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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Национальный исследовательский ядерный университет «МИФИ»

К.В. Солнцева

Практикум по грамматике английского языка


Учебное пособие

Москва 2010
УДК 8 (англ.)
С60

Солнцева К.В. Практикум по грамматике английского языка:


учебное пособие. М.: НИЯУ МИФИ, 2010. 128 с.

Предлагаемое учебное пособие представляет собой


систематизированный сборник упражнений для отработки таких тем
грамматики английского языка на уровне Upper-Intermediate, как система
времен английского глагола, глагольное наклонение, использование
модальных глаголов и др. Пособие соответствует программе второго
курса Института международных отношений НИЯУ МИФИ, но также
может использоваться в качестве пособия по грамматике другими
факультетами НИЯУ МИФИ и широким кругом лиц, изучающих
английский язык. Особенностью данного пособия является наличие
большого количества оригинальных упражнений на перевод с русского
языка на английский, что позволяет установить связи между
грамматическими системами русского и английского языков. В конце
каждого раздела приводятся упражнения для проверки освоения
студентами того или иного грамматического явления.

Рецензент Мусагулова Рыскуль Экиновна, канд. филол. наук, доц.,


зав. кафедрой иностранных языков МГАВТ

ISBN 978-5-7262-1318-7

Рекомендовано редсоветом НИЯУ МИФИ в качестве учебного пособия


© Национальный исследовательский ядерный университет «МИФИ», 2010
Contents
1. The Present Tenses – ex. 1-17 (Unit 1) _____________________________4
2. The Past Tenses – ex. 18-30 (Unit 2) _____________________________14
3. The Future Tenses – ex. 31-50 (Unit 3) ___________________________23
4. The Passive – ex. 51-63 (Unit 4) ________________________________34
5. Consolidation: Tenses, Voice – ex. 64-75 (Units 1-4) ________________42
6. Structures with auxiliary Verbs (Short Answers, Echo-Questions,
Tag questions, So / neither + auxiliary + noun / pronoun, etc.)
– ex. 76-88 (Unit 1) ____________________________________________50
7. Determiners: Neither, either, both, some, any, none, no, all, whole, each,
every, other, much, many, (a) few, several – ex. 89-113 (Unit 4) _________ 56
8. Articles – ex. 114-129 (Unit 5) __________________________________66
9. Conditional Mood – ex. 130-141 (Unit 5) __________________________72
10. Verb + gerund / infinitive, verbs with dependant prepositions
– ex. 142-153 (Unit 6-7) _________________________________________80
11. Used to / would / get used to – ex. 154-160 (Unit 7) ________________87
12. Reported Speech, Reporting Verbs – ex. 161-165 (Unit 8) ___________90
13. Adjectives and adverbs – ex. 166-177 (Unit 9) _____________________93
14. Modal Verbs – ex. 178-199 (Unit 10) ____________________________97
15. Relative Clauses – ex. 200-217 (Unit 11) ________________________109
16. Cleft Sentences – ex. 218-227 (Unit 11) _________________________117
17. Conjunctions, Prepositions – ex. 228-234 ________________________120
18. The Possessive Case of Nouns – ex. 235-240 _____________________124

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1. THE PRESENT TENSES

1. Put the verbs in brackets into either the present simple or the present
continuous tense. Put any other words in the brackets in the correct place.
The first one has been done for you.

1. This milk doesn't smell (not smell) too fresh – I think I'll throw it out.
2. You………… (forever/use) my razor, can't you buy one of your own?
3. Oh yes, Jean and I………… (know) each other very well.
4. Mark………… (go) to work by train while his car's at the mechanic's.
5. Don't forget the coach………… (leave) at 6.45 tomorrow morning so you'd
better get an early night.
6. 'Where's Harry?' 'In the study, I think he …….. (write) some letters.'
7. Aunt Agnes is very generous, she……….(always/give) the children
wonderful presents for their birthdays.
8. That new postman…………(not seem) very bright to me, he
………..(always/leave) our letters in the wrong letterbox.
9. I'm sorry we can't make it to the party on Saturday but we …….. (have)
dinner with some old friends.
10. Predictably, at the end of the film the Swarzenegger hero ……….(rescue)
the prisoners and……..(get) the girl!
11. Where……...you…………(live) until your new house is ready?
12. Carter………..(serve), Pampas (return) but the ball……….(go) into the
net. Game to Carter.

2. Complete the sentences with the verbs in the box. Use the present
continuous where possible.

appear (x2) be belong to come have (х2) taste weigh


0. Who ..does.... that beautiful house on the hill........belong to........?
1. That soup................................delicious! What have you put in it?
2. My sister doesn't resemble me. For a start, she................................blond hair.
3. It................................that she hasn‘t changed her mind about taking the job.
4. I can't believe you................................so unreasonable! What's wrong?
5. We................................lunch. Can I phone you back in half an hour?
6. Now all new cars................................with one year's free insurance.
7. Alex is working. He..............................on stage in a play by Agatha Christie.
8. How much................an adult African elephant...............................?

3. Open the brackets using the present simple or continuous:

Singer and songwriter James Sharp (1)................................(have) a new


hobby - golf. He (2)................................(have) lessons every day and spends so
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much time on the course that his girlfriend, actress and model Sophie Clarke,
(3)................................(think) of taking up the sport as well so she can spend
more time with him!
What (4)................he................................(think) of the rumours that he and
Sophie are planning to get married? 'Every day I (5)................................ (see)
things written about me that aren't true. One day they say we're getting married
and the next that I (6) ........................ (see) another woman. I just try to ignore
all of it.'
James's new album came out last month and so far the critics have been
positive. The album (7)................................(include) a mixture of familiar and
new musical styles and (8)................................(contain) remixes of some old
favourites. James is pleased with the reviews but it's his fans that
(9)................................(matter) most to him. However, if they
(10)................................(hope) for something that (11)................................
(sound) like his last album, they may be disappointed.
So is James worried? Not at all. 'I need to grow as an artist and that (12)
............................ (mean) taking risks. I hope that never changes.' Somehow, we
(13)................................(not think) his fans will be disappointed.

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or present continuous
tense.

1. What Tom (think) of the budget? – He (think) it most unfair. – I (agree) with
him.
2. What this one (cost)? – It (cost) forty pence.
3. You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight.
4. You (see) my car keys anywhere? – No, I (look) for them but I (not see)
them.
5. He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else.
6. This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a
Pacific island.
7. You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? – No, I (not understand) him at
all.
8. What you (have) for breakfast usually? –I usually (eat) a carrot and (drink) a
glass of cold water.
9. When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) at a
factory gate.
10. Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. – I (hurry)
because I (meet) my mother at 4 o'clock and she (not like) to be kept waiting.
11. I (wish) that dog would lie down. – I (think) he (want) to go for a walk.
12. You (recognize) that man? – I (think) that I have seen him before but I (not
remember) his name.

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13. Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait) for.
14. This message has just arrived and the man (wait) in case you (want) to send a
reply.
15. Stop! You (not see) the notice? – I (see) it but I can't read it because I (not
wear) my glasses. What it (say)? – It (say) 'These premises are patrolled by
guard dogs'.
16. She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember) to pay me back.
17. You (need) another blanket or you (feel) warm enough?
18. It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? – No, it (not matter)
which path you take.
19. What he (do) to his car now? – I (think) he (polish) it.
20. That film (come) to the local cinema next week. You (want) to see it?
21. How Peter (get) on at school? – Very well. He (seem) to like the life.
22. Why Mrs Pitt (look) so angry? – Mr Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the
ash on the car.
23. This is our plan. We (leave) home on the 8th, arrive the 9th, (spend) the day
in Paris, and (go) that night to Venice. – That (sound) most interesting. You
must tell me all about it when you (get) back.
24. This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in
his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) and some years later he
(return) and (look) for it.
25. He (find) the snake who (recognize) its old friend and (coil) round him
affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boa-
constrictor and its embrace (kill) the poor boy.
26. The snake (feel) sorry about this? – I (not know). The story (end) there.
27. How you (end) a letter that (begin) with 'Dear Sir'? – I always (put), 'Yours
truly', but Tom (prefer) 'Yours faithfully‘.
28. What the word 'catastrophe' (mean)? – It (mean) 'disaster'.
29. What you (wait) for? – I (wait) for the shop to open. – But it (not open) till
9.00. – I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today.
30. Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. – I
(smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed
with oil (remove) heat stains from wood.
31. Who (own) this umbrella? –I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody
(know) who (own) it.
32. You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? – That (depend) on the question. – It
(concern) your brother. – I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother.

5. Complete the gaps in the dialogue below using the correct form of the
verbs and any other words given in the brackets.

'Why (1) are you smelling (you smell) that cheese, Ted?' 'I
(2)………………. (think) about eating it, of course.' 'Well, I (3)……………
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(not think) that's a very good idea. It (4) …………... (look) a bit strange and it
(5)……………… (definitely smell) off!' 'Maybe, but I bet it (6)…………….
(taste) great.'
'Well, I (7)............. (realise) it's up to you but don't say I didn't warn you.'
(Half an hour later) 'Oooh Donald, I (8) (not feel) too well.' 'Well, to
be honest, that (9)………….(not surprise) me one little bit. You (10) ………
(seem) almost determined to make yourself ill at times. I (11) ………
(remember) the time with those oysters!' 'OK, OK. Listen, I (12)……………
(need) a rest but I (13) ……… (see) Nancy in an hour ...' 'And I (14)
…………… (suppose) you'd like me to put her off.' 'Thanks Dougal, and I (15)
………… (promise) I'll listen to you in the future.'

6. Put in the past participles of the verbs in brackets.

Example: We've found (find) all the answers.


1. Have you.............................................(wash) the car?
2. You haven't.............................................(eat) very much.
3. They've.............................................(open) a new supermarket.
4. You've.............................................(write) it in pencil.
5. I've.............................................(make) the sandwiches.
6. We've.............................................(have) our lunch.
7. United have.............................................(score) a goal.
8. The balloon has.............................................(land) in a field.
9. Who's.............................................(break) this glass?
10. It's warm because the heating has.............................................(be) on.

7. Complete the second sentence so that it logically follows on from the first.
Use the present perfect. Example: My hair is tidy now. I've brushed my hair.

1. The door is open. Someone.............................................the door.


2. This is Oliver's drawing, look. Oliver.............................................a picture.
3. The calculator is broken. Someone.............................................the calculator.
4. United are the winners. United.............................................the game.
5. There's no more wine in the bottle. We.........................................all the wine.
6. The floor is clean now. I .............................................the floor.
7. I know my number now. I.............................................my number by heart.
8. The guests are here now. The guests..............................................
9. I'm still working on the computer. I.......................................with the
computer yet.

8. Decide which word is correct.

Example: - I'd like to borrow this book. Has Anna read it …yet…….. ?
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a) done b) for c) just d) yet
1. Ben writes very quickly. He's.............................................finished his essay.
a) already b) been c) for d) yet
2. What are you going to do? - I don't know. I haven't decided ..........................
a) just b) long c) since d) yet
3. I've.................................. to London. I went there in June.
a) been b) gone c)just d) yet
4. Have you.............................................done any skiing?
a) ever b) for c) just d) long
5. My boyfriend hasn't rung.............................................week.
a) for b) last c) since d) this
6. I haven't seen that coat before. How.......................................have you had it?
a) already b) for c) long d) since
7. The girls have...................................to the cinema. They won't be back until
ten o'clock.
a) already b) been c) gone d)just
8. I haven't seen my parents..................................last Christmas.
a) already b) before c) for d) since

9. In the following sentences decide whether to use the present perfect


simple, the present perfect continuous or the past simple tense of the
verbs in brackets and fill in any other missing words:

Example: How long have you been running (run) the hotel for now?
1. When…………you………… (see) the doctor? I………… (not see) him yet.
2. I………… (learn) Japanese…………about six months now. It's really
interesting.
3. How long…………you………… (live) in Japan before coming back to
England?
4. Rob………… (finish) his novel? Oh yes. It………….just……… (be)
published.
5. They………… (live) in that same little house …………the day they
………….. (get) married 20 years ago. I don't think they'll move now!
6. 7. What a fantastic old car! How long …………you …………….(have) it?
7. …………you……… (suffer) from these pains in your chest a long time?
8. I see they …….still ………… (not repair) that big hole in the road.
9. The team………… (not win) a single match so far this season.
10. . .Don't we need some groceries? Don't worry, I …………(take) care of that.
I……………(do) the shopping on the way home.
11. Maisy………… (phone) yet? Yes, about 10 minutes ago. She
…………….(say) she can't make it tonight.
12. . How many of those chocolates…………you …………….(eat) so far?
13. We………(use) my father's garage as a storeroom for our furniture
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………… the fire. We still ………… (not find) anywhere permanent to live.
14. Julie………… (eat) nothing but 'paella' …………… her trip to Spain.

10. Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or present perfect
continuous, translate the sentences into Russian:

1. Peter: You (telephone) for ages. You not nearly (finish)?


2. Jack: I (not get) through yet. I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be)
engaged all morning.
3. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because she's so bad at reversing. But
she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at
it.
4. Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly. Peter:
Actually, I just (find) out.
5. He (play) the bagpipes since six o'clock this morning. He only just (stop).
6. Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet?
7. Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)?
Mary (crossly): Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day!
8. A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week. I (watch) them
from my window since they began.
9. The police (not find) the murderer yet, but the dead man's brother (be) in the
station all day. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries.
10. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street, but they (not touch) the
old shop at the corner yet.
11. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six
months and (not see) any sign of it.
12. I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house,
but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again.
13. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. Lately he (look) for a better post but
so far he (not find) anything.
14. I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet. - I (do) mine already. I
always start at 6 a.m.
15. I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I
never (have) such a good crop before.
16. What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. - I'm afraid I
(use) it to make holes in this tin.
17. She just (sell) two of her own paintings. - She's lucky. I (paint) for five years
and I (not sell) a single picture yet.
18. They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat. – This (happen)
before? - Well, they (have) a good many rows but this is the first time they
(throw) crockery.
19. What you (do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. – Tom just (go)
off with it. He says he'll bring it back when he (finish).
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20. He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. The
firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation.

11. Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or present perfect
continuous, translate the sentences into Russian:

1. It was lovely at eleven o'clock, but since then the sky (get) steadily darker
and the wind (rise). I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end.
2. Since he became Mayor, my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches
and 22 official dinners, and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and
parties that he (attend). - He (put) on a lot of weight?
3. Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting
incorrect bills. Manager: I know; something (go) wrong with our computer.
The mechanic (work) on it. I hope he (find) out what's wrong.
4. Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the
day before! - Well, it wasn't me. I (not be) out of the house for a week!
5. I (stand) in this queue for ages. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. I
think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) off for
lunch.
6. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a
garage for three months. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build
one, so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too.
7. They began widening this road three weeks ago; but the workmen (be) on
strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it.
8. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. Shall I tell him that
the last bus already (go)?
9. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. I (wait) an hour now. He often (keep)
me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this.
10. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say)
more than 'Good morning' to me.
11. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. I am surprised that the
landlord (not ring) me up to remind me. - It is the first time you (be) late
with the rent in 25 years. He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the
cheque.
12. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity, madam?
Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know,
madam, but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through
fake cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply
to all customers no matter how long we (know) them.

12. Choose the variant, describing the picture best:

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13. Complete the sentences using the present perfect simple or continuous
or the present simple or continuous. An example is provided:

1. I (photocopy) ’ve been photocopying the reports all morning, but I still (not/
finish) haven't finished.
2. I don't want to spend a lot of money today because I (save) ...................... as
much as I can until I (go) ...................... on holiday.

11
3. I remember meeting your brother last summer, but I (see) ..............................
him this year. What (he / do) .....................since then?
4. I (stay) ........................ with my cousin in London. I (be)........................ here
before, but he (live) ..................... here for several years, so he can show me
around.
5. I'm sorry I'm late. (You/ wait) ............................a long time?
6. We (watch) ........................this stupid film since lunchtime. Let's switch over
to another channel.
7. Jenny's really excited about going to Spain. She (always / dream)
.............................. to go there before, she (even / study)
.....................Spanish for several years.
8. Peter rarely (have).....................time to visit his parents these days, but he
(have) .................. lunch with them tomorrow because it's his father's
birthday.

14. Translate into English, using there is/are/ have been where possible:

1. Опять на потолке паутина!


2. За стойкой администратора кто-нибудь есть? (reception desk)
3. Только один человек может вам помочь.
4. Есть только один человек, который может вам помочь.
5. В комнате муха, давай ее выгоним на улицу.
6. Зимы в Сибири очень холодные.
7. В вашей работе нет ни одной ошибки.
8. Последние две недели на этом радио после полуночи играет
медленный сонный джаз.
9. У вас есть ко мне вопросы?
10. Вопросы есть?
11. В каждом коллективе свои особые правила.
12. В соседней комнате кто-то есть?
13. С тех пор, как ты полил мой любимый фикус чаем, на нем нет (не
появилось ни листочка).
14. Для меня есть почта?

15. Translate into English:

1. Почему вы не идете в дом? Все уже там, давайте начинать.


2. Я еще ни разу не покупал этот торт, поэтому не знаю, какой он на вкус,
но выглядит симпатично.
3. Кого вы все здесь ждете? - А вы не знаете? Смиты возвращаются, мы
их встречаем. - Да? А когда прибывает их поезд?
4. Ты что делаешь с моей любимой книгой?
5. Неужели в озере Лох Несс действительно есть (живет) чудовище?
12
6. Ты не помнишь, где Лиза держит пустые диски? - Кажется, в нижнем
ящике стола.
7. Мы с Карлом подумываем переехать поближе к Лондону.
8. Что ты думаешь о новой рубрике нашего журнала?
9. Ученые пытаются объяснить это феномен, но безрезультатно.
10. У меня есть новость – я выиграл спор с Фредом.
11. Есть какие-нибудь новости о пропавшем поезде?
12. Кайл летит в Мюнхен в конце месяца, он может передать твой подарок.
13. В этом месяце я хожу на курсы всего раз в неделю.
14. Я не сплю неделю, выпишите мне какие-нибудь таблетки.
15. Сколько лет вы с Аней дружите?
16. Ты идешь на йогу в субботу? - Да, только наш любимый тренер
уезжает на выходные, его заменяет Мария. - Ничего страшного.

16. Translate into English:

1. Разве вы здесь не работаете? – Нет.


2. Ванесса не одобряет того, что ты сделал, но притворяется, что ничего
не знает, потому что твои ошибки ей выгодны.
3. О чем мечтаешь? – Думаю о платье, которое мне показала Нина в одной
витрине.
4. Нет никакого способа убедить инвесторов вложить деньги в наш
проект?
5. Она подписывает документы в департаменте образования сегодня с
утра, у нас есть время стереть тот файл из ее рабочего компьютера.
6. Хочешь, закажем сырную тарелку? Или ты все еще на диете?
7. Смотри, на крыше нашего коттеджа снеговик! Я даже знаю, кому
сказать спасибо.
8. Из чего состоит твой коктейль? – Это мой фирменный рецепт, я его
никому не рассказываю.
9. Кто сказал, что мы не можем устраивать здесь вечеринки каждую
пятницу?
10. В магазине нет покупателей, закрывайся и пошли обедать.

PROGRESS TEST 1:

17. Put the verbs in brackets into one of the present tenses, use passive if
necessary:
1. Where is my pen? I just …………. (see) it right here.
2. You …………. (return) their call yet? – I …………. (not/do) it so far, sorry.
3. No coffee for me, please, I …………. (not drink) it.
4. I …………. (recommend) you to take up painting.
5. You …………. (see) Carl this morning?
13
6. Rachel …………. (go) to London. – What hotel …………. she (stay) at?
7. Sonia ………… (look) for a place to live.
8. I never …………. (try) bungee jumping but I …………. (intend) to.
9. What …………. your brother (do)? – He‘s an architect, but he ………….
(not/ work) now.
10. What‘s she doing? – Writing letters. She …………. (write) them all day.
11. Stop getting on my nerves with your stupid jokes! You always ………. (do)
that!
12. Look! That man …………. (try) to get into our studio. He must be a thief!
13. Hurry up! It‘s time to leave. – I …………. (come).
14. My god, Emily! I …………. (not see) you since the party, how are you?
15. Don‘t put the dictionary away, I …………. (use) it.
16. Alan says he‘s 80 years old, but nobody …………. (believe) him.
17. Your eyes are red, you …………. (cry)?
18. This is the first time I …………. (be) to the mountains.
19. I really …………. (think) you should go with that offer.
20. They …………. (play) tennis since midday. Will they ever grow tired, I
wonder?
21. Oh, I …………. (think), why don‘t we organize a party?
22. Air …………. (consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.
23. Sarah ………….(be) very nice at the moment. I wonder what it is that she
……….(want).
24. What‘s his firm‘s name? – Hm, I‘m afraid I …………. (forget) it.
25. How long …………. (rain) in Moscow? – A week, I wonder when it‘ll stop.
26. Why are you breathing so hard? You …………. (run) all the way here?
27. How long …………. you (know) about it?
28. You‘ve got such a dreamy look on your face - what you …………. (think)
about? – Holidays.
29. Hi, Laura. Long time no see. How ................. it................. ?(go)
30. Sorry to keep you. How long ................. you................. ? (wait)

2. THE PAST TENSES

18. In the following sentences put the verbs in brackets in either the past
simple or past continuous tense. Put any other words in the brackets in
the correct place. Look at the example provided.

Example: While the teacher was explaining (explain) the sum on the blackboard,
the children were throwing (throw) paper aeroplanes around the classroom.
1. Eve………… (live) in Athens when she ………….(meet) the man who was
to become her husband.
2. …………you ………… (not work) at Mcllroy's when they ………..(have)
that terrible fire?
14
3. As it………… (get) foggier it………… (become) almost impossible to steer
the boat along the narrow canal.
4. I ................ (hear) a strange noise just as I…………………(go) to sleep.
5. When the fire alarm………… (go) off, we ……………..(leave) the building
as quickly as possible.
6. At the place where we……….(live) before, our neighbours ………
(always/have) violent arguments late at night.
7. I ................ (hope) you'd come round for tea one afternoon next week.
8. Fiona………… (live) in New York when her first novel……….(publish).
9. On looking out of the window, Dick………… (see) it was another dreary
day. The wind ……… (blow) hard and big black clouds………..(gather) on
the horizon.
10. While the others………… (lie) on the beach, poor old Gary………(work)
in the office as usual.
11. When the phone………… (ring), she……….(pick) it up and…….(put) it
down again!
12. I………… (never/understand) why you ………(always/get) to school late on
Monday mornings.
13. Beverly………… (work) in a fast-food restaurant for a few months before
she …………(go) to college.
14. When I………… (be) a lad, we............. (always/go) to Heysham for our
summer holidays. I……….……… (really/love) the place even though
it…………..(often/rain).

19. Correct any mistakes you find in the following sentences. Not all of
them are wrong.

1. There was a power cut while we watched the film on TV last night.
2. Florence never saw snow until she went to Scotland.
3. Just how many patients did Dr Harris examine so far this week?
4. Oh, what a lovely hat! Where have you bought it?
5. Mr Wolf has worked at the bank for 25 years before his retirement last May.
6. I've been writing ten letters this morning - I need a rest!
7. By the time we got to the theatre the play already started.
8. How long did you live in Italy for? Three years but then I got homesick.
9. I was sitting on the train for ten minutes when I realised I'd left my
suitcase on the platform!
10. Exactly what were you doing at eleven o'clock yesterday evening, sir?
11. When I looked out of the window, I realised it had snowed for hours and
there was no chance of getting back down the mountain.
12. That's the third time Sam crashed the car this month!
13. Just think, this time last week we rode a camel in the desert!
14. Of course it has rained. Look how wet the road is.
15
20. Compose sentences using past tenses.

2. I / walk / home / when it / start / to


1. while he / walk / in the mountains rain
/ Henry / see / a bear

4. when Margaret / open / the door /


3. the students / play / a game / when the phone / ring
the professor / arrive

6. Cora / read / a letter / when Jimmy


5. Felix / phone / the fire brigade / / phone / her
when the cooker / catch / fire

8. Andy / come / out of the


7. when the starter / fire / his pistol /
restaurant / when he / see / Jenny
the race / begin

21. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past continuous
tense.

1. I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (burn) brightly when Tom came in at 7.
2. When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on
the overhead projector.
16
3. I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark.
4. I didn't want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave).
5. Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only (exchange) a few
words.
6. He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the
sound and (go) to answer it.
7. He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room he (stand) up.
8. The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist)
on finishing the game.
9. My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr Pitt's Pekinese attacked him.
10. When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but
said that she always (lunch) at 12.30.
11. He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he (walk) to the
office.
12. What you (think) of his last book? - I (like) it very much.
13. I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about
my untidiness.
14. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction.
15. He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window
and (throw) out a bucket of water.
16. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.
17. The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put)
out his torch and (crawl) under the bed.
18. When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph.
19. You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)?
20. The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father's step. They immediately
(hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books.
21. He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him.
22. He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow).

22. Open the brackets using the past simple or the present perfect. The
first is done for you.
1. Maria saw (see) the doctor yesterday about that rash she has had (have) for
ages now.
2. 'How long…………you………… (live) in Spain?' 'Two years altogether,
before moving to Italy.'
3. OK. Who………… (take) my best pen? It……..(be) on my desk thirty
seconds ago.
4. In the Middle Ages people………… (not live) so long as they do now.
5. Oh dear, what………… (happen) to you? You look as though
you………….(see) a ghost!
6. Who………… (write) ―William Tell‖? I can never remember if
17
it………..(be) Mozart or Rossini.
7. Where…………you………… (buy) those trousers? They're fantastic!
8. It's definitely our favourite film, we………… (see) it six times.
9. …………you ever………… (steal) apples when you…………..(be) a kid?
10. Thomas(be) late for every lesson so far.
11. I hear you………… (go) to St Petersburg on your honeymoon. What …….
you …… (think) of the place?
12. Hello, Julia. When…………you………… (get) here?
13. Ah, madam. I believe you………… (witness) the accident. Could you tell
me exactly what ……… (happen)?
14. Hugo………… (break) his leg so he can't go skiing next month.
15. Ella………… (smoke) forty cigarettes a day for over thirty years. Then
she………(give up) overnight and …………….(not touch) one since!

23. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past
tense. In some sentences the present perfect continuous is also possible.

1. This is my house. – How long you (live) here? – I (live) here since 1970.
2. He (live) in London for two years and then (go) to Edinburgh.
3. You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? – Yes, my mother
(insist) on it.
4. But when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since.
5. Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays.
6. My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy.
7. I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. – You (see) the Loch Ness monster?
8. I (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is.
9. He (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up.
10. Chopin (compose) some of his music in Majorca.
11. When he (arrive)? – He (arrive) at 2.00.
12. You (lock) the door before you left the house?
13. I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much.
14. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work.
15. I never (drink) whisky. – Well, have some now.
16. I (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp.
17. The clock is slow. – It isn't slow, it (stop).
18. Here are your shoes; I just (clean) them.
19. I (leave) home at 8.00 and (get) here at twelve.
20. I (do) this sort of work when I (be) an apprentice.
21. He just (go) out.
22. He (go) out ten minutes ago.
23. You (have) breakfast yet? – Yes, I (have) it at 8.00.
24. I (meet) him last June.
25. You (see) the moon last night?
18
26. The concert (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours. Everyone (enjoy) it.
27. The play just (begin). You are a little late.
28. The newspaper (come)? – Yes, Ann is reading it.
29. The actors (arrive) yesterday and (start) rehearsals early this morning.
30. It (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer.
31. Cervantes (write) Don Quixote.
32. We (miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk.
33. He (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year.
34. Mr Pound is the bank manager. He (be) here for five years.
35. Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he (quit) and (go)
to live in the country.
36. You (be) here before? – Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. – You
(have) a good time? – No, it never (stop) raining.

24. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past tense.
Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the preceding verb.

Example: You (see) Mary on Monday? – Yes, I . . .


Did you see Mary on Monday? – Yes, I did.
1. Where is Tom? – I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that he'd be in for
dinner.
2. I (buy) this in Bond Street. – How much you (pay) for it? – I (pay) 100
pounds.
3. Where you (find) this knife? – I (find) it in the garden. – Why you (not
leave) it there?
4. I (lose) my black gloves. You (see) them anywhere? – No, I'm afraid I . . . .
When you last (wear) them? – I (wear) them at the theatre last night. –
Perhaps you (leave) them at the theatre. – maybe I …..
5. Do you know that lady who just (leave) the shop? – Yes, that is Miss Thrift.
– Is she a customer of yours? – Not exactly. She (be) in here several times
but she never (buy) anything.
6. He (leave) the house at 8.00. – Where he (go)? – I (not see) where he (go).

25. Most of the sentences have one verb in the wrong tense. Correct them or
write “right”.

1. I was pleased to see my old college friends at the conference last week as we
didn't see each other since we finished our course.
2. We had to wait for hours at the airport because the bad weather had delayed
all the flights.
3. Many modern medicines were not invented by western scientists but by
tribal people who had been using them for generations before the Europeans
arrived.
19
4. We missed our train, so by the time we reached the theatre, the play ended
and the audience was leaving the theatre.
5. At the end of their meal they found they couldn't pay the bill because they
didn't bring any money with them.
6. The children were thrilled when they unwrapped the electronic toys, but
when they discovered that nobody bought a battery they were very
disappointed.
7. When I came out of the cinema I had found that a thief had taken my car
radio.
8. At first the authorities thought the athlete had been taking drugs, but they
soon realised they mixed up the results of the tests.
9. When the film star came into the restaurant I didn't recognise her because I
didn't see any of her films.
10. When we reached the city centre we couldn't find a parking space, so we had
decided to go by bus the next time.

26. Translate into Russian using there was/were where possible:

1. В приемной сидела девушка.


2. Девушка сидела в приемной.
3. В парке никого не было.
4. Почему тебя не было в офисе сегодня утром?
5. Была зима и шел снег.
6. Был день города и на улицу вышли все жители.
7. На стене висело 4 лампы, но лишь одна из них работала.
8. На небе светила полная луна.
9. На столе сидела большая белая мышь.
10. В соседней комнате дети играли в прятки.
11. Было 2 часа ночи, поэтому в боулинге была (играла) толпа народа.

27. Translate into English:

1. Кошка запрыгнула на стол, легла на ноутбук, замурчала и через


несколько минут уснула.
2. Пока Джеймс ел в ресторане, вор украл сумку из его автомобиля.
3. Мне казалось, Марка не было на этом мероприятии?
4. Пока Джон смотрел бейсбольный матч по телевизору, Мэри
разговаривала по телефону.
5. В этом году было много солнечных дней.
6. Стивен уже дошел до своего дома, а мы все стояли и смотрели на закат.
7. В этой стране мало преступников, не так ли?
8. Поезд пришел в 10, а в 11 мы уже завтракали с нашими партнерами.
9. Пока мы были в отпуске, погода в Москве резко испортилась, и когда
20
мы вернулись, мы выглядели нелепо в наших легких платьях среди
курток и зонтов.

28. Translate into English:

1. Ты не помнишь, когда Да Винчи написал Мону Лизу? Мне срочно


нужна эта дата.
2. Вот это да, какое потрясающее приспособление! Где ты только его
нашел, мне такой ни разу не попадался.
3. К тому моменту как объявили наш рейс, мы просидели в аэропорту 4
часа. Вы не так уж и долго ждали, когда мы летали в Рим на прошлой
неделе, наш рейс отложили на 7 часов.
4. Мне было жаль продавать машину, на которой я ездил 3 года – я к ней
очень привык. Очень хотелось и старую оставить, и новую купить, но
тогда нужен второй гараж.
5. Я пригласил Рейчел к нам в эту субботу, но она договорилась в этот
день помочь подруге выбрать компьютер.
6. Как тебе удалось позвонить мне именно в тот момент, когда я как раз
вынула телефон и набирала твой номер?
7. И вот с семи до 10 вечера мы пытались реанимировать умерший
компьютер, в итоге практически ночью отвезли его к знакомому
мастеру и к утру нужная информация была извлечена.
8. Поскольку в доме не было никакой еды по меньшей мере месяц, мы
купили полную машину продуктов и забили холодильник до отказа.

29. Translate into English:

1. Прежде чем стать полноправным партнером в юридической фирме


Джордж проработал в ней 8 лет.
2. Но я действительно никак не мог появиться – я целый день
организовывал приезд наших партнеров и смертельно устал. В
следующий раз предупреждайте заранее.
3. Мы случайно встретили Тома и Джейн на входе в здание аэропорта,
когда они летели в Париж, а мы в Берлин. Мы немного поболтали, пока
ждали наши рейсы.
4. Ну и каким образом им удалось избавиться от этого зануды так быстро?
Я же специально сказал ему, что они заинтересовались его работами.
5. На небе не было ни одной звездочки, пришлось отложить мое
загадывание желания.
6. Когда ушли Роберт и Майк? Может, я успею их догнать?
7. А я думаю, что они ждали нас в другом ресторане. С какой стати им
срывать встречу/ У них не было причин срывать встречу.
8. Ну и как тебе понравилась Эйфелева башня (the Eiffel tower) ночью? –
21
Феерично! Хорошо, что ты ничего мне не сказал про ее новую систему
освещения, мы минут десять не могли отвести от нее взгляд. Несколько
пар даже с пледами пришли и устроили себе нечто вроде ночного
пикника.
9. Ты им звонил? – Дважды. – И что? – Никого не было дома.
10. Как ты думаешь, существуют ли другие формы жизни?

PROGRESS TEST 2:

30. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form. See the example:

1. Alexander the Great ...was born... (be/born) in 356 BC in Macedonia. He


.................... (become) King when he was 20 and................(continue) the
work that his father.................................(begin). In 334 BC he
................................ (invade) Persia and by his thirtieth birthday he
.............................. (conquer) most of south-west Asia. However, while
he.........................(plan) the invasion of Arabia he................. (catch) a fever
and......................(die).
2. Last month Albert and I ............................ (go) on a skiing trip to Scotland.
We .......................... (save up) for months and so we ..................... (be) very
excited when the time...................... (come) to leave. We .................... (pack)
our bags....................., (get) in the car and ................... (set off). We
............................................. (drive) for six hours when Albert
suddenly........................(remember) something – we..........................(forget)
to pack the skis!
3. George Grimes...........................(wake up) feeling very odd. All through the
night he....................... (dream) about strange creatures which
............................ (try) to break in through his window. They ......................
(have) horns and big green eyes and they..............................(seem) to be
threatening him. "Oh well," he..........................(think), "at least they aren't
real." Just at that moment, however, a big scaly hand........................(come)
crashing through the window!
4. When Bob........................... (invite) me to go fishing with him I....................
(be) excited because I ....................................(never/go) fishing before. But
as we................................(drive) to the river we .....................(see) the first
black clouds and ten minutes later it...................................(rain) heavily.
Three hours later, soaking wet, we...............................(still/look for)
somewhere to get warm and dry.
5. "............................(you/enjoy) your holiday?" "No, it.....................(be) a
disaster! As I........................ (get on) the plane, I found
I......................(leave) my holiday money at home! I..................................
(save) for months to get that money. My father ............................ (send) me
a cheque, but it .......................... (take) five days to reach me."
22
6. Alan.....................(work) in the same office for ten years before he
..................... (apply) for another post with "Mask Ltd". He .......................
(wait) for an answer for weeks when he ....................... (be/asked) to attend
an interview with the Personnel Manager. He.......................(go) there
dressed in an expensive suit which he.......................(buy) the day before,
only to find that they (want) someone to work as a cleaner.

3. THE FUTURE TENSES

31. Complete the conversation. Use “will” or “be going to” and the verbs in
brackets. See the example:

A: Have you decided what you (0).....are going to do….. (do) this weekend?
B: Well, Mark phoned last night and he (1)................................ (visit) us at the
weekend.
A: Really? I'd like to see him. I think I (2)................................(phone) him
tonight and arrange something.
B: Why not? We're planning to spend the day at the beach on Saturday. I hope
the weather (3)................................(be) warm enough. The weather forecast says
it (4)................................(be) a nice weekend - apparently, there's warm weather
coming in from Europe later on this week. And then on Saturday night we
(5)................................(see) a film.
A: Well, I've got nothing planned so I (6)................................(join) you on
Saturday morning if that's OK.
B: Sure. I (7)................................(pick) you up from your flat after breakfast.
A: Great! And what about the film? What time (8)................................(you / see)
that?
B: We (9)................................(see) the early show at six and after that we
(10)................................ (probably / go) somewhere for a meal.
A: Sounds good. I (11)................................(see) you on Saturday!

32. Complete the conversations. Use the present continuous or “be going to”
and the verbs in brackets. Use the present continuous wherever possible.

1. A: I (0)................................(ring) Sue. Would you like me to tell her


anything?
B: Tell her I've spoken to Ned and I (1)................................(meet) him for lunch
tomorrow.
2. A: Where (2)................................(you / go)?
B: Home. (3)................................(you / come) with me?
3. A: Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
B: I (4)................................(take) Alice out for dinner. I've booked a table at a
nice restaurant and I (5)................................(ask) her to marry me.
23
4. A: That child on the bicycle isn't looking where he's going. Oh, dear! He
(6)................................ (crash) into the wall if he's not careful!
B: You're right. Look! He's hurt himself. He (7)................................(need)
stitches for that cut on his leg.
5. A: Could you help me decorate the living room this afternoon?
B: Sorry, I can't. I (8)................................(play) tennis with Tom. We've already
booked the court. A: I hope you're playing indoors. It's nice now but they say
it (9)................................(rain) later today.

33. Look at the pictures and formulate the rule when the Future Simple, the
“going to” structure and the Present Continuous are used.

34. Put in the missing words. Use one word only in each space.

Example: I don't want a steak. I think I'll have the chicken.


1. There's a fireworks display tomorrow. Janet is.............................................to
watch it.
2. We're at that table in the corner, ..............................................you join us?

24
3. I'm seeing the boss this afternoon. But I must study this report before
I...................her.
4. There will be drinks at the reception, but there
will.............................................be any food.
5. The European heads of state are.............................................meet in Brussels
on 3 October.
6. It's a lovely day. .............................................we go for a walk?
7. My birthday.............................................on a Sunday next year.
8. My brother is engaged. He's.............................................married in June.
9. You won't be allowed to go to your seat after the play
...........................................started.
10. Martin's got his coat on. I think he's.............................................to go out.

35. Choose the correct alternative.

1. The sports club has put up the prices again, I‘ll cancel / I'm going to cancel
my membership.
2. I've talked to my boss, but he's very unhelpful and won't do / isn't going to do
anything about the problem.
3. I'll go / I'm going to go into town this afternoon. Can I get you anything?
4. Will you hold / Are you going to hold this box for a moment while I unpack
it?
5. I hear the government's announced they'll raise / they're going to raise taxes
again.
6. My car won't start / isn't going to start. It must be the cold, I think.
7. I'll start / I'm going to start a new job next week.
8. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Why don't you come round tomorrow
evening and I‘ll cook / I'm going to cook you a meal?
9. I took these trousers back to the shop, hut they won't change / they aren't
going to change them without a receipt.
10. You look tired. Shall we eat / Are we going to eat early this evening?
11. I've decided what to do on my holiday. I'll go / I'm going to go to Morocco.

36. Write the second sentences correctly.

Example: I'm hungry. I think I have something to eat. I think I'll have something
to eat.
1. You say you're getting a coach at nine. What time is it getting to London?
2. I'll give Polly the news. I'll tell her when I'll see her this evening.
3. Rupert looks really tired. He's about falling asleep.
4. We've arranged to go out. We meet in town later.
5. I'm going to Spain next week. I send you a postcard.
6. I'm going to get to the airport early. I can read a book while I'll be waiting.
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7. I feel a bit tired. I go to lie down.
8. Why not come to the party? All your friends shall be there.
9. There's been a bomb warning. No one can go into the building until the
police will have searched it.

37. Complete the following sentences in any suitable way.

1. I'll be able to pay as soon as I...


2. Don't give him any money until...
3. I shall prepare dinner while you ...
4. I shall do my shopping after ...
5. He'll do his homework before he ...
6. When I see him ...
7. I shall never forget you as long as I...
8. Don't forget to remind him about it when you ...
9. While the children are playing in the garden she ...
10. As soon as she persuades me I...
11. Even if he has a computer he ...
12. Unless you tell him the truth he ...
13. After she graduates from the college she ...
14. Until he knows all the facts he ...
15. Before you agree to this assignment you ...

38. Choose the correct option.

Example: A: Let's go to the carnival, shall we? B: Yes, good idea. I expect it'll
be fun.
a) it'll be b) it's c) it's being
1. A: Could I have a word with you, please?
B: Sorry, I'm in a big hurry. My train............................................in fifteen
minutes.
a) is going to leave b) leaves c) will leave
2. A: Have you decided about the course?
B: Yes, I decided last weekend, .............................................for a place.
a) I apply b) I am to apply c) I'm going to apply
3. A: I'm trying to move this cupboard, but it's very heavy.
B: Well,..................................................you, then.
a) I help b) I'll help c) I'm going to help
4. A: Is the shop open yet? B: No, but there's someone inside. I think...
a) it opens b) it's about to open c) it will open
5. A: Do you mind not leaving your papers all over the table?
B: Oh, sorry. I'll take them all with me when...
a) I go b) I'll go c) I'm going
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6. A: It's a public holiday next Monday.
B: Yes, I know. ................................................anything special?
a) Are you doing b) Do you do c) Will you do

39. Write the sentences using a future form of the verb. Use the word in
brackets.

Example: Express your instant decision to take a taxi. – I'll take a taxi.
1. Express your intention to have a rest. I …
2. Express the idea that the timetable shows the start of term on 6 September.
The term …
3. Predict a world war in five years' time. There …
4. Express the idea that you and Judy have arranged a game of tennis for
tomorrow. Judy and I …
5. Give your prediction of a probable fall in prices. There … probably …
6. Warn your passenger about the car crashing. The car …

40. Put in the correct form of the verb.

1. ANN: Are you two going out?


BILL: Yes, why?
ANN: It just said on the radio that (1) ............................................ (it / snow).
BILL: Oh, did it? I (2) ............................................ (I / take) my big coat then.
JOE: Good idea. So (3) ............................................ (I).

2. COLIN: We've run out of biscuits.


DAVE: Yeah, I know. (4) ............................................ (I /get) some this
afternoon. I've got them on my list.

3. ED: Jenny's had her baby.


GAIL: Really? That's wonderful! (5).............................................(I / send) her
some flowers.
ED: (6)..............................(I / visit) her this afternoon. (7) ...................................
(I / give) them to her for you if you want.
GAIL: (8).............................................................(you)? Thanks very much. In
that case,
(9)..........................................(I / go) and buy them right away.

4. IAN: Casablanca is on at the Arts Cinema this week.


JILL: Yes. (10).............................................................(I / see) it with Roger.
IAN: Oh.

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5. KEN: I haven't got a clean shirt, (11) .............................................................
(you / wash) one for me?
LILY: No, (12).............................................................(I / not). You can do your
own washing.

41. Complete the sentences below using the most appropriate form of
“will” or “going to” and the verb given in brackets. The first one has been
done as an example.

1. What are you going to do (do) after you leave university?


2. I hope I………..(have) a better job this time next year.
3. Look out, that lorry's coming straight at us! Oh no, we……………(crash)!
4. 'Could I have an orange juice?' 'I'm sorry, we've run out.' 'Oh, alright
I………..(have) a coke then, please.'
5. What time do you think you ......(get) back from the conference?
6. Oh come on, look at that beautiful blue sky – it………….(not rain) today!
7. 'Have you got any plans for Friday night?' 'Not really, I…………..(just stay
in and read) a book.'
8. Sid promised to come and help us but he………….(probably not
remember), you know how unreliable he is.
9. 'Maria, the phone's ringing and I'm in the bath.' 'OK, I…………..(get) it!'
10. ‗Quick! Give me a paper tissue, I…………….(sneeze) again!‘

42. Put the verbs in brackets in the most suitable form (active or passive) of
the future.

1. .......................(do) anything special on Friday evening?


2. Mandy.......................(finish) her exams by this time next week.
3. The train.......................(get) in at 5.15, which means we.......................(have)
about half an hour to get to the conference centre.
4. Look out! That boy.......................(fall) off his bike!
5. The new sports centre.......................(open) next, month but I doubt if
it.............. ...... (complete) by then!
6. The Prince.......................(give) a speech to local community leaders this
evening.
7. We.......................(live) in this house for exactly five years next Sunday.
8. Congratulations! We hope you.......................(be) very happy together.
9. The play.......................(not start) until 8.30 so I think
we.......................(have) time to eat something first.
10. 'Anna looks rather fat these days.' 'Oh, don't you know?
She.......................(have) a baby.'
11. Just think, this time on Thursday we....................... (fly) to Los Angeles.

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12. Don't worry, I.......................(phone) the plumber first thing tomorrow
morning.
13. Do you think you.......................(finish) that report by the end of the week?
14. .......................I.......................(give) you a lift to the airport on Monday or
Fred .......................(take) you?
15. We‘d better hurry up, I think they .......................(close).

43. Use the verbs in brackets in the Simple Present or the Simple Future.

1. If people in the next century (learn) how to live longer, they might have
several careers in their lives.
2. They don't know if he (go) to the conference next week.
3. Don't tell him all the details unless he (ask).
4. Stay here while I (check the place).
5. I am not sure if he (talk to you about this matter).
6. I wonder if we (stay) in touch after I (move).
7. If you (move), you will touch the live wire.
8. If you (want) to find me you know where I will be.
9. I am not sure if he (join) us for the hike.
10. Everybody wonders if he (cooperate).
11. I shall make the conclusion after I (study) the report.
12. If I (take) this job, I will expect a raise.
13. You can leave after you (sign) the papers.
14. We shall consider your application after you (provide) the recommendation.
15. Until you (become) more experienced, you won‘t earn much.

44. Translate into English, using there Future Simple, Future Perfect or
Future Perfect Continuous:

1. В выходные почты не будет.


2. Все твои друзья будут на этой вечеринке.
3. В это воскресенье будет год с тех пор, как Эдна и Пит поженились,
вечеринки по этому случаю не будет, но почему бы нам не подарить им
что-нибудь?
4. Больше такой возможности тебе не представится, решайся сейчас, к
пятнице эта вакансия будет закрыта. (to fill a position/ a vacancy)
5. Возьми крем от загара, на пляже будет жарко.
6. Когда мы приедем, в Италии будет уже два месяца, как начался сезон
дождей. Возьми зонт, Мари говорит, завтра будет неделя, как дождь
моросит не переставая.
7. На пляже будет много скульптур из песка, тебе стоит взять камеру /
тебе лучше взять камеру / я, пожалуй, возьму камеру.
8. Никакой стипендии (у меня) не будет, если я завалю эту сессию.
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9. Я не хочу идти на эту свадьбу – там не будет никого моего возраста.
10. К вашему приезду в номере будет (установлен) кондиционер.
10. Завтра не будет горячей воды с 15.00 до 18.00.

45. Choose the best future forms in this context.

J: Richard, how're you doing?


R: Fine, yes. Yourself?
J: Yeah, good. Busy.
R: I'm sure. Listen, the reason I'm calling is (1) I'll take / I'm going to take my
nephew Sam to his first football match on Saturday. United (2) are playing / will
play City, as I'm sure you know. I just wondered if you fancy coming too?
J: I'd love to ... ah, but I've just remembered ... (3) we're having / we'll have
lunch over at my mum's on Saturday, so it depends on the time ...
R: Well, (4) it's going to start / it starts at five ... I've just phoned to check.
J: Five o'clock? Hmm ... that means I'd have to leave about half three ... yeah,
I'm sure Mum (5) doesn't mind / won't mind if I (6) leave / will leave then ... (7)
I'll tell / I'm going to tell her it‘s something really important. I'm sure (8) she'll
understand / she's going to understand.
R: Well, what could be more important than going to your first football match?
J: Exactly. By the way, have you thought about how to get there? (9) Are you
going to take / Do you take the train like we did last time?
R: No, I've decided (10) I'm going to drive / I'll drive. It's easier with my
nephew. My sister (11) drops / 's dropping him at my place around three, so that
we've got plenty of time. (12) I'm going to pick you up / I'll pick you up from
your mum's if you like.
J: That would be great. About what time?
R: We'd better leave about four, in case the traffic (13) is / will be bad.
J: Yeah, it's (14) likely to be / unlikely to be pretty busy, I guess. I tell you what,
give me a call just before you (15) leave / will leave for Mum's.
R: Yeah, that's a good idea. Speak to you then.
J: Yeah, see you on Saturday.

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46.

47. Complete the sentences. Use will, shall, be going to, the present simple or
continuous and the verbs in brackets.

1. If you.............see..............Pete, would you tell him I'm looking for him? (see)
2. A:................................Luis and Sondra round for a meal? (we / invite) B:
That's a good idea.
3. I think things................................better after a good night's sleep. I'm sure
you ................................ so bad in the morning. (look, not feel)

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4. What's wrong? You look as if you.................................(cry).
5. They................................on Saturday morning and they................................
back for three weeks. They booked the holiday months ago. (leave, not
come)
6. I.............................any more work today. My train...........................in half an
hour. (not do, leave)
7. Zoe................................round the world when she................................
school. (travel, finish)
8. The President................................the nation at two this afternoon. (address)
9. We................................our computer system later this year. We don't know
exactly when the work...................but we hope it.................... finished by the
end of the summer. (change, start, be)

48. Describe each problem using “won‟t+ infinitive” construction:

49. Translate into English:

1. Завтра президент уходит в отставку.


2. Сара, мы завтра идем в театр, есть лишний билет, пойдешь с нами? – Я
бы с удовольствием, но не могу – весь день буду сидеть в библиотеке и
писать курсовую.
3. Думаю, поезд скоро подойдет. Надеюсь, в вагоне тепло, я совсем замерз.
4. Приходите завтра в восемь – я буду ремонтировать газонокосилку и
смогу посмотреть, что случилось с тормозами вашего велосипеда.
5. Меня не будет дома после 6. Впрочем, никого после шести дома не
будет.
6. Я сегодня увижусь с Эвоном, могу передать ему твою книгу.
7. Лучше приходите в шесть, к семи мы уже все съедим.
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8. Я закончу это задание в пятницу / к пятнице.
9. Мой мобильный никак не соединится с интернетом, наверное, батарейка
села.
10. Только представь – завтра в это время мы будем лететь над Европой.
11. Возможно, через пару лет она будет руководить своим собственным
бизнесом.
12. Я не смогу написать отчет, если в офисе по прежнему не будет ни
одного листа бумаги. – Не вижу связи.
13. Вы не могли бы подержать мой чемодан?
14. Похоже, премьер не собирается подписывать этот договор и будет
тянуть время.
15. Мне кажется, Джеймс больше не будет приходить на работу с
мотошлемом в руке – я слышала, что он продал свой спортбайк и
собирается купить машину.
16. Что случилось? – Программа никак не запускается.

PROGRESS TEST 3:

50. Write the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete the sentences.
Use one of these structures: will, shall, be going to, will be + -ing, will have +
past participle, will have + been + -ing, present continuous or present
simple.

Example: 'Have you booked a holiday yet for this year?'


'Yes, we...... are taking.... (take) a cruise around the Caribbean in November.'
1. I've taken the 10.40 train to Bristol every Friday for three years and it's
always half empty. Believe me, you.............................. (find) a seat.
2. My father's approaching retirement age, so he.....................(probably/sell) the
business next year.
3. Judging by the recent polls, the social democrats.......................(win) next
week's election by a huge majority.
4. Look at those black clouds. It....................(rain) this afternoon.
5. I'm going on holiday tomorrow. This time next Tuesday afternoon
I.................(ski) down a mountain!
6. At our next wedding anniversary we..................... (be/married) for twenty-
five years.
7. 'You speak very good Chinese.' 'Thank you. It's not surprising:
I................(live) in Beijing for eight years next month.'
8. Sit down and watch the TV; I.....................(just/finish) this letter quickly
before I join you.
9. Your driving test is next Tuesday, so....................(we/have) a two-hour
session on Monday?

