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Submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
Electronics and Communication Engineering


MUHAMMED SHAH A S (Roll no:33)





This is to certify that MUHAMMED SHAH A S (Roll no:33) has successfully
completed the seminar Report titled 4G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY towards the
partial fullllment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics
and Communication Engineering.

Seminar coordinator Head of Department

Oce Seal

MY parents ,teachers and friends ...


Ingenuity and proper guidence are inevitable for the successful completion of any work.I
am indebted to all sources,which helped me in working out my seminar presentation at
each step of its progress.I wish to thank the multitude of people who have helped me
during the course of my work.
First and foremost,I thank Prof.Vidhyasagar,our Principal,for providing the necessary
facilities and ambience for the presentation.
I also express my sincere thanks to Mr.Abdul Hameed;the Head of the Department
of Electronics and Communication Engineering for his valuable support.I am also deeply
indebited to Dr.Sindhu for her thoughtful criticism and suggestions and whose friendly
and unfailing support helped me throughout the course of my work.
The unique and inspiring atmosphere at the college provided an invaluable resources
and my gratitude goes out to my friends there.Above all,I thank my parents and God.
Almighty,without whom this endeavor would not have been a success.


4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to

describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. A 4G system will be
able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia
can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than
previous generations. As the second generation was a total replacement of the rst gen-
eration networks and the third generation was a total replacement of second generation
networks. So the fourth generation cannot be an incremental evolution of current 3G
technologies, but rather the total replacement of the current 3G networks and devices.
The international telecommunications regulatory and standardization bodies are work-
ing for commercial deployment of 4G networks roughly in the 2012-2015 time scale.
There is no formal denition for what 4G is; however, there are certain objectives that
are projected for 4G. These objectives include, that 4G will be a fully IP-based inte-
grated system. 4G will be capable of providing between 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps speeds
both indoors and outdoors, with premium quality and high security.


Acknowledgements i

Abstract ii

1 Introduction 1

2 History 2

3 Economic Impacts 4
3.1 Advantages of 4G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2 Problems with the Current System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 ITU Requirements and 4G wireless standards 8

5 4G candidate systems 9
5.1 LTE Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.2 IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6 Visions of 4G 11

7 Current Technology 14
7.1 TDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.2 CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8 Key 4G Technologies 18
8.1.1 Key features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.1.2 Idealized system model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.1.3 Orthogonal frequency division multiple access . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8.2 SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.2.1 Operating principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.3 MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE-OUTPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.3.1 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.4 HANDOVER AND MOBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26


9 Quality Of Service 29

10 Security 30

11 Applications 31

12 Conclusion 33

13 References 34
List of Figures

2.1 Short Hstory of Mobile Telephone Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

3.1 Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 Cellular System Upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1 4G Mobile Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.2 Seamless connections of a network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.3 Key elements of 4G Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.1 Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.2 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.3 UWB Spectrum Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.1 OFDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.2 Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8.3 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8.4 OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.5 SDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.6 Dierent Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.7 MIMO Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Chapter 1


Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it be a television, cellular

phone or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the
advent of the Internet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information.
Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant
messaging, stock quotes, and even Internet access right on their phones. But that is
far from the limit of features; manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with
photo and even video capability. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when
access to all necessary information , the power of a personal computer ,sits in the palm of
one's hand. To support such a powerful system, we need pervasive, high-speed wireless
A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital
wireless connectivity; Bluetooth and 802.11 are examples. These two standards provide
very high speed network connections over short distances, typically in the tens of me-
ters. Meanwhile, cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless
networks. The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless, which for the purposes
of this report will be called 4G, for fourth-generation wireless system. Fourth-generation
wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing ad-
vantages to both users and providers.

