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Engineering Standard

SAES-Q-001 25 April 2019


Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures
Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee

Contents
1 Scope ................................................................ 2
2 Conflicts and Deviations ................................... 2
3 References........................................................ 2
4 Definitions ......................................................... 6
5 General Requirements ...................................... 6
6 Quality Control .................................................. 7
7 Materials ........................................................... 7
8 Design and Execution ....................................... 9
9 Sulfur Pits........................................................ 20
10 Marine and Offshore Concrete Structures ...... 22
Revision Summary .................................................. 22

Previous Issue: 21 October 2018 Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Page 1 of 22
Contact: Abduljabbar, Sami Abdulaziz (abdusa0x) on phone +966-13-8809680

©Saudi Aramco 2018. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

1 Scope

This standard covers the minimum mandatory requirements governing the design,
specifications, and construction of all onshore structural, offshore structural, and
non-structural concrete.

1.1 This standard does not cover the design, manufacturing, specification, casting,
and erection of precast and prestressed concrete products. Refer to SAES-Q-012
for Precast and Prestressed Concrete Structures.

1.2 Special concrete mixes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC), roller


compacted concrete, pervious concrete, heavy weight concrete, light weight
concrete, foam concrete, polymer concrete, and marine concrete shall be
reviewed by Civil Engineering Group / CSD.

2 Conflicts and Deviations

Any conflicts between this document and other applicable Mandatory Saudi Aramco
Engineering Requirements (MSAERs) shall be addressed to the EK&RD Coordinator.

Any deviation from the requirements herein shall follow internal company procedure
SAEP-302.

3 References

The following reference documents shall be considered an integral part of this standard
except otherwise noted. Use the edition in effect on the date of the publication of this
standard unless otherwise noted.

3.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure


SAEP-302 Waiver of a Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-A-113 Geotechnical Engineering Requirements
SAES-B-005 Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and
Low-pressure Tanks
SAES-H-001 Coating Selection and Application Requirements for
Industrial Plants and Equipment

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

SAES-L-440 Anchor for Buried Pipelines


SAES-P-104 Wiring Methods and Materials
SAES-P-111 Grounding
SAES-Q-005 Concrete Foundations
SAES-Q-012 Criteria for Design and Construction of Precast and
Prestressed Concrete Structures
SAES-S-070 Installation of Utility Piping Systems
SAES-T-911 Telecommunications Conduit System Design

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications


09-SAMSS-097 Ready-mixed Concrete
09-SAMSS-106 Epoxy Coating of Steel Reinforcing Bars
12-SAMSS-007 Fabrication of Structural and Miscellanies Steel
12-SAMSS-027 Fiber-reinforced Polymer Bar Materials for
Concrete Reinforcement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Reports


SAER-5803 Concrete Repair Manual

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing


AA-036602 Concrete Masonry

Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual

3.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Concrete Institute


ACI 117 Standard Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete
Construction and Materials
ACI 237R Self-Consolidating Concrete
ACI 301-16 Specifications for Structural Concrete
ACI 304R Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and
Placing Concrete
ACI 305R Hot Weather Concreting
ACI 318-14 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
ACI 350 Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering
Concrete Structures and Commentary
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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

ACI 350.1 Specification for Tightness Testing of Environmental


Engineering Concrete Containment Structures
ACI 350.5 Specifications for Environmental Concrete Structures
ACI 440.1R Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete
Reinforced with FRP Bars
ACI 440.5 Specification for Construction with Fiber-reinforced
Polymer Reinforcing Bars
ACI 562 Code Requirements for Evaluation, Repair, and
Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings
ACI SP-66 Detailing Manual - Details and Detailing of
Concrete Reinforcement
TMS 402/602 Building Code Requirements and Specifications for
Masonry Structures

ASTM International
ASTM A615/A615M Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A767/767M Specification for Zinc-coated (Galvanized) Steel
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A775/A775M Specification for Epoxy-coated Reinforcing Bars
ASTM A884/A884M Specification for Epoxy-coated Steel Wire and
Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement
ASTM A1064/A1064M Specification for Carbon-steel Wire and Welded Wire
Reinforcement, Plain and Deformed, for Concrete
ASTM C39/C39M Test Methods for Compressive Strength of
Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
ASTM C55 Specification for Concrete Building Brick
ASTM C90 Specification for Load Bearing Concrete Masonry
Units
ASTM C129 Specification for Non-load Bearing Concrete
Masonry Units
ASTM C140 Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Testing
Concrete Masonry Units
ASTM C309 Specification for Liquid Membrane-forming
Compounds for Curing Concrete

