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Indonesian Journal of Education Methods Development

Vol 9 (2020): February


Educational Organization Research

The Effects of Total Quality Management


and school climate on Academic
Performance of Students in Pakistan
Waqas Mahmood Universiti Utara Malaysia
Siti Noor Ismail Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohd Sofian Omar- Fauzee Universiti Utara Malaysia

Quality of education prepares one to meet the challenges in the society and therefore, become
economically productive, contribute to peaceful and independent societies and enhance
individual well-being. In recent years, TQM and school climate has received worldwide
attention and been adopted in many educational institutions, particularly in developed
countries. However, in developing countries the amount of research is scarce into successful
implementation of TQM and school climate. This study aims to investigate the relationships,
between TQM and school climate with the key dimension of teachers’ student’s relationship,
decision making, collaborative, teaching innovation and school resources to achieve high
school performance. The purpose of this study is to highlight the concept of TQM in the field
of educational institutions to achieve the quality in education. In order to understand the
issue, this conceptual paper reviewed several published research papers and identify the TQM
and school climate dimensions to make a conceptual framework. The main objective of this
paper is to focus on the effects of total quality management on students’ academic
achievement of secondary school students in Pakistan with better school climate.

Introduction
TQM was introduced by Deming (1989) and Juran (1986) as a management philosophy that
emphasize the quality of work. TQM refers to continuous improvement, customer satisfaction,
teamwork and a robust ambition to boost the real self (Osayawe Ehigie & Clement Akpan, 2004).
According to Frazier (1997), TQM is a tool or method should be used towards improving the quality
of education as a fundamental and theories of TQM can be adapted and implemented in the
educational system. Moreover, TQM is a management practices that enable organizations in
achieving success and excellence. TQM practices are valuable for the organization as well as it
provides benefit to the customer so they can enjoy quality output, especially through savings costs
and increase operational efficiency.

TQM has a strong influence and impact in educational organizations (Venkatraman, 2007) while the
characteristics of excellence in education system has a close relationship with total quality
management approach. Furthermore, Ali and Rizvi (2007) have suggested quality management
approach thoroughly into the primary education system to achieve educational excellence.
Moreover, many researchers (Bath, Smith, Stein, & Swann, 2004; Peat, Taylor, & Franklin, 2005)
felt that the principles of TQM can contribute precisely towards the improvement of higher
education, especially in formation of curriculum.

The significance of school climate was first acknowledged by Arthur Perry. He published a book
named “Management of a City School” and recognized the importance of quality learning
environment (Perry, 1908). Many researchers conceptualize school climate as the attitudes, shared
beliefs and values that build a relationship between students and adults and create a suitable
manners and standards for the school (Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997; Koth, 2011).
Furthermore, Freiberg and Stein (1999) defined school climate as “the heart and soul of the school.

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It is about that essence of a school that leads a child, a teacher, and an administrator to love the
school and to look forward to being there each school day”.

School climate provides an opportunity to improve student achievement and decrease problem
behaviours and dropout rates. In other words, climate shape the quality of the interactions of all
students, parents, teachers and school personnel, and reflects the values, norms and goals of the
school (National School Climate Council, 2007). School climate depicts almost every aspect of the
school experience ranging from school community relationships, quality of teaching and learning
and school organization. Thus, school is a place where children gain independence, learn positive
social relationships along with academic learning (Cohen et al., 2009).

The main objective of this paper is to focus on the effects of total quality management on students’
academic achievement by investigating the TQM and school climate dimensions that has an
influencing factor on school performance. Therefore, this paper intends to explore the effects of
TQM on students’ academic performance achievement in Pakistan where the awareness is not well
pronounced. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section II discusses related work
of TQM and school climate, Section III presents the proposed conceptual framework of TQM and
school climate on academic performance of students that is followed by discussion in Section IV.
Finally, Section V concludes the article with future work.

Literature Review
According to Oakland (1989), and Goetsch and Davis (1994) Total Quality Management is trying to
attain fast recognition as a model in many organizations but cannot be realized immediately
because it takes time to bring together the right principles of qualify and strategies into
organizations of which school is one. Human resources as well as time and activities are TQM
requirements that are highly important for school success. Therefore, it awareness of TQM is
central to teaching and achievement. To Tahidu, Bawa, Wumbie, and Abubakari (2014) TQM in
education is not just promoting quality in the classroom, but it is also taking care of the human
resources as well as spreading information about it around. They are also of the opinion that TQM
popularity should be extended to how school authorities and managers react and address quality
management. Researches have shown that TQM awareness is sometimes limited despite the fact
that it is necessary. As, TQM is defined by Tahidu et al., (2014), as “total organizational approach
for meeting customer needs and expectations that involves all managers and employees in using
quality methods to improve continuously the organisation’s processes, products and services.”

Total Quality Management (TQM) in Education


TQM can be divided into two: hard and soft side of TQM, for this paper emphasis will be placed on
the last. TQM is identified soft with some principles that are most common in quality management
as can be seen in the framework of this study. The first principle is that TQM in education engages
everybody in the school system. This principle supports the involvement of stakeholders in running
the school lead to high circulation of knowledge and information among the teachers and students,
thereby increasing performance of students and school achievement (Powell, 1995). Murgatroyd
and Morgan (1997) agreed that, the principles of TQM imply that, every employee of any system or
organization should be involved in the school quality improvement processes likewise other
organizations. Oakland (1989) also added that TQM is particularly a way of involving and
organizing the school system including classroom activities, all the departments, and every staff
and students of the school or educational sector. The second principle has to do with continuous
improvement of the school facilities. So emphasis should be on enhancement opportunities for
teachers in order to improve students’ and school achievement.

Furthermore, Juran (1988) observed that improvement of TQM requires needs quality drive to
facilitate continuous improvement that never ends by providing necessary support for staff

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development. The third principle of TQM according to Tahidu et al., (2014) has to do with relating
to the concept of teamwork. Which is essential situation for progressing empowerment and outputs
of staff to be strong and effective group work rather than individuals, it has to include employees
from all levels in the departments of any organization or schools for flexibility and mutual trust
among members. In school organization TQM, there is need to care about quality improvement
through organization interconnected work groups that look at the needs of departmental
management problems and empowering teachers to improve in ability, to be more confident, and
committed to their jobs by improving the process of teaching and learning to satisfy customers
(parents) requirements. Customer satisfaction in TQM of school is to provide the adequate facilities
to enhance the performance of students who are the outcome or output of the school.

Reasons for Total Quality Management in Schools


TQM principles for enhancement of learning cannot be underestimated in it roles in education. It
should be based on outputs rather than on inputs so the products of schools are determined by its
structural characteristics. The determiner for schools’ quality has to do with
achievement/performance at average examination scores, faculty qualification, library facilities,
students/department ratios, acceptance rates, and endowments (Sims and Sims, 1995). On the
other hand, Divine, Miller and Wilson (2006) described the proponents of TQM in schools needs
should focus on the outcomes of teaching process rather than on the quality of intakes. The needs
of the teachers which determined the outcome of the school should be paramount in the minds of
the school management and government. According to Allen (2007) school assessment is related to
the activities designed to monitor and improve student learning through well stated goals in school
programmes for learners, affirming the integration of the goals into the curriculum to measure the
extent of the achievement of the goals and whether the learners have meet the objectives and then
have rethink on their syllabus and activities in order to improve learning process as well as future
achievements of students. To improve performance in school environment the necessary materials
for teaching and learning must be adequate and available. Teachers should be given the
opportunity for further training, providing relevant books and other materials for efficient teaching
and learning. Allen added that qualified teachers and a well-equipped library with adequate funding
are prerequisites for better achievements in schools.

Why the Need for TQM in Schools


The role of TQM in developing quality education cannot be overlooked. The school should focus
more on the quality of output rather than input. The output of schools/institutions depends
primarily on the teachers and the structural characteristics of the school. According to Sims and
Sims (1995), the quality of school output based on achievement includes input level of the students,
quality of teachers, acceptance rates, teachers’ qualifications, infrastructures, books in library and
students and department ratios. Also of the same opinion are Divine et al., (2006) who attested that
TQM in school should emphasize more on the outcomes of the school system rather than on the
inputs. The researchers concluded that TQM be regarded as the level to which the needs of the
teachers are met to achieve the desired outcomes of the school. Allen (2007) also contributed that
the school should monitor assessment and enhances learners’ learning. Assessing learners’
achievement includes understanding the aims and goals in learning programmes for learners, the
objectives should integrated to the curriculum, so that the extent to the objectives are realized by
students can be measured and then make adjustments to the curriculum where necessary to
improve their learning in future performance of the students. Therefore, schools have to find ways
to improve the standards of their teachers to be more effective and should be a continuous
improvement process.

TQM and School Performance

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In the new dispensation, schools have taken the issues of TQM seriously to add values to output of
the schools which have the establishment of quality assurance units in schools. Zaman and Anjalin
(2016) and Tahidu et al., (2014) among other TQM researchers are of the opinion that the quality of
schools take into consideration the external environment where learning is taking place and the
internal environment where the activities of teaching and learning are taking place. Another role of
TQM on school performance has to do with the process for assessing students and the overall
assessment of teachers and the school achievement generally. It should be noted that students’
performance is used to judge the performance of the teacher and school.

According to Zaman and Anjalin (2016) and Alabere, Hassan and shapii (2015) the more successful
students are the higher the success of the school or institution. The school heads should ensure
that the aims and objectives of schools are achieved through assigning qualified teachers to handle
professional courses by employing the right hands. This success contributes to the development of
knowledge, excellence, and expertise that lead to the growth of nation’s educational system and
economy which cannot be underestimated and it cannot be achieved without the financial support
of the Government. Many factors are responsible for TQM ineffectiveness in achieving its aims in
school setting, the constraints for implementing TQM in schools are:

1. Insufficient knowledge of how to incorporate TQM principles in school.


2. Lack of management commitment affects the implementation of TQM in schools.
3. The inappropriate structural organization of school can affect TQM.
4. Shortage of funding is another problem of TQM in school.
5. Lack of commitment of teachers.
6. Poor data, ineffective leadership and contradictory policies can also affect TQM.

TQM and School Achievement


Total quality management in schools has gained ground and considered in assessing school output
to add values to outcome of schools. TQM has brought about the creation of quality assurance units
in schools in most countries. Total quality management researchers like Zaman and Anjalin (2016)
believed that TQM in schools takes into consideration external facilities for learning in schools
while the internal environment refers to where teaching and learning are carried out including
home environment of students. Teachers should undergo continuous training in some key aspects
of education: they should be trained to acquire new methods of teaching and learning, training on
the new assessment strategies, and training on latest classroom management techniques (Popham,
2013). All these have effects on achievement of schools. Therefore, TQM strategy is not for school
achievement only but to have imparted on all aspects of school system such as interpersonal
relationship, human and material resources, management, and organization.

TQM helps to reform activities of the school through change in attitudes of school management in
monitoring and school activities as well as the evaluation of results. TQM as a way of life in school
system must focus on creating enabling environment for teaching and learning, constant
improvement of staff and involvement of all workers. Organizing co-curricular activities in school is
another way TQM has influence on school achievement. According to Alabere et al., (2015) agree
that co-curricular activities if well organized by school heads, principals, and teachers will go a long
way to improve and enhance students’ achievement and school popularity. Necessary materials
should be put in place to motivate learners’ participation in the school activities bringing about
school achievement socially and academically.

School Climate
School climate is the variables that can determine the efficiency and the effectiveness of a school.
School climate and atmosphere is the nature of the existing in schools that differentiate it from
other schools. Nature and environment in the schools is the result of interaction between teachers

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and students and the communities that are interacting with the whole school. By Salfi and Saeed
(2007), school climate is defined as a social system that creates learning environments. For
McColumn (2010), school climate is a term that refers the teachers' perception of the work
environment in schools. In addition, school climate influenced by the organization as formal,
informal and personality organization involved and the organization's leadership. In summary, the
climate of the school is a set of internal features that distinguish between schools with other
schools.

A school has a climate of its own and it also influenced by administrative means and management,
the building, facilities, learning and teacher job satisfaction. The results of the study show that the
chances of student success in education are strongly influenced by the positive school climate
(McColumn, 2010). Positive school climate will not only promote intellectual students can even
develop character. There are two (2) types of climate; the open climate and close climate (Hoy,
Hoffman, Sabo, & Bliss, 1996). Open climate that fosters meaningful interaction between teachers
with teachers, principals and teachers are friendly and open. Teacher and principals of mutual
support to each other, exchanging ideas and handle the task well, regardless of class. Instead of
school closed climate features such as directed interaction, controlled, order to deceive, restrict
self-improvement, and Overuse tense. Open climate is an important feature of the school towards
effectiveness. Moreover, Curriculum Development Centre (1981) defines school climate as a good
school atmosphere where the environment is felt comfortable, quiet, friendly, and happy with the
current study. School climate has multiple meanings, including the social system of expectations
and shared norms (Brookover, Schweitzer, Schneider, Beady, Flood & Wisenbaker, 1978). School
climate is a set of expectations and norms held by students, moral teachers, teacher level power
distribution, perception of the personality of students or school environment for students as
indicated by a number negative treatment of students in school (Johnson, Stevens, & Zvoch, 2007).
Apart the concept of school climate has been integrated with psychosocial context where teachers
working and teaching (Fisher & Fraser, 1990).

Theories and Concepts of School Climate


Studies shows that healthy climate have a positive impact on the performance of the school (Hoy &
Miskel, 1991). Given the climate of the school also helped create a school effectively, then there are
some researchers who have highlighted a few effective school climate characteristics resulting
from the research they are doing. By Halpin (1963) an effective school climate has the following
characteristics: (1) Teachers feel safe, satisfied and confident, (2) Teachers do not feeling
depressed and took note of the progress of his students, (3) Principals feel confident to work, and
considerate, and (4) students feel safe and study hard. Furthermore, Smith (2013) found that there
is a positive relationship among schools climate and school performance. Many studies have shown
that there is a strong link between school climate and student success. If the climate is good,
teachers and students will be more motivated and at the same time teaching activities and learning
will go well.

Moreover, the results from Salfi and Saeed (2007) showed that student achievement in schools with
positive climates are higher than the school has not comfortable climate. Additionally, Hoy, Sabo,
Barnes, Hannum, and Hoffman (1998) conducting a longitudinal study to see the effect of school
climate on teachers commitment. The results found that characteristics such as open school climate
(openness climate) impact on student achievement. This finding also supports the argument that
the impact on the school climate is sustainable and has continued over time influence on student
achievement. Next, Hoy et al. (1998) found that schools adopt an open climate show student
achievement related to mathematical skills, reading and writing as a whole is very high. In
conclusion, they said school climate is a good gauge in predicting student achievement.

Furthermore, Lindahl (2009), describe that positive school climate has crucial impact on the
success of a school. According to Wang and Degol (2016) school climate defined as

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multidimensional in four ways i.e. safety, academic, institutional environment and community.
Firstly, the academic climate stresses on the quality of the academic system, including instruction,
curricula, professional development, and teachers training. Secondly, the community forces the
quality of interpersonal relationships within the school. Thirdly, the safety focuses the degree of
emotional and physical security provided by the school, as well as the occurrence of consistent,
effective and reasonable disciplinary practices. Finally, the institutional environment reveals the
organizational features such as organizational structure, school resources, and environmental
factors. Mutually, all of four dimensions cover every feature of the school environment that affects
student cognitive, behavioural, and psychological development.

Dimensions of TQM
Based on the models and reviews of the literature mentioned above, researchers compare and
identify the different dimensions appearing in all studies and made a framework to be used as a
dimension that are the involvement of all staff, continuous improvement, customer focus, top
management commitment, and trainings and education practices for the main study. Although
there are many dimensions of TQM, but the most important dimension that is often used by the
several researchers (Das, Paul, & Swierczek, 2008; Egido Gálvez, Fernández Cruz, & Fernández
Díaz, 2016; Jain & Gupta, 2011; Karia & Hasmi Abu Hassan Asaari, 2006; Prajogo & Cooper, 2010;
Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Sahney, 2016; Siti Noor, 2012) are as follows and is depicted in
Figure 1.

1. Top Management Commitment


2. Customer Focus
3. Continuous Improvement
4. Involvement of Staff
5. Training and Education

Figure 1. Selected dimensions of Total Quality Management.

Therefore, these five (5) constructs will be used as key dimensions of practice of TQM for this study
and explained in detail in the following sub sections.

Top Management Commitment :

Clear leadership and vision is required and senior management must demonstrate a commitment to
TQM and be actively involved in the TQM process. Management should set an example by
managing quality as a key strategic issue and supporting continuous improvement. Top
management provides leadership that influences people to work willingly towards the achievement
of specified goals.Leadership is widely acknowledged as one of the key determinants of student
achievement (Sahney, 2016).

Customer Focus :

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Product and services should be fulfilling the needs of the customer as demanded. Products or
services should be providing according to the need of the customer’s. The main focus on the basic
principles of TQM is the customer to be satisfied.

Continuous Improvement :

The specific TQM objectives and requirements of the organization must be determined. The TQM
activity must be incorporated into the organizations' business plans and the means for continuous
improvement established. Continuous improvement is a commitment involving both the continuous
quality improvement and continuous process improvement.

Involvement of Staff :

Involvement in the TQM process is a key determinant of a successful programme. Until everyone is
involved in the process of quality improvement, there is a major cost of lost opportunity being
carried by the organization. Participation of employees for quality business organization has a
positive relationship significantly on employee affective reactions. Encouraging employees could
generate new ideas and make decisions based on process improvements will result the tendency of
workers to survive long and participate in company growth (Boon Ooi et al, 2006).

Training and Education :

Training and education is one of the most important elements for successful implementing of TQM
(Zhang et al, 2000). Education and training should cover all employees as part of an on-going
process, with the scope and depth tailored to suit each group's needs. Worker is worth something,
long-term sources of value to receive training and education through their careers. Many empirical
studies have revealed that training and education is critical to the successful implementation of
TQM (Thiagaragan et al., 2001).

Dimension of School Climate


There is a positive relationship between school climate and school performance which leads
towards student success (Smith, 2013). Whenever, the climate is good, teachers and students will
be more motivated and at the same time teaching activities and learning will go well. The results
Salfi and Saeed (2007) showed that student achievement in schools with positive climates are
higher than the school has not comfortable climate. The selected dimension of school climate for
this study is depicted in Figure 2. Although there are many dimensions of School climate, However,
this study will use the a five dimensions of primary school climate mentioned by Johnson, Stevens,
and Zvoch (2007) such as:

1. Collaboration
2. Student relations
3. Innovation in teaching
4. Decision-making and
5. School resources.

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Figure 2. Selected dimensions of School Climate.

Collaboration :

Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or try to learn something
together (Dillenbourg, 1999). For this study, refers to collaborative relationships or the good
cooperation among teachers, good communication among teachers and teachers working group
and designing teaching together.

Student relations :

School climate is a product of the interpersonal relations among students, families, teachers,
support staff, and administrators. In this study, student relationship represents the spirit of
goodwill, warmth among students and teachers and the school as a whole. It refers to behaviour,
respect, spirit cooperation and motivation among students and teachers.