Chapter 2


The history and evolution of mobile service from the 1G (rst generation) to fourth
generation are discussed in this section. Table 1 presents a short history of mobile
telephone technologies. This process began with the designs in the 1970s that have
become known as 1G. The earliest systems were implemented based on analog technology
and the basic cellular structure of mobile communication. Many fundamental problems
were solved by these early systems. Numerous incompatible analog systems were placed
in service around the world during the 1980s.
The 2G (second generation) systems designed in the 1980s were still used mainly for
voice applications but were based on digital technology, including digital signal processing
techniques. These 2G systems provided circuit-switched data Communication services at
a low speed. The competitive rush to design and implement Digital systems led again to
a variety of dierent and incompatible standards such as GSM (global system mobile),
mainly in Europe; TDMA (time division multiple access) (IS-54/IS- 136) in the U.S.;
PDC (personal digital cellular) in Japan; and CDMA (code division multiple access)
(IS-95), another U.S. system. These systems operate nationwide or internationally and
are today's mainstream systems, although the data rate for users in these system is
very limited. During the 1990s, two organizations worked to dene the next, or 3G,
mobile system, which would eliminate previous incompatibilities and become a truly
global system.

Chapter 2. History 3

The 3G system would have higher quality voice channels, as well as broadband data
capabilities, up to 2 Mbps. Unfortunately, the two groups could not reconcile their
dierences, and this decade will see the introduction of two mobile standards for 3G. In
addition, China is on the verge of implementing a third 3G system. An interim step is
being taken between 2G and 3G, the 2.5G. It is basically an enhancement of the two
major 2G technologies to provide increased capacity on the 2G RF (radio frequency)
channels and to introduce higher throughput for data service, up to 384 kbps. A very
important aspect of 2.5G is that the data channels are optimized for packet data, which
introduces access to the Internet from mobile devices, whether telephone, PDA (personal
digital assistant), or laptop. However, the demand for higher access speed multimedia
communication in today's society, which greatly depends on computer communication
in digital format, seems unlimited. According to the historical indication of a generation
revolution occurring once a decade, the present appears to be the right time to begin the
research on a 4G mobile communication system

Figure 2.1: Short Hstory of Mobile Telephone Technologies

Chapter 3

Economic Impacts

3.1 Advantages of 4G

In a fourth-generation wireless system, cellular providers have the opportunity to oer

data access to a wide variety of devices. The cellular network would become a data
network on which cellular phones could operate , as well as any other data device.
Sending data over the cell phone network is a lucrative business. In the information age,
access to data is the "killer app" that drives the market. The most telling example is
growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. Wireless networks provide a unique twist
to this product: mobility. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless
networking, with instant access to the Internet from anywhere.

3.2 Problems with the Current System

One may then wonder why ubiquitous, high-speed wireless is not already available. After
all, wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth
of their cellular networks. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide
data services beyond that oered in standard cell phones.
Unfortunately, the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth
necessary to handle data services well. Not only is data transfer slowly , at the speed

Chapter 3. Economic Impacts 5

of analog modems , but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated eciently for
data. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice
data. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this
higher demand by switching to dierent protocols that allow for faster access speeds
and more ecient transfers. These are collectively referred to as third generation, or
3G, services. However, the way in which the companies are developing their networks
is problematic ,all are currently proceeding in dierent directions with their technology
improvements. Figure 1 illustrates the dierent technologies that are currently in use,
and which technologies the providers plan to use.
Although most technologies are similar, they are not all using the same protocol. In
addition, 3G systems still have inherent aws. They are not well-designed for data; they
are improvements on a protocol that was originally designed for voice. Thus, they are
inecient with their use of the available spectrum bandwidth. A data-centered protocol
is needed.
If one were to create two identical marketplaces in which cellular providers used 3G
and 4G respectively, the improvements in 4G would be easy to see. Speaking on the
topic of 3G, one of the worlds leading authorities on mobile communications, William
C.Y. Lee, states that 3G would be "a patched up system that could be inecient",
and it would be best if the industry would leapfrog over 3G wireless technology, and
prepare for 4G (Christian ).4G protocols use spectrum up to 3 times as eciently as 3G
systems, have better ways of handling dynamic load changes (such as additional cellular
users entering a particular cell), and create more bandwidth than 3G systems. Most
importantly, fourth-generation systems will draw more users by using standard network
protocols, which will be discussed later, to connect to the Internet. This will allow simple
and transparent connectivity.
This begs the question: Why are cellular providers not moving to 4G instead of 3G?
A marketplace like the cellular industry can be modeled as a game, as seen in Table 3.1.
There are three basic paths the game can take:
Nobody makes the conversion to 4G All end up upgrading to 2.5G and 3G services.
Chapter 3. Economic Impacts 6

