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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение


высшего образования
«Севастопольский государственный университет»
Институт общественных наук и международных отношений
Кафедра «Теория и практика перевода»
Кафедра «Иностранные языки»
Севастопольское региональное отделение
«Союз переводчиков России»

PROFMARKET: EDUCATION. LANGUAGE. SUCCESS


(PROFMARKET: ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. ЯЗЫК. УСПЕХ)

СБОРНИК МАТЕРИАЛОВ
II Международного молодёжного научного форума
«ProfMarket: Education. Language. Success»
26-27 марта 2018 г.
г. Севастополь

Под общей редакцией Н. С. Руденко, Ю. А. Сабадаш, М. В. Варлагиной

Севастополь
СевГУ
2018
УДК 378+8(06)
ББК 80-9я43
P 93

Рецензенты:
Барабанова Г.В., кандидат педагогических наук, профессор кафедры «Теория и практика
перевода» Севастопольского государственного университета
Ирхин А.А., доктор политических наук, заместитель директора Института общественных
наук и международных отношений Севастопольского государственного
университета
Норец М.В., доктор филологических наук, заведрущий кафедрой теории и практики
перевода Таврической Академии Крымского федерального университета
им. В.И. Вернадского

Публикуется по решению Оргкомитета II Международного молодѐжного


научного форума «ProfMarket: Образование. Язык. Успех» («ProfMarket: Education.
Language. Success»), Протокол № 2 от 27 марта 2018 года.

Редакционная коллегия:
Руденко Н.С., кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Теория и практика
перевода» Севастопольского государственного университета
Сабадаш Ю.А., кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Иностранные языки»
Севастопольского государственного университета
Варлагина М.В., руководитель Севастопольского регионального отделения Союза
переводчиков России, старший преподаватель кафедры «Теория и практика
перевода» Севастопольского государственного университета

P 93 ProfMarket: Education. Language. Success (ProfMarket: Образование. Язык.


Успех) : сборник материалов II Международного молодѐжного научного
форума «ProfMarket: Education. Language. Success» (г. Севастополь, 26-27 марта
2018 г.) / Министерство образования и науки РФ ; Севастопольский
государственный университет ; под ред. М.В. Варлагиной, Н.С. Руденко,
Ю.А. Сабадаш. – Севастополь : ФГАОУ ВО «СевГУ», 2018. – 382 с.

В сборник вошли доклады, сделанные молодыми учеными в рамках II Международного молодѐжного


научного форума «ProfMarket: Education. Language. Success», который состоялся 26-27 марта 2018 года на базе
ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет». Авторы представили результаты исследований
из разных областей научного знания, как гуманитарных, так и естественных, и технических. Объединяющим
фактором стал английский язык – язык международного научного общения.

УДК 378+8(06)
ББК 80-9я43
 Авторы статей, 2018
 Руденко Н.С., Варлагина М.В., Сабадаш Ю.А., 2018
 ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный
университет», 2018
ОРГАНИАЗЦИОННЫЙ КОМИТЕТ
II Международного молодѐжного научного форума
«ProfMarket: Образование. Язык. Успех» («ProfMarket: Education. Language. Success»)
26-27 марта 2018 г. г. Севастополь
Председатель:
ЧИХАРЕВ Иван Александрович, кандидат политических наук, директор Института
общественных наук и международных отношений ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский
государственный университет»

Сопредседатель:
МОСКАЛЕНКО Ольга Александровна, кандидат филологических наук, заместитель
директора Института общественных наук и международных отношений ФГАОУ ВО
«Севастопольский государственный университет»

Ответственные организаторы:
ВАРЛАГИНА Мария Викторовна, руководитель Севастопольского регионального
отделения Общероссийской общественной организации «Союз переводчиков России»;
РУДЕНКО Наталья Сергеевна, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры
«Теория и практика перевода» Института общественных наук и международных отношений
ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
САБАДАШ Юлия Александровна, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры
«Иностранные языки» Института общественных наук и международных отношений ФГАОУ
ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет».

Члены оргкомитета:
Варлагина Мария Викторовна, старший преподаватель кафедры «Теория и практика
перевода», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Дельвиг Наталья Андреевна, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры «Теория
и практика перевода», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Королева Светлана Александровна, старший преподаватель кафедры «Иностранные
языки», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Лобков Александр Евгеньевич, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры
«Теория и практика перевода», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный
университет»;
Некрасова Мария Юрьевна, старший преподаватель кафедры «Теория и практика
перевода», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Никитина Екатерина Викторовна, старший преподаватель кафедры «Иностранные
языки», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Руденко Наталья Сергеевна, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Теория
и практика перевода», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Сабадаш Юлия Александровна, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры
«Иностранные языки», ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»;
Черткова Марина Петровна, ассистент кафедры «Теория и практика перевода»,
ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет».

Партнёры:
ГБОУ ЦДО «Малая академия наук», г. Севастополь
Совет обучающихся Института общественных наук и международных отношений
ФГАОУ ВО «Севастопольский государственный университет»
Ассоциация гидов-переводчиков и экскурсоводов Севастополя (АГЭС),
г. Севастополь
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY
Аблѐзгова Д. В.
EDUCATIONAL SPACE FOR ENGLISH LEARNING TEENAGERS....................................................... 13
Брайцева С. В., Арпентьева М. Р.
INSTRUMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS: POLYGRAPHIC DETECTION......................... 15
Бурина М.Ю., Кадышева Л.В., Каминская О.О.
THE PECULIARITIES OF SPEECH DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN......................... 17
Варлагина М. В., Сессорова С. А.
PROJECT-BASED APPROACH IN EDUCATION..................................................................................... 19
Гоменюк О. А., Грищук А. В., Косцова М. В.
SPECIFICITY OF RELATIONSHIPS OF JUNIOR ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE
TEMPORARY CHILDREN‘S COLLECTIVE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL
CHILDREN‘S CAMP ―ARTEK‖)............................................................................................................... 21
Гришина А.
TEENAGER‘S MOTIVATION FOR SPORTS LESSONS............................................................................ 24
Грищук А. В., Маслиева Е.С.
PREPARING PHILOLOGY STUDENTS FOR WORK AS CAMP COUNSELORS.................................... 26
Ермакова Е. А., Осадчая И. Ю.
DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS OF THE FIRST-YEAR PHILOLOGY STUDENTS VIA ROLE-
PLAYING..................................................................................................................................................... 28
Жигалина Н. В.
FEATURES OF ADDICTION TO VIDEOBLOGGING AS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF INTERNET
ADDICTION................................................................................................................................................ 30
Косцова Д. С.
THE SIMILARITES AND DIFFERENCES OF INDIVIDUAL PECULIARITES OF TWINS COUPLE.... 32
Лаптейкина А. Д.
THE METHOD OF MUTUAL LEARNING, PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY...................................... 34
Мельникова А. А.
EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: ADAVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.................................. 36
Осипова М. А.
THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF BLENDED LEARNING AND ICT-COMPETENCE OF THE
TEACHER.................................................................................................................................................... 37
Петренко М. В., Маслиева Е. С.
ICE-BREAKER EXERCISES AS A WAY OF ACTIVATING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
PROCESS.................................................................................................................................................... 40
Прошин А., Мироненко В.
DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR IN AN EXTREME SITUATION AMONG STUDENTS IN THE
UNIVERSITY............................................................................................................................................... 42
Свистунова Н. Е., Гришина А. В.
PHENOMENON OF REFLECTION IN NATIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SIENCE................................... 43
Смешкова М. А., Свистунов А. С., Черная Т. Н.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE ACTIVITIES....................................................................................... 45
Суслова В. Г., Косцова М .В.
PECULIARITIES OF CAREER GUIDANCE FOR STUDENTS OF THE TRANSLATION
DEPARTMENT 47
Тархова А. С., Тархова Л. А.
COMPETITIVENESS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF FUTURE TRANSLATORS‘ PROFESSIONAL
TRAINING..................................................................................................................... .............................. 50
Терещенко Д. В.
THE USAGE OF MODERN ICT WHILE TEACHING LISTENING IN THE FIRST YEAR OF
LANGUAGE SCHOOL................................................................................................................................ 51

4
Христофорова А. В., Косцова М. В.
RESEARCHING EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF
LINGUISTICS.............................................................................................................................................. 54
Чуркина М. Д., Черная Т. Н., Голубев В. П.
THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN THE GROWING POPULARITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
AMONG STUDENTS.................................................................................................................................. 56
Шишкин А. П.
―FALSE FRIENDS‖ IN THE INTERPRETER‘S JOB................................................................................ 58

LINGUISTICS
Агеева С. А., Королѐва С. А.
EL ANÁLISIS LINGÜÍSTICO DE LOS PROVERBIOS COMO MEDIO DE APRENDIZAJE DEL
CARACTER ESPAÑOL Y LA LENGUA ESPAÑOLA................................................................................. 61
Адонин Р. Ф.
LEXICAL AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS OF FASHION-INDUSTRY 63
Баланов А. Р., Крамарчук А. И.
STRUCTURAL AND SEMANTIC PECULIARITIES OF THE NOMINATION IN GAMING SLANG....... 65
Громова А. Р.
THE STRUCTURAL PECULARITIES OF THE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH THE AMERICAN
REALIA COMPONENT.............................................................................................................................. 66
Демьяненко Н. О.
CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.......................................................... 68
Жевлакова М. С.
THE EVOLUTION OF EPISTOLARY DISCOURSE: THE PECULIARITIES OF MODERN INTERNET
COMMUNICATION.................................................................................................................................... 69
Калиниченко А. В.
GAME COMMUNITY DISCOURSE: LINGUISTIC AND PRAGMATIC ASPECT................................... 71
Калошин А. С.
LEXICAL PECULIARITIES OF GAMING SLANG IN THE ONLINE COMPUTER GAME ―TOM
CLANCY‘S RAINBOW SIX SIEGE‖........................................................................................................... 73
Клюева М .Д.
EUPHEMISMS IN CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL DISCOURSE........................................................... 75
Лебедева А. В.
BESONDERHEITEN DES INTERNET-WORTSCHATZES IN DER MODERNEN DEUTSCHEN
SPRACHE……………………….........…....................................................................................................... 78
Лещинская Н. В.
INTERTEXTUALITY IN POSTMODERN FICTION.................................................................................. 79
Лукашук А. В.
LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF COCKNEY IN THE PLAY ―PYGMALION‖ BY
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW...................................................................................................................... 81
Мелека В. Ю.
MODIFICATIONS OF QURANIC IDIOMS (based on the English Quran Versions)............................... 82
Микова Н. А.
EUPHEMISMS IN THE SPHERE OF LAW............................................................................................... 85
Озимкова А. А.
VERBAL AGGRESSION IN THE US MEDIA............................................................................................ 88
Окунь Д. А.
LOS ESTEREOTIPOS SOCIALES Y EL LENGUAJE SEXISTA................................................................ 90
Пастушкова М. А., Асланян О. В.
LE FONCTIONNEMENT DES SOMATISMES EN FRANÇAIS................................................................ 92
Порхунова Е. А., Асланян О. В.
LE VERLAN COMME UN PHÉNOMÈNE DE MODE.............................................................................. 94

5
Разуменко М. О.
CRIMEAN EVENTS OF 2014 IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE MEDIA DISCOURSE.................................... 97
Рехачева Т. В.
SPORT DICTIONARIES............................................................................................................................. 99
Ряжина Е. А.
METAPHOR AS A MEANS OF MANIPULATING THE PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS IN MASS MEDIA
DISCOURSE................................................................................................................................................ 101
Самигуллина-Касерта Л.
CONCEPT ―LUCK‖ IN AMERICAN PROVERBS..................................................................................... 103
Сердобольская Н. Д., Сокол А. А., Чѐрная Т. Н.
OLD ENGLISH ETYMA IN THE MODERN ENGLISH ANTHROPONYMYCON..................................... 105
Соколова М. А.
CURRENT TENDENCIES IN FORMATION AND USAGE OF ENGLISH PROTOLOGISMS................. 107
Цеван А.
LENGUAJE CHAT...................................................................................................................................... 109
Черненко О. П., Голубев В. П., Михайлова Е. В.
COMPARATIVE AND CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EMOTIVE LEXIS IN THE TEXTS OF
THE ENGLISH BIBLE VERSIONS............................................................................................................. 111

TRANSLATION STUDIES
Боброва Н. А.
RENDERING POETIC ORIGINALITY OF GERARD MANLY HOPKINS‘ VERSE IN RUSSIAN
TRANSLATIONS.......................................................................................................................................... 114
Брега Е. Р.
TRANSLATING NOVEL TITLES: CASE STUDY OF ―THE HITCHHIKER‘S GUIDE TO THE
GALAXY‖ BY DOUGLAS ADAMS AND ITS RUSSIAN TRANSLATIONS................................................ 116
Будяченко Л. Е.
LA IMAGEN DE LA CORRIDA DE TOROS EN LA NOVELA DE VICENTE BLASCO IBÁÑEZ
«SANGRE Y ARENA».................................................................................................................................. 118
Быковская Ю. Р.
RENDERING OF BUNIN‘S CHARACTERIZING COMPLEX EPITHETS IN THE ENGLISH AND
THE GERMAN LANGUAGES..................................................................................................................... 120
Журавлѐва Д. А.
THE IMAGE OF A PERSON WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AS THE PROBLEM OF
TRANSLATION (based on D. Keyes's novel "The Minds of Billy Milligan" and its translations into Russian)....... 122
Кучумова А. Н.
TRANSLATION PROBLEMS IN GLUTTONIC DISCOURSE.................................................................... 124
Мамутова Ш. З.
INTERFERENCE IN TRANSLATION OF POPULAR SCIENCE ARTICLES FROM ENGLISH INTO
RUSSIAN..................................................................................................................................................... 126
Мироненко Е. Д.
J.D. SALINGER’S THE CATCHER IN THE RYE: TRANSLATING THE SLANG..................................... 128
Мягкова В. А.
RENDERING INTERTEXTUAL DIALOG IN TRANSLATION OF M. I. TSVETAEVA‘S POEM
―SCOURGE OF GENDARMES, GOD OF STUDENTS…‖ INTO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE............. 130
Потапенко Е. С.
RENDERING CHARACTONYMS IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN TRANSLATIONS OF DISNEY
CARTOONS................................................................................................................................................. 132
Скрипченко А. В.
LOS ASPECTOS PRAGMÁTICOS DE LA LITERATURA JUVENIL......................................................... 134
Тарасова К. Э.
LAS PECULIARIDADES DE LA TRADUCCIÓN DEL LÉXICO INEQUIVALENTE DE LA NOVELA
―CIEN AÑOS DE SOLEDAD‖ ESCRITA POR GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ DEL ESPAÑOL AL
RUSO........................................................................................................................................................... 136

6
LITERATURE
Антоненко Н. С.
SILENCE AND SOUND IN THE DESCRIPTIVE SYSTEM OF V. BYKOV‘S NOVEL ―TO LIVE TILL
SUNRISE”................................................................................................................................................... 140
Бакшеева А. А.
CLERIHEW AS A GENRE OF ENGLISH NONSENSE POETRY.............................................................. 141
Великая А. В.
OPPOSITION OF THE IMAGES OF THE PROVINCIAL LADIES AND LADIES FROM SMART
SOCIETY IN ―PRIDE AND PREJUDICE‖ BY JANE AUSTEN................................................................ 143
Власюк С. И.
THE GENRE AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF HAYAO MIYAZAKI‘S CREATION CALLED
«NAUSICAÄ OF THE VALLEY OF THE WIND»...................................................................................... 145
Глущенко Э. П.
ISAAC ASIMOV DISTOPIA ―THE END OF ETERNITY‖ PROBLEMATICS........................................... 147
Гукалова Н. В.
MODERNISM IN LITERATURE AS A LINGUOCULTURAL PHENOMENON........................................ 149
Калюжная О. А.
THE LOVE THEME IN SHAKESPEARE‘S TRAGEDIES (BASED ON ―MACBETH‖, ―THE
TRAGICAL HISTORY OF HAMLET, PRINCE OF DENMARK‖, ―ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA‖)....... 151
Клименко Е. С.
POETICS OF SPACE IN THE NOVEL BY EMILY BRONTE ―WUTHERING HEIGHTS‖...................... 153
Кузнецова И. В.
STYLISTIC PECULIARITIES OF RAY BRADBURY‘S SHORT STORY ―FEBRUARY 1999. YLLA‖
FROM THE NOVEL ― THE MARTIAN CHRONICLES‖........................................................................... 155
Львова С. Н.
THE THEME OF WOMAN‘S LONELINESS IN MODERN FEMALE NOVELS (―P.S. I LOVE YOU‖
BY C. AHERN AND ―HUNTING AND GATHERING‖ BY A. GAVALDA)................................................ 157
Макеич Л. В.
HYPERTEXTUALITY IN DAVID MITCHELL‘S ―BLACK SWAN GREEN‖............................................. 159
Самофатова О. А.
THE FEATURES OF SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE CINEMATIC AND LITERARY TECHNIQUE OF
MONTAGE IN W. H. AUDEN‘S LITERARY WRITINGS.......................................................................... 161
Сименченко Е. И.
CONFESSIONAL PHILOSOPHICAL NARRATIVE IN IAN MCEWAN'S NOVEL ―SATURDAY‖........... 163
Соина А. С.
SPY NOVEL GENRE: ―EPIC‖ AND NOVELISTIC FEATURES............................................................... 165
Соколова А. О.
ANTHROPOMORPHISM IN ANIMAL FICTION BY CHARLES ROBERTS............................................. 167
Станчева В. В.
THE CHRONOTOPE OF ISLAND IN ENGLISH LITERATURE (BASED ON ―TREASURE ISLAND‖
BY R. L. STEVENSON, ―LORD OF THE FLIES‖ BY W. GOLDING)....................................................... 169
Хоронская К. А.
THE IMAGE OF THE BELOVED WOMAN IN LOVE LYRICS OF W. B. YEATS..................................... 171
Цепкова Е. А.
THE IMAGES OF THE DETECTIVES IN THE AMERICAN ―HARD-BOILED‖ FICTION..................... 173
Шамиева Э. С.
THE IMAGE OF THE NARRATOR-PROTAGONIST IN IAN McEWAN‘S NOVEL ―ATONEMENT‖..... 175
Щербатенко А. Д.
POETICS OF COMIC IN WOODY ALLEN‘S SHORT STORY ―THE KUGELMASS EPISODE‖........... 176

7
CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Василенко Т. В., Бондаренко Л. В.
THE CONCEPT OF ―ENGLISHNESS‖ IN THE NOVEL ―THE REMAINS OF THE DAY‖ BY KAZUO
ISHIGURO.................................................................................................................................... ............... 179
Колотий Е. Г.
―BREAD‖ AND ―BUTTER‖ IN ENGLISH AND GERMAN PHRASEOLOGY.......................................... 181
Несен А. Р.
DIE ROLLE DER SOZIALEN NETZWERKE IN DER INTERKULTURELLEN KOMMUNIKATION….. 183
Новосад К.
ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА КОРЕЙСКОГО РЭПА: КРОСС-КУЛЬТУРНЫЙ АСПЕКТ..................... 186
Сулейманова Ш. Э.
THE COMMUNICATION FEATURES IN THE RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN CORPORATE CULTURE 187
Шарапаева А. Е.
CROSSCULTURAL COMMUNICATION PECULIARITIES IN BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS................. 190

CROSS-CULTURAL YEAR OF RUSSIA AND JAPAN: JAPANESE STUDIES


Стеченко О. А.
READING MANGA AS AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO LEARN THE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE OF
JAPAN......................................................................................................................................................... 192
Варлагина А. В.
JAPANESE AND RUSSIAN FOLK TALES: A KEY TO UNDERSTANDING NATIONAL IDENTITY...... 193
Гончарова Е. А.
NEW YEAR GREETINGS` ETIQUETTE: PECULIARITIES IN RUSSIAN, ENGLISH AND JAPANESE. 197
Лысцева Н. А.
THE PECULIARITIES OF JAPANESE NATIONAL CHARACTER........................................................... 201
Манина Д. С.
THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROVERBS AND SAYINGS IN THE JAPANESE AND RUSSIAN
LANGUAGES.................................................................................................................... .......................... 205
Хаметова Ю. В.
THE SPACE MENU: SPACE DIET PECULIARITIES. JOINT JAPAN-RUSSIA PROJECTS OF SPACE
EXPLORATION........................................................................................................................................... 207

SLAVIC PHILOLOGY
Ангеловская Е. В.
РАЗВИТИЕ ЧИТАТЕЛЬСКОГО ИНТЕРЕСАУ УЧАЩИХСЯ ОСНОВНОЙ ШКОЛЫ НА УРОКАХ
РУССКОГО ЯЗЫКА.................................................................................................................................. 209
Белая М. И.
УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ ФРАЗЕОЛОГИЗМОВ В СОВРЕМЕННОМ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКОМ ДИСКУРСЕ
(НА МАТЕРИАЛЕ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ВЫСТУПЛЕНИЙ В. ПУТИНА)............................................... 211
Боднар О. И.
ЖАНРЫ БЫЛИНЫ И ДУМЫ В СОПОСТАВИТЕЛЬНОМ АСПЕКТЕ................................................ 213
Головченко И. В.
ЭТИМОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ КАК СРЕДСТВО ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ ОРФОГРАФИЧЕСКИХ
НАВЫКОВ УЧАЩИХСЯ.......................................................................................................................... 215
Тимченко Е. И.
АКТИВНЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ В ЛЕКСИКЕ РУССКОГО ЯЗЫКА НАЧАЛА XX ВЕКА.
НЕОЛОГИЗМЫ В ТВОРЧЕСТВЕ В.В. МАЯКОВСКОГО..................................................................... 217
Фисенко А. С.
СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ СЛАВЯНСКИЕ ЭТНОСЫ.......................................................................................... 219
Хисенко М. В.
АКТИВНЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ В ЛЕКСИКЕ СОВРЕМЕННОГО РУССКОГО ЯЗЫКА. ДЕЛОВАЯ
ЛЕКСИКА. ПАРОНИМЫ......................................................................................................................... 221

8
HISTORY
Баранов М. П.
USSR UNDER THE GERMAN OCCUPATION: DECREES AND DIRECTIVES...................................... 223
Вершинина М. С.
ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR I: А NEW POINT OF VIEW......................................................................... 226
Ердокеско Е. А.
POPULATION OF THE TAURIС PROVINCE IN 1860s........................................................................... 228
Зенькович М. Ю.
THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FOREIGN POLICY POSITIONING OF THE USA IN XIX- THE FIRST
HALF OF XX CENTURIES......................................................................................................................... 230
Комогаев В. С.
THE ROLE OF FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE IN THE FATE OF OTTO VON BISMARCK....................... 232
Матросов М. А.
THE ROMAN AND LATE ANTIQUE PERIODS OF BRITAIN‘S HISTORY IN MODERN RUSSIAN
AND FOREIGN HISTOROGRAPHY.......................................................................................................... 234
Родович М. М.
ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING OF THE CITY OF SEVASTOPOL IN 1930....................... 237
Тоболова Д. Ю.
NEWSPAPERS‘ ROLE IN WOMEN‘S MOVEMENT IN THE 19 th CENTURY USA.................................. 240
Шимберева Е. В.
LA REFLEXION DE BOMBARDEMENT D'ODESSA DANS LES SYMBOLES URBAINS DE PARIS..... 242
Шихаметова Э. Р.
PEREKOP DISTRICT DURING THE CRIMEAN WAR (1853-1856)........................................................ 243
Ялковская А. А.
THE IMAGE OF RUS' IN ISLAMIC SOURCES OF THE 9TH 14TH CENTURIES.................................... 246

SOCIAL STUDIES
Варлагина М. В., Рябова С. А.
UNITED BOARD OF STUDENTS AS A SOCIAL MOBILITY CHANNEL FOR STUDENTS IN
SEVASTOPOL STATE UNIVERSITY.......................................................................................................... 248
Варлагина М. В., Сулейманова Ш. Э.
THE 19th WORLD FESTIVAL OF YOUTH AND STUDENTS AS A SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL
MOBILITY CHANNEL FOR YOUNG PEOPLE......................................................................................... 251

DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


Варлагина А. В.
PERSONS IN DIPLOMACY: A PROMINENT DIPLOMAT AND SCHOLAR FYODOR
FYODOROVICH MARTENS....................................................................................................................... 254
Грищук А. В.
CULTURAL DIPLOMACY: TERMINOLOGY HISTORY AND PERSPECTIVES IN RUSSIA (THE
CASE OF THE 19TH WORLD FESTIVAL OF YOUTH AND STUDENTS)................................................ 257
Китавнина Е. А.
SOFT POWER APPROACH TO THE KOREAN WAVE............................................................................. 261
Микова Н. А.
MODERN IMAGE ОF RUSSIA IN THE WESTERN OPINION JOURNALISM........................................ 263
Орешкина А. Д.
VLADIMIR PUTIN‘S IMAGE IN FOREIGN MASS MEDIA...................................................................... 265

HOSPITALITY SERVICES AND TOURISM


Андрианова Н. О.
PECULIARITIES OF HIKING TOURS IN THE CRIMEA......................................................................... 267
Гонтар Е. В.
SEVASTOPOL UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTIONS AND THEIR TOURIST POTENTIAL................. 269