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

ASTM C979/C979M Specification for Pigments for Integrally Colored


Concrete
ASTM C1116/1116M Specifications for Fiber-reinforced Concrete
ASTM C1202 Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of
Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion
Penetration
ASTM C1218 Standard Test Method for Water-soluble Chloride in
Mortar and Concrete
ASTM C1240 Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in
Cementitious Mixtures
ASTM C1580 Test Method for Water-soluble Sulfate in Soil
ASTM C1611/C1611M Standard Test Method for Slump Flow of
Self-consolidating Concrete
ASTM D516 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water
ASTM D1751 Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion
Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and Structural
Construction
ASTM D1752 Specification for Preformed Sponge Rubber Cork
and Recycled PVC Expansion Joint Fillers for
Concrete Paving and Structural Construction
ASTM D4130 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Brackish
Water, Seawater, and Brines
ASTM D7957/D7957M Standard Specification for Solid Round Glass Fiber
Reinforced Polymer Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
ASTM E1745 Standard Specification for Plastic Water Vapor
Retarders Used in Contact with Soil or Granular
Fill under Concrete Slabs

British Standard
BS 1881-122 (2011) Testing Concrete - Part 122: Method for
Determination of Water Absorption

Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI)

Manual of Standard Practice

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Organization

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

AASHTO T277 Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of


Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion
Penetration
AASHTO T291 Standard Method of Test for Determining Water
Soluble Chloride Ion Content in Soil
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

4 Definitions

Hot Weather Concrete: Can be defined as job-site conditions that accelerate the rate
of moisture loss or rate of cement hydration of freshly mixed concrete, including an
ambient temperature of 29°C or higher, and an evaporation rate that exceeds 1 kg/m²/h.

Mass Concrete: Any volume of structural concrete in which a combination of


dimensions of the member being cast, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the
concrete mixture, and the ambient conditions can lead to undesirable thermal stresses,
cracking, deleterious chemical reactions, or reduction in the long-term strength as a
result of elevated concrete temperature due to heat from hydration.

Self-consolidating Concrete: Fresh concrete that can flow around and encapsulate
reinforcement and consolidate within formwork under its own weight without any
mechanical consolidation and vibration.

Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures: Concrete structures intended for


conveying, storing, or treating water, wastewater, or other non-hazardous liquids, and
for secondary containment of hazardous materials.

Marine Structure: Any facility that is in contact with sea water.

Offshore Concrete Structure: Fixed reinforced concrete, for service in deeper waters
far from the shoreline.

Subkha: Is a saline (generally coastal) deposit generally consisting of saturated, loose


silty sand, and possibly clay.

5 General Requirements
5.1 Concrete construction shall be in accordance with all requirements of
ACI 301-16, except as modified or supplemented in this standard or by contract
documents.
5.2 Any placement of concrete designated in the contract documents as mass
concrete or any placement of structural concrete with a minimum dimension
equal to or greater than 1,200 mm should be considered mass concrete unless

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

otherwise specified in contract documents and shall comply with ACI 301-16,
Section 8.
5.3 Construction of environmental engineering concrete structures shall comply
with ACI 350.5.
5.4 Environmental engineering concrete structures designed to store liquids shall be
leak tested in accordance with ACI 350.1 “Specification for Tightness Testing of
Environmental Engineering Concrete Containment Structures”.
5.5 Cast-in-place structural concrete reinforced with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
bars shall comply with ACI 440.5 “Specification for Construction with Fiber-
Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bars”.

5.6 Architectural concrete shall comply with ACI 301 Section 6.


5.7 Concrete that is not covered by this standard shall comply with applicable ACI
documents.

6 Quality Control

The contractor shall employ an independent Saudi Aramco approved testing agency to
perform field and laboratory testing which shall include compressive strength tests of
molded concrete cylinders, test for slump, unit weight, air content (where air-
entrainment is required), fresh concrete temperature, and tests for self-consolidating
concrete. All testing shall be in accordance with 09-SAMSS-097, “Ready-Mixed
Concrete.”

7 Materials

The concrete materials shall be in accordance with 09-SAMSS-097, “Ready-Mixed


Concrete” and as follows:
7.1 Cementitious Materials

7.1.1 Portland cement shall be in accordance with ASTM C150/C150M, Type I


or Type V.

7.1.2 Fly ash shall be in accordance with ASTM C618, Class F

7.1.3 Ground Granular Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) shall be in accordance


with ASTM C989/C989M.