Figure 3.1: Strategies

The upgrades are incremental, and don't require a complete reworking of the system,
so they are fairly cheap - the equipment required is already developed and in mass
production in other places in the world.
Everyone makes the conversion to 4G The equipment and technology needed for
4G will be cheap, because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. Cellular
providers will market additional services to its customers.
Some of the players make the conversion to 4G Because not all of the players have
chosen 4G, the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. Even though
converters will be able to sell more services to their customers, it will not be enough to
cover the higher costs of converting to 4G.
Therefore, if a player chooses the 4G strategy, but nobody else follows suit, that
player will be at a signicant disadvantage. No cellular provider has incentive to move
to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. An outside agent - the national government -must
standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States.
Of course, legitimate concerns can be posed to the idea of implementing 4G nation-
wide. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of
HDTV in the US, which has (thus far) failed miserably. There are two key dierences,
however, between 4G and HDTV. The rst is the nature of the service providers. There
are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as
much as 15 years of revenue. The cellular industry, however, does not have this problem.
Chapter 3. Economic Impacts 7

Figure 3.2: Cellular System Upgrades

The players are multi-billion dollar companies, who already have enough capital; contin-
ual network upgrades are part of their business plan. Our proposal is simply choosing
a direction for their growth. An often overlooked area of nancial liability for cellular
providers is in the area of information security. Providers could lose money through
fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over
the airwaves. Both of these cases could be caused by an insecure wireless system. This
lesson was learned during the use of the rst generation of cellular phones in the United
States: If a standard is to be set nationwide, it must be secure.
Chapter 4

ITU Requirements and 4G wireless


* Based on an all-IP packet switched network.

* Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbps for high mobility such as mobile
access and up to approximately 1 Gbps for low mobility.
* Dynamically share and utilize the network resources to support more simultaneous
users per cell.
* Scalable channel bandwidth, between 5 and 20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz.
* Peak link spectral eciency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in
the uplink
* System spectral eciency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell
for indoor usage
* Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks.
* Ability to oer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.

Chapter 5

4G candidate systems

In September 2009, the technology proposals were submitted to the International Telecom-
munication Union (ITU) as 4G candidates. Basically all proposals are based on two
* LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP
* 802.16m standardized by the IEEE (WMAN)

5.1 LTE Advanced

LTE Advanced (Long-term-evolution Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced stan-

dard, formally submitted by the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009, and
expected to be released in 2012. The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and
surpass the ITU requirements. LTE Advanced is essentially an enhancement to LTE. It
is not a new technology but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. This
upgrade path makes it more cost eective for vendors to oer LTE and then upgrade
to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA. LTE and
LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrum and multiplexing to allow it to
achieve higher data speeds. Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more
system capacity to help handle the enhanced data speeds. Release 10 of LTE is expected
to achieve the LTE Advanced speeds. Release 8 currently supports up to 300 Mbps

Chapter 5. 4G candidate systems 10

download speeds which is still short of the IMT-Advanced standards.

5.2 IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced

The IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced evolution of 802.16e is under develop-

ment, with the objective to fulll the IMT-Advanced criteria of 1 Gbps for stationary
reception and 100 Mbps for mobile reception.
Chapter 6

Visions of 4G

This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems,
perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless
connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume
of information, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures.
The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet
protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able
to choose every application and environment. Based on the developing trends of mobile
communication, 4G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and
quicker hando and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless
systems and networks. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the
existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. Application adaptability
and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users.
These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal pref-
erence of dierent users and support the users' trac, air interfaces, radio environment,
and quality of service. Connection with the network applications can be transferred into
various forms and levels correctly and eciently. The dominant methods of access to this
pool of information will be the mobile telephone, PDA, and laptop to seamlessly access
the voice communication, high-speed information services ,and entertainment broadcast
services. Figure 6.1 illustrates elements and techniques to support the adaptability of the