9
Кияшко М. Р.
ARCHITECTURE OF SEVASTOPOL CENTRAL STREETS...................................................................... 271
Кузьмичѐва А.
ESTONIA IS INTENDED FOR RUSSIANS................................................................................................. 273
Лукашова А. Э.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR CHILDREN‘S RECREATION IN SEVASTOPOL.......................... 275
Тимошина Ю. В.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF YACHT TOURISM IN SEVASTOPOL 277
Шилов А. С.
PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CRIMEAN GUIDING SERVICES............. 279

JURISPRUDENCE
Головцова М. А.
FORENSICS AS THE UNITY OF JURISPRUDENCE AND LINGUISTICS.............................................. 281

ECONOMIC STUDIES
Данилов А. В.
ASPECTS OF THE INVESTMENT CLIMATE OF THE PENZA REGION................................................ 284
Мешков А. В.
WHAT IS CRYPTO CURRENCY?..................................................................................................... .......... 287
Надярный Э. А.
BLOCKCHAIN............................................................................................................................................. 288
Смирнова Т. Л.
THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS AND LABOR FORCE IN NATIONAL EСONOMY: MODERN
CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIC RESPONSES........................................................................................ 290
Соловьѐва О. О.
MONETARY POLICY OF THE BANK OF RUSSIA................................................................................... 294
Тульникова А. А.
THE LIVING STANDARD OF THE POPULATION AND THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY AND
POSSIBLE WAYS OF ITS SOLUTION................................................................................................ ........ 296
Тумановская А. А.
INSURANCE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION........................................................................................ 299
Узун Е. В.
THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION.................................................................. 300
Чѐс А. Е.
ECONOMIST: DEMAND THROUGH THE AGES..................................................................................... 302
Чумаченко В. А.
PROBLEMS OF IMPROVING THE FORMATION OF WAGES IN MODERN CONDITIONS................ 303
Шумко Е. В.
BUSINESS ETIQUETTE.............................................................................................................................. 305
Янченко А. А.
PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL QUALITIES OF THE MANAGER.................................................... 307

TECHNICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Азаров А. А., Алесенко А. А., Вильсон Н. Г.
THE CAR SEAT EMERGENCY SHIFTING SYSTEM................................................................................. 309
Алесенко А. А., Азаров А. А.
DEVELOPMENT OF HARDWARE-SOFTWARE COMPLEX FOR REGULATION OF TECHNICAL
PROCESS OF HEATING............................................................................................................................ 311
Бутенко Е. Е., Дьяченко Ю. О.
OPTICAL FIBER IN INDUSTRIAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM........................................................... 313
Гурьев В. В., Михайлова Е. В.
IMPROVEMENT OF PREDICTION METHODS GENERATING POWER OF SOLAR POWER
STATIONS IN THE ENERGY SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA AND SEVASTOPOL........... 315

10
Дикий А. И., Роговенко Н. С.
MODERN FOOD INDUSTRY: PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT................... 318
Закревский М. А.
BIOMECHANICAL PROSTHESIS.............................................................................................................. 320
Иващук И. А., Белая М. Н.
ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC LEGAL FRAMEWORK REGULATING THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR
VIOLATIONS OF METROLOGICAL RULES AND REGULATIONS........................................................ 322
Ларкина Е. А., Бабкина Е. В.
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES OF THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR INDUSTRY........................................... 324
Саса Д. А., Кузнецов Д. А.
AUSWAHL EINER AUTO-RECYCLING-STRATEGIE............................................................................... 326
Тарасов Д. Д.
ALTERNATIVE TYPE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE – UNMANNED AIRSHIP........................... 328
Федоровская Н. К.
ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF COOLING SYSTEMS OF MARINE POWER PLANTS......................... 330
Шахова Е. С., Белая М. Н.
RESPONSIBILITY FOR VIOLATION OF MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS, REGULATED BY THE
TECHNICAL REGULATIONS OF THE CUSTOMS UNION "THE SAFETY OF FOOD
PRODUCTION".......................................................................................................................................... 332
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
H. K. Mohana, H. S. Nethra, Dr. J. T. Devaraju
A STUDY ON SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUES IN FOG COMPUTING.............................................. 335
Бариев Э. Ю.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AS THE NEXT STAGE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT........................... 339
Белозерских А. В., Королѐва С. А.
ARDUINO MICROCONTROLLER PROGRAMMING............................................................................... 341
Гладченко Р. О., Сабадаш Ю. А.
COMPUTER VISION.................................................................................................................................. 344
Голева Д. А., Чехов Р. К.
QUIZLET OPPORTUNITIES...................................................................................................................... 346
Голикова А. А., Миронцева С. С.
PODCASTS IN ENGLISH LEARNING....................................................................................................... 349
Грабовец Р. А., Михайлова Е. В.
ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE INTERNET TRAFFIC FOR THE REDUCTION OF STAFF TURNOVER... 251
Гридасова К. В.
EDUCATIONAL IT SERVICES................................................................................................................... 352
Евсеева В. В.
QUALITY OF SERVICE IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS................................................................. 355
Кузьминов Н. К., Миронцева С. С.
INFORMATION SECURITY........................................................................................................................ 357
Печѐнкин А. А., Короткова И. В., Миронцева С. С.
HOW TO UPLOAD STUDY INFORMATION ON QUIZLET.COM........................................................... 358
Пономарь Д. А., Лысенко В. В.
ANALYTICS AND WAYS TO PREVENT THREATS FROM THE INTERNET........................................... 361
Саевич А. А., Сабадаш Ю. А.
OVERVIEW OF PROCEDURAL GENERATION....................................................................................... 363
Станкевич Т. С.
THE NEED OF DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION AND ANALYTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR
MANAGEMENT OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING AT HIGHLY DANGEROUS AND TECHNICALLY
COMPLEX FACILITIES BASED ON NEURO-FUZZY NETWORKS........................................................ 364

11
Хмара Д. Г., Хныкин В. М., Миронцева С. С.
THE EFFECTIVE NETWORK ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURSES FOR TEACHING A
FOREIGN LANGUAGE.............................................................................................................................. 366
PHYSICS
Сало В А., Лантушенко А. О., Михайлова Е. В.
INTERACTION OF FLAVIN-MONONUCLEOTIDE AND CAFFEINE ON THE ANTIBIOTIC
MITOXANTRONE: EXPERIMENTAL AND TEORETICAL ASPECTS...................................................... 367
MARINE AND NAVAL AFFAIRS
Ворвулѐв А. А., Королѐва С. А.
ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY IN MARITIME TRANSPORT.................................................... 369
SHIPBUILDING
Осипова Ю. А.
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE CHINESE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY................................ 371
Рябченко Д. С., Королѐва С. А.
MAGNUS EFFECT: POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN SHIPBUILDING................................................... 373
BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY
Дѐмина С. В., Миронцева С. С.
THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT........................................................................................................... 376
Рудык Я. А.
PLASTIC OR PAPER................................................................................................................................... 378
Сидоренко А. С.
DNA: INVESTIGATIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION................................................................... 379
MEDICINE
Кобзарев И. С.
CHEMISTRY OF BLOOD: CHANGE IN BLOOD COMPOSITION IN DISEASES.................................. 381

12
PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY



УДК 373.811
EDUCATIONAL SPACE FOR ENGLISH LEARNING TEENAGERS
Diana Ablezgova
11-form student,
Sevastopol, school №54
e-mail: dablezgova@mail.ru
Yekaterina Maslieva
Scientific advisor, Senior lecturer,
Foreign Languages Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail:maslieva_k@rambler.ru

Nowadays, the organization of the learning space is very important. In the linguo-environment,
dynamic and flexible in structure, the process of teaching gets gaming character. This article is intended to
reveal the indicated specifics and, in general, it is devoted to trends in the world, which are designed to
facilitate studying and teaching.
In the modern world education acquires a new form due to technological progress. Analyzing the
situation of recent years, we can confidently say, that different trends appear because of the opportunities
provided by the Internet: online lessons, scientific and gaming platforms, program-translators, network
dictionaries. They have a great influence on linguistic educational sphere. But is it good or bad? The Internet
developer usually has commercial reasons and no one is the guarantor of quality. A teacher – a person to
whom parents trust their children – sets his/her priorities. However, if we consider two parallel lines, then
they should have a secant.
So, they really have something in common – one problem that cannot be solved without uniting – ―the
planting of artificial English‖. Unfortunately, social networks impose slang (simple-spoken language model,
which has a social connotation, such as rough colour) and standard textbooks are limited to a certain
vocabulary (dependent on the specialty or model of the final exam (TOEFL, IELTS,FCE, CAE)).
What can be said as the micro-conclusion? Any language is an iceberg. This is a serious problem if the
interest in its study stops at the ―top‖ stage. How to avoid this? What is a mysterious learning/educational
space? How not to turn it into a psychological vacuum?
Educational space is a kind of space (material or allegorical), in which a person interacts with the
culture-forming environment. Free educational space (one of the types by Ponomarev [2]) is a kind of
educational space, which is characterized as conscious, and not organized from the outside, but created by
the interaction with the educational environment. Manipulative educational space is a kind of educational
space, involving unconscious aspects, but specially organized from the outside by human interaction with the
educational environment.
Focusing on the problem of teacher-student, on the one hand, we must be mindful of the need to
combine new methods with the classical program (professional aspect). On the other hand, we should pay
attention to the psychology of interaction in these relationships (personal aspect). It is a difficult task to
arouse interest and not to lose respect.
Teenagers are surrounded by gadgets, which stimulate their attention with bright designs of interface.
Students do not feel psychological pressure and, as a result, spend hours sitting in front of screens of their
devices, playing or just surfing the Internet [1]. If we suppose teacher's participation, then he/she becomes
both a formal and informal leader because of knowledge excellence (more game points or special account).
The last but not the least, third side (web-developers) helps a teacher to test and check the progress.
Let‘s look at some examples of popular programs, which can become a basе for this concept:
Mind Meister
―Mind Meister is an online tool for mind mapping that allows you to visually capture ideas, develop
them and share them.‖

13
It is perfect for learning new words. Also, created projects provide Emoji and animation and are
convenient for mailing.
Hemingway App
―The app highlights lengthy, complex sentences and common errors; if you see a yellow sentence,
shorten or split it. If you see a red highlight, your sentence is so dense and complicated that your readers will
get lost trying to follow its meandering, splitting logic — try editing this sentence to remove the red.‖
It makes student's writing clear.
Daily page
Daily page is a wonderful service that will help you regularly access Pain articles. Every morning
you will come to a certain topic on which you need to write a text before the end of the day. Topic:
sometimes asked to talk about what you've been keeping from a loved one and so on.
Returning to the problem of "narrowing" of the children' vocabulary, we can note, that these themes
will not be in exams list, but will help out in daily communication with native speakers.
Wattpad is a community for readers and writers where one can discover new user-generated stories,
spanning across different genres including classics, general fiction, historical fiction, non-fiction, poetry,
spiritual, teen fiction among others.
Although available in over 50 languages [3], 77% of its content is written in English. To help these
stories reach a larger part of the community, a number of Wattpad users are volunteering their time to
translate stories. It is especially popular among modern poets.
So the teacher can organize creative community or invite children to participate in the volunteering
activity.
Poetry is not only a warm-up for the mind, but it is also an assistant in learning new words. It helps us
remember that there are many beautiful words in English, which make up metaphors and comparative turns.
Art has an associative origin that deeply influences on our subconscious mind. Of course, not all of us are
gifted. Therefore, there are various forms of versification, suitable to all: cinquain, diamond, diamante,
haiku, strokes, white poetry...
Let‘s take a concrete example of how convenient they are in learning any language. The rules of
writing cinquain:
the first line is one word, usually a noun, reflecting the theme cinquan;
the second line – two words, adjectives describing the main idea;
the third line – three words, verbs describing actions within the theme;
the fourth line is a phrase of several (usually four) words showing relevance to the topic; such a
sentence may be a winged expression, a quote, a proverb, or a student-made phrase in the context of the
topic;
the fifth line is a summary word or phrase associated with the first, reflecting the essence of the
topic, which gives a new interpretation of the topic, expresses the personal attitude of the person eating to the
topic:
Snow
Silent, white
Dancing, falling, drifting
Covering everything it touches
Blanket
In conclusion, we would like to say that the English language has an artistic potential and international
importance. A teacher should remember about it, creating the educational space. Psychological base of
teaching methods affects the result. Taking into account theses of the article, we must set a new goal in
Internet education.
References:
1. Маслиевa Е.С. Особенности построения комплексной сценарной игры как формы
тематического контроля иноязычной коммуникативной компетентности младших школьников//
Збірник наукових праць. – Одеса, 2013. – С.26-30.
2. Пономарев Р.Е. Образовательное пространство как основополагающее понятие теории
образования // Педагогическое образование и наука. – 2003. – № 1. – С. 29-31.
3. The International Language of Storytelling [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
https://www.wattpad.com/about (дата обращения: 18.02.2018)

Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена проблеме изучения иностранных языков среди подростков и
взрослых в фокусе интернет-пространства. Ученые отмечают, что в современной образовательной системе

14
должен учитываться фактор вовлеченности студентов в рабочий процесс, поэтому игра выступает как
наиболее предпочтительный и эффективный способ обучения. В работе представлены примеры актуальных
лингвистических игр, многофункциональных редакторов и вариации творческих методик обучения для
пользователей любого возраста. Статья также рассматривает психологическое состояние учеников в
момент формального и неформального (скрытого) контроля.
Ключевые слова: игра, игровое пространство, образовательное пространство, деятельность,
иностранные языки, обучение.
Summary. This article is devoted to the problem of studying foreign languages among teenagers and adults in
the focus of the Internet space. Nowadays scientists note that the modern educational system should take into account
the factor of students' involvement in the working process, so the game acts as the most preferred and effective way of
learning. The article presents examples of relevant linguistic games, multi-editors and variations of creative training
techniques for users of any age. Student psychological state while formal /informal (implicit) testing is also described in
the paper.
Key words: game, game space, educational space, activity, foreign language, education.

УДК 159.98
INSTRUMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS: POLYGRAPHIC DETECTION
Svetlana Braitseva
3rd year master student in psychology and pedagogy,
Tsiolkovskiy Kaluga State University
Mariam Arpentieva
grand PhD in Psychology,
Development and Education Psychology Department,
Tsiolkovskiy Kaluga state University

The detection of ideal trace information is one of the most interesting and promising areas of work of
the verifier-polygraph examiner. In this work, however, multiple difficulties are created by the lack of
developed and known technologies. Therefore, our goal is to develop a technology for contact detection of
ideal trace information, including in forensic examination [1; 2; 3] Leading instruments of expertise are non-
instrumental profiling, instrumental and non-instrumental verification of evidence (detection of lies and
sincerity), polygraphic and other psychophysiological studies of the individual, her relationships and
experience. The "lie detector" is a technical device used in the implementation of instrumental
psychophysiological studies. It studies for synchronous recording of parameters of respiration,
cardiovascular activity, electrical resistance of the skin, and, if necessary and possible, other physiological
parameters, followed by the presentation of the results of registration of these parameters in an analog or
digital form, designed to evaluate the reported information. The main areas of application of the polygraph
are as follows: 1) investigation of the rental event; 2) screening studies (preventive testing of employed
citizens, or already working personnel to identify risk factors). Developing scientifically based methods of
working with a polygraph, other variants of instrumental and non-psychological psycho-diagnostics of a
person in judicial and criminal psychology and related fields, it should be understood that a criminal act is
always a holistic socio-legal phenomenon realized in a material environment and determining an integrative
set of cause-and-effect changes , traces of crime. Traces have a material and immaterial (ideal) etiology. In
the practice of investigations, forensic methods are directed primarily at the detection, fixation, seizure and
investigation of various types of material traces. As for the detection of ideal tracks, the situation is different.
Ideal traces are criminalistics information that is perceived and captured by a person in the form of mental
(memorable) images in the neural trail of an event in the form of an engram (i.e., a trace of memory, as a
neurophysiological reflection of information from a specific external event, represented in consciousness as
an image this event). The objective complexity of investigating ideal tracks is due to their inaccessibility for
direct study and objective fixation. In addition, it is associated with the inclusion of subjective models of
reliability and reliability of information and the motivation of the data carrier of cognitions or "engram"
memory. In the absence of information from independent sources from the investigator or judge, it is
sometimes impossible to assess the reliability, completeness and quality of the reproduced information of
ideal tracks. With respect to subjective models of the reliability of the carrier of ideal trace information, the
detection of the potential ability to adequately reflect the surrounding reality and the transmission of

15
information known to a person directly or indirectly is of primary importance. In the case of subjective
models of motivating the carrier of an ideal trace information, detection is necessary for detecting a
dramatization. By the term "dramatization" we mean a deliberate, intentional simulation of certain
circumstances, experiences, behavioral and speech patterns. The staging has a diagnostic genesis in the
determination of behavioral correlates of two dichotomous vectors: naturalness-unnaturalness and
congruence-incongruence of the behavioral series to the event and response to this event. There is a mock-up
in the form of concealment (behavioral realization of the motivational planning for the quantitative and
qualitative boundaries of the information submitted) and (or) and falsification (distortion by reporting
information or a piece of information that is obviously untrue) of criminal-relevant information [1]. The
solution of the task of detecting ideal traces of crime at the present stage is partially carried out by forensic
psychophysiological examination with the use of a polygraph. However, the urgent requirements are to
increase the objectivity, comprehensiveness and completeness of research in the field of detection of ideal
trace information. This is due to a number of factors, including the lack of a clearly defined methodological
approach to the production of such examinations, a wide range of limitations on the possibility of using
instrumental detection to a particular category of persons. It is also connected with the impossibility of
studying by subjective tools of subject models of the reliability of the carrier of ideal trace information. In
addition, an important point is the lack of a unified practice of assessing the conclusions of this type of
examination by courts as evidence. This problem is logically solved by the creation of a system of methods
and means of expert technologies of criminology, which are complex, integrative in nature. These
technologies must meet the requirements of validity and reliability, scientific validity. They should be able to
apply them in various variants of expert research within the framework of primary, supplementary, repeated,
individually performed / commission psychological, psycho-physiological, complex psycho-
psychophysiological, psychiatric, psychological, linguistic and other expert surveys.
Contact instrumental and extra-instrumental detection of ideal trace information is effectively
implemented by the following methods [1]:
 verification of the international standard FAINT (N. Gordon's «Judgment Review Questionnaire»),
CQT ("Method of Comparison Questions» by D. Reid), reality monitoring S.L. Sporer, applied
behavior analysis applied behavior analysis),
 criterial methods for the analysis of reliability and inaccuracy of information V.P. Belyanin, A.A.
Zakatov, N.I Gavrilov, A.I. Pankin, V.A. Shapovalov, psycho-emotional analysis of facial
expression using FACS, EmFACS, FACSAID (the system of coding facial movements of the
international standard);
 four-stage psychological cluster analysis of kinesiological and speech variability according to the
methodological approach. S.B. Walters with extended complex clinical and linguistic analysis of oral
speech (paralinguistic analysis, pragmatic analysis, psycho-semantic-syntactic analysis,
transformational analysis);
 method of "Validation validity assessment", an expert method for detecting ideal trace information
by retrospectively diagnosing the dynamics of the psycho-emotional status of an individual, «SPFI»
tests built using the method of control questions («MCI» or "Comparative Question Test") and
 on the method of hidden information («MSI»), in configurations on discretion of an expert or
specialist, guided by the requirements of methodological sources with mandatory assessment of the
entire diagnostic base using mathematical statistics methods, including calculating empirical
probability of the event in independent trials.
The described complex fully meets the legislative principles of completeness, comprehensiveness,
objectivity and scientific validity of the research in accordance with the requirements of the Federal Law "On
state forensic expert activity in the Russian Federation" and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian
Federation. First, it solves the problems of the methodological level, because it relies on the theoretical and
practical special knowledge recognized in the scientific world in the fields of clinical psychology, the
physiology of the central nervous system, psychology of higher nervous activity and sensory systems,
psychophysiology, special psychology, legal psychology, experimental psychology and integrates them.
Secondly, it allows to study all factors, qualities and properties influencing the parameters under study, to
synthesize the obtained results and obtain a definitive conclusion. Thirdly, it increases the validity and
reliability of the expert study, which minimizes the possibility of distortion of the results of the study and the
hypothetical probability of a mistake in the expert's conclusions, up to its deletion. Fourthly, it effectively
solves the procedural tasks set for examining persons who have contraindications to the procedure for testing
on a polygraph, or who have refused to do so, and when conducting forensic psychological studies and
examinations by non-contact methods.

16
References:
1. Arpentieva M.R., Makarenko I.A. Forensic and forensic psychological diagnosis: methods of
profiling, verification and use of polygraph: Monograph. – Moscow-Kaluga: KSU them. K.E. Tsiolkovsky,
Academy of Detection of Lying. – 260 p. (In Russian)
2. National Research Council. The polygraph and lie detection. – Washington, D.C: National
Academies Press, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, 416 p..
3. Arpentieva M.R. (Ed.) Profiling and mediation: spheres, values, technologies, training. Collective
monograph. Series "Actual problems of practical psychology: crisis, development, support." Issue. 2. –
Kaluga: Kaluga State University. K.E. Tsiolkovsky, Eidos, 2016. – 290 p. (In Russian)

Аннотация. Важными инструментами судебной психологической экспертизы являются


неинструментальное психологическое профилирование, инструментальная и неинструментальная проверка
показаний (детекция лжи и искренности), полиграфические и другие психофизиологические исследования
личности, ее взаимоотношений и опыта. Полиграфологическая экспертиза – продуктивное и эффективное
инструментальное исследование «идеальной следовой информации» (психологических «следов» преступления)
реализуется несколькими методами, описанию которых посвящена данна работа.
Ключевые слова: детекция идеальной следовой информации, полиграф, верификатор, судебно-
медицинская экспертиза, экспертиза, инструментальное и неинструментальное профилирование,
верификация, детекция лжи, «лай-тетекция».
Summary. Leading instruments of forensic expertise are non-instrumental profiling, instrumental and non-
instrumental verification of evidence (detection of lies and sincerity), polygraphic and other psychophysiological
studies of the individual, her relationships and experience. Contact instrumental and extra-instrumental detection of
ideal trace information is effectively implemented by several interesting methods. The authors discribe these methods.
Key words: detection of ideal trace information, polygraph, examiner, forensic examination, expertise,
instrumental and non-instrumental verification, lies detection.

УДК 159.95
THE PECULIARITIES OF SPEECH DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Maria Burina
2nd year student,
Psychology Department,
Sevastopol State University
Ludmila Kadysheva
PhD in Psychology, Assistant professor,
General and Applied Psychology and Pedagogy Department
Sevastopol State University
Olga Kaminskaya
3rd year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: kaminskaya169@mail.ru

In everyday life, any person cannot do without using speech. With its help, one interacts with the
world around him. The better the person possesses his own speech, the more actively he develops the fields
of activity chosen by him. This is directly related to preschool age because the highest forms of cognitive
activity and the capacity for conceptual thinking are being formed at this age along with the development of
speech.
In addition, the acquirement of speech skills helps a child to understand, plan and control his
behavior. Speech communication creates the necessary conditions for the development of various forms of
activity and teamwork skills.
Developing speech, the child finds a powerful source of intellectual and spiritual formation of
personality, which is necessary condition for the social activity of each person.

17
A number of scientists studied the problem of the development of speech. Among them, we can
distinguish the following: L.S. Vygotskii [1], J. Piaget [6], M.I. Lisina [4], A.A. Leontev [5], G.A. Uruntayev
[7] and Yu.A. Afonkina [7].
Thus, L.S. Vygotskii noted that speech is a sign system that appeared in the process of the socio-
historical development of a man. It is able to transform children's thinking, helps to solve problems and form
concepts [1].
G.A. Uruntayeva pointed out that at the preschool age the child acquires the generalizations of
various levels contained in the word, learns to understand the causal relationships, for example, he can finish
a sentence, make up an end of a story or a fairy tale on the proposed topic [7].
A.N. Leontiev distinguishes four stages of the child's development of the speech: nursery, which
lasts up to a year, preparatory – up to three years, preschool – up to seven years and the school one.
The objective of this work is to identify theoretically and to describe the peculiarities of speech
development in the preschool age.
According to V.P. Glukhov, there is a considerable vocabulary expansion of a child at the preschool
stage; by the age of four till six, his vocabulary range already reaches the level of 3000 – 4000 words. At this
period, a child mainly uses the meaning of the words correctly [2].
Along with the increase of vocabulary expansion, in the view of A.N. Gvozdev, children have
already got all the basic categories of the grammatical structure of the speech being formed. The child begins
to make active use of all parts of speech. Step by step the skills of word formation are being developed. By
the age of four, the child mostly uses simple extended sentences in the communication. By the age of five,
different conjunctions begin to be found in the speech (because of, in order to, as if, etc.).
A coherent speech appears and for this reason the structure of the sentence is getting more complex.
Children are relatively free to use the structure of compound and complex sentences [9].
A number of authors such as L.P. Fedorenko, L.S. Vygotskii, A.R. Luria point out that starting from
this age, a child can easily make up a retelling of a fairy tale or a story of 40-50 sentences, which indicates
that he has already acquired one of the difficult kinds of speech - monologue [8].
During the whole preschool period, children develop the skill of auditory monitoring over their own
pronunciation, the ability to correct it in some individual cases. In other words, a phonemic perception or so-
called "sense of language" is formed. K.D. Ushinskii was giving a particular importance to it and according
to him, it prompts the child the place of the stress in the word, the grammatical phrase, the way of
combination of words in the sentence [9].
A sufficient level of phonemic perception allows children to acquire the necessary skills of sound
synthesis and analysis, which is a condition for mastering literacy in the period of schooling.
Thus, we can come to conclusion that the peculiarities of speech development in the preschool
period include: the expansion of the active vocabulary, the complication of speech, the development of skills
of word formation and phonemic perception, or the so-called "sense of language" and appearing of
monologic and contextual speech. Moreover, the skills that encourage better literacy in the period of
schooling are being developed.
References:
1. Выготский, Л.С. Мышление и речь / Л.С. Выготский, ред. Щербакова В. – Национальное
образование. – 2015. – 368 с.
2. Глухов В.П. Основы психолингвистики: учеб. пособие для студентов педвузов. – М.: ACT:
Астрель, 2005. – 351 с.
3. Кондрашихина, О.Е. Речевое развитие дошкольника: сущность, структура, содержание /
О.Е. Кондрашихина // Вестник ТГУ. – 2013. – №2 (118). – С. 72-76.
4. Леонтьев, А.А. Язык, речь, речевая деятельность / А.А. Леонтьев. – Изд. Красанд. – 2010. –
216 с.
5. Лисина, М.И. Развитие познавательной активности детей в ходе общения со взрослыми и
сверстниками / М.И. Лисина. – Воронеж; Москва, 1997. – 259 с.
6. Пиаже, Ж. Речь и мышление ребѐнка / Ж.Пиаже. – РИМИС. – 2008. – 448 с.
7. Урунтаева Г.А. Афонькина Ю.А. Практикум по детской по детской психологии: пособие
для студентов педагогических институтов, учащихся педагогических училищ колледжей,
воспитателей детского сада / Под ред. Г.А. Урунтаевой. – Владос, 1995. – 291 с.
8. Федоренко, Л.П. Методика развития речи детей дошкольного возраста: Пособие для
учащихся дошкольных педагогических училищ / Л.П. Федоренко, Г.А. Фомичева, В.К. Лотарев. – М.:
Просвещение. – 1997. – 239 с.

18
9. Чупина, Е. Особенности развития речи в дошкольном возрасте [Электронный ресурс] / Е.
Чупина. – 2016. – Режим доступа: http://www.maam.ru/detskijsad/osobenosti-razvitija-rechi-v-
doshkolnom-vozraste.html

Аннотация. Тезисы посвящены теоретическому изучению особенностей развития речи у


дошкольников. Отмечается, что развитие речи – это сложнейший нервно-психологический процесс, который
происходит в результате взаимодействия ребенка с окружающей средой.
Ключевые слова: дети, дошкольный возраст, развитие речи, фонематическое восприятие.
Summary. The theses are devoted to the theoretical study of the development of speech in preschool children.
It is noted that the development of speech is the most complicated neuropsychological process that occurs as a result of
the child's interaction with the environment.
Key words: children, preschool age, speech development, phonemic perception.

УДК:[005.8: 37.013]=111
PROJECT-BASED APPROACH IN EDUCATION
Mariia Varlagina
Senior Lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: creativeypd@gmail.com
Svetlana Sessorova
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: sessoreta96@gmail.com

―Research and inquiry is not just for those who choose to pursue an academic career. It is central to
professional life in the twenty-first century‖ [1, p. 7]
Living in a digital highly developed world that is changing at a great speed every day there is no
doubt that our society in the nearest future is expected to experience a flux, where a growing polarization of
labor opportunity will change the fundamental nature of work. Future society is likely to be in demand for
quick thinkers, problem-solvers and innovators, for people with highly critical thinking abilities and
extremely developed multitasking skills, being ready to switch from one task to another, and find quick
solutions. So there is a question we consider how to best prepare students for these radical shifts. The target
of our research is to cover in details which skills project-based learning develop, prove why it is one of the
most effective contemporary ways of learning, and investigate the benefits of this method in terms of
teaching English.
The project method is related to experiential learning. It became popular in the second half of the
19th century in the USA. Pragmatic ideas of an American philosopher and educator John Dewey became
basic principles of this studying. He claimed that education should be based on activity. It is important to
stimulate personal engagement in getting knowledge that has to be applicable in real life. It was William
Kilpatrick, the Dewey‘s follower, who first developed and introduced the project-based learning in the
educational process. He stressed that this method would allow students feel free in terms of choosing the
problem, seeking for the ways of its solution, and implementing the result of this analysis in real life. This
process shapes students active life position. The mainstream interest to this method appeared in Russia only
in 20s of the 20th century.
The method of projects can be used when teaching foreign languages at any lesson, devoted to any
topic. This method gives an opportunity for students to connect learning of foreign languages with the
development of their professional skills. The most attractive point is the influence of the method on the
students‘ motivation, since the method of projects has let the teacher turn the foreign language lessons into a
creative research laboratory, where every learner is involved into an active creative cognitive process. The
students master their speaking and writing skills, widen their outlook, develop their communicative abilities,
ability to discuss in a foreign language different problems that have to be solved.

19
Social constructivist theories of learning emphasize mainly that learning a language is a social,
dynamic process and learners learn when they interact with one another [3, p. 11]. Input theories of second
language acquisition propose that language input should be meaningful, relevant, also realistic and
multimodal. In addition, output theories argue that learners need to produce language in order to learn it and
more importantly students need to experiment in English lessons, be creative and make mistakes on the way.
Furthermore, cognitive learning theories state that if people´s brains work harder, people remember things
more efficiently. These theories of learning suggest that learning a language comprises of making personal
meaning from new material and combining it with what is already known. According to Dale and Tanner,
language learning happens when learners themselves make sense of what they are learning thus it is
necessary to relate activities in the language classroom to real life in order to enable them to transfer the
personal meaning [3, p. 12].
Any project begins with the definition of the topic and the identification of a specific problem within
the chosen topic. These two actions allow the active shaping and development of the regulatory and
cognitive (nominating and formulating the hypothesis determining the directions and ways of searching for
information) aspects of human brain. Further work with the project entails the procession and the usage of
the gained information with the aim of achieving the initially stated aim of the project. This process
contributes to such learning activities as: analysis, synthesis, identification of cause-effect relationships,
construction of logical chains, modeling, reasoning, conclusion.
According to William Kilpatrick, the founder of the project method, we can distinguish only four
types of project work, in consideration of the aims: problem-based projects (where intellectual problems
were solved), construction-based, evaluation-based projects, drill-based (which were aiming at gaining a
certain skill). Nevertheless, today´s classification is much more variable (research projects, creative
projects, role play projects, informative projects, practice-oriented projects, etc.) [2].
The following general stages can be used for successful project implementation in the classes of
English: Stage 1: Speculation; Stage 2: Designing the project activities; Stage 3: Conducting the project
activities; Stage 4: Evaluation.
The solution of practical problems during project-making allows to make use of the gained skills and
knowledge acquired during the whole educational process. Practical application of these skills contributes to
the understanding of the process of learning and develops in students sense of self-education, self-
determination, logical evaluation.
However, several studies found that project-based learning is challenging for teachers to enact
despite its positive benefits because of the following barriers to successful implementation of this method:
project-based learning is rather profound process that require high level of teacher‘s professional skills,
creation of the individual planning of the educational process that is hard to introduce in the school system
for the reason that government standards of education allows no any changes in the school program.
A new grant idea ‗Translation Splash Junior‘ targeted at learning translation studies by means of
involving high-graders and 1st-3d year University students into project activity was suggested by the group of
Sevastopol State University students. The main objective of this summer translation school is to create
experimental accessible educational space based on learning through practice, to increase a level of
professional skills of young generation, to show them practical importance of learning languages, being able
to communicate in foreign languages and being able to master translation/interpretation skill.
The conducted research gives us ground to say that project-based learning is rather new approach in
the education. Taking into consideration the demands of our modern society, that gives more priorities to the
practical and multitasking skills rather than theoretical ones, we have to conclude that project-based learning
can be perfectly applicable in the educational process (both obligatory and extra-curricular) as a good
alternative to the conventional rather outdated methods.
References:
1. Brew A. Research and teaching: Beyond the divide / A. Brew. – L.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
2. Buck Institute for Education [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://www.bie.org/ (дата
обращения: 12.02.2018)
3. Dale L. Clil activities / L. Dale, R. Tanner. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
4. Education Northwest [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://educationnorthwest.org/ (дата
обращения: 12.02.2018)
5. Teacher Professional Development Center [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
http://www.ishik.edu.iq/education/td/project-based-learning/ (дата обращения: 12.02.2018)
6. The Glossary of Education Reform [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
https://www.edglossary.org/project-based-learning/ (дата обращения: 12.02.2018)

20
Аннотация: Данная статья посвящена использованию проектной деятельности в процессе обучения
иностранному языку. Рассматривается понятие проектной деятельности, история возникновения
педагогического подхода. Изучаются механизмы влияния данного процесса на обучающихся. Аргументируется
трудность внедрения метода в образовательный процесс. Приводится пример создания современного
образовательного пространства с использованием методики проектной деятельности как эффективного
средства обучения иностранному языку.
Ключевые слова: проектная деятельность, метод, образование, языки, педагогика.
Summary: This article is devoted to the issue of project-based activity in the process of learning foreign
language. The notion and the history of this pedagogical method development are studied. The mechanisms of influence
on the students are described. The difficulty of implementing given method in the educational process is explored.
Creation of the contemporary educational space based on the project activity as an effective tool is mentioned.
Key words: project-based learning, method, education, languages, pedagogogy.

УДК: 379.835
SPECIFICITY OF RELATIONSHIPS OF JUNIOR ADOLESCENTS IN THE CONDITIONS
OF THE TEMPORARY CHILDREN'S COLLECTIVE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE
INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN‟S CAMP "ARTEK")
Olga Gomenyuk
2nd year student,
Psychology Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: mashasev@mail.ru
Artem Grishchuk
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
Mariya Kostsova
Candidate of Psychological Science,
Psychology Department,
Sevastopol State University

The relevance of this topic is significant, because through the influence of the temporary children's
collective on the child, we can change it for the better. In the camp, the adolescent's influence is weakened
by the influence of family, class, company of friends, etc., here he can manifest himself in other way, reveal
his creative, leadership, sports abilities. Become more self-confident. The practical part is based on the
formation of a temporary children's collective of younger teenagers having a rest at the International
Children's Center ―Artek‖, where we had the opportunity to observe the formation of a temporary group of
teenagers in the camp. This allowed us to consider it as a kind of model of the community of children and
adults, where not only the features were clearly manifested, but also the general patterns characteristic for the
processes of interaction, communication of children in collectives, the process of the unification of public
opinion, joint experiences, sentiments.
The purpose of this study is: to study the specifics of relationships among younger adolescents in the
conditions of a temporary children‘s collective.
The social situation of the development of the younger adolescent is that he is included in the new
system of relations and, compared with the younger schoolchild, the teenager should establish relations not
with one but with many teachers, and the need for interaction with the same is also manifested. Leading kind
of activity is the intimate-personal communication. Personal new formation is the ability to identify, personal
self-determination. Younger teenagers are the special age group for which learning activity stops to be
leading. Significance is acquired by relationships with children of the same age and adults. This leads to a
reassessment of values associated with the change of leading activity [1].
Adolescence is traditionally called transitional, difficult, critical. L.S. Vygotsky thought that the
psychological nature of the crisis lies in the emergence of self-consciousness. This gives rise to the desire for

21
self-affirmation, self-expression, self-education. The main stimulus of any activity organized by a tutor is its
effectiveness [8]. Changes in the personal sphere make it possible to call the adolescent period as a second
birth of a person. Along with a sense of adulthood, the adolescent shows a desire for independence, critical
thinking, a tendency to reflect, the formation of introspection, the desire for communication, the evaluation
of comradely and friendly relations as personal achievements. Such a significant situation for a teenager may
be a temporary children‘s collective.
The temporary children's collective is a specially created social space, the prototype of the system of
social relations, where the skills of life in society are formed, universal values are valid, the accumulated
national traditions and positive experience of the upbringing of the younger generation are maintained [3].
The theory of the collective occupied one of the prominent places in the national pedagogy and
psychology. A large number of scientific research, dissertations, books, articles, essays, etc. have been
devoted to the collective as a dominant, the core of the socialist type of culture, way of life, ethics and
upbringing. Widely known are the names of Russian teachers and psychologists who have made a significant
contribution to the theory of the collective and the practice of educating the individual in the team: P.P.
Blonsky, O.S. Gazman, I.P. Ivanov, M.B. Koval, Т.Е. Konnikova, N.K. Krupskaya, P.N. Lepeshinsky, A.N.
Lutoshkin, A.S. Makarenko, A.V. Mudrik, L.I. Novikova, A.V. Petrovsky, K.D. Radina, V.N. Soroka-
Rosinsky, V.A. Sukhomlinsky, L.I. Umansky, S.T. Shatsky and others.
To study the characteristics of the relationship of younger adolescents in the conditions of the
temporary children‘s collective, the sociometry method was used. Twenty subjects participated in the study,
of which 10 were girls and 10 boys aged 12-13 years, who rested in the 8th shift ―Artek collects friends.‖
Proceeding from the sociometry conducted, we can trace the mutual relations of the children, the
children quickly became friends, active interaction and communication was traced already on the fourth day
of the shift, the organizational period was successful, the children quickly got used to the atmosphere and
rules of the camp. Organizational moments were carried out by all. The guys respected and obeyed their
counselors, the conflicts during the shift were, but not significant, with the help of the leaders were resolved
quickly. The profile showed itself at a high level, the interest in the field of DJing was in every child,
everyone claimed that when they arrive home, they will continue to develop themselves in this area. In the
profile competitions, the team spirit and spirit of rivalry was noticeable. The guys from our group
participating in the DJ - Battle, showed themselves as talented, DJs who are able to get the audience.
During the shift a lot of detachment, camp and camp events took place, where we also took an active
part, almost always took first place. Since the children were active, the camp received permits for their
personal achievements, there were a lot of creative guys in the group, with the help of the leaders, showing
creativity, and all their creative abilities, we quickly prepared to participate in the events.
To study the dynamics of the relationship in the group, a graph was compiled that displays indices of
sociometry: the index of cohesion (as the main indicator of cohesion in the group, a favorable social and
psychological climate), the isolation index (the indicator of the number of outsiders in the group), and the
number of micro groups (figure 1).

1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4 социометрия 1
социометрия 2
0,2
социометрия 3
0

Figure 1 – Dynamics of relations in the group according to indices on the method of sociometry

22
As we can seen in picture 1 the level of cohesion remains practically unchanged during the camp
shift, there are no outsiders at the end of the shift, and the index of well-being becomes higher, especially at
stages 2 and 3.
It is interesting that the groups appear during the main stage and completely disappear at the last
stage - which confirms the positive trend of development of the temporary children's collective.
Based on the data of the three sociometrics, we can say that all the goals and tasks set by the teachers
at the beginning of the shift are fulfilled, we managed to create a friendly, active detachment. Children who
behaved quickly at the beginning of the shift became more confident in themselves, many claimed that it was
here that they found real friends. Many of the guys learned how to allocate their time correctly. The camp
becomes a place of actualization of the resources of personal development [9].
In conclusion we should say that the temporary children's collective makes influence on children
positively, helps to realize their potential, adds self-confidence, and promotes the acquisition of new skills.
The most important thing is that the situation of communication with children of the same age, which is
created in a temporary children's team, constant joint activity - all this allows to include any teenager in the
circle of communication and can become a positive experience that can be used in the future.

References:
1. Бодалев А.А. О взаимосвязи общения и отношения /А.А. Бодалев // Вопросы психологии. –
1994. – № 1.
2. Волынчук Я.А. Особенности и проблемы реализации основных форм работы с молодежью
(на примере МДЦ «Артек») / Волынчук Я.А., Кирсанова Д.В., Горбачева М.И. // Международный
журнал прикладных и фундаментальных исследований. – 2017. – № 1-1. – С. 172-176.
3. Гришина А.В., Косцова М.В. Использование песочной терапии в работе с детьми
школьного возраста (на примере временного детского коллектива). // Все лучшее детям! Страницы
педагогического поиска «Артека». – М.: Новое образование, 2015. – С. 47- 54.
4. Артек 2.0. Перезагрузка. Концепция развития международного детского центра «Артек» /
Каспаржак А.А., Ерохин С., Ээльмаа Ю., Колесников // Библиотека для учреждений дополнительного
образования детей. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 67-97.
5. Кирсанова Д.В. Воспитательная работа с детьми и подростками как фактор их успешной
социализации (на примере МДЦ «Артек») // Роль инноваций в трансформации современной науки:
сборник статей международной научно-практической конференции – 2017. – С. 175-179.
6. Морева О.В. Временный детско-подростковый коллектив / О.В. Морева. // Народное
образование. – 2011. – № 3. – С. 216-220.
7. Мурашова А.Г. Развитие воспитательной деятельности педагогов детского
оздоровительного центра в современных условиях (на примере МДЦ «Артек»): дис. …канд. пед. наук
/ А.Г. Мурашова. – М., 2002. – 180 с.
8. Романенкова С.П. Педагогические условия процесса самореализации подростка во
временном детском объединении: автореф. дисс.... канд. пед. наук / С.П.Романенкова. -москва, 2007.
-21 с.
9. Чунихина Л.В. Актуализация ресурсов личностного развития детей в условиях детского
лагеря// Все лучшее детям! Страницы педагогического поиска «Артека». – М.: Новое образование,
2015. –С. 4-15.

Аннотация. В статье рассмотрена динамика взаимоотношений во временном детском коллективе,


выделены основные психологические особенности взаимоотношений подростков на разных этапах развития
временного детского коллектива.
Ключевые слова: подростки, временный детский коллектив, метод социометрии, сплоченность,
изолированные, лидеры, совместная деятельность.
Summary. The article is devoted to dynamics of relations in a temporary children's group of teenagers. Also is
considered, the basic psychological features of relations of teenagers at different stages of development of time
children's group.
Keywords: teenagers, temporary children's group, sociometry method, group cohesion, outsiders, leaders.

23
УДК 159.9.07
TEENAGER‟S MOTIVATION FOR SPORTS LESSONS
Alexandra Grishina
6-class pupil, School № 14,
Sevastopol
Anastasiya Grishina
Scientific Advisor, PhD in Psychology,
Department of General Psychology,
Sevastopol Economic and Humanitarian Institute,
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University
e-mail: nast_kostsova@mail.ru

The problem of motivation and sports motivation is one of the main problems in psychology. The
abundance of scientific theories on the problem of motivation is accompanied by a variety of points of view
on their nature, the features of its formation and specificity. Many scientific works were devoted to the
problem of motivation. It was studied by native psychologists (V.G. Aseev, V.K. Vilunas, A.N. Leontiev,
V.S. Merlin, P.V. Simonov, D.N. Usnadze, P.M. Yakobson), both and foreign authors (G. Hall, A. Maslow
and others) [2,3,5].
Motivation for sports activities is presented in the works of E.N. Gogunov, Т.Т. Djamgarov, A.C.
Puni, R.J. Wallerand et al. [1,5,7]. It is especially important to study sports motivation at the teenagers, as
motivation for sports activity allows to form personal, emotional-volitional and intellectual qualities of a
person.
Specificity of sports motivation is competition - expressed as a person's striving to achieve a higher
sport result in the fight with other athletes. R.J. Wallerand proposed a model of sports motivation that
includes three components: internal or true motivation (the motive for learning new, the need for improving
one's own skills and achieving success, getting positive emotions); external motivation (shift in purpose,
aggravated sense of duty, need for social approval), and demotivation (a combination of the influence of
external and internal factors that reduce motivation for sports), which will be investigated empirically [7].
For the purpose of the study, the following psychodiagnostic techniques were used: questionnaire
„Scale of Sporting Motivation‖ (author - R.J. Vallerand in the adaptation V.I. Kasatkin, I.T. Vyhodets, K.A.
Bochaver, A.V. Kvitchasty) [4]; method of motivation to success (author - T. Ehlers).
The research was carried out in the «Secondary school № 14 named after I.S. Pianzin» during the
2017-2018 school year. The study involved 41 respondents aged 11-14 years. The average age of
respondents is 12,5 years.

25
22
21,37 20,25 20,5 20,24 19,75
19,79
20 18,33 18,58 18,51 18,03 18,41
Overage value

17,08 16,75
16,27

15 1 group

9,38 2 group
10

0
MLN NIS GPE SP AD NSA D S

Scale of Sport Motivation

Figure 1 – The average value of the questionnaire «Scale of Sport Motivation» and the methodology
«Motivation for Success». Conventions: MLN – the motive for learning new; NIS – the need for improving one's
own skills and achieving success; GPI – getting positive emotions; SP – shif t in purpose; AD – aggravated sense of
duty; NSA – need for social approval; D – demotivation; S – motivation for Success.

The group of students was divided into 2 subgroups: first subgroup - teenagers engaged in sports up
to 1 year (mean 7,7 months). It included 12 students, 9 of whom are boys and 3 girls; second subgroup -
teenagers involved in sports for more than 1 year (mean – 4,7 years). It included 29 students, of which 15 are

24
boys and 14 are girls. The following sports are presented: martial arts, football, basketball, horse riding,
tennis, gymnastics.
According to Figure 1, significant differences were found in teenagers groups on the «Demotivation»
scale (the difference is 8,65 points). This indicates that athletes who are engaged in sports for less than a year
tend to have different stress reactions in sports: they can quit training, do not control the situation, generally
feel uncomfortable in sports activities, in difference with teenagers who are engaged for a longer time.
Athletes of the second group, on the contrary, have low demotivation indicators (the average score is 9,38).
This indicates that the teenagers is developing consciously in the chosen sport: there is an internal need for
sports activity and to be successful in training and competitive processes.
In the group of athletes who are engaged more than 1 year the results are higher in «Internal
Motivation» (motives MNI, NIS, GPE) (the difference is – 1,47). This indicates that in the process of playing
sports the value of sports activities at teenagers is formed. The charge of positive emotions, the need to
develop in this sport and improve their technique are those components that come to the first place. If you
compare the results by the criterion «External motivation» (motives SP, AD, NSA), then in group 1 the
results are higher than in group 2 (the difference is 1,84).
This once again proves that initially a teenager comes into the sport for the sake of communicating
with peers, new equipment, a sense of duty («Everyone is engaged and I should). And, probably, at the first
stage, when the athlete is just beginning to get acquainted with the chosen sport, this is normal. But if the
external motivation prevails in the process of all sports training, then the sports results will remain only in
the form of a ghostly dream of the athlete.
Thus, this study was only the first step to study the specifics of motivation for sport at teenagers. In
the future, we would like to study the features of motivation in various sports (compare the specifics of
motivation in individual and group sports) and develop a psychological program to increase the internal
motivation of athletes.

References:
1. Гогунов, Е.Н. Психология физического воспитания и спорта: учебное пособие для
студентов высш. пед. учеб. заведений / Е.Н. Гогунов, Б.И. Мартьянов. – М.: Академия, 2003. – 288 с.
2. Ильин Е. П. Сущность и структура мотива / Е.П. Ильин // Психологический журнал. –
1995. – №2. – С. 25 – 29.
3. Ильин Е. П. Мотивация и мотивы / Е.П. Ильин. – СПб.: Питер, 2008. – 512 с.
4. Касаткин, В.И. К вопросу о диагностике спортивной мотивации: адаптация опросника
«Sport Motivation Scale» / Касаткин В.И., Выходец И.Т., Бочавер К.А. Квитчастый А.В. //
«Спортивный психолог». – М. : Издательство: Некоммерческое партнерство содействия развитию
физической культуры, спорта и туризма «Спортунивергрупп». — С.38 – 43 (из списка РИНЦ
https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=22876821)
5. Маслоу А. Мотивация и личность / Абрахам Маслоу. – СПб.: Питер - Москва, 2012. – 352 c.
6. Пуни А.Ц. Очерки психологии спорта / А.Ц. Пуни. — М. : Физкультура и спорт, 1999. —
176 с.
7. Vallerand, R. J. Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M.P. Zanna
(Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology / R. J. Vallerand. — New York: Academic Press, 1997.
– P. 271-360.

Аннотация. В статье представлены результаты эмпирического исследования спортивной мотивации


в подростковом возрасте. Изучили особенности внешней и внутренней мотивации на разных этапах
спортивной подготовки.
Ключевые слова: спорт, подросток, внешняя мотивация, внутренняя мотивация, демотивация.
Summary. The article presents the results of an empirical study of sports motivation at teenagers. We studied
the features of external and internal motivation at different stages of sports training.
Key words: sport, teenager, external motivation, internal motivation, demotivation.

25
УДК [37.013:37.091.212.5"372.6"]=111
PREPARING PHILOLOGY STUDENTS FOR WORK AS CAMP COUNSELORS
Artem Grishchuk
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: grishchuk-artem@mail.ru
Yekaterina Maslieva
Senior Lecturer,
Foreign Languages Department
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: maslieva_k@rambler.ru

The counselor is a teacher who works with the children's association. In educational organizations
(camps) counselors play one of the most important roles in educational systems.
The modern children's health camp is not just a place for rest and strengthening the health of the
child, it is also a special pedagogical system and a specific environment for development of children and
young people. Today, facilities for recreation and health of children provide a wide range of leisure
activities, starting with the programs for organizing a camp season (complex, profile, thematic), ending with
a variety of activities in which the child is involved (playful, productive, cultural-leisure, creative, sport
activities) [1, p. 12].
The main purpose of the camp is to create conditions in which entertainment and cognitive activities
are organically combined with the spiritual and moral upbringing and physical development of children;
upbringing which is aimed at acquiring and consolidating such moral qualities as obedience to the elder and
care for the younger, discipline and accuracy, open nature, initiative and responsibility.
The purpose of the preparation of students to work in the camp is to form a holistic view of the
students about the content and organization of professional pedagogical activity during this summer period,
the creation of a motivational and valuable attitude to the coming pedagogical activity. Among the tasks of
the training practice in the instructive-methodical camp there are: the preparation of students for work with
children, stressful situations, the development of responsible and creative attitude to work; the creation and
consolidation of the future group of counselors, the formation of comfortable psychological conditions
within the pedagogical group, the acquisition of teamwork skills; improvement of communicative,
organizational, analytical, diagnostic skills of students; systematization of knowledge on the formation and
management of temporary children's collective; acquisition of the technologies, forms and methods of
working with children in a children's health camp, rules for protecting the life and health of children. These
tasks of the training practice in the instructive-methodical camp are correlated with the types of professional
activity [2].
While working in the camp, the students form a system of competences that allows them to perform
the functions of a counselor in the conditions of the organizations of recreation and children's health
improvement. General cultural and professional competences, in the field of pedagogical activity include:
• the ability to think, generalize, analyze, perceive information, set goals and choose ways to achieve
it;
• the ability to understand the importance of culture as a form of human existence and to be guided in
its activity by modern principles of tolerance, dialogue and cooperation;
• readiness to use methods of physical education and self-education to improve the body's adaptive
reserves and promote health;
• the ability to build oral and written language logically true, argumentative and clear;
• readiness to interact with colleagues, to work in team;
• readiness to use the main methods of protection against possible consequences of accidents,
disasters, spontaneous actions;
• readiness to use normative legal documents in your activities;
• awareness of the social importance of your future profession, motivation to carry out your
professional activities;
• the ability to use systematized theoretical and practical knowledge of the humanities, social and
economic sciences in solving social and professional problems;
• possession of the basics of the speech professional culture;
• the ability to take responsibility for the results of your professional activities;

26
• readiness to join in interaction with parents, colleagues, social partners who are interested in
ensuring the quality of the teaching and upbringing process;
• readiness to ensure the protection of life and health of educated in the teaching and upbringing
process and off-hour activities [3].
The content of the preparation program for students has a modular structure. The first module
"Normative and legal bases of the activity of the children's health camp" is aimed at the development of the
regulatory and legal aspects of organizing summer holidays and improving children's health. As a result of
the development of the contents of the first module of the program, students get acquainted with the internal
documents of the children's health camp (the standard labor contract, internal labor regulations, the rules for
children staying in the camp, the Instruction on safety and labor protection, job descriptions). Students
determine the basic functions of the educator (counselor), his role in solving the problems of safety of life
and health in the camp, fix the main conceptual aspects of the forthcoming safety instructions with his
detachment, the basic rights and duties of children and adolescents in the camp, possible encouragements and
disciplinary punishments in the conditions of the camp, the list of documents required for employment [2].
The next module "Foundations of organizing the life of a children's health camp" reveals the features
of the organizational structure of the pedagogical group, the functions of its members, the students learn how
to conduct a planning meeting and participate in trainings for rallying the group. The module introduces the
organizational structure of the day in the camp; the peculiarities of the regime moments, students learn to
hold morning exercise, reflection of the day. The next significant part of information is the logic of the
development of the camp shift: periodization, pedagogical tasks and main activity. Students practice in the
support of the mottoes and the names of the detachments within the framework of a certain shift theme,
acquire the technique of decorating a detachment corner. An important theme of this module is
"Programming of the change of the children's health camp," which reveals the types and specifics of
pedagogical programs.
The camp shift program is the basic document of institutions of rest and health improvement of
children in the form of a structured description of the pedagogical idea reflecting the purpose, content and
system of work (pedagogical methods, methods and techniques) of the camp for a certain period [2].
One of the tasks of the module "Fundamentals of organizing the life of a children's health camp" is to
develop a thematic program for the shift. Moreover, students learn how to work with pedagogical
documentation - to make lists of detachments, work plans (for the shift and every day), they learn to keep a
diary of a counselor, shift analysis, a report on work, methodological developments.
The fourth module "Methods of organizing and directing children's events" is aimed at mastering the
technologies for preparing and holding camps events (the line for opening and closing of shift, rope course,
acquaintance with the territory of the camp), detachment and sports and recreational activities. Students
practice to write original scripts, correctly arrange groups for the event, practice council performances
(concerts, theatrical performances, lyric evenings), select the musical accompaniment, think of the
possibilities of using special effects [2].
The final module "Game technologies in camp conditions" - the most extensive one - reveals the
essence of game technology - the stages of the game, the specifics of games for children of different ages.
Practitioners play games for acquaintance, rallying, revealing leaders, creating a positive emotional mood,
working together, games on the beach, search games, station and psychological games, quests [2].
In the summer of 2017 I worked as a counselor in the international children's center Artek. Artek has
become for me the most vivid and unforgettable event of the summer. During this time, I managed to work
as a counselor in the detachment, and as a teacher-substitute. And I can say that any of these works gave me
great pleasure, but the greatest pleasure I received from working with children, from communicating with
them. I had a dance group from St. Petersburg "Style": children from 10 to 17 years. They are bright,
interesting, creative, and open. In many competitions they became winners in Artek. I remember very
friendly atmosphere among the counselors. I was very lucky with my partners. This was my first pedagogical
experience, everything was new, but my colleagues did not let me get lost. I remember the international shift,
in which I got acquainted with the children from Mexico, with whom I could improve my Spanish. I met
with translators from Moscow, and also had a chance to talk with the Chinese delegation (but in English).
In conclusion, as a result of the preparation, the student takes clear ideas about the aims, tasks,
periods and content of the life of the children's health camp; functional duties of a detachment counsel; the
student acquires knowledge of the theory of temporary children's groups, the age characteristics of children
and the forms and methods of work; gets acquainted with possible extreme situations in the children's health
camp and the peculiarities of the actions of the counsel in them. The future educator (counselor) learns to
draw up a plan for managing the detachment for the season, for a shift, for a day, taking into account the

27
contingent of children, their interests and opportunities, the general work plan and the specifics of the camp;
organize the implementation of the regime of the day, organize detachment and camp events of different
type, based on the specific interests of children and pedagogical tasks, involve children in different types of
creativity, sports sections and associations of interests. The student acquires the skills to establish and
maintain constructive business and personal relationships with colleagues (partners), solve conflicts and find
ways for getting out of difficult pedagogical situations in camp conditions, carry out self-analysis of
pedagogy, and also correct his behavior depending on the specific situation; to study the individual abilities,
interests and inclinations of children.

References:
1. Вожатый [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Вожатый
(дата обращения 6.02.18)
2. Кудряшова С.К., Кижаева Д. В., Сорокина Т. Н. Подготовка студентов педагогического
вуза к летней практике в детском оздоровительном лагере [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/podgotovka-studentov-pedagogicheskogo-vuza-k-letney-praktike-v-
detskom-ozdorovitelnom-lagere (дата обращения 8.02.18)
3. Педагогическое образование [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://www.google.com.ua/url?url=http://istf.pskgu.ru/file/34B5D62D73BF0370B869E773AF1F03FB&rct=
j&q=&esrc=s&sa=U&ved=0ahUKEwiVkOGOgaXZAhUD3CwKHZx_DYsQFggfMAI&usg=AOvVaw3nT
z_CgN45Bxvb9ts18oPK (дата обращения (14.02.18)

Аннотация. Статья посвящена подготовке студентов-филологов к работе вожатыми в детских


оздоровительных лагерях. Рассматриваются четыре главных подготовительных модуля к основным
обязанностям будущих вожатых.
Ключевые слова: вожатый, детский лагерь, организация мероприятий, подготовка, практика.
Summary. The article deals with students-philologists training to the counselor work in children‘s health
camps. Four main modules for the preparation to the future counselors‘ main responsibilities are given in the article.
Key words: counselor, children‘s camp, organization of events, preparation, practice

УДК 373.811
DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS OF THE FIRST-YEAR PHILOLOGY STUDENTS VIA
ROLE-PLAYING

Elizaveta Ermakova
3rd year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: lizaveta1997@mail.ru
Irina Osadchaya
Senior Lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The relevance of our research is confirmed by the outlook for upgrading school teaching, to
perfecting teaching process due to new methodic.
The aim of our study is to show the benefits of using the role-play which lets students get rid of
communicative barriers in talking and increase the speaking practice in an easy and relaxed manner.
It stands to reason that the accelerated development of our country in social and economic spheres
forces up some demands for individual qualities. That is why such attributes as will, imagination, autonomy
in decision-making, sense of purpose, zeal and other are to be formed on purpose, as they can‘t appear on
their own. Hence there emerges the need to schedule educational establishments in that way, so that they
could help to form the listed qualities.

28
If we set a task to teach a student to communicate in foreign language (FL) it is better to do that in
the conditions of simulated communication, i.e. our tutorial is to be organized to make it similar to the
process of intercourse in its main characteristics. We would like to remind of the beneficial traits
communication assumes: the joy of communication, exchange of information, emotional empathy, mutual
self-enrichment, the feeling of being in community, the solidarity of interests and aims. But it also requires
special conditions to form the abilities of communication, e.g. motivation, the desire to share some
information, favorable conditions for realization. What is more, participants of interaction should possess the
needed language material, the skill of intercourse with different partners in order to derive communication
from the cognitive control. There are some well-known types of communication: socially oriented, content-
based and person-oriented [1].
One of the most important practical tasks is to put a student into the foreign communicative function
in some conditions typical for his real activities. Such involvements into practical situations where a student
is to perform as the subject of the action, its mover and originator, approximates the process of FL teaching
in universities to exact needs of the modern society.
Scholars [2, p.134] believe that the level of knowledge in FL is specified by quantitative and
qualitative sides of speech. In conditions where the group of students discusses some problems the need to
talk out of the topic, to determine the order of participation and to generalize information falls away.
Students have a chance to set forth their points of view, agree or disagree with their groupmates and make
conclusions. Such kind of the verbal independence provides the elevation of the students‘ autoregulation
level. It should be mentioned that the collective organization of communication helps to improve not only
one‘s speech practice, but also the FL practice, as in any group a participant becomes the bearer of both his
own information, and communication of his partners.
We would like to observe 3 methods that are to provide the general mechanism of collective
communication. In the 1st group there are methods oriented on the training to request information (the
application to inform about something or ask for details).
The methods of the 2nd group are to maintain the collective communication, they provide definite
coherency of verbal interaction, the logical move from one utterance to another and teach to realize some
non-conventional stereotypes of behavior (tolerance, attention, composure). In order to identify similar or
opposite positions on the topic discussed, to enter the conversation yourself, to engage other people into it or
to query new information, all the partners of communication should be taught ―links-overpasses‖. Such
communicative act is realized with the following:
Remarks of consent/dissent: Right, I feel the same; As for me, I think; As I see it; To my mind; I‘m
afraid you are mistaken; Excuse me, I don‘t see your meaning, etc.
Complementing and expanding the utterance remarks:More than that; Besides; To make the things
worse, etc.
Qualifying remarks: As for me; I think; Well; I suppose; I believe, etc.
Qualifying questions: And what‘s your idea about this? What makes you feel so? Where have you got
your information?
Advice and promises to each other: Next time I‘ll be more careful; I think you must be more tolerant;
I‘m always ready to help you; You‘re welcome
Generalizing assessments: On the whole; In general; Summing up all you‘ve said; Lets come to the
conclusion; So what is the result?
Emotional reaction: That‘s rather strange (awful, nice); Brilliant, Just on the contrary, But I do think
so
In order to make students not to avoid intricate situations when revealing his or her positions in
collective communication they must be taught so-called ―provocative questions‖ which will help to deepen
the analysis of the conversation problematic plot, to join one another to the verbal interactions, to express
one‘s point of view sincerely. These actions are realized with the help of:
Such questions: And if you were in his shoes would you act in this way?
The subjective estimation of one of the communication participants by another one, whose point of
view is different: You‘re boasting! I don‘t think so because…
Ironic remarks: So there you are! Why should you?
The methods of the 3rd group are to form the ability to make conclusions on the topic discussed.
Students should know how to sum up the most productive variants into micro-conclusions and on their basis
draw the total conclusion taking into account all points of view expressed during the conversation: So, I
think we are right. He is too ambitious to fulfil the task.
Let‘s take as an example of a role-play the following situation:

29
A group of guides suggests possible sightseeing routes about London to their boss. Each one speaks
in favour of his/her suggestion trying to convince both the director and the guides that the route is the best.
In the end the participants of the talk choose the most appropriate route.
The students should use the following expressions of (dis)agreement, suggestion and advise: Please;
I‘m afraid; I suggest; Why don‘t we..?; Could you; Well, my opinion is that..; My view is that..; You are
right.. but all the same; I dare say..
We keep to the thought that the most productive way of organizing the collective communication at
the lecture period is the educational discussion in the form of the verbal game which analyses the
information received and where every participant is able to express his opinion.
The role-play makes it possible to organize the process of communication in a more natural and
exciting way. Informal relations in the group during the game also add to the result. In our opinion the role-
play lets students get rid of communicative barriers in talking and increase the speaking practice in an easy
and relaxed manner. Thus the role-play contributes to the realization of the general methodological concept
of the communicative trend.

References:
1. Леонтьев А.А. Педагогическое общение / А.А. Леонтьев. – М.: Знание, 1979 – С. 5-61.
2. Носенко Э.Л. Пути реализации коммуникативного подхода к развитию умений и навыков
иноязычной речи (на материале исследований, проводимых в англоязычных странах) // ИЯШ. – 1990.
– №2. – С.40-45.
3. Пассов Е.И. Коммуникативный метод обучения иноязычному говорению / Е.И. Пассов. –
М.: Наука,1985 –168с.

Аннотация: Ролевая игра имеет огромный потенциал моделирования отношений между людьми в
реальной жизни. Игровая деятельность позволяет учитывать интересы студентов, расширяет контекст их
деятельности и выступает как эффективное средство создания мотива к иноязычному диалоговому
общению, а также помогает реализации деятельностного подхода в обучении иностранным языкам, где в
центре внимания находится непосредственно обучающийся. Создаваемая в ролевой игре ситуация общения
приближает речевую деятельность вовремя занятия к реальной коммуникации и дает возможность
использовать вербальные и невербальные средства общения.
Ключевые слова: групповое общение, вербальная игра, игровая деятельность, языковая практика,
деятельный подход в обучении
Summary. The role-play has enormous potential for modeling different relations between students in reality.
Role-playing takes into account students‘ interests, expands the scope of their activities, acts as an effective approach
for creating motivation for the FL dialogue, can realize the activity-oriented method in FL teaching with the student in
the centre of attention. The situation of communication simulated in the role-play allows a teacher to use the FL as
means of communication foregrounding either verbal or non-verbal.
Keywords: collective communication, verbal game, speaking practice, Game activity, activity-oriented method

УДК 159.9
FEATURES OF ADDICTORS TO VIDEOBLOGGING AS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF
INTERNET ADDICTION
Nataliya Zhigalina
rd
3 year student, Psychology faculty
P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University
e-mail: ZhigalinaTasha@gmail.com
Yuliya Filippova
Scientific advisor, Ph.D. in Education,
Organizational and Labor Psychology Department,
P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University

Nowadays, the Internet has entered the life of every person so deep, that it is difficult to imagine how
people did without it 10-15 years ago. Users have several communication options at once: text messages,

30
photos, voice and video calls over Skype, etc.
A few years ago such a phenomenon as an online diary or blog appeared. Previously, it was only
text, which could include photos or other multimedia. Now any person can upload video and communicate
with the viewer in the comments. Videoblogging is a new phenomenon, but it is rapidly gaining popularity in
all countries of the world. Each user now can see how people live in Japan or what they talk about in
England. So more and more people are subscribing to videobloggers, falling under their influence, and often
even becoming dependent on such videos.
That is why research in the field of Internet addiction is extremely important and relevant not only
for our country, but also for the whole world.
In accordance with this, the following goals and tasks were set in our work.
The purpose of the research is to study the issues of formation and demonstration of Internet
addiction in general and dependence on videoblogging in particular.
This general goal is specified in the following tasks:
1. To Analyse the concept of psychological dependence and consider the features of dependence on
videoblogging, as a particular type of dependence.
2. To describe the psychological symptoms of video addiction on YouTube video sharing.
At the first stage of the research, the diagnosis of the level of propensity to watch videos on the
Internet was carried out, determined with the help of the author‘s test.
At the first stage of data processing, the relationship between age and sex was determined with a
tendency to watch videos on the Internet. The results showed that there were no significant sex differences in
the propensity to watch video clips and videoblogs.
The test was developed by us on the basis of the symptoms of the tendency to view video clips and
video blogs and the operationalization of the corresponding factors. So the following symptoms of this
phenomenon were identified as:
1. Loss of dose control and sense of proportion.
2. Changing the way of life.
3. Emotional disorders.
4. Physiological changes.
Further, the signs corresponding to these symptoms were determined and operationalized in the form
of questions.
The lack of gender differences attribute to the fact that both young men and women can find
interesting information for them in video clips. Women and men both have channels on YouTube. So the
videos can be interesting for both.
Our results show a tendency toward a negative correlation between the propensity to blogging and
the age of the subjects. This means that younger people are more likely to be affected by this phenomenon
(the sample included subjects aged 13-25). This corresponds to the results of G.U Soldatova [3], who notes
that teenagers are generally more dependent on the Internet and on watching videos, which is due to their
openness to a new and relatively large amount of free time.
In general, the following the results of the research, the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. There is a tendency to a significant negative correlation of the dependence on videoblogs with age.
It can be assumed that adolescents are more susceptible to video addiction.
2. Dependence on video and video blogs is not related to gender, it is equally affected by both girls
and boys.

References:
1. Войскунский А.Е. Психологические исследования феномена интернет-аддикции //
Материалы Второй Российской конференции по экологической психологии / Под ред.
А.Е. Войскунского. М.: Экопси-центр РОСС, 2000. – С. 251-253.
2. Мехтиханова, Н.Н. Психология зависимого поведения : учебное пособие /
Н.Н. Мехтиханова; Яросл. гос. ун-т. – Ярославль : ЯрГУ, 2005. – 122 с.
3. Солдатова Г.У. Чрезмерное использование интернета детьми – зависимость или новый
образ жизни: Данные межрегионального исследования // Материалы научного семинара EU Kids
Online III. Германия, 2012.

Аннотация: Понятие «видеоблогг» появилось совсем недавно, но уже занимает прочное место в
социальной среде интернета. Сейчас видеоблог – это не просто площадка для творчества и выражения себя,
а вполне рабочий инструмент массовой коммуникации. С каждым днѐм число зрителей таких видеороликов

31
растѐт, и всѐ больше людей попадают под влияние видеоблоггеров, становятся аддиктами.
Данная статья посвящена проблеме интернет-зависимости, в частности, зависимости от
видеороликов и видеоблоггов. В работе рассмотрена проблема выявления природы зависимости от
видеоблоггов, представлены результаты последних исследований, касающихся взаимосвязи зависимости от
видеороликов с возрастом и полом.
Ключевые слова: зависимое поведение, интернет-зависимость, видеоблоггинг.
Summary: The concept of video blog appeared quite recently, but has occupied a strong position in the social
environment of the Internet. Now the video blog is not just a platform for creativity and expression of oneself, but a
working tool for mass communication. Every day the number of viewers of such videos grows, and more and more
people get under the influence of video bloggers, become addicts.
This article is devoted to the problem of Internet addiction, in particular, on videobloggs. Here discusses the
problem of identify nature of video blogs, presents the results of the recent studies, the relationship between the
dependence on the video clips with age and gender.
Key words: dependent behavior, Internet addiction, videobloggs.

УДК 159.9.072.422
THE SIMILARITES AND DIFFERENCES OF INDIVIDUAL PECULIARITES OF TWINS‟
COUPLE
Dariya Kostsova
pupil of the 8th grade,
Sevastopol school № 14,
e-mail: mashasev@mail.ru
Mariya Kostsova
Scientific Advisor, PhD in Psychology,
Psychology Department,
Sevastopol State University

In the psychology there is a psychodiagnostic method allows to appraise the level of social
surrounding influence on people with the similar. This method innate features genotype. The object of
research is innate and acquired characteristics at the twins‘ couple. The subject of the research is similarities
and differences in the twins couple. The goal of this work is theoretical and empirical researching of
similarities and differences in the twins couple. The tasks of the work: to lead theoretical analysis of
similarities and differences in the twins couple ,twins method in psychology and to find out the similarities
and differences of twins individual peculiarities.
The twins‘ method was proposed for the first time by Francis Galton in 1875 [2]. Various
modifications of this method were proposed by A.Gezell, A.R. Luria et al. [3, 4].
There are two types of twins: monozygotic and dizygotic. Monozygotic twins are formed from a
single zygote, divided into two or more parts at the stage of crushing. From a genetic point of view, they are
identical; they have the same gene set, they are always of the same sex.
Dizygotic twins develop if two ovules are simultaneously fertilized with two spermatozoa, then
twins have different genotypes, they are similar to each other no more than brothers and sisters and have
about 50% of identical genes. They can be either same-sex or t-sex.
Monozygotic and dizygotic twins have an important characteristic that unites them - their
intrauterine development and subsequent growth (education, character formation, personal development)
take place under the same conditions. Thus, the genetic basis of monozygotic twins is the same, so it is so
interesting for geneticists, psycho genetics, and in general in psychology [3].
The twin method is used in science more often; therefore it is important to take into account the
specifics of its conduct. In order to fulfill it, two main factors must be taken into account: the development of
environment and the absence of differences between twins.
For the empirical study, 4 pairs of twins were selected, 3 pairs - monozygotic twins and one pair -
dizygotic twins. Twins at the age from 11 to 40, 2 pairs - female, 1 pair - male and 1 pair - mixed.
To study the innate and acquired features of the twins, the following methods were used: G.
Eysenck's method - to identify the type of temperament; a constructive figure of F.Ermoshin's person [1], a
questionnaire - a survey about hobbies, as well as methods of descriptive and mathematical statistics.

32
Thanks to empirical data, we compared congenital and acquired properties in 4 pairs of twins.
100% coincidence was found for the type of temperament (to confirm this assumption, we used the
method of mathematical statistics - the Mann-Whitney U criterion, at U cr = 1 for p≤0,05.) The significant
differences in the scale of extraversion / introversion in the groups of twins are not U ex = 8 at p≤0,05, also
on the stability / instability scale U ex = 4 for p≤0,05) and 0% mismatch by personality types. The obtained
data on types of temperament are presented in Figure 1.

40
21
35
18
30 13
25 11
13 extraversion - introversion
20 11
17 stability - instability
15 16 15 14 7
10 9 9 9
7
5
0 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Figure 1 – Indicators on temperament properties in 4 pairs of twins, 8 subjects, where 1 row -


extraversion rates - introversion and 2 series - indicators: stability - instability

Proceeding from the data obtained using the method "The constructive figure of a person", the
following dominant personality types were identified: the leader (25%), the scientist (25%), the intuitive (12,
5%), and 12.5% identified types: performer and anxious. The coincidence in twin pairs is 0%.
That is, our small empirical study shows that in the presence of the same genotype - the type of
temperament in monozygotic twins is identical, and the type of personality, hobbies, hobbies already have
differences, since these acquired personal characteristics can change in the lifetime under the influence of the
twins themselves (desire differ from each other), the characteristics of relationships in the family, in society
as a whole.
This work pointed to the importance of the twin method in psychological research. In the future, the
most interesting is, from our point of view, the correlation of such individual personality traits in the twin
couples as value orientations, professional interests, orientation and cognitive processes.

References:
1. Ермошин А. Ф. Конструктивный рисунок человека в дифференциальной диагностике
пограничных психических расстройств / А.Ф. Ермошин // Вопросы ментальной медицины и
экологии. – 2002. – Том VIII, №1, – С. 75–81.
2. Равич-Щербо И. В. Метод близнецов в психологии и психофизиологии / И.В. Равич-Щербо.
// Проблемы генетической психофизиологии человека. – М., 1998. – С. 22-47.
3. Розанов В.А. Основы биологии и генетики человека: Учебное пособие для студентов-
психологов / В.А. Розанов. – Одесса: ВМВ, 2009. – С. 299 – 310.
4.Штерн К. Основы генетики человека / К. Штерн. – М., 1995. – 689 с.

Аннотация. В данной научной работе представлен теоретический анализ проблемы индивидуальных


различий в паре близнецов. В психологии существует метод в психодиагностике, который называется
близнецовым. Этот метод позволят оценить степень влияния социального окружения на людей с
одинаковыми врожденными свойствами, генотипом. То есть наше небольшое эмпирическое исследование
показывает, что при наличии одинакового генотипа – тип темперамента у монозиготных близнецов
идентичен, а тип личности, увлечения, хобби уже имеют отличия, так как это приобретенное и может
изменяться в процессе жизни.
Ключевые слова: близнецы, близнецовый метод, врожденные и приобретенные свойства личности.
Summary. In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the problem of individual differences in a pair of twins is
presented. In psychology, there is a method in psychodiagnostics, which is called a twin. This method will allow to
assess the degree of influence of the social environment on people with the same innate properties, genotype. That is,

33
our little empirical study shows that in the presence of the same genotype - the type of temperament in monozygotic
twins is identical, and the type of personality, hobbies, hobbies already have differences, as this is acquired and can
change in the course of life.
Key words: twins, twin method, innate and acquired personality properties.

УДК 37.022
THE METHOD OF MUTUAL LEARNING, PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY
Alina Lapteikina
1st year student,
Department of Theory and Practice of English,
Gomel State University of Francisk Skorina
e-mail: lapteykinaa@mail.ru
Olga Shvailikova
Scientific advisor, lecturer,
Department of Theory and Practice of English,
Gomel State University of Francisk Skorina

―He who teaches, learns himself‖


Joseph Lancaster

At the beginning of the 19th century, the Lancaster system of mutual learning spread throughout the
world. Such schools were created in various countries. They received their name after the founder Joseph
Lancaster, the English teacher, who was engaged in free education of poor children and developed an
original system of education.
It is striking how huge the area in which the Lancaster system was spread – Western Europe, North
and South America, Africa and Asia. Russia also became one of the European countries, where the Lancaster
system was used quite successfully.
A large number of articles have been written about Lancaster schools in Russia, but there is some
problem as far as Belarus is concerned. Very few academic papers provide us with the information about
that. Therefore, the question related to the advance of mutual learning on the territory of Belarus needs to be
addressed.
In the 19th century Belarus was a part of Russia. In the fall of 1817 a young teacher Jacob Gerd
arrived from London to St. Petersburg. He was destined to become the constitutor of the first Belarusian
school of mutual instruction. J. Gerd was a little more than 18 years at that time, and his way lay to Mogilev
province, to the city of Gomel, where in the stead of the State Chancellor of the Russian Empire,
Earl N. P. Rumiantsev the opening of the first Russian school of hard work and mutual instruction was to
take place. At the time when J. Gerd was in London four Russian students (A. Obodovsky, F. Busse,
M. Timayev and K. Svenske) arrived there in order to be trained in the method which was widely used in
public schools of England. J. Gerd became friends with them and began to teach them English, and they in
their turn taught him Russian. Together, they passed their exams and received certificates certifying they had
mastered the Lancaster method [4, p. 4].
We cannot but give a brief description of the method of mutual learning, which in the history of
pedagogy was also known as Bell-Lancaster system of education. It is believed that this system was invented
by the British. It is reported that in 1790 the priest A. Bell used this method when he was teaching at a
military school.
Bell-Lancaster method consisted in the fact that in mutual learning the students were distributed into
small classes, the most capable pupils were assigned to teach each class. They passed on to the class all the
necessary knowledge that they had previously acquired from their teacher. These students were called
monitors. The education was conducted at definite time and in strict sequence. There was a special system of
rewards and punishments that helped maintain discipline [2, p. 4]. The number of subjects taught in this way
was small: reading, writing, arithmetic and the Law of God.
What attracted in the method of mutual instruction the reformers of Russian education in the first
half of the 19th century?

34
The main reason for the success of these schools was the extreme simplicity and cheapness of their
organization. It was necessary to have only a room and one teacher, and the school could accept several
hundred students, which was absolutely impossible with other educational systems. Savings were and on the
purchase of teaching aids. There were no books except the Bible. Instead of books, special tables with
printed letters and numbers on them were used. What is more, writing-materials for pupils were also cheap:
they wrote on sand or slate boards. In such schools, students showed faster and better results in mastering the
material than in ordinary ones.
Education in Gomel vocational school was conducted according to complex programs of two
categories. In the first category writing and reading were taught, and arithmetic was studied in the second
category. The placement of pupils in the classes depended on their performance. Moreover, for negligent
students there were labels like ―lazybones‖, ―monkey‖, ―untidy‖, ―chatterbox‖, ―naughty‖, ―inattentive‖,
while the best students were given the label ―the first‖. No label was fixed once and for all.
Classes in Belarusian schools of mutual learning were held every day, except Sundays and holidays.
The schedule was as follows: from 9 am to 11 am pupils were taught science; from 1pm to 3pm they were
taught craft [4, p. 4].
It was considered that such system of education takes into account the abilities of students and helps
them to be successful [1, p. 4]. In accord with this method students were taught the basic rules of a person's
life in society, what allowed them to master social culture. Children successfully learned social standards,
attitudes and values [3, p. 4].The strictness of the fulfillment of tasks contributed to the formation of
discipline among students.
Clarity in the organization of education, cheapness, easiness and speed of training of a large number
of students at the same time are the key to the success of schools with mutual learning.
So, the experience of spreading the method of mutual instruction is a bright page in the history of
Russian and Belarusian pedagogy, which retains its significance for modern pedagogical theory and practice.
The ideas of the developing nature of mutual instruction, dialogue in mutual learning, the use of the potential
of each student while pupils teach each other, the most complete realization of the principle of immediate
transfer of knowledge are still looking for ways of its worthy application. Thus, the pedagogical experience
of the past years can help us in solving the most important problems of searching for effective educational
technologies.

References:
1. Калинина Е. А. Плюсы и минусы метода взаимного обучения в России в первой половине
XIX в. // Начальная школа. – 2014. – № 11. – С. 77- 80.
2. Литвинов С. В. Ланкастерские школы в России // Русская речь. – 2007. – № 1. – С. 87- 92.
3. Скляренко И. С. Ценности образования в системе взаимного обучения: к истории вопроса
[Электронный ресурс] // Электронное научное издание Альманах Пространство и Время.– URL:
https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/tsennosti-obrazovaniya-v-sisteme-vzaimnogo-obucheniya-k-istorii-voprosa
(дата обращения: 26.02.2018)
4. Телешов С. В. Ланкастерская школа в России // Адукацыя і выхаванне. – 2006. – № 12. – С.
71-74.

Аннотация. В статье рассматривается проблема распространения системы взаимного обучения на


территории Беларуси, история и принципы взаимного обучения, а также его ценность.
Ключевые слова: взаимное обучение, метод Ланкастера, Яков Герд, мониторы.
Summary. The article considers the problem of the spreading of the system of mutual instruction in Belarus,
the history and principles of mutual learning and its value.
Key words: mutual instruction, Lancaster method, Jacob Gerd, monitors.

35
УДК 372.881.111.1=111
EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: ADAVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Alice Melnikova
3d year student,
Theory and Practice of translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: alice98mel@gmail.com
Natalya Delvig
Scientific advisor, PhD in Pedagogy,
Theory and Practice of translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

When parents face the problem of early childhood education for the first time, they can have a lot of
questions: ―If early childhood education is really necessary? When is it better to start teaching child a foreign
language? Isn‘t it too tiring for the child? How to optimize the learning process?‖
Referring to numerous researches both domestic and foreign psychologists claim that in general, a
child learns a foreign language more easily than an adult. But the ―ideal age‖ is defined in different ways.
For example W.G. Penfield and R. Roberts define it from 4 to 8, T. Eliot – from 1,5 to 7.
The majority of researchers agree that the best age to start lessons with children is from 3 to 10
years, as up to 3 it is pointless and after 10 it is useless [2].
It‘s connected with the fact that the kids aren‘t afraid of making mistakes while the adults are more
concentrated on accuracy being afraid of their group mates‘ backside critics.
The modern linguists distinguish two parameters of studying the language: accuracy - which is
typical for adults and fluency - which is typical for children. It goes without saying that fluency is much
more appreciated than accuracy and indicates the high level of the language knowledge.
We have reviewed different age gaps and tried to find all advantages and disadvantages of teaching
child in this or those age.
To start from the very beginning it‘s worth mentioning about teaching the babies. It stands to reason
that it‘s impossible to a baby to attend a linguistic school or to hire a tutor for him, so during this period of a
child‘s life parents can rely only on their own skills and knowledge. The teaching process is a passive one.
The child just subconsciously memorizes what he or she frequently hear: songs, fairy-tales, etc.
On the one hand this age is perfect to start teaching your child as the baby is very receptive to any
information; attention, memory of the child - everything is aimed at obtaining new knowledge from parents;
you can instill in your child an intuitive perception of the language; moreover, it has been established that
children who learn a language when they are very young have a much better chance of not having a
―foreign‖ accent when speaking another language.
On the other hand if parents do not speak the language very well, learning a foreign language from
birth can only make harm to the baby; learning a foreign language can also have a negative impact on
learning the native language; some psychologists believe that babies are not psychologically ready to learn a
foreign language.
Our next observation concerns the age group from 2 to 4 years. Most educators and psychologists
insist that this is the most universal age to make a start in the world of English. Besides, in the process of
learning the language, you can develop the child's small motor skills, attention, perseverance, imagination
and many other skills.
Speaking about advantages, they are the directionality of a child‘s think-tanks to learning the
language; the child has already developed certain language skills in mastering of his native language; the
game becomes one of the main means of getting knowledge about the world around, and therefore, with its
help, it is easy to help the child master the necessary knowledge and skills, that‘s why a game method is
considered the most effective.
But at the same time there are some disadvantages which should be taken into account, such as if the
process of learning a language is not carried out in the form of a game - the child can quickly lose interest in
it; there is a risk, in the case of the wrong organization of the educational process, it can form a negative
emotional background in relation to learning the language; at the age of three, the child is experiencing one
of the age-related crises, so an additional load may not have a very good effect on the kid.
At last the age from 5 to 7. At this age, the child quickly enriches the vocabulary of his native
language, children actively communicate with their peers, learn to listen to them. That is why at this age the
most acceptable option for learning English is in the group. The child has enough knowledge about the world

36
around him and his attention becomes more concentrated. In addition the kid is well developed in self-
organization skills and his memory capacity increases.
Nevertheless there always some problems parent and children can face like stress which the child
feels because of transition from kindergarten to school; usually there is English in the school curriculum, but
its study occurs as a standard study of any other subject - at the desk, under the guidance of the teacher
which again can make a child feel bored and discourage him from further education.
Thus, we can make the conclusion that early childhood education may be both negative and positive
factor in the further development of the child. It‘s important to be sure that it corresponds to the internal
psychological development of the child, and is organized in accordance with a child‘s age and psychological
characteristics. It shouldn‘t interfere in the natural course of things, but should use and activate the
opportunities that the child has at every stage of its development in a maximum amount.

References:
1. Агурова Н.В. Гвоздецкая Н.Д. Английский язык в детском саду. – М., 1963.
2. Пенфильд В., Робертс Л. Речь и мозговые механизмы. – Л.: Медицина, 1964. – С. 217
3. Песталоцци И.Г. Избранные педагогические сочинения: в 2-х т. Т.2. – М.: Педагогика, 1981.
– 416 с.

Аннотация. В настоящее время, в связи с прогрессивным развитием общества, наблюдается все


больший интерес к раннему обучению детей. Особенно актуальным стал вопрос: «В каком возрасте дети
могут заниматься изучением иностранного языка?». Но этот возрастной фактор - не более чем условный
критерий. Но все же, педагоги, лингвисты и психологи все чаще говорят о том, что существует оптимальный
возраст для изучения иностранного языка. В этой статье мы рассмотрели проблему идеального возраста для
того чтобы начать изучать иностранные языки.
Ключевые слова: иностранный язык, обучение в раннем возрасте, идеальный возраст, стадия
развития.
Summary. Nowadays, in connection with the progressive development of society the interest to early childhood
education is increasing. The question ―What is the best age for the children to start learning a foreign language?‖ has
become extremely topical. This age is not more than just a criteria, as it‘s only an individual aspect. Nevertheless,
educators, linguists and psychologists talk about the fact that there is a suitable age for learning a foreign language
more and more. The article touches upon the problem of an ideal age for starting to learn a foreign language.
Key words: foreign language, early childhood education, ideal age, stage of development.

УДК37.022

THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF BLENDED LEARNING AND ICT-COMPETENCE OF THE


TEACHER
Marina Osipova
Lecturer, Foreign Languages Department,
Kerch State Maritime Technological University,
e-mail: osipovand@ukr.net

The last few decades we have witnessed that we live in period of information and communication
technologies which touch education sector. At the end of XXthcentury a lot of companies started to introduce
new method of education: e- learning. But later it became obviously that only apart of information can be
successfully explained and mastered with a help of e-learning.
Only combination of traditional and information technologies is considered to be the way of
education updating. So series of studies showed the tendency of blended learning development.
The definitionof blended learning includes combination of formal and non-formalmethods(online
digital media with traditional classroom).
C. Graham considers that blended learning is such a method which integrates traditional and
computer- aided teaching in educationalprocess [4]. According to K. Kun the aim of blended learning is to
combine advantages of intramural form of study and electronic resources[1].
So blended learning is an educational conception which allows students to gain knowledge with the
help of Information and Computer Technology(internet) and teacher (classroom).

37
The main elements of blended learning are lectures and practical classes, seminars, learning
materials(books), online communication (chat forum, e-mail).
Blended learning consists of 3 stages: e-learning, working intheclassroom and passing an
examination.
In the process of blended learning we don‘t change the purposes but means and methods of their
achievements are changed. Monitoring system of knowledge receives new possibilities: application of
monitoring system together with traditional methods.
There are many difficulties to be encountered in the process of blended learning: the development of
necessary information and its transformation intoelectronic learning resource to provide maximum
efficiencyto students‘ studying.
That‘s why training aids developed by the teacher are the most useful. They arecomprehensible
andeasy-to-use.
Blended learning doesn‘t refuse classical learning model because intramural form of study gives
important speech and sociocultural skills and has its own emotional component.
Blended learning comes in many shapes and sizes – there is no right way or wrong way, no correct
formula or single ―right‖ ratio of face-to-face, online time and self-paced activities in and beyond the
classroom. Each approach is based on the needs of students, the curriculum and the resources available.[3]
The main aim of the teacher is to work out and divide training material correctly. It is advisable to
give basic material at the lessonsand additional material which is necessary for enlarging knowledge must be
studied at home.
The efficiency of blended learning is observed when studying foreign languages because it provides
real-life communication, on-line reading, and watching video facilitating ofwords memorizing.
The model of blended learning has a number of advantages and disadvantages.
From a pedagogical perspective, blended learning aims to incorporate the best aspects of face-to-face
classroom learning experiences with the best of mobile and online learning experiences[3].
The main advantages are: the possibility of data collection and customization of knowledge and
marks, simultaneous education of students‘ group, distribution of learning and informationresources between
students and development of independent learning skills,increasing of student‘s interest in getting
knowledge.
Thus blended learning realizes:
 two-waycommunication
 increasing in learning
 training of technology skills in online courses and creating their own digital information
 increasing in―student – teacher‖interaction through different discussion forums and blogs
 the possibility to learn anytime and anywhere
 the ability to reserve face-to-face time for interactive activities, such as higher-level discussions,
small group work, debates, demonstrations, or lab activities
 some level of control
It is concluded that blended learning promotes us to organize our work independently, to get and
analyse knowledge, to find and process information, to be responsible for decision making, to develop self-
education skills.
However,in spite of all advantages it should be noted that above mentioned learning has some
disadvantages connected with reluctance of teachers to use e-learning due tolow skills levelof information
and communications technologies and absence of teaching methods and career development systemin the
field of electronic technologies.
Implementationof blended learning requires hard work from the teacher.
It was found that students haveskills of workingonline. Almost every group has its own web page,
where exchange of information is carried out. Thus we can say that students are ready to use such kind of
education.
Readiness of the teacher to use computer and informational technologies is the main condition
forinformatization of education. The implementation of information and communications technologies (ICT)
will improve educational process and make education available and effective, it will alsoprepare for life in
information society.
Nowadays educational system requires that every teacher must have skills for using computer
technologies whileworking with students or colleagues. A great number of teachers who use ICTis found. It
helps to form ICT –competence.
ICT – competence of the teacher means the use of ICT for carrying out information activity such as:

38
 to organize information interaction between the participants of educational process
 to use ICT
 to carry out data collection, information processing
All above –mentioned skills are necessary for ICT – competence.
Thus, ICT competence is compulsory componentof teacher‘sprofessional competency. It allows to
use up-to-date technics and be in progress with information environment.
Blended learning gives to teacher the following:
 to inform students in such way which was not possible earlier
 to increase the level of learning information
 toimprovestudents‘ results
 to make the students‘ motivation higher.
It is concluded that traditional education becomes irrelevant and our future may depend on blended
learning.

References:
1. Кун К. E-Learning – электронное обучение // Информатика и образование. – 2006. – №10. –
С. 16-18.
2. Alonso Díaz L.&BlázquezEntonado F. Are the Functions of Teachers in e-Learning and Face-to-
Face Learning Environments Really Different? //Educational Technology & Society. – 2009. – № 12 (4). –
P. 331-343.
3. Blended learning: A synthesis of research findings in Victorian education2006-2011
[Электронныйресурс]. – URL:http://www.education.vic.gov.au. (датаобращения 20. 01.2017)
4. Bonk C.J. & Graham C. R. Handbook of blended learning: Global Perspectives, local designs. –
San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing, 2005.
5. Garrison R &Vaughan N. Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework, Principles, and
Guidelines. Wiley & Sons. – 2007. – 272 p.
6. Three BIG eLearning Trends for 2017 [Электронныйресурс]. – URL:
https://www.elearninglearning.com/2017/trends/ (дата обращения 20. 01.2017)
7. 9 Prerequisites For Using Blended Learning In Classroom Teaching [Электронныйресурс]. –
URL: https://elearningindustry.com/blended-learning-in-classroom-teaching-9-prerequisites (дата
обращения 20. 01.2017)

Аннотация: В статье рассматривается необходимость внедрения модели смешанного обучения с ее


основными преимуществами и недостатками для получения более эффективных результатов в процессе
обучения, дается четкое определение смешанного обучения. На сегодняшний день система образования
требует от каждого преподавателя умение использовать компьютерные технологии при работе со
студентами, и коллегами. Таким образом, в данной статье раскрывается важность ИКТ-компетентности
преподавателя. На основе данного обзора сделан вывод, что, так как традиционное образование утрачивает
свою актуальность, то возможно, будущее за смешанным обучением.
Ключевые слова: смешанное обучение, ИКТ-компетентность, преимущества и недостатки,
электронное обучение, улучшать результаты.
Abstract: The paper studies the necessity of introducing blended learning, main advantages and disadvantages
for improving students‘ results, gives the definition to the term ―blended learning‖. Nowadays educational system
requires that every teacher must have skills for using computer technologies working with students or colleagues.
Therefore, the importance of the teacher‘s ICT-competence is analyzed in this article. On the basis of the undertaken
review, it is concluded that traditional education becomes irrelevant and our future may depend on blended learning.
Keywords: blended learning, ICT-competence, advantages and disadvantages, e-learning, to improve results.

39
УДК 373.811
ICE-BREAKER EXERCISES AS A WAY OF ACTIVATING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
PROCESS
Marina Petrenko
4rth year student, Department of Theory
and Practice of Translation,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail :marina-mvp@mail.ru
Yekaterina Maslieva
Senior lecturer,
Foreign Language Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: maslieva_k@rambler.ru
The teaching of a foreign language should be aimed not only at memorizing a large amount of
grammar material and vocabulary, but also at the active participation of students in mastering knowledge,
which will help them to form abilities for independent speech activity in a studied language and critical
thinking. Of course, language training is more effective if students are active participants of the learning
process. From the very first lesson, a teacher should aim the students precisely at the fact that knowledge of
certain words and constructions is not enough to master the language. The purpose of the first lessons should
be to create a friendly and well-wishing atmosphere in the classroom, where the use of a foreign language
correct or incorrect is encouraged and brings benefits to students. In addition, the first lesson is also an
excellent opportunity to create mutual understanding with students. Thus, teachers establish a collaborative
learning environment that is easy and convenient for both the teacher and students. The first lesson is also
important for assessing the level of knowledge, needs and interests of students, and this can be done through
a series of activities [3].
The most effective ways to intensify the lesson of a foreign language are games, creativity, curiosity,
independence. ―Intensive–involving a lot of effort, energy, or attention‖ [4, p. 788]. Any improvement in any
aspect of the lesson leads to an intensification of the learning process and to the greatest efficiency.
―Ice-breakers‖ are exercises that contribute to the active participation of students in the educational
process, which are able to create a certain language environment and form students in such a way that
everyone takes an active part in speaking and in the lesson in general.
So, how is the activity of the participant shown? It manifests itself in the performance of oral or
written assignments, which then involve a small statement by one student, followed by comments or
questions from other students, or a dialogue on a given topic. Choosing the so-called Ice-breakers for
students, it is necessary to take into account interests and skills of the audience, so that they could express
their thoughts and actively participate in the learning process.
The following types of such exercises can be distinguished:
The first type is used simply to make lessons more interesting and fun. When students are familiar
with each other, Ice-Breaker helps them to talk and tune into active participation in the lesson. When
participants are strangers, such exercises help them to get to know each other better and subsequently avoid
constraint and stiffness in the class, especially while performing speaking exercises.
An example of such positive and entertaining exercises can serve as the so-called Ice-Breaker
Questions: ―If you were a vegetable, what vegetable would you be?‖, ―If you could meet any living person
for a chat over a shared dinner, who would you pick and why?‖, ―If you woke up tomorrow as an animal,
what animal would you choose to be and why?‖, ―If you could choose an imaginary friend, who would you
choose and why?‖, ―If you were to change your name, what name would you adopt going forward? Why?‖
[2, p. 59].
The second type of these exercises is aimed at introducing or working out a topic. They can also
cause laughter and conversation, but their main goal is to open up the topic of the lesson. Such Ice-Breakers
can be aimed at working out grammatical and lexical topics. There are the following examples:
―Get irregular‖. Make flashcards with the simple form of common irregular verbs on the front, and
the simple past or past participle on the back. Anytime a student makes a mistake with an irregular verb
during a speaking exercise, practice five cards with the class [1, p. 4].
―Countable or non-countable?‖ Point to countable or non-countable nouns in the classroom, and ask
the class to say which each one is. Now ask them to make sentences, making sure they use articles where
necessary [1, p. 4].

40
―Antonym vocabulary builder‖. Make two teams and give a student from each come to the board.
You'll say ―heavy‖, for example, and the first student that correctly spells light scores a point for his team.
You may use all adjectives which students are supposed to learn [2, p. 18].
The third type of exercise is aimed at getting to know the idioms of the English language. In each
language, there are some stable expressions, which are called idioms. Learning of any language is impossible
without even a partial understanding of the mentality of native speakers, their culture. All this is contained in
idiomatic expressions.
Secondly, the idioms of the English language enrich the speech, make the language varied and lively.
Finally, the use of idiomatic phrases brings your speech closer to the speech of native speakers. One of the
most flattering reviews about the level of English, for example, may be the following phrase: ―His / Her
English is very idiomatic‖.
―Stitching time‖. Write the idioms below on the board and have the students form groups. The
challenge is to guess what the idioms mean. The group that gets the most correct (close) answer wins [1,
p. 10].
―Work idioms‖. Write several work-related idioms on the board. Have the students form groups and
try to guess what they mean. Ask for each group interpretation and give points to those who are closest to the
right answer (All work and no play, dirty work, work it, work fingers to the bone) [1, p. 22].
The fourth and last type of Ice-Breaker exercises are exercises aimed at developing monologue
speech, the ability to describe a given subject, picture or situation.
―Describe and draw‖. In pairs students can practice descriptive language with this warmer. One
student takes out a piece of paper and the other describes someone in their family or a friend – even someone
in the class. The partner must draw the person. Hang the pictures around the class, afterwards.
―Describe what you see‖. Students gaze out the window and then write for 10 minutes about
everything they saw. Tell them they must keep writing, and include every possible detail [1, p. 27].
Since the final aim of communication is the ability to use a foreign language in a real communication
situation, the atmosphere of communication is the leading feature of a modern foreign language lesson. The
atmosphere of communication and games is needed to create adequate conditions, like real ones, otherwise it
turns out that the teacher tries to teach speaking skills outside of conversation. Teacher and student should
see each other not only as official partners carrying out role-playing communication, but also as speech
partners with their views, interests, experiences, and perform personal communication. The task of the
teacher is to create an atmosphere of trust, to incline students to the discussion of the topic, a teacher should
listen carefully, teach students to do the same, behave naturally, be emotional and correct mistakes in the
form of prompting the correct answer.

References:
1. 300 New Warmers, Fillers, Ice-Breakers (for any level). Publisher: Kindle Edition, 2012.
2. Grammar Games and Activities 1 New Edition (Penguin English) Spiral-boundby Peter Watcyn-
Jones. Publisher: Longman; 1 edition, 2001. − 144 р.
3. Чуркина М.В. "Ice-breakers" на уроке английского языка
[Электронный ресурс] // Социальная сеть работников образования nsportal.ru. 16.01.12. –
Режим доступа:https://nsportal.ru/shkola/inostrannye-yazyki/angliiskiy-yazyk/library/2012/01/16/ice-
breakers-na-uroke-angliyskogo (дата обращения: 20.02.18)
4. Macmillan English Dictionary for advanced learners. − Macmillan Education, 2007. – 1748 р.

Аннотация. В статье рассмотрено применение упражнений Ice-Breakers, которые обеспечивают


активное участие обучающихся в учебном процессе и помогают им улучшить навыки разговорной речи.
Представлена классификация данных упражнений и способы их применения, которые помогут преподавателю
выбрать нужное упражнение для более эффективного изучения определенных тем и разделов.
Ключевые слова: интенсификация, разговорные упражнения, ситуация общения, монологическая речь,
обучение в контексте, навыки общения.
Summary. The article considers the use of Ice-Breaker exercises, which provide students active participation
in the learning process and help them improve their speaking skills. The types of these exercises and methods of their
application are given, which will help a teacher to choose the necessary exercise for more effective studying of certain
topics and sections.
Key words: intensification, conversational exercises, communicative situation, monologue, learning in context,
speaking skills.

41
УДК 159.943.5
DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOR IN AN EXTREME SITUATION AMONG UNIVERSITY
STUDENTS
Anton Proshin
2rd year student, Psychology Department
Sevastopol Economic and Humanitarian Institute
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University
e-mail: nast_kostsova@mail.ru
Victoriya Mironenko
PhD in Pedagogy,
Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines,
Sevastopol Economic and Humanitarian Institute,
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University

Relevance: the problem of the state, behavior and activities of people in extreme situations in recent
years raises serious concerns among scientists and practitioners around the world. It deserves special
attention among psychologists who work in the field of emergency assistance to victims (students and their
relatives).
Purpose of the article: to study the determinants of behavior in an extreme situation.
Scientists all over the world have been studying the formation of behavior in different life situations
for many years. The most extreme features of behavior are extreme situations.
Under ‗extreme‘ in psychology, it is customary to understand situations that occur with a relatively
settled course of a person‘s life, in the usual algorithms for performing various activities. They can adversely
affect both the various spheres of life of the individual, and his mental state. L.I. Antsyferova identifies three
types of extreme situations: everyday unpleasant, negative events related to age, the actual extreme situations
[1].
To the person extreme conditions are extremely strong, being on the verge of portability. This means
that extreme situations require the maximum mobilization of physiological and psychological adaptive
mechanisms, and lead to the formation of the so-called extreme state, which, on the one hand, can contribute
to the mobilization of human resources, and on the other, lead to disruption of activities, deterioration of
health and mental sustainability.
There are many reasons for this or that type of human response to extreme situations. There are the
following reasons:
I. External causes.
1. Features of the acting factor:
- strength (intensity, extensiveness, rhythm, etc.);
- duration of exposure;
- features of physical and chemical characteristics.
2. Features of the organization of activities:
- deficiencies of the information model of activity;
- deficiencies in the distribution of functions between a person and technical devices;
- shortcomings in the organization of the external environment.
II. Internal causes.
1. Mental features of a person:
- the organization of mental cognitive processes;
- mental stability - instability;
- the state of adaptation mechanisms.
2. Organization of behavior.
3. General condition of the body.
III. Social reasons.
1. Motives of activity.
2. Existing social ties and their dynamics.
V. I. Lebedev believes that the main causes that affect people in extreme situations are the change in
the information structure, afferentation and the introduction of certain socio-psychological restrictions [61, p.
64]. In extreme circumstances a person either does not have any information about what is happening, or the
information is limited, delayed, and any clarifications are impossible. The system of spatial-temporal

42
coordinates also changes, which leads a person to the formation of super valued ideas, to a distortion of the
situation or to its illusory perception.
A person constantly produces, transmits and consumes a large amount of information in normal
conditions. It is personal information which has value for a narrow circle of persons who have family or
friendly relations. Special information, as a rule, is important within formal social groups: doctors,
psychologists, rescuers, etc. Mass media, that is, transmitted media, is of no small importance.
Let‘s take a respondent of the university. He is constantly in normal conditions in a social
environment, which directly and indirectly has a permanent impact on him in the form of social corrections.
He receives and transmits a huge amount of information, while undergoing to social correction depending on
his social environment. In an extreme situation – for example, passing an exam or a test, when social
corrections do not work, a respondent is forced to regulate his behavior independently. Moreover, he
experiences stress and gets into a situation that can be characterized as extreme. In this case, in the absence
of one‘s own plan of behavior, occasional and insignificant circumstances can assume a dominant role for
individuals. They push back to the second plan the really necessary regulated activities.
Speaking about the factors that affect people in extreme situations, it is worth pointing to the
motivational factor. The motive is understood as the internal motivation of a person to a certain type of
activity or behavior which is connected with the satisfaction of a specific need. If we study the student
community, we can identify such motivations as the desire to remain among the informal leaders, material
interest (scholarship), the desire not to upset loved and close people, etc.
Conclusion. However, we should keep in mind that in an extreme situation a student may have a
tendency to confront with leaders or with professionals. This is manifested in the reluctance to perform tasks,
in irritability, rudeness, temper, impatience, etc. In addition, a sufficiently long stay of an unprepared person
in extreme conditions leads to a decrease in resistance, both to physical and psychological stresses.

References:
1. Рогачева Т.В., Залевский Г.В., Левицкая Т.Е., Психология экстремальных ситуаций и
состояний : учеб. пособие. – Томск: Издательский Дом ТГУ, 2015. – 276 с.
Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются детерминанты поведения в экстремальной ситуации. Мы
выделили причина реагирования человека на экстремальные ситуации, а так же выделили психологические
факторы, влияющие на человека в экстремальной ситуации.
Ключевые слова: психология экстремальных ситуаций, детерминанты поведения, студент.
Summary. The article deals with determinants of behavior in extreme situations. We have identified the cause
of human response to extreme situations, as well as highlighted the psychological factors that affect a person in an
extreme situation.
Keywords: psychology of extreme situations, determinants of behavior, student .

УДК 159.955.4
PHENOMENON OF REFLECTION IN NATIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SIENCE
Nadezhda Svistunova
2rd year student, Psychology Department,
Sevastopol Economic and Humanities Institute,
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University
e-mail: svistunova.nadejda2011@yandex.ua

Anastasia Grishina
PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor,
Department of General Psychology,
Sevastopol Economic and Humanitarian Institute,
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University

One of the important concepts in modern psychology and personality psychology is the phenomenon
of ‗reflection‘, which plays a major role not only in the professional field, but also in the formation of a
person as an individual.

43
The purpose of the article is to consider the phenomenon of reflection within the framework of
Russian psychology, approaches to its study, species and its role in professional activity.
Many scientists have been studying this phenomenon both in foreign and in national psychology and
philosophy for many centuries. In science, there are many different points of view on the concept of
‗reflection‘.
According to A.V. Karpov, reflection is not only a product of consciousness, but as a form, condition
and mechanism of its existence [2].
R. Descartes believed that this is the ability of an individual to concentrate on his inner world, while
not reacting to the external world and to the events that are taking place there. A. Busemann understood
reflection as transferring an experience from the external world to himself [3]. There are 4 approaches to the
study of reflection in national psychology:
1) Cooperative.
Representatives of this approach are A. V. Karpov, V. A. Lefevr, G. P. Shchedrovitsky. It is based on
the analysis of activity relations in the ‗subject-subject‘ system, as well as the forecasting of group activities
aimed at increasing its effectiveness.
2) Communicative.
Representatives: G. M. Andreeva, A. A. Bodalyov. Within the framework of this approach, reflection
is studied as a component of interpersonal communication and perception by another person.
3) Cognitive.
Representatives: I. N. Semenov, T. V. Kornilova. Reflection acts as an ability of the individual to
analyze his own actions and correlate them with the surrounding reality.
4) Personal.
Representatives of this approach are such scientists as N. I. Gutkina, D. A. Leontiev, V. A. Petrovsky.
In the personal approach, reflection helps build a new image of your ‗I‘ in the course of communication with
other people and develop new knowledge about the world around us. This is especially pronounced in
adolescence. A teenager develops the desire to know himself and realizes this in the course of comparing
himself with other people. Due to some inconsistency between one‘s own opinion about oneself and
evaluation of other people, the teenager goes through a personal crisis during which his self-esteem can be
formed and strengthened, which did not correspond to the person‘s earlier self-view of himself [4].
A.V. Karpov in his works distinguished several types of reflection [2]:
1) situational: it ensures the inclusion of the individual in the situation, the analysis of what is
happening at the moment;
2) retrospective: it is mainly aimed at analyzing the activities that have been done in the past;
3) prospective: it is a kind of reflection, which includes thinking about future plans and choosing the
most effective ways to implement them.
Reflection plays an important role in the professional development of a man. It helps you to realize
your abilities, inclinations that will contribute to the right choice of a profession, and also to analyze yourself
as its subject. It helps a person to form value orientations, which he can develop in the process of
ontogenesis. The subject, inclined to self-analysis, constantly puts everything into doubt and thanks to this
the results of his activity can be much higher, and the effort spent is much less [4].
Thus, having considered the basic approaches to understanding this phenomenon within the
framework of Russian psychology, we see that the problem of reflection was not only, but also especially
relevant in our time. In the modern world, people are much more often began to pay attention to their inner
experiences, the evaluation of themselves and their actions. In the light of developing technologies and the
capabilities of mankind, it is important to choose the right kind of activity that will help a person to realize
himself.
References:
1. Бизяева А.А. Психология думающего учителя: Педагогическая рефлексия. – Псков: ПГПИ
им. С.М. Кирова, 2004. – 216 с.
2. Карпов А.В. Психология рефлексивных механизмов деятельности. – М.: Институт
психологии РАН, 2004. – 424 с.
3. Косцова М.В. Психологические условия формирования профессиональной рефлексии у
студентов, обучающихся по техническим специальностям // Вестник ЮУрГУ. Серия «Психология». –
Челябинск, 2013. – Том 6. – № 2. – С. 104-110.
4. Ткачѐва М.С., Хилько М.Е. Возрастная психология. 2-е изд. – М.: Юрайт, 2015. – 208 с.

44
Аннотация. В данной статье рассматривается феномен рефлексии в рамках отечественной
психологии. Мы выделили понятия рефлексии и рассмотрели психологические подходы авторов на изучение
данного феномена. Разобрали виды рефлексии и еѐ роль в профессиональном становлении личности.
Ключевые слова: рефлексия, психология, личность, профессия.
Summary. This article examines the phenomenon of reflection within the framework of national psychology.
We have identified the concepts of reflection and considered the psychological approaches of the authors to the study of
this phenomenon. The types of reflection and its role in the professional development of the individual were analyzed.
Keywords: reflection, psychology, personality, profession.

УДК: 811.111‘36=11
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE ACTIVITIES
Maria Smeshkova
3rd year student,
Theory and Practice of TranslationDepartmen,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: msmeshkova@mail.ru
Alexander Svistunov
Senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of TranslationDepartmen,
Sevastopol State University
Tatiana Chornaya
Senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of TranslationDepartmen,
Sevastopol State University

Teaching grammar is one of the most important parts of teaching English. And though it seems easy
it remains the most difficult part of it. When graduate students start working in schools, they face a lot of
difficulties. One of them is not enough theoretical knowledge as to teaching grammar and more importantly
they lack techniques for teaching it. So we will try to help young teachers with basic information they must
know about teaching grammar.
Teaching grammar has been studied by such prominent scholars as Jim Scrivener, Jeremy Harmer,
Penny Ur, Martin Parrot, Rod Ellis, Marianne Cecle, etc. All of them think that the teaching a point
of grammar should be based on the following stages:
1. Presentation
2. Practice
3. Test
Jim Scrivener says that if there is only one basic teaching succession used around the world, it must
be ―present then practice‖. In general his methods mean that the teacher first presents some point and then,
when it seems to be understood by learners, moves on to give them a chance to practise. Also he says that
there must be a balance of presentation and practice. And the main idea is that he thinks about grammar
teaching as primarily «practice» rather than «presentation».
As for language practice activities, in his opinion they are the most important part of any grammar
lesson. He divides them this way: oral drills, written exercises, elicited dialogues, and grammar practice
activities/games.
As for drills, the majority of teachers consider them to be old fashioned and useless, but Scrivener
outlines the following reasons for using drills. Firstly, our brains need to «automatise» tasks and after day to
day experience we become better at doing certain things. Secondly, drilling can also help with selecting the
right form quickly. Thirdly, it will surely help to improve accuracy. Variations on a drill:
1. Repeat the grammar item on its own.
2. Repeat the grammar item in a phrase. For example, a teacher says his students: «I have a
headache. What should I do?». And then students, using the same grammar structure, answer: «You
should…»

45
3. You give a part of the sentence, students complete it.
4. You ask real questions about students‘ lives. They respond with true sentences, all using the same
grammatical item, etc. For example, when we work on the ending «s» in the Present Simple Tense in the 3rd
person singular, the questions can be the following: - Where does your mother work? - Where does your
brother study? - Where does your best friend live?
5. You introduce a sentence by repetition, then say a new word that must be substituted within it.
6. You introduce a sentence by repetition, then give an instruction for transformation of sentence.
For example, you ask to change it to the past simple: my day into my day yesterday.
7. You say a sentence with errors, students put it right. For example, you can put the words in wrong
order.
8. You give the opening of a sentence, students complete it.
Drills can also be substitutional. Repetition, though useful for allowing full concentration on
pronunciation, can be a little pointless. The following drills demand a little more thought:
1. Teacher: He‘s going to drive the car. Students: He‘s going to drive the car. Teacher: bus Students:
He‘s going to drive the bus.
2. Teacher: He‘s going to eat the cake. Students: He‘s going to eat the cake. Teacher: coffee
Students: He‘s going to drink the coffee.
There is one completely different kind of drill, which is based on the students making their own
sentence based on a model and information given by you. These are transformation drills. Here are some
examples: Teacher: He‘s opening the cake tin. Students: He‘s going to eat the cake. Teacher: He‘s standing
beside the swimming pool. Students: He‘s going to swim.
Jeremy Harmer distinguishes the method of grammar translation. The grammar translation method
was first named as such in Germany in the 1780s. It introduced the idea of presenting students with short
grammar rules and word lists, and then translation exercises in which they had to make use of the same rules
and words. However, Harms says that teachers shouldn‘t use only this one because the danger with this
method is that it teaches the learners about language but doesn‘t really help them to communicate effectively
with it.
According to Penny Ur, the practice stage includes the series of exercises done both in the classroom
and for home assignments in order to let the learners absorb the structure thoroughly. With a structure whose
formal rules are difficult to grasp, we might start by giving some written and spoken forms, without relating
to meaning. Commonly found exercises of this type:
1. Slot fillers (the learner inserts the appropriate item) e.g. He is.....boy. We have.....umbrella. (a, an)
Answer: He is a boy. We have an umbrella.
2. Transformation (the learner changes the structure in some prescribed manner) e.g. This is a
woman. (put into the plural) Answer: They are women.
The function of such exercises is simply to help make the rules of from clearer and to ensure that
they are learnt more thoroughly.
There is one more category of practice, which still stresses the production of correct forms, but
involves meanings as well. These exercises are often based on discrete items, and tend not to be open-ended.
Here are some examples:
1. Translation, to or from native language
2. Slot filling, or multiple choice, based on meaning, e.g. He (works, is working, worked) at the
moment. Answer: He is working at the moment.
3. Slot filling, with choice of answers not provided e.g. Last night we.....television. Answer: Last
night we watched television.
4. Matching
According to Scrivener, there are some other useful ways of practice. Firstly, it is making dialogues.
You should write a short sentence, which will contain the topic of the dialogue and name the structure which
should be used by the students. Let‘s imagine that you have recently taught the structure: It‘s too + adjective
+ to + verb (It‘s too cold to drink). Then, for example, you give the following situations to a pair of students:
Lazy boyfriend on sofa; girlfriend in doorway. The dialogue may look like this one:
G: Could you help me?
B: What do you want?
G: Bring me that suitcase, please.
B: Oh, I‘m too tired.
G: It‘s too heavy for me to carry.
B: And it‘s too heavy for me, too. What‘s in it? (etc)

46
Secondly, it is a memory test. You should prepare copies of a few pictures showing people doing
various things. For example, shopping in the market, dancing in the club, having a picnic etc. In class this
test is used to work on the Present Continuous Tense. You show the picture to the students, then hide it. Then
read out some true/false statements about the picture, using the given structure. For example, the policeman
is talking to the shop assistant. And the students should either conform it or deny, using the same form.
Thirdly, written exercises. Here is an example of a textbook exercise, designed to help students
become more familiar with the use of the articles. But Scrivener suggests that we should make the exercises
less of a chore and more of an enjoyable challenge. And here are some ideas:
- Work in pairs.
- Work in small groups.
- Hand out a jumbled list of answers to match to the questions.
- Dictate the sentences, leaving spaces where the missing words are.
- Do it at great speed (give them, say, three minutes to do the whole exercise), etc.
Thus, using all the types of practice, you will be able to reveal easily that the learners are making
consistent mistakes in a certain structure. Then you may decide to return temporarily to an exercise that
focuses on correct forms or to do only one kind of practice.
This article has studied the methodology not as a series of strict rules, but as options available to us
all. Learning to teach is about our personal search for our own answers. That‘s why in looking for ways to
move forward as a teacher, you will also find ways to grow as a person.

References:
1. Harmer J. How to teach English / J. Harmer. – Longman, 1998. – P.48
2. Harmer, J. Teaching and Learning Grammar / J. Harmer. – Longman, 1991.
3. Scrivener J. Learning teaching. The Essential Guide to English Language Teaching / J. Scrivener.
– Macmillan. – P.165-169
4. Ur P. Grammar Practice Activities / P. Ur // Cambridge University Press, 1988. – P. 6-8.
Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена изучению современных подходов в преподавании грамматики.
В ней представлены различные приемы для практики. Статья включает в себя основную теоретическую базу
преподавания грамматики, описанную самыми известными авторами, и приводит разные примеры основных
практических заданий.
Ключевые слова: практические приемы, дриллы, структура, упражнения, коммуникативный подход
Summary. This article is focused on modern approaches to teaching grammar and it deals with different
practice techniques. The paper touches upon some theoretical bases of teaching grammar items by the most famous
authors and provides various examples of practice techniques.
Key words: practice techniques, drills, structure, exercises, communicative approach.

УДК 331.108.4
PECULIARITIES OF CAREER GUIDANCE FOR STUDENTS OF THE TRANSLATION
DEPARTMENT
Vera Suslova
3d year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: verale98@gmail.com
Maria Kostsova
PhD in Psychology, the Department of Humanities
and Socio-Psychological Disciplines
Sevastopol State University

Professional development, self-determination, career and life choices – it is all links in a chain. As a
student, you should think of your future, because career orientation has a great influence on our further
achievement. More often we watch TV-show, surf the Internet exploring different webinars devoted to the
career progress and success. But experts mostly highlight the external factors: money and other life benefits.

47
In fact, personal success is a result of self-improvement and future forecast. The main question, which
students set themselves, is how to identify the way of their life.
Future job is the first informed choice of each student. Having finished the first year of the
University, a lot of them have doubts, if their decision was right, and change the specialty. Unfortunately,
nowadays the first higher education is only formality. According to the Federal State Statistics Service of
Russian Federation (Rosstat) research in 2015, it was discovered, that almost 60% of Russians are employed
out of their specialization field. It means, that each second person, who has graduated the University and
wasted 5 years of his life, doesn‘t use knowledge and skills gained [4].
That‘s why the career orientation awareness on the way to higher education is a very important
condition for the success.
According to A.Y. Kibanov, career is sustained individual promotion in some field of activity and
skills, ability and qualifying possibilities development connected with the activity [3]. To our mind, a skills
approach is the most effective one to career development. It defines personal success due to accordance and
possible promotion in selected professional activity [1].
S.A. Drugilov considers that the professional type of personality is created during the close
cooperation with a certain working environment. To the author`s mind, the signs of competence include the
following features: gaining work experience and professional qualification, mental state development and, as
a result, establishment of the individual activity style [2].
The interpretation and translation are very diverse jobs. It is consisted of the following ways of work:
linguistics, technical translation, business translation, literary translation, the interpretation, journalism, tour
guide, editor and so on. The relevance of this job necessitates high marks for admission to Russian
Universities. This job is considered to be the one of the most prospective on the issue of career. The future
interpreter is expected to be capable of speaking, listening to a communicator and understanding him. To
improve your skills it is very important to have a practice of communication with native speakers. That`s
why the formal approach is not suitable for the interpreter. Constant self-empowerment, permanent practice
and extensive reading are elements of success, which can help us to move forward.
For the professional guidance observing we have taken into consideration the theory of Edgar Schein
– world-famous specialist dedicated to advising on organizational culture, development and dynamics of
career growth [5].
Dr. Schein has highlighted eight main values in staff working and named it «The theory of career
anchors». A Career Anchor aims to bring together our perception of our skills, values, motives and needs
into a single statement. They are as follows:
1. Technical/Functional competence. This refers to someone who is motivated by doing what they
are good and aims to grow in expertise in an area. They enjoy doing tasks for the sake of using their skill.
2. General Managerial competence. This refers to someone who want to lead others. They like
decision making and motivating others. Often they naturally take positions of leadership in a situation.
3. Autonomy/Independence. This refers to someone who is weary of outside control and wants a
feeling of autonomy and independence. They tend to avoid organisational structures and seek to work alone
or in situation which they can control.
4. Security/Stability. This is someone who is motivated by maintaining a ―business-as-usual‖
approach to work. They try and avoid uncertainty and threat to themselves and their life. They tend to avoid
risk taking such as entrepreneurship and freelancing.
5. Entrepreneurial Creativity. This is someone who is motivated by creating something new which is
their own. They are often bringing new ideas to the table and trying to develop new perspectives or items.
This can be in a entrepreneurial context setting up their own venture or intrapreneurial, working on the inside
of an existing organisation to change it.
6. Service/Dedication to a cause. This is someone who wants a role that achieves something that
they see as being of value. This may be tied to a vague notion of ―helping people‖ or may be attached to a
very particular cause they feel passionately about such as global warming.
7. Pure Challenge. This is someone who views success as an end in itself. They are motivated by
success, promotion and recognition. They are very goal focused and focused on a sense of progression,
competing against others and succeeding.
8. Lifestyle. This is very much mirrors Super‘s approach to career and describes someone who takes
a broad perspective on life. They will be concerned with work-life balance, the affect of work on other areas
of life and relationships and may put up with dissatisfying work because it enables other things they view as
being of value.

48
Twenty 3d year students of Sevastopol State University have been suggested answering the questions
on how «The career anchors» in order to detect the career value orientation (by E.Schein and adaptation by
V.A. Chicker, B.E.Vinokurova)
The results are presented in figure 1

Fig.1 – Career guidance for the students of the Translation Department (the average value
for the group of respondents)

Therefore, according to the data obtained, for the students studying at the «The Theory and Practice
of Translation Department» the most valid career orientations are: Stability and Service. The less important
one is General Managerial competence.
To sum up, it would be useful to emphasize, that the basic career orientation for the future
interpreters is most of all an employment opportunity at the State enterprises, where it is possible to earn a
regular income.
This article has confirmed us the relevance of building career orientations at the stage of higher
professional education. Students` awareness of their career preferences can help them to get motivation to
learn and to develop their professional competencies.

References:
1.Гришина А.В. Субъектно-деятельностный подход в изучении студентов с различным
уровнем профессионального самоопределения / А.В. Гришина, М.В. Косцова, Н.В. Соболева. //
Проблемы современного педагогического образования. Сер.: Педагогика и психология. – Сборник
научных трудов: – Ялта: РИО ГПА, 2017. – Вып. 54. – Ч. 1. – С. 313-319.
2.Дружилов, С.А. Влияние профессиональной группы и профессионального сообщества на
становление и сохранение индивидуального профессионализма // Современные научные
исследования и инновации. 2015. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL:
http://web.snauka.ru/issues/2015/03/49885 (дата обращения: 19.11.2016).
3.Кибанов, А. Я. Основы управления персоналом: учебник / А. Я. Кибанов. –2-е изд., перераб.
и доп. – М.: ИНФРА-М, 2013. – 447 с.
4.Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Соответствие работы полученной
(получаемой) специальности и планы по дальнейшему обучению и трудоустройству по этапности
обучения в 2013/14 и 2014/15 учебных годах.
URL:http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/quality15/PublishData/Reports/Files/%D0%A2%D0%B0%D0%
B1%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B0_18.3.pdf (дата обращения 08.08 2017 г.).
5.Шейн, Э. X. Организационная культура и лидерство / Э.Х. Шейн // Пер. с англ. под ред. В.
А. Спивака. — СПб: Питер, 2002. — 336 с: ил. — (Серия «Теория и практика менеджмента»).
Аннотация. В статье рассмотрены основные подходы к карьере в современной литературе, а также
выделены психологические особенности карьерных ориентаций у студентов-будущих переводчиков.

49
Ключевые слова: профессиональное самоопределение и профессиональная подготовка, карьера,
карьерные ориентации, управление карьерой.
Summary. The basic approach to the career in contemporary literature, future interpreters` psychological
features of career guidance.
Keywords: professional self-determination, professional background, career, career guidance, career management.