7.1.4 Natural Pozzolan shall be in accordance with ASTM C618.

7.1.5 Silica fume shall be in accordance with ASTM C1240.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

7.1.6 Cementitious materials used for mass concrete applications shall be in


accordance with ACI 301 / ACI 301M Section 8.2.1.1. For environmental
engineering concrete structures, cementitious materials used for mass
concrete applications shall also be in accordance with ACI 350.5 /
ACI 350.5M Section 8.2.1.1

7.1.7 Cementitious materials shall be tested prior to use on a monthly basis or


when changing the source of the materials.
7.2 Reinforcement

7.2.1 Reinforcing bars shall be deformed steel in accordance with


ASTM A615/A615M, Grade 420.

7.2.2 When used as ductile steel elements to resist earthquake effects,


deformed reinforcing bar shall be limited to ASTM A706 Grade 420, or
ASTM A615 Grades 280 and 420 satisfying the requirements of
ACI 318-14.

7.2.3 Coated reinforcements shall be Fusion Bonded Epoxy in accordance


with 09-SAMSS-106.

7.2.4 Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement shall conform to the


requirements of 12-SAMSS-027 and ASTM D7957/D7957M.

7.2.5 Welded wire reinforcement shall be plain wire in accordance with


ASTM A1064/A1064M. Rolls of welded wire reinforcement shall not
be used.

7.2.6 Galvanized welded wire fabric shall conform to ASTM A1060/A1060M.

7.2.7 Tie wire shall be black annealed wire, 16 gage (1.29 mm) minimum.
Fasten epoxy-coated reinforcement with tie wires coated with epoxy.

7.2.8 Manufacturing, fabrication, handling, placement and storage of steel


reinforcement shall be in accordance with ACI 318.
Commentary Note:

Care should be taken to avoid any damage to the coated rebars during
shipment, handling, fabrication and placement of the coated rebars.
The extent of the damage and repair of the coating shall be in
accordance with 09-SAMSS-106.

7.3 Masonry Units

Details and dimensions of the concrete masonry units shall be as shown on


Standard Drawing AA-036602. Manufacturing and testing shall be in
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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 25 April 2018
Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

accordance with the following specifications for each type of masonry unit to be
supplied under the Purchase Order. Actual finish dimensions for each type of
masonry shall be as specified in the Purchase Order.

7.3.1 Hollow and solid load-bearing concrete masonry units shall be


manufactured according to ASTM C90, and tested in accordance with
ASTM C140.

7.3.2 Hollow and solid non-load bearing concrete masonry units shall be
manufactured according to ASTM C129, and tested in accordance with
ASTM C140.
Commentary Note:

Masonry units manufactured to ASTM C129 are intended for use as non-
load bearing partitions. They should not be used for exterior walls unless
a moisture-protective coating is used.

7.3.3 Concrete building brick shall be Grade N, manufactured and tested


according to ASTM C55.

7.4 Fiber-reinforced Concrete (FRC)

FRC shall be in accordance with ASTM C1116/1116M, Type II or III.

7.5 Joints

Joint filler strips for expansion joints shall conform to ASTM D1751 or
ASTM D1752. Type shall be as noted on the design drawings.

7.6 Accessories

Accessories shall meet the requirements of ACI 301-16.

7.7 Vapor Barrier

Below floor vapor barrier shall be in accordance with ASTM E1745, Class A,
and minimum 10 mil (250 μm) thickness unless otherwise specified in contract
documents.

8 Design and Execution

8.1 SAES-L-440, “Anchor for Buried Pipelines,” shall be used for the design of
anchor blocks.

8.2 Thrust blocks for utility piping system shall be structural concrete and designed
in accordance with the requirements of SAES-S-070 and this standard.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Next Planned Update: 11 September 2021 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

8.3 ACI 318-14, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,” shall be
used for the design of structural concrete.

8.4 ACI 350, “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete


Structures,” shall be used for the design of reinforced environmental engineering
concrete structures.

8.5 TMS 402/602 “Building Code Requirements and Specifications for Masonry
Structures” shall be used for the design of masonry structures.

8.6 AASHTO, “LRFD Bridge Design Specifications,” shall be used for the
structural design of reinforced concrete bridges, culverts, and pipeline crossing.
Unless otherwise specified, the design shall be based on HS20 truck.
Maintenance and construction crane loads shall also be considered.

8.7 ACI 440.1R, “Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced
with FRP Bars,” shall be used for the design of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic
Bars (GFRP).