Chapter 6. Visions of 4G 12

4G domain. The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks,
public to private; operator-driven broadband networks to personal areas; and ad hoc
networks. The 4G systemswill interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with dig-
ital (broadband) broadcasting systems. In addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based
wireless Internet. This allencompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of
systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate, from satellite broadband to high
altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA
(xed wireless access) to WLAN (wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area
network),all with IP as the integrating mechanism. With 4G, a range of new services
and models will be available. These services and models need to be further examined for
their interface with the design of 4G systems. Figures6.2 and 6.3 demonstrate the key
elements and the seamless connectivity of the networks.

Figure 6.1: 4G Mobile Communications

Chapter 6. Visions of 4G 13

Figure 6.2: Seamless connections of a network

Figure 6.3: Key elements of 4G Vision

Chapter 7

Current Technology

Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-
division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA) (Riezenman
2000, 40). These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation, or
2G. Both systems make eavesdropping more dicult by digitally encoding the voice data
and compressing it, then splitting up the resulting data into chunks upon transmission.

7.1 TDMA

TDMA, or Time Division Multiple Access, is a technique for dividing the time domain
up into subchannels for use by multiple devices. Each device gets a single time slot in
a procession of devices on the network, as seen in Figure 3. During that particular time
slot, one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum, and every
other device is in the quiescent state.
The time is divided into frames in which each device on the network gets one timeslot.
There are n timeslots in each frame, one each for n devices on the network. In practice,
every device gets a timeslot in every frame. This makes the frame setup simpler and
more ecient because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission.
This has the negative side eect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have
nothing to send (Leon-Garcia and Widjaja 2000).

Chapter 7. Current Technology 15

One optimization that makes TDMA much more ecient is the addition of a regis-
tration period at the beginning of the frame. During this period, each device indicates
how much data it has to send. Through this registration period, devices with nothing
to send waste no time by having a timeslot allocated to them, and devices with lots of
pending data can have extra time with which to send it. This is called ETDMA (Ex-
tended TDMA) and can increase the eciency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of
the original analog cellular phone network.
The benet of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when
data is "bursty." That means, at an arbitrary time, it is not possible to predict the rate
or amount of pending data from a particular host. This type of data is seen often in
voice transmission, where the rate of speech, the volume of speech, and the amount of
background noise are constantly varying. Thus, for this type of data, very little capacity
is wasted by excessive allocation.

7.2 CDMA

CDMA, or Code Division Multiple Access, allows every device in a cell to transmit over
the entire bandwidth at all times. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal
code that is used to encode and recover the signal (Leon-Garcia and Widjaja 2000).
The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received, and encodes the data with
the unique code for that phone. This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal
and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. Thus, one data bit is
transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone.
This makes it possible to combine with other signals on the same frequency range and
still recover the original signal from an arbitrary mobile phone as long as the code for
that phone is known. Once encoded, the data is modulated for transmission over the
bandwidth allocated for that transmission. A block diagram of the process is shown in
The process for receiving a signal is shown in Figure . Once the signal is demodulated,
Chapter 7. Current Technology 16

Figure 7.1: Transmission

a correlator and integrator pair recovers the signal based on the unique code from the
cellular phone. The correlator recovers the original encoded signal for the device, and the
integrator transforms the recovered signal into the actual data stream. CDMA has been
patented in the United States by Qualcomm, making it more expensive to implement due
to royalty fees. This has been a factor for cellular phone providers when choosing which
system to implement. By keeping security in mind while designing the new system, the
creators of 2G wireless were able to produce a usable system that is still in use today.
Unfortunately, 2G technology is beginning to feel its age. Consumers now demand more
features, which in turn require higher data rates than 2G can handle. A new system is
needed that merges voice and data into the same digital stream, conserving bandwidth
to enable fast data access. By using advanced hardware and software at both ends of
the transmission, 4G is the answer to this problem.
Chapter 7. Current Technology 17

