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GR8677 Test

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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/physicsgre_v2

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Author:

David S. Latchman

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Chapter 1

Preface

This solution guide initially started out on the Yahoo Groups web site and was pretty

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successful at the time. Unfortunately, the group was lost and with it, much of the the

hard work that was put into it. This is my attempt to recreate the solution guide and

make it more widely avaialble to everyone. If you see any errors, think certain things

could be expressed more clearly, or would like to make suggestions, please feel free to

do so.

David Latchman

Document Changes

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04-15-2009 First Version

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4 Preface

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Contents

1 Preface 3

2 Classical Mechanics 13

2.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

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2.1.1 Linear Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.1.2 Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.2 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.2.2 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.2.3 Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.3 Work & Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.1 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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2.3.2 The Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.3 Work done under a constant Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.4 Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.5 Hooke’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3.6 Potential Energy of a Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.4 Oscillatory Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4.1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4.2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4.3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.4.4 Damped Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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2.4.6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.4.7 Doppler Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.5.1 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.5.2 Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.5.3 Parallel Axis Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.5.4 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.5.5 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.6.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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2.7.2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.7.3 Escape Speed and Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.7.4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.7.5 Types of Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.7.6 Derivation of Vis-viva Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.9 Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.9.1 Archimedes’ Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.9.2 Equation of Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.10 Non-inertial Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.11.1 Lagrange’s Function (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.11.2 Equations of Motion(Euler-Lagrange Equation) . . . . . . . . . . 24

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2.11.3 Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3 Electromagnetism 25

3.1 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.1.1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.1.2 Electric Field of a point charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.1.3 Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.1.4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . 27

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3.1.5 Electric Field due to a line of charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.1.6 Electric Field in a Solid Non-Conducting Sphere . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.1.7 Electric Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.1.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.1.9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.2 Currents and DC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.3 Magnetic Fields in Free Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.4 Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.5 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.6 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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3.8 AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.9 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.10 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.11 Energy in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.12 Energy in an Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.13 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.14 Current Destiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.15 Current Density of Moving Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.16 Resistance and Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.17 Resistivity and Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.18 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.19 Kirchoff’s Loop Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.20 Kirchoff’s Junction Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

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3.21 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.22 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.22.1 Integral Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.22.2 Differential Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.23 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.24 Relationship between E and B Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.25 Energy Density of an EM wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.26 Poynting’s Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.1 Wave Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.2 Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.3 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.4 Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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4.5 Geometrical Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.6 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.7 Doppler Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.8 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.8.1 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.8.2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

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5.1 Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.2 Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.3 Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.4 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.5 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.6 Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties . . . 38

5.8 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5.9 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5.10 Specific Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

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5.12 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5.12.1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . 38

5.13 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.14 Heat Conduction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.15 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.16 Stefan-Boltzmann’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

5.17 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

5.18 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

5.19 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

5.20 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

5.21 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.22 Equipartition of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.23 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

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5.24 Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

6 Quantum Mechanics 43

6.1 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6.2 Schrödinger Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6.2.1 Infinite Square Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

6.2.2 Harmonic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

6.2.3 Finite Square Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

6.2.4 Hydrogenic Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.3 Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.5 Wave Funtion Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.6 Elementary Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

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7 Atomic Physics 49

7.1 Properties of Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

7.2 Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

7.3 Energy Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

7.4 Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

7.5 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.5.1 Rydberg’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.6 Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

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7.7 Black Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.7.1 Plank Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.7.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.7.3 Wein’s Displacement Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.7.4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation . . . . . . 51

7.8 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

7.8.1 Bragg Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

7.8.2 The Compton Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

7.9 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

7.9.1 The Cyclotron Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

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7.9.3 Franck-Hertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

8 Special Relativity 57

8.1 Introductory Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

8.1.1 Postulates of Special Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

8.2 Time Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

8.3 Length Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

8.4 Simultaneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

8.5 Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

8.5.1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

8.5.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy) . . . . . . . . . 58

8.5.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

8.5.4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

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8.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

8.7 Velocity Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

8.8 Relativistic Doppler Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

8.9 Lorentz Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

8.10 Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

9 Laboratory Methods 63

9.1 Data and Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

9.1.1 Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

9.1.2 Multiplication and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

9.1.3 Exponent - (No Error in b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

9.1.4 Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

9.1.5 Antilogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

9.2 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

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9.3 Radiation Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

9.4 Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

9.5 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

9.6 Lasers and Optical Interferometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

9.7 Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

9.8 Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . 66

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10.1 Motion of Rock under Drag Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

10.2 Satellite Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

10.3 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

10.4 Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

10.5 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

10.6 Motion of a Particle along a Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

10.7 Resolving Force Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

10.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

10.9 Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

10.10Charge inside an Isolated Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

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10.12Doppler Equation (Non-Relativistic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

10.13Vibrating Interference Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

10.14Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

10.15Helium atoms in a box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

10.16The Muon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

10.17Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

10.18Schrödinger’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

10.19Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

10.20Relativistic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

10.21Space-Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

10.22Lorentz Transformation of the EM field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

10.23Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

10.24Charging a Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

10 Contents

10.25Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

10.26K-Series X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

10.27Electrons and Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

10.28Normalizing a wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

10.29Right Hand Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

10.30Electron Configuration of a Potassium atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

10.31Photoelectric Effect I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

10.32Photoelectric Effect II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

10.33Photoelectric Effect III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

10.34Potential Energy of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

10.35Hamiltonian of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

10.36Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

10.37Tension in a Conical Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

10.38Diode OR-gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

FT

10.39Gain of an Amplifier vs. Angular Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

10.40Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

10.41Binding Energy per Nucleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

10.42Scattering Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

10.43Coupled Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

10.43.1 Calculating the modes of oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

10.44Collision with a Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

10.45Compton Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

RA

10.46Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

10.47Franck-Hertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

10.48Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

10.49The Hamilton Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

10.50Hall Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

10.51Debye and Einstein Theories to Specific Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

10.52Potential inside a Hollow Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

10.53EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

10.54Polarization Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

10.55Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

D

10.57Eigenfuction of Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

10.58Holograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

10.59Group Velocity of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

10.60Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

10.61Rocket Equation I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

10.62Rocket Equation II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

10.63Surface Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

10.64Maximum Power Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

10.65Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying Loop . . . . . . . . . . 95

10.66Maxwell’s Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

10.67Partition Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

10.68Particle moving at Light Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

10.69Car and Garage I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Contents 11

10.70Car and Garage II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

10.71Car and Garage III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

10.72Refrective Index of Rock Salt and X-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

10.73Thin Flim Non-Reflective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

10.74Law of Malus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

10.75Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

10.76Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

10.77Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

10.78Total Energy between Two Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

10.79Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

10.80Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

10.81Biot-Savart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

10.82Zeeman Effect and the emission spectrum of atomic gases . . . . . . . . 104

10.83Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases . . . . . . . . . . 105

FT

10.84Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

10.85Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

10.86The Ice Pail Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

10.87Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

10.88Fermion and Boson Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

10.89Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

10.90Energy Eigenstates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

10.91Bragg’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

RA

10.92Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

10.93Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

10.94RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

10.95Carnot Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

10.96First Order Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

10.97Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . 114

10.98Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

10.99Ground State of a Positronium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

10.100The Pinhole Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

D

A.1 Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

A.2 Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

A.2.1 Triple Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

A.2.2 Product Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.2.3 Second Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.3 Commutators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.3.1 Lie-algebra Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.3.2 Canonical Commutator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.3.3 Kronecker Delta Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.4 Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

A.4.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

12 Contents

FT

RA

D

Chapter 2

Classical Mechanics

2.1 Kinematics

2.1.1 Linear Motion

Average Velocity

Instantaneous Velocity

v=

∆tFT

∆x x2 − x1

=

t2 − t1

(2.1)

RA

∆x dx

v = lim = = v(t) (2.2)

∆t→0 ∆t dt

The basic kinematic equations of motion under constant acceleration, a, are

v = v0 + at (2.3)

v2 = v20 + 2a (x − x0 ) (2.4)

D

1

x − x0 = v0 t + at2 (2.5)

2

1

x − x0 = (v + v0 ) t (2.6)

2

In the case of Uniform Circular Motion, for a particle to move in a circular path, a

radial acceleration must be applied. This acceleration is known as the Centripetal

Acceleration

Centripetal Acceleration

v2

a= (2.7)

r

14 Classical Mechanics

Angular Velocity

v

ω= (2.8)

r

We can write (Equation 2.7) in terms of ω

a = ω2 r (2.9)

ω = ω0 + αt (2.10)

ω + ω0

FT

θ= t (2.11)

2

1

θ = ω0 t + αt2 (2.12)

2

ω = ω0 + 2αθ

2 2

(2.13)

RA

2.2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion

First Law A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon

by an external unbalanced force.

Second Law The net force on a body is proportional to its rate of change of momentum.

dp

F= = ma (2.14)

dt

D

exerts a force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction.

2.2.2 Momentum

p = mv (2.16)

2.2.3 Impulse

w

∆p = J = Fdt = Favg dt (2.17)

Work & Energy 15

2.3 Work & Energy

2.3.1 Kinetic Energy

1

K ≡ mv2 (2.18)

2

The net Work done is given by

Wnet = K f − Ki (2.19)

FT

The work done by a force can be expressed as

W = F∆x (2.20)

RA

wx f

W= F(x)dx (2.22)

xi

The Potential Energy is

dU(x)

F(x) = − (2.23)

dx

for conservative forces, the potential energy is

D

wx

U(x) = U0 − F(x0 )dx0 (2.24)

x0

F = −kx (2.25)

where k is the spring constant.

1

U(x) = kx2 (2.26)

2

16 Classical Mechanics

2.4 Oscillatory Motion

2.4.1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion

x(t) = A sin (ωt + δ) (2.27)

where the Amplitude, A, measures the displacement from equilibrium, the phase, δ, is

the angle by which the motion is shifted from equilibrium at t = 0.

2π

T= (2.28)

ω

FT

Given that

x = A sin (ωt + δ) (2.29)

and that the Total Energy of a System is

E = KE + PE (2.30)

The Kinetic Energy is

RA

1

KE = mv2

2

1 dx

= m

2 dt

1

= mA2 ω2 cos2 (ωt + δ) (2.31)

2

The Potential Energy is

1

U = kx2

2

D

1

= kA2 sin2 (ωt + δ) (2.32)

2

Adding (Equation 2.31) and (Equation 2.32) gives

1

E = kA2 (2.33)

2

dx

Fd = −bv = −b (2.34)

dt

where b is the damping coefficient. The equation of motion for a damped oscillating

system becomes

dx d2 x

− kx − b = m 2 (2.35)

dt dt

Oscillatory Motion 17

Solving(Equation 2.35) goves

x = Ae−αt sin (ω0 t + δ) (2.36)

We find that

b

α= (2.37)

2m

r

k b2

ω0 = −

m 4m2

r

b2

= ω20 −

4m2

q

= ω20 − α2 (2.38)

FT

2.4.5 Small Oscillations

The Energy of a system is

1

E = K + V(x) = mv(x)2 + V(x) (2.39)

2

We can solve for v(x), r

2

v(x) = (E − V(x)) (2.40)

RA

m

where E ≥ V(x) Let the particle move in the potential valley, x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 , the potential

can be approximated by the Taylor Expansion

" # " 2 #

dV(x) 1 2 d V(x)

V(x) = V(xe ) + (x − xe ) + (x − xe ) + ··· (2.41)

dx x=xe 2 dx2 x=xe

At the points of inflection, the derivative dV/dx is zero and d2 V/dx2 is positive. This

means that the potential energy for small oscillations becomes

1

V(x) u V(xe ) + k(x − xe )2 (2.42)

D

2

where " #

d2 V(x)

k≡ ≥0 (2.43)

dx2 x=xe

As V(xe ) is constant, it has no consequences to physical motion and can be dropped.

We see that Equation 2.42 is that of simple harmonic motion.

Consider the case of a simple pendulum of length, `, and the mass of the bob is m1 .

For small displacements, the equation of motion is

θ̈ + ω0 θ = 0 (2.44)

1

Add figure with coupled pendulum-spring system

18 Classical Mechanics

We can express this in cartesian coordinates, x and y, where

x = ` cos θ ≈ ` (2.45)

y = ` sin θ ≈ `θ (2.46)

ÿ + ω0 y = 0 (2.47)

This is the equivalent to the mass-spring system where the spring constant is

mg

k = mω20 = (2.48)

`

This allows us to to create an equivalent three spring system to our coupled pendulum

system. The equations of motion can be derived from the Lagrangian, where

FT

L=T−V

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

= m ẏ1 + m ẏ2 − ky1 + κ y2 − y1 + ky2

2 2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2

= m y˙1 + y˙2 2 − k y21 + y22 + κ y2 − y1 (2.49)

2 2

We can find the equations of motion of our system

d ∂L ∂L

!

RA

= (2.50)

dt ∂ ẏn ∂yn

m ÿ1 = −ky1 + κ y2 − y1

(2.51)

m ÿ2 = −ky2 + κ y2 − y1

(2.52)

y1 = cos(ωt + δ1 ) y2 = B cos(ωt + δ2 )

(2.53)

D

Substituting the values for ÿ1 and ÿ2 into the equations of motion yields

k + κ − mω2 y1 − κy2 = 0 (2.54)

−κy1 + k + κ − mω2 y2 = 0 (2.55)

k + κ − mω2

−κ

=0 (2.56)

k + κ − mω2

−κ

2

mω2 − 2mω2 (k + κ) + k2 + 2kκ = 0 (2.57)

Oscillatory Motion 19

This yields

g

k

=

`

ω2 = m

(2.58)

k + 2κ g 2κ

= +

m ` m

We can now determine exactly how the masses move with each mode by substituting

ω2 into the equations of motion. Where

k

ω2 = We see that

m

k + κ − mω2 = κ (2.59)

Substituting this into the equation of motion yields

y1 = y2 (2.60)

ω2 =

its absence in our result.

k+κ

m

We see that

FT

We see that the masses move in phase with each other. You will also notice

the absense of the spring constant term, κ, for the connecting spring. As the

masses are moving in step, the spring isn’t stretching or compressing and hence

RA

k + κ − mω2 = −κ (2.61)

Substituting this into the equation of motion yields

y1 = −y2 (2.62)

Here the masses move out of phase with each other. In this case we see the

presence of the spring constant, κ, which is expected as the spring playes a role.

It is being stretched and compressed as our masses oscillate.