33
10. 'Have your parents decided whether you can come to the festival next
weekend?' 'Not yet, but they can't stop me. I.................... (come) with you.'
11. I've won the jackpot on the lottery and I................(spend) it all straight away!
12. I've just been to the council meeting. It looks like they....................(build) a
new shopping centre in town.
13. I've just heard a rumour that your favourite jazz singer.................(come) to
give a concert in our village!
14. 'Have you looked at the new financial report yet?' 'No, but I...............(stay) at
home this evening so I can study it then.'
15. The takeover is going ahead, I'm afraid, so we......................(make) some
redundancies in the New Year.
16. Erm, I don't want to be rude, but how long ....................(you/stay) with us
when you come over to Britain?
17. The plane...........................(take off) at 10.45, so we had better check in by
8.45.
18. Sunrise...........................(be) at 6.40 a.m. tomorrow.
19. Mr Fellows...........................(play) golf tomorrow afternoon, as usual, so you
can catch him on the golf course.
20. The decorator won't finish the work until you.......................(pay) him what
you owe.

4. THE PASSIVE VOICE

51. Complete the article, using the passive form of the verbs in the box. See
the example:

allow call can / understand define determine fight


may / divide rear write
Thousands of books (0) ...have been written.... about the territorial instinct of
animals. Humans are territorial too and when we understand this, some kinds of
aggressive behaviour (1) ..................................more easily.
Every country is a territory with boundaries which (2) ................usually
clearly .................... . Within each country there are smaller territories: counties
and cities. Throughout history wars (3) ...........................by people protecting the
territory in which they live.
However, there are other kinds of territory as well. One such territory
(4)............................. "personal space'. For animals, the size of this space
depends on the conditions in which the animal (5) ........................., whether in
the wild or in a zoo. For humans, it depends on the density of the population in
the place where they grew up. To some extent, the size of an individual's
personal space (6) ..................................by their culture.
Personal space (7) ..................................into four zones: the intimate,
personal, social and public zones. The intimate zone extends fifteen to forty-five
34
centimetres from the body. Only close friends and relatives
(8)..................................to enter the intimate zone. If a stranger enters it, the
individual becomes anxious and may feel threatened.

52. Re-write the sentences. Use the passive.

1. No one has cleaned the windows for weeks.


2. His company made him redundant a year ago.
3. The pressures of work were affecting her health.
4. The fire fighters put out the fire before it did much damage.
5. If it hadn't rained so much, we would have finished the job on time.
6. The people at the garage are repairing our car.
7. Someone hit him on the head with a heavy instrument.
8. I hope they'll choose me for the basketball team.
9. A man near a metro station gave me this leaflet.
10. Some company delivered these pictures to my house from the auction today.
11. Some client has sued my friend who is a hairdresser for spoiling the client‘s
looks.
12. By two in the afternoon our men will have installed the new cooker and you
will be able to cook your dinner that very day.

53. Choose the correct word or phrase.

1. The prime minister was / has criticised for his recent actions.
2. When I walked past the Wilsons' house, their new sofa was / has being
delivered.
3. Our teacher was / has told us to take our favourite book to school tomorrow.
4. I think my mobile was / has been stolen!
5. Jonathan was / has chosen to play the lead role in the school play.
6. I'm sleeping downstairs because my bedroom is being painted / has been
painting.
7. This picture was /has probably taken during the winter.
8. Your essays must be / have handed in on Friday morning.
9. Someone was / has left their wallet on the floor.
10. Did you hear about the bank being / having robbed?
11. Treasure island was / has written by Robert Louis Stevenson.
12. It was a real shock when my dad was / has fired from his job.
13. The Vikings had visited America before it was / had discovered by
Columbus.
14. When we got to the airport, we learned that our flight was / had been
delayed.
15. Was / Has your ticket for the concert tomorrow paid for by you or your
parents?
35
54. Use the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1. The Earth........................ (hold) by the gravity of the Sun and orbits around
it.
2. The first feature-length comedy film........................ (create) by Chaplin.
3. The award for best video........................(present) later this evening.
4. By the time you read this, I........................(arrest) for murder.
5. I don't know whether our tests........................(mark) yet or not.
6. Radio waves........................ (discover) by Marconi.
7. You wouldn't think it to look at him now, but Jack........................(bully)
when he was at school.
8. Your application........................(consider) and we will let you know as soon
as we've made a decision.
9. The roof of the car can........................ (lower) by pressing this button here.
10. Our tent........................ (blow) over in the night by the wind.
11. Chess........................ (play) for around two thousand years now.
12. Two men........................(question) at this moment by police in connection
with the burglary.

55. Complete the gaps in the following passage by putting the verbs in
brackets into an appropriate passive form. You will also have to put any
other words in brackets in the correct place. Look at the example given.

Well, last month most of the lambs (1) were sold (sell) at the market, although
we've still got ten, which (2)………................. (probably send) next week. When
all the lambs have gone, the sheep (3)…………………….(take) to another part
of the farm. After that, we usually start on the fruit, although the blackcurrants
(4)………………………(already pick) because it was an early season this year.
The plums can't (5)…………………….(pick) for another three weeks by law
as they (6)…………………….(spray) only seven weeks ago. Of course, they
still have to (7)…………………..(gather) by hand, unlike the blackcurrants,
which (8)………………..(harvest) by machine nowadays. The plums and
blackcurrants (9)………….......(both make) into jam and preserve. Then we
have what's called the 'bag fruit', which is apples and pears. Since the fruit
doesn't have to be in good condition (10)………………………….(make) into
cider and perry, it (11)…………………….(treat) pretty badly. For example,
there are no skilled pickers involved, the trees (12)…………… (just shake)
until the fruit drops to the ground, where it (13)……………………(collect)
and (14)……………………(put) into bags. As you can imagine, handling the
bags is a very dirty job as the juice leaks out everywhere. But I hope the whole
process (15)……………………….(automate) before much longer.

36
56. Compose sentences describing the situations. Use the active or the
passive form of the verbs given:

37
38
57. Write sentences in the passive.

1. Our car / service / a mechanic / at the moment.


2. A man / shoot / an air gun / outside the petrol station last night.
3. Gunpowder/invent / the Chinese.
4. At the surgery yesterday, I / examine / Dr Peterson / and I / give / a
prescription.
5. I went to see it because I / tell / it was a good film / all my friends.
6. This photograph / take / my grandfather.
7. It looked like the window / break / a hammer / some time before.
8. Our dog / give / an injection / a special syringe / the vet.
9. The winning goal in last night's match / score / Donatello / a brilliant free
kick.
10. Your cheque / send / last Friday and / should / deliver / to you tomorrow.

58. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. See the example:

Example: Holland ...is said... (say) to be one of the prettiest countries in Europe.
1. The building...............................................(evacuate) ten minutes before the
explosion took place .
2. My television ................................................................ (deliver) tomorrow.
3. Their telephone.............................................................(install) yesterday.
4. Teachers ought........................................................(pay) a higher salary.
5. Hotel rooms must.....................................................(vacate) by 12 noon.
6. The villa...............................................(sell) by public auction next week.
7. She hopes her home .........................................................(build) by May.
8. ―Heartbreak House‖.................................(write) by George Bernard Shaw.
9. My car....................................................................(respray) at the moment.
10. Hopefully, she .................................(promote) by the end of next month.
11. I wish I ....................................(teach) how to type when I was at school.
12. Your application should.......................................(hand in) last Monday. It's
too late now I'm afraid.
13. The wedding reception must.....................................................(book) a month
before the wedding.

59. Rewrite the sentences in the passive starting with the words given.

1. People say that Bali is a beautiful island. It…


2. People generally think that life won't be found on Mars. It …
3. It is generally said that Christmas is too commercialised. Christmas …
4. People often argue that prison doesn't work. It …
5. People have suggested that the school should start to produce a magazine.
It ....
39
6. People say that crocodile tastes like squid. Crocodile …
7. It is said that the Vikings discovered America before Columbus.
The Vikings …
8. People think that heart disease is caused by eating the wrong things. Heart
disease …

60. Change the sentences from the active into the passive. Omit the agent
where it can be omitted.

Example: Santa Claus will leave your presents in the stocking. ...Your presents
will be left in the stocking by Santa Claus.
1. Bad organisation spoiled their holiday....................................................
2. Who wrote ―Romeo and Juliet‖?.................................................................
3. You mustn't tell him the truth...................................................................
4. Why didn't they give her the job? ............................................................
5. They should have given us a bonus.......................................................
6. Fog has delayed all flights.......................................................................
7. When we arrived at the hotel, they had filled all the rooms...................
8. The mayor is opening the new community centre next week.......................
9. We heard her complaining strongly to the manager.....................................
10. The architects have drawn up plans for the new library................................
11. They are going to set the lion free next week................................................
12. What time do you expect him to arrive?.........................................................

61. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first,
using the word in brackets. Pay attention to the form of the infinitive.

Example: They believe that skin cancer will cause more deaths in the coming
years. (believe)
It ....is believed that skin cancer.....will cause more deaths in the coming years.
1. People think that he is living in South America. (be)
He.....................................................in South America.
2. They expect that the repairs will take three to five weeks. (that).
It.....................................................the repairs will take three to five weeks.
3. People say that she left the country months ago. (have)
She.....................................................the country months ago.
4. They think that the manager will resign. (is)
It.....................................................the manager will resign.
5. Experts believe that the house was built in 1735. (been)
The house.....................................................built in 1735.
6. The accident is reported to have been caused by human error. (that)
It is reported.....................................................by human error.

40
PROGRESS TEST 4:

62. Re-write the sentences in two ways as in the example:

Example: They say that a fire has completely destroyed the Royal Hotel.
It is said that the Royal Hotel has been completely destroyed by a fire.
The Royal Hotel is said to be destroyed by a fire.

1. They say that the fire is still burning.


It......................................................................................................................
The fire.............................................................................................................
2. They think that the fire started in the kitchen.
It......................................................................................................................
The fire.............................................................................................................
3. They believe that ambulances have taken fifteen people to hospital.
It......................................................................................................................
Fifteen people..................................................................................................
4. They report that seven people are in a serious condition.
It......................................................................................................................
Seven people...................................................................................................
5. They believe that a cigarette started the fire.
It......................................................................................................................
The fire.............................................................................................................
6. They expect that the police will investigate the cause of the blaze.
It......................................................................................................................
The cause of the blaze.....................................................................................

63. Re-write the underlined parts of the sentences. Use the passive. Do not
include the agent unless it is necessary.

Example: My new digital camera was faulty so the shop gave me a full refund.
My new digital camera was faulty so..............I was given a full refund. .............
1. The children have to be in bed by ten and their parents don't let them use the
computer after eight.
The children have to be in bed by ten and....................................................
2. The car is very dirty and we need to wash it.
The car is very dirty and.............................................................................
3. We're travelling by coach and a local guide will show us the sights when we
get there.
We're travelling by coach and.....................................................................
4. I felt so ill that I took a taxi to the hospital but they made me wait for hours
to see a doctor.
I felt so ill that I took a taxi to the hospital but.............................................
41
5. She attended the party but they saw her leave shortly after her arrival.
She attended the party but...........................................................................
6. He's getting a pay rise and the company has also promised him a bonus.
He's getting a pay rise and.................................................................................
7. My grandfather has difficulty walking but a kind passer-by helped him cross
the street.
My grandfather has difficulty walking but......................................................
8. This information is important and you must hand it out to all employees.
This information is important and..................................................................

5. THE TENSES: CONSOLIDATION

64. Translate into Russian:


A
1. A tourist was walking along the street and taking photos of the buildings.
2. .The tourist walked down the street and stopped, not knowing where to turn.
3. The tourist took a dozen photos and then realized the flash wasn‘t working.
4. The tourist took a dozen photos and then realized the flash hadn‘t been
working.
5. I think I‘ll take a day off tomorrow and have a film-viewing day.
6. I will be watching films all day tomorrow.
7. Call me at seven, I will have watched all I have planned.
8. Just think of it – tomorrow at this time I will have been enjoying my
favourite films for 6 hours!
9. Sara sais she will doubtlessly finish this report on Friday.
10. Sara sais she will have doubtlessly finished this report by Friday.
11. Have you seen Avatar? – Not yet, I‘m still watching it.
12. Where are you all? – We are looking for John – we were supposed to go
together.
13. We have been looking for him too long – it‘s his own fault he‘ll have to go
there on his own.
14. We have looked everywhere – he is nowhere to be found.
B
1. How long have you been sitting here?
2. How long did you sit there?
3. What are you doing here? – I live nearby, don‘t you know?
4. I have been living in this house for 3 years already.
5. I lived 3 years in Morocco before I moved to Copenhagen.
6. The girl was spending all her money on her dog.
7. She has just spent $100 on a dog‘s collar.
8. I thought you would never come – what has been keeping you so long?
9. What have you been doing to your car? Have you joined an off-road
racing team?
42
10. Hey, look what those vandals are doing to your car! And people say
graffiti is an art…
11. Oops! – Look what you have done!

65. Choose the right variant:

43
66. Put the verb into the correct form: present simple (I do), present
continuous (I am doing), present perfect (I have done), past simple (I did),
past continuous (I was doing), past perfect (I had done), future simple (I
will do), future continuous (I will be doing) or „going to‟ (Passive is also
possible in some of these sentences).

1. We can go out now. It……………… (not / rain) any more.


2. I ……………… (get) hungry. Let's go and have something to eat.
3. I feel a bit hungry. I think I……………… (have) something to eat.
4. The weather was horrible when we……………… (arrive). It was cold and it
…………. (rain) hard.
5. Why are you putting on your coat? You……………… (go) somewhere?
6. Louise usually…………… (phone) me on Fridays, but she ………………
(not / phone) last Friday.
7. A: When I last saw you, you……………… (think) of moving to a new flat.
8. B: That's right, but in the end I……………… (decide) to stay where I was.
9. If I……………… (give) you my address, ……………… you (send) me a
postcard?
10. This house is quite old. It……………… (build) over 100 years ago.
11. What time……………… I (phone) you this evening? About 7.30.
12. It's usually dry here at this time of the year. It…………… (not / rain) much.
13. The phone……………… (ring) three times while we……………… (have)
dinner last night.
14. Look! That plane is flying towards the airport. It……………… (land).
15. Sometimes mistakes……………… (make). It's inevitable.
16. What do you plan to do when……………… (you / finish) your course at
college?
17. We must do something soon, before it……………… (be) too late.
18. Linda was busy when we……………… (go) to see her yesterday. She had
an exam today and she……………… (prepare) for it. We ………………
(not / want) to disturb her, so we……………… (not / stay) very long.
19. When I first……………… (tell) Tom the news, he……………… (not /
believe) me. He……………… (think) that I……………… (joke).
20. You still ………….(watch) that programme? What time.............................
(it / end)?
21. Everything is going well. We ……………..(have/not) any problems so far.
22. A new bridge……………… (build) across the river this summer.
23. Lisa didn't go to work yesterday. She …………… (not / feel) well.
24. Look! That man over there (вон там) ……………… (wear) the same
sweater as you.
25. This is a nice restaurant, isn't it? Is this the first time you ……………..(be)
here?
26. 'Anna has gone out.' 'Oh, has she? When …………… she (leave)?'
44
27. Nearly every time I travel by plane, my flight……………… (delay).
28. Where ………………you (come) from? Are you American?
29. I'm sorry you've decided to leave the company. I……………… (miss) you
when you ……………… (go).
30. I ……………… (go) to London next weekend for a wedding. My sister
……………… (get) married.
31. 'Is your car still for sale?' 'No, I ……………… (sell) it.'
32. A: Is the house at the end of the street still for sale? B: No, it ………………
(sell).
33. It's a serious problem. I don't know how it……………… (can / solve).
34. I wonder where……………… (we / live) ten years from now?

67. Translate into English:


1. Разве Джон не в Копенгагене? – Нет, он летит туда завтра. Вернется он
во вторник.
2. Разве вы не были там, кода гид объяснял значение трех крестиков на
столбах? – Наверное, мы пошли фотографироваться со львом в этот
момент.
3. Можно мне уйти пораньше? – Конечно.
4. По-моему, мы все должны поторопиться или мы опоздаем, как в
прошлый раз.
5. Интересно, какие работы принадлежат галерее, а что одолжили
коллекционеры?
6. Давайте не будем встречаться на улице, сейчас слишком холодно. Разве
мы не можем подождать всех в кафе?
7. Почему Кайл не мог связаться с нами и сообщить об изменениях на
прошлой неделе? Мы же работаем по старым расчетам!
8. Может быть, вы бы хотели перенести время встречи?
9. У вас есть визитная карточка? Я вам позвоню.
10. Похоже, дети купали слона в нашем бассейне. Посмотри, сколько воды
выплеснулось.

68. Translate into English:


1. Я первый раз за рулем (= первый раз вожу машину).
2. Что происходит? Кто начал драку?
3. Джил помыла машину, она куда-то собирается? – Да, надеется попасть
на аукцион сегодня вечером, если не попадет в пробку.
4. Что ты здесь делаешь? И давно ты тут сидишь?
5. Ты уже дома? А сок ты купил?
6. Я никогда раньше не готовил блинов. Что нужно положить сначала?

45
7. На кухне какой-то шум. Ты слышишь? Кажется, кошка опять ловит
мышей.
8. Мне кажется, его следующая книга будет ничуть не хуже этой.
9. В воздухе витал запах газа.
10. Я его хорошо знаю. Мы знакомы (= знаем друг друга ) уже 10 лет.
11. С 2005 года я живу в Африке и уже 2 года пытаюсь уехать отсюда.
12. Ну что за жизнь! Я ничего не делаю, только сплю и ем!

69. Translate into English:


1. Ну почему ты всегда оставляешь дверь открытой? Холодно же!
Неужели так сложно ее закрыть?
2. Следующие два месяца я буду работать ассистентом режиссера, это
будет испытательным сроком, после чего меня либо возьмут на
постоянную работу, либо я снова буду ходить по собеседованиям.
3. В этом магазине много необычных букетов, я всегда покупаю цветы
только там.
4. Разве это не ваш багаж? - Нет, это чемоданы вон того мужчины.
5. Как вы думаете, можем мы проигнорировать это письмо? - Мне
кажется, мы должны на него ответить.
6. Какой проект из тех, что вы делали, был самым сложным?
7. Почему ты решил продать квартиру и купить другую? – Я прожил в не
10 лет и она мне просто надоела.
8. Что это за запах? Вы что, здесь курили?
9. Какая прекрасная погода! Такого солнца (= такой солнечной погоды)
не было уже неделю.
10. Ты уже пришел? Чем занимаешься?

70. Translate into English:

1. Где ты будешь меня ждать? – На площади около памятника. –


Договорились.
2. Пока Мэри месяц отдыхала в шале, она научилась кататься на
сноуборде.
3. Ты хочешь переехать? Почему? – Соседи постоянно делают ремонт по
ночам. Мне это надоело.
4. Говорят, Карл встретил девушку, которая зовет его переехать к ней в
Канны и что поэтому он в следующем месяце уходит с работы.
5. Я из Зальцбурга, а вы откуда? – Мы из Мюнхена, но уже 10 лет
прожили во Франкфурте и считаем себя местными жителями. Показать
вам город?
6. Где ты купила это чудесное платье? Я тоже себе такое куплю, но
обещаю не приходить в нем на работу.
46
7. Где ты была? Я тебе два раза звонила, мне срочно нужен был пин код
твоей кредитки. – Я сидела на совещании когда ты звонила и не могла
ответить.
8. Аналитики предсказывают, что в ближайшем будущем стоимость
акций этой компании повысится.
9. У меня нет зонта, поэтому я не могу выйти на улицу, пока не
перестанет лить дождь. Может, ты за мной заедешь?
10. Этот копир не работает. Кажется, в нем закончилась бумага. – Позволь
мне. Нет, все в порядке, ты просто не нажала кнопку перехода к
активному режиму (operate button).

71. Translate into English:

1. Рейчел, которая знала, что Ричард не придет, лишь улыбнулась и


продолжала молчать.
2. Мэри, которая и взяла ключ, ничего не сказала и только наблюдала за
остальными, пока они пытались открыть дверцу сейфа. Она была
уверена, что его нельзя было открыть без ключа.
3. Что ты наделал? Кто теперь будет это все убирать?
4. Почему наш заказ все еще не пришел? Мы заказали ваше оборудование
еще в январе и с тех пор ждем.
5. Я слишком давно не играл – все навыки растерял. Ну ничего,
несколько недель тренировок – и буду опять в форме.
6. К тому моменту она прожила в Англии 8 лет и могла претендовать на
гражданство.
7. Прекрати так пристально на них смотреть, они нас заметят. – Не
заметят, нас цветы заслоняют.
8. Я не буду дожидаться, пока ты придешь, поэтому слишком не шуми – я
буду спать.
9. С тех пор, как год назад я соврал, что щетина тебе идет, я врал тебе все
больше и больше.
10. Как и у многих других художников, у него редко было достаточно
денег, чтобы заниматься только живописью.

72. Translate into English:

1. Разве вы не хотите получить визу раньше на целую неделю? – Мне все


равно.
2. К тому моменту, когда ты приедешь ко мне в гости, с нами произойдет
столько всего интересного!
3. Не уверена, что ты можешь так поступить. Боюсь, начальству это не
понравится.
4. Как тебе удалось покрасить потолок в зеленый цвет? Неужели твой
47
декоратор не возражал?
5. Мы с коллегами иногда вместе ходим в театр, у нас вкусы на спектакли
совпадают.
6. Представляешь, мы 4 часа просидели в очереди, но так и не попали на
прием к этому адвокату. Может, он слишком популярен, чтобы быть
еще и профессионалом?
7. И что произошло потом? – Ромео выпил яд, Джульетта очнулась и
тоже убила себя.
8. Где ты жил 10 лет назад? – В Амстердаме, работал барменом в клубе.
9. В прошлое воскресенье мы ходили на самый скучный в мире фильм.
10. День открытых дверей будет 21 го, мы будем рады видеть вас и ваших
детей.

73. Translate into English, paying attention to time-markers:

1. В наши дни почти нет людей, не имеющих представления об интернете.


2. Они почти никогда / почти каждые выходные ездят на дачу.
3. Я получила работу! Через две недели я вылетаю в Гамбург.
4. Инид все время смотрится в зеркало, даже когда ест.
5. Компьютер ломался ежедневно, приходил системный администратор,
ругался на бухгалтера, ремонтировал компьютер, и уходил до
следующей поломки.
6. На днях группа японских туристов видела Лох-Несское чудовище.
7. На днях мы ездили / поедем в Киото.
8. Пока вы спите, техника делает работу по дому.
9. Дом загорелся в то время, когда все жильцы праздновали новоселье в
ресторане напротив. Никто не пострадал.
10. Было еще светло, когда случилось лунное затмение, поэтому его не
было видно невооруженным глазом.
11. Вы все ждете? Разве вы еще не поняли, что инвесторы не позвонят?
12. Завтра мы весь день будем убирать квартиру перед приездом
родственников.
13. Где Майк? Я же только что его видел!
14. В последнее время вы много тратите, вы можете перерасходовать ваш
лимит.
15. Я первый раз вижу / видел живого кенгуру.
16. Где вы остановились? – Мы живем у Кайли и Бена.
17. Когда же мы в последний раз виделись?
18. Это самый глупый поступок, который ты совершил.
19. Смотри, дождь / прошел. А у меня зонта нет.
20. Все утро я буду читать, а в полдень поеду встречать тебя на станцию.
21. К пяти часам мы будем знакомы целые сутки, можешь начинать мне
доверять и рассказывать секреты.
48
22. Вы работаете здесь целый месяц и еще ни разу не пришли вовремя.
23. Если повезет, мы решим, куда нам ехать, когда придет лето, не раньше.
24. Мне надоело, что один и тот же фольксваген парковался на моем месте
целую неделю, и я решил поговорить с его владельцем.
25. В пятницу Бен уже отремонтировал карбюратор и поехал на работу не
на общественном транспорте.

74. Translate into English:

1. В последнее время Виктория увлеклась старинной мебелью.


2. Ты давно живешь в центре? Кажется, ты раньше жил на окраине.
3. Поскольку я скоро получу наследство, мы, возможно больше не будем
соседям. – Вы думаете купить дом побольше?
4. Время от времени появляется Карл и все портит.
5. Думаю, я завтра никуда не пойду, и у меня будет день еды – буду весь
день готовить и есть мои любимые блюда.
6. Жаль, что мы не увидимся до моего отъезда.
7. Но разве она не могла позвонить вам и сказать, что мы задерживаемся
(to run late), пока я искала потерянные документы?
8. Чем так вкусно пахнет? – Это Марк готовит печенье, можешь себе
такое представить?
9. Ну вот, я кофе пролила! – Сиди, я принесу губку.
10. Где вы все? - Мы ждем, пока Джил закончит говорить по телефону.
11. Раньше я часто ходил на выставки, а сейчас позволяю себе лениться и
черпаю вдохновение (draw inspiration) с экрана ноутбука.

PROGRESS TEST 5:

75. Open the brackets using the necessary tense:

I. John (1)........................... (leave) the house in a rush this morning. As he


(2)........................... (drive) to work he suddenly 3) ........................... (remember)
that he (4)...........................(be/asked) to speak at a conference. He
(5)........................... (look) at his watch and (6)........................... (see) that it was
nearly time for the conference to begin.

II. Last March Sam (1).......................(decide) that he (2)............. (have) enough


of working in a bank and that he (3)....................... (ride) around the world on a
bicycle. He (4)....................... (leave) England two weeks later with his bike, a
rucksack and a tent. He (5).......................(be) away for six months now, and no
one (6).......................(know) whether he (7).......................(return) or not.