Figure 7.2: Reception

Figure 7.3: UWB Spectrum Usage

Chapter 8

Key 4G Technologies

Some of the key technologies required for 4G are briey described below:



Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) not only provides clear advantages
for physical layer performance, but also a framework for improving layer 2 performance
by proposing an additional degree of free- dom. Using ODFM, it is possible to exploit
the time domain, the space domain, the frequency domain and even the code domain to
optimize radio channel usage. It ensures very robust transmission in multi-path environ-
ments with reduced receiver complexity. OFDM also provides a frequency diversity gain,
improving the physical layer performance .It is also compatible with other enhancement
Technologies, such as smart antennas and MIMO.OFDM modulation can also be em-
ployed as a multiple access technology (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access;
OFDMA). In this case, each OFDM symbol can transmit information to/from several
users using a dierent set of sub carriers (sub channels). This not only provides additional
exibility for resource allocation (increasing the capacity), but also enables cross-layer
optimization of radio link usage.
Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), essentially identical to coded

Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 19

OFDM (COFDM) and discrete multi-tone modulation (DMT), is a frequency-division

multiplexing (FDM) scheme used as a digital multi-carrier modulation method. A large
number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers are used to carry data. The data is
divided into several parallel data streams or channels, one for each sub-carrier. Each
sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as quadrature
amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying) at a low symbol rate, maintaining total
data rates similar to conventional single-carrier modulation schemes in the same band-
width.OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communication,
whetherwireless or over copper wires, used in applications such as digital television and
audio broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access.
The primary advantage of OFDM over single-carrier schemes is its ability to cope
with severe channel conditions (for example, attenuation of high frequencies in a long
copper wire, narrowband interference and frequency-selective fading due to multipath)
without complex equalization lters. Channel equalization is simplied because OFDM
may be viewed as using many slowly-modulated narrowband signals rather than one
rapidly-modulated wideband signal. The low symbol rate makes the use of a guard
interval between symbols aordable, making it possible to handle time-spreading and
eliminate intersymbol interference (ISI). This mechanism also facilitates the design of
single frequency networks (SFNs), where several adjacent transmitters send the same
signal simultaneously at the same frequency, as the signals from multiple distant trans-
mitters may be combined constructively, rather than interfering as would typically occur
in a traditional single-carrier system.

8.1.1 Key features

The advantages and disadvantages listed below are further discussed in the Characteris-
tics and principles of operation section below.
* Can easily adapt to severe channel conditions without complex time-domain equal-
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 20

Figure 8.1: OFDMA

* Robust against narrow-band co-channel interference.

* Robust against intersymbol interference (ISI) and fading caused by multipath prop-
* High spectral eciency as compared to conventional modulation schemes, spread
spectrum, etc.
* Ecient implementation using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).
* Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors.
* Tuned sub-channel receiver lters are not required (unlike conventional FDM).
* Facilitates single frequency networks (SFNs); i.e., transmitter macrodiversity
* Sensitive to Doppler shift.
* Sensitive to frequency synchronization problems.
* High peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR), requiring linear transmitter circuitry,
which suers from poor power eciency.
* Loss of eciency caused by cyclic prex/guard interval.

8.1.2 Idealized system model

This section describes a simple idealized OFDM system model suitable for a time-
invariant AWGN channel.
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 21

An OFDM carrier signal is the sum of a number of orthogonal sub-carriers, with base-
band data on each sub-carrier being independently modulated commonly using some type
of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or phase-shift keying (PSK). This composite
baseband signal is typically used to modulate a main RF carrier, is a serial stream of bi-
nary digits. By inverse multiplexing, these are rst demultiplexed into parallel streams,
and each one mapped to a (possibly complex) symbol stream using some modulation
constellation (QAM, PSK, etc.). Note that the constellations may be dierent, so some
streams may carry a higher bit-rate than others.
An inverse FFT is computed on each set of symbols, giving a set of complex time-
domain samples. These samples are then quadrature -mixed to passband in the standard
way. The real and imaginary components are rst converted to the analogue domain
using digital-to-analogue converters (DACs); the analogue signals are then used to mod-
ulate cosine and sine waves at the carrier frequency, , respectively. These signals are
then summed to give the transmission signal.