8.8 Execution for self-consolidating concrete shall follow the methods and means
outlined in ACI 237R.

8.9 Concrete paving shall be in accordance with the following:


a) Areas subject to spills, wash water, fire water and sidewalk shall be
paved with a minimum thickness of 100 mm of reinforced concrete.
b) Paving slabs subject to vehicular traffic shall be a minimum thickness of
150 mm of reinforced concrete. The design load shall be as specified in
paragraph 8.6 of this standard.
c) Concrete paving slope to the catch basins or trenches shall not be less than
1:65 (1.5%). The maximum drop to catch basins from high point of paving
shall be 200 mm.
Commentary Note:

Ensure that slope will not jeopardize the movement of traffic.

d) Where foundations protrude through the paving, 12 mm diameter


reinforcing bars, 800 mm long, shall be placed diagonally in the paving at
all interior corners.

8.10 Exposures

Structural concrete members shall be assigned an exposure class in accordance


with the severity of the anticipated exposure of members in tables 1.A and 1.B.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Table 1.A - Sulfate Exposures Classes


Exposure Water-soluble Sulfate (SO4) Dissolved Sulfate (SO4)
Class in Soil, Percent by Mass1 in Water, ppm2
S0 SO4 < 0.1 SO4 < 150

S1 0.10 ≤ SO4 < 0.20 150 ≤ SO4 < 1,500


S2 0.2 ≤ SO4 < 2.00 1,500 ≤ SO4 < 10,000
S3 SO4 > 2.0 SO4 ≥ 10,000
S4 Sulfur Pits

Table 1.B - Chloride Exposure Classes


Below Ground Exposure Above Ground Exposure
Exposure
Class

Water Soluble Water Soluble


Chloride (cl-) in Soil, Chloride (cl-) in Environmental and Marine Exposure
% by Weight Ground Water, ppm

 Non-coastal (more than 5 km from the coastline)


 Concrete dry or protected from moisture by damp-proof
C0 Up to 0.1 Up to 2,000
membrane
 Members fully enclosed within buildings
 Coastal (up to 5 km from the coastline, but excluding
members classified under other exposures)
 Concrete subjected to cyclic wet and dry from water other
C1 0.1 to 0.5 2,000 to 10,000 than seawater (e.g., structures subjected to intermittent
brackish wash water)
 Concrete permanently submerged in sea water
 Sewage Treatment Plant
 Concrete in tidal, splash and spray zones in marine
C2 More than 0.5 More than 10,000 environment
 Concrete in contact with Subkha

1
Percent sulfate by mass in soil shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1580.
2
Concentration of dissolved sulfates in water in ppm shall be determined by ASTM D516 or ASTM D4130.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Based on the exposure classes assigned from tables 1.A and 1.B, concrete
mixtures and steel reinforcement type shall comply with the most onerous
requirements in Table 2.

Table 2 - Requirements for Reinforced Concrete by Exposures Class


Max. Min. f’c Cementitious Min. Cementitious Reinforcing
Exposure Additional Provisions
w/cm (MPa) Materials Type Content kg/m3 Steel
S0 0.45 30 No restriction 320 Uncoated
S1 0.45 30 V 340 Uncoated
S2 0.40 35 V 360 Uncoated
3
I + Pozzolan
S3 0.40 40 380 Uncoated
or Slag cement
S4 0.35 50 I + Slag cement 400 Uncoated Refer to Section 9
Max. water-soluble
chloride ion (Cl-) in Additional
concrete, % by weight Provisions
of cement4

C0 0.45 30 I 320 Uncoated 1.00


ECR* (see
I + Pozzolan
C1 0.40 35 360 Section 8.11 for 0.3
or slag cement
FRP rebars)
Refer to Section 10
for marine concrete
ECR (see Concrete foundations
I + Pozzolan
C2 0.40 40 380 Section 8.11 for 0.15 in subkha shall be
or slag cement
FRP rebars) protected by
appropriate means
such as tanking

8.10.1 The use of slag or pozzolans including silica fume or any combination
of the above are limited to structural concrete members only, excluding
plant paving, sidewalks, erosion protection paving, and slabs
reinforced with welded wire fabric or fiber reinforced polymers.

8.10.2 Underground exposure category is based on performance of


geotechnical investigation as required by SAES-A-113 or availability
of prior reports showing soil chemical composition. In the absence of
geotechnical reports, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater shall
be conducted.

8.10.3 Testing of soil shall be for the natural soil and the capillary rise
phenomenon shall be considered if the soil is imported.

3
Pozzolan can be silica fume, fly ash, or natural pozzolan
4
Water-soluble chloride ion content that is contributed from the ingredients including water, aggregates, cementitious materials,
and admixtures shall be determined in the concrete mixture in accordance to ASTM C1218 at age between 28 and 42 days.

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8.10.4 Environmental concrete structures, shall have a minimum 28-day


design compressive strength of 35 MPa (5,000 psi).

8.10.5 Unreinforced concrete of no significant structural value such as lean


concrete for sub-slabs shall have a minimum 28 day design
compressive strength (ASTM C39) of 14 MPa (2,000 psi).

8.11 FRP Reinforcement

FRP reinforcement shall be used to replace steel reinforcement for non-critical


structural elements in C1 & C2 exposures, including but not limited to; slab on
grade, sidewalks, surface drainage channels, concrete paving, pipe sleepers.
Other applications where FRP reinforcement may add value such as Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (MRI) room in hospitals, electrical equipment foundations,
sewage treatment plant, and sea walls shall be investigated.
Commentary Note:

Where FRP reinforcement is the only reinforcement in the concrete members,


concrete mix design, concrete cover, and concrete durability protection measures
can be revised to consider the benefits of specifying FRP reinforcement.

8.12 Steel Reinforcement

8.12.1 Reinforcement placing drawings and bending schedules shall be


prepared in accordance with ACI SP-66 and CRSI Manual of Standard
Practice.

8.12.2 Reinforcement placing drawings and bending schedules shall show


number, grade, size, length, mark, location, and bending diagrams for
reinforcing bars.

8.12.3 Splices in reinforcement shall be detailed, fabricated, and located only


as shown on the design drawings.

8.12.4 Fabrication drawings shall indicate the related PO number, release


number, and design drawing number.

8.12.5 Reinforcement shall be tagged with weather-resistant metal tags.

8.12.6 Each bundle of fabricated bars shall be tagged. The tags shall indicate
reinforcement placing drawing number, release number, mark number,
grade, bar quantity, and bar size.

8.12.7 Each bundle of stock-length straight bars shall be tagged to indicate bar
quantity, grade, bar size, and bar length.

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8.12.8 Fabrication tolerance shall conform to ACI 117.

8.12.9 Table 3 defines the minimum concrete cover measured from outer most
rebar (tie bar), that shall be provided for reinforcement of cast-in-place
concrete structures.

Table 3 - Minimum Concrete Cover


Minimum
Concrete Exposure Members
Cover (mm)
Concrete cast against or
All
permanently exposed to 75
(including foundations over a sub-slab)
earth
Foundations supporting process
equipment such as concrete pedestal
75
Formed concrete exposed to supporting pipe rack, pipe sleepers, or
earth or weather supports for horizontal vessels
Buildings, walkway platforms,
50
stairs, AC pads
Concrete not exposed to Beams, columns, and tension ties 50
weather or in contact with
ground Slabs, walls, joists 25
Concrete exposed to sea
all 75
water, raw water, or sewage
Sulfur pits all 75

8.13 Formwork

8.13.1 The design and construction of the formwork shall be in accordance


with ACI 347, Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual, and shall be
the responsibility of the Contractor.

8.13.2 Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents 20-millimeter


(¾-inch) chamfer strips shall be provided at all corners on permanently
exposed surfaces.

8.13.3 Form-release agents shall not be applied if concrete surfaces shall


receive special finishes (e.g., Architectural Finishes) or where the
agent may affect applied coverings. Alternately, inside surfaces of
untreated formwork shall be soaked with clean water and kept moist
before placing concrete.

8.13.4 Form removal shall be in accordance with ACI 301-16 and the
following:
a) For structures for which forms do not provide vertical support

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(e.g., footings, piers, columns, walls, or sides of beams), the forms


may be removed 24 hours after completion of placement if
concrete is sufficiently hard to prevent damage by form removal,
and if curing starts immediately.
b) Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, forms for
self-supporting members may be removed if concrete compressive
strength is at least 80% of the specified 28-day compressive
strength. Refer to ACI 301-16, Section 2.3.4, for determining
compressive strength of concrete for removal of formwork.
c) Unless otherwise approved by the purchaser, forms shall not be
left permanently in place.

8.13.5 Formed concrete surfaces shall be constructed in accordance with the


tolerances shown in ACI 117.

8.13.6 Formwork for column and wall shall be provided with adequate
cleanout openings to permit inspection and easy cleaning after
reinforcement has been placed.

8.13.7 All side and bottom surfaces of structures that will be exposed shall be
formed.

8.13.8 Formwork for self-consolidating concrete (SCC) shall be designed in


accordance with Eq. (2.1a) and (2.1b) of ACI 347 and ACI 237R until
the effect on formwork pressure is understood by measurement.
Formwork should be watertight and grout-tight when placing SCC.

8.14 Joints

8.14.1 Isolation joints shall be placed where pavement adjoins vertical


surfaces (e.g., walls, columns, catch basins, manholes, and equipment
foundations). Isolation joints shall be located in accordance with
contract documents.

8.14.2 Dowels at expansion joints shall be properly aligned to prevent any


restraint on expansion movement at the joint. FRP dowels
reinforcement in pavements and slab on grade shall be utilized.

8.14.3 The surface of joints shall be cleaned of scale and laitance and
thoroughly wetted, but free of standing water, before placing adjoining
concrete.

8.14.4 Concrete paving shall have control or construction joints located at a


maximum spacing of 6 meters on centers in both directions.
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8.14.5 Expansion joints shall be used in paving adjacent to all poured in place
concrete members.

8.14.6 Paving or slab construction joints not specified on the drawings shall
be located at column centerlines and intermediate intervals.

8.14.7 Waterstops shall be provided in joints where watertight construction is


required in accordance with ACI 350.5. Waterstop type shall be
specified and shown on the drawings and shall satisfy the function and
operation of the structure and shall be installed as per the
manufacturer’s recommendations.

8.14.8 Joints in atmospheric and low pressure tank dikes shall comply with
SAES-B-005.

8.15 Concrete Repair

8.15.1 Evaluation, repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of reinforced


concrete structures should follow ACI 562 “Code Requirements for
Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings” and
SAER-5803, “Concrete Repair Manual.”

8.15.2 Strengthening of concrete structures using FRP materials shall follow


the guidelines of ACI 440.2R “Guide for the Design and Construction
of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete
Structures.”

8.15.3 Repair of Surface Defects


a) Tie holes, honeycombs, and other concrete surface defects shall be
repaired promptly after form removal at a time and in a manner
that shall not delay, interfere with, or impair the proper curing of
the fresh concrete unless otherwise specified or permitted by
Saudi Aramco.
b) Saudi Aramco shall be notified before proceeding with repair if
the defect is any of the following:
1. Depth is greater than 75 mm at the maximum point and
surface area is greater than (100,000 mm²).
2. Depth is greater than ¼ the thickness of the member and
greater than 150 mm in any other direction.
3. Reinforcing steel is exposed.
c) Prepackaged grouts and patching compounds or a patching mortar
similar to the concrete mix without coarse aggregate may be used
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with approval from Saudi Aramco.


d) Out-of-tolerance slabs shall be repaired by grinding down high
points and/or raising low points by using an approved self-leveling
compound or repair topping if the areas are exposed.
e) Critical slab areas, identified in the contract documents shall be
replaced if out-of-tolerance. A demolition and replacement plan
for the slab areas shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco for review
and approval before proceeding.

8.16 Embedded Items

8.16.1 All sleeves, inserts, anchor bolts, waterstops, and other embedded
items shall be installed in accordance with the design drawings and
supported against displacement. Welding of these items to the
reinforcing bars shall not be permitted.

8.16.2 The design and installation of anchor bolts shall be in accordance to


SAES-Q-005 and the materials selection of anchor bolts shall be in
accordance to 12-SAMSS-007.

8.16.3 Projecting steel items (such as grating angles, slide plates, unistrut,
steel plates, etc.) which are attached to the formwork and cast at the
concrete surface shall be hot dip galvanized in accordance with ASTM
A123/A123M or coated with the zinc rich epoxy primer in APCS-1C
of SAES-H-001. Additionally, the steel attachment, which anchors
these items to the concrete, shall be similarly galvanized or coated.

8.16.4 Reinforcing steel bars, anchor bolts or other steel embedments shall not
be connected to the electrical grounding system. Connection of the
structure reinforcing or imbedded steel to the lightning protection
system shall be as required by SAES-P-111.

8.16.5 Conduits, pipes and other items made from aluminum shall not be
embedded in structural concrete unless effectively coated to prevent
aluminum-concrete reaction.

8.17 Placing Concrete

8.17.1 Concrete shall be placed in accordance with ACI 301-16, ACI 304R
and this standard. For hot weather concreting requirements, see
Section 7.27.

8.17.2 Equipment made of aluminum alloys shall not be used for pump lines,
tremies, or chutes used to discharge concrete from a truck mixer.
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8.17.3 Concrete shall not be placed prior to a recorded pre-placement


inspection and authorization to proceed by Saudi Aramco.

8.17.4 Raking shall not be used for movement of concrete after placement.

8.17.5 Vibrators shall not be used to move concrete inside forms.

8.17.6 Re-tempering after concrete is mixed shall not be permitted.

8.17.7 Deposit concrete continuously and as near as practical to the final


position.

8.17.8 Placed concrete shall be consolidated by mechanical vibrating


equipment according to ACI 301-16, Section 5.3.2.5.

8.17.9 Concrete shall be placed on a clean surface. Standing water shall be


removed prior to placement of concrete.

8.17.10 Placement of mass concrete shall comply with ACI 301-16, Section 8.

8.17.11 Slabs shall be placed in alternating panels.

8.17.12 The interval between concrete deliveries shall be such that no more
than 20 minutes interruption elapse during placement of a single
foundation or slab, unless approved by Saudi Aramco.

8.18 Finishing

8.18.1 The finishing of concrete shall be in accordance with ACI 301-16 and
ACI 117 unless otherwise specified in the construction drawings or job
specification.

8.18.2 Equipment bases shall be finished with a floated finish. Stairs, steps,
ramps, and walks shall be finished with a broom finish.

8.19 Curing

8.19.1 Structural concrete shall be cured in accordance with recommendations


of ACI 301-16 unless otherwise specified.

8.19.2 Maximum total dissolved solids in water used for curing shall not
exceed 1,000 parts per million.

8.19.3 Water curing shall be continuous until the compressive strength has
reached 70% of the specified strength, but not less than 7 days.

8.19.4 The saturated burlaps shall be covered with a plasticized sheet vapor
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barrier, minimum 0.15 mm (6 mils) in thickness and shall be kept in


contact with the concrete surface at all times.

8.19.5 Curing compound shall be in accordance with ASTM C309 or equivalent.


Vendors shall supply datasheet including third party test reports.

8.19.6 Curing compound shall not be used on surfaces that shall receive bonded
treatments, tiles, paint or other adhered finishes, epoxy toppings, or
additional concrete unless otherwise specified in contract documents.

8.19.7 Curing of concrete for environmental engineering structures shall


comply with the following:
a) The provisions of ACI 350.5
b) Curing shall occur for a minimum of 14 days.

8.19.8 Curing and protection of mass concrete shall be in accordance with


ACI 301-16, Section 8.3.1.

8.20 Coating and Protection

8.20.1 A plasticized sheet vapor barrier in accordance with ASTM E1745,


Class A, minimum of 0.25 mm (10 mils) in thickness, shall be placed
beneath slabs on grade. Outdoor sidewalks are exempted from this
requirement.

8.20.2 A minimum of 50 mm sub-slab (lean concrete) shall be placed beneath


concrete foundations.

8.20.3 A plasticized sheet vapor barrier in accordance with ASTM E1745,


Class A, minimum of 0.25 mm (10 mils) in thickness shall be placed
below and around the sides of concrete that is placed directly into
excavation without the use of formwork, where coal tar or bitumen
coating cannot be applied.

8.20.4 All concrete surfaces in direct contact with earth shall be coated with
two coats of coal tar or bitumen coating that conforms to APCS-3 or
APCS-10 of SAES-H-001.
Commentary Notes:

APCS-10 shall not be used where soil is contaminated with


hydrocarbons and compatibility test shall be conducted when concrete
surface is cured with acrylic based curing compound.

APCS-3 compatibility test shall be conducted when concrete surface is


cured with bitumen based curing compound.

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Unreinforced concrete such as lean concrete, or fence foundations


does not require coating.

8.20.5 When hot weather conditions exist, the provisions of ACI 305R shall
be met.

8.21 Concrete for Underground Ducts

8.21.1 Concrete for underground duct envelopes shall be colored in


accordance with SAES-T-911 and SAES-P-104 for communication
and electrical ducts respectively.

8.21.2 Coloring admixtures shall be in accordance with ASTM C979/C979M.


Concrete envelopes for underground ducts and cover slabs for direct-
buried cables can be colored by adding 6 kilograms of coloring oxide
powder per cubic meter of concrete unless otherwise specified in
contract documents.

9 Sulfur Pits

The following guidelines shall be followed in the construction, repair and replacement
of sulfur pits:

9.1 Pipe rack or heavy structures shall not be supported on the roof, or walls of the
sulfur pits.

9.2 Minimum concrete cover in sulfur pits shall not be less than 75 mm.

9.3 High performance self-consolidating concrete with 65% Ground Granulated


Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and 35% Type I cement shall be used for sulfur pit
construction or repair. Aggregates used in the mix shall be non-calcarious.
High performance concrete shall meet the following criteria:
a) Minimum compressive strength shall be 50 MPa as measured in accordance
with ASTM C39;
b) Corrected 30 minute absorption of not greater than 1.24%, as measured by
BS 1881: Part 122:2011. The absorption test shall be conducted by an
independent approved testing authority on cores taken from cubes or
cylinders (or from cast specimens where permitted by the Principal's
Representative), from the trial mixes which shall be conducted prior to the
commencement of the supply of concrete. Actual mix design used for
casting concrete shall also be tested for absorption as described above;
c) Chloride permeability test shall be carried out in accordance with
ASTM C1202 or AASHTO T277. The total charged passed shall not
exceed 1,000 coulombs;
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d) Slump flow shall be 650 ±80 mm in accordance with ASTM C1611.

9.4 For existing sulfur pits that are not built with high performance concrete
described in paragraph 9.4 above, use internal durability lining system of
potassium silicate concrete of 50 mm minimum in thickness or a 150 – 200 mm
thick of high performance concrete as in paragraph 9.4, the durability liner shall
satisfy the following:
a) Vertical installations shall be anchored to the substrate with “T”- type
stainless steel anchors at a maximum distance of 300 mm centerlines in
addition to steel mesh to mechanically secure the Potassium Silicate to
concrete substrate. Concrete shall be treated using chemical resistant high
temperature membrane such as urethane-asphalt compound system or
equivalent prior to installation of Potassium Silicate.
b) For slab on grade, castable Potassium Silicate of at least 50 mm thick shall
be installed. “T”- type stainless steel anchors shall be used at a maximum
distance of 400 mm centerlines in addition to steel mesh to mechanically
secure the Potassium silicate to concrete substrate. Concrete shall be
treated using chemical resistant high temperature membrane such as
urethane-asphalt compound system or equivalent prior to installation of
Potassium Silicate.
c) Potassium silicate and chemical resistant high temperature membranes shall
be applied as per manufacturer data sheets.
d) Durability liner made of high performance concrete shall be anchored to the
existing concrete wall by appropriate anchors at a maximum distance of
400 mm centerlines grid pattern in addition to 100 x 100 MW25 / MW25
providing lap length of 2 full squares.

9.5 Use corrosion resistant epoxy render to protect roof soffit.

9.6 Waterproofing systems shall be installed on the external walls of sulfur pits.

9.7 All joints shall be filled with fiber glass rope and sealed with chemical resistant
high temperature Viton Caulk joint sealant.

9.8 Waterstops for sulfur pit shall be made of 16 gauge stainless steel plate material.

9.9 Roof slab may be constructed of precast concrete. Precast concrete roof shall be
hooked to concrete wall to prevent lifting in the event of high pressure or
buoyancy load caused by overfilling of sulfur pit.

9.10 Curing compounds shall not be used to cure sulfur pit concrete.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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9.11 The design of sulfur pits including concrete mix design, lining system, water
proofing system shall be reviewed by the Civil Engineering Group/CSD.

10 Marine and Offshore Concrete Structures

10.1 A project specific concrete durability study for offshore and marine concrete
structures shall be performed. The study shall include identification of marine
organisms including rock boring mollusks and sponges that would pose a threat to
the concrete structure and its integrity. Specific susceptibility of the concrete
structure to attack by boring organisms in the Arabian Gulf has been associated
with the use of calcareous aggregates (where the main constituent of the aggregate
is CaCo3) in the concrete. In addition, the durability study shall include:
a) Consideration of the micro exposure conditions which apply to the major
and/or critical elements
b) The measures specified in the design to provide durability
c) Specified testing and quality control during construction
d) Specified monitoring, inspection and maintenance in service, developed as
a project maintenance plan
e) Design life prediction modeling
f) Opportunities to use FRP reinforcement.

10.2 The durability study, and concrete specifications shall be reviewed by the Civil
Engineering Group/CSD.

Revision Summary
7 January 2016 Major revision to align it with the latest edition of ACI 301 and ACI 318. It includes new
criteria that will improve the quality of the overall concrete construction, and improve the cost.
1 January 2018 Editorial revision to modify paragraph 8.2 (3).
18 February 2018 Editorial revision to modify paragraph (1.4) and (7.17.13)
26 April 2018 Major revision to include mandatory requirements for the implementation of non-metallic
(FRP) reinforcement in concrete structures. The document also underwent general
improvement to align with 09-SAMSS-097 and international standards and to build on the
experience gained in sulfur pits and marine concrete.
11 September 2018 Major revision to address the issue of the thrust anchor block for underground utility pressure
pipes to ensure structural concrete is used.
21 October 2018 Editorial revision.
25 April 2019 Editorial revision to confirm the content (remove paragraph 9.1 and remove any reference to
SAER-6610)

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