Teaching innovation :

Teaching innovation is something new has to be introduced as methods, systems, devices and other
new ones in the process of teaching in school (Pustaka & Dewan, 2010). In this study teaching
innovation refers to ideas and materials of the new curriculum, teaching approaches and the latest
addition to be used by innovative teachers.

Decision-making :

For this study, decision making refers to the level in which teachers involved in decision making
process. The success or failure of any school is largely dependent upon to what extent authority is
given to teachers in making decisions.

School resources :

Availability and accessibility to technology, tools, and related resources that can be used to
enhance the knowledge of students and teachers as well (Oakes & Saunders, 2002). In this study,
school resources refer to availability of all resources that’s are required for students to get proper
education in a school for example adequacy of supplies, practical laboratories, technology
materials, and sharing of resources.

Proposed Conceptual Framework of TQM and School


Climate
The purpose of this research is to provide the high school performance by investigating the
dimensions of TQM, as well as the relationship between TQM and school climate which can affect
the performance of school in Pakistan. After studying different theories of TQM and school climate,

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this study has provided the conceptual framework from different theoretical frameworks of TQM
and school climate to attain high school performance. Through these different models, there are
five (5) key dimensions that contribute to TQM practices of top management commitment,
customers focus, continuous improvement, staff involvement, and training and education with five
(5) key dimensions that contribute to school climate such as collaboration, student relations,
innovation in teaching, decision-making and school resources that will act as a mediator to achieve
high school performance. Therefore, based on theories, model and findings of prior studies, the
researchers incorporate conceptual framework of this study are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Proposed Framework of TQM and School Climate for Academic performance.

Discussion
TQM and school climate has been adopted in many educational institutions, particularly in
developed countries. However, in developing countries the amount of research is scarce into
successful implementation of TQM and school climate. In case of Pakistan, the use of total quality
management systems in education began in universities. Implementation at these pre-university
levels such as primary and secondary schools with school climate and job satisfaction has been
relatively new in the scenario of Pakistan. The objective of these systems is to establish continuous
improvement mechanisms for all the dimensions and processes in the school and, ultimately, to
improve their performance (Cedefop, 2011; Dale, Wiele, & Iwaarden, 2013; Goetsch & Davis,
2013). Moreover, there is a need of implementing the TQM practices as an input to access the
organizational development which is essential to improve school performance (Alobiedat, 2011).

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Therefore high school performance can be achieved by implementing TQM practices, managing
school climate and managing performance information for decision making. Hence, the purpose of
this study is to understand better performance management practices in schools by considering the
factors of TQM practices and school climate.

Conclusion
Based on a review of literature that has been made in comparison with the findings previous
studies, there are five (5) key elements leadership/commitment of top management, continuous
improvement, training and education, customer focus, and employee involvement that contribute to
effective implementation of TQM in the school. This study highlight these factors and its impact on
the school climate and construct a framework with school climate five (5) dimensions, namely,
collaborative, decision-making, school resource, student liaison and teaching innovation. The next
step will be to identify the level of TQM practices, School Climate in government schools of
Pakistan. On the assumption of the researcher, if the schools have adopted TQM properly, why are
there still exist differences in academic achievement while theories have shown that by practicing
of TQM contribute to academic achievement. Future work will include exploratory study by
conducting a survey and analysing the correlation between the TQM practices and school climate to
determine the dimensions of TQM which really affect the school climate.

Quality Management on School Performance in the Chereponi Education Directorate, 1(5),


294–308.

[62]Thiagaragan, T., Zairi, M., & Dale, B. G. (2001). A proposed model of TQM implementation
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[63]Venkatraman, S. (2007). A framework for implementing TQM in higher education programs.


Quality Assurance in Education, 15(1), 92–112. https://doi.org/10.1108/09684880710723052

[64]Wang, M. T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). chool climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and
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https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9319-1

[65]Wilson, D. (2004). The interface of school climate and school connectedness and relationships
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[66]Zairi, M. (1996). Competition: what does it mean? The TQM Magazine, 8(1), 54–59.
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