Figure 8.2: Transmission

Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 22

Figure 8.3: Reception

The receiver picks up the signal , which is then quadrature-mixed down to baseband
using cosine and sine waves at the carrier frequency. This also creates signals centered
on , so low-pass lters are used to reject these. The baseband signals are then sampled
and digitized using analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs), and a forward FFT is used
to convert back to the frequency domain. This returns parallel streams, each of which
is converted to a binary stream using an appropriate symbol detector. These streams
are then re-combined into a serial stream, , which is an estimate of the original binary
stream at the transmitter.

8.1.3 Orthogonal frequency division multiple access

Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is a multi-user version of the

popularOrthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme.
Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individ-
ual users as shown in the illustration below. This allows simultaneous low data rate
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 23

Figure 8.4: OFDM

transmission from several users.

* IEEE 802.16 Wireless man std(WIMAX)
* IEEE 802.20 Mobile man std(WBMA)
* 3GPP Long Term Evolution
* 3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband(UMB)
* IEEE 802.22(WRAN)Wireless regional area network


Software Dened Radio (SDR) benets from today's high processing power to develop
multi-band, multi-standard base stations and terminals. Although in future the termi-
nals will adapt the air interface to the available radio access technology, at present this
is done by the infrastructure. Several infrastructure gains are expected from SDR. For
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 24

example, to increase network capacity at a specic time (e.g. during a sports event),an
operator will recongure its network adding several modems at a given Base Transceiver
Station (BTS). SDR makes this reconguration easy. In the context of 4G systems, SDR
will become an enabler for the aggregation of multi-standard pico/micro cells. For a
manufacturer, this can be a powerful aid to providing multi-standard, multi-band equip-
ment with reduced development eort and costs through simultaneous multi-channel
processing. Hardwares used in radio communication system replaced by means of soft-
ware on computer or Embedded computing devices. SDR consist of a personal computer
equipped with a sound card or ADC, preceded by some RF front end. SDR used to
produce radio which can interchange widely dierent radio protocols. Used in military
and cell phone services

8.2.1 Operating principle

* The ideal receiver scheme would be to attach an analog-to-digital converter to an

* A digital signal processor would read the converter, and then its software would
transform the stream of data from the converter to any other form the application requires
* Transmitter contains a digital signal processor would generate a stream of numbers.
* These would be sent to a digital-to-analog converter connected to a radio antenna.
In the long term, software-dened radios are expected by proponents like the SDRFo-
rum (now The Wireless Innovation Forum) to become the dominant technology in radio
communications. SDRs, along with software dened antennas are the enablers of the
cognitive radio.


MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multi-
plex) and time or frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to process
independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 25

Figure 8.5: SDR

channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplies processing. The signal transmitted
by m antennas is received by n antennas. Processing of the received signals may de-
liver several performance improvements: range, quality of received signal and Spectrum
eciency. In principle, MIMO is more ecient when many multiple path signals are
received. The performance in cellular deployments is still subject to research and simu-
lations. However, it is generally admitted that the gain in spectrum eciency is directly
related to the minimum number of antennas in the link.

8.3.1 Types

* Precoding is multi-stream beamforming.
* In beamforming, the same signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas
with appropriate phase weighting such that the signal power is maximized at the receiver
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 26

* Diversity Coding techniques are used when there is no channel knowledge at the
* In diversity methods, a single stream is transmitted, but the signal is coded using
techniques called space-time coding.
* Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple antenna links to
enhance signal diversity
* A high rate signal is split into multiple lower rate streams and each stream is
transmitted from a dierent transmit antenna in the same frequency channel.
* signals arrive at the receiver antenna array with suciently dierent spatial signa-
* The receiver can separate these streams into parallel channels. Spatial multiplexing
is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise
ratios (SNR).
* The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser in the number of
antennas at the transmitter or receiver.