УДК 378.013
COMPETITIVENESS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF FUTURE TRANSLATORS‟
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
AnastasiaTarkhova
3d year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University,
e-mail: luba-crim@mail.ru
Lyubov Tarkhova
Scientific Advisor, PhD in Pedagogy,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Modern socio-economic conditions are characterized by the intensive development of the translation
services market. Thereby, translator‘s social mobility can be considered as a new professional quality of a
personality, caused by the changed market conditions in modern society.
Unfortunately, the traditional approach to the translators‘ training is not able to promote the
competent training of the students. One of the main directions of future translators‘ training should be aimed
at the development of their competitiveness. Therefore the article deals with the concept ―competitiveness‖
and its components.
All students studying ―translation‖ are no doubt eager to be competitive in the labor market in the
field of translation. It is important to define the conditions contributing the future translators‘ competition.
Firstly, there‘s a shortage of interpreter or translator positions on the permanent basis. Secondly, there is a
strong tendency for non-professional assistants‘ translation who know foreign languages. Thirdly, the
demand on the professional translators in the labor market increases annually. As a result, it leads to the keen
competition between future translators.
Great contribution to the studying of this problem was made by the following scientists:
N.Ababilova, E. Besedina. N. Ababilova implies the successful operation of the translator in the
multicultural sphere, achievement of the desired social status in the conditions of constant competition due to
the display of their professional knowledge, skills and creative solution of professional tasks [1]. E. Besedina
states that competitiveness of a future translator reflects the capability to be active at the translation services
market. Successful employment and financial status in the field of translation services, as well as the career
promotion in a competitive environment are also extremely important [2]. L.Tarkhova calls it an important
component of professional and spiritual development of an individual, which includes such important
components as: the level of qualification, professional adaptation and experience [3].
In modern society any person enters into commercial relationships in any field of activity if his
knowledge, skills and abilities become commodities. Under the concept of "market" we understand, firstly, a
certain place where the trade is carried on, secondly, the sphere of commodity exchange, thirdly, the supply-
demand ratio of goods and services. Therefore, an interpreter or a translator, being an expert in the
conditions of job shortage, rivals with his colleagues who turn into his competitors.
To withstand competition and to be always in demand in the field of translation services, the
translator must be competitive. A modern translator must have certain qualities that market relations require
of him and thus determine his competitiveness.
First of all let's define the concept «the competitive translator». A professional, that is competitive
and certified translator means high-quality service provider who meets market requirements in the field of
oral or written translation. It should be a proficient interpreter/translator, who speaks native and foreign
languages fluently, has solid knowledge, skills in interpreting/ translation and has a grip on cross-cultural

50
competence. Such person must be independent, determined, have managerial and business acumen. There‘s
no doubt in his continuous professional growth, self-improvement, constant creativity, innovation in the
market of translation services.
A competitive translator should master the following competencies: translation competence,
including the ability to translate texts at a professional level; linguistic competence, which includes the
ability to understand the language of the original text and knowledge of the target language, as well as the
rules of translation; compensatory competence, which includes the ability to effectively apply additional
linguistic and specialized knowledge necessary for understanding the original text, appropriate strategies for
the effective use of accessible information sources; technical competence, which implies the skills of
managing technical resources, safe and confidential processing of information.
Since the competitiveness of an interpreter or translator is currently the determining criterion in
finding a job, the development of this quality should become one of the components of a specialist‘s
professional training. This is the task of both the future interpreter/translator and the university, since both
the content and the forms of training must correspond to the new social and economic changes that are taking
place in society. Needless to say, that necessary for work qualities future translators acquire in the process of
individual professional growth as well. That‘s why it is necessary to promote their independent cognitive
activity in every possible way.
It should be noted that, on account of professionally necessary competitiveness lack, the
inexperienced translators can‘t successfully get a job in their special field, while their classmates are able to
adapt successfully to the market conditions of work.
To sum it up, the intensive development and commercialization of the translation services sphere call
for perfection of the future translators‘ professional training. And competitiveness, a new socio-economic
quality of an individual, is considered to be one of its components. For the purpose of future translators‘
professional training it is necessary to inculcate and develop this quality throughout the entire period of their
study at the university.

References:
1. Абабілова Н.М. Формування конкурентоздатності майбутніх перекладачів у процесі
професійної підготовки : автореф. дис. канд. пед. наук : 13.00.04 / Наталія Миколаївна Абабілова. –
Одеса, 2012. – 20 с.
2. Беседіна Є.В. Модернізація професійної підготовки майбутніх перекладачів в умовах
диверсифікації університетської освіти: автореф. дис. ...канд.пед.наук : 13.00.04/ Євгенія
Володимирівна Беседіна. – Ялта: 2010. –21 с.
3. Тархова Л.А. Конкурентоспособность переводчика как новое социально-экономическое
качество личности //Тезисы докладов научно-практической конференции «Свободная стихия». -
Севастополь: «Рибест», 2015. – С.86-88.
Аннотация. В данной статье рассматривается конкурентоспособность переводчиков как
неотъемлемая часть их профессиональной подготовки. Автор выделяет компоненты данного явления,
анализирует условия, способствующие его возникновению, и факторы, влияющие на его формирование.
Ключевые слова: конкурентоспособность, профессиональная подготовка, будущие переводчики.
Summary. The article focuses on the future translators‘ competitiveness as an integral part of their
professional training. The author singles out the components of this phenomenon, analyses the conditions of its origin,
defines the factors which promote its development.
Keywords: competitiveness, professional training, future translators.

УДК 811.111'372.881 = 111


THE USAGE OF MODERN ICT WHILE TEACHING LISTENING IN THE FIRST
YEAR OF LANGUAGE SCHOOL
Darya Tereshchenko
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: dasha6640@mail.ru

51
Olga Borshcheva
Scientific advisor, Ph.D. in Education,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The development of listening competence is one of the major parts while teaching the English
language. The researchers highlight, that it implies ―fullness, accuracy and deepness of understanding‖,
―sufficient tempo of perception and handling information‖, and the process itself must be sufficient, effective
and adequate, i.e. recipient‘s interpreting must coincide with the author‘s idea [1, p. 441]. The development
of this very competence is the aim of our research. The other task is the usage of modern
ICT while teaching, what is especially of great importance nowadays.
The main difficulties, which we have bumped into in the course of our experiment, are, first of all, a
slow tempo of ―inner uttering‖, what is connected with a bad forecasting of what will be further in the text.
As a rule, in order to solve this problem the teachers should give a full grammar conception, i.e. to teach
perceiving of unusual word-order and different types of interrogative sentences. Also they must provide
students with the conception of lexical structure: homonyms, paronyms and other difficult-for-perception
words; and finally to teach to differentiate various language styles and the variants of its pronouncing [2, p.
34]. According to this, we used materials from the site Youglish, which offers various real speech situations,
listening selection with different speech tempo, different accents and etc. We have concluded that ICT solve
the difficulty of understanding texts fully with the help of presenting different variants for all English levels.
In our research we have also concluded that for the more effective process of teaching listening, a
psychological part must be taken into consideration, being guided by learner centered approach in teaching.
While the experiment we were giving our students different exercises to improve their memory, which the
Internet abounds. An American scientist-psychologist George A. Miller in his world-famous book ―The
Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two‖ mentions the fact that while one-time listening only from 5 to 9
units are being learned [3, p. 222]. For example, if not use ICT it can be made on the grounds of revising the
theme ―Modal verbs‖ just by the game ―Snow ball‖, while which students repeat one by one sentences of
their neighbor. If we use ICT, there is wide range of memory games online. Such exercises proved their
efficiency and are great warming-up exercises before listening. An important psychological unit is also
motivation, which is considered to be ―a starter of any kind of teaching‖ [4, p. 4]. We selected the most
modern texts for listening or texts, which coincide with students‘ interests, age, and language level –
Intermediate. We also increased the interest in the culture of the countries, the language of which we learn,
for example, we got them acquainted with the lifestyle of London citizens with the help of different video
files, which we had chosen from the world video-hosting site YouTube. During our experiment we definitely
noted an increased interest in the text to listen.
In our experiment we considered really important not only to give students listening in order to
develop listening competence, but also we inserted it for critical appraisal. This type of listening is more
popular with language schools, as it demands higher level of oral foreign language skills with the aim of
representing someone‘s own reasoning after listening. Also the listening with critical appraisal demands the
skills of emphasizing the hidden ideas; differentiate real facts and author‘s opinion and etc. [5, p. 104].
Nevertheless we bumped into the problem of students‘ inability to share their points of view. Only 23 per
cent of first-year students managed to make up their argumentative speeches while our first test. You may
see other results of this test in our presentation. In this question ICT help us by the ability to write down your
own commentary to a watched video, what is quite a good practice.
While organizing listening with the help of ICT you need to organize the process of teaching
listening skills step by step, about what many methodists, for example N.D. Galskova and N.I. Gez wrote. It
means that a preparing stage must be held, which includes information about the type of the text for
listening, main problems of this text, its lexical content and etc., i.e. we should raise forecasting level of what
the matter will concern. Next goes a text stage itself, which can be hold by different means of ICT.
Computer equipment in language laboratories occupies almost the first place on the importance in the
language schools. Also free access to the Internet is obligatory, so that students will be given the opportunity
to audit using various file formats. In our research we noted particularly effective drafting of the lessons on
the site TED ED for teachers, where we can include both audio and video files, so as commentary and much
more. This site also allows you to conduct an after-listening stage, while which students will be provided
with multiple choice tests, quizzes, open questions, and much more. You can see how the lesson on this site
looks like you on the pic.1 and pic.2 of our presentation.

52
Organization of languages‘ study this way gives students opportunities to focus on the task and avoid
various distractions, because each student is listening to a text in headphones. It increases motivation,
because this technology as close to the lives of young people as it is possible. However, we also noted that it
is not always possible to complete the lesson this way fully, because debate is more convenient to be
conducted in live discussion and, in any case, the teacher acts as commentator of all the tasks, because
students have not yet become accustomed to this type of studying and always ask questions that have been
observed in our experiment. Nevertheless, virtual space offers various video chats, for example, Skype, with
the help of which many private English lessons are put into practice and, what is more, this method is not
inferior to live communication on its effectiveness. Moreover, people from all over the world may participate
in such a conversation, what is very interesting for those who study foreign languages. But the use of this
program in educational process is meaningful only in distant teaching. You can see how the
conversation in this program looks like in pic.3.
Among the various modern programs that could be useful for teachers and students is the program
Hot Potatoes. This program has a wide variety of tasks and exercises: an alternative choice, multiple choice,
short answer of open type and mixed-type answer. This program has additional functions for teaching
listening, namely – inserting audio and media files in the tasks. For example, after listening to an audio file,
we gave students the opportunity to test the understanding of the text with the help of pre-designed multiple
choice questions. You can see how this program works in pic.4.
Internet offers a wide range of convenient sources of information for the text stage of listening:
Youglish, YouTube, British Council, BBC Learning English, TED Talks and TED ED. Programs, which are
suitable for all stages of listening, are hotlist, multimedia scrapbook, treasure hunt, subject sampler and web
quest. Their feature is adding audio, video, pictures and animations in conjunction with the teacher‘s
questions and links from the Internet to the necessary tasks. The most effective program for after-text stage
is, as we have mentioned, Hot Potatoes v.6.
ICT are developing very rapidly and are ready for their full implementation in the various
educational institutions at various stages of teaching. They can be entertaining and raise the motivation
among students, can be directed to the individual characteristics of each person, contribute to the more
focused activity on the lesson, save time and facilities. Technologies develop, and we can not but note the
importance of their use in all spheres of our life. Listening skills can be successfully developed within the
virtual space. We have convinced ourselves of it after 8 sessions of listening through ICT and after the final
control of skills and acquirements, and we found out that the results had grown by 28%.

References:
1. Каптурова Е.С. Иноязычная аудитивная компетенция и пути еѐ формирования на старшей
ступени обучения в языковом вузе / Е.С. Каптурова // Ученые записки ОГУ. Серия: Гуманитарные и
социальные науки. – 2013. – №1 – С. 411-415.
2. Елухина Н.В. Обучение аудированию в русле коммуникативно-ориентированной методики
/ Н.В. Елухина. – ИЯШ. 1989. – № 2. – С. 28-36.
3. Миллер Дж. Магическое число семь плюс или минус два. О некоторых пределах нашей
способности перерабатывать информацию. / Дж. Миллер. // Инженерная психология: Сб. статей. –
М., 1964. – 581 с.
4. Рогова Г.В. Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе. / Г.В. Рогова, Ф.М.
Рабинович, Т.Е. Сахарова. – М.: Просвещение, 1991. – 177 с.
5. Колесникова И.Л. Англо-русский терминологический справочник по методике
преподавания иностранных языков. / И.Л. Колесникова, О.А. Долгина. – СПб.: Русско-
Балтийский информационный центр «Блиц», 2001. – 224 с.

Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена возможности построения уроков английского языка в


языковом вузе с помощью современных ИКТ. Мы проанализировали успешность обучения аудированию с
помощью современных ИКТ, предоставили результаты нашего эксперимента, выявили основные трудности и
предложили пути их решения. Среди наиболее эффективных ИКТ мы выделили Интернет-ресурсы и подкасты
TED, BBC, Youtube, Youglish, British Council, которые предоставляют самые различные материалы для
аудирования. Также мы выделили программы Hot Potatoes, сайты TED ED Lessons worth sharing и LingQ. Они
контролируют прослушанный материал и используются для построения целых уроков в виртуальном
пространстве. Обучение английскому языку обязательно должно сопровождаться регулярным
прослушиванием аутентичной речи, чем и помогают различные Интернет-ресурсы наряду с
пользовательскими программами и современными технологиями.
Ключевые слова: аудирование, ИКТ, Интернет, подкасты.

53
Summary. This article is devoted to the opportunity of making-up English lessons in a language school with
the help of modern ICT. The efficiency of teaching listening with the help of modern ICT is analyzed, the results of our
experiment are presented, the main difficulties are revealed and their solving is suggested. Among the most effective
ICT were singled out Internet-resources and podcasts TED, BBC, Youtube, Youglish, British Council, which present a
user with different materials for listening. Program Hot Potatoes, sites TED ED Lessons worth sharing and LingQ were
also singled out. They control a listening and are used to make-up full versions of lessons within a virtual space. A
listening teaching must be followed by a regular listening to an authentic speech, and different Internet-resources along
with user interface and modern technologies help us to do it.
Key words: listening, ICT, Internet, podcasts.

УДК 159.9.072.423
RESEARCHING EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF
LINGUISTICS
Aliona Khristophorova
2nd year student,
Theory and practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: khristtophor@gmail.com
Mariya Kostsova
PhD in Psychology,
the Department of Humanities
and Socio-Psychological Disciplines
Sevastopol State University

Studying at the University is a long and difficult process. It does not promise to be pleasant and fit to
your personal life schedule. The busy curriculum, along with the number of new duties that require strict
adherence to students, often causes a negative reaction to the learning process. However, the way out of this
situation in most cases is the student environment, which is able to replenish the energy resources for new
affairs and goals thanks to communication, mutual assistance, in joint pastimes after university classes.
After admitting to the university, the acquaintance of first-year students starts right from the first day
of studies. During the studies, students who have not yet formed themselves in the new environment are
experiencing problems communicating with their classmates. It is not so easy to start communicating with a
new fellow, as we sometimes think. The reason behind the unfortunate relations of the subject in the group
lies in the inability to make a positive impression on the companion. Excessive emotions, active
gesticulation, craftiness, immense openness or vice versa, mysterious silence are the ones who interfere.
Sometimes, in the process of interpersonal communication, barriers appear which prevent mutual
understanding. The barriers of communication refer to numerous kinds of factors, which serve as a cause of
conflict or contribute to it. After all, the interlocutors have different, often opposite, desires, aspirations,
attitudes, characters, manners of communication, well-being. It is especially necessary to hold onto your
emotions, express them in such kinds of professions as an interpreter or a philologist.
Emotional barriers – anger, fear, envy or despondency – are bad advisers in choosing the means of
communication. Such emotions weaken the ability to perceive and correctly estimate the most serious and
reasonable arguments in favor of one or another point of view. Pleasant emotions contribute to the
benevolent perception of other people [1].
A review of psychological works on the problem of research has shown that in modern social
psychology, emotional barriers refer as internal obstacles that prevent the commitment of permitted or even
of rewarded actions by society. Among the emotional barriers of interpersonal communication, one can name
a barrier, which arises based on suffering, a barrier based on a grief, a barrier caused by irritation and anger,
a barrier of the triad complex of fear, shame and guilt, speech and language barriers, barriers of negative
emotions, and so on.
To study this problem, we used the methodology of diagnosing emotional barriers in interpersonal
communication by V.V. Boyko. The author displays the following "interference" in communication: inability

54
to control emotions, to dose them; inadequate display of emotions; inflexibility, dearth, inexpressiveness of
emotions; reluctance to approach people and domination of negative emotions [1].
20 students-linguists were involved in our empirical study; they were divided into two groups: 1st
group – first, second and third year students (as the first period of professional education); and 2nd group –
third and fourth year students (the final period of professional education). Among them 4 boys and 16 girls.
The results of psychodiagnostics are presented in Figure 1 (Fig. 1/ Pic. 1), where the values of
emotional effectiveness in communication are equal: 0-2 points - the subject sees himself worse than others
see him or is insincere; 3-5 points - emotions usually do not interfere with communication; 6-8 points - there
are some emotional problems in everyday communication; 9-12 points - emotions to some extent complicate
interaction with partners; 13 or more points - emotions clearly interfere with establishing contacts with
people.

Fig. 1 – Average values in groups.

The results speak about the most important problem in establishing contact with the environment -
this is an inadequate manifestation of emotions. The difference can be seen among the first and second group
of students on the graph, and you can also notice the way that the emotional development of students had
been happening during the studies. In the end, it is noticeable that the coefficient of the older group does not
exceed, but on the contrary, it is less than the coefficient of the first group, which shows the development of
an emotional connection between students-linguists for the better.

References:
1. Психология общения. Практикум по психологии: Учебное пособие / Н.С. Ефимова. – М.:
ИД ФОРУМ: НИЦ ИНФРА-М, 2013. – 192 с.
2. Фетискин Н.П., Козлов В.В., Мануйлов Г.М. Социально-психологическая диагностика
развития личности и малых групп / Н.П. Фетискин, В.В. Козлов, Г.М. Мануйлов. – М.: Изд-во
Института Психотерапии. 2002.

Аннотация. Статья посвящена пробелмам особеностям общения студентов-филологов и проблеме


эмоционального барьера в коммуникации. Правильное общение, прежде всего, является требованием
выбранной профессионльаной деятельности. Были изучены эмоциональные барьеры, возникающие у
студентов-переводчиков и студентов-филологов.
Ключевые слова: студент, профессиональная подготовка, коммуникация, эмоциональный барьер.
Summary. This article is about the problem of communication peculiarities among the students-linguists
through the identification of the communicative emotional barriers. Correct communication is, first of all, the
requirement of the chosen professional activity. There were studied the emotional barriers of students of different
courses on the specialties ―Translation and Translation Studies‖ and ―Philology‖.
Key words: student, professional training, communication, emotional barriers of communication.

55
УДК: 004.738.5:81‘243-057.87=111
THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN THE GROWING POPULARITY OF FOREIGN
LANGUAGES AMONG STUDENTS
Maria Churkina
2nd year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: petrisilence@gmail.com
Vyacheslav Golubev
senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
Tatiana Chornaya
seniorlecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

―National borders aren't even speed bumps on the information superhighway‖ – this is what Tim
May, an American technical writer and electronic engineer, once said about the Internet.
Truly, the invention of the Internet proved to be one of the greatest breakthroughs of the 20th
century. The appearance of the so-called World Wide Web has drastically changed our worldview by giving
us the ability to store and edit colossal amounts of information, as well as exchange data between different
cities, countries and even continents in almost no time. Nowadays, the Internet has become such a vital part
of the life patterns of modern society that its sudden disappearance would lead to an inevitable collapse of
economy, technology, science and even usual everyday routine. Undoubtedly, the Internet is here to stay, and
the scope of its influence implies that now we are to successfully introduce it into all spheres of our
existence, including teaching practice – as one of the most strategically important – and language studying –
as one of the most actual due to overall globalization.
The Internet‘s nearly irreversible immersion in people‘s lives is confirmed by the fact that nowadays
almost all young members of the society already possess all skills necessary for successfully navigating the
Internet by the time they reach high school. Gordon Lewis, the author of many teaching tutorials and a
teacher himself, comments on it: ―Already today, children are learning Internet skills just as they learn basic
reading and writing. It is common to see children already familiar with computers helping their teachers get
started‖. [5, p. 5]
Absence from popular social networks is considered weird, indecent and almost taboo among the
young generation that shares and consumes online information on a daily basis. Modern pupils and students
generally prefer to use the Internet when in need of any information, keeping physical printed sources, i.e.
books, only as a last resort. According to SEO.com, ―93% of students would rather research online than go
to the library, with Wikipedia being the most often used resource‖ [4], and that can easily be proven by the
contents of the majority of students‘ works. But doesn‘t it mean that they already perceive online sites and
forums as a comfortable environment for studying, and studying foreign languages in particular? Is it what
affects a current growth of popularity of foreign languages? And can we use this trend to create new
effective ways of teaching a language?
Despite the fact that the Internet has a considerable effect on learning process, over the last several
years there have been only a few works exploring this phenomenon in details. In the year 2017 Shugufta
Abrahim, Bilal Ahmed Mir, Hayato Suhara and Masahiro Sato from Toyama Graduate School of Science
and Engineering for Education published a research report on the influence of a specific social networking
site – Facebook – among the Japanese students studying English language.
Even fewer researchers have considered actual ways to include social networks into educational
system, for instance, Nicholas Delzotto, a developer of many course-management systems to help students
enhance their academic lives with the use of technology, and Gordon Lewis, an American teacher, trainer
and materials writer, who focuses mainly on teaching languages.
According to Gordon Lewis, there are three distinct ways to exploit the Internet for educational
purposes, particularly for language studying, which students often use, consciously and unconsciously, while
navigating the Internet:
1. Pure communication.

56
2. Searching for information.
3. Consuming and producing content. [5, p. 12]
When it comes to the method of pure communication, e-mails, chat programs, forums and blogs
simultaneously help to formulate ideas, develop a proper command of grammar, acquire new useful
vocabulary and even gain certain confidence. However, while some students purposefully search for the
acquaintances among the bearers of the target language, for others engaging in such communication is a
beneficial side-effect of their active participation in online activities on large international sites.
Moving on to the search for information, modern cloud techniques and search engines allow us to
operate huge amounts of data and provide us with seemingly limitless sources of information without us
spending much time or effort, thus being stunningly effective. The fact that the Internet can be accessed
almost anywhere by numerous means only adds up to it. According to AIRS, or Association of Internet
Research Specialists, in 2017 approximately 6,5 billion web search queries were made a day worldwide via
such browsers as Google, Yahoo or Bing [2]. This overwhelming popularity of search services becomes
absolutely clear if we consider the overall fast pace of modern life when almost everything is based on the
―maximum output for minimum input‖ principle. It is so much more convenient to simply ―google‖ anything
than to walk the libraries and dig through pages. When we speak of language studying in particular, Gordon
Lewis distinguishes two main ways of using the web-search for this purpose: as an instructional tool or as a
motivator [5, p. 7]. In the first case, the Internet can provide both a student and a teacher with numerous
guides, tasks, exercises and even full online language courses. In the second case, the Internet can serve as a
source of illustrative material, e.g. images and videos, to help a student or a teacher make a presentation on
any topic of choice. However, lately there has been another, much more indirect way of gaining language
skill through web-search. Sometimes it is nearly impossible to find information on a certain topic in one‘s
native language. For instance, according to W3Techs.com, 55% of online content is published in English,
and only 6% of content is purely Russian [6]. This means that it is much easier to find information in
English, and this is what often forces Russian students to work with original English texts, trying to
comprehend and translate them.
Finally, a diverse social network system and various sites and forums on different topics provide
users with a lot of opportunities to enhance and improve their command of a language both by consuming
and producing content even if it is not originally intended for educational purposes, for example:
– simple messages on such popular online platforms as Facebook, Twitter (so-called Tweets),
Tumblr, etc;
– personal blogs;
– videos in foreign language and about foreign language and culture on YouTube and other video
hosting sites;
– single- and multiplayer games and online gaming translations;
– texts of fictional and non-fictional nature;
– fan fiction – fiction about characters or settings from an original work of fiction, created by fans of
that work rather than by its creator.
While we can encourage students to engage in such online activities with a certain purpose of
enhancing their target language skill, the majority simply indulges in them on their own for entertainment,
often not noticing their beneficial impact.
To conclude, the Internet is certainly a powerful and useful educational tool. The younger generation
has already formed a strong connection with it, both practical and psychological. Modern students perceive it
as the most useful and efficient source of any information they might need during the educational process. At
the same time, online activities, popular bloggers, YouTube videos, online games and fan fiction have
become immensely appealing to the younger generation, and their general international nature encourages
the users to try to comprehend interesting topics in foreign languages. However, in order to successfully
involve the Internet in teaching languages we must remember that it is not a replacement of the entire
educational process, but a great source of material and an infinite field for practice, and one must possess
proper computer skills to be able to get full advantage of the Internet.

