, 2016, accessed April 13, 2016, http://www.britannica.com/art/Japanese-
literature.

“Noh Theater,” Japan-Guide.com, accessed April 20, 2016, http://www.japan-


guide.com/e/e2090
.html.

LESSON IV

AFRICAN LITERATURE

Pre-Activity

Answer the following riddles:

1. You can see me in water, but I never get wet. What am I?


2. What is it that no man ever yet did see, which never was, but always is to be?
3. What belongs to you but others use it more than you do?
4. What five-letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it?
5. A man is trapped in a room. The room has only two possible exits: two doors.
Through the first door there is a room constructed from magnifying glass. The
blazing hot sun instantly fries anything or anyone that enters. Through the
second door there is a fire-breathing dragon. How does the man escape?

Lesson Proper

• Africa’s traditional literature is oral in nature. Its oral literature includes proverbs,
songs, hymns, myths, dramas, and riddles, among others.
• Oral literature is dependent on storytellers. According to Harold Scheub, “storytelling is
a sensory union of image and idea, a recreating of the past in terms of the present”
(“The nature of storytelling,” Encyclopaedia Britannica). He added that the storyteller
uses both realistic and fantasy images to describe the present life and to embody the
culture.

Riddles
• A riddle refers to a confusing question posed as a problem that has to be guessed or
answered. Besides its entertainment and social functions, riddles are somehow
educational in nature, as they train children to think quickly and logically.
• Like a proverb, a riddle is brief and concise. It also serves as a means to say
something without explicitly stating it.
• Some riddles are composed of a word or a phrase that implies that the answer is
based on the sound it produces. See examples below:
◦ Sengsekede (Answer: “You cannot put a needle on a rock.”)—The term
sengsekederefers to and/or suggests the sound a needle makes when it falls into
the ground.
◦ Aa (Answer: “The old man drank a little milk in the dry season.”)—The sound
that a manproduces while quenching his thirst with milk.
• Sometimes, a riddle is composed of only a word. See examples below:
◦ Invincible (Answer: the wind)
◦ Innumerable (Answer: grass)
• There are riddles that do not really “ask” but need a response. Refer to the example
below:
◦ Over there smoke goes up, over there smoke goes up. (Response: “Over there
they mourn over a chief, over there they mourn over a poor man.”)
• A riddle employs various literary devices such as imagery, repetition, analogy,
onomatopoeia, allusion, and metaphor, among others.
• Other examples of riddles:
◦ Always cooked before it’s scraped; always cooked before it’s eaten. (Answer: a
fish)
◦ The little chap who plays the typewriter (Answer: tongue)
◦ Little things that defeat us (Answer: mosquitoes)

Lyric poetry
• Lyric poetry is the most common form of poetry in sub-Saharan Africa. Lyrical poems
are characterized by their song-like qualities such as rhythm and tone.
• The reciting or singing of lyrical poems is performed during weddings, funerals,
andpuberty—mostly “rites of passage” occasions.
• The subjects of lyrical poems vary. These may be animals, people, current issues, etc.
• Most songs in Africa are antiphonal in form. Antiphonal singing means that there are
two singers, or choirs, singing alternately. It is performed by a cantor (“soloist”) and a
chorus. The cantor plays an important role during the performance, as he or she
decides when to start and end a song.
• Most song techniques employ a “call and response” pattern.
(AFRICA POEM BY DAVID DOPE)

Prose
• Prose narratives center on people, animals, histories, etc. For animal narratives, the
plot usually focuses on large animals tricked by smaller ones. Another plot focuses on
an attacker (e.g., snake or crocodile) that is trying to deceive its rescuer or savior (e.g.,
child, white man, rat) but is instead outsmarted by a third character (e.g., hare, jackal,
spider). The third character foils the attacker into a trap.
• Meanwhile, there are also narratives about a hero, portrayed by a young boy or an
animal, who acquires precious things through trade, exchange, and refusal to fight
unless his wish was granted (Finnegan, p. 329). In the end, the hero achieves his
utmost desires. In other versions of this story, there are odd twists, such as the hero
losing his precious things and starting back at zero.
• Some stories, although they differ in characters, motifs/themes, and tone, have similar
plots. Such is the case with “The Vulture and the Hen” and “The Finch, the Eagle, and
the Hen.” Both stories explain why birds of prey (i.e., eagle, vulture) snatch chicks from
the mother hen. Long ago, the mother hen owed these birds. They then took her chicks
as payment. Read the excerpts below:

The Vulture and the Hen


(The excerpt below is from C. Cagnolo’s “Kikuyu tales,” lifted from Finnegan’s Oral
Literature in Africa.)

One day the hen thought of borrowing a razor from the vulture, to shave the little ones.
The shaving was already much overdue, but it couldn’t be helped, because she had no
razor, and was depending on the kindness of her neighbours. So the hen went to see
the vultureand said: ‘Dear vulture, I should like to borrow your razor; mine was lost
months ago. Mylittle ones are looking very ugly, and also very untidy, with their long
unkempt hairovergrown.’
The vulture listened to the hen with great concern and, after a short silence, said:
‘Dearhen, I cannot refuse you this favour. To-morrow perhaps I might need your help as
well, and we must help each other. However, you must remember one thing. You know
what that razor means to me. I have no other income except the rent of that razor; that
is to say, that razor is my field, whence I get my daily food. I do not intend to ask you
any fee as I do with others; but please be careful to return it to me, as soon as you have
finished your shaving.’
‘Thank you, brother vulture, I quite understand what you say, and I am very
grateful toyou. I’ll bring it back very soon.’
The hen was very glad of the favour, and as soon as she arrived home,
madearrangements to be shaved by another woman. The following morning she also
shaved her two little ones, so that the whole family was now shining like the moon. The
work over, instead of immediately returning the razor to the owner, she put it in a leather
purse, which was hanging in a corner of the hut.
The days passed, and passed away like the water under the bridge, but the hen
neverthought again of returning the razor to the vulture. She forgot it completely. The
vulture grew impatient, and deeply resented in his heart the unkindness, nay, the
ingratitude of the hen.
Pressed by necessity, he decided to go personally to the hen and demand his
razor.

The Finch, the Eagle, and the Hen


(The excerpt below was lifted from Finnegan’s Oral Literature in Africa, which she has
alsorecorded.)

The finch, a small bird, once borrowed money from the eagle’s grandfather. He
borrowedthat money.
Now the eagle—(he died) leaving his children alone. But he left a message with
them:‘Your grandfather had money borrowed from him by the father of the finch.’
Since he (i.e. his family) had lent the money, the (young) eagle spent a long time
lookingfor the finch. He looked and looked; but he could not find him.
One day he went and sat down where they pound the rice. He was sitting there.
When hesaw the hen standing there, eating the rice, he asked her:
‘Oh, hen.’
‘Yes?’
‘What are you doing here?’
‘I am getting my food’.
‘Do you know whereabouts the finch is? He’s the one I’m looking for. He made
use of myfather’s property. I want him to return it .... Do you think
I will be able to find the finch?’
‘Yes, you can find him.’
‘Well, how can I find him?’
‘When people get up to go and pound the rice, if you go there and you hide you
will find the finch there.’
The eagle got there. He went and hid. The finch alighted and began to pick at the
ground, searching for his food. The eagle swooped down.
‘Ah! you! What a long time I have spent looking for you. Now here you are today.
Todayyou will have to give me back the property your family took.’
‘What?’ asked the finch.
‘Eagle?’ ‘Yes?’
‘Who told you where I was?’
‘The hen.’
‘It was the hen that told you?’
‘Yes.’
‘Oh! dear!’ (said the finch) ‘We have both been having trouble then. I—ha! I have
beenlooking for the hen here but could not find her. And all the time you have been
looking for me and could not find me! Since the hen was the reason you found me,
that’s why I am going to give her to you now.’

Proverb
• A proverb is a popular saying that expresses obvious truths that are figurative in
nature. It sometimes serves as a reminder or a piece of advice on how people should
lead their lives.
• A proverb represents abstract ideas through concise and figurative words or phrases.
Finnegan remarked, “The literary relevance of these short sayings is clear. Proverbs are
a rich source of imagery and succinct expression on which more elaborate forms can
draw” (Finnegan, p. 421).
• There are instances in which a particular term, which is meant to describe a proverb,
encompasses other literary forms. For example, the term mwambi (from Nyanja) not
only refers to a proverb but also refers to a story or a riddle. Olugero (from Ganda) may
also mean a parable or a saying. The term bokolo (from Mongo) covers all poetic
expressions. Mboro(from Limba) also refers to a riddle or a saying. Tindol (from Fulani)
may also refer to a moral story.
• Proverbs are used in almost all occasions.
• Proverbs convey various meanings. They can come off as a piece of advice, a
warning, or an instruction (Finnegan, p. 406). For example, the proverb “We watch the
bird’s neck while he is talking” has various meanings. According to Finnegan, this
proverb could mean(1) doubting the accuracy of what one is saying; (2) agreeing to
what one will say; and (3) retorting to what one is saying.
• Additionally, in Jabo society, proverbs play an important role during legal proceedings.
The more proverbs a person can employ in his or her speech, the more effective that
person is. Proverbs are also used to fix an altercation or to iron out a misunderstanding.

Modern African Literature


• Some of the famous modern African authors include Chinua Achebe (Nigerian), Wole
Soyinka (Nigerian), and Naguib Mahfouz (Egyptian).
• Mahfouz is a screenplay writer and a novelist. He was awarded with the Nobel Prize in
Literature in 1988. One of his famous works was the trilogy Al-Thulāthiyyah (The
CairoTrilogy): Bayn al-qaṣrayn (Palace Walk, 1956), Qaṣr al-shawq (Palace of Desire,
1957), and Al-Sukkariyyah (Sugar Street, 1957). The trilogy focused on the three
generations of various families in Cairo, beginning from the onset of World War I to the
end of the military coup in1952, which dethroned King Farouk.
• Achebe wrote the famous novel Things Fall Apart (1958). It was followed by No
Longer atEase (1960), a sequel to his critically acclaimed novel. He was a recipient of
the Man BookerInternational Prize (2007) and the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize (2010).
• Soyinka was a prominent playwright and activist from Nigeria. He was a recipient of
the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1986. Some of his works include A Dance of the Forests
(1963), The Lion and the Jewel (1963), Jero’s Metamorphosis (1973), and From Zia,
with Love (1992).
Post-Activity 1

Read the two excerpts above: The Vulture and the Hen and The Finch, the Eagle, and
the Hen

 Based on the above excerpts, what are the similarities and differences of the two
stories? (5pts)
 What does each story say about the hen’s character?(5pts)

Post-Activity 2
Read the poem Africa by David Dope and analyze each line.

References

Andrzejewski, B.W, S. Pilaszewicz and W. Tyloch, eds., 1985. Literatures in African


Languages: Theoretical Issues and Sample Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
 the different literary forms and texts from Asia and Africa.Make a crit

Learning Objectives:

 Distinguish the literary uses of language from nonliterary use and understand their use, as
well as the formal features and conventions of literature.
 Identify the figures of speech and other literary techniqu

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