49
III. Jan and Paul (1).......................(argue) in the next room at the moment. It
(2).......................(seem) that Paul (3)....................... (come) in late last night after
he (4)....................... (promise) Jan that he (5) ....................... (be) home in time
for dinner. By the time he (6)....................... (get) home. Jan (7) .......................
(give) his dinner to the dog and (8)...................................(wait) by the window
for two hours!

IV. A: (1).........................................(you/go) on holiday to Germany this year?


B: No, we (2).........................................(go) there every year, so we want a
change this year.
A: Where (3).........................................(you/plan) to go instead?
B: Well, we (4).........................................(be/told) that Greece is a beautiful
country so we (5)..................... .......................(already/book) a two-week holiday
on Corfu.

V. Susan (1).........................(study) interior design part time for three years and
she (2)..........................(get) her diploma next month. Since she
(3)..............................(work) in the same company for over ten years she
(4)..........................(feel) that she (5)....................(need) a change, so she
(6).............................(plan) to open her own design business. She
(7)..........................(start) looking for an office next week, and she (8)................
(hope) she (9) ............................. (find) something in a good location and at a
reasonable price by the end of the month. Her tutors (10)..............................(tell)
her that she (11).............................. (be) very talented and they
(12).............................. (assure) her that she (13)..............................(make) a
success of the business.

6. STRUCTURES WITH AUXILLIARY VERBS

76. Add question tags to the following statements. Then work with a
partner and take turns to provide echo-questions to each sentence.

Example: Bill doesn't know Ann, does he?


That isn‘t Tom, is it? There won't be time, will there?
1. You aren't afraid of snakes. 10. Tom doesn't like oysters.
2. Ann isn't at home. 11. You don't want to sell the house.
3. You don't know French. 12. It doesn't hurt.
4. Tom didn't see her. 13. People shouldn't drink and drive.
5. This isn't yours. 14. You aren't going alone.
6. Mary wasn't angry. 15. They couldn't pay the rent.
7. Bill hasn't had breakfast. 16. You don't agree with Bill.
8. You won't tell anyone. 17. There wasn't a lot to do.
9. I didn't wake you up. 18. I needn't say anything.
50
19. That wasn't Ann on the phone. 28. George hadn't been there before.
20. You didn't do it on purpose. 29. The children weren't surprised.
21. This won't take long. 30. You wouldn't like another drink.
22. She doesn't believe you. 31. Tom doesn't have to go to lectures.
23. It didn't matter very much. 32. Bill hasn't got a car.
24. He shouldn't put so much salt in it. 33. Bill couldn't have prevented it.
25. Mary couldn't leave the children 34. I needn't wait any longer.
alone. 35. There weren't any mosquitoes.
26. You aren't doing anything tonight. 36. The fire wasn't started deliberately.
27. You wouldn't mind helping me
with this.

77. Add question tags to the following statements. Then work with a
partner and take turns to provide echo-questions to each sentence.

Examples: Tom goes to Bath quite often, doesn't he?


He told you about his last trip, didn't he?
It was very cold last night, wasn't it?
Be careful of the contractions 's and 'd:
He's ready, isn't he? He's finished, hasn't he?
He'd seen it, hadn't he? He'd like it, wouldn't he?
1. The children can read French. 20. Bill's written a novel.
2. He's ten years old. 21. His mother's very proud of him.
3. Bill came on a bicycle. 22. The twins used to play rugby.
4. The Smiths have got two cars. 23. Tom might be at home now.
5. Your grandfather was a millionaire. 24. We must hurry.
6. Tom should try again. 25. You'd been there before.
7. It could be done. 26. You'd like a drink.
8. Your brother's here. 27. The boys prefer a cooked
9. That's him over there. breakfast.
10. George can leave his case here. 28. Mary ought to cook it for them.
11. This will fit in your pocket. 29. That was Ann on the phone.
12. His wife has headaches quite often. 30. The Smiths need two cars.
13. She's got lovely blue eyes. 31. You'll help me.
14. The twins arrived last night. 32. He used to eat raw fish.
15. Mary paints portraits. 33. There'll be plenty for everyone.
16. Bill puts the money in the bank. 34. You'd better wait for Bill.
17. Bill put the money in the bank. 35. You'd come if I needed help.
18. Prices keep going up. 36. You could come at short notice.
19. I've seen you before.

78. Add question tags to the following statements.

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Example: He hardly ever makes a mistake, does he?
1. Nobody liked the play, did they?
2. You take sugar in tea.
3. But you don't take it in coffee.
4. The lift isn't working today.
5. It never works very well.
6. The area was evacuated at once.
7. There was no panic.
8. Though everybody realized the danger.
9. There was a lot of noise.
10. But nobody complained.
11. Mary hardly ever cooks.
12. She buys convenience foods.
13. She'd save money if she bought fresh food.
14. Mr Smith usually remembered his wife's birthdays.
15. But he didn't remember this one.
16. And his wife was very disappointed.
17. He ought to have made a note of it.
18. Neither of them offered to help you.
19. They don't allow pet dogs in this shop.
20. But guide dogs can come in.
21. He hardly ever leaves the house.

79. Complete the questions. Use question tags.

1. Put that cat down, …?


2. I'm too thin to wear that dress, …?
3. We haven't finished yet, …?
4. Let's have some lunch, …?
5. You won't leave, …?
6. Jane left a message, …?
7. Everyone is here now, …?
8. You don't eat meat, …?
9. Something fell on the floor, …?
10. Nobody came when I was out, …?

80. Complete the conversations. Use one or two words in each gap. See the
example:
1.
A: Put the screwdriver down over there, (0)........will.......you?
B: Sure. No problem. You've done this before, (1)......................you?
A: Of course. I put up all the shelves in my last house.
B: (2)......................you? But someone helped you, (3)......................they?
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2.
A: Let's see the new Bond film this evening, (4)......................we?
B: Great idea! I've seen every Bond film they've ever made. A:
(5)......................you?
3.
A: You haven't got a pencil I could borrow, (6)......................you?
B: I think so. Here you are. Now have a look at page five, (7)......................you?
A: Thanks. I see what you mean. That calculation can't be right,
(8)...................... it?

81. Agree with the following remarks, using yes/no + pronoun + the
auxiliary or do/does/did. To express surprise, use Oh, so .. .

Example: He has a good influence on her. – Yes, he has. / Oh, so he has.


1. We must have a large room. 6. This boat is leaking!
2. I was very rude. 7. His revolver was loaded.
3. She always wears dark glasses. 8. This restaurant might be expensive.
4. She may be a spy. 9. They used to have a parrot.
5. He needs six bottles. 10. The fog is getting thicker.

81. Disagree with the following remarks, using oh no/but + pronoun +


auxiliary. Use a negative auxiliary if the first verb is affirmative and an
affirmative auxiliary if the first verb is negative. Then work with a partner
and take turns to provide echo-questions to each sentence.

Example: He won't be any use. – (Oh) yes, he will.


She worked here for a year. – (Oh) no, she didn't.
1. She's smart.
2. I didn't do it on purpose.
3. They weren't in your way.
4. I wasn't born then.
5. She'd rather live alone.
6. You gave him my address.
7. Sue can use your bicycle.
8. That five pound note belongs to me.
9. He didn't mean to be rude.
10. Children get too much pocket money.
11. Exams should be abolished.
12. She promised to obey him.

82. Add to the following remarks using (and) neither/nor + the auxiliary +
the noun/pronoun in brackets. An example is provided:
1. He isn't back, (she) - He isn't back and neither is she.
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2. I haven't seen it. (your sister)
3. You shouldn't be watching TV. (Tom)
4. You mustn't be late. (I)
5. I'm not going. (you)
6. This telephone doesn't work. (that)
7. Tom's car won't start. (mine)
8. I hadn't any change. (the taxi driver)
9. He didn't know the way. (anyone else)
10. My father wouldn't mind. (my mother)

83. Complete the conversations using so/ neither + auxiliary + subject:

1. I‘ve never been on a cruise. – Neither have I.


2. Linda is a very nice girl, I‘m very fond of her. – ______________, she
always helps me with my Spanish.
3. I never really liked Stephen‘s ex-girlfriend. – ______________, she was
really unpleasant.
4. They hardly ever eat, poor models. – ______________, but that‘s only due
to your horrible cooking.
5. The Richardsons are going to their chalet for the Christmas, lucky things. –
______________ our neighbours. And they invited us over, shall we go?
6. I couldn‘t get in touch with Greg. – ______________, so I left a message on
his ATM.
7. I‘ll order the vegetarian option. – ______________, it is delicious here.
8. I have no option but to go with you. – ______________.

84. Add to the following remarks using (and) so + the noun/pronoun in


brackets + the auxiliary. If there is an auxiliary in the first remark repeat
this; if not use do/does/did.

Examples: He lives in London. (I) He lives in London and so do I.


He had to wait, (you) He had to wait and so had you.
1. I have read it. (John)
2. He is a writer. (she)
3. Tom can speak Welsh. (his wife)
4. She ought to get up. (you)
5. I should be wearing a seat belt. (you)
6. John will be there. (Tom)
7. The first bus was full, (the second)
8. I bought a ticket. (my brother)
9. You must come. (your son)
10. This bus goes to Piccadilly. (that)
11. I'm getting out at the next stop. (my friend)

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12. He used to work in a restaurant. (I)

85. Add to the following remarks using but + noun/pronoun + the auxiliary.
Make a negative addition to an affirmative remark. Make an affirmative
addition to a negative remark. Use needn't as the negative of must, and must
as the affirmative of needn't:

Examples: She thanked me. (he) She thanked me but he didn't.


She can't eat oysters. (I) She can't eat oysters but I can.
1. John was seasick. (Mary)
2. He wasn't there. (she)
3. You must go. (your brother)
4. My sister can speak German. (I)
5. Alexander didn't want to wait. (James)
6. Bill needn't stay. (Stanley)
7. A cat wouldn't eat it. (a dog)
8. He will enjoy it. (his wife)
9. I haven't got a computer. (my neighbour)
10. This beach is safe for bathing. (that beach)
11. I must leave early. (you)
12. You don't have to pay tax. (I)

PROGRESS TEST 6:

86. Supply a question tag for each sentence:

1. You won‘t come to say hello, …


2. Please, don‘t have your lunch at my lessons, …
3. You‘d like to have a free pass to the cinema, …
4. Michael‘s on holiday, …
5. You have no ambitions at all, …
6. He had been there for two months before he left, …
7. Everyone will be coming, …
8. She‘s got a video camera that we can borrow, …
9. There were lots of presents for you, …
10. Sue knows what to do, …
11. Jack‘s been here, …
12. Let‘s go out to lunch, …
13. There was hardly anyone in the cinema, …
14. I‘m too loud, …
15. He‘d love a new briefcase, …
16. Monica has several jobs, …
17. No one has shown up, …

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18. Natasha‘s been to lots of countries, …
19. They must pay he rent, …
20. Dolly has had enough problems recently, …
21. Mortimer had never been to a fair before, …
22. Everything is all right, …
23. Let‘s make it Tuesday, …
24. Hardly any of your cars is good enough for this race, …
25. Don‘t tell anyone, …
26. Nothing has happened to my printer, …

87. Complete the conversations. Use echo questions.

1. A: I left my ring by the sink. B: ______________


2. A: There won't be any problems. B: ______________
3. A: You said you'd ring me. B: ______________
4. A: I couldn't get anyone to help me. B: ______________
5. A: He isn't sure how to do this. B: ______________
6. A: She plays the guitar. B: ______________
7. A: They've left their front door open. B: ______________
8. A: There aren't any messages for you. B: ______________
9. A: I can speak several languages. B: ______________

88. Answer the questions (in the negative or the affirmative):


1. Was the driver killed? 7. Do you want it?
2. Have you got any money? 8. Can I take it?
3. Need we finish the exercise? 9. Will you bring it back tomorrow?
4. Used he to ride in races? 10. Are you free this evening?
5. Would you like to see him? 11. Am I in your way?
6. Is this yours? 12. Need I wear a tie?

7. DETERMINERS

89. Complete the sentences with both/neither/either.

1. 'Do you want tea or coffee?' '...................... . I really don't mind.'


2. 'What day is it today - the 18th or the 19th?' '................. It's the 20th.'
3. A: Where did you go for your holidays - Scotland or Ireland?
B: We went to..............................................A week in Scotland and a week in
Ireland.
4. 'When shall I phone, in the morning or afternoon?' '...................... I'll be in all
day.'

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5. 'Where's Liz? Is she at work or at home?' '....................... . She's away on
holiday.'

90. Complete the sentences. Use the present simple of the verbs in brackets.

1. A: ................either of the twins good swimmers? (be)


B: Yes, both of them..................excellent swimmers. (be)
2. A: Which newspaper would you like to read?
B: The Times or the Guardian. Either......................fine, thanks.(be)
3. A: ...........every child......................a prize? (get)
B: No, but each child who takes part......................a small gift. (get)
4. A: Who......................each person in the team responsible to? (be)
B: Everyone......................to the Sales Manager. (report)
5. A: Where......................all the money I gave you? (be)
B: Half of it......................still in my bank account. (be)
6. A: ......................all of the things I asked you to get in the kitchen? (be)
B: Yes. I put them away for you.

91. Complete the sentences with both/neither/either. Use “of” where


necessary. See the example:

1. .....Both..... my parents are from London.


2. To get to the town centre, you can go along the footpath by the river or you
can go along the road. You can go....................way.
3. I tried twice to phone George, but.......................times he was out.
4. .....................Tom's parents is English. His father is Polish and his mother is
Italian.
5. I saw an accident this morning. One car drove into the back of another.
Fortunately .........................driver was injured, but.......................cars were
badly damaged.
6. I've got two sisters and a brother. My brother is working, but
............................. my sisters are still at school.

92. Complete the sentences with both/neither/either + of us/them.

1. I asked two people the way to the station, but......................... could help me.
2. I was invited to two parties last week, but I couldn't go to ........................ .
3. There were two windows in the room. It was very warm, so I
opened.................... .
4. Sarah and I play tennis together regularly, but...................................can play
very well.
5. I tried two bookshops for the book I wanted, but.......................... had it.

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93. Complete the sentences with “Both … and” / “neither … nor” / Either
… or”. The first has been done as an example:

1. Chris was late. So was Pat. Both Chris and Pat were late.
2. He didn't write and he didn't phone.
3. Joe is on holiday and so is Sam.
4. Joe hasn't got a car. Sam hasn't got one either.
5. Brian doesn't watch TV and he doesn't read newspapers.
6. It was a boring film. It was long too. The film….
7. Is that man's name Richard? Or is it Robert? It's one of the two. That man's
name….
8. I haven't got time to go on holiday. And I haven't got the money. I've got….
9. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow - whichever you prefer.
We….

94. Complete the sentences with neither/either/none/any.

1. We tried a lot of hotels, but............... of them had any rooms.


2. I took two books with me on holiday, but I didn't read …………… of them.
3. I took five books with me on holiday, but I didn't read …………… of them.
4. There are a few shops at the end of the street, but …………… of them sells
newspapers.
5. You can phone me at…………… time during the evening. I'm always at
home.
6. I can meet you next Monday or Friday. Would…………… of those days be
convenient for you?
7. John and I couldn't get into the house because…………… of us had a key.

95. Complete these sentences in the most appropriate way using “no +
noun”, “none of + the + noun”, or “none”. Choose from the nouns in the
box. An example is provided:

alternative arguments author books children expense solution witnesses

1. ...None of the witnesses…. had actually seen Jones fire the gun.
2. When their teacher stood on his chair…………… could understand what
was happening.
3. The Democrats won a few seats in the south of the country, but……………
in the north.
4. Changing jobs was…………… to her problems.
5. 'Do I really have to go and stay with Aunt Agatha?' 'Yes, I'm sorry, but there
is …………….

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6. When she was asked how much it cost, she replied, '…………… at all.'
7. Many people have tried to persuade me to go into politics, but……………
has made me change my mind.
8. Once there were five banks along the main street, but now there
are……………
9. …………… has won the prize more than twice.
10. When I looked along the shelves…………… seemed particularly interesting.
11. Of the ten most popular films this year,…………… was produced in Britain.
12. …………… was spared to complete the building on time.

96. Put “all” in the correct or most appropriate space in each sentence. An
example is provided:

1. I'm pleased to say that you.......have.......passed the maths exam.


2. .......his.......papers had blown onto the floor.
3. I've known her.......my.......life.
4. We.......are.......going to have to work harder to get the job done.
5. When I opened the box of eggs, I found that they.......were.......broken.
6. She had to look after.......three of her brother's.......children.
7. This is the moment we.......have.......been waiting for.
8. The jars.......were.......labeled 'Home-made Jam'.

97. Underline the correct or more likely alternative.

1. All the course / The whole course only lasts for six months.
2. In the 1950s, all of the families / whole families, from grandparents to
children, used to go to football matches on Saturday.
3. Because of the bad weather all of the schools / whole schools in the city were
forced to close.
4. All the plan / The whole plan is ridiculous. It will never succeed.
5. She must be exhausted. She was on stage all the performance / the whole
performance.
6. All of the countries / Whole countries in Africa have criticised the United
Nations' decision.

98. If necessary, correct these sentences.

1. All the children didn't come.


2. Many, if none of the students, could speak English fluently.
3. Almost all his spare time is spent working in the garden.
4. Both of us didn't speak again until we had reached home.
5. Everything depends on the last match of the football season.

59
6. Mrs Lee and Mr Pointer, both teachers, are standing as candidates in the next
election.
7. Many people suffer side-effects from taking the drug. However, these not all
are bad.
8. I'm afraid neither answer is correct. Try again.
9. All at the meeting voted for Terry.

99. Write any true sentences about these things or people. Use both (of), all
(of), neither (of), or none (of) in your answer. See the example:

1. Football, tennis, and cycling. They are all very popular sports in Europe.
2. Spain, Italy and Greece.
3. A dictionary and an encyclopaedia.
4. You and your closest friend.
5. Your own country and Britain.
6. You, your mother and your father.

100. Complete these sentences with “every” or “each”, whichever is correct


or more likely. If possible, write them both.

1. I try to visit my relatives in Spain...............other year.


2. ...............day we went to work by bicycle.
3. There were tears streaming down...............side of her face.
4. Don has to go overseas on business...............six weeks or so.
5. In a football match,............... team has eleven players.
6. This year I have visited virtually...............European country.
7. From next year,............... baby in the country will be vaccinated against
measles.
8. The aeroplanes were taking off...............few minutes.
9. I have...............confidence in his ability to do the job well.
10. She pronounced...............name slowly and carefully as I wrote them down.
11. Rain is likely to reach...............part of the country by morning.
12. I visited him in hospital nearly...............day.
13. We have...............reason to believe that the operation has been a success.
14. When he took his gloves off, I noticed that...............one had his name written
inside.

101. Find mistakes in the usage of determiners and correct them:

1. Each member of the team have to undergo a fitness test before almost each
match.
2. Every evidence seems to suggest that he is innocent, and he has all chance of
being released soon.
60
3. Each soldier were praised for his bravery, and was each given a medal.
4. The regulations say that students must pass every one of his exams to gain a
qualification.

102. Circle the correct answer.

1. All/ Every cats are born with blue eyes.


2. Wheat is grown on all / every continent except Antarctica.
3. All / Each person has a unique fingerprint and tongue print.
4. The giraffe, camel and cat are the only animals that move both / either their
left feet and then both / neither their right feet when walking.
5. Only about a tenth / a tenth of the plants and animals that ever lived inhabit
the earth today.
6. Honeybees kill more people than each of / all of the poisonous snakes in the
world combined.
7. A worker bee produces less than a teaspoon of honey in its all / whole life.

103. Complete the sentences with (a) few (of), (a) little (of), the few (of), or
the little (of).

1. Although the play is set in Italy,.....................the characters are Italian.


2. Jim, Bill, Sue and Gill were just.....................those who came to say
goodbye.
3. I saw him last.....................after midnight.
4. Unfortunately, much of the early history of Zimbabwe is still unknown. For
example, we know.....................about the early patterns of settlement.
5. Because it was cheap, and we didn't have much money, .....................us used
to go to the cinema every Saturday morning.
6. It will take.....................time, but I'm sure you'll learn the rules of cricket
eventually.
7. Stephen and.....................his friends were waiting for us in the park.
8. The play was poorly attended, but.....................people who came had a very
good evening.
9. Many questions were asked, but.....................were answered.
10. The soldiers seemed to have.....................idea who they were fighting against
or why.
11. After the plane crashed in the desert, the survivors divided.....................water
they had left between them.

104. Choose the phrase which is closest in meaning to the one underlined.

1. Several people have applied for the job.


hundreds / loads / more than a few
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2. There are too many people in the recording studio.
dozens of / hundreds of / more than we need
3. We have very little time before the bus leaves.
enough / not much / plenty of
4. This project has already cost us a great deal of money
a bit of / a lot of / not enough
5. You can get a free map at any Tourist Office.
all of them / none of them / some of them

105. If necessary, correct these sentences.

1. There were no dates on the jar to say when the jam should be eaten by.
2. Although he is French, none of his novels are set in France.
3. None of the information we were given were particularly helpful.
4. Although I put food out in the garden every day, no bird ever took it.
5. I phoned the booking office but they said they had no seat left for the
concert.
6. Surprisingly, there was no police officer outside the embassy.
7. Seeing that the soldiers were carrying no weapons, I walked towards them.
8. None of the company's business are done in the US.
9. I'm afraid that none of the local newspapers make much of a profit now.
10. I phoned Sandra three times yesterday, but each time there were no answers.

106. Complete the text. Use one word in each gap. An example is given:

"I come from a large family. (0)..........both.......my parents are doctors but they're
retired now so (1)......................of them practises any longer. I have two sisters
but I don't think (2)......................of them will go to university as they're
(3)......................married and (4)......................of them has a child - one sister has
a little boy and the other has a girl.
Because I'm my parents' only son, (5)......................person in the family expected
I'd go to medical school - so that's what I did. When I graduated, my
(6)......................family came to the ceremony. My parents
(7)......................come from a large family so I have a lot of aunts, uncles and
cousins - and almost (8)......................of them came to the ceremony too.
Afterwards we had a party at our house. (9)......................guest brought
something to eat and to my surprise, they'd (10)......................brought me a gift!
The best part of the (11)..................... day, though, was having
(12)......................room in the house filled with family that I hadn't seen for
ages."

107. Put in other, another, the other, others, the others:

62
1. Would you like … sweet?
2. Of the two irons I‘ve got one is burnt and … is out of order, too.
3. Some people like summer best, some like spring or autumn, … prefer
winter.
4. I‘ve got six flash memory cards. The ones for 1 Gb are in my devices, …
cards I carry round.
5. I don‘t like films like that, give me … one.
6. So, if you are finished with these tests, there are … on my computer desk,
help yourself.
7. I‘ve got two TV-sets. One is in the living-room and … is in the kitchen.
8. We are interested in Vougue, Elle and … magazines‘ editors.
9. I‘m a cinema-lover, I really love detective, historical and … films.
10. Ten students in our group learn Chinese, … learn Korean.
11. Can I have … cup of chocolate?
12. These videoclips don‘t suit the melody, can we shoot … variants?
13. I think the first thing to do is have … talk with her.
14. It wasn‘t a large garden and we walked right to … end of it in silence.
15. I couldn‘t stop watching Woody Allen‘s films one after … .
16. The … night I made up … story, I‘ll publish it in my internet diary.
17. One way or … , we‘ll have to think up several … variants of this
advertisement.

108. Put in other, another, the other, others, the others:

1. There are two perfumes on the shelf, one is Italian, … is French.


2. The shop was kept by two girls, one came from Israel, … from Iraq.
3. … people have told me the same thing.
4. That night Kate was cheerful and made … laugh.
5. He was always indifferent to the feelings of … .
6. Well, they are twins, I never can tell one from … .
7. Six of these disks are mine, … are my brother‘s.
8. This rain is killing me, if only we had … weather for a week.
9. We‘ll have to do it … day.
10. Is the project ready? – No, we need … day to finish it.
11. It was sunny and the beach was crowded. Some people were swimming,
some were playing volleyball, … were sunbathing.
12. Did you sell the vase to that couple? – No, we had to find … buyers.
13. I‘ve introduced you only to two of my friends, at the party you‘ll meet … .
14. Can you lend me … three blank disks?
15. He has … advice to give, but that will be not for free. Nothing doing, he‘s a
lawyer.
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109. Find mistakes in these sentences and correct them. If there is no
mistake, write “right”.

1. He shouted at all of students although most of us had done nothing wrong.


2. Can anyone use the tennis courts or only college students?
3. What happens if anybody is left behind when the coach leaves?
4. What a boring town! There are not good restaurants, nothing!
5. I think he was lonely because he had a few friends and none of his
neighbours ever spoke to him.
6. We can't use this room because there are no chairs in it.
7. I've wasted two hours because the whole information you gave me was
wrong.
8. When I got on the plane the steward told me I could have some seat because
there were so few passengers on the flight.
9. You can't borrow money from me because I have no. My brother's already
borrowed it all.
10. The problem is that I have much homework to do at weekends, so I have
very little time for sport.
11. I don't know whether our scheme will in fact make a profit, but any money
we do raise will be given to charity.
12. I feel so embarrassed that all know my problem. I wish you hadn't said
anything.

110 Complete these sentences with some, any, someone, anyone, somebody,
anybody, something, anything, somewhere, anywhere.

1. I don't mind what you do. You can do ....


2. The film is really great. You can ask ... who has seen it.
3. Does ... mind if I smoke?
4. Do you live ... near the University?
5. Can you give me ... information about places to see in this city?
6. It doesn't matter what time you phone. You can phone ... time.
7. What are you looking for? Have you lost...?
8. If ... saw the accident, they should contact the police.
9. He left home without... money.
10. Would you like ... to eat?
11. You can cash these travellers' cheques at ... bank.
12. I haven't read ... of these books, but Tom has read ... of them.
13. It doesn't matter which flight you travel on. You can take ...
14. What's wrong with your eye? Have you got... in it?
15. You can have ... you want for your birthday present
16. I'd rather go ... than stay at home during my holiday.
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111. Translate into English:

1. Почему вы все не на работе?