References:
1. Abrahim S., Sato M. Exploring Academic Use of Online Social Networking Sites (SNS) for
Language Learning: Japanese Students Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Facebook / Shugufta Abrahim,
Bilal Ahmed Mir, Hayato Suhara, Masahiro Sato // Journal of Information Technology & Software
Engineering. – 2018. – Vol. 8. № 1.

57
2. Anna K. Sasaki Search Engine Statistics 2017 [Электронный ресурс] // AIRS Association of
Internet Research Specialists: online platform. – URL: https://www.airsassociation.org/airs-articles/search-
engine-statistics-2017 (дата обращения: 25.02.2018).
3. Delzotto N. How Has the Internet Changed Education [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
https://itstillworks.com/internet-changed-education-1437.html (дата обращения: 20.02.2018)
4. How Has the Internet Changed Education [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
https://www.seo.com/blog/Internet-changed-education-infographic/ (дата обращения: 20.02.2018).
5. Lewis G. The Internet and Young Learners: resource book for teachers / G. Lewis, A. Maley. –
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. – 152 p.
6. Usage of content languages for websites [Электронный ресурс] // W3Techs – World Wide Web
Technology Surveys: site. – URL: https://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all (дата
обращения: 25.02.2018).

Аннотация. Данная статья изучает некоторые из новейших тенденций, связанных с развитием


социальных сетей, в частности, внезапный рост популярности иностранных языков среди студентов высших
учебных заведений и учащихся старших классов. При помощи тщательного наблюдения, анализа
статистических данных и личного участия в видах онлайн-деятельности в статье доказывается, что
современные учащиеся предпочитают использовать Интернет из-за его эффективности, гибкости и
доступности. Часто учащиеся привыкают к иностранным языкам из-за общей интернациональной природы
социальных сетей и потребления иностранного контента с развлекательной целью. На основе полученных
результатов данная работа исследует различные способы использования этой новой тенденции для того,
чтобы сделать практику преподавания более эффективной и современной и повысить мотивацию учащихся.
Ключевые слова: Интернет, социальные сети, современные технологии, иностранные языки,
мотивация, коммуникация, фанфикшен.
Summary. This article explores some of the newest tendencies connected with the development of social
networks, in particular, a sudden rise of popularity of foreign languages among university and high school students. By
means of close observation, statistics analysis and personal involvement in online activities it is proved that modern
students prefer to use the Internet because of its efficiency, flexibility and availability. Often students get accustomed to
foreign languages because of general international nature of social networks and consumption of foreign content with
the purpose of entertainment. Based on these results, this paper has investigated different ways of using this modern
trend to make teaching practice more effective and up-to-date and to raise students' motivation.
Key words: Internet, social networks, modern technology, foreign languages, motivation, communication, fan
fiction.

УДК 37.013.2
“FALSE FRIENDS” IN THE INTERPRETER‟S JOB
Aleksandr Shishkin
School 8, 9th form
Sevastopol
e-mail: ashtixon2@mail.ru

Irina Osadchaya
Scientific adviser, Senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department
Sevastopol State University

Every person who learns foreign languages faces the problem of translating pseudo – international
words or so called ―false friends of the interpreters‖. They cause some difficulties for experienced
interpreters or translators to say nothing of students. Nowadays due to international cooperation one
language borrows words from another. As a result of this cross – borrowing, international paronyms appear.
They often have the same spelling, pronunciation or stem but define different things and have different
meanings. The term ―false friends‖ was introduced by the French linguists M. Kessler and G. Derokkini in
1928 in their book ―Les faux amisoulespieges du vocabulaire anglais‖. Now this term is widely used in many
languages. So, future specialists should be very attentive when rendering such words as ―concrete‖,

58
―intelligent‖, ‖accuracy‖, ―cabinet‖, ―geography‖, etc. not to produce a wrong translation. While
participating in different meetings, talks, interviews they should be prepared to explain such words, to
suggest the right terminology or comment on them.
Unfortunately, there are people who are always ready to show off their knowledge of foreign
languages in the process of interpretation. They constantly interfere in an interpreter‘s work and make it even
more difficult. If you say ―We are witnessing dramatic changes…‖, – they start commenting on it ―I didn‘t
say ―драматические изменения‖, I say ―огромные‖. Sometimes native speakers, who like to monitor an
interpreter‘s speech, correct their output e.g. ―Why do you say ―failure‖ instead of ―fiasco?‖ The interpreter
has to explain that he interprets ideas not separate words.
One can say that the job of simultaneous interpreters is easier. On the one hand, they are protected
from intruders who distract their attention, they are safe in their booths and feel more comfortable. But on
the other hand, their job is much more difficult, they experience micro stresses which decrease the quality of
interpreting. Translation theory describes the factors that determine the process of translation. They are
language and culture, as to classify the negative factor that influences the process of interpretation, ―false
friends‖ should be included.
The same can be said about translating special texts. The translator should be very careful to find the
right equivalent. For example, while translating the sentence ―Certain things are fixed such as geography of
your company‖, we should keep in mind that ―geography‖ has several meanings: 1. Science of the earth‘s
surface; 2. Physical features; 3. Divisions; 4. Climate; 5. Products; 6. Population, etc. It‘s clear that the
author of the original uses ―geography‖ as a structure of his company: a number of departments and staff.
In conclusion, I should say that while translating a text an interpreter or translator should be very
careful and attentive, it is better to consult a dictionary to be on the safe side. Future interpreters must forsee
such situations when ―false friends‖ will try to ―assist‖ them. To cope with the task, they have to study for
years and years to master the trade.
In my research I make a list of some misleading words:
Caucasian: часто приводит к непониманию, поскольку первое значение этого слова – «белый
человек, европеец». Если вы говорите о кавказцах и хотите, чтобы вас правильно поняли, лучше будет
сказать «natives of the Caucasus».
Compositor: наборщик, а не композитор (composer).
Conductor: проводник, провожатый, дирижер, но не кондуктор.
Director: режиссер, дирижер, но только не директор (руководитель компании)! Эта должность
в английском языке чаще всего называется CEO – chief executive officer.
Gallant: храбрый, а не галантный.
Genial: добрый, а не гениальный.
Killer: пример того, как заимствованное иностранное слово приобрело новое значение. В
английском это слово означает «человек, совершивший убийство». Наемный убийца по-английски
будет hitman.
Lunatic: сумасшедший. Лунатик по-английски – sleep-walker.
Mayor: мэр, а не майор.
Officer: первое значение этого слова «должностное лицо, чиновник», поэтому далеко не всегда
следует переводить его «офицер».
Pathetic: жалостный, трогательный.
Resin: смола, а не резина (rubber).
Satin: атлас, а не сатин.
Sympathy: сочувствие. То же самое с прилагательным: sympathetic – полный сочувствия;
симпатичный – cute.
Speculation: предположение, а не спекуляция.
Urbane: учтивый (urban - урбанистический).
Velvet: бархат.

References:
1. Вейзе А. А., Киреев Н. Б., Мирончиков И. К. Перевод технической литературы с
английского на русский/ Минск, 1997, 112 с.
2. Виноградов В. С. Введение в теорию перевода. – М. 2001,
Комиссаров В. Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты). – М.: Высшая Школа, 1990,
3. Study False friends [Электронныйресурс]. – Режим доступа: http:// English.info/false-
friends.php. html (дата обращения: 21.01.2018).

59
Аннотация. В статье рассматривается одна из важных проблем подготовки будущих переводчиков –
обучение переводу международных паронимов. Основная часть «ложных друзей переводчика» вызывает
определенную сложность как у студентов, так и у опытных переводчиков. Незнание такой лексики часто
приводит к неверному переводу и является причиной многих курьезов.
Ключевые слова: «Ложные друзья переводчика», заимствования, произношение, правописание, паронимы,
синхронный перевод.
Summary. The paper studies one of the most important problem in interpreter‘s and translator‘s job. Pseudo-
international words (false friends)often become an obstacle for proper understanding and interpretation. While
translating a text or a speech one should be careful and keep in mind the existence of these language peculiarities.
Keywords: ―false friends of the interpreter‖, borrowings, spelling, pronunciation, paronyms, simultaneous,
interpreters.

60
LINGUISTICS


УДК 811.134.2
EL ANÁLISIS LINGÜÍSTICO DE LOS PROVERBIOS COMO MEDIO DE APRENDIZAJE DEL
CARACTER ESPAÑOL Y LA LENGUA ESPAÑOLA
Svetlana Ageyeva
La estudiante de IV año,
la Cátedra de la Teoría y Práctica de la Traducción,
Instituto de las Ciencias Sociales y Relaciones Internacionales
la Universidad Estatal de Sebastopol
e-mail: onika.demior@gmail.com
Svetlana Korolyova
La Profesora de la Cátedra de
las Lenguas Extranjeras,
Instituto de las Ciencias Sociales y Relaciones Internacionales
La Universidad Estatal de Sebastopol
e-mail: sveta_koroleva@hotmail.com

¿Como podemos entender el país y la lengua mejor? ¿Solo gracias a varios volúmenes, canciones y
arte? ¿Por qué muchas personas olvidan de una forma tan genial de arte popular, como los proverbios? Son
los proverbios que consisten dichos de toda la nación, que ella recoge durante muchos siglos. Pero no son
solo refranes. Generalmente ellos tienen una imagen visual, expresada brevemente y figurativamente.
Gracias a los proverbios podemos conocer los valores culturales y sociales, no mencionar que los muestra
una variedad de aspectos de la vida de un pueblo. Además, los proverbios pueden ser diversos en estilo
estilístico, lo que demuestra una vez más la riqueza de la lengua y la gente. Basado en esta justificación, este
artículo se dedicará al análisis lingüístico de los proverbios como medio de aprendizaje del carácter español
y la lengua española.
Hay que definir los propósitos de los proverbios. Los proverbios llevan en sí mismos la edificación,
hacen un llamamiento para ciertas acciones, advierten contra las consecuencias indeseables. Por lo tanto, la
mayoría de los proverbios usa los verbos en la forma imperativa, la cual refleja la voluntad del hablante, el
impulso de cometer una acción o una solicitud. Los siguientes ejemplos lo prueban.
―Ve despacio y no llegarás cansado.‖
―Nunca a la cama te irás sin saber una cosa más.‖
―Oye primero y habla postrero.‖
―Oye los consejos de todo el mundo, y sigue el tuyo.‖
―Vive de tal suerte, que ni te encante la vida ni te espante la muerte.‖ [4].
A pesar de que mucha gente considere a los españoles como personas perezosas y indolentes, el
primer proverbio lo niega. La lentitud es lo más importante para ellos, que ayudará a lograr más (porque
¡habrá más fuerza!). Igualmente, podemos ver otro estereotipo erróneo: los españoles son perezosos para
aprender. Por el contrario, ellos valoran su palabra. Ellos siguen sus sueños.
Al igual que muchas otras naciones, los españoles tienen una tendencia a utilizar un dispositivo
estilístico como una hipérbole. Mientras, su expresión de emociones es mucho más notable y grave.
―Estar más triste que una lechuga.‖
―No hay mal que cien años dure.‖
―Ahogarse en una gota de agua.‖
―Aborrecer tras haber querido, mil veces ha sucedido.‖
―A los años mil, vuelve la liebre a su cubil.‖
―Amor grande, vence mil dificultades‖ [2, p.25].
Podemos observar los vivos ejemplos de las emociones de españoles, las cuales son muy profundas.
Son los dichos que una vez más pueden convencer de la afectividad de este pueblo. Es muy difícil dudar en
la sinceridad cuando los españoles creen tan vigorosamente en un futuro mejor, y en la posibilidad que todas
las dificultades desaparecerán pronto. Estas frases aún nos tocan en el corazón. Aún cuando los españoles se

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encuentran con los problemas de la vida, ellos están seguros de que esto vale la pena, como el último
proverbio nos demuestra.
Muy a menudo en el idioma hay un dispositivo estilístico como una comparación, porque la
―moralidad‖ debe entenderse con el ejemplo, en comparación con algo.
―Nada mejor en la vida, que una familia unida.‖
―Mujer sin hijos jardín sin flores.‖
―La alegría es un tesoro que vale más que el oro.‖
―Al árbol se le conoce por sus frutos y al hombre por sus obras.‖ [3].
Como muchos saben, los españoles honran a su familia y le dan una importancia especial. En las
familias españolas hay una costumbre de tratar a los ancianos con toda consideración. Habitualmente, los
españoles todavía viven con una gran familia bajo el mismo techo. Es fundamental para la familia la
presencia de todos los familiares, o por lo menos el número máximo de ellos, quizás esta es la razón por la
cual este fenómeno puede ser observado en el segundo dicho. Como se señala en la locución idiomática,
ellos viven como ―con el corazón en la mano‖.
Los padres dan a los hijos lo mejor, y sorprendentemente, les niños pagan con usura. Por lo tanto, los
niños decoran la vida, le dan el significado y la alegría de cada día. En primer lugar a su madre y al final a la
familia. Después de todo, una mujer simplemente está obligada a cuidar a alguien. Ella comprende mejor a sí
mismo y al mundo que lo rodea.
Podemos observar en tercer dicho la confirmación, que los españoles no se olvidan de su pasatiempo.
Desde nuestro punto de vista, ninguna nación es tan conocida en todo el mundo por su divertidísimo ocio.
Existe una opinión que la población del país no trabaja en absoluto, y que el objetivo principal de la vida es
el entretenimiento. Eso es casi verdad, porque los españoles realmente tienen mucho descanso e incluso en el
trabajo logran encontrar tiempo para tomar una taza de café (no uno) y hablar con colegas y amigos.
A pesar de este hecho, encontramos al cuarto proverbio que afirma que España es un país muy
trabajador. Nos parece que eso implica que los españoles son conocidos por su arte. Gracias a España, el
mundo sabe sobre los grandes artistas, músicos y escritores. Ellos son tan famosos que se reflejan en los
dichos.
Del mismo modo en el idioma hay unas personificaciones.
―El tiempo dirá.‖
―El tiempo es el mejor remedio.‖
―Mañana será otro día.‖
―El mal tiene alas.‖
―El ocio es madre de todos los vicios.‖
―La letra con sangre entra‖ [1, p.91].
Los españoles, como muchos pueblos, prefieren no apresurarse en situaciones difíciles, dando al
tiempo un título especial y reviviéndolo. Por lo visto en cuestión semántica, los españoles son personas
prudentes. Pero además, en quinto proverbio, encontramos una contradicción con el proverbio antes
mencionado. Aparentemente, a pesar de su amor por el entretenimiento, los españoles todavía quieren ejercer
presión para alcanzar mayores éxitos. Pero como podemos juzgar por sus vidas, ellos tienen problemas de
dar esta elección, lo que se refleja en la lengua.
Por último, aunque no en orden de importancia podemos encontrar el antítesis.
―No es la casa que adorna a la mujer, sino la mujer a la casa.‖
―El ave se queda con la lombriz, pero el segundo ratón consigue el queso.‖ [3].
El segundo proverbio confirma una vez más la idea de lentitud. Pero el primero entraña un potencial
enorme. Porque no habría España sin los indígenas españoles. Sin ellos, no habría tradiciones tan vastas e
interesantes. No habría tales fiestas. Después de todo, el país equivale a sus habitantes. Y debemos estar
agradecidos a los habitantes de España por un país tan colorido. A su vez, debemos estar agradecidos el
idioma por preservación de todas las sutilezas de la vida de los españoles.
Podemos concluir que los estudios en el campo del folklore ayudan a los traductores a adquirir
conocimientos profesionales, perfeccionar sus competencias lingüísticas, encontrar soluciones eficaces en
casos difíciles desde el punto de vista de la traducción y analizar el colorido español del texto original
tratando de entender la indentidad nacional y cultural.

Referencias:
1. Flores-Huerta, Samuel. Dichos o refranes: compendio temático. – Editorial CopIt ArXives, 2016.
– 223 p.

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2. Ildefonso Pereda Valdés. Proverbios y refranes. – Montevideo: Paremiología folcloríca, 1998. –
119 p.
3. Proverbios españoles. [Электронный ресурс] // TTR: citas, frases – URL:
https://es.wikiquote.org/wiki/Proverbios_españoles_(N) (дата обращения: 20.03. 2018).
4. Proverbios españoles. [Электронный ресурс] // TTR: citas, frases – URL:
https://es.wikiquote.org/wiki/Proverbios_españoles_(V) (дата обращения: 20.03. 2018)

Аннотация. В данной статье предлагается краткий лингвистический анализ поговорок испанского


языка. В ходе исследования была сделана выборка ярких стилистических приемов, как свидетельства
богатства языка и приведены соответствующие примеры сравнения, гиперболы, противопоставления,
олицетворения и т.д. Дано объяснение появлению определенных поговорок и выразительных средств языка.
Особое внимание уделяется значимости подобных выражений для лучшего понимания языка, приобретения
профессиональных знаний и совершенствования лингвистических навыков.
Ключевые слова: испанский язык, поговорка, лингвистический анализ, стилистические приѐмы,
гипербола, сравнение.
Summary. The brief linguistic analysis of the Spanish proverbs is pointed out. The selection of distinctive
stylistic devices is described as the evidence of comprehensiveness of the language and the examples of comparison,
simile, antithesis, personification are given. The explanation to the origin of the proverbs and stylistic devices is
specified. The importance of these expressions for a better understanding of the language, the acquisition of
professional knowledge and the improvement of linguistic skills is explored in detail.
Key words: Spanish, proverb, linguistic analysis, stylistic devices, hyperbola, simile.

УДК 811.111
LEXICAL AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF ADVERTISING SLOGANS OF FASHION-
INDUSTRY
Ruslan Adonin
1st year student, Foreign Philology Department
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: russad@bk.ru
Olga Shutova
Scientific advisor, PhD in Philology,
Linguodidactics and Foreign Philology Department,
Sevastopol State University

Many brands of modern fashion industry do not need advertising, and names of many popular
companies are the indicators of fashion and quality. However both as already known and as only appeared
companies use slogans to promote their goods in the world market.
Slogan is a short catchphrase, a key multifunctional component of the advertising discourse, such
kind of the brand‘s motto, which expresses the main idea of the commercial proposal, proclaiming which, the
advertiser expects to attract the attention of a potential consumer to its product or service [2, p. 57].
The main functions of the advertising slogan are:
- attracting the audience's attention to the brand and its products;
- creation a certain emotional image associated with the brand;
- providing easy remembered words in the slogan;
- expressing the features (advantages) of the brand products [1, p. 200].
The advertising slogan should have the following characteristics [3, p. 9-10]:
1) be brief and easy to remember: the amount of words in the slogan should not exceed seven words,
for example:
Puma: Here‘s to the after hours athlete; I'm going;
Diesel: Human after all;
Nike: Here I am;
Levi‘s: Originals never fit;
2) consist of common and international vocabulary, eliminating the use of terms and complex words
for better memorability and readability:

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Bjorn Borg: Don‘t make up. Brake up;
Semir: My gymnastic sucks, but I look good;
3) include the names of the brand, especially it is necessary as for already known companies as for
new companies just entering the world market or for a new category of products of popular companies:
Savage: Savage makes the weather;
Killer Jeans: Killer – worship the night;
Colin‘s: Be in Colin‘s, be free;
Diesel: The Diesel Island Army preparing for battle;
New Look: New look – is long look;
4) can be easily translated into foreign languages:
French Connection: Eat meat. Dress well. – Ешь мясо. Одевайся хорошо;
Philippe Matignonfrench: Turn on your charm. – Включи свой шарм;
Brunello Cucinelli: Simplicity, beauty, truth. – Простота, красота, подлинность;
Sportalm: Friends for life. – Друзья для жизни;
5) be unique and expressive: stylistic devices, expressive means, rhyme, language game can be used
in slogan:
Mexx: Everything should be XX (language game);
Levi‘s: Live unbuttoned (metaphor);
Diesel: Smart sees what there is. Stupid sees what there could be (rhyme);
6) correspond to the general theme of the advertising, slogan should be clearly understood what
products are advertised:
NAFA (North American Fur Auctions): Not all furs created equal;
Bosco Sport (trade mark of sportswear): Olympic clothes;
7) focus on the definite auditory:
French Connection (women‘s collection of clothes): This is the woman. What is in her bag? What is
in her coat?
French Connection (men‘s collection of clothes): Man should be brave;
Puma (sport collection of clothes not for professional sportsmen): Here‘s to the after hours athlete;
8) include imperative constructions:
Nike: Write the future;
Columbia: Protect yourself from what you can't see;
Finn Flare: Be casual;
Brunello Cucinelli Cashmere: Let's cultivate ideals. Join us.
So, the main goal of any advertising slogan of fashion industry is to attract potential buyers, take a
leading position in the production of certain products and, subsequently, hold this position. To create an
effective slogan it is necessary to make it short, memorable, bright, with definite characteristic of the
advertised goods and focusing on the definite buyer. It should be noted that the communicative features of
advertising slogans of fashion industry are not sufficiently investigated, such aspect is the next point of our
further research.

References:
1. Бессонова Т.М. Языковые способы создания выразительности в рекламных слоганах //
Приоритетные направления развития науки и образования. – 2015 –№ 1 (4). – С. 199-202.
2. Блинкина-Мельник М.М. Рекламный текст: Задачник для копирайтеров - М.: ОГИ, 2007 –
200 с.
3. Бровко Э.С. Структурные и прагматические особенности слоганов в рекламе
фармацевтической продукции: выпускная квалификационная работа. – Белгород, 2016. – 53 с.

Аннотация. В статье анализируются лексические и структурные характеристики рекламных


слоганов фэшн индустрии. В работе представлена трактовка понятия «слоган», описаны его функции и
характеристики. Сделан акцент на том, что рекламный слоган фэшн индустрии должен быть коротким,
простым, доступным, легким для запоминания, ярким, ориентированным на потенциального покупателя,
состоять из легко переводимых фраз, содержать в себе основную информацию о продукции бренда, обладать
оригинальностью и выразительностью и включать в себя императивные конструкции.
Ключевые слова: реклама, слоган, фэшн индустрия, бренд.
Summary. Lexical and structural characteristics of advertising slogans of fashion industry are analyzed in the
article. The interpretation of the notion of "slogan" is given in this work, its functions and characteristics are described.
It is noted that the advertising slogan of fashion industry should be short, simple, accessible, easy to remember, bright,

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focused on the potential buyer, consist of easily translated phrases, contain basic information about the brand products,
have originality and expressiveness and include imperative constructions.
Key words: advertisement, slogan, fashion-industry, brand.

УДК 811.111
STRUCTURAL AND SEMANTIC PECULIARITIES OF THE NOMINATION IN GAMING
SLANG
Artem Balanov
10th form pupil
Sevastopol State Budgetary Educational Institution
Secondary School №57
with the Music-Choral Education Profile
e-mail: Theclassicart.lol@gmail.com
Andrey Kramarchuk
10th form pupil
Sevastopol State Budgetary Educational Institution
Secondary School №57
with the Music-Choral Education Profile
e-mail: andrey2345672a@gmail.com
Olga Shutova
Scientific advisor, PhD in Philology,
Linguodidactics and Foreign Philology Department,
Sevastopol State University

A great number of new words are appeared in modern Linguistics, most of which are widely spread
among Internet users. The biggest source of the origin of these new lexical units are computer games, as it is
not only a way of nowadays youth entertainment but also a worldwide means of communication. Each game
has its own specifics, its genre and plot, which means that for each game you need a certain thematic
vocabulary, among which new lexical units are singled out.
Lexical units, their use and formation are determined primarily by the needs of communication and
connected with the processes of nomination, namely the naming of an object, phenomenon, properties, etc.
To build statements in which the speaker transmits to his interlocutor or interlocutors a particular
idea, reports some information, the construction material is needed. Nomination, as a result of which the
creation of this construction material is carried out and thus the creation of a system of material, sensually
perceived language signs designed to meet the needs of the language team in the designations of individual
subjects and classes of subjects, their properties and relationships, as well as facts, events and situations – is
an extremely complex process, which is characterized by a variety of forms, methods, functions 3, p. 9.
Nomination (in Latin Nominatio-name) - 1) formation of linguistic units characterized by nominative
function, i.e. serving to name and separate fragments of reality and the formation of appropriate concepts
about them in the form of words, combinations of words, phraseological units and sentences. This term
denotes the result of the nomination process – is a significant language unit. 2) a set of problems covering the
study of the dynamic aspect of naming acts in the form of proposals and its constituent parts, considered in
the theory of reference; 3) summary designation of linguistic problems associated with naming, as well as
with word formation, polysemy, phraseology, considered in the nominative aspect [1, p. 228].
There are the following distinctions: according to the type of language forms and objects of
nomination. Depending on which language forms (words, phrases or sentences) are used within the General
category of the nomination, scientists distinguish:
1. Nomination through the word and the phrase (the lexical nomination);
2. A nomination through the proposal (propositional nomination);
3. Nomination through the text (discursive nomination) [2, p. 165].

65
When slang expressions appear, the secondary nomination is used when the familiar word is used in
the different meaning. The use of this secondary nomination is of great importance and makes it possible to
avoid the appearance of language lacunae, creates an emotional, stylistic effect.
Thus, analyzing the gaming slang of the network game Player Unknown's Battlegrounds, it is
possible to distinguish