D

The Doppler Effect is the shift in frequency and wavelength of waves that results from

a source moving with respect to the medium, a receiver moving with respect to the

medium or a moving medium.

moves a distance of vs τ0 = vs / f0 . The wavelength is decreased by

vs v − vs

λ0 = λ − − (2.63)

f0 f0

v v

f = 0 = f0

0

(2.64)

λ v − vs

20 Classical Mechanics

Moving Observer As the observer moves, he will measure the same wavelength, λ, as

if at rest but will see the wave crests pass by more quickly. The observer measures

a modified wave speed.

v0 = v + |vr | (2.65)

The modified frequency becomes

v0 vr

f =

0

= f0 1 + (2.66)

λ v

Moving Source and Moving Observer We can combine the above two equations

v − vs

λ0 = (2.67)

f0

v0 = v − vr (2.68)

To give a modified frequency of

FT

v0 v − vr

f = 0 =

0

f0 (2.69)

λ v − vs

2.5.1 Moment of Inertia

Z

RA

I= R2 dm (2.70)

1

K = Iω2 (2.71)

2

I = Icm + Md2 (2.72)

D

2.5.4 Torque

τ=r×F (2.73)

τ = Iα (2.74)

where α is the angular acceleration.

L = Iω (2.75)

we can find the Torque

dL

τ= (2.76)

dt

Dynamics of Systems of Particles 21

2.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling

With respect to the point of contact, the motion of the wheel is a rotation about the

point of contact. Thus

1

K = Krot = Icontact ω2 (2.77)

2

Icontact can be found from the Parallel Axis Theorem.

Icontact = Icm + MR2 (2.78)

Substitute (Equation 2.77) and we have

1

K= Icm + MR2 ω2

2

1 1

= Icm ω2 + mv2 (2.79)

2 2

FT

The kinetic energy of an object rolling without slipping is the sum of hte kinetic energy

of rotation about its center of mass and the kinetic energy of the linear motion of the

object.

2.6.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles

RA

Position Vector of a System of Particles

m1 r1 + m2 r2 + m3 r3 + · · · + mN rN

R= (2.80)

M

dR

V=

dt

m1 v1 + m2 v2 + m3 v3 + · · · + mN vN

= (2.81)

D

dV

A=

dt

m1 a1 + m2 a2 + m3 a3 + · · · + mN aN

= (2.82)

M

2.7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

GMm

F=− r̂ (2.83)

r2

22 Classical Mechanics

2.7.2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force

GMm

U(r) = − (2.84)

r

The energy of an orbiting body is

E=T+U

1 GMm

= mv2 − (2.85)

2 r

The escape speed becomes

1 GMm

FT

E = mv2esc − =0 (2.86)

2 RE

Solving for vesc we find r

2GM

vesc = (2.87)

Re

RA

First Law The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus.

Second Law A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal

intervals of time.

Third Law The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the

cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

T2

=C (2.88)

R3

where C is a constant whose value is the same for all planets.

D

The Energy of an Orbiting Body is defined in (Equation 2.85), we can classify orbits by

their eccentricities.

Circular Orbit A circular orbit occurs when there is an eccentricity of 0 and the orbital

energy is less than 0. Thus

1 2 GM

v − =E<0 (2.89)

2 r

The Orbital Velocity is r

GM

v= (2.90)

r

Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics 23

Elliptic Orbit An elliptic orbit occurs when the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 but the

specific energy is negative, so the object remains bound.

r

2 1

v= GM − (2.91)

r a

where a is the semi-major axis

Parabolic Orbit A Parabolic Orbit occurs when the eccentricity is equal to 1 and the

orbital velocity is the escape velocity. This orbit is not bounded. Thus

1 2 GM

v − =E=0 (2.92)

2 r

The Orbital Velocity is

FT

r

2GM

v = vesc = (2.93)

r

Hyperbolic Orbit In the Hyperbolic Orbit, the eccentricity is greater than 1 with an

orbital velocity in excess of the escape velocity. This orbit is also not bounded.

r

GM

v∞ = (2.94)

a

RA

2.7.6 Derivation of Vis-viva Equation

The total energy of a satellite is

1 GMm

E = mv2 − (2.95)

2 r

For an elliptical or circular orbit, the specific energy is

GMm

E=−

D

(2.96)

2a

Equating we get

2 1

v = GM −

2

(2.97)

r a

2.9.1 Archimedes’ Principle

When an object is fully or partially immersed, the buoyant force is equal to the weight

of fluid displaced.

24 Classical Mechanics

2.9.2 Equation of Continuity

ρ1 v1 A1 = ρ2 v2 A2 (2.98)

1

P + ρv2 + ρgh = a constant (2.99)

2

2.11.1 Lagrange’s Function (L)

Coordinates.

2.11.2 FT

L=T−V

∂L d ∂L

(2.100)

where T is the Kinetic Energy and V is the Potential Energy in terms of Generalized

RA

!

= (2.101)

∂q dt ∂q̇

2.11.3 Hamiltonian

H =T+V

= pq̇ − L(q, q̇) (2.102)

where

D

∂H

= q̇ (2.103)

∂p

∂H ∂L

=−

∂q ∂x

= −ṗ (2.104)

Chapter 3

Electromagnetism

3.1 Electrostatics

3.1.1 Coulomb’s Law

F12 =

1 FT

The force between two charged particles, q1 and q2 is defined by Coulomb’s Law.

q1 q2

4π0 r212

!

r̂12 (3.1)

RA

where 0 is the permitivitty of free space, where

The electric field is defined by mesuring the magnitide and direction of an electric

force, F, acting on a test charge, q0 .

D

F

E≡ (3.3)

q0

1 q

E= r̂ (3.4)

4π0 r2

n

1 X qi

E(r) = r̂i (3.5)

4π0 i=1 r2i

26 Electromagnetism

Electric Fields and Continuous Charge Distributions

If a source is distributed continuously along a region of space, Equation 3.5 becomes

Z

1 1

E(r) = r̂dq (3.6)

4π0 r2

If the charge was distributed along a line with linear charge density, λ,

dq

λ= (3.7)

dx

The Electric Field of a line charge becomes

λ

Z

1

E(r) = r̂dx (3.8)

4π0 r2

FT

line

In the case where the charge is distributed along a surface, the surface charge density

is, σ

Q dq

σ= = (3.9)

A dA

The electric field along the surface becomes

σ

Z

1

RA

E(r) = r̂dA (3.10)

4π0 r2

Surface

In the case where the charge is distributed throughout a volume, V, the volume charge

density is

Q dq

ρ= = (3.11)

V dV

The Electric Field is

ρ

Z

1

E(r) = r̂dV (3.12)

4π0 r2

D

Volume

The electric field through a surface is

I I

Φ= dΦ = E · dA (3.13)

surface S surface S

I

Q

E · dA = (3.14)

0

Electrostatics 27

3.1.4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law

The total flux through a sphere is

I

q

E · dA = E(4πr2 ) = (3.15)

0

q

E= (3.16)

4π0 r2

Consider an infinite rod of constant charge density, λ. The flux through a Gaussian

FT

cylinder enclosing the line of charge is

Z Z Z

Φ= E · dA + E · dA + E · dA (3.17)

top surface bottom surface side surface

At the top and bottom surfaces, the electric field is perpendicular to the area vector, so

for the top and bottom surfaces,

E · dA = 0 (3.18)

RA

At the side, the electric field is parallel to the area vector, thus

E · dA = EdA (3.19)

Φ= E · dA = E dA (3.20)

side sirface

The area in this case is the surface area of the side of the cylinder, 2πrh.

D

Φ = 2πrhE (3.21)

Applying Gauss’ Law, we see that Φ = q/0 . The electric field becomes

λ

E= (3.22)

2π0 r

Within our non-conducting sphere or radius, R, we will assume that the total charge,

Q is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume. So the charge density of our

sphere is

Q Q

ρ= = 4 (3.23)

V 3

πR 3

28 Electromagnetism

The Electric Field due to a charge Q is

Q

E= (3.24)

4π0 r2

As the charge is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume we can say that

the charge density is

dq = ρdV (3.25)

where dV = 4πr2 dr. We can use this to determine the field inside the sphere by

summing the effect of infinitesimally thin spherical shells

Z E Z r

dq

E= dE = 2

0 0 4πr

ρ

Z r

=

FT

dr

0 0

Qr

= 4 (3.26)

3

π0 R3

1

U(r) = qq0 r (3.27)

4π0

RA

3.1.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge

The electrical potential is the potential energy per unit charge that is associated with a

static electrical field. It can be expressed thus

1 q

V(r) = (3.29)

D

4π0 r

A more proper definition that includes the electric field, E would be

Z

V(r) = − E · d` (3.30)

C

where C is any path, starting at a chosen point of zero potential to our desired point.

The difference between two potentials can be expressed such

Z b Z a

V(b) − V(a) = − E · d` + E · d`

Z b

=− E · d` (3.31)

a

Electrostatics 29

This can be further expressed

Z b

V(b) − V(a) = (∇V) · d` (3.32)

a

E = −∇V (3.33)

Let us consider a rod of length, `, with linear charge density, λ. The Electrical Potential

due to a continuous distribution is

Z Z

1 dq

FT

V= dV = (3.34)

4π0 r

dq = λdx (3.35)

Substituting this into the above equation, we get the electrical potential at some distance

x along the rod’s axis, with the origin at the start of the rod.

RA

1 dq

dV =

4π0 x

1 λdx

= (3.36)

4π0 x

This becomes

λ x2

V= ln (3.37)

4π0 x1

where x1 and x2 are the distances from O, the end of the rod.

Now consider that we are some distance, y, from the axis of the rod of length, `. We

D

again look at Equation 3.34, where r is the distance of the point P from the rod’s axis.

Z

1 dq

V=

4π0 r

`

λdx

Z

1

= 1

4π0 0 x2 + y2 2

λ

12 `

= ln x + x2 + y2

4π0 0

λ 12

= ln ` + `2 + y2 − ln y

4π0

1

λ ` + `2 + y2 2

= ln (3.38)

4π0 d

30 Electromagnetism

3.2 Currents and DC Circuits

2

3

4

3.5

5

3.6

Induction

FT

Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications

RA

6

7

D

3.8 AC Circuits

8

9

3.10 Capacitance

Q = CV (3.39)

Energy in a Capacitor 31

3.11 Energy in a Capacitor

Q2

U=

2C

CV 2

=

2

QV

= (3.40)

2

U 0 E2

u≡ = (3.41)

FT

volume 2

3.13 Current

dQ

I≡ (3.42)

dt

RA

Z

I= J · dA (3.43)

A

I

J= = ne qvd (3.44)

A

D

V

R≡ (3.45)

I

L

R=ρ (3.46)

A

E = ρJ (3.47)

J = σE (3.48)

32 Electromagnetism

3.18 Power

P = VI (3.49)

Write Here

Write Here

3.21 RC Circuits

FT

E − IR −

Q

C

=0 (3.50)

RA

3.22 Maxwell’s Equations

3.22.1 Integral Form

Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields

w Q

E · dA = (3.51)

0

closed surface

D

w

B · dA = 0 (3.52)

closed surface

Ampère’s Law

z d w

B · ds = µ0 I + µ0 0 E · dA (3.53)

dt

surface

Faraday’s Law

z d w

E · ds = − B · dA (3.54)

dt

surface

Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave 33

3.22.2 Differential Form

Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields

ρ

∇·E= (3.55)

0

Gauss’ Law for Magnetism

∇·B=0 (3.56)

Ampère’s Law

∂E

∇ × B = µ0 J + µ0 0 (3.57)

∂t

Faraday’s Law

∂B

∇·E=− (3.58)

∂t

c= √

√

FT

c

1

µ0 0

(3.59)

RA

c κ= (3.60)

n

where n is the refractive index.

E = cB (3.61)

E·B=0 (3.62)

D

!

1 B2

u= + 0 E2 (3.63)

2 µ0

1

S= E×B (3.64)

µ0

34 Electromagnetism

FT

RA

D

Chapter 4

1

4.2

2

Superposition

FT

RA

4.3 Interference

3

4.4 Diffraction

4

D

5

4.6 Polarization

6

7

36 Optics & Wave Phonomena

4.8 Snell’s Law

4.8.1 Snell’s Law

n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 (4.1)

The critical angle, θc , for the boundary seperating two optical media is the smallest

angle of incidence, in the medium of greater index, for which light is totally refelected.

From Equation 4.1, θ1 = 90 and θ2 = θc and n2 > n1 .

n1 sin 90 = n2 sinθc

n1

sin θc = (4.2)

FT

n2

RA

D

Chapter 5

Mechanics

5.1

1

5.2

FT

Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic Processes

RA

2

3

D

4

5

5.6 Ensembles

6

38 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics

5.7 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermody-

namic Properties

7

8

Q = C T f − Ti (5.1)

FT

where C is the Heat Capacity and T f and Ti are the final and initial temperatures

respectively.

Q = cm T f − ti (5.2)

RA

where c is the specific heat capacity and m is the mass.

Z Vf

W= PdV (5.3)

Vi

D

dEint = dQ − dW (5.4)

where dEint is the internal energy of the system, dQ is the Energy added to the system

and dW is the work done by the system.

Adiabatic Process During an adiabatic process, the system is insulated such that there

is no heat transfer between the system and its environment. Thus dQ = 0, so

∆Eint = −W (5.5)

If work is done on the system, negative W, then there is an increase in its internal

energy. Conversely, if work is done by the system, positive W, there is a decrease

in the internal energy of the system.

Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature 39

Constant Volume (Isochoric) Process If the volume is held constant, then the system

can do no work, δW = 0, thus

∆Eint = Q (5.6)

If heat is added to the system, the temperature increases. Conversely, if heat is

removed from the system the temperature decreases.

Closed Cycle In this situation, after certain interchanges of heat and work, the system

comes back to its initial state. So ∆Eint remains the same, thus

∆Q = ∆W (5.7)

The work done by the system is equal to the heat or energy put into it.

∆W = 0,

FT

∆Eint = 0 (5.8)

Starting with Equation 5.3, we substitute the Ideal gas Law, Equation 5.11, to get

Z Vf

dV

RA

W = nRT

Vi V

Vf

= nRT ln (5.9)

Vi

The rate of heat transferred, H, is given by

Q TH − TC

H= = kA (5.10)

D

t L

where k is the thermal conductivity.

PV = nRT (5.11)

where

n = Number of moles

P = Pressure

V = Volume

T = Temperature

40 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics

and R is the Universal Gas Constant, such that

R ≈ 8.314 J/mol. K

We can rewrite the Ideal gas Law to say

PV = NkT (5.12)

where k is the Boltzmann’s Constant, such that

R

k= ≈ 1.381 × 10−23 J/K

NA

P(T) = σT4 (5.13)

5.17

5.18

RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas

FT

vrms =

r

3RT

M

(5.14)

RA

3

K̄ = kT (5.15)

2

3

Eint = nRT (5.16)

2

D

Q = nCV ∆T (5.17)

Substituting into the First Law of Thermodynamics, we have

∆Eint + W = nCV ∆T (5.18)

At constant volume, W = 0, and we get

1 ∆Eint

CV = (5.19)

n ∆T

Substituting (Equation 5.16), we get

3

CV = R = 12.5 J/mol.K (5.20)

2

Molar Specific Heat at Constant Pressure 41

5.21 Molar Specific Heat at Constant Pressure

Starting with

Q = nCp ∆T (5.21)

and

∆Eint = Q − W

⇒ nCV ∆T = nCp ∆T + nR∆T

∴ CV = Cp − R (5.22)

!

f

FT

CV = R = 4.16 f J/mol.K (5.23)

2

where f is the number of degrees of freedom.