2. У Джонсонов никто не берет трубку. – Неудивительно, они же все
уехали на выходные в гости к младшей дочери.
3. Ни один из моих друзей не слушает мою любимую группу, с кем же
мне идти на концерт?
4. Ты точно не сможешь пойти? Ну ладно, возьму другого своего друга.
5. Весь доклад был блестящим, от начала до конца.
6. Они все едут в Пекин в следующем месяце, разве ты не знаешь?
7. Вся эта история просто шутка.
8. Неужели тебе не понравился фильм? – Только операторская работа, все
диалоги неправдоподобны. – Не все думают как ты.
9. Все его песни гениальны.
10. Где все? – Они в саду играют в пинг-понг.
11. Всю свою жизнь они прожили в этом городе, почему же памятник
должен быть установлен не здесь, а в городе, в котором они родились?
12. Никто не придет, но ты не расстраивайся.
13. Майкл и Джон уже приехали и ждут. – А как насчет остальных? Мы
будем их ждать?
14. Вы будете мерить правый или левый сапог? – Давайте любой.
15. Ни один из нас не купит это.
16. Почему бы нам всем не поехать на неделю в горы?
17. Приходите в другой день, сегодня мы не работаем.
18. Кто это тебе сказал? – Никто из тех, кому бы ты поверил.
19. Это был момент, которого каждый из нас так долго ждал.
20. Дженни и еще одна девушка сидели в уголке, обе слушали плеер.
21. Ни тот ни другой не знали что делать.
22. Каждый участник лотереи получает магнит на холодильник.

PROGRESS TEST 7:

112. Correct any uses of quantifiers in the following sentences if necessary.


The first one is shown as an example:

1. None of the supermarkets in our town sells fresh fish.


2. Our two children are very alike: every one has red hair and green eyes.
3. Which of these two umbrellas is yours? None.
4. How much are these second-hand books? – $1 every one.
5. You can go either way at the fork in the road: they all lead to the beach.
6. Is Phyllis a nurse or a dentist? – Neither. She's a psychiatrist.
7. I'm afraid I know a few words of Italian so I can't really communicate.
8. All student is responsible for cleaning his own room.
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9. Each CD in her collection was by the same group!
10. There seems a little point in continuing our discussion if you are not
prepared to make any confessions.
11. We asked a young couple for directions but none of them knew where the
street was.
12. I've seen all Meryl Streep's films and she's brilliant in every one.
13. We're having a cocktail party for few close friends next Friday if you'd like
to join us.
14. Does either of them happen to live in Cavendish Road?
15. Each tire on the car had been deliberately slashed by vandals.

113. Choose the correct word or phrase to fill each space in this passage.

Last week I made the mistake of revisiting the village where I grew up. It was a
small, friendly community with two farms and a number of old cottages round
the village. I realised very quickly that although in (1) many / few ways it
appears unchanged, in reality hardly (2) nothing / anything is the same. (3) All /
Every the pretty cottages are there, of course, and (4) both / most the picturesque
farmhouses. But (5) none of the / none of inhabitants are country people. All of
(6) they / them are commuters, who leave early every morning /all the mornings
for the nearby town. (8) Neither of/ Neither the farmhouses is attached to a farm
these days; the land has been sold and is managed by (9) somebody / anyone in
an office (10) anywhere / somewhere who has (11) little / a little interest in the
village itself. There are (12) few / a few new houses, but they have (13) no /
none of local character; you can see the same style (14) anywhere / somewhere
in the country. (15) The whole / Whole of the village, in fact, has been tidied up
so much that it has become (16) anything / nothing more than just another
suburb.

8. ARTICLES

114. Complete the sentences. Use a, an or the. An example is provided:

1. Have you seen ......the.... newspaper? I can't find it anywhere.


2. I got my sister ...........CD and ...........new book for her birthday. I don't think
she liked ........... CD, though.
3. Is this ...........first time you've stayed at ...........Hilton?
4. She started her career as ...........teacher but now she's ...........journalist.
5. Is ...........Nile or ...........Amazon ...........longest river in ...........world?
6. I took ...........bus and then ...........train to the airport. ............bus was on time
but ........... train was late.
7. Several million visitors ...........year are attracted to ...........ski slopes on
...........Alps.
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8. I'll meet you outside ...........post office. I'll be there in ...........quarter of
........... hour.
9. We lived in ...........Netherlands before moving here. But before that we
worked in ........... Middle East.

115. Complete the essay. Use the or zero article (-).

Urban life past and present


(1) ........ young people tend to think that (2)..........life was more difficult for
(3)..........people in the past. Of course, (4)..........lives our parents led were
different from (5)..........lives we lead today. For example, they couldn't rely as
much on (6)..........modern technology as we do. When my parents were young,
(7)..........computers were as big as a room and (8)..........mobile phone hadn't
been invented yet!
On the other hand, I don't think there were as many social problems in those
days. This is partly because (9)..........family was very important. For instance,
(10)..........families took care of (11)..........old and weak so
(12)..........homelessness wasn't (13)..........problem that it is today. In fact, in
many ways (14)..........life was better in the past.

116. Complete the sentences. Use a, the or zero article (-).

1. In my opinion, ........... education should be free.


2. ...........education I got at school was excellent.
3. I'd like my children to have...........good education.
4. ...........car is expensive to own and run but it's a reliable form of transport.
5. Unfortunately,...........car is a major cause of air pollution and global
warming.
6. In some cities...........cars have been banned from the centre.

117. Complete the conversations. Use the nouns in the box and a/an where
necessary. An example is given:

cloth cloth experience experience glass glass noise room


room university education
1. A: Is there going to be enough.......room.......in the fridge for all this food?
B: Don't worry - it's a large family-size fridge.
2. A: Could I have......................of water, please?
B: Sure. Sorry. I've spilled it. Would you hand me......................to wipe it up,
please?
3. A: I see you don't have.......................
B: No, but I have years of......................managing a business.
4. A: Nice suit. Is it silk?
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B: According to the label, it's made of fine woollen.......................
5. A: I was really frightened last night. I was sure I heard......................
downstairs.
B: I had......................like that once and I called the police straightaway.
6. A: I need......................for the night. Have you got any vacancies?
B: Yes, you're in luck. There's one free on the top floor.
7. A: What's happened? There's......................all over the floor.
B: Oh, one of the kids kicked a football through the window again.

118. Complete the leaflet. Use the nouns in the box and a/an where
necessary. An example is provided:

appointment classes exercise information progress swimming


time time up-to-date equipment valuable advice work
We're open from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. so if you can't find (0)......time.......... to work
out during the day, you can fit us in before or after you go to
(1).......................However, do try and make (2)......................to consult one of
our qualified instructors at (3)......................that's convenient for you. They will
give you (4)......................about choosing the best exercise programme. Then
once you start your programme, they will also help you make
(5)......................towards becoming fitter and healthier. Our gymnasium has a
full range of (6)......................for running, cycling and weightlifting. Or, if you
prefer (7).......................try our Olympic size pool. We also have day and
evening (8)......................in yoga and Pilates for those who would like a gentler
form of (9)....................... For more (10)...................... about what we offer, you
can phone, e-mail or drop by and see us!

119. Complete the gaps with a/an, the or - (= no article).

1. Britain's hardest-working man?


(a) ________ hardest-working man in Britain has decided to take life (b)
________ little easier. James McSporran has retired as (c) ________ only police
officer on (d) ________ tiny island of Gigha in (e) ________ north-west
Scotland. However, he will continue to serve Gigha's 200 inhabitants in (f)
________ number of other roles, for he is also (g) ________ postman,
(h)________ambulance man, (i) ________ shopkeeper and (j) ________ taxi
driver for (k) ________ island. (l)________ police job wasn't very demanding,
he told (m)______ Times newspaper, (n) ______ people on the island are all
either (o) ________ relatives or (p) ________ friends, so (q) ________ crime is
unknown!
2. As (a) ________ teenager, Chris Mole dreamed of studying
(b)_______marine engineering. But disastrous exam results ended any hopes of
going to(c) ________ university. However, (d) ________ eighteen year old
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fellow didn't allow this failure to make him depressed: instead, he borrowed
75.000 pounds and used (e)________money to start (f) ________ company
selling (g)________ second-hand computers to (h) ________students. The
company was (i) ________ immediate success, and in (j) ________ first year it
made (k) ________ profit of $12 million.
Chris still lives with his parents in Morpeth, (l) ________ small town in north-
east England and he still works in (m) ________ garden centre at weekends. 'It
helps keep me in touch with (n) ________ reality,' he says.

120. Complete the sentences. Use a, an, the or zero article (-).

1. .................rich should do more to help.................poor.


2. .................travel adds.................interest and.................variety
to.................life.
3. .................dictionary is.................important tool in
learning.................language.
4. You should leave.................space between paragraphs.
5. .................horse has been domesticated for thousands of years.
6. Excuse me, but is there.................room for my luggage over there?
7. I don't have.................time now. Could we speak later?

121. If necessary, correct these sentences.

1. Sri Lanka has the wonderful climate.


2. The organisation's aim is to educate the public about the dangers of smoking.
3. We need an environment free from pollution.
4. She has worked in a fashion industry since she left school.
5. The wind is blowing dust all the way from Africa.
6. We can look forward to a warm southerly wind this weekend.
7. The USA is a country with the high level of immigration.
8. How can we combine economic growth and respect for an environment?
9. Car exhaust emissions are having a major effect on a world's climate.
10. That's Terry - he's the third person on the right.
11. She has become the important figure in Norwegian politics.
12. It's a most important issue and we need to discuss it in detail.

122. Put a/an, the or - in the spaces. If zero article is an alternative for the,
write the /-.
BOB COLLINS: A PROFILE
Bob Collins recently became (l) ....... minister in the new government, being
appointed (2) ... Minister for Industry. Mr Collins has had a varied career. He
was (3) ....... professional footballer in the 1960s, some people considering him
to be (4) ....... most skilful player of his generation. After a serious injury, he
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became (5) .......manager of (6).......oldest pub in Edinburgh. Five years later, he
was offered the position of (7).......executive director of Arcon, one of (8).......
biggest supermarket chains in the country. He became (9).......Member of
Parliament in 1990.

123. Make sentences combining words from the two columns. Add a
connecting verb and a/an or the. If zero article is an alternative for the,
write the / - . The first has been done as an example:

Example: Barcelona was the site of the 1992 Olympic Games.


1 Barcelona a. largest island in the world.
2 Javier Perez de Guellar b. member of the European Union.
3 Le Monde c. president of South Africa in 1994.
4 France d. site of the 1992 Olympic Games.
5 Ghana e. only constructed object visible from space.
6 Wall Street f. important financial centre.
7 Nelson Mandela g. newspaper published in France.
8 The Great Wall of China h. republic in 1957.
9 Greenland i. Secretary General of the UN from 1982 to
1991.

124. Complete this story. Put in a/an or the.

.... man from California was spending ... month in Britain. One day he booked
into .... hotel in Cheltenham, .... nice old town in.......West of England. Then he
went out to look around .... place. But ... man didn't return to .... hotel. He
disappeared leaving .... suitcase full of ...... clothes behind. .... police were called
in, but they were unable to find out what had happened to .... missing tourist. It
was .... mystery. But two weeks later ... man walked into .....police station in
Cheltenham. He explained that he was very sorry, but while walking around.....
town, he had got lost. He had also forgotten .... name of.... hotel he had booked
into. So he had decided to continue with his tour of... country and had gone to
visit... friend in Scotland before returning to pick up .... case he had left behind.

125. Insert articles in the following joke and retell it.

When I arrived at... gate for ... early-morning flight from San Diego to
Baltimore, there was no one at ... check-in desk. Then ... fellow in ... airline
uniform walked to ... jet's gateway entrance and tried several times to enter ...
numbers to unlock ... door. He did not have any success with it. Then, he went
behind ... check-in desk and tried to switch on ... computer. Thinking that I
could check in for my flight, I approached him. 'I don't know ... new code for ...
gateways.' he said. 'I can't get ... computer to work, and I am not going to check
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you in.' Deciding that a bit of humour might help, I said. 'Are we having ... bad
day?' 'You'd better hope not' he replied. 'I am your pilot.'

126. Read the story and insert the right article.

The Fence
Once there lived ... boy with a bad temper. His father gave him ... bag of nails
and told him to hammer ... nail in the back of... fence every time he lost control.
The first day ... boy drove 37 nails into ... fence. Then ... number of nails... day
gradually reduced. ... boy discovered it was easier to hold his temper than to
drive those nails into ... fence. Finally ... day came when ... boy did not lose his
temper at all. His father suggested that ... boy now pull out one nail for each day
he was able to hold his temper. The days passed and ... young boy was finally
able to tell his father that all... nails were gone. ... father led his son to ... fence.
'You have done well, but look at... holes in ... fence.' he said. When you say
things in anger, they leave ... scar just like ... nail holes. You can put ... knife in
... person and draw it out. It won't matter how many times you say "I'm sorry,"
... wound is still there. ... verbal wound is as bad as ... physical one.'

127. Translate into English:

1. Я сделаю вам сэндвич, обед еще не скоро.


2. Где карта? Меня просили ее принести.
3. Вот фильм, который ты хотел посмотреть.
4. Ты закрыл дверь? А теперь закрой окно.
5. Передай мне, пожалуйста, плеер.
6. Клоун впервые появился в английском цирке.
7. Мы видели его неделю назад.
8. Можешь дать мне журнал, который ты купил вчера? Я хочу прочитать
статью про рождественские традиции различных народов.
9. У тебя есть испано-русский словарь? Мне нужно найти пару слов.
10. Кленовый лист – символ Канады.
11. Когда вы сдаете последний экзамен?
12. Что ты делаешь в воскресенье?
13. Вечно ты читаешь газету за завтраком!
14. Гитара появилась в Испании в XIII веке.
15. Почему ты в пальто в такой теплый день?
16. Какой потрясающий репортаж!
17. Зима в этом году похожа на осень.

PROGRESS TEST 8:

128. Complete this story. Put in a/an or the.


71
... man decided to rob.....bank in.....town where he lived. He walked into .... bank
and handed.....note to one of...... cashers. .......cashier read .... note, which told
her to give ..... man some money. Afraid that he might have .... gun, she did as
she was told. .... man than walked out of .... building, leaving ...... note behind.
However, he had no time to spend .... money because he was arrested.......same
day. He had made......mistake.
He had written .... note on .... back of....... envelope. And on .... other side of ....
envelope was his name and address. This clue was quite enough for
.....detectives on the case.

129. Insert articles where necessary.

I bought ... new computer yesterday. ... computer has... powerful processor. It
also has such special features as ... modem, and ... fax. ... modem allows me to
go on the Internet and look up things there. It's like having all the libraries in the
world in my room. ... fax feature allows me to send words and images to people
over ... telephone line. To get your fax to ... person on the other end he should
have ... fax machine or ... fax feature in his computer. The modem I have is ... 28
800 modem which means that it transmits the information at... speed of 28 800
kilobytes per second. I am very happy with my computer. I plan to save some
money and buy ... scanner and ... colour printer later on. ... sсanner will allow
me to transfer ... copy of... document or ... page from the book directly to my
computer without typing it. I will have to buy ... software program to go with ...
scanner to perform this task.

9. THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

130. Open the brackets using the Zero and First Conditional:

1. If I see him I (give) him a lift.


2. The table will collapse if you (stand) on it.
3. If he (eat) all that he will be ill.
4. If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once.
5. The police (arrest) him if they catch him.
6. If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes.
7. Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked.
8. What will happen if my parachute (not open)?
9. If he (wash) my car I'll give him 10 pounds.
10. If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine.
11. If you (not go) away I'll send for the police.
12. I'll be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes.
13. If he (be) late we'll go without him.
14. She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about this.
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15. If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea.
16. If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once.
17. If we leave the car here it (not be) in anybody's way.
18. He'll be late for the train if he (not leave) at once.
19. If you come late they (not let) you in.
20. If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says.
21. Unless he (sell) more he won't get much commission.
22. If I lend you 10 pounds when you (repay) me?
23. We'll have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher.
24. If he (work) hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow?
25. Ice (turn) to water if you heat it.
26. If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation.
27. Unless you are more careful you (have) an accident.
28. Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him.
29. If you (not believe) what I say, ask your mother.
30. If he (like) the house will he buy it?
31. Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work.
32. She won't open the door unless she (know) who it is.

131. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms:

1. If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar don't mention it to anyone.


2. If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration.
3. What (happen) if I press this button?
4. I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then.
5. If you go to Paris where you (stay)?
6. If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)?
7. The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick.
8. If the milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints.
9. Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there.
10. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much.
11. What I (do) if I hear the burglar alarm?
12. If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn't have answered the
wrong question.
13. I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder.
14. Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad.
15. If you were made redundant what you (do)?
16. We'll have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here.
17. If you shake that bottle of wine it (not be) fit to drink.
18. I'll probably get lost unless he (come) with me.
19. You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly.
20. If you (wear) a false beard nobody would have recognized you.
21. If she (leave) the fish there the cat will get it.
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22. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody (fall) into it.

132. Use the 2nd and 3rd Conditionals to describe the situations:

74
133. Complete the following sentences with your own ideas, using the Zero,
First and Second Conditional.

1. What will you do if you ……………………............?


2. He‘d be more friendly if he ……………………………
3. If I had no one to talk to for a month I ……………………………
4. If I lend you this book, ……………………………………
5. You would be better informed about cultural events if you
...............................
6. If she didn't gossip about her friends, she...............................
7. Would you forgive me if I..............................................?
8. What would happen if I..................................................?
9. If he were better at physics, he.......................................
10. If you were asked to work overtime, .............................?
11. If they ask you for money,..........................................
12. If you see my brother, ......................................................?
13. They wouldn't mind if we................................................
14. She‘ll soon feel better if she............................................
15. If you were arrested whom…………………?

134. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

1. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.


2. If I (know) his address I'd give it to you.
3. He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often.
4. If you (play) for lower stakes you wouldn't lose so much.
5. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes.
6. I shouldn't drink that wine if I (be) you.
7. More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate.
8. If I were sent to prison you (visit) me?
9. If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it?
10. I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money.
11. If he (clean) his windscreen he'd be able to see where he was going.
12. If you drove your car into the river you (be able) to get out?
13. If you (not belong) to a union you couldn't get a job.
14. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I'd give up my job.
15. What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house?
16. I could tell you what this means if I (know) Greek.
17. If everybody (give) 1 pound we would have enough.
18. He might get fat if he (stop) smoking.
19. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come).
20. If you (see) someone drowning what would you do?
21. I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for.
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22. If you slept under a mosquito net you (not be) bitten so often.
23. I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree.
24. If she (do) her hair differently she might look quite nice.
25. If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster.
26. The whole machine would fall to pieces if you (remove) that screw.
27. I (keep) a horse if I could afford it.
28. I'd go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route.
29. If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches there might be less
violence.
30. I (offer) to help if I thought I'd be any use.
31. What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between two floors?
32. If you (paint) the walls white the room would be much brighter.
33. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension?
34. If you knew you had only six weeks to live how you (spend) those six
weeks?
35. I'd climb over the wall if there (not be) so much broken glass on top of it.

135. Make Third Conditional sentences for each of the following situations.
In what sentences is it also possible to use the 2nd Conditional?

1. I didn't have enough money. I didn't take a taxi. If…


2. I wasn't interested in the film. I didn't go to the cinema. If…
3. We took the wrong turning. We arrived late. If…
4. Romeo thought Juliet was dead. He committed suicide. Romeo wouldn't…
5. Oliver was punished. He asked for more food. If Oliver…
6. The building had weak foundations. It fell down. The building wouldn't…
7. I didn't go downstairs. I was afraid of the dark. I might…
8. You didn't run fast. You didn't come first. You could…
9. I didn't know she was the examiner. I made a silly joke. If I…
10. She didn't have a car. She couldn't have driven there. If she…

136. Complete these sentences to make appropriate Third Conditional or


Mixed Conditional sentences, using the correct form of the verbs in
brackets.

1. If I...............(visit) Athens last year, I...............(phone) you.


2. If only I................(know) you already had tickets, I................(not get) any
for you.
3. If you................(start) coming to the course earlier, you................(could
pass) the exam.
4. If I...............(not be) so shy at the party last Saturday, I...............(might
make) more friends.
5. If you..............(not spend) so much money, I...............(not be) angry now.
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6. I...............(could become) an accountant if................(be) good at maths.
7. She................(get) promoted last year if she................(not argue) with the
boss.
8. He............(not get) the job, if he................(not wear) a tie.
9. If I...............(meet) you before, my life................(be) different.
10. If he..............(not see) the other car, there.........(be) a serious accident.

137. Complete the sentences starting with “I wish”:

77
138. Complete the sentences to express your thoughts for each of the
following situations. Look at the example given.

1. Your wish is to be able to surf. ―I wish I could surf!”


2. Your colleague keeps interrupting you when you're speaking. ―I'd rather
you...‖
3. It's ten to nine and your sister has to be at the station by nine! ―Come on, it's
time you...‖
4. You lost your temper at work this morning and now you're sorry. ―I wish
I...‖
5. Your brother is pretending not to have seen his old girlfriend. ―Why are you
acting as though...‖
6. You think your friend might lose his job and he should think about this
possibility.
7. ―But suppose you…‖
8. A friend has rather stupidly given your phone number to an insurance agent.
―I'd rather you...‖
9. Someone who's rather wealthy is always complaining about having no
money. ―Oh, stop talking as if you.............................................‖
10. You're depressed because you have to go back to work tomorrow. ―If only I
…‖
11. A passenger on a boat stopped you from falling overboard by holding on to
your belt! ―If he …‖
12. The cold, cloudy British weather is getting you depressed. ―I really wish …‖
13. You dream of being rich and travelling round the world in your own plane.
―If I …‖

139. Translate into English:

1. Как жаль, что ты не президент – отменил бы сессию.


2. Хотел бы я, чтобы этот счет никогда не пришел.
3. Я бы не смогла жить с этим. – Ты бы удивилась, если бы узнала, с чем
можно жить.
4. Как жаль, что ты уже видел этот фильм.
5. Разве он не жалеет, что не поступил в другой ВУЗ?
6. Кадди мучается, что не обнаружила тот симптом сама. – Она и не
смогла бы.
7. Что бы ты сделал, будь у тебя возможность делать абсолютно все, но
только один день?
8. А почему тебе бы не хотелось, чтобы сейчас было лето?
9. Хотел бы я, чтобы поскорее пришел Новый Год.

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10. Если бы не забастовка работников транспорта, мне не пришлось бы
вставать на два часа раньше. И я бы сейчас все еще спал.
11. Жаль, что вы не пришли раньше.
12. Приди вы неделей раньше, вы бы с ним встретились без промедления.
13. Жаль, что Ван Гог написал так немного картин.
14. Погода не была бы такой теплой, если бы не столкнулись два циклона.
15. Разве тебе не жаль, что мы уезжаем в этот понедельник?
16. Интересно, что бы ты стал тогда делать, не умей я разжигать костер с
одной спички?
17. Если бы только лето не кончалось никогда.
18. Если бы не вы, сидел бы я сейчас посреди пустыни без воды и
телефона.
19. Если бы только ты хоть иногда приходил вовремя!
20. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы этот фотограф работал только в нашем
журнале.
21. Жаль, что мы не смогли сдать все наши пальто в гардероб.
22. Если бы каждый сортировал свой мусор, мы могли бы замедлить
загрязнение планеты.

PROGRESS TEST 9:

140. Rewrite the following sentences as conditionals.

Example: Eric was with us so we didn't get lost. If Eric hadn't been with us, we
would have got lost.
1. We got soaking wet on Sunday and now we've all got colds.
2. I'm afraid I don't know so I can't tell you.
3. Because the train was 10 minutes late I managed to catch it.
4. The weather could be bad on Saturday, in which case we'll have to cancel
the barbecue.
5. I'm living in Italy because I got married to an Italian.
6. Sorry I didn't phone you but I lost the bit of paper with your number on it.
7. We don't get on very well because she's so aggressive.
8. There's the possibility of a train strike on Monday so I might not be able to
come.
9. We've got a broken window because you and your friends were playing
football in the back yard!
10. They're so reserved that I speak to them very infrequently.
11. I missed the end of the film so I don't know who the murderer was.
12. Jimmie's father might buy him a new bike; it depends on him passing his
exams.
13. Zoe tripped and fell just as she was about to win the race.
14. As we'd already seen the film we didn't go to the cinema.
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141. In the following sentences, put the verbs in brackets in the correct
form to form 3rd or mixed conditionals. Put any other words in brackets
in the correct place. An example is given.

Example: If I hadn't seen (not see) it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have
believed (not believe) it!
1. We …………… (still live) in Cardiff if we…………… (not find) someone
to buy our house last year.
2. If Hilary…………… (look) out of the window at that moment, she
…………… (spot) the criminals trying to break into her car.
3. Nobody…………… (ever guess) he was a thief if he…………… (not catch)
red-handed taking money from the safe.
4. Henry…………… (not ever get) that job at the bank if he…………… (not
go) to school with the manager's son.
5. Just think, if I…………… (take) that job with the export/import company, I
………………… (live) in Sao Paulo now, not Manchester!
6. If the doctor…………… (not notice) the defect when I was a child, I
…………… (be) practically blind by now.
7. We…………… (be) home in bed ages ago if you…………… (not lose) the
map!
8. Frank…………… (not be) here today if that boy…………… (not know)
how to do artificial respiration.
9. If you…………… (listen) to the traffic report on the radio this morning, we
…………… (not sit) here in this jam!

10. VERB + INFINITIVE / GERUND, VERBS WITH DEPENDANT


PREPOSITIONS

142. Use the infinitive or the -ing from of the verbs in brackets:

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143. Complete the following sentences with either the infinitive or the -ing
form of the verb given in brackets.

