Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Volume 5, Issue 10, October – 2020 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

Antibacterial Protection of Polyphenols from Curry

Leaves (Murraya koenigii): A Research Study
Dinesha Ramadas1, Rajesh Kowti2, B. Ramesh 3, Santhosh Kumar Nune4 and Vedamurthy Joshi5*

1.Adichunchanagiri Institute for Molecular Medicine, AIMS-Central Research Laboratory, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical
CORMIL & CMPAT, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara, Mandya District,
Karnataka, India
2.Dept. of Pharmacology, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara, Mandya
District, Karnataka, India.
3.Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara,
Mandya District, Karnataka, India.
4.Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences, Tumakuru, Karnataka, India
5.Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara, Mandya
District, Karnataka, India

Abstract:- The intention of the present study is to find was studied to find Tomato plant axillary green shoots
the efficiency of the anti-bacterial effect of polyphenols resulting from pruning and aerial biomass and mushrooms
of Curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) plant leaves against were characterized for their composition
the pathogen staphylococcus aureus. The materials in chlorophylls and phenolic compounds and results were
involved in this study include Murraya koenigii plant more promising[6-7].
leaves, micro-organism staphylococcus aureus in the
bacterial type culture collection, agar, and blood-agar A study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and
plates. At 10% concentration, of Polyphenols of Murraya antimicrobial activities of Auricularia and Termitomyces
koenigii leaves had zero anti-bacterial activity, while extracts against the extracts was tested against Escherichia
between 20 to 25% concentrations revealed high activity coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
against the bacteria. Thus, increased in the anti-bacterial Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Candida albicans, and
activity was promising as the concentration augmented Candida parapsilosis. The hot water extract more potent
from 20 to 25%. The results acquired from this study activity when compared to other extracts[8]. Researchers
points that polyphenol of Curry leaves (Murraya reported that, extracts of edible plants from different
koenigii) had antibacterial property against countries like China, Japan, Thailand and Yemen for
Staphylococcus aureus when obtained at appropriate antibacterial activity when they were screened against
concentration. Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus[8]. In the same
way, the nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis was analyzed
Keywords:- Curry Leaves Plant, Murraya Koenigii, for its antibacterial activity and results revealed a noticeable
Stephylococcus Aureus, Anti-Bacterial Effect, Polyphenols antimicrobial activity against selected microorganism S.
aureus[9-11]. It was reported that, partially purified
I. INTRODUCTION proteins from Turmeric rhizome showed antimicrobial
activities. It was also reported by the same researchers that,
The traditional usage of plants / herbs / vegetables and plant extracts from shown antioxidant and antimicrobial
its products in the form of extracts have staged a vital role in activities[12-14].
the remedy of numerous pathologies[1]. Drugs owing to their
origin in plants possess medicinal value are referred to as In this study, we focused on antibacterial activity
the herbal groups[2]. The use of such traditional medicines in against human pathogenic bacteria S. aureus bypolyphenol
the form of Ayurveda or Chinese practice has a staunch enriched extract of Murraya koenigii leaves.
foundation in Asia, which is now widely followed in
developed nations in the rest of the world[3]. In a very recent II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
report, the World Health Organization reported that over
76% of the population in the world depend predominantly The present in-vitro study was piloted to study the
on traditional remedies that encompass the custom of herbal antibacterial efficiency of different concentrations of
extracts or their dynamic ingredients[4]. Edible, spices and polyphenols extract of Curry leaves (Murraya koenigii)
herbal /medicinal plants are becoming promising and against S. Aureus.
popular alternative for microbial diseases and conditions due
to they are inexpensive, easily available and tend to have Curry leaves are washed thoroughly with water and
negligible side effects than available synthetic drugs[5]. It rinsed in 0.5% KMnO4 for five minutes and again washed in