Molecule Translational Rotational Total ( f ) CV CP = CV + R

RA

3 5

Monatomic 3 0 3 2

R 2

R

5 7

Diatomic 3 2 5 2

R 2

R

Polyatomic 3 3 6 3R 4R

PV γ = a constant (5.24)

D

where γ = CCVP .

We can also write

TV γ−1 = a constant (5.25)

Something.

42 Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics

FT

RA

D

Chapter 6

Quantum Mechanics

1

Let us define Ψ to be FT

Ψ = Ae−iω(t− v )

x

(6.1)

RA

Simplifying in terms of Energy, E, and momentum, p, we get

i(Et−px)

Ψ = Ae− ~ (6.2)

H =T+V (6.3)

To determine E and p,

D

∂2 Ψ p2

= − Ψ (6.4)

∂x2 ~2

∂Ψ iE

= Ψ (6.5)

∂t ~

and

p2

H= +V (6.6)

2m

This becomes

EΨ = HΨ (6.7)

~ ∂Ψ ∂2 Ψ

EΨ = − p2 Ψ = −~2

i ∂t ∂x2

44 Quantum Mechanics

The Time Dependent Schrödinger’s Equation is

∂Ψ ~ 2 ∂2 Ψ

i~ =− + V(x)Ψ (6.8)

∂t 2m ∂x2

The Time Independent Schrödinger’s Equation is

~ 2 ∂2 Ψ

EΨ = − + V(x)Ψ (6.9)

2m ∂x2

Let us consider a particle trapped in an infinite potential well of size a, such that

(

0

V(x) =

FT

∞ for |x| > a,

so that a nonvanishing force acts only at ±a/2. An energy, E, is assigned to the system

such that the kinetic energy of the particle is E. Classically, any motion is forbidden

outside of the well because the infinite value of V exceeds any possible choice of E.

Recalling the Schrödinger Time Independent Equation, Equation 6.9, we substitute

V(x) and in the region (−a/2, a/2), we get

~2 d2 ψ

RA

− = Eψ (6.10)

2m dx2

This differential is of the form

d2 ψ

2

+ k2 ψ = 0 (6.11)

dx

where r

2mE

k= (6.12)

~2

We recognize that possible solutions will be of the form

D

(

ψ(x) =

0 for |x| > a

It shows that

⇒ A cos 0 + B sin 0 = 0

∴A=0 (6.14)

Schrödinger Equation 45

We are now left with

B sin ka = 0

ka = 0; π; 2π; 3π; · · ·

(6.15)

While mathematically, n can be zero, that would mean there would be no wave function,

so we ignore this result and say

nπ

kn = for n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·

a

Substituting this result into Equation 6.12 gives

√

nπ 2mEn

kn = = (6.16)

FT

a ~

Solving for En gives

n2 π2 ~2

En = (6.17)

2ma2

We cna now solve for B by normalizing the function

Z a

a

|B|2 sin2 kxdx = |A|2 = 1

0 2

RA

2

So |A|2 = (6.18)

a

So we can write the wave function as

r

2 nπx

ψn (x) = sin (6.19)

a a

Classically, the harmonic oscillator has a potential energy of

D

1

V(x) = kx2 (6.20)

2

So the force experienced by this particle is

dV

F=− = −kx (6.21)

dx

where k is the spring constant. The equation of motion can be summed us as

d2 x

m = −kx (6.22)

dt2

And the solution of this equation is

x(t) = A cos ω0 t + φ (6.23)

46 Quantum Mechanics

where the angular frequency, ω0 is

r

k

ω0 = (6.24)

m

The Quantum Mechanical description on the harmonic oscillator is based on the eigen-

function solutions of the time-independent Schrödinger’s equation. By taking V(x)

from Equation 6.20 we substitute into Equation 6.9 to get

d2 ψ 2m k 2

!

mk 2 2E

= x − E ψ = x − ψ

dx2 ~2 2 ~2 k

With some manipulation, we get

√

~ d2 ψ mk 2 2E m

r

√ 2

= x − ψ

mk dx ~ ~ k

FT

This step allows us to to keep some of constants out of the way, thus giving us

√

mk 2

ξ2 = x (6.25)

~r

2E m 2E

and λ = = (6.26)

~ k ~ω0

This leads to the more compact

RA

d2 ψ 2

= ξ − λ ψ (6.27)

dξ2

where the eigenfunction ψ will be a function of ξ. λ assumes an eigenvalue anaglaous

to E.

From Equation 6.25, we see that the maximum value can be determined to be

√

mk 2

ξ2max = A (6.28)

~

Using the classical connection between A and E, allows us to say

D

√

mk 2E

ξmax =

2

=λ (6.29)

~ k

From Equation 6.27, we see that in a quantum mechanical oscillator, there are non-

vanishing solutions in the forbidden regions, unlike in our classical case.

A solution to Equation 6.27 is

ψ(ξ) = e−ξ /2

2

(6.30)

where

dψ

= −ξe−ξ /2

2

dξ

dψ 2 −xi2 /2 −ξ2 /2

e−ξ /2

2

and 2

= ξ e − e = ξ 2

− 1

dξ

Schrödinger Equation 47

This gives is a special solution for λ where

λ0 = 1 (6.31)

~ω0 ~ω0

E0 = λ0 = (6.32)

2 2

2

! 18 √

mk mkx2 /2~ −iE0 t/~

Ψ0 (x, t) = 2 2 e− e (6.33)

π~

FT

This solution of Equation 6.27 produces the smallest possibel result of λ and E. Hence,

Ψ0 and E0 represents the ground state of the oscillator. and the quantity ~ω0 /2 is the

zero-point energy of the system.

For the Finite Square Well, we have a potential region where

RA

(

−V0 for −a ≤ x ≤ a

V(x) =

0 for |x| > a

comes

~2 d2 ψ

− = Eψ

D

2m dx2

d2 ψ

⇒ 2 = κ2 ψ

√ dx

−2mE

where κ=

~

realizable function. So we can drop it to get

48 Quantum Mechanics

Region II: −a < x < a In this region, our potential is V(x) = V0 . Substitutin this into

the Schrödinger’s Equation,Equation 6.9, gives

~2 d2 ψ

− − V0 ψ = Eψ

2m dx2

d2 ψ

or 2

= −l2 ψ

p dx

2m (E + V0 )

where l ≡ (6.35)

~

We notice that E > −V0 , making l real and positive. Thus our general solution

becomes

ψ(x) = C sin(lx) + D cos(lx) for −a < x < a (6.36)

Region III: x > a Again this Region is similar to Region III, where the potential, V = 0.

FT

This leaves us with the general solution

ψ(x) = F exp(−κx) + G exp(κx)

As x → ∞, the second term goes to infinity and we get

ψ(x) = Fe−κx for x > a (6.37)

This gives us κx

Be for x < a

ψ(x) = for 0 < x < a

RA

D cos(lx) (6.38)

for x > a

Fe−κx

c

6.3 Spin

3

D

4

5

6

Chapter 7

Atomic Physics

1

FT

To understand the Bohr Model of the Hydrogen atom, we will take advantage of our

knowlegde of the wavelike properties of matter. As we are building on a classical

RA

model of the atom with a modern concept of matter, our derivation is considered to be

‘semi-classical’. In this model we have an electron of mass, me , and charge, −e, orbiting

a proton. The cetripetal force is equal to the Coulomb Force. Thus

1 e2 me v2

= (7.1)

4π0 r2 r

The Total Energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies, so

p2

E=K+U = − | f race2 4π0 r (7.2)

D

2me

We can further reduce this equation by subsituting the value of momentum, which we

find to be

p2 1 e2

= me v2 = (7.3)

2me 2 8π0 r

Substituting this into Equation 7.2, we get

e2 e2 e2

E= − =− (7.4)

8π0 r 4π0 r 8π0 r

At this point our classical description must end. An accelerated charged particle, like

one moving in circular motion, radiates energy. So our atome here will radiate energy

and our electron will spiral into the nucleus and disappear. To solve this conundrum,

Bohr made two assumptions.

50 Atomic Physics

1. The classical circular orbits are replaced by stationary states. These stationary

states take discreet values.

2. The energy of these stationary states are determined by their angular momentum

which must take on quantized values of ~.

L = n~ (7.5)

L = m3 vr (7.6)

FT

r

m3 r

L=e (7.7)

4π0

L2

r= (7.8)

me e2 /4π0

RA

We apply the condition from Equation 7.5

n2 ~2

rn = = n2 a0 (7.9)

me e2 /4π0

a0 = 0.53 × 10−10 m (7.10)

Having discreet values for the allowed radii means that we will also have discreet

values for energy. Replacing our value of rn into Equation 7.4, we get

D

!

me e2 13.6

En = − 2 = − 2 eV (7.11)

2n 4π0 ~ n

3

4

Atomic Spectra 51

7.5 Atomic Spectra

7.5.1 Rydberg’s Equation

1 1 1

= RH 02 − 2 (7.12)

λ n n

where RH is the Rydberg constant.

For the Balmer Series, n0 = 2, which determines the optical wavelengths. For

n0 = 3, we get the infrared or Paschen series. The fundamental n0 = 1 series falls in the

ultraviolet region and is known as the Lyman series.

FT

6

7.7.1 Plank Formula

8π~ f3

u( f, T) = (7.13)

c3 eh f /kT − 1

RA

7.7.2 Stefan-Boltzmann Formula

P(T) = σT4 (7.14)

λmax T = 2.9 × 10−3 m.K (7.15)

D

Rayleigh’s Equation

8π f 2

u( f, T) = kT (7.16)

c3

We can get this equation from Plank’s Equation, Equation 7.13. This equation is a

classical one and does not contain Plank’s constant in it. For this case we will look at

the situation where h f < kT. In this case, we make the approximation

ex ' 1 + x (7.17)

hf hf

eh f /kT − 1 ' 1 + −1= (7.18)

kT kT

52 Atomic Physics

Thus Equation 7.13 takes the approximate form

8πh 3 kT 8π f 2

u( f, T) ' f = 3 kT (7.19)

c3 hf c

As we can see this equation is devoid of Plank’s constant and thus independent of

quantum effects.

Quantum

At large frequencies, where h f > kT, quantum effects become apparent. We can

estimate that

eh f /kT − 1 ' eh f /kT (7.20)

Thus Equation 7.13 becomes

7.8

7.8.1

X-Rays

Bragg Condition

u( f, T) '

FT8πh 3 −h f /kT

c3

f e (7.21)

RA

2d sin θ = mλ (7.22)

for constructive interference off parallel planes of a crystal with lattics spacing, d.

The Compton Effect deals with the scattering of monochromatic X-Rays by atomic

targets and the observation that the wavelength of the scattered X-ray is greater than

the incident radiation. The photon energy is given by

D

hc

E = hυ = (7.23)

λ

The photon has an associated momentum

E= pc (7.24)

E hυ h

⇒p = = = (7.25)

c c λ

The Relativistic Energy for the electron is

E2 = p2 c2 + m2e c4 (7.26)

where

p − p0 = P (7.27)

Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 53

Squaring (Equation 7.27) gives

p2 − 2p · p0 + p02 = P2 (7.28)

c2 p2 − 2c2 p · p0 + c2 p02 = c2 P2

E 2 − 2E E 0 cos θ + E 02 = E2 − m2e c4 (7.29)

E + me c2 = E 0 + E (7.30)

Solving

E − E 0 = E − me c2

FT

E 2 − 2E E 0 + E 0 = E2 − 2Eme c2 + m2e c4 (7.31)

2E E 0 − 2E E 0 cos θ = 2Eme c2 − 2m2e c4 (7.32)

Solving leads to

h

∆λ = λ0 − λ = (1 − cos θ) (7.33)

me c

where λc = h

me c

is the Compton Wavelength.

RA

h

λc = = 2.427 × 10−12 m (7.34)

me c

7.9.1 The Cyclotron Frequency

A test charge, q, with velocity v enters a uniform magnetic field, B. The force acting on

the charge will be perpendicular to v such that

D

FB = qv × B (7.35)

or more simply FB = qvB. As this traces a circular path, from Newton’s Second Law,

we see that

mv2

FB = = qvB (7.36)

R

Solving for R, we get

mv

R= (7.37)

qB

We also see that

qB

f = (7.38)

2πm

The frequency is depends on the charge, q, the magnetic field strength, B and the mass

of the charged particle, m.

54 Atomic Physics

7.9.2 Zeeman Effect

The Zeeman effect was the splitting of spectral lines in a static magnetic field. This is

similar to the Stark Effect which was the splitting in the presence in a magnetic field.

In the Zeeman experiment, a sodium flame was placed in a magnetic field and its

spectrum observed. In the presence of the field, a spectral line of frequency, υ0 was

split into three components, υ0 − δυ, υ0 and υ0 + δυ. A classical analysis of this effect

allows for the identification of the basic parameters of the interacting system.

The application of a constant magnetic field, B, allows for a direction in space in

which the electron motion can be referred. The motion of an electron can be attributed

to a simple harmonic motion under a binding force −kr, where the frequency is

r

1 k

υ0 = (7.39)

2π me

FT

The magnetic field subjects the electron to an additional Lorentz Force, −ev × B. This

produces two different values for the angular velocity.

v = 2πrυ

The cetripetal force becomes

me v2

= 4π2 υ2 rme

r

Thus the certipetal force is

RA

4π2 υ2 rme = 2πυreB + kr for clockwise motion

4π2 υ2 rme = −2πυreB + kr for counterclockwise motion

We use Equation 7.39, to emiminate k, to get

eB

υ2 − υ − υ0 = 0 (Clockwise)

2πme

eB

υ2 + υ − υ0 = 0 (Counterclockwise)

2πme

D

As we have assumed a small Lorentz force, we can say that the linear terms in υ are

small comapred to υ0 . Solving the above quadratic equations leads to

eB

υ = υ0 + for clockwise motion (7.40)

4πme

eB

υ = υ0 − for counterclockwise motion (7.41)

4πme

We note that the frequency shift is of the form

eB

δυ = (7.42)

4πme

If we view the source along the direction of B, we will observe the light to have two

polarizations, a closckwise circular polarization of υ0 + δυ and a counterclosckwise

circular polarization of υ0 − δυ.

Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields 55

7.9.3 Franck-Hertz Experiment

The Franck-Hertz experiment, performed in 1914 by J. Franck and G. L. Hertz, mea-

sured the colisional excitation of atoms. Their experiement studied the current of

electrons in a tub of mercury vapour which revealed an abrupt change in the current

at certain critical values of the applied voltage.1 They interpreted this observation as

evidence of a threshold for inelastic scattering in the colissions of electrons in mer-

cury atoms.The bahavior of the current was an indication that electrons could lose

a discreet amount of energy and excite mercury atoms in their passage through the

mercury vapour. These observations constituted a direct and decisive confirmation of

the existence os quantized energy levels in atoms.

FT

RA

D

1

Put drawing of Franck-Hertz Setup

56 Atomic Physics

FT

RA

D

Chapter 8

Special Relativity

8.1.1 Postulates of Special Relativity

FT

1. The laws of Physics are the same in all inertial frames.

We can define

RA

1

γ= q (8.1)

u2

1− c2

∆t = γ∆t0 (8.2)

where ∆t0 is the time measured at rest relative to the observer, ∆t is the time measured

in motion relative to the observer.

D

L0

L= (8.3)

γ

where L0 is the length of an object observed at rest relative to the observer and L is the

length of the object moving at a speed u relative to the observer.

8.4 Simultaneity

4

58 Special Relativity

8.5 Energy and Momentum

8.5.1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy

In relativistic mechanics, to be conserved, momentum and energy are defined as

Relativistic Momentum

p̄ = γmv̄ (8.4)

Relativistic Energy

E = γmc2 (8.5)

FT

8.5.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy)

E

p0x = γ px − β (8.6)

c

py = py

0

(8.7)

p0z = pz (8.8)

RA

E0 E

=γ − βpx (8.9)

c c

K = E − mc2 (8.10)

1

= mc q

2

− 1 (8.11)

D

v2

1−

c2

= mc2 γ − 1

(8.12)

∆E

∆P0x = γ ∆Px − β (8.13)

c

∆P y = ∆P y

0

(8.14)

∆P0z = ∆Pz (8.15)

∆E0 ∆E

=γ − β∆Px (8.16)

c c

Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation 59

8.6 Four-Vectors and Lorentz Transformation

We can represent an event in S with the column matrix, s,

x

y

s = (8.17)

z

ict

A different Lorents frame, S0 , corresponds to another set of space time axes so that

0

x

y0

s0 = 0 (8.18)

z

0

ict

FT

The Lorentz Transformation is related by the matrix

x γ

0

0 0 iγβ x

y0 0 1 0 0 y

0 = (8.19)

z 0 0 1 0 z

0 γ

0

ict −iγβ 0 ict

RA

s0 = L s (8.20)

The matrix L contains all the information needed to relate position four–vectors for

any given event as observed in the two Lorentz frames S and S0 . If we evaluate

x

h i y

s s = x y z ict

T = x2 + y2 + z2 − c2 t2 (8.21)

z

ict

D

We can take any collection of four physical quantities to be four vector provided that

they transform to another Lorentz frame. Thus we have

bx

b

b = y (8.23)

bz

ibt

this can be transformed into a set of quantities of b0 in another frame S0 such that it

satisfies the transformation

b0 = L b (8.24)

60 Special Relativity

Looking at the momentum-Energy four vector, we have

px

p

p = y (8.25)

pz

iE/c

p0 = L p (8.26)

We can also get a Lorentz-invariation relation between momentum and energy such

that

p0T p0 = pT p (8.27)

FT

The resulting equality gives

E02 E2

x + p y + pz −

p02 = + +

02 02 2 2 2

px p y p z − (8.28)

c2 c2

v−u

v0 =

RA

(8.29)

1 − uv

c2

r r

c+u c−u

ῡ = υ0 let r = (8.30)

c−u c+u

We have

D

υ0

ῡapproaching = blue-shift (Source Approaching) (8.32)

r

Given two reference frames S(x, y, z, t) and S0 (x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ), where the S0 -frame is moving

in the x-direction, we have,

y0 = y y = y0 (8.34)

z0 = y y0 = y (8.35)

u u 0

t = γ t − 2x

0

t = γ t + 2x

0

(8.36)

c c

Space-Time Interval 61

8.10 Space-Time Interval

(∆S)2 = (∆x)2 + ∆y 2 + (∆z)2 − c2 (∆t)2

(8.37)

Space-Time Intervals may be categorized into three types depending on their separa-

tion. They are

Time-like Interval

∆S2 > 0 (8.39)

relationship between the two events.

FT

Light-like Interval

S =0

2

(8.41)

Space-like Intervals

RA

∆S < 0 (8.43)

D

62 Special Relativity

FT

RA

D

Chapter 9

Laboratory Methods

9.1.1 Addition and Subtraction

The Error in x is

FT

x=a+b−c

(9.1)

(9.2)

RA

9.1.2 Multiplication and Division

a×b

x= (9.3)

c

The error in x is

!2

δx δa δb δc

2 2 2

= + + (9.4)

x a b c

D

x = ab (9.5)

The Error in x is

δx δa

=b (9.6)

x a

9.1.4 Logarithms

Base e

x = ln a (9.7)

64 Laboratory Methods

We find the error in x by taking the derivative on both sides, so

d ln a

δx = · δa

da

1

= · δa

a

δa

= (9.8)

a

Base 10

x = log10 a (9.9)

The Error in x can be derived as such

d(log a)

δx = δa

da

FT

ln a

ln 10

= δa

da

1 δa

=

ln 10 a

δa

= 0.434 (9.10)

a

9.1.5 Antilogs

RA

Base e

x = ea (9.11)

We take the natural log on both sides.

ln x = a ln e = a (9.12)

Applaying the same general method, we see

d ln x

δx = δa

dx

D

δx

⇒ = δa (9.13)

x

Base 10

x = 10a (9.14)

We follow the same general procedure as above to get

log x = a log 10

log x

δx = δa

dx

1 d ln a

δx = δa

ln 10 dx

δx

= ln 10δa (9.15)

x

Instrumentation 65

9.2 Instrumentation

2

3

Let’s assume that for a particular experiment, we are making countung measurements

for a radioactive source. In this experiment, we recored N counts in time T. The

counting rate for this trial is R = N/T. This rate should be close to the average√rate, R̄.

FT

The standard deviation or the uncertainty of our count is a simply called the N rule.

So √

σ= N (9.16)

Thus we can report our results as

√

Number of counts = N ± N (9.17)

RA

√

N N

R= ± (9.18)

T T

δN

The fractional uncertainty of our count is N

. We can relate this in terms of the count

rate.

δN

δR T δN

= N

=

R T

N

√

N

D

=

N

1

= (9.19)

N

We see that our uncertainty decreases as we take more counts, as to be expected.

5

6

66 Laboratory Methods

9.7 Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis is used to understand physical situations involving a mis of

different types of physical quantities. The dimensions of a physical quantity are

associated with combinations of mass, length, time, electric charge, and temperature,

represented by symbols M, L, T, Q, and θ, respectively, each raised to rational powers.

tics

8

FT

RA

D

Chapter 10

rock.

FT

From the information provided we can come up with an equation of motion for the

If you have seen this type of equation, and solved it, you’d know that the rock’s speed

will asymtotically increase to some max speed. At that point the drag force and the

force due to gravity will be the same. We can best answer this question through analysis

RA

and elimination.

k

ẍ = −g − ẋ (10.2)

m

We see that this only occurs when ẋ = 0, which only happens at the top of the

flight. So FALSE.

D

C Again from Equation 10.2 we see that the acceleration is dependent on whether the

rock is moving up or down. If ẋ > 0 then ẍ < −g and if ẋ < 0 then ẍ > −g. So this

is also FALSE.

D If there was no drag (fictional) force, then energy would be conserved and the rock

will return at the speed it started with but there is a drag force so energy is lost.

The speed the rock returns is v < v0 . Hence FALSE.

E Again FALSE. Once the drag force and the gravitational force acting on the rock is

balanced the rock won’t accelerate.

Answer: (B)

68 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.2 Satellite Orbits

The question states that the astronaut fires the rocket’s jets towards Earth’s center. We

infer that no extra energy is given to the system by this process. subsection 2.7.5, shows

that the only other orbit where the specific energy is also negative is an elliptical one.

Answer: (A)

Solutions to the Electromagnetic wave equation gives us the speed of light in terms of

the electromagnetic permeability, µ0 and permitivitty, 0 .

1

c= √ (10.3)

FT

µ0 0

where c is the speed of light. The speed through a dielectric medium becomes

1

v = √

µ0

1

=

2.1µ0 0

p

RA

c

= √ (10.4)

2.1

Answer: (D)

We are given the equation

t x

y = A sin − (10.5)

T λ

D

We can analyze and eliminate from what we know about this equation

choice is incorrect.

B As the wave moves, we seek to keep the Tt − λx term constant. So as t increases, we

expect x to increase as well as there is a negative sign in front of it. This means

that the wave moves in the positive x-direction. This choice is also incorrect.

C The phase of the wave is given by Tt − λx , we can do some manipulation to show

t x

− = 2π f t − kx

T λ

= ωt − kx (10.6)

Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres 69

Or rather

kx = ωt (10.7)

λ

v= (10.8)

T

Answer: (E)

10.5

FT

Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres

We are told the two masses coalesce so we know that the collision is inelastic and

hence, energy is not conserved. As mass A falls, it looses Potential Energy and gains

Kinetic Energy.

1

Mgh0 = Mv20 (10.9)

RA

2

Thus

v20 = 2gh0 (10.10)

Mv0 = (3M + M) v1

= 4Mv1

v0

⇒ v1 = (10.11)

4

D

The fused putty mass rises, kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and we find

our final height.

1

(4M) v21 = 4Mgh

2

v21

h =

2g

1 v0 2

=

2g 4

h0

= (10.12)

16

Answer: (A)

70 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.6 Motion of a Particle along a Track

As the particle moves from the top of the track and runs down the frictionless track,

its Gravitational Potential Energy is converted to Kinetic Energy. Let’s assume that the

particle is at a height, y0 when x = 0. Since energy is conserved, we get1

1

mgy0 = mg(y0 − y) + mv2

2

1 2

⇒ v = gy (10.13)

2

So we have a relationship between v and the particle’s position on the track.

The tangential acceleration in this case is

mv2

FT

mg cos θ = (10.14)

r

p

v2

g cos θ =

r

gx2

=

RA

2 x2 + y2

p

gx

= √ (10.15)

x2 + 4

Answer: (D)

This question is a simple matter of resolving the horizontal and vertical components

D

T sin θ = F (10.16)

T cos θ = mg (10.17)

Thus we get

F

tan θ =

mg

10 1

= ≈ (10.18)

(2)(9.8) 2

Answer: (A)

1

Insert Free Body Diagram of particle along track.

Nail being driven into a block of wood 71

10.8 Nail being driven into a block of wood

We recall that

v2 = v20 + 2as (10.19)

where v, v0 , a and s are the final speed, initial speed, acceleration and displacement

that the nail travels. Now it’s just a matter os plugging in what we know

100

⇒a = − = −2000 m/s2 (10.21)

2(0.025)

FT

F = ma

= 5 · 2000 = 10000 N (10.22)

Answer: (D)

RA

We can find the drift vleocity from the current density equation

J = envd (10.23)

where e is the charge of an electron, n is the density of electrons per unit volume and

~

vd is the drift speed. Plugging in what we know

I

J=

A

D

I =nAvd e

I

vd =

nAe

100

= (10.24)

(1 × 1028 ) π×2×10

−4

4

1.6 × 10−19

2 − 28 + 4 + 19 = −4 (10.25)

Answer: (D)

2

It also helps if you knew that the electron drift velocity was slow, in the order of mm/s.

72 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.10 Charge inside an Isolated Sphere

You can answer this by thinking about Gauss’ Law. The bigger the Gaussian surface

the more charge it encloses and the bigger the electric field. Beyond the radius of the

sphere, the field decreases exponentially.

We can calculate these relationships by using Gauss’ Law.

I

Qenclosed

E · dS = (10.26)

0

S

Q Qenclosed

ρ= = (10.27)

FT

4

3

πR3 4

3

πr3

4 3 Qr3

Qenclosed = ρ πr = 3 (10.28)

3 R

RA

Gauss’ Law becomes

Qr3

E 4πr2 = (10.29)

0 R3

The Electric field is

Qr

E(r<R) = (10.30)

4π0 R3

D

Qenclosed = Q (10.31)

Q

E 4πr2 = (10.32)

0

The Electric field is

Q

E(r≥R) = (10.33)

4π0 r2

Answer: (C)

Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws 73

10.11 Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws

We recall the vector identity

∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (10.34)

Thus

∇ · (∇ × H) = ∇ · Ḋ + J

= 0 (10.35)

Answer: (A)

FT

we recall the Doppler Equation3

v − vr

f = f0 (10.36)

v − vs

where vr and vs are the observer and source speeds respectively. We are told that vr = 0

and vs = 0.9v. Thus

v

f = f0

RA

v − 0.9v

= 10 f0

= 10 kHz (10.37)

Answer: (E)

Answering this question takes some analysis. The sources are coherent, so they will

produce an interference pattern. We are also told that ∆ f = 500 Hz. This will produce

D

a shifting interference pattern that changes too fast for the eye to see.4

Answer: (E)

From section 5.20 and section 5.21, we see that

Cp = CV + R (10.38)

The difference is due to the work done in the environment by the gas when it expands

under constant pressure.

3

Add reference to Dopler Equations.

4

Add Young’s Double Slit Experiment equations.

74 GR8677 Exam Solutions

We can prove this by starting with the First Law of Thermodynamics.

dU = −dW + dQ (10.39)

Where dU is the change in Internal Energy, dW is the work done by the system and dQ

is the change in heat of the system.

We also recall the definition for Heat Capacity

dQ = CdT (10.40)

dW = 0. The change in internal energy is the change of heat into the system, thus we

can define, the heat capacity at constant volume to be

FT

At constant pressure, the change in internal energy is accompanied by a change in heat

flow as well as a change in the volume of the gas, thus

= −pdV + Cp dT where pdV = nRdT

= −nRdT + Cp dT (10.42)

If the changes in internal energies are the same in both cases, then Equation 10.42 is

RA

equal to Equation 10.41. Thus

CV dT = −nRdT + Cp dT

This becomes

Cp = CV + nR (10.43)

We see the reason why Cp > CV is due to the addition of work on the system; Equa-

tion 10.41 shows no work done by the gas while Equation 10.42 shows that there is

work done.

Answer: (A)

D

Let’s say the probability of the atoms being inside the box is 1. So the probability that

an atom will be found outside of a 1.0 × 10−6 cm3 box is

As there are N atoms and the probability of finding one is mutually exclusive of the

other, the probabolity becomes

N

P = 1 − 1.0 × 10−6 (10.45)

Answer: (C)

The Muon 75

10.16 The Muon

It helps knowing what these particles are

Muon The muon, is a lepton, like the electron. It has the ame charge, −e and spin, 1/2,

as the electron execpt it’s about 200 times heavier. It’s known as a heavy electron.

Graviton This is a hypothetical particle that mediates the force of gravity. It has no

charge, no mass and a spin of 2. Nothing like an electron.

Photon The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic field. It has no charge or

mass and a spin of 1. Again nothing like an electron.

Pion The Pion belongs to the meson family. Again, nothing like leptons.

FT

Proton This ia a sub atomic particle and is found in the nucleus of all atoms. Nothing

like an electron.

Answer: (A)

RA

From the changes in the Mass and Atomic numbers after the subsequent decays, we

expect an α and β decay.

Alpha Decay

Z−2 X +2 α

A

ZX →A−4 0 4

(10.46)

Beta Decay

A

ZX →AZ+1 X0 +−1 e− + ῡe (10.47)

D

A

ZX

A−4

→Z−2 X0 +42 α →AZ−1 Y +−1 e− + ῡe (10.48)

Answer: (B)

We recall that Schrödinger’s Equation is

~2 ∂2 ψ

Eψ = − + V(x)ψ (10.49)

2m ∂x2

Given that ( 2 2)

bx

ψ(x) = A exp − (10.50)

2

76 GR8677 Exam Solutions

We differentiate and get

∂2 ψ 4 2

= b x − b 2

ψ (10.51)

∂x2

Plugging into Schrödinger’s Equation, Equation 10.49, gives us

~2 4 2

Eψ = − b x − b2 ψ + V(x)ψ (10.52)

2m

Applying the boundary condition at x = 0 gives

~2 2

Eψ = − bψ (10.53)

2m

This gives

~2 b2 ~2 4 2

− ψ=− b x − b2 ψ + v(x)ψ (10.54)

FT

2m 2m

Solving for V(x) gives

~2 b4 x2

V(x) = (10.55)

2m

Answer: (B)

RA

We recall that the Energy Levels for the Hydrogen atom is

Z2

En = − 13.6 eV (10.56)

n2

where Z is the atomic number and n is the quantum number. This can easily be reduced

to

A

En = − 2 (10.57)

n

D

Answer: (E)

The Rest Energy of a particle is given

E = mc2 (10.58)

E = γv mc2 (10.59)

We are told that a kaon moving at relativistic speeds has the same energy as the rest

mass as a proton. Thus

EK + = Ep (10.60)

Space-Time Interval 77

where

Ep = mp c2 (10.62)

mp

γv = (10.63)

mK+

939

= (10.64)

494

940

≈ 500

(10.65)

This becomes

γv ≈ 1.9

FT

(10.66)

Solving gives

2.61 2

v2 = c (10.67)

3.61

This gives v2 in the order of 0.7. Squaring will give an answer that’s greater than 0.7,

the only answer is 0.85c.

Answer: (E)

RA

10.21 Space-Time Interval

We recall the Space-Time Interval from section 8.10.

(10.68)

We get

= 22 + 02 + 22 − 22

D

= 22

∆S = 2 (10.69)

Answer: (C)

Lorentz transformations show that electric and magnetic fields are different aspects of

the same force; the electromagnetic force. If there was one stationary charge in our

rest frame, we would observe an electric field. If we were to move to a moving frame

of reference, Lorentz transformations predicts the presence of an additional magnetic

field.

Answer: (B)

78 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.23 Conductivity of a Metal and Semi-Conductor

More of a test of what you know.

a semiconductor. TRUE.

B As the temperature of the conductor is increased its atoms vibrate more and disrupt

the flow of electrons. As a result, resistance increases. TRUE.

C Different process. As temperature increases, electrons gain more energy to jump the

energy barrier into the conducting region. So conductivity increases. TRUE.

D You may have paused to think for this one but this is TRUE. The addition of an

impurity causes an increase of electron scattering off the impurity atoms. As a

FT

result, resistance increases.5

how many extra valence electrons it adds or subtracts; you can either widen or

narrow the energy bandgap. This is of crucial importance to electronics today.

So this is FALSE.

Answer: (E)

RA

10.24 Charging a Battery

The Potential Difference across the resistor, R is

V

R+r=

I

D

20

=

10

R+1=2

⇒ R = 1Ω (10.71)

Answer: (C)

We are told that the charged particle is released from rest in the electric and magnetic

fields. The charged particle will experience a force from the magnetic field only when

5

There are one or two cases where this is not true. The addition of Silver increases the conductivity

of Copper. But the conductivity will still be less than pure silver.

K-Series X-Rays 79

it moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field lines. The particle will

move along the direction of the electric field.

We can also anylize this by looking at the Lorentz Force equation

Fq = q [E + (v × B)] (10.72)

v is in the same direction as B so the cross product between them is zero. We are left

with

Fq = qE (10.73)

The force is directed along the electrical field line and hence it moves in a straight line.

Answer: (E)

eff n

1

FT

To calculate we look at the energy levels for the Bohr atom. As the Bohr atom considers

the energy levels for the Hydrogen atom, we need to modify it somewhat

f

1

ni

En = Z2 2 − 2 13.6 eV (10.74)

RA

where Zeff is the effective atomic number and n f and ni are the energy levels. For the

n f = 1 transition

Zeff = Z − 1 (10.75)

where Z = 28 for nickle. As the electrons come in from ni = ∞, Equation 10.74 becomes

1 1

E1 = (28 − 1)2 − 13.6 eV (10.76)

1 2 ∞2

This works out to

E1 = (272 )13.6 eV

D

Answer: (D)

It helps if you knew some facts here.

A The periodic table’s arrangement of elements tells us about the chemical properties

of an element and these properties are dependent on the valent electrons. How

these valent electrons are arranged is, of course, dependent on spin. So this

choice is TRUE.

80 GR8677 Exam Solutions

B The energy of an elecron is quantized and obey the Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. All

the electrons are accomodated from the lowest state up to the Fermi Level and the

distribution among levels is described by the Fermi distribution function, f (E),

which defines the probability that the energy level, E, is occupied by an electron.

E < EF

(

1,

f (E) =

0, E > EF

1

f (E) = (10.78)

eE−EF /kT + 1

As a system goes above 0K, thermal energy may excite to higher energy states

FT

but this energy is not shared equally by all the electrons. The way energy is

distributed comes about from the exclusion principle, the energy an electron my

absorb at room temperture is kT which is much smaller than EF = 5eV. We can

define a Fermi Temperature,

EF = kTF (10.79)

which works out to be, TF = 60000K. Thus only electrons close to this temperature

can be excited as the levels above EF are empty. This results in a small number

RA

of electrons being able to be thermally excited and the low electronic specific

heat.[1]

π2

!

T

C= Nk where kT << EF

2 Tf

C The Zeeman Effect describes what happens to Hydrogen spectral lines in a magnetic

field; the spectral lines split. In some atoms, there were further splits in spctral

lines that couln’t be explained by magnetic dipole moments. The explanation for

D

D The deflection of an electron in a uniform magnetic field deflects only in one way

and demonstrates none of the electron’s spin properties. Electrons can be de-

flected depending on their spin if placed in a non-uniform magnetic field, as was

demonstrated in the Stern-Gerlach Experiment.7

E When the Hydrogen spectrum is observed at a very high resolution, closely spaced

doublets are observed. This was one of the first experimental evidence for electron

spin.8

6

Write up on Zeeman and anomalous Zeemen effects

7

Write up on Stern-Gerlach Experiment

8

Write up on Fine Structure

Normalizing a wavefunction 81

10.28 Normalizing a wavefunction

We are given

ψ(φ) = Aeimφ (10.80)

Normalizing a function means

Z ∞

|Ψ(x)|2 dx = 1 (10.81)

−∞

ψ(φ) dφ = 1 (10.82)

0

and that 2

FT

ψ(x) = ψ∗ (x)ψ(x) (10.83)

So

2

⇒ ψ(φ) = A2 eimφ e−imφ

Z 2π

A 2

dφ = 1

0

A [2π − 0] = 1

2

RA

1

⇒A = √ (10.84)

2π

First we use the ‘Grip’ rule to tell what direction the magnetic field lines are going.

Assuming the wire and current are coming out of the page, the magnetic field is in a

clockwise direction around the wire. Now we can turn to Fleming’s Right Hand Rule,

to solve the rest of the question.

As we want the force acting on our charge to be parallel to the current direction,

D

we see that this will happen when the charge moves towards the wire9 .

Answer: (A)

We can alalyze and eliminate

A The n = 3 shell has unfilled d-subshells. So this is NOT TRUE.

B The 4s subshell only has one electron. The s subshell can ‘hold’ two electrons so this

is also NOT TRUE.

C Unknown.

9

Don’t forget to bring your right hand to the exam

82 GR8677 Exam Solutions

D The sum of all the electrons, we add all the superscripts, gives 19. As this is a

ground state, a lone potassium atom, we can tell that the atomic number is 19.

So this is NOT TRUE.

E Potassium has one outer electron, like Hydrogen. So it will also have a spherically

symmetrical charge distribution.

We are given

|eV| = hυ − W (10.85)

We recall that V is the stopping potential, the voltage needed to bring the current to

zero. As electrons are negatively charged, we expect this voltage to be negative.

FT

Answer: (A)

Some history needs to be known here. The photoelectric effect was one of the exper-

iments that proved that light was absorbed in discreet packets of energy. This is the

experimental evidence that won Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1921.

RA

Answer: (D)

The quantity W is known as the work function of the metal. This is the energy that is

needed to just liberate an electron from its surface.

Answer: (D)

D

We recall that

dU

F=− (10.86)

dx

Given that

U = kx4 (10.87)

The force on the body becomes

d 4

F = − kx

dx

= −4kx3 (10.88)

Answer: (B)

Hamiltonian of a Body 83

10.35 Hamiltonian of a Body

The Hamiltonian of a body is simply the sum of the potential and kinetic energies.

That is

H =T+V (10.89)

where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. Thus

1

H = mv2 + kx4 (10.90)

2

We can also express the kinetic energy in terms of momentum, p. So

p2

H= + kx4 (10.91)

2m

FT

Answer: (A)

Hamilton’s Principle of Least Action10 states

Z

Φ=

T q(t), q̇(t) − V q(t) dt (10.92)

RA

T

where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. This becomes

Z t2

1 2

Φ= mv − kx4 dt (10.93)

t1 2

Answer: (A)

D

This is a simple case of resolving the horizontal and vertical components of forces. So

we have

T cos θ = mg (10.94)

T sin θ = mrω2 (10.95)

T2 = m2 g2 + m2 r2 ω4 (10.96)

Leaving us with

T = m g2 + r2 ω4 (10.97)

Answer: (E)

84 GR8677 Exam Solutions

Table 10.1: Truth Table for OR-gate

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 0 1

1 1 1

This is an OR gate and can be illustrated by the truth table below.

Answer: (A)

10.39

FT

Gain of an Amplifier vs. Angular Frequency

We are given that the amplifier has some sort of relationship where

G = Kωa (10.98)

falls outside of the amplifier bandwidth region. This is that ‘linear’ part of the graph

on the log-log graph. From the graph, we see that, G = 102 , for ω = 3 × 105 second-1 .

RA

Substituting, we get

a

102 = K 3 × 105

h i

∴ log(102 ) = a log K 3.5 × 105

⇒a≈2−5 (10.99)

We can roughly estimate by subtracting the indices. So our relationship is of the form

G = Kω−2 (10.100)

Answer: (E)

D

√

We recall from section 9.4 , that he standard deviation of a counting rate is σ = N,

where N is the number of counts. We have a count of N = 9934, so the standard

deviation is

√ √

σ = N = 9934

√

≈ 10000

= 100 (10.101)

Answer: (A)

10

Write something on this

Binding Energy per Nucleon 85

10.41 Binding Energy per Nucleon

More of a knowledge based question. Iron is the most stable of all the others.11

Answer: (C)

We are told the particle density of our scatterer is ρ = 1020 nuclei per cubic centimeter.

Given the thickness of our scatterer is ` = 0.1 cm, the cross sectional area is

N

ρ=

V

N

=

A`

FT

N

⇒A= (10.102)

ρ`

Now the probability of striking a proton is 1 in a million. So

There are two ways this system can oscillate, one mass on the end moves a lot and the

RA

other two move out of in the opposite directions but not as much or the centermass

can be stationary and the two masses on the end move out of phase with each other. In

the latter case, as there isn’t any energy transfer between the masses, the period would

be that of a single mass-spring system. The frequency of this would simply be

r

1 k

f = (10.103)

2π m

where k is the spring constant and m is the mass.

Answer: (B)

D

In case you require a more rigorous approach, we can calculate the modes of oscillation.

The Lagrangian of the system is

L=T−V

1 h i 1 h i

= m ẋ21 + 2ẋ22 + ẋ23 − k (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 − x2 )2 (10.104)

2 2

The equation of motion can be found from

d ∂L ∂L

!

= (10.105)

dt ∂ẋn ∂xn

11

Write up on Binding Energy

86 GR8677 Exam Solutions

The equations of motion are

2mẍ2 = kx1 − 2kx2 + kx3 (10.107)

mẍ3 = −k (x3 − x2 ) (10.108)

(10.109)

ẍ1 = −ω2 x1 ẍ2 = −ω2 x2 ẍ3 = −ω2 x3

k − mω2 x1 − kx2 = 0 (10.110)

−kx1 + 2k − 2mω2 x2 − kx3 = 0

FT

(10.111)

−kx2 + k − mω2 x3 = 0 (10.112)

k − mω2 −k 0

−k 2k − 2mω2 −k = 0 (10.113)

0 −k k − mω2

RA

Finding the determinant results in

2 h i

k − mω 2 k − mω − k − k k k − mω2

2 2 2

(10.114)

Solving, we get √

k k 2k

ω= ; ± (10.115)

m m m

Substituting ω = k/m into the equations of motion, we get

x1 = −x3 (10.116)

D

x2 = 0 (10.117)

We see that the two masses on the ends move out of phase with each other and the

middle one is stationary.

Momentum will be conserved, so we can say

mv = MV

mv

V= (10.118)

M

Answer: (A)

Compton Wavelength 87

10.45 Compton Wavelength

We recall from subsection 7.8.2, the Compton Equation from Equation 7.33

h

∆λ = λ0 − λ = (1 − cos θ) (10.119)

me c

Let θ = 90◦ , we get the Compton Wavelength

h

λc = = 2.427 × 10−12 m (10.120)

me c

Answer: (C)

FT

We recall the Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation, Equation 5.13

At temperature, T1 ,

P1 = σT1 = 10 mW (10.122)

We are given T2 = 2T1 , so

P2 = σT24

RA

= σ (2T1 )4

= 16T24

= 16P1 = 160 mW (10.123)

Answer: (E)

The Franck-Hertz Experiment as seen in subsection 7.9.3 deals with the manner in

D

which electrons of certain energies scatter or collide with Mercury atoms. At certain

energy levels, the Mercury atoms can ‘absorb’ the electrons energy and be excited and

this occurs in discreet steps.

Answer: (C)

We recall the selection rules for photon emission

∆` = ±1 Orbital angular momentum

∆m` = 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number

∆ms = 0 Secondary spin quantum number,

∆ j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum

88 GR8677 Exam Solutions

NOT FINISHED

Answer: (D)

The time-independent Schrödinger equation can be written

Ĥψ = Eψ (10.124)

We can determine the energy of a quantum particle by regarding the classical nonrel-

ativistic relationship as an equality of expectation values.

* 2+

p

hHi = + hVi (10.125)

2m

FT

We can solve this through the substition of a momentum operator

~ ∂

p→ (10.126)

i ∂x

Substituting this into Equation 10.125 gives us

Z +∞ "

~ ∂2

#

hHi = ψ −

∗

ψ + V(x)ψ dx

RA

−∞ 2m ∂x2

Z +∞

∂

= ψ∗ i~ ψdx (10.127)

−∞ ∂t

So we can get a Hamiltonian operator

∂

H → i~ (10.128)

∂t

Answer: (B)

D

The Hall Effect describes the production of a potential difference across a current

carrying conductor that has been placed in a magnetic field. The magnetic field is

directed perpendicularly to the electrical current.

As a charge carrier, an electron, moves through the conductor, the Lorentz Force

will cause a deviation in the carge carrier’s motion so that more charges accumulate

in one location than another. This asymmetric distribution of charges produces an

electric field that prevents the build up of more electrons. This ‘equilibrium’ voltage

across the conductor is known as the Hall Voltage and remains as long as a current

flows through our conductor.

As the deflection and hence, the Hall Voltage, is determined by the sign of the

carrier, this can be used to measure the sign of charge carriers.

Debye and Einstein Theories to Specific Heat 89

An equilibrium condition is reached when the electric force, generated by the accu-

mulated charge carriers, is equal the the magnetic force, that causes the accumulation

of charge carriers. Thus

Fm = evd B Fe = eE (10.129)

The current through the conductor is

I = nAvd e (10.130)

For a conductor of width, w and thickness, d, there is a Hall voltage across the width

of the conductor. Thus the electrical force becomes

Fe = eE

EVH

= (10.131)

FT

w

The magnetic force is

BI

Fm = (10.132)

neA

Equation 10.131 is equal to Equation 10.132, thus

eVH BI

=

RA

w newd

BI

∴ VH = (10.133)

ned

So for a measured magnetic field and current, the sign of the Hall voltage gives is the

sign of the charge carrier.

Answer: (C)

D

The determination of the specific heat capacity was first deermined by the Law of

Dulong and Petite. This Law was based on Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and was

accurate in its predictions except in the region of low temperatures. At that point there

is a departure from prediction and measurements and this is where the Einstein and

Debye models come into play.

Both the Einstein and Debye models begin with the assumption that a crystal is

made up of a lattice of connected quantum harmonic oscillators; choice B.

The Einstein model makes three assumptions

90 GR8677 Exam Solutions

Einstein assumed a quantum oscillator model, similar to that of the black body radi-

ation problem. But despite its success, his theory predicted an exponential decress in

heat capacity towards absolute zero whereas experiments followed a T3 relationship.

This was solved in the Debye Model.

The Debye Model looks at phonon contribution to specific heat capacity. This

theory correctly predicted the T3 proportionality at low temperatures but suffered at

intemediate temperatures.

Answer: (B)

By applying Gauss’ Law and drawing a Gaussian surface inside the cube, we see that

no charge is enclosed and hence no electric field12 . We can realte the electric field to

FT

the potential

E = −∇V (10.134)

Where V is the potential.

Gauss’ Law shows that with no enclosed charge we have no electric field inside our

cube. Thus

E = −∇V = 0 (10.135)

As Equation 10.134 is equal to zero, the potential is the same throughout the cube.13

RA

Answer: (E)

As the charge particle oscillates, the electric field oscillates as well. As the field oscillates

and changes, we would expect this changing field to affect a distant charge. If we

consider a charge along the xy-plane, looking directly along the x-axis, we won’t “see”

the charge oscillating but we would see it clearly if we look down the y-axis. If we

were to visualize the field, it would look like a doughnut around the x-axis. Based on

D

Answer: (C)

D = 0 E + P (10.136)

∇ · D = 0 ∇ · E + ∇ · P

D ∇ · E

= − σp

κ

12

Draw Cube at potential V with Gaussian Surface enclosing no charge

13

As we expect there to be no Electric Field, we must expect the potential to be the same throughout

the space of the cube. If there were differences, a charge place inside the cube would move.

Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals 91

Answer: (E)14

Electrons belong to a group known as fermions15 and as a result obey the Pauli Exclu-

sion Principle16 . So in the case of a metal, there are many fermions present each with

a different set of quantum numbers. The electron with the highest energy state is has

an energy value known as the Fermi Energy.

NOT FINSIHED

Answer: (B)

FT

This is a definition question. The question states that for an operator Q,

Z +∞

hQi = ψ∗ Qψdx (10.137)

−∞

Answer: (C)

RA

10.57 Eigenfuction of Wavefunction

We are given the momentum operator as

∂

p = −i~ (10.138)

∂x

With an eigenvalue of ~k. We can do this by trying each solution and seeing if they

match17

∂ψ

= ~kψ

D

− i~ (10.139)

∂x

A: ψ = cos kx We expect ψ, to have the form of an exponential function. Substituting

this into the eigenfuntion, Equation 10.139, we have

∂

−i~ cos kx = −i~ (−k sin kx)

∂x

= i~k sin kx , ~kψ

ψ does not surive our differentiation and so we can eliminate it.

14

Check Polarization in Griffiths

15

Examples of fermions include electrons, protons and neutrons

16

The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two fermions may occupy the same quantum state

17

We can eliminate choices (A) & (B) as we would expect the answer to be an exponential function in

this case. These choices were just done for illustrative purposes and you should know to avoid them in

the exam.

92 GR8677 Exam Solutions

B: ψ = sin kx This is a similar case to the one above and we can eliminate for this

reason.

∂

−i~ sin kx = −i~ (k cos kx)

∂x

= −i~k cos kx , ~kψ

Again we see that ψ does not survive when we apply our operator and so we can

eliminate this choice as well.

∂ −ikx

−i~ e = −i~ −ike−ikx

∂x

= −~ke−ikx , ~kψ

FT

Close but we are off, so we can eliminate this choice as well.

D: ψ = exp ikx If the above choice didn’t work, this might be more likely to.

∂ ikx

−i~ e = −i~ ikeikx

∂x

= ~ke−ikx = ~kψ

RA

Success, this is our answer.

E: = ψ = exp −kx

∂ −kx

−i~ e = −i~ −ke−kx

∂x

= −i~ke−kx , ~kψ

Again this choice does not work, so we can eliminate this as well

Answer: (D)

D

10.58 Holograms

The hologram is an image that produces a 3-dimensional image using both the Am-

plitude and Phase of a wave. Coherent, monochromatic light, such as from a laser, is

split into two beams. The object we wish to “photograph” is placed in the path of the

illumination beam and the scattered light falls on the recording medium. The second

beam, the reference beam is reflected unimpeded to the recording medium and these

two beams produces an interference pattern.

The intensity of light recorded on our medium is the same as the scattered light from

our object. The interference pattern is a result of phase changes as light is scattered off

our object. Thus choices (I) and (II) are true.

Answer: (B)

Group Velocity of a Wave 93

10.59 Group Velocity of a Wave

We are given the dispersion relationship of a wave as

12

ω2 = c2 k2 + m2 (10.140)

The Group Velocity of a Wave is

dω

vg = (10.141)

dk

By differentiating Equation 10.140 with respect to k, we can determine th group velocity

2ωdω = 2c2 kdk

dω c2 k

⇒ =

dk ω

FT

c2 k

= √ (10.142)

c2 k2 + m2

We want to examine the cases as k → 0 and k → ∞.

As k → 0, we have

dω c2 0

= √

dk 0 + m2

=0 (10.143)

RA

As k → ∞, c2 k2 >> m2 the denominator becomes

√

c2 k2 + m ≈ c2 k2 (10.144)

Replacing the denominator for our group velocity gives

dω c2 k

= =c (10.145)

dk ck

Answer: (E)

D

We are given a potential energy of

V(x) = a + bx2 (10.146)

We can determine the mass’s spring constant, k, from V 00 (x)

V 00 (x) = 2b = k (10.147)

The angular frequency, ω, is

k 2b

ω2 = = (10.148)

m m

We see this is dependent on b and m.

Answer: (C)

94 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.61 Rocket Equation I

We recall from the rocket equation that u in this case is the speed of the exaust gas

relative to the rocket.

Answer: (E)

The rocket equation is

dv dm

m +u =0 (10.149)

dt dt

Solving this equation becomes

mdv = udm

FT

Z v Z m

dm

dv = u

0 m0 m

m

v = u ln (10.150)

m0

This fits none of the answers given.

Answer: (E)

RA

10.63 Surface Charge Density

This question was solved as ‘The Classic Image Problem’[2]. Below is an alternative

method but the principles are the same. Instead of determining the electrical potential,

as was done by Griffiths, we will find the electrical field of a dipole and determine the

surface charge density using

σ

E= (10.151)

0

D

Our point charge, −q will induce a +q on the grounded conducting plane. The

resulting electrical field will be due to a combination of the real charge and the ‘virtual’

induced charge. Thus

E = −E y ĵ = (E− + E+ ) ĵ

= 2E− ĵ (10.152)

Remember the two charges are the same, so at any point along the x-axis, or rather our

grounded conductor, the electrical field contributions from both charges will be the

same. Thus

q d

E− = cos θ where cos θ =

4πr2 r

qd

= (10.153)

4π0 r3

Maximum Power Theorem 95

Our total field becomes

2qd

E= (10.154)

4π0 r3

You may recognize that 2qd is the electrical dipole moment. Now, putting Equa-

tion 10.154 equal to Equation 10.151 gives us

σ qd

= (10.155)

0 2π0 r3

where r = D, we get

qd

σ= (10.156)

2πD2

FT

Answer: (C)

We are given the impedance of our generator

RA

Z g = R g + jX g (10.157)

For the maximum power to be transmitted, the maximum power theorem states that the

load impedance must be equal to the complex conjugate of the generator’s impedance.

Z g = Z∗` (10.158)

Thus

D

Z` = R g + jX`

= R g − jX g (10.159)

Answer: (C)

Loop

The Biot-Savart Law is

µ0 i d` × r̂

dB = (10.160)

4π r3

96 GR8677 Exam Solutions

Let θ be the angle between the radius, b and the radius vector, r, we get

µ0 i rd` cos θ b

B= 3

where cos θ =

4π r r

mu0 i d` cos θ

=

4π r2

µ0 i bd` √

= where r = b2 + h2

4π r3

µ0 i bd`

= where d` = b · dθ

4π (b2 + h2 ) 32

Z2π

µ0i b2

= · dθ

4π (b2 + h2 ) 23

0

FT

µ0 i b 2

= (10.161)

2 (b2 + h2 ) 32

we see that

B ∝ ib2 (10.162)

Answer: (B)

RA

10.66 Maxwell’s Relations

To derive the Maxwell’s Relations we begin with the thermodynamic potentials

First Law

dU = TdS − PdV (10.163)

Entalpy

D

H = E + PV

∴ dH = TdS + VdP (10.164)

F = E − TS

∴ dF = −SdT − PdV (10.165)

G = E − TS + PV

∴ dG = −SdT + VdP (10.166)

Partition Functions 97

All of these differentials are of the form

∂z ∂z

! !

dz = dx + dy

∂x y

∂y x

= Mdx + Ndy

For the variables listed, we choose Equation 10.163 and applying the above condition

we get

∂U ∂U

! !

T= P= (10.167)

∂S V ∂V S

Thus taking the inverse of T, gives us

∂S

!

1

= (10.168)

∂U

FT

T V

Answer: (E)

NOT FINISHED

RA

10.68 Particle moving at Light Speed

Answer: (A)

We are given the car’s length in its rest frame to be L0 = 5 meters and its Lorentz

Contracted length to be L = 3 meters. We can determine the speed from Equation 8.3

D

r

v2

L = L0 1 − 2

c

2

3 v2

=1− 2

5 c

4

⇒v= c (10.169)

5

Answer: (C)

As the car approaches the garage, the driver will notice that things around him, in-

cluding the garage, are length contracted. We have calculated that the speed that

98 GR8677 Exam Solutions

he is travelling at to be, v = 0.8c, in the previous section. We again use the Length

Contraction formula, Equation 8.3, to solve this question.

!

v2

Lg = Lg 1 − 2

0

c

= 4 1 − 0.82

= 2.4 meters (10.170)

Answer: (A)

This is more of a conceptual question. What happens depends on whose frame of

FT

reference you’re in.

Answer: (E)

No special knowledge is needed but a little knowledge always helps. You can start by

eliminating choices when in doubt.

RA

Choice A NOT TRUE Relativity says nothing about whether light is in a vacuum or

not. If anything, this choice goes against the postulates of Special Relativity. The

laws of Physics don’t change in vacuum.

Choice B NOT TRUE. X-rays can “transmit” signals or energy; any waveform can

once it is not distorted too much during propagation.

Choice C NOT TRUE. Photons have zero rest mass. Though the tachyon, a hypothet-

ical particle, has imaginary mass. This allows it to travel faster than the speed or

light though they don’t violate the principles of causality.

D

Choice D NOT TRUE. How or when we discover physical theories has no bearing

on observed properties or behavior; though according to some it may seem so at

times18

Choice E The phase and group speeds can be different. The phase velocity is the rate at

which the crests of the wave propagate or the rate at which the phase of the wave

is moving. The group speed is the rate at which the envelope of the waveform

18

There is a quote by Douglas Adams[3],

There is a theory which states that is ever anyone discovers exactly what the Universe is

for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more

bizarre and inexplicable.

There is another which states this has already happened.

So maybe the order in which discoveries are made matters. Who am I to question Douglas Adams?

Thin Flim Non-Reflective Coatings 99

is moving or rather it’s the rate at which the amplitude varies in the waveform.

We can use this principle of n < 1 materials to create X-ray mirrors using “total

external reflection”.

Answer: (E)

To analyze this system, we consider our lens with refractive index, n3 , being coated by

our non-reflective coating of refractive index, n2 , and thickness, t, in air with refractive

index, n1 , where

n1 < n2 < n3 (10.171)

As our ray of light in air strikes the first boundary, the coating, it moves from a less

FT

optically dense medium to a more optically dense one. At the point where it reflects,

there will be a phase change in the reflected wave. The transmitted wave goes through

without a phase change.

The refracted ray passes through our coating to strike our glass lens, which is

optically more dense than our coating. As a result there will be a phase change in

our reflected ray. Destructive interference occurs when the optical path difference, 2t,

occurs in half-wavelengths multiples. So

1 λ

RA

2t = m + (10.172)

2 n2

where m = 0; 1; 2; 3. The thinnest possible coating occurs at m = 0. Thus

1λ

t= (10.173)

4 n2

We need a non-reflective coating that has an optical thicknes of a quarter wavelength.

Answer: (A)

D

The Law of Malus states that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam

of light, the intensity I, is given by

I = I0 cos2 θ (10.174)

where θ is the angle between the light’s plane of polarization and the axis of the

polarizer. A beam of light can be considered to be a uniform mix of plane polarization

angles and the average of this is

Z 2π

I = I0 cos2 θ

0

1

= I0 (10.175)

2

100 GR8677 Exam Solutions

So the maximum fraction of transmitted power through all three polarizers becomes

3

1 I0

I3 = = (10.176)

2 8

Answer: (B)

We can relate the period or the angluar velocity of a satellite and Newton’s Law of

Gravitation 2

2π GMm

mRω = mR

2

= (10.177)

T R2

where M is the mass of the Earth, m is the satellite mass and RE is the orbital radius.

FT

From this we can get a relationship between the radius of orbit and its period, which

you may recognize as Kepler’s Law.

R3 ∝ T2 (10.178)

We can say

R3E ∝ (80)2 (10.179)

R3S ∝ (24 × 60) 2

(10.180)

RA

(10.181)

Dividing Equation 10.180 and Equation 10.181, gives

24 × 60 2

3

RS

=

RE 80

RS = 18 RE

3 2 3

(10.182)

Answer: (B)

D

As the hoop rolls down the inclined plane, its gravitational potential energy is con-

verted to translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy

1 1

Mgh = Mv2 + Iω2 (10.183)

2 2

Recall that v = ωR, Equation 10.183 becomes

1 1

MgH = MR2 ω2 + MR2 ω2 (10.184)

2 2

Solving for ω leaves

! 12

gh

ω= 2 (10.185)

R

Simple Harmonic Motion 101

The angular momentum is

L = Iω (10.186)

Substituting Equation 10.185 gives us

!1

gh 2

L = MR 2

R

p

= MR gh (10.187)

Answer: (A)

FT

We are told that a particle obeys Hooke’s Law, where

F = −kx (10.188)

k

mẍ − kx where ω2 =

m

RA

where

x = A sin ωt + φ (10.189)

and ẋ = ωA cos ωt + φ (10.190)

1

= sin ωt + φ (10.191)

2

We can show that √

3

cos ωt + φ = (10.192)

D

2

Substituting this into Equation 10.190 gives

√

3

ẋ = 2π f A ·

√ 2

= 3π f A (10.193)

Amswer: (B)

We are told three things

102 GR8677 Exam Solutions

2. one particle has non-zero speed and hence kinetic energy.

The total energy of the system is

= 0 + (KE > 0)

>0 (10.194)

Applying the three condition, we expect the total energy to be positive and constant.

Answer: (C)

FT

You may have heard several things about the ∇·B = 0 equation in Maxwell’s Laws. One

of them is there being no magnetic monopoles or charges. There are some implications

to this. No charge implies that the amount of field lines that enter a Gaussian surface

must be equal to the amount of field lines that leave. So using this principle we know

from the electric form of this law we can get an answer to this question.

Choice A The number of field lines that enter is the same as the number that leaves.

So this does not violate the above law.

RA

Choice B Again we see that the number of field lines entering is the same as the

number leaving.

Choice D In this case, we see that the field lines at the edge of the Gaussian Surface

are all leaving; no field lines enter the surface. This is also what we’d expect the

field to look like for a region bounded by a magnetic monopole.

Choice E The field loops in on itself, so the total number of field lines is zero. This fits

D

Answer: (D)

To determine an electric field that could exist in a region of space with no charges we

turn to Gauss’ Law.

∇·E=0 (10.195)

or rather

∂ ∂ ∂

Ex + E y + Ez = 0 (10.196)

∂x ∂y ∂z

So we analyze each choice in turn to get our answer.

Biot-Savart Law 103

Choice A

E = 2xyî − xyk̂

∂ ∂

∇·E= 2xy + (−xz)

∂x ∂z

= 2y + x , 0 (10.197)

Choice B

E = −xy jˆ + xzk̂

∂ ∂

∇·E= (−xy) + xz

∂y ∂z

= −x + x = 0 (10.198)

Choice C

∇·E=

FT

E = xzî + xz jˆ

∂

∂x

=z+0,0

xz +

∂y

∂

xz

(10.199)

RA

Choice D

ˆ

E = xyz(î + j)

∂ ∂

∇·E= xyz + xyz

∂x ∂y

= yz + xz , 0 (10.200)

Choice E

D

E = xyzî

∂

∇·E= xyz

∂x

= yz , 0 (10.201)

Answer: (B)

We can determine the magnetic field produced by our outer wire from the Biot-Savart

Law

µ0 d` × r

dB = (10.202)

4π r3

104 GR8677 Exam Solutions

As our radius and differential length vectors are orthogonal, the magnetic field works

out to be

µ0 d`r

dB = I

4π r3

µ0 I rdθ

= ·

4π r2

µ0 I

Z 2π

B= dθ

4πr 0

µ0 I

= (10.203)

2b

We know from Faraday’s Law, a changing magnetic flux induces a EMF,

FT

dΦ

E = (10.204)

dt

where Φ = BA. The magnetic flux becomes

µ0 I

Φ= · πa2 (10.205)

2b

The induced EMF becomes

RA

µ0 π

!

a2 dI

E =

2 b dt

µ0 π

!

a2

= ωI0 sin ωt (10.206)

2 b

Answer: (B)

D

gases

Another knowledge based question best answered by the process of elimination.

spectral emissions. This experiment, performed by O. Stern and W. Gerlach

in 1922 studies the behavior of a beam atoms being split in two as they pass

through a non-uniform magnetic field.

Stark Effect The Stark Effect deals with the shift in spectral lines in the presence of

electrical fields; not in magnetic fields.

Nuclear Magnetic Moments of atoms Close, the splitting seen in the Stern-Gerlach

Experiment is due to this. Emission spectrum typically deals with electrons and

so we would expect it to deal with electrons on some level.

Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases 105

Emission lines are split in two Closer but still not accurate. There is splitting but in

some cases it may be more than two.

Emission lines are greater or equal than in the absence of the magnetic field This we

know to be true.

The difference in the emission spectrum of a gas in a magnetic field is due to the

Zeeman effect.

Answer: (E)

Gases

FT

We expect the spectral lines to be broader in a high density gas and narrower in a low

density gas ue to the increased colissions between the molecules. Atomic collisions

add another mechanism to transfer energy.[4]

Answer: (C)

RA

To determine the term symbol for the sodium ground state, we start with the electronic

configuration. This is easy as they have given us the number of electrons the element

has thus allowing us to fill sub-shells using the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We get

We are most interested in the 3s1 sub-shell and can ignore the rest of the filled sub-

shells. As we only have one valence electron then ms = +1/2. Now we can calculate

the total spin quantum number, S. As there is only one unpaired electron,

D

1

S= (10.208)

2

Now we can calculate the total angular momentum quantum number, J = L + S. As

the 3s sub-shell is half filled then

L=0 (10.209)

This gives us

1

J= (10.210)

2

and as L = 0 then we use the symbol S. Thus our term equation becomes

2

S 12 (10.211)

Answer: (B)

106 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.85 Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb

Check Brehm p. 789

Answer: (B)

Gauss’ law is equivalent to Coulomb’s Law because Coulomb’s Law is an inverse

square law; testing one is a valid test of the other. Much of our knowledge of the

consequences of the inverse square law came from the study of gravity. Jason Priestly

knew that there is no gravitational field within a spherically symmetrical mass distri-

bution. It was suspected that was the same reason why a charged cork ball inside a

charged metallic container isn’t attracted to the walls of a container.

FT

Answer: (E)

To answer this question, we will turn to the equipartition of energy equation

!

f

cv = R (10.212)

RA

2

where f is the number of degrees of freedom. In the case of Model I, we see that So the

Translational 3 3

Rotational 2 2

Vibrational 0 2

D

Total 5 7

5 7

cvI = Nk cvII = Nk

2 2

Now we can go about choosing our answer

Choice A From our above calculations, we see that cvI = 5/2Nk. So this choice is

WRONG.

Choice B Again, our calculations show that the specific heat for Model II is larger than

than of Model I. This is due to the added degrees of freedom (vibrational) that it

possesses. So this choice is WRONG.

Fermion and Boson Pressure 107

C & D They both contradict the other and they both contradict Choice (E).

of freedom between our diatomic molecule.

Answer: (E)

To answer this question, we must understand the differences between fermions and

bosons. Fermions follow Fermi-Dirac statistics and their behavior is obey the Pauli

Exclusion Principle. Basically, this states that no two fermions may have the same

quantum state. Bosons on the other hand follow Bose-Einstein statistics and several

bosons can occupy the same quantum state.

FT

As the temperature of a gas drops, the particles are going to fill up the available

energy states. In the case of fermions, as no two fermions can occupy the same state,

then these particles will try to occupy all the energy states it can until the highest is

filled. Bosons on the other hand can occupy the same state, so they will all ‘group’

together for the lowest they can. Classically, we don’t pay attention to this grouping,

so based on our analyis, we expect,

RA

where PB is the boson pressure, PC is the pressure with no quantum effects taking place

and PF to be the fermion pressure.

Answer: (B)

We are given the wavefunction of two identical particles,

1 h i

ψ = √ ψα (x1 )ψβ (x2 ) + ψβ (x1 )ψα (x2 )

D

(10.214)

2

Symmetric functions obey Bose-Einstein statistics and are known as bosons[6, 7, 8].

Upon examination of our choices, we see that19

electrons fermion

positrons fermion

protons fermion

19

You could have easily played the ‘one of thes things is not like the other...’ game

108 GR8677 Exam Solutions

neutron fermion

deutrons Boson

Incidentally, a anti-symmetric function takes the form,

1 h i

ψ = √ ψα (x1 )ψβ (x2 ) − ψβ (x1 )ψα (x2 ) (10.216)

2

ψαβ (x2 , x1 ) = −ψαβ (x1 , x2 ) (10.217)

These obey Fermi-Dirac Statistics and are known as fermions.

Answer: (E)

FT

10.90 Energy Eigenstates

We may recognize this wavefunction from studying the particle in an infinite well

problem and see this is the n = 2 wavefunction. We know that

En = n2 E0 (10.218)

RA

1

E0 = E2

n2

2

= eV

4

1

= eV (10.219)

2

Answer: (C)

D

We recall Bragg’s Law

2d sin θ = nλ (10.220)

Plugging in what we know, we determine λ to be

λ = 2(3Å)(sin 30)

= 2(3Å)(0.5)

= 3Å (10.221)

h

p= (10.222)

λ

Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions 109

We get

h

mv =

λ

h

⇒v=

mλ

6.63 × 10−34

= (10.223)

(9.11 × 10−31 )(3 × 10( − 10))

We can determine the order of our answer by looking at the relevant indices

FT

Answer: (D)

The selection rules for an electric dipole transition are[9]

RA

∆m` = 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number

∆ms = 0 Secondary spin quantum number,

∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum

We have no selection rules for spin, ∆s, so we can eliminate this choice.

Answer: (D)

D

W =F×x (10.225)

We can relate this to the power of the sander; power is the rate at which work is done.

So

dW

P=

dt

dx

= F = Fv (10.226)

dt

The power of the sander can be calculated

P = VI (10.227)

110 GR8677 Exam Solutions

where V and I are the voltage across and the current through the sander. By equating

the Mechanical Power, Equation 10.226 and the Electrical Power, Equation 10.227, we

can determine the force that the motor exerts on the belt.

VI

F=

v

120 × 9

=

10

= 108 N (10.228)

F − µR = 0 (10.229)

where R is the normal force of the sander pushing against the wood. Thus the coefficient

of friction is

FT

F 108

µ= = = 1.08 (10.230)

R 100

Answer: (D)

10.94 RL Circuits

When the switch, S, is closed, a magnetic field builds up within the inductor and the

RA

inductor stores energy. The charging of the inductor can be derived from Kirchoff’s

Rules.

dI

E − IR − L = 0 (10.231)

dt

and the solution to this is

R1 t

I(t) = I0 1 − exp (10.232)

L

where the time constant, τ1 = L/R1 .

We can find the voltage across the resistor, R1 , by multiplying the above by R1 ,

D

giving us

R1 t

V(t) = R1 · I0 1 − exp

L

R1 t

= E 1 − exp (10.233)

L

The potential at A can be found by measuring the voltage across the inductor. Given

that

E − VR1 − VL = 0

∴ VL = E − VR1

R1 t

= E exp (10.234)

L

Carnot Cycles 111

This we know to be an exponential decay and (fortunately) limits our choices to either

(A) or (B)20

The story doesn’t end here. If the inductor was not present, the voltage would

quickly drop and level off to zero but with the inductor present, a change in current

means a change in magnetic flux; the inductor opposes this change. We would expect

to see a reversal in the potential at A. Since both (A) and (B) show this flip, we need to

think some more.

The energy stored by the inductor is

1 2 1 E 2

UL = LI0 = L (10.235)

2 2 R1

With S opened, the inductor is going to dump its energy across R2 and assuming that

the diode has negligible resistance, all of this energy goes to R2 . Thus

FT

!2

1 VR2

U= L (10.236)

2 R2

The above two equations are equal, thus

E VR2

=

R1 R2

VR2 = 3E (10.237)

RA

We expect the potential at A to be larger when S is opened. Graph (B) fits this choice.

Answer: B

The Carnot Cycle is made up of two isothermal transformations, KL and MN, and two

adiabatic transformations, LM and NK. For isothermal transformations, we have

D

PV γ = a constant (10.239)

where γ = CP /CV .

For the KL transformation, dU = 0.

Q2 = WK→L

Z VL

∴ WK→L = PdV

VK

VK

= nRT2 ln (10.240)

VL

20

If you get stuck beyond this point, you can guess. The odds are now in your favor.

112 GR8677 Exam Solutions

For the LM transformation,

γ γ

PL VL = PM VM (10.241)

For the MN transformation, dU = 0.