1. I'm really looking forward to ________ (see) you again next week.
2. Can't we just ________ (have) a quiet evening at home for once?
3. It's always difficult ________ (know) if and when you should get married.
4. Come on, you kids! Stop ________ (shout)! You're driving me crazy.
5. When they split up, Paula made David ________ (give) back all the
presents she'd ever given him.
6. The most important thing in any relationship is ________ (understand)
what makes your partner tick.
7. Maurice and Fiona have always let their children ________ (do)
________exactly what they want.
8. With the advances in medical science, it seems that you're never too old
________ (have) children any more.
9. When the baby was small I have to admit that I had to wear earplugs at night
________ (get) a good night's sleep.

144. Complete the following sentences with either a gerund or infinitive.


The first one has been done as an example:

1. You'll remember (fill) to fill the car up with petrol, won't you?
2. Try (have) ________a cup of camomile tea before you go to bed.
3. She remembered (see) ________his face in a police identikit picture.
4. You must try (cut) ________down on the number of cigarettes you smoke.
5. I regret (tell) ________him he was pathetic, I got a bit angry, that's all.
6. I regret (tell) ________you that there is very little chance of recovery.
7. Isn't it time you stopped (depend) ________on your parents so much and
tried (stand) ________on your own two feet?
8. You can't expect (pass) ________the exam if you spend all day (play)
________video games.
9. I can't help (wonder) ________why Julie keeps (come) _______home so
late.
10. It's no good (worry) ________about things you can't be expected (know)
________ .
11. Would you mind not (smoke) ________ in here? I can't stand (breath)
________ in second-hand cigarette smoke.
12. I hate (stay) ________ in small, confined places. I was once trapped in a lift
and tried (smash) ________ the doors down.
13. Don't forget (take) ________ the car to the garage on Monday - the brakes
need (fix) ________ again.
14. It's not worth (risk) ________ (get) ________ a fine by (park) ________ the
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car here even for five minutes.
15. There was no point in (promise) ________ (help) ________ if you don't
like________ ( get) your hands dirty!

145. Use a gerund or an infinitive to complete each sentence:

1. We're going out for dinner. Would you like _________ us?
2. Jack avoided _________ me.
3. Fred didn't have any money, so he decided _________ a job.
4. The teacher reminded the students _________ their assignments.
5. Do you enjoy _________ soccer?
6. I was broke, so Jenny offered ___________ me a little money.
7. Mrs. Allen promised _________ us tomorrow.
8. My boss expects me _________ this work ASAP.
9. Would you mind _________the door for me?
10. Even though I asked the people in front of me at the movie ________quiet,
they kept _________ .
11. Joan and David were considering _________ married in June, but they
finally decided _________ until August.
12. Our teacher encourages us _________ a dictionary whenever we are
uncertain of the spelling of a word.
13. Before I went away to college, my mother reminded me _________ her a
letter at least once a week.
14. Mrs. Jackson had warned her young son _________ the hot stove.
15. I don't mind _________ alone.
16. The teacher seems _________in a good mood today, don't you think?
17. Lucy pretended _________ the answer to my question.
18. Paulo intends _________ his friend a letter.
19. Residents are not allowed _________ pets in the apartment building.
20. All applicants are required _________ an entrance examination.
21. Someone asked me _________ this package.
22. I was asked _________ this package.
23. Jack advised me _________ a new apartment.
24. I was advised _________ a new apartment.
25. Jack advised _________ a new apartment.
26. Jack suggested _________ a new apartment.
27. Ann advised her sister _________ the plane instead of driving to Oregon.
28. Ann advised _________ the plane instead of driving to Oregon.

146. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets:

1. I think we should postpone.......................on holiday. (go)


2. I don't like................................what to do. I'll make up my own mind. (tell)
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3. He denied................................anything to me but I can prove he did. (say)
4. She was a difficult child, probably due to................................by different
foster parents. (look after)
5. Karin decided................................to Rome for her holidays. (go)
6. I'd love................................a blank cheque and told to spend the money on
anything I like. (give)
7. He seems................................a lot of weight since I last saw him. (lose)
8. I saw Amy last night. She seems................................better, slowly but
surely. (get)

147. Fill in the correct preposition or particle and the -ing form of the verb
in brackets:

148. Choose the right option:

1. They wouldn't allow / forbid him go out with his friends.


2. Les assisted / helped / taught me set up the new computer.
3. Their parents make them staying / to stay / stay home on weekdays.
4. They wouldn't allow / let / make us to go into the building.
5. What caused / forced / made you change your mind?
6. The factory lets / makes / allows eating in the canteen only.
7. Bad health forced / let / made him to leave his job.
8. She likes / expects / imagines to finish the project by January.
9. I was shocked to see her going / to go / go through my bag.
10. Although it was many years ago, Connie clearly remembers cry / crying
when her cat died.
11. I like to do / doing the unpleasant jobs before I do the gardening.
12. Judy and Gordon like their new home but they miss to live/living by the sea.
13. The airline allows passengers carry/to carry one item of hand luggage.

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14. The cost of borrowing has forced many companies to close/closing.

149. Complete the text with the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs in
brackets (with or without “to”).

Have you got what it takes to be a celebrity?


o I would refuse (1) _____ (go) to a club or restaurant that looked cheap or
unfashionable.
o I loathe people (2) _________ (take) my photograph.
o When I meet new people I expect them (3) _________ (remember) who I
am.
o I regularly spend more than an hour (4) _________ (get) ready to go out.
o I would make a special effort (5) _________ (be) nice to someone if I
thought they could help me in my career.
o I sometimes make people (6)________(wait) (7) _______(see) me in order
(8) _________ (make) them (9) _______(appreciate) me more.
o I sometimes ignore people if I think they are not worth
(10)__________(know).
o I can't stand (11)_____(go) to big parties with lots of people I don't know
very well.
o I avoid (12)_________(be) the centre of attention in big groups if I can.
o I sometimes tell lies about myself (13) _________ (make) myself sound
more interesting.
o If I'm buying an outfit for an important occasion, I try (14)_________(find)
something that will make people (15) _________ (notice) me.
o If I saw someone embarrassing at a party I would pretend
(16)_________(not know) them.
o I don't really mind (17)_________(not have) much money.
o I would rather (18)________(arrive) a bit late, in order (19)_______ ( make)
a big entrance.
o I want everyone I meet (20) _________ (like) me.

150. Translate into English:

1. Я всегда мечтал о том, чтобы жить в маленьком домике в деревне.


2. Мои родители не одобряют, когда занимают деньги.
3. Ему удалось достать билеты.
4. Я не возражаю, если ты поедешь с нами.
5. Я только беспокоюсь о том, что мы оставим ее одну.
6. Им удалось дать мне почувствовать себя как дома.
7. Родители настаивают на том, чтобы дети меньше смотрели ТВ.
8. У нашего однокурсника получилось стать участником проекта.

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9. Я не выношу быть в центре внимания.
10. Почему он не попросил прощения за опоздание?
11. Сосредоточьтесь на чтении текста, у вас осталось мало времени.
12. Джина не простила подругу за то, что она соврала.

151 Translate into English:

1. Не будь так строг с Джимом, он не мог не чихнуть, он же простужен.


2. Прежде чем давать показания, поклянитесь говорить правду.
3. Почему Джеймс избегал встречаться с ней?
4. Мы теряем время, пытаясь дождаться ее, пойдем. – Предлагаю
подождать еще 10 минут.
5. Я предупредил, чтобы дети не трогали провод.
6. Мы можем надеяться снова увидеть Вас на нашей конференции?
7. Мой начальник настаивал, чтобы я работал по выходным.
8. Не забудь позвонить мне, когда будешь в нашем городе.
9. Я с сожалением сообщаю вам, что вам отказали в получении визы.
10. Мюриэль не ожидала, что ее заставят быть старостой.
11. Габриэла с ужасом представляла, как она будет весь день отвечать на
телефонные звонки.
12. Я не возражаю, что твои гости курят за столом, но я запрещаю курить в
спальнях.
13. Я готов ждать здесь всю ночь, если это необходимо.
14. Вы тоже ненавидите писать письма? (3 варианта для «ненавидите»)
15. Пожалуйста, продолжайте писать, я могу подождать.
16. Марк уже договорился встретить их в аэропорту?
17. Мы все с нетерпением ждем встречи с твоим профессором.
18. Ты можешь это себе представляешь – жить в двух часах езды на
машине от университета!
19. Мы думаешь (обдумываем), ехать ли на все лето в Америку.
20. Пожалуйста, перестань разговаривать, я пытаюсь закончить письмо.
21. Врач Питера посоветовал ему бросить бегать по утрам.
22. Президент намеревается \ планирует (2 variants) посетить наш город,
поэтому жителей всячески побуждают привести в порядок дворы домов.
23. Мои часы все время останавливаются. - Это потому, что ты все время
забываешь их завести. Я могу предложить тебе носить мои часы, они
электронные.
24. Дети с большим удовольствием слушают его рассказы.
25. Я предложил позвонить в больницы прежде, чем обращаться в
полицию. – Мы не можем позволить себе терять время.
26. Я очень скучаю по тому, как мы пили какао у камина по вечерам.
27. Ваши окна нужно помыть, они грязные.
28. Филипп склонен преувеличивать, но он никогда не говорит неправду.
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152. Translate into English:

1. Напомни мне отправить это письмо. Я сегодня весь день помнил, что
нужно его опустить в почтовый ящик, а когда пошел на улицу, забыл
его взять с собой.
2. Почему он откладывал принятие решения до тех пор, пока не стало
поздно? – Думаю, стоит попробовать поставить другого человека во
главе этого отдела.
3. Я помню, что читал отзыв на эту книгу и он мне не понравился. Не
думаю, что мне понравится читать этого автора.
4. Предложив огромную зарплату, Джэк заставил своих бывших коллег
бросить свою работу и перейти в его новую фирму.
5. Вряд ли ваши гости когда-нибудь забудут, как пили горячий шоколад
из фонтана, это была хорошая идея для вечеринки.
6. Услышав условия конкурса, я отказался принимать участие.
7. Джиллиан попыталась открыть запертую дверь скрепкой, но ей
удалось только испортить себе маникюр.
8. Начальство не разрешает курить в офисе. Поэтому мы остановимся
покурить вот здесь.
9. Я люблю сам водить свою машину, так я точно знаю, что если что-то
сломалось, то в этом виноват я сам.
10. Джулия очень любит водить машину, но, на мой взгляд, она слишком
быстро ездит, я стараюсь избегать ездить с ней.
11. Почему бы нам не попытаться разжечь огонь, натирая одну деревяшку
о другую, у древних людей это получалось.
12. Я пытался объяснить твоему другу это правило, но он не слушал.
13. Карл бросил играть в азартные игры.
14. Заканчивайте спорить и начинайте работать.

PROGRESS TEST 10:

153. Complete the sentences using an infinitive or an -ing form. The first
has been done as an example:

1. City life is too busy for me; I really miss living in the country.
2. We had to postpone _________________ tennis because of the bad weather.
3. She goes _________________ at the disco every weekend.
4. If you keep _________________ so much, you're bound to get fat.
5. She's been training so hard recently that she deserves _________________
the race.
6. He couldn't sleep, so I suggested his _________________ some warm milk.
7. Because of his fear of jellyfish, he doesn't like _________________ in the
sea.
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8. I'd really like _________________ my uncle in Chicago one day.
9. That man seems to be having trouble _________________ his car. Why
don't you give him a push?
10. Mr Roberts is much too old _________________ climbing like he used to.
11. Before the interview, I was required _________________ an application
form.
12. The dog seems _________________ hungry - you'd better feed him.
13. Becoming an Olympic athlete involves _________________ for years.
14. Would you ever consider _________________ married to someone twice
your age?
15. I much prefer _________________ letters to _________________ on the
telephone.
16. Let me be the first _________________ you on your remarkable success.
17. I'm sorry _________________ that I'll be unable to attend the meeting
tomorrow.
18. He said he would prefer _________________ the train to London rather than
_________________ his mother's old car.
19. It's no use _________________ to university if you don't intend to study.
20. I think you should give up _________________ because you have a very
poor voice.

11. USED TO, WOULD, TO GET USED TO

154. Look at the two pairs of pictures and compose as many sentences as
possible about Andrew and Tom. Use “used to” or “didn't use to”.

87
155. Paraphrase the sentences using used to or didn't use to:

1. I had a lot of money but I lost it all when my business failed.


2. I quite like classical music now, although I wasn't keen on it when I was
younger.
3. I seem to have lost interest in my work.
4. My sister can't borrow my jeans any more, she's put on so much weight.
5. I don't mind air travel now that I can afford First Class.
6. My brother had his hair cut short when he left college.
7. I gave up smoking five years ago.
8. My parents lived in the USA when I was a child.
9. When he was younger, my uncle was a national swimming champion.
10. Since we've lived in the countryside, we've been much happier.

156. Complete the texts. Use the correct form of used to or be/get used to.
"I (1)....................be several kilos heavier than I am now. That's because I (2)
................................ hate exercising. But now I (3) ................................ working
out at the gym regularly and I've lost a lot of weight. I (4) ................................
being fit and healthy and I never want to be overweight again."

"We live in London now but we (5) ................................ live in a small town.
When we moved here, I (6)................................the noise of the traffic and I
missed the country. However, I (7)................................city life now and I like
it!"

157. Match the first half of each short dialogue (1-10) with its
corresponding second half (A—J) and then complete them with a suitable
form of “used to” ... or “be/get used to”.

1. Oh dear. I've never driven such a powerful car before.


2. Don't you play tennis?
3. It must be really hard to get up at five every morning.
4. I hear Roger was really shocked when he first started work for the murder
squad.
5. Valeria didn't really know what to do when she went to live on her own.
6. I thought you didn't like opera.
7. I don't think I'll ever understand this new computer program!
8. Why did you give up your job just after the new boss took over?
9. Have you noticed how many people drink bottled mineral water these days?
10. Did Gerry enjoy his time in the army?

A. Well, there's no rush. Give yourself a month ......................it.


B. Oh, not really. I......................it by now.
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C. I know. She......................waited on hand, foot and finger by her mum.
D. Not really. He never could......................orders!
E. Don't worry, you'll soon get used to it.
F. Strange, isn't it? No-one ever......................when I was a lad.
G. Well, I......................but I really enjoy it now.
H. I just......................under so much pressure.
I. Oh, I......................but I haven't practised for ages.
J. Yes, but he......................the job in the end.

158. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of used to or would. Use
would wherever possible.

1. When I was a child, I................dream of traveling round the world.


2. She......................have lots of free time before she started working here.
3. In the summer holidays we......................go to the beach nearly every day.
4. Before Harry moved here, he......................take the bus everywhere but now
he needs a car.
5. They......................drink coffee but recently they've got into the habit of
drinking several cups a day.
6. A: ......................you......................have a beard?
B: Yes, but it......................bother me so I got rid of it.

159 Translate into Russian, using “would”, “used to”, “get used to”. Not all
sentences require these structures:

1. Дик Томлин? Я Том Рипли, мы вместе учились в Принстоне. – И я тебя


знал?
2. А по вечерам мы сидели в беседке, слушали соловьев и пили чай.
3. Мы с Карой ходили в кино, посмотрели сразу три фильма подряд,
представляешь?
4. Раньше мне не удавались портреты, пришлось поработать над этим.
5. Я попыталась объяснить, но чиновник даже не стал меня слушать.
6. Тебе не нужно привыкать ложиться спать пораньше, у тебя вторая
смена.
7. Где ты научился так играть в футбол? – В детстве ходил в спортшколу.
8. Мы слушали музыку, играли в пинг-понг, а потом случайно уронили
елку.
9. Ты правда ходила на все концерты этой группы?
10. Никогда не замечал, что Джоконда улыбается.
11. Подумать только, еще год назад я не знал, кто такой Кадафи.
12. Подожди, я когда-то умел настраивать эту программу, давай попробую.

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PROGRESS TEST 11:

160. Complete the essay. Use the correct form of used to, would or be/get
used to and the verbs in the box.

be complete go have (x2) light pack rush spend stop walk


Some of my happiest memories are of summer holidays with my family. Every
year we (1) ...................... our suitcases and drive off to the seaside. Some years
we (2) ..................... halfway and spend the night in a motel. But usually we (3)
...................... the journey in a day. As soon as we arrived, we (4) ......................
down to the sea. The beach was rocky and for the first few days we had to walk
carefully because we (5) ...................... over the sharp stones with our soft winter
feet. We had lots of friends whom we saw only in the summers so we (6)
...................... a lot of time with them. During the day we (7) ......................
swimming and at night we (8) ..................... a fire on the beach, chat and listen
to the waves. By the end of the holidays, we (9) ...................... great suntans and
our feet (10) ...................... hard from running over the rocks. We (11)
...................... mixed feelings about leaving. We didn't want to leave our friends
behind but at the same time we looked forward to going home.

12. REPORTED SPEECH, REPORTING VERBS

161. Report the statements. The first has been done as an example:

1. Laura wants to quit university and look for a job. Read what she said and
how other people responded.
2. 'I want to leave university and find a job,' said Laura.
3. Laura announced that she wanted to leave university and find a job.
4. 'You should finish your degree first,' said her tutor.
5. Her tutor advised ____________________________________
6. 'Please think carefully before you take such a big step,' said her mother. Her
mother begged ____________________________________
7. 'You'll never find a good job if you drop out,' her father said.
8. Her father warned __________________________________
9. 'I'll stop paying your rent if you leave university,' he said.
10. He threatened ______________________________________
11. 'I'll let you stay at my flat until you find a place to live,' said her best friend.
Her best friend offered ______________________________
12. 'I think you should ask your tutor for advice,' said her sister.
13. Her sister suggested ____________________________
14. 'I'll buy you a car when you graduate,' said her grandmother.
15. Her grandmother promised _________________________________

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162 Turn the sentences into indirect questions, using the beginnings:

I‘m interested Could you tell me I wonder Do you agree


Could you explain to me Do you think I was wondering
1. Would you like to have a cup of herbal tea?
2. When did she leave him?
3. Did they invent anything valuable?
4. What has been keeping you so long?
5. Will Jane ever come back to her native town?
6. What have they done to their cat?
7. Do you believe that China will be the leading country by 2020?
8. Had they left the door open the day they were bugled?
9. Do you have another tissue?
10. Are they coming or going?
11. How often do you visit your mother?
12. Was the party paid for by the company?
13. Will any celebrity be coming to the party?

163 Report the statements. Use the verbs in the box. The first has been done
as an example:

accused advised apologised complained offered refused reminded warned


1. 'I can see you're busy. I'll help you prepare that report if you like,' she said.
2. She offered to help me prepare the report.
3. 'I'm not going to discuss the problem with you. It's a waste of time,' he said.
4. 'I want you to know I'm upset that I wasn't invited to the meeting,' she said.
5. 'You mustn't do it again or we'll fine you,' said the police officer.
6. 'I know someone's been reading my e-mails. It was you, wasn't it?' she said.
7. 'You've got to apply for a new passport. Yours is out of date,' he said.
8. 'I'm sorry about the trouble I caused. I didn't mean to do anything wrong,' she
said.
9. 'You've been very ill. You should stay home for a few days,' said the doctor.

164. Use an appropriate introductory verb from the box to report the
following. The first has been done as an example:

agree offer promise refuse threaten advise ask beg command


invite order remind warn admit accuse apologise boast
complain deny insist prefer suggest exclaim explain promise
1. "It wasn't me who stole the car," said Henry. ... Henry denied stealing /
having stolen the car. ...
2. "May I have a piece of cake please?" Marla said.

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3. "Yes, okay. I'll tell my father about the accident we got in the other night,"
Ben said.
4. "I must have the report by tomorrow," the boss said.
5. "Please, please let me go to this party," Sue asked her mother yesterday.
6. "I'll never be naughty again," Ted said to his father.
7. "Stand up straight!" said the sergeant to the soldier.
8. "Yes, it was me who robbed the bank two weeks ago," the criminal said.
9. "I didn't come to work because I was ill," the secretary said to her boss.
10. "Let's play chess tonight," my brother said.
11. "I'm sorry I forgot to phone you the day before yesterday," Gerry said to
Sally.
12. "Don't forget to go to the bank tomorrow," the mother said to me.
13. "You should relax more these days," the doctor said to the patient.
14. "Mark is always shouting at me," Susanna said.
15. "You were right, it is a very appropriate dress!" Maurice said.
16. "Shall I carry your bag, Tracy?" Ted said.
17. "No, I certainly won't be doing your homework this year, Graham," said Bill.
18. "You scratched my record because you were carrying it in your purse
without a box," Mark said to his girlfriend.
19. "Leave now or I'll phone the police," the salesman said to the shoplifters.
20. "I like red wine, not champagne, please," said Aunt Polly.
21. "It's true, I broke the window when I was playing ball," the little boy said.
22. "I'll phone you as soon as I arrive," said my wife to me.
23. "You're right, Mona looked very beautiful when we met her," Donna said.
24. "You should come and see me next week, when I am at home at last" said
Rachel.
25. "If you try to escape again, I'll shoot you," the guard said to the prisoner.
26. "Why don't we have chicken for dinner tomorrow evening?" James said.
27. "You must sign the contract today, Mr Harrison," the lawyer said.
28. "I'll punish you if you do that again!" the father said to the boy.
29. "Would you like me to show you how to use this computer?" the accountant
said to me.
30. "My son has won the spelling contest last month" Rupert said.
31. "They are at work now" said the babysitter to me.
32. "No, I won't marry you, John," Lisa said.
33. "Oh alright, I'll lend you my car the day after tomorrow, Tom," his cousin
said.

PROGRESS TEST 12:

165 First decide on an appropriate report verb then report the sentences:

1. "Don't forget to take the dog out tomorrow morning," said my Granny.
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2. "Please, please don't leave me alone in this house," said Debra to her
husband.
3. "Do it now!" said the slave-owner to his servants.
4. "No, I did not kill the man," said the gardener to the police-officer.
5. "Oh, alright. I'll do the washing-up today," said my sister to me.
6. "You should go to bed tonight, not tomorrow morning," said the mother to
her son.
7. "Everybody, stand up now!" said the court bailiff.
8. "No, I will not give you my money," said the old lady to the thief.
9. "Could I use your phone?" said the driver of the car that had broken down.
10. "I'm sorry I shouted at you yesterday," said the doctor to his daughter.
11. "I'll punish you if you don't behave when my friends come over," said Fiona
to her son.
12. "It was me who stole the book from your shop last week," said the little girl
to the shop-owner.
13. "It only works if you press the green button," said the operator to the visitor.
14. "You're right. The film that we went to the day before yesterday was
brilliant," said Carla to her friend.
15. "I've been feeling dizzy all day," said the patient to the doctor.
16. "Of course I'll write to you," said Sam to his parents.
17. "I'll give you a lift home, if you like," said the neighbor to me.
18. "Let's go for a swim," said Barry to his relatives, visiting him in his new
country house.
19. "It was you who broke the TV in the lobby!" said the landlord to his tenant.
20. "If I were you, I would tell them the truth," said Penny to her cousin.

13. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

166. Make the right choice.

1. John ran (quick, quickly). 2. She thinks (well, good) of Peter. 3. Jean sat
(comfortable, comfortably). 4. The table has a (smooth, smoothly) surface. 5. He
behaves (honest, honestly). 6. She speaks English (fluent, fluently). 7. John did
the exercises (easy, easily). 8. She was (bad, badly) hurt. 9. Are these books
(good, well)? 10. We don't like to drink, (bitter, bitterly) tea. 11. John spoke
(sad, sadly) to Jane. 12. That is an (intense, intensely) novel. 13. Rita plays the
violin (good, well). 14. The sun is shining (bright, brightly). 15. I thought she
looked (beautiful, beautifully) tonight.

167. Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct them where
necessary.

1. I'm tired because I've been working hard. ........


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2. I tried hard to remember her name, but I couldn't. .......................................
3. This coat is practically unused. I've hardly worn it. ...............................
4. Judy is a good tennis player. She hits the ball hardly. ....................................
5. Don't walk so fast! I can't keep up with you. ................................
6. I had plenty of time, so I was walking slow. ............................

168. Choose the correct answer:

1. Olivia's looking very healthy / healthily since she came back from her
holiday.
2. Luke did very good / well in the exam.
3. I want you to answer the question truthful / truthfully.
4. Entering the war was a political / politically mistake.
5. The local team won the match easy / easily.
6. Since moving out of the family home, Alex has felt lonely / in a lonely way.
7. The teacher conducted the lesson lively / in a lively way.
8. I'll finish the report by Friday - it won't be late / lately.
9. He gave the door a hard / hardly push but it hard / hardly moved.

169. Complete the sentences. Use adverbs or adverbial phrases.

1. Gavin gave me a sincere apology. He apologised.......................


2. The children are noisy. They're playing.......................
3. This building makes economic use of space. It uses space.......................
4. Adrian's behaviour was sensible. He behaved.......................
5. The match will be shown on national television. It will be
shown.....................
6. I know I was foolish. I don't know why I behaved so.......................
7. My teacher has a friendly smile. She smiles.......................
8. Michael is a fast driver. He drives.......................

170. Find mistakes and correct them. If there are no mistakes, put “OK”.

1. She speaks French fluent.


2. I think you behaved very cowardlily.
3. Everyone says that he's now enormous rich.
4. We'll never catch them up if you walk as slow as that.
5. She turned to him astonishedly. 'I don't believe you,' she said.
6. Wearing a white shirt and new suit, he thought he looked really well.
7. He plays the guitar remarkable good for his age.
8. Chop the herbs finely and sprinkle them on top of the pasta.
9. He stepped back and looked satisfiedly at the newly-painted door.

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171. Complete the sentences. Use hardly + the verbs from the box (in the
correct form):

change hear know recognise say sleep speak


1. Scott and Tracy have only met once before. They.....................each other.
2. You're speaking very quietly. I can...........................................you.
3. I'm very tired this morning. I....................................................last night.
4. We were so shocked when we heard the news, we could............................
5. Kate was very quiet this evening. She......................................a word.
6. You look the same now as you looked 15 years ago. You've.......................
7. I met Dave a few days ago. I hadn't seen him for a long time and he looks
very different now. I ......................... him.

172.Complete the sentences with hardly + any/anybody/anything/anywhere/


ever.

1. I'll have to go shopping. There's……………to eat.


2. It was a very warm day and there was...........................................wind.
3. 'Do you know much about computers?' 'No,...........................................'
4. The hotel was almost empty. There was......................staying there.
5. I listen to the radio quite often, but I .........................watch television.
6. Our new boss is not very popular. ....................................likes her.
7. It was very crowded in the room. There was...................................to sit.
8. We used to be good friends, but we....................................see each other
now.
9. It was nice driving this morning. There was..............................traffic.
10. I hate this town. There's.........................to do and............................ to go.

173. Paraphrase the following sentences using verbs and adverbs instead of
nouns and adjectives.

Example: He is a quick worker, isn't he? —He works quickly, doesn't he?
1. When we arrived there was a heavy rain. 2. Why did you give him such a cold
look? 3. She is a quiet sleeper, isn't she? 4. Electricity brought a wonderful
change to the life of the people. 5. He did a very good translation of the article in
the newspaper. 6. They did a lot of hard work in the summer. 7. I am sure she
will give you a very good description of the places she'll be visiting during her
trip. 8. Peter is a careful driver. 9. Harry is a slow eater. 10. Peter is a fast
runner.

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174.

175. Translate into English:

1. Вы ехали слишком быстро.


2. Быстро иди сюда!
3. Содержание вашего доклада структурировано не совсем логично.
4. Я получаю удивительно приличные оценки.
5. Том легко заводит новые знакомства.
6. Двое серьезно пострадали в результате аварии.
7. Все присутствующие на вечеринке были ярко одеты.
8. Джо говорит, что его плохо учили в школе, поэтому он ничего не знает.
9. Никто не жаловался, все терпеливо ждали.
10. Он появился на сцене довольно неожиданно.
11. Все это выглядит довольно глупо.
12. Вы все одеты одинаково.
13. Здесь так темно, что я едва тебя вижу.
14. Ты почти не изменился, выглядишь как и раньше.

176. Translate into English:

1. Почему мы так быстро бежим? Мы же гуляем!


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2. Немедленно расскажи мне, как прошло собеседование.
3. Этот чай пахнет просто чудовищно.
4. Почему здесь так шумно и душно?
5. Эту новинку публика приняла плохо.
6. Самолет был едва различим высоко в небе.
7. Теперь я могу дышать свободно.
8. Он всегда очень дружелюбно со мной разговаривает.
9. Давайте вернемся не слишком поздно.
10. Этот контракт экономически невыгоден, но открывает новые
перспективы.
11. Есть широко распространенное заблуждение, что ежи питаются
фруктами и грибами.
12. На вкус лекарство было чуть соленым.
13. Этот ошибочно набранный номер оказался моим выигрышным
лотерейным билетом.

PROGRESS TEST 13:

177. Translate into English, using adjective or adverbs for the underlined
words:

1. Вы вернулись ужасно поздно вчера.


2. На этом поезде вы доедете прямо до Манчестера, без пересадки.
3. Мэри приехала вскоре после Марка.
4. Эту явление широко распространено.
5. Он сразу принял аспирин и улегся в постель.
6. Не кидай мяч так высоко, он может улететь к соседям.
7. Все очень высоко ценят его работу (думают высоко о).
8. Дверь была широко открыта.
9. Подумайте как следует (упорно) и вы вспомните это имя.
10. Говорите громко, я едва слышу вас.
11. Они внезапно уехали после прибытия.
12. Немедленно (быстро) возвращайся!
13. А теперь медленно выньте руки из карманов.
14. В этих сигаретах очень мелко порубленный (cut) табак, поэтому их не
купить задешево.
15. Он охотно делился советами в сфере финансов и делал это бесплатно.
16. Это несомненно глупо – пытаться обмануть охранника, чтобы бросить
синей краски в пюре.

14. MODAL VERBS

178. Choose the correct answer. In one question alt answers are correct.
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A: I saw someone in my class cheat in our last exam and I didn't say anything.
What do you think I (1) should / ought / need to do now?
B: I think you (2) should say I should have said / had better say something at the
time You (3) could / may / might talk to a teacher in confidence now but it (4)
could I may / might be too late for the school to take action. Whatever happens,
I don't think you (5) could / may / should be too hard on yourself.

179. Complete the following sentences using a suitable modal verb or its
substitute together with the word in brackets. The first one is shown as an
example.

1. You must go (go) and see that new play at the Adelphi. It's marvelous!
2. Guests…………… (leave) their valuables in the hotel safe if they wish.
3. It was lucky that we…………… (change) any money as all the banks were
shut.
4. We…………… (rush) after all. The plane was over an hour late taking off.
5. You…………… (have) a special license to drive lorries weighing over two
tons.
6. Sorry to interrupt, Professor Cripwell, ……….I …… (ask) you a quick
question?
7. In the future, European citizens…………… (travel) from one country to
another inside Europe without going through customs.
8. We really…………… (have) the car washed. It's absolutely filthy!
9. I've no idea where the inn is. So when we get to the village, we……………
(ask) for directions.
10. Unlike many other countries, young men in Britain…………… (do)
compulsory military service as it was abolished in 1957.
11. You used…………… (build) a house more or less anywhere on your land
100 years ago. Today you …………… (put) a shed in your garden without
planning permission!
12. ……… we ……… (discuss) this any further? I'm sure we've all got a good
idea of the problem now.
13. You…………… (keep) the receipt. They won't take it back without one
now.
14. I hope we…………… (build) an extension on the back of our house next
year.
15. At my last job, we…………… (make) any personal phone calls from the
office. We…………… (use) the public call box in the street!

180. Complete the sentences using the words in brackets. Use two to five
words in the gaps. The first has been done as an example:

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1. Perhaps the car needs a new engine. (need)
The car may/might need a new engine.
2. Why don't you go to Canada for a holiday? (could)
You ______________________________________for a holiday.
3. Shall I get you a cup of tea? (me)
Would ______________________________________you a cup of tea?
4. Sue will probably go to see her aunt.
Sue ______________________________________to see her aunt.
5. It wasn't necessary for them to buy such a big car as they did. (have)
They ______________________________________such a big car.
6. It‘s forbidden to smoke in this building. (not)
You ______________________________________in this building.
7. It would be a good idea to change your hairstyle. (should)
You ______________________________________your hairstyle.
8. Why didn't anybody warn me about the bus strike? (have)
You ______________________________________about the bus strike.
9. It isn't necessary for you to attend the meeting. (need)
You ______________________________________the meeting.
10. Maybe she has failed her exams. (may)
She ______________________________________her exams.
11. I‘m sure he is seeing Ruth. (be)
He ______________________________________Ruth
12. It‘s forbidden to talk to the driver while he is driving. (must)
You _______________________________the driver while he is driving.
13. I‘m sure he didn't send you this letter. (sent)
He ______________________________________this letter
14. May I read your newspaper? (mind)
Would ______________________________________your newspaper?
15. I‘m sure she wasn't lying to you. (been)
She ______________________________________to you.

181. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. An example is


given.

1. Let‘s go jogging. (shall) Shall we go jogging?


2. Please turn the TV off. (could)
3. Am I allowed to sit here? (may)
4. Please answer the phone. (will)
5. Don‘t bite your nails. (must)
6. Do you mind if I use your pen? (can)
7. Is there any chance we'll get a pay rise? (likely)
8. These curtains don't have to be ironed. (need)
9. It‘s not polite to speak with your mouth full. (should)
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10. Why don't we visit Mark and Jane? (shall)
11. Is there any chance that he'll phone? (likely)
12. It's advisable to brush your teeth after meals. (should)
13. There's a possibility that he'll arrive a little late. (might)
14. Do you know how to ice-skate? (can)
15. You have to inform the bank of any change of address. (must)
16. It's a good idea to show more respect. (ought to)
17. It wasn't necessary for you to go to so much trouble. (need)
18. Let's go to the cinema tonight. (shall)
19. It's important that you be here at 9.00. (must)
20. I'm sure he is a millionaire, (must)
21. Perhaps he'll change his mind. (may)
22. Please, help me carry these! (could)
23. I don't believe she paid so much for that dress. (can)
24. It's a good idea to lock the door at night. (should)

182. Complete the sentences using needn’t, didn’t need to, needn’t have. The
first has been done as an example:

1. Tim went on a two-day trip. He took more clothes than necessary.


Tim needn't have taken so many clothes on a two-day trip.
2. He decided not to take his passport because it wasn't necessary.
He ________________________his passport.
3. We bought more food than was necessary for the party.
We ________________________so much food for the party.
4. It wasn't necessary for Gloria to iron the clothes because Sue had already
done it.
Gloria ______________________ the clothes because Sue had already done
it.
5. It isn't necessary to have a visa to visit Australia.
You ________________________a visa to visit Australia.
6. It wasn't necessary for Jim to accept the offer.
Jim ______________the offer.

183. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of must or need and the
verbs in brackets.

1. You................................any money. I have plenty. (bring)


2. You................................here. If you do, they'll tow your car away. (park)
3. I................................myself to him again – we'd already met. (introduce)
4. They......................... early tomorrow – it‘s Saturday. (get up)
5. You really................................the film – it's brilliant! (see)

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6. She bought three bottles of milk but she................................ . There was
plenty in the fridge. (do)
7. You................................to ring me. Otherwise, I'll worry about you. (forget)

184. Make the following sentences opposite in meaning using the words
from the box:

to misinform to be incompetent to misunderstand to be inexperienced


to be unaware to be unconscious to be careless no to dislike to fail
1. He must be very competent in economics.
2. Brian must have been very experienced in mountaineering.
3. They must have realized the danger.
4. The lawyer must have found the clue to the crime.
5. The committee must have been informed of the coming changes.
6. Everybody must have done the wrong thing.
7. This young man must have had any chance to succeed.
8. The fax must have reached him at last.
9. The doctor must have read my mind.
10. The detective must have understood the policeman's words.'
11. The poor thing must have been aware of it all the, time.
12. The parents must have been quite conscious of the child's strange ways.
13. The landlady must have been very careful in choosing the tenants.
14. She must have loved him all her life.
15. He must have done something about it, I can see some changes in the design.

185. Which sentence, (a) or (b), is most likely to follow the one given?

1. Don't throw the picture away, give it to Tony.


a) He might have liked it. b) He might like it.
2. When she went out this morning she left her briefcase here.
a) She might have meant to leave it behind. b) She might mean to leave it
behind.
3. Nobody knows where the jewels have gone.
a) They might have been stolen. b) They might be stolen.
4. Don't throw away the rest of the meat.
a) We might have wanted it for dinner. b) We might want it for dinner.
5. Don't wait for me.
a) I might have been a few minutes late. b) I might be a few minutes late.

186. Which one means the same as the sentence given, (a) or (b)?

1. It's possible that they don't live here any longer.


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a They mightn't live here any longer. b They can't live here any longer.
2. It isn't possible that they are twins.
a They mightn't be twins. b They can't be twins.
3. It could be that they are not married.
a They mightn't be married. b They can't be married.

187. Underline the correct answer.

1. Sorry I'm late. I should have gone/had to go to the post office.


2. I looked for Pearl but I couldn't find/couldn't have found her.
3. I don't know where Paul is. He had to go/must have gone home early.
4. I had to work/must have worked hard when I was at school.
5. You needn't have said/shouldn't have said anything to Pam about her
birthday party. It was going to be a surprise.
6. You needn't have bought/couldn't have bought a new vacuum cleaner. I
managed to fix the old one.
7. You should have asked/must have asked me earlier. I might have
given/would have given you a lift.
8. You can't have done/needn't have done your homework already! You only
started five minutes ago.
9. You could have told/must have told me the lesson had been cancelled! I
shouldn't have got/wouldn't have got up so early.
10. You were lucky to get out of the car unharmed. You would have been/could
have been badly hurt.

188. Paraphrase the following, using can (could) or may (might).

1. I wish you would mind your speech.


2. We are upset that he didn't apologize.
3. Daniel wished you had warned him.
4. Nancy's mother wishes her daughter were not so messy.
5. I'm annoyed she didn't offer to help.
6. Henry was probably unaware of the coming hurricane.
7. I think it was wrong of them not to invite us.
8. Nobody believes that he built the house all by himself.
9. Would you mind my using your fax?
10. I don't believe that he is so sensitive.
11. Is it in your authority to cancel the flight?
12. It's irritating the way he treats his wife.
13. Dick thinks it was wrong of her not to consult him.
14. Evidently they didn't notice us, or they would have greeted us.
15. She is crying, perhaps the boss was rude to her.
16. Nobody believes that they have left the country for good.
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189. Complete the sentences with a modal verb in the past.

1. I did tell you about Joe's party. You ___________ listen / listening.
2. Thanks so much for all your help. I ___________ managed without you.
3. Flowers, for me! Oh, that's so kind, but really you ______________ …
4. Come on! We're only five minutes late. The film ___________ started yet.
5. I don't believe that Kathy's going out with Mark. She ___________told me, I
know she would.
6. We raced to get to the airport on time, but we _____________ worried. The
flight was delayed.
7. We've got a letter here that isn't for us. The postman ___________ delivered
it by mistake.
8. You ________ gone swimming in such rough sea. You ___________
drowned!

190. Open the brackets using the right form of the infinitive after the verb
must.

1. He looks intelligent. He must (be) a good chess player.


2. They must still (play chess), they really must (make) a break.
3. Ted looks upset. He must (lose) the game again.
4. The friends must (play) chess non-stop the whole day.
5. "Something must (keep) the children," said Aunt Molly. "They must still
(look) for the dog."
6. She went red in the face. She must (offend).
7. He must (know) about her state of mind long before, but finally he came to
say that they must (do) something about it.
8. I realized that it must (be) a wrong word to use in a lady's presence, and that
now I must (apologize).
9. He must never (be) poor. How should he know what poverty is?
10. The Browns must (fail) to get in touch with us.
11. The children must never (suffer), however difficult the situation may be.
12. Janice's number is still engaged. She must (be) on the phone all morning.
13. The Dean must (misunderstand) me. I didn't really mean that.
14. "Oh, you mustn't (go) yet." he protested. "You must (come) and see my new
kitchen." - "Oh, it must (cost) you a fortune with all those new prices!"
15. She must really (make) your life unbearable all these years.

191. Use the required form of the infinitive in brackets after the verb may
(might):

103
1. "I will go in first, shall I?" he said. "There's no light' in the passage, and you
may (fall) over something."
2. For all I hear he may still (live) in that old house of his.
3. Don't reject me, I might (do) a thing or two.
4. 'I thought you might (discover) it accidentally during your last visit.
5. You might (get) the soldiers into no end of trouble if they had been convoys.
6. "All right this time," he said. "But you be careful in future, young man, it
might (be) a very serious matter."
7. After all, Timothy might (make) a mistake, and the magician might (hide) in
the village; it would never do to pass it by.
8. Who knows what may (happen) tomorrow?
9. But for your help it might (turn out) to be hopeless.
10. What a fuss! You really might (spare) me all this!
11. It appeared much better than it might (expect).
12. How did the boy manage the task? – Not bad, it might (be) worse.

192.

104
193. Choose the structures that you think fit the meaning best:

194. Fill in: must, can't, should, may, might, could and the appropriate form
of the verbs. The first has been done as an example:

Fred: I've been trying to phone Rupert all day, but there's no answer. He 1)
...must be working... (work).
Jill: No. He 2)....................................... (work). He never works on Sunday.
Fred: Oh! Then I suppose he 3)................................. (go) away somewhere for
the day.
Jill: Possibly. But I'll be upset with him if he has. He 4)............................... (tell)
me, so that I 5).....................................................................(go) with him.
Fred: I hope he's OK. He 6)................................ (have) an accident, you know.
Jill: Don't worry. He 7)..................................... (still/sleep). You know he has a
lot of work on at the moment. He 8)..................................... (work) until late last
night.
Fred: I suppose so, or he 9).............................................. (go) to Ted's party.
Jill: That's it! He 10).......................................... (go) there and stayed out till
really late.

105
195. Adam is late. Use the pictures to say what may/might/could have
happened to him.
What else do you think may/might/could have happened to him?

196. Translate into English using to have to or to be to:

1. Я не могу пойти с вами на вечер, мне нужно доделать одну вещь.


2. Что же мне делать, сэр? Должен ли я уехать?
3. Мы условились встретиться завтра.
4. Наконец-то она купила себе машину, и теперь ей не приходится
пользоваться автобусом.
5. Детектив обязан провести расследование.
6. Детектив должен был провести расследование, но обстоятельства
изменились.
7. Премьер-министр должен вылететь в Ирак через неделю.
8. Сегодня Александру необходимо поехать в центр города, потому что у
него там деловая встреча.
9. Нина должна была сделать массу вещей, но забыла о них.
10. Мистер Рич очень богат. Ему не приходится зарабатывать на жизнь.
11. Сегодня мне не нужно готовить домашнее задание, я все сделала вчера.
12. Я знала, что этому суждено было случиться.
13. Он должен был выступить на конференции, но неожиданно заболел.
14. Вам никогда не приходится ездить в командировки, не так ли? – Бывает
иногда.
15. Если он хочет быть здоровым, ему придется следовать советам врача.
16. Какой беспорядок! Кто должен был делать уборку сегодня?
17. Ни в коем случае вы никому не должны говорить об этом!
18. Твоему боссу никогда не приходилось брать кредит в банке, не так ли?
19. Они собирались пожениться, но этому не суждено было случиться.
20. Они направились в зал, где должен был состояться аукцион.
21. Вчера мы хотели поехать на пикник, но не смогли, потому что вместо
этого нам пришлось принимать неожиданных гостей.
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22. Мэри пришлось внимательно слушать, чтобы понять его.
23. Если вы хотите получить хорошее образование, придется много
учиться.
197. Translate into English:
1. Можно взглянуть на этот документ, инспектор? – Боюсь, что пока нет.
2. Решение может быть очень простым, можешь мне поверить.
3. – Можно мне увидеть администратора? – Можно было бы, если бы вы
жили в этом отеле.
4. Вы, возможно, приняли меня за сестру. Мы близнецы.
5. Я, может быть, совершаю ошибку, но я не вижу другого выхода.
6. Вы, возможно, не осознаете этого, но вы великий человек.
7. Я был уверен, что могут появиться другие проблемы.
8. Он, вероятно, опаздывает. Застрял, наверное, где-нибудь в
автомобильной пробке.
9. Ребенок поинтересовался, можно ли ему посмотреть еще два мультика.
10. Вы должны были оказать им финансовую помощь! Теперь они
обанкротились.
11. Я не уверена, но, возможно, они встретились на чьей-то свадьбе.
12. На оленей можно охотиться только лишь в определенное время года.
13. – Она выглядит так, словно ничего не случилось. – Она, вероятно, не
слышала последних новостей.
14. Он уверил нас, что мы можем прийти в любой удобный для нас день.
15. – Ты мог бы быть более ответственным! – Уж какой есть.
16. Моника решила, что может воспользоваться машиной отца.

198. Translate into English:

1. Неужели он спит уже четыре часа? Наверное, он совсем не спал ночью.


2. Как ты думаешь, куда он мог уйти? – Он мог уйти к приятелю, который
живет через дорогу.
3. Наверное, дома никого нет. Не может быть, чтобы Майк забыл, что мы
приедем.
4. Возможно, он все еще ждет нас там, где мы договорились.
5. Наверное, я звонил тебе, когда ты была в командировке.
6. Вы могли бы предупредить меня, что не придете!
7. Наверное, Хлоэ потеряла твой электронный адрес и поэтому до сих пор
не написала.
8. Может быть, вы и не хотели его обидеть, но обидели. Должно быть, он
не так вас понял.
9. Дон и Чейз, должно быть, пьют кофе. – Но мы не обязаны их ждать.
10. По-видимому, это труднее, чем мы предполагали.
11. Очевидно, они говорили обо мне.
107
12. Вам следовало учесть все параметры, когда вы писали отчет.
13. Наверное, он напугал их своими угрозами.
14. Если бы мы не вмешались, они, возможно, помирились бы.
15. Не может быть, чтобы он придумал это сам.
16. Вы могли бы думать не только о себе!
17. Этому обманщику следовало бы лучше помнить свои россказни.
18. Если вы не откажитесь, ваша карьера может закончиться, не начавшись.
19. Вы, может быть, и много повидали, но в этом вопросе Марк
ориентируется лучше вас.
20. Я должен был позвонить вам вчера, простите, что не вспомнил.
21. Неужели он действительно отказался нам помочь?
22. Наверное, Джесс тратит на свое хобби огромное количество времени.
23. Наверное, Мама Майкла все знала, но не хотела меня расстраивать.
24. Он наверняка не знает о нашем отъезде, иначе он пришел бы нас
проводить.
25. Ты должен был предупредить меня, что пишешь статью на ту же тему.
26. Проблема не исчезнет сама собой. – Нет, но,возможно, исчезнешь ты.

PROGRESS TEST 14:

199. Complete the following sentences with a suitable form of can, could, be
able, may, might, must and the verb in brackets. Translate the sentences.

1. I feel absolutely awful. I think I …… (have) flu.


2. Are you going to ... (come) to Charlie's birthday party next Saturday?
3. My word! It.......... (take) you ages to write all this. There are more than
2,000 pages!
4. Which bus do you think you………….(leave) your bag on?
5. 'It's odd we haven't received that cheque. Showerings said they'd sent
it.'
6. 'Yes, I suppose it ........ (get) lost in the post but I doubt it.'
7. I ............... (swim) really well when I was six years old.
8. Although she had a broken leg, she …… (swim) to the shore.
9. You. ............ (tell) me it was a formal party. I looked a real idiot in my
pullover and jeans!
10. It's not surprising we ...... (not find) the house. You gave us the wrong
address!
11. I used to ............ (run) for miles. Now I ………………(not even run)
round the block!
12. 'I wonder why Pam ignored me in the street this morning.' 'Well,
she………………(not realise) it was you. She's as blind as a bat.'
13. Smoking ............. (cause) all sorts of physical problems.
14. We .............. (not be) more delighted when we heard the news.
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Congratulations!
15. Quick, Phil! ............ you (see) that man over there? I think
he……………….well (be) the one the police are looking for.
16. Marsha ............. (be) a brilliant lawyer but she gave it all up to go and live in
Nepal.
17. 'What's that there in those trees?' 'It………………(not be) a dog, it's too
big. Let's run for it!'
18. Jane's not completely deaf but she .... ………(not hear) properly for a long
time.
19. Billy, come away from that dog. It ………(bite) you.

15. RELATIVE CLAUSES

200. Decide which word or phrase is correct.

Example: What I really need is a long holiday, a) that b) what c) which d) who
1. At last I've found the information that I was looking..........................
a) for b) for it c) for that d) it
2. Everyone.............................the building was searched by the police.
a) enter b) entered c) entering d) enters
3. The plane..............................has just taken off is an hour late.
a) which b) what c) it d) who
4. I had just one reply. Abco was the..........................company to reply to my
letter.
a) last b) most c) second d) only
5. My friend Nigel,............................ wife works in the City, earns much more
than I do.
a) that b) which c) who d) whose
6. Martin is someone with............................I usually agree.
a) him b) that c) who d) whom
7. I'd like to see the photo..............................
a) took b) you took it c) that you took d) that you took it
8. Atlanta is the city.............................the Olympic Games were held in 1996.
a) that b) when c) where d) which
9. It rained all the time,............................was a great pity.
a) which b) what c) that d) who
10. We passed shops.............................windows were decorated for Christmas.
a) the b) their c) which d) whose

201. Complete the conversation with who, why, that, whose, or where. If no
word is needed, leave a space ( - ).

109
Zoe and Pat are planning a party during the school holidays.
Zoe : Well, who shall we ask to this party?
Pat : Oh, not too many. Just a few people (1) ...... we can be relaxed with.
Zoe : Yes, I agree. So, who, for example?
Pat : My cousin John, of course, and Carlo.
Zoe : Carlo? Who's he?
Pat : He's the Italian guy (2) ……………. is staying with John's family.
Zoe : Oh, yeah. Is he the one (3).......................................wallet got stolen when
they were in London?
Pat : That's right. They caught the guy (4).......................................did it, but he'd
already spent all the money (5).......................................Carlo had brought with
him.
Zoe : Poor Carlo. Perhaps the party will cheer him up.
Pat : It might, if we ask the girl (6).......................................he's been going out
with.
Zoe : Who's that?
Pat : Celia's her name. She works in that cinema (7).......................................they
show all the foreign films.
Zoe : But will she be free on Thursday evening?
Pat : Yes, it's her evening off. That's the reason (8).......................................I
suggested Thursday.
Zoe : OK. Who else? What about Nicky and Cherry?
Pat : Are they the girls (9).......................................you went to France with?
Zoe : Yes. If they bring their boyfriends, that'll be ten of us. But have you got a
room (10).......................................is big enough? My mother says we can't use
our sitting-room because we made too much mess the last time
(11).......................................she let us have a party.
Pat : It's all right. We've got a basement (12).......................................we store
old furniture. If we clean it up, it'll be fine.
Zoe : Great. Let's go and have a look at it.

202. Complete the story about a thief‟s punishment. Write the missing
words. Use one word only in each space. See the example:

This is a true story (0) which is supposed to have happened somewhere in the
US. A man (1).......... was accused of housebreaking appeared in court. He had
110
put his arm through the window of a house and stolen some money
(2)...........was lying on a table inside. The argument (3).............the man‘s lawyer
put forward wasn't very impressive. He said that it was the man's arm
(4)............... had committed the crime and not the man himself. 'You cannot
punish a man for (5)..........his arm has done,' said the lawyer. Now the judge in
(6)........court the man was appearing wanted to show how stupid the lawyer's
argument was. Instead of finding the man guilty, he found the man's arm guilty
and sent it to prison. 'He can go with his arm or not, as he chooses,' the judge
added, (7).......made everyone laugh. But (8)............the judge didn't know was
that the man had an artificial arm. He took the arm off, gave it to the judge - (9)
.......... could hardly believe his eyes - and walked out of the court.

203. Join the sentences using relative clauses.

1. I discussed the problem with my cousin. She is a lawyer.


2. This is Will. I've known his sister since we were children.
3. Last year we moved back to the town. I was born there.
4. The Richardsons are the people. We met them on holiday last year.
5. The children refused to eat the food. Their mother had prepared it.
6. Elli called her brother. She hadn't spoken to him for weeks.
7. We walked to the top of the hill. We had a picnic there.
8. Do you know the people? They live next door.
9. They moved in 1997. Their first child was born then.
10. I put my contact details on the Internet. This was a mistake.

204. Complete the sentences. Use relative pronouns.

1. Is she the manager.................‘s taking over our department?


2. Jody made the best suggestion ..................was unusual.
3. The shop on the corner..................I used to buy most of my food, closed last
4. year.
5. The case.................was stolen had some valuable papers in it.
6. Ian Fleming,.................books have been made into successful films, was a
7. prolific writer.
8. Philip Pullman, .................wrote ―His Dark Materials‖, is a fine author.
9. Tina‘s flat,.................she bought last year, is near the park.
10. Autumn is the season.................I feel most restless.
11. Marcella's decided to teach abroad,.................will be a great experience for
her.
12. This is a picture of the place.................we're spending our holidays.

205. Put a word or phrase from the given in the correct place.

111
in which on which to whom who that
a) The fishing trade, the whole town depends, has been badly affected by
pollution.
b) This house Dickens lived as a child, is now a museum.
c) Our new computer system cost several thousand euros, is still not in
operation.
d) The receptionist was clearly in a bad mood, told us to wait outside.
e) He is a man the whole nation will always be deeply grateful.

206. Use relatives to combine the following sentences as in the example:

1. I spoke to a gentleman. He was very polite. ... The gentleman


(whom/that/who) I spoke to was very polite. The gentleman to whom I spoke
was very polite.
2. I'm writing about a film. It was made in 1958.........................
3. She's the girl. They were talking about her............................
4. That's the restaurant. We go there every Saturday................
5. This is the island. We spent our holiday on it........................
6. These are the Joneses. We went to the theatre with them. ...
7. That is the hotel. We used to stay at it every summer...........
8. He's Mr Smith. I got all the information from him..................
9. This is the knife. He cut the bread with it...............................
10. Mrs Andrews is the woman. I've received a letter from her. ..

207. Combine the two sentences into one.

Example: That man was Anna's brother. He just walked past.


The man who just walked past was Anna's brother.
1. The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane.................................................................twenty-five years old.
2. One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day............................................................ill in bed.
3. Our offices are in Queen Street. They are new.
Our.......................................................................in Queen Street.
4. Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents...................................................................found.
5. That map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map..............................................................................................out of
date.
6. The King's Theatre is in the centre of town. It dates from 1896.
The King's............................................................................in the centre of
town.
7. A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
112
The woman.................................................................................terribly upset.
8. The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk..............................................................................very interesting.
9. The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house......................................................................................is empty
now.

208. Join the sentences. Use the words in brackets. An example is given:

Example: J.K. Rowling is the creator of Harry Potter. She worked as an English
teacher. (who)
J.K. Rowling, who worked as an English teacher, is the creator of Harry Potter.
1. Pablo Picasso suffered from dyslexia. His paintings are some of the most
famous in the world. (whose)
2. William Shakespeare is considered to be one of the greatest playwrights of
all time. He wrote about thirty-seven plays. (who)
3. Muhammed Ali won the world heavyweight boxing title in 1964. He
defeated Sonny Liston that year. (when)
4. In the 1980s Brad Pitt moved to Los Angeles. He took acting classes and
worked as a chauffeur there. (where)
5. Cleopatra is one of the most famous rulers in history. She married two of her
brothers. (who)
6. Bill Clinton was the forty-second President of the United States. His father
died three months before he was born. (whose)
7. Although he was born in Bonn, Ludwig van Beethoven moved to Vienna in
1792. He soon established a reputation there as a piano virtuoso. (where)

209. Where possible, remove the relative pronouns in the following


sentences and make any other necessary changes. The first sentences has
been done for you as an example.

1. Who's that man that Lisa's talking to?


2. I'm calling about the advert that appeared in yesterday's 'Evening Echo'.
3. Isn't that the hotel where Greg and Sally had their wedding reception?
4. I don‘t think she will like our drinking her Cabernet that she has brought
from France.
5. The gentleman with whom you spoke last time is no longer with the
company.
6. That's the couple whose house was burgled last week.
7. Have you heard? Jack had an uncle, whom he had never seen, so he died
and left him $100.000.
8. My mother collects bags, it‘s a hobby which she is crazy about.
9. I don‘t think that Dan is the guy who our daughter would like.
113
10. The bulldog that attacked that little girl has been put to sleep.
11. Have you seen the picture that Fiona lent to the museum?
12. The reason why the accident happened has never been clarified.
13. Is this the picture about which you were speaking last time we met?
14. Don‘t you think that this is exactly the argument to which Viola is sure to
object?
15. She always chooses a moment to call when everyone's out of the office.
16. That's the car that we were thinking of buying.

210. Combine the sentences using a non-defining relative clause. Start with
the words in bold.

1. The Cannes film festival takes place in May every year. It attracts the
biggest names in the film industry.
2. Steve Redgrave has won medals at five Olympic Games. He is one of
Britain's best-known sportsmen.
3. The Winter Olympics are held every four years. They normally take place
in January or February.
4. Madonna has been an international star for over twenty years. She had her
first hit single in 1984.
5. Pamplona is a city in northern Spain. The annual bull-running festival
takes place there.
6. Cuban singer Compay Segundo made his first recording in the 1930s and
found fame in the 1990s with Latin group ―The Buena Vista Socio Club‖.
7. During the festival of Ramadan eating and drinking are forbidden during
the day. It takes place in the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.
8. The Maracana Stadium is in Rio de Janeiro. It has a capacity of 205,000
people.

211. a) Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun, only if necessary.


Then write your answers in random order on a piece of paper.

1. The name of a country___ you'd really like to visit.


2. The name of someone____ you haven't seen for several years.
3. The month________you usually go on holiday.
4. The name of someone________looked after you when you were young.
5. Something________you never leave home without.
6. The name of someone_________music you particularly enjoy.
7. The name of someone____ music you can't stand.
8. The name of a place_____ you always feel relaxed.
9. A month_____ you celebrate something important (for example, a birthday).
10. Something________you often forget.

114
b) Show your answers to a partner. Take turns to ask questions about the
answers on the piece of paper. Answer using a relative clause.

212. Each of the sentences below can end in several different ways. Choose
the possible endings from the box below and add a suitable relative
pronoun where necessary. The first one is shown as an example.

1. What's the name of that town


a which was featured in that TV documentary last week?
b ...................................................................................?
c ...................................................................................?
d ...................................................................................?
2. Have you still got that book
a ...................................................................................?
b ...................................................................................?
c .................................................................................?
3. Wasn't it Elizabeth
a ...................................................................................?
b ...................................................................................?
c .................................................................................?
4. Which is the month
a ..................................................................................?
b ...................................................................................?
c ...................................................................................?

you wanted to have off


author I can never remember the name of
lived in China until she was 16
had to be invented to make the year longer
mayor was arrested for corruption
was reviewed in ―The Times‖ last week
the restaurant sacked for being rude to customers
was featured in that TV documentary last week
most people get married
I lent you last term
was almost completely destroyed during the war

115
Richard Burton was born
boyfriend wants to go and live in Italy

213. Which phrases are incorrect? Correct them.

1. Here is the shop what sells second-hand computer games.


2. What do you call someone who looks after animals?
3. Do you remember the woman we saw yesterday?
4. Today you need to meet the couple who house is for sale.
5. I need someone who is good at languages.
6. This is not the place which I was born.
7. I can‘t find the hotel which we're staying at.
8. We can go to the beach where he works at.

214. Each of these sentences has a mistake in it. Write the correct sentence.

Example: - I've found the magazine who was missing. I've found the magazine
that was missing.
1. This isn't the train on that I normally travel.
2. The letter that I opened it wasn't for me.
3. The reason because I didn't know was that no one had told me.
4. That we should do is ring the police.
5. I didn't know the name of the man helped me.
6. Rupert knows the family who's house is for sale.
7. Einstein whom failed his university entrance exam discovered relativity.
8. The person we talked to were very friendly.
9. It's the President makes the important decisions.
10. I can't find my diary what is a real nuisance.
11. Lake Superior, that lies on the US-Canadian border, is the largest lake in
North America.

215. Find mistakes in these sentences and correct them. The first has been
done as an example:
1. saw a TV programme about old people which go parachuting every
weekend.
2. ...I saw a TV programme about old people who go parachuting every
weekend.
3. There's a door which leading to a secret passage at the end of the hall.
4. She's friendly with the two children whose their mother is the headmistress.
5. am works in Switzerland that is not in the European Union.
6. hile on holiday I met a lot of people, some of which were really boring.
7. Do you know the name of the film which it won seven Oscars at last year's
Academy Awards?
116
8. When I was in Australia, I visited my uncle which I had never met before.
9. Mr Collins is the man from who I bought my tape recorder.
10. The match about that you were talking ended in disaster.
11. They didn't have that I asked for.

216. Join the sentences with relative pronouns:

Example: Last year I went to Paris where I stayed for a week.


Last year I went to Paris. I stayed there for a week. It was a lovely experience. I
will never forget it. I stayed with Louise. She is my French cousin. She
introduced me to Pierre. His knowledge of Paris is amazing. I loved the
boulevards. They are so wide and elegant. The Eiffel Tower is, of course, a great
sight. It is famous all over the world. My favourite building, however, was the
Invalides. It was built in the 17th century. At the end of the week I thanked
Pierre. He had been very kind.

PROGRESS TEST 15:

217. Fill in the relative pronoun and put commas where necessary. Write
(D) for defining, (ND) for non-defining and whether the relative pronoun
can be omitted or not.

Examples: The food ...that... I like best of all is spaghetti. D omitted


Fred, ..whose.... mother lives in Edinburgh, has gone to Scotland. ND not
omitted.
1. The building.......................was next to the school fell down.
2. Jane.......................brother is also a doctor works at the hospital.
3. The restaurant.......................we celebrated my birthday has closed.
4. Mrs Jones is the woman.......................is in charge of this company.
5. The book.......................I'm reading is about China.
6. Mr Smith.......................runs our company is in hospital.
7. Neville.......................family are rich has just bought a Mercedes.
8. The children.......................I baby-sit for are twins.
9. This jumper.......................I bought in Ireland is pure wool.
10. The priest.......................married us has gone to work in Africa.
11. Emma.......................sister is an actress is going on holiday to Hollywood.
12. The supermarket.......................is near our house is open on Sundays.
13. The actor.......................I most admire is Robert de Niro.

16. CLEFT SENTENCES

218. Rewrite the sentences putting emphasis on the underlined words. The
first has been done as an example:
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1. Tom spread those rumours about his boss. It was Tom that spread those
rumours about the boss.
2. Are you going to wear this dress at the reception?
3. Ann put up the Christmas decorations.
4. Why can you never be at work on time?
5. John looks after the children when Sheila is at work.
6. Where did you spend your holidays last summer?
7. Did Harry present you with this horrible vase?
8. Are you playing golf with Ally this morning?

220. Look at Mrs Jones' answers, then rewrite them using emphatic
structures.

1. "Who did you go shopping with?" "Mrs Regan."It was Mrs Regan who I
went shopping with.
2. "Where did you leave your purse?" "At the grocer's."
3. "When did you realise you'd left it there?" "Just now."
4. "Is it certain that you left it there?" "Yes."
5. "Should we telephone the police or the shop?" "The shop."
6. "Who should telephone them?" "You, of course."

221. Read this information, then rewrite it emphasising the words in bold.

Example: The Beatles recorded ―Let it Be‖. It was the Beatles who/that
recorded “Let it be”.
1. Paul McCartney sang the lead.
2. The video was recorded on a rooftop.
3. The record was released in 1969.
4. John Lennon played lead guitar.
5. The Beatles broke up soon after this.

222. Rewrite these fire drill instructions. Use "what" to emphasise the
important parts:

1. You should remember not to panic.


2. You must concentrate on leaving the building quickly.
3. You have to ensure that someone has called the fire brigade.
4. You need to check that everyone is safely out of the building.
5. You should not worry about your personal possessions.

223. Rewrite the politician‟s speech using “What” to emphasise important


facts:
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224. Complete the article. Use one word in each gap. See the example:

CREATOR'S HOME WAS FOR HIS EYES ONLY


Fans of James Bond will know that (0).....it.........was the Jamaican island retreat
of Goldeneye (1)................was the secret home of Bond's creator, writer Ian
Fleming. (2)................they may not know (3)................that Fleming also owned
another tropical paradise in the West Indies – Goat Island. (4)................was
while he was on Goat Island (5)................Fleming wrote many of his books. In
fact, it (6)................while he was reading a book about West Indies birdlife
written by a Terence James Bond (7)................he got the name of his secret
agent hero.
Local historian Edward Hernandez points out that very little is known about
people who went to the island. (8)................ visitors wanted (9)................privacy
– and they found it.

225. Rewrite the sentences. Use emphatic forms.

Example: Jane paid for the meal last night, not me. It was Jane who paid for the
meal last night.
1. Children need love and affection, not toys. What...............................
2. The way he keeps changing his mind worries me. It.................................
3. The only thing I'm asking for is a little respect. All....................................
4. I really hate getting up when it's still dark. What.......................
5. I need a hammer and some nails - nothing else. All..................
6. You should be talking to me, not them. It........................
7. We should ring someone for help. What..........................................
8. The thing they want more than anything is a less stressful life. It..........

119
226. Translate into English:

1. Это ты залил соседей снизу, ведь так?


2. Это ты сейчас так говоришь, но ведь именно мне ты позвонишь, когда
тебе снова будет плохо.
3. Это ведь Анне ты пытаешься дозвониться вот уже неделю?
4. Прилетев в Дублин, Питер выяснил, что не ему оставил дядя в
наследство дом и все состояние.
5. Разве ты не эту книгу читал, когда мы с тобой полгода назад виделись?
6. Что меня больше всего радует, так это то, что патент дали Ирвину, а не
Мюррею.
7. Все, что я знаю – это то, что я ничего не знаю.
8. Нет, мне продиктовали именно этот номер и я его правильно записал, я
уверен.
9. Все, в чем я виноват – это лишь в том, что сказал правду.
10. Единственное, что для меня действительно имеет значение – это ваше
благополучие.
11. А разве не Джил уехала в эту командировку?
12. Что я действительно не люблю, так это делать чужую работу.
13. Все чего они добивались – это справедливости.
14. Нет, мы ждем именно этот поезд.

PROGRESS TEST 17:

227. Complete the following dialogues with some form of cleft sentence to
give greater emphasis. An example is given to help you.

1. 'Didn't George get the sack?' 'No, the person who got the sack was Jim.'
2. 'Aren't you allergic to beans?' 'No, ......................I'm allergic to!' (onions)
3. 'I thought you went to Tunisia on your holidays.' 'Oh come on, I've told you
hundreds of times, ......................we went to was Turkey!'
4. 'How important is a good salary to you?' 'Not very,......................I'm looking
for.' (job satisfaction)
5. 'I was told Rudy emigrated because he didn't like the weather.' 'That's just a
joke! ...................... he went away was because he'd been caught stealing
credit cards.'
6. 'Is that the man you saw breaking into the house?' 'I don't think so.
......................I saw was much taller.'
7. 'I'm sure New York was first settled by the British.' 'That's not right.
......................who first settled there and they called it New Amsterdam!' (the
Dutch)
8. '......................Shakespeare who wrote the ―Canterbury Tales‖?‘ 'You're
joking, aren't you? It was Chaucer, of course!'
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17. CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS

228. Complete these sentences in a logical way. Look at the example


provided.

1. Don't worry, you'll recognize me as soon as you see me!


2. It's OK, I'll wait for you until ........
3. I'll go and have a cup of tea while ......
4. Hurry up, or they'll have finished dinner by the time ……………….!
5. I'll meet you back here after we .......
6. Won't you get a fine if ........ ?
7. Come on, let's do the washing-up before we ………………….. .
8. You won't feel much on this side of your mouth until the injection
………………… .

229. Complete the article. Use by, from, on or with.

All bullying involves attacks (0).................. an individual or group on a


weaker person. Bullying can be an attack (1)......................a weapon or words, or
it can be more subtle and involve spreading lies and rumours. It can affect your
self-esteem and prevent you (2)......................succeeding at work or school. If
you are being bullied, this is what you can do:
■ Get help or advice (3)......................an adult that you trust. Tell them what is
happening. They can provide you (4)......................the support you need. You
can also get advice (5)..................how to protect yourself (6)....................going
online.
■ Act confident. You are less likely to be attacked.
■ Avoid being alone (7)......................bullies. Avoid areas that are isolated or
unsupervised (8)......................adults.

230. Choose the correct option:

Example: Bread is made by /from/ about flour, water and yeast.


1. Only people by / from / with plenty of money can afford to shop here.
2. I borrowed a book from / on / with nineteenth century music from the
library.
3. She said something about / from / on leaving town. Is it true?
4. He went to hospital because he was suffering by / from / with stomach pains.
5. Some of our customers prefer to pay by / from / with cheque.
6. They attacked the old man by / from / with a knife.
7. Last night we watched a documentary on / with / about Egypt.
8. The house is made by / from / on bricks and timber.
9. All our furniture was made from / with / by local craftsmen.
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10. I'd like to find some information about / from / with the subject.

231. Complete the descriptions with at, for, during, by, until, in.

232. Choose the correct answer.


1. It was by / past midnight when the party ended and everyone went home.
2. My husband often works at / in night. I see him at / in the morning.
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3. My grandfather fought during / for the war. He was in the army during / for
four years.
4. They've only had the Ford for / since two months. By / Until last year they
didn't own a car.
5. She caught malaria during / through her holiday in Africa. Before / By then,
she'd never been abroad.
6. The film should be over until / by nine o'clock. We'll be home before / in an
hour.
7. We're leaving for Prague on / at 19th July and we'll be there through / until
the end of the month.

233. Complete the article. Use the prepositions in the box.

after by during (x2) for (x2) in (x2) since (x2) until


Buckingham Palace has been the London home of Britain's royal family
(1).................1837. (2)......................1761 George III bought Buckingham House
as a family home for his wife, Queen Charlotte. Then (3)......................1826
George IV decided to turn Buckingham House into a palace. Workmen doubled
the size of the house and built the Marble Arch in front of the palace. The work
continued (4)......................four years and (5)......................1829 half a million
pounds had already been spent on it. George IV never lived in Buckingham
Palace.
Queen Victoria was the first monarch to make Buckingham Palace her
official home. (6)......................her marriage to Albert in 1840 she decided that
the palace needed a nursery and more guest rooms. (The Marble Arch was
moved to a park in central London so that workmen could add a fourth wing to
the building.) The work continued (7)......................1847 and today the palace
has 775 rooms. The last major changes to the building were made
(8)......................the early twentieth century, when the stone on the front of the
building was replaced.
Today Buckingham Palace is a major tourist attraction. (9)......................
1993 the state rooms in the west wing have been opened to the public
(10).......two months (10)......................the summer and they are visited by about
300,000 people over this period.

234. Complete the following passage by putting the time conjunctions from
the box in the correct space. The first one is shown as an example.

until when by the time before if after while as soon as until once

Memorandum
from Security Supervisor I. B. Shadow
(1) Before the Ambassador arrives, you will have searched the embassy and
123
grounds for anything suspicious. (2)..................... he steps out of his bullet-proof
limousine, you and three of your men will be in charge of his personal safety
(3)............... he gets back into his limousine after the
meeting............(4).................... he‘s shaken hands with the British diplomats,
one of you will have to stay very close to him (5).....................he greets the well-
wishers in the crowd and, remember, (6)....................you see anyone behaving
strangely, you'll be expected to act first and ask questions later.
(7)....................he goes inside the embassy building with the negotiators, you'll
accompany him to the meeting room door and wait outside (8)....................he re-
emerges - this could take anything from two to three hours.
(9).....................he comes out of the embassy, the crowd will probably have
dwindled somewhat but this is the time when you and your men will need to be
most vigilant, so keep him covered all the time. (10)....................he gets back in
his limousine, he'll be back in the hands of the mobile security unit and you'll be
able to breathe a sigh of relief.

18. THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS

235. Rewrite these sentences using 's, s‟ or just an apostrophe. The first has
been done as an example:

1. This bicycle is for a child......It is a child’s bicycle..............


2. This pen belongs to the teacher..................................................
3. He described the career of the actress................................................
4. That's a job for a stewardess...............................................................
5. These toys belong to the children........................................................
6. This are the drawers from your wardrobe............................................
7. This is a club for women......................................................................
8. It's a school for girls.............................................................................
9. This is the lounge for residents............................................................
10. This umbrella belongs to James..........................................................
11. That hat belongs to Doris.....................................................................
12. This is the handle to the front door.........................................................
13. Can you see the cork from this bottle anywhere? .................................

236. Use ‟s or s‟ only where possible with these word combinations.

1. a delay of an hour 6. the price of success


2. a journey of two days 7. work of seven years
3. the shade of the tree 8. the surface of the earth
4. the book of the film 9. at the door of death
5. the inside of the box 10. an absence of a year

124
237. Choose the correct answer.

1. A: Have you heard the news of yesterday /yesterday's news about the plane
crash?
B: No. Where did it happen?
2. A: I've only read the book's first chapter / the first chapter of the book so far.
B: Keep going. It's a really interesting story.
3. A: Are you going to Jane's and Mark's /Jane and Mark's wedding on
Saturday?
B: No, we're going to Nathan and Alison's / Nathan's and Alison's. They're
friends of my parent's I friends of my parents'.
4. A: Have you got the front door's key / the key of the front door in your bag?
B: No. Haven't you got it?
5. A: I've got a toothache. I have to go to the dentist's / the dentists'.
B: Good luck. When I tried to make an appointment, I had to wait for three
weeks.
6. A: Do you know what the university's policy on handing in late assignments?
/ the policy on handing in late assignments of the university is?
B: No, but why don't you ask the secretary?

238. Complete the sentences. Use the words in brackets.

Example: I'm going to my......my aunt’s (house)......tonight. It's her eightieth


birthday (aunt / house).
1. The................................to the film was positive (audience / reaction).
2. Yesterday we celebrated my...........................(parents / wedding
anniversary).
3. They've closed the.......................for refurbishment (women / changing
room).
4. We spent the weekend at my.......................It's a lovely place (friend /
cottage).
5. .....................are predicted to be even higher than...................... (next year /
sales figures, this year).
6. ...........................is going to Leeds University next year (James / daughter).
7. The................................gave each child a small present (boys / teacher).
8. The....................are well known (city / problems of crime and
unemployment).
9. I'm taking.....................in........................(two weeks / holiday, a week / time).
10. Don't pull the.................................It's cruel and besides, the dog might bite
you (dog / tail).

239. Complete the sentences. Use one word from each line in each sentence.

125
centre children computer daughter front kitchen table top
city friends leg page party queue screen window
Example: They waited for ages to get to the ….front of the queue... but the
performance was worth the wait.
1. We invited our youngest................................to the house for a
................................when she turned ten years old.
2. He opened the................................to let out the smoke from the burnt roast.
3. Public transport will take you into the................................, where you will
find many shops and restaurants.
4. Before you start the test, write your name at the.................................
5. That................................is broken so don't put anything on the table or it will
collapse.
6. She gets headaches if she stares at a................................for many hours.

240. Choose the correct answer.

1. A: We have an hour's wait / an hours' wait before the meeting.


B: As long as that?
2. A: I'm looking for a book on the history of Turkey / Turkey's history.
B: Try the third shelf down on your left.
3. A: I've got three week's holiday / three weeks' holiday this year.
B: I bet you're looking forward to it!
4. A: Don't leave your belongings / belonging unattended when you're at the
airport.
B: Of course. I'll be careful.
5. A: How many of the girl's mothers / the girls' mothers came to the meeting?
B: Most of them, I think.
6. A: Are the children old enough to dress /dress themselves?
B: Not quite.
7. A: We're spending a week at Helmut and Trudy's / Helmut's and Trudy's.
B: That sounds like fun.

126
List of References
1. Alexander L.G., Longman English Grammar Practice for Intermediate
Students, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, eleventh impression, 1998.
296 p.
2. Canningham S., Moore P., New Cutting Edge Upper-Intermediate, Student‘s
Book, Longman. 175 p.
3. Doff A., Jones Ch., Language in Use, Classroom Book, Cambridge
University Press, tenth printing 2003. 128 p.
4. Doff A., Jones Ch., Language in Use, Self-Study Workbook, Cambridge
University Press, ninth printing 2003. 95 p.
5. Hashemi L. with Murphy R., English Grammar in Use Supplementary
Exercises, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 136 p. (60)
6. Hewings M., Advanced Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
294 p.
7. Murphy R., English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, third
edition, 2004. 379 p.
8. Powell D. with Walker E. and Elsworth S., Grammar Practice for Upper-
Intermediate Students, Pearson Longman, 2008. 224 p.
9. Thompson A.J., Martinet A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford
University Press, 2003. 200 p.
10.Virginia Evans, FCE Use of English 2, Express Publishing, new edition,
2000. 235 p.
11.Virginia Evans, Round-Up 6 New and Updated, Longman, Pearson
Education Limited, third impression, 2005. 268 p.
12.Walton R., Advanced English C.A.E. Grammar Practice revised and updated,
Person Education Ltd, fifth impression, 1999. 112 p.
13.Истомина Е.А., English Grammar, М.: Айрис-Пресс. 2007. 272 с.

127
Ксения Викторовна Солнцева

Практикум по грамматике английского языка

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