IJISRT20OCT663 www.ijisrt.com 1281

Volume 5, Issue 10, October – 2020 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
double distilled water to remove if any microbes present. of 48 hours. The zone of inhibition was then examined and
Further, leaves were shade dried, powdered, sieved and noted in millimeters.
stored in a dry glass container for further use. Polyphenol
extraction was done by mixing 25g of Curry leaves powder E Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
was mixed with 250mL of methanol, followed with Soxhlet By Serial dilution method in the nutrient agar, the
extractor for 72 h. Later, the excess methanol solvent was minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated extract was
evaporated. In the same way, the extraction was done with determined, with concentrations like 10, 15, 20 and 25µg at
other solvents like hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and a ratio of 1:10. Plates were incubated for 24 h at 37 C. MIC
butanol to obtain hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform-butanol was recorded as the lowest extract concentration
and residual methanol fractions, respectively. Finally, all demonstrating no visible growth in the broth [24].
crude extracts were mixed, filtered. The combined extracts
were concentrated and dried by using rotary evaporator III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
under reduced pressure [15].
The polyphenol extract of Curry leaves was subjected to
A Proximate analysis proximate analysis. It was noticed that, the extract rich with
The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis to Polyphenols when compared to other phytochemicals.
check the presence of bioactive compounds by using
standard protocols [16-19]. Table 1 showed the effects of different concentrations of
Polyphenol enriched Drum stick plant leaves extracts on S.
The protein estimation was carried according to aureus. There was nearly zero zone of inhibition detected
Bradford’s method[20] using BSA as standard and with 10% Drum stick leaves extract. Zone of inhibition of
absorbance was read at 535nm. Total phenolics was 15.0 mm was witnessed with 15% extract and zone of
determined according to the method of Folin Ciocalteu inhibition of 23.0 mm was witnessed with 20 and 25%
reaction[21] using gallic acid as a standard and absorbance extract.
was read at 750 nm. Ascorbic acid estimation was carried
out according to Sadasivam S., Manickam[20] and the Concentration of Drum Zone of inhibition (in mm)
absorbance was read against a reagent blank at 540nm. Total stick plant leaves extract
sugar estimation was done according to Dubois method[22] (%)
and the absorbance was read at 520 nm. Flavonoids 10 0
estimation was done according to Cheon et al [23] by using 15 15
Quercetin as a standard and the absorbance was measured at 20 23
415 nm. In the above analysis, standard curve was used to 25 23
compare. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Curry leaves
polyphenol extract against staphylococcus was 15.5±0.5 µg
B Preparation of cultural media at a ratio of 1:10 (w/v)
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria obtained from a local
Culture Collection and Gene Bank was added to a liquid In our study, the polyphenol extract of Murraya
infused with nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C for a koenigii was done as explained in materials and methods. It
period of 24 hours. The additive culture is then cultured on was analyzed for its antibacterial activity against human
the nutrient agar plate, and it was passed through an pathogenic bacteria by well plate method, where
incubation cycle at a temperature of 37°C for a time period streptomycin was used as positive control. The results
of 24 hours. showed a promising inhibition of bacterial growth which
was compared with standard. In MIC studies, it was
C Well plate method observed that the MIC value of 15.5±0.5 µg at a ratio of
The anti-bacterial efficiency of different 1:10 (w/v). The MIC value of extract compared with
concentrations of Murraya koenigii polyphenol extract standard antibiotics, which ranged from 19 to 20 µg (1:10
against S. aureus was tested with the help of well plate w/v). Thus the polyphenol extract of Curry leaves is
method. Wells were prepared in Petrie-dishes with the aid of inhibiting the growth of S.aures strain and further studies to
a punch. The wells were packed with the equivalent quantity be done in this direction to find which active polyphenol is
of Murraya koenigii polyphenol extract. The entire process responsible for the above.
was repeated to test the four different concentrations of
extract. The well plates were then incubated at 37°C for a IV. CONCLUSION
period of 48 hours.
The anti-bacterial activity of the Curry leaves
D Study process polyphenol extract was perceived with 10%, 15%, 20% and
The wells were intended on the blood agar plates with 25%. Anti-bacterial action augmented as the concentration
the aid of a punch consisting of 3mm radius. An equal amplified from 15 to 25%. With the results attained from the
quantity of each of 10, 15 and 20 and 25% Murraya koenigii study, it can be determined that polyphenol extract of Curry
polyphenol extract was rested onto Petri dishes. The plates leaves have antibacterial property against S. Aureus.
were kept at the normal temperature for a period of 1 hour
which was then followed by incubation at 37°C for a period

IJISRT20OCT663 www.ijisrt.com 1282

Volume 5, Issue 10, October – 2020 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT [12]. Dinesha, R., Thammanna Gowda S.S., Harsha R and
Leela Srinivas. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity
The authors gratefully thank Adichunchanagiri f partially purified proteins from hot water extract of
University for providing facility and opportunity to conduct Turmeric (Curcuma longa L). Pharmacologyonline,
the above studies at Adichunchanagiri Institute for 2010;1:996-1004.
Molecular Medicine and Sri Adichunchanagiri College of [13]. Dinesha Ramadas and Leela Srinivas. Antioxidant
Pharmacy. effects of 28kda Protein from Turmeric (Curcuma
Longa L). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and
REFERENCES Clinical Research, 2011;4(1):75-79.
[14]. Adamczak, A.; Ożarowski, M.; Karpiński, T.M.
[1]. Makadia N, Vaghasia M, Patel DK, Patel H, Kaur R, Antibacterial Activity of Some Flavonoids and
Shah J. 2016. Anti-Microbial Effect of Cardamom Organic Acids Widely Distributed in Plants. J. Clin.
Extract on Staphylococcus Aureus: An Original Med. 2020; 9:109.
Research Study. Int J Oral Health Med Res. 3(3):28- [15]. Hossain MA, Al-Hdhrami SS, Weli AM, Al-Riyami
30. Q, Al-Sabahi JN, Isolation, fractionation and
[2]. Sahraie-Rad M, Izadyari A, Rakizadeh S, Sharifi-Rad identification of chemical constituents from the leaves
J. 2015. Preparation of strong antidandruff shampoo crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate
using medicinal plant extracts: a clinical trial and of Oman, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical
chronic dandruff treatment. Jundishapur Journal of Biomedicine, 2014; 4(1):S368-S372.
Natural Pharmaceutical Products 10(4): e21517 [16]. Dinesha, R., Thammanna Gowda S.S., Harsha R and
[3]. Shankar A, Dubey A, Saini D, Prasad CP. 2020. Role Leela Srinivas. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity
of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in f partially purified proteins from hot water extract of
Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: An Turmeric (Curcuma longa L). Pharmacologyonline,
Overhyped Hope. Chinese Journal of Integrative 2010 1: 996-1004.
Medicine. 26(8):565. [17]. Ningappa M.B., Dhananjaya B.L., Dinesha R.,
[4]. World Health Organization. Guidance on Harsha R. and Leela Srinivas, “Potent anti-bacterial
mainstreaming biodiversity for nutrition and health. property of APC protein from Curry leaves (Murraya
2020 koenigii L), Food Chemistry, 2010, 118, I3,747-750.
[5]. Alfei S. 2020. Nanotechnology Applications to [18]. Sivapriya M, Dinesha R, Harsha R, Gowda SST and
Improve Solubility of Bioactive Constituents of Foods Leela Srinivas, Antibacterial activity of different
for Health-Promoting Purposes. In Nano-food extracts of Sundakai (Solanumtorvum) fruit coat,
Engineering Springer, Cham. 189-257. International Journal of Biological chemistry, 2011,
[6]. Añibarro-Ortega M, Pinela J, Ćirić A, Martins V, 5(1):61-67.
Rocha F, Soković MD, Barata AM, Carvalho AM, [19]. Chikkanna D, Dinesha R. Amitha R and Subhas
Barros L, Ferreira IC. 2020. Valorisation of table Chandrappa Mundasada, Antibacterial activity of
tomato crop by-products: Phenolic profiles and in vitro Pippali proteins (Piper longum), Asian Journal of
antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Food and Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences and
Bioproducts Processing. 1;124:307-19. Biotechnology. 2015, 3(2), 49 - 54.
[7]. Bach F, Zielinski AA, Helm CV, Maciel GM, Pedro [20]. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the
AC, Stafussa AP, Ávila S, Haminiuk CW. 2019. Bio quantitation of microgram quantities of protein
compounds of edible mushrooms: In vitro antioxidant utilizing the principle of protein. Analytical
and antimicrobial activities. LWT. 1;107:214-20. Biochemistry. 1976;72; 248-54.
[8]. Gebreyohannes G, Nyerere A, Bii C, Sbhatu DB. [21]. Kujala TS, loponen JM, Klika KD, Pihaja K.
2019. Investigation of antioxidant and antimicrobial Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta
activities of different extracts of auricularia and Vulgaris) root: description and effect of cold storage
Termitomyces species of mushrooms. The Scientific on the content of total phenolics and three individual
World Journal. 1;2019. compounds. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry,
[9]. Moghimi R, Aliahmadi A, Rafati H. Antibacterial 2000; 48;5338-5342.
hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films [22]. Sadasivam S, Manickam A. In. Biochemical Methods.
containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis New Age Internationals, 1997; 184-186.
essential oil for food packaging. Carbohydrate [23]. Dubois M, Gilles, KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA,
polymers. 2017;1:175:241-8. Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of
[10]. Petrović J, Stojković D, Soković M. Terpene core in sugar and related substances. Analytical
selected aromatic and edible plants: Natural health Chemistry.1956; 28;350-356.
improving agents. In Advances in food and nutrition [24]. Cheon BS, Kim YH, Son KS, Chan HW, Kang SS,
research 2019;90:423-451. Academic Press. Kim HP. Effects of prenylated flavonoids and
[11]. Panda SK, Mohanta YK, Padhi L, Luyten W. bioflavonoids on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric
Antimicrobial activity of select edible plants from oxide production from the mouse macrophage cell line
Odisha, India against food-borne pathogens. LWT. RAW. Plant Medicine, 2000;66;596-600.

IJISRT20OCT663 www.ijisrt.com 1283