Q1 = WM→N

Z VN

∴ WM→N = PdV

VM

VN

= nRT1 ln (10.242)

VM

For the NK transformation,

γ γ

PN VN = PK VK (10.243)

Dividing Equation 10.241 and Equation 10.243, gives

γ γ

FT

PL VL PM VM

γ = γ

PK VK PN VN

VL VM

∴ = (10.244)

VK VN

The effeciency of an engine is defined

Q1

η=1− (10.245)

Q2

RA

We get

Q1 −WM→N

η=1− =1−

Q2 W

K→L

VM

nRT1 ln VN

=1−

nRT2 ln VK

VL

T1

=1− (10.246)

T2

1. We see that

D

Q1 T1

1− =1−

Q2 T2

Q1 T1

∴ = (10.247)

Q2 T2

Thus choice (A) is true.

2. Heat moves from the hot reservoir and is converted to work and heat. Thus

Q2 = Q1 + W (10.248)

The entropy change from the hot reservoir

dQ2

S= (10.249)

T

As the hot reservoir looses heat, the entropy decreases. Thus choice (B) is true.

First Order Perturbation Theory 113

3. For a reversible cycle, there is no net heat flow over the cycle. The change in

entropy is defined by Calusius’s Theorem.

I

dQ

=0 (10.250)

T

We see that the entropy of the system remains the same. Thus choice (C) is false.

W

η= (10.251)

Q2

This becomes

Q1

η=1−

Q2

FT

Q2 − Q1

= (10.252)

Q2

Thus W = Q2 − Q1 . So choice (D) is true,

5. The effeciency is based on an ideal gas and has no relation to the substance used.

So choice (E) is also true.

Answer: (C)

RA

10.96 First Order Perturbation Theory

Perturbation Theory is a procedure for obtaining approximate solutions for a perturbed

state by studying the solutions of the unperturbed state[10]. We can, and shouldn’t,

calculate this in the exam.

We can get the first order correction to be ebergy eigenvalue[11]

0

E1n = hψ0n |H |ψ0n i (10.253)

D

From there we can get the first order correction to the wave function

X hψ0 |H0 |ψ0 i

m n

ψ1n = 0 0

(10.254)

m,n

En − Em

ψ1n = c(n)

m ψm

0

(10.255)

m,n

you may recognize this as a Fourier Series and this will help you knowing that the

perturbing potential is one period of a saw tooth wave. And you may recall that the

Fourier Series of a saw tooth wave form is made up of even harmonics.

Answer: (B)21

21

Griffiths gives a similar problem in his text[12]

114 GR8677 Exam Solutions

10.97 Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular

Momentum

As the disk moves, it possessed both angular and linear momentums. We can not

exactly add these two as they, though similar, are quite different beasts. But we can

define a linear angular motion with respect to some origin. As the two discs hit each

other, they fuse. This slows the oncoming disc. We can calculate the linear angular

momentum

L=r×p (10.256)

where p is the linear momentum and r is the distance from the point P to the center of

disc I. This becomes

Lv0 = MR × v0

FT

= −MRv0 (10.257)

The Rotational Angular Momentum is

Adding Equation 10.258 and Equation 10.257 gives the total angular momentum.

RA

L = Lω0 + Lv0

= Iω0 − MRv0

1 1

= MR2 ω0 − MR2 ω0

2 2

=0

Answer: (A)

D

We have charge uniformly distributed along the glass rod. It’s linear charge density is

Q dQ

λ= = (10.259)

` dx

The Electric Potential is defined

q

V(x) = (10.260)

4π0 x

We can ‘slice’ our rod into infinitesimal slices and sum them to get the potential of the

rod.

1 λdx

dV = (10.261)

4π0 x

Ground State of a Positronium Atom 115

We assume that the potential at the end of the rod, x = ` is V = 0 and at some point

away from the rod, x, the potential is V. So

Z V Z x

λ dx

dV =

0 4π0 ` x

λ x

= ln (10.262)

4π0 `

Where x = 2`, Equation 10.262 becomes

Q 1 2`

V= ln

` 4π0 `

Q 1

= ln 2 (10.263)

` 4π0

FT

Answer: (D)

Positronium consists of an electron and a positron bound together to form an “exotic”

atom. As the masses of the electron and positron are the same, we must use a reduced-

mass correction factor to determine the enrgy levels of this system.22 . The reduced

RA

mass of the system is

1 1 1

= + (10.264)

µ me mp

Thus /mu is

me · mp

µ=

me + mp

me

= (10.265)

2

The ground state of the Hydrogen atom, in terms of the reduced mass is

D

µ

E1 = − E0

me

1

= − E0 (10.266)

2

where E0 = 13.6 eV.

Answer: (B)

A pinhole camera is simply a camera with no lens and a very small aperature. Light

passes through this hole to produce an inverted image on a screen. For the photography

22

Place cite here

116 GR8677 Exam Solutions

buffs among you, you know that by varying the size of a camera’s aperature can

accomplish various things; making the aperature bigger allows more light to enter and

produces a “brighter” picture while making the aperature smaller produces a sharper

image.

In the case of the pinhole camera, making the pinhole, or aperature, smaller pro-

duces a sharper image because it reduces “image overlap”. Think of a large hole as

a set of tiny pinholes places close to each other. This results in an infinite amount of

images overlapping each other and hence a blurry image. So to produce a sharp image,

it is best to use the smallest pinhole possible, the tradeoff being an image that’s not as

“bright”.

There are limits to the size of our pinhole. We can not say, for example, use an

infinitely small pinhole the produce the sharpest possible image. Beyond some point

diffraction effects take place and will ruin our image.

Consider a pinhole camera of length, D, with a pinhole of diameter, d. We know

FT

how much a beam of light will be diffracted through this pinhole by23

d sin θ = mλ (10.267)

this is the equation for the diffraction of a single slit. As θ is small and we will consider

first order diffraction effects, Equation 10.267 becomes

dθ = λ

λ

⇒θ= (10.268)

d

RA

The “size” of this spread out image is

y = 2θD

2λD

= (10.269)

d

So the ‘blur’ of our resulting image is

B= y−d

2λD

= −d (10.270)

d

D

We can see that we want to reduce y as much as possible. i.e. make it d. So Equa-

tion 10.270 becomes

2λD

0= −d

d

2λD

∴ =d

d √

Thus d = 2λD (10.271)

So we’d want a pinhole of that size to produce or sharpest image possible. This result

is close to the result that Lord Rayleigh used, which worked out to be

√

d = 1.9 Dλ (10.272)

Answer: (A)

23

Add image of pinhole camera

Appendix A

FT

A.1 Constants

Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.99 × 108 m/s

Gravitational Constant G 6.67 × 10−11 m3 /kg.s2

Rest Mass of the electron me 9.11 × 10−31 kg

RA

Avogadro’s Number NA 6.02 × 1023 mol-1

Universal Gas Constant R 8.31 J/mol.K

Boltzmann’s Constant k 1.38 × 10−23 J/K

Electron charge e 1.60 × 10−9 C

Permitivitty of Free Space 0 8.85 × 10−12 C2 /N.m2

Permeability of Free Space µ0 4π × 10−7 T.m/A

Athmospheric Pressure 1 atm 1.0 × 105 M/m2

Bohr Radius a0 0.529 × 10−10 m

D

A · (B × C) = B · (C × A) = C · (A × B) (A.1)

A × (B × C) = B (A · C) − C (A · B) (A.2)

118 Constants & Important Equations

A.2.2 Product Rules

∇ f g = f ∇g + g ∇ f

(A.3)

∇ (A · B) = A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) + (A · ∇) B + (B · ∇) A (A.4)

∇ · f A = f (∇ · A) + A · ∇ f

(A.5)

∇ · (A × B) = B · (∇ × A) − A · (∇ × B) (A.6)

∇ × f A = f (∇ × A) − A × ∇ f

(A.7)

∇ × (A × B) = (B · ∇) A − (A · ∇) B + A (∇ · B) − B (∇ · A) (A.8)

∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (A.9)

∇ × ∇f = 0

FT

(A.10)

∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇ (∇ · A) − ∇2 A (A.11)

A.3 Commutators

A.3.1 Lie-algebra Relations

RA

[A, A] = 0 (A.12)

[A, B] = −[B, A] (A.13)

[A, [B, C]] + [B, [C, A]] + [C, [A, B]] = 0 (A.14)

[x, p] = i~ (A.15)

D

(

0 if m , n;

δmn =

1 if m = n;

For a wave function Z

ψm (x)∗ ψn (x)dx = δmn (A.16)

A.4.1 Vectors

Vector Addition

The sum of two vectors is another vector

|αi + |βi = |γi (A.17)

Linear Algebra 119

Commutative

|αi + |βi = |βi + |αi (A.18)

Associative

|αi + |βi + |γi = |αi + |βi + |γi

(A.19)

Zero Vector

|αi + |0i = |αi (A.20)

Inverse Vector

|αi + | − αi = |0i (A.21)

FT

RA

D

120 Constants & Important Equations

FT

RA

D

Bibliography

[1] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter

11-6, pages 567–571. Wiley, first edition, 1989.

Prentice Hall, third edition, 1999.

FT

[3] Douglas Adams. The restaurant at the end of the universe.

[4] Wikipedia. Spectral line — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2009. [Online;

accessed 17-March-2009].

[5] Wikipedia. Term symbol — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2008. [Online;

accessed 22-March-2009].

RA

[6] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter

5-10, pages 283–287. Wiley, first edition, 1989.

[7] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter

11-1, pages 539–540. Wiley, first edition, 1989.

[8] David J. Griffiths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 5.1.1, pages 203–205.

Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.

[9] David J. Griffiths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 9.3.3, pages 359–362.

Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.

D

[10] David J. Griffiths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.1, page 249.

Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.

[11] David J. Griffiths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.2, pages 251–254.

Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.

[12] David J. Griffiths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.2, page 254.

Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.

Index

GR8677 Q39, 84 GR8677 Q09, 71

Angular Momentum, see Rotational Mo-

tion Dielectrics

Archimedes’ Principle, 23 GR8677 Q03, 68

Digital Circuits

Bernoulli’s Equation, 24 GR8677 Q38, 84

FT

Binding Energy Doppler Effect, 19

GR8677 Q41, 85 Drag Force

Bohr Model GR8677 Q01, 67

GR8677 Q19, 76

Hydrogen Model, 49 Elastic Colissions

GR8677 Q05, 69

Celestial Mechanics, 21 Electricity

Circular Orbits, 22 GR8677 Q24, 78

RA

Elliptical Orbit, 23 Electron Spin

Escape Speed, 22 GR8677 Q27, 79

Hyperbolic Orbit, 23 Electronic Configuration

Kepler’s Laws, 22 GR8677 Q30, 81

Newton’s Law of Gravitation, 21 Elliptic Orbits, see Orbits

Orbits, 22 Energy

Parabolic Orbit, 23 Kinectic Energy, 15

Potential Energy, 22 Potential Energy, 15

Vis-viva Equation, 23 Work-Energy Theorem, 15

Center of Mass, see System of Particles Equation of Continuity, 24

D

Cetripetal Motion

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

GR8677 Q06, 70

GR8677 Q29, 81

Circular Orbits, see Celestial Mechanics

Fluid Dynamics, 23

Commutators, 118

Archimedes’ Principle, 23

Canonical Commutators, 118

Bernoulli’s Equation, 24

Kronecker Delta Function, 118

Equation of Continuity, 24

Lie-algebra Relations, 118

Franck-Hertz Experiment, 55

Compton Effect, 52

GR8677 Q47, 87

Compton Wavelength

GR8677 Q45, 87 Gauss’ Law

Conductivity GR8677 Q10, 72

GR8677 Q23, 78 Gravitation, see Celestial Mechanics

Counting Statistics, 65

GR8677 Q40, 84 Hall Effect

Index 123

GR8677 Q50, 88 Parabolic Orbit, 23

Hamiltonian, 24 Oscillatory Motion, 16

GR8677 Q35, 83 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators, 17

Hooke’s Law, 15 GR8677 Q43, 85

Potential Energy of a Spring, 15 Damped Motion, 16

Hyperbolic Orbits, see Orbits Kinetic Energy, 16

Potential Energy, 16

Interference Simple Harmonic Motion Equation, 16

GR8677 Q13, 73 Small Oscillations, 17

Total Energy, 16

Kepler’s Laws, see Celestial Mechanics

Kinematics Parabolic Orbits, see Orbits

Circular Motion, 13 Parallel Axis Theorem, see Rotational Mo-

Linear Motion, 13 tion

Kronecker Delta Function, 118

FT

Particle Physics

Laboratory Methods Muon

GR8677 Q40, 84 GR8677 Q16, 75

Lagrangian, 24 Photoelectric Effect

Linear Algebra, 118 GR8677 Q31, 82

Vectors, 118 GR8677 Q32, 82

Lorentz Force Law GR8677 Q33, 82

GR8677 Q25, 78 Potential Energy, see Energy

RA

Lorentz Transformation GR8677 Q34, 82

GR8677 Q22, 77 Potential Energy of a Spring, see Hooke’s

Law

Maximum Power Theorem Principle of Least Action

GR8677 Q64, 95 GR8677 Q36, 83

Maxwell’s Laws Probability

GR8677 Q11, 73 GR8677 Q15, 74

Mechanics

GR8677 Q07, 70 Rolling Kinetic Energy, see Rotational Mo-

GR8677 Q08, 71 tion

Rotational Kinetic Energy, see Rotational

D

GR8677 Q37, 83

Moment of Inertia, see Rotational Motion Motion

Rotational Motion, 20

Newton’s Law of Gravitation, see Celestial Angular Momentum, 20

Mechanics Moment of Inertia, 20

Newton’s Laws, 14 Parallel Axis Theorem, 20

Impulse, 14 Rolling Kinetic Energy, 21

Momentum, 14 Rotational Kinetic Energy, 20

Nuclear Physics Torque, 20

Radioactive Decay

GR8677 Q17, 75 Satellite Orbits

GR8677 Q02, 68

Orbits Schrödinger’s Equation

Elliptical Orbit, 23 GR8677 Q18, 75

Hyperbolic Orbit, 23 Space-Time Interval

124 Index

GR8677 Q21, 77

Special Relativity

Doppler Shift

GR8677 Q12, 73

Energy

GR8677 Q20, 76

Specific Heat

GR8677 Q14, 73

Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation, 40

GR8677 Q46, 87

System of Particles, 21

Center of Mass, 21

FT

GR8677 Q73, 99

Torque, see Rotational Motion

Product Rules, 118

Second Derivatives, 118

Triple Products, 117

Vis-viva Equation, 23

RA

Wave Equation

GR8677 Q04, 68

Wave function

GR8677 Q28, 81

Work

Constant Force, 15

Work-Energy Theorem, see Energy

X-Rays

GR8677 Q26, 79

D