Handover technologies based on mobileIP technology have been considered for data and
voice. Mobile IP techniques are slow but can be accelerated with classical methods
(Hierarchical, fast mobile IP). These methods are applicable to data and probably also
voice. In single-frequency networks, it is necessary to reconsider the handover methods.
Several techniques can be used when the carrier to interference ratio is negative (e.g.
VSFOFDM,bit repetition), but the drawback of these techniques is capacity. In OFDM,
the same alternative exists as in CDMA, which is to use macro-diversity. In the case
of OFDM, MIMO allows macro-diversity processing with performance gains. However,
the implementation of macro-diversity implies that MIMO Processing is centralized and
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 27

Figure 8.6: Dierent Systems

transmissions are synchronous. This is not as complex as in CDMA, but such a technique
should only be used in situations where spectrum is very scarce
Chapter 8. Key 4G Technologies 28

Figure 8.7: MIMO Communications

Chapter 9

Quality Of Service

* Trac generated by the dierent services will not only increase trac loads on the
networks, but will also require dierent quality of service (QoS) requirements (e.g.,cell
loss rate, delay, and jitter) for dierent streams (e.g., video, voice, data).
* Providing QoS guarantees in 4G networks is a non-trivial issue where both QoS
signaling across dierent networks and service dierentiation between mobile ows will
have to be addressed.
* One of the most dicult problems that are to be solved, when it comes to IP
mobility, is how to insure the constant QoS level during the handover.
* Depending on whether the new access router is in the same or some other sub
network, we recognize the horizontal and vertical handover.
* However, the mobile terminal cannot receive IP packets while the process of han-
dover is nished. This time is called the handover latency.
* Handover latency has a great inuence on the ow of multimedia applications in
* Mobile IPv6 have been proposed to reduce the handover latency and the number
of * lost packets.
* The eld "Trac Class" and "Flow Label" in IPv6 eader enables the routers to *
secure the special QoS for specic packet series with marked priority.

Chapter 10


* The heterogeneity of wireless networks complicates the security issue.

* Dynamic recongurable, adaptive, and lightweight security mechanisms should be
* Security in wireless networks mainly involves authentication, condentiality, in-
tegrity, and authorization for the access of network connectivity and QoS resources for
the mobile nodes ow.
* AAA (Authentication Authorization Auditing) protocols provide a framework for
such suered especially for control plane functions and installing security policies in the
mobile node such as encryption, decryption and ltering.

Chapter 11


1. VIRTUAL PRESENCE: This means that 4G provides user services at all times, even
if the user is o-site.
2. VIRTUAL NAVIGATION: 4G provides users with virtual navigation through
which a user can access a database of the streets, buildings etc.
3.TELE-GEOPROCESSING APPLICATIONS: This is a combination of GIS(Geographical
Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the
location by querying.
4.TELE MEDICINE AND EDUCATION: 4G will support remote health monitoring
of patients. For people who are interested in life long education, 4G provides a good
5.CRISIS MANAGEMENT: Natural disasters can cause break down in communica-
tion systems. In today's world it might take days or 7 weeks to restore the system. But
in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours.
* 4G wireless systems are expected to deliver ecient multimedia services at very
high data rates.
* Basically there are two types of video services: bursting and streaming video ser-
* Streaming is performed when a user requires real-time video services, in which the

Chapter 11. Applications 32

server delivers data continuously at a playback rate.

*Bursting is basically le downloading using a buer and this is done at the highest
data rate taking advantage of the whole available bandwidth.
Chapter 12


As the history of mobile communications shows,attempts have been made to reduce a

number of technologies to a single global standard. Projected 4G systems oer this
promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of inte-
gration. Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications
to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. There must be a low complexity of
implementation and an ecient means of negotiation between the end users and the
wireless infrastructure.
The fourth generation promises to fulll the goal of PCC (personal computing and
communication)-a vision that aordably provides high data rates everywhere over a
wireless network.

Chapter 13


* IEEE802.16-2004
* www.4g.co.uk
* www.uscwc.com/4GReport
* www.four-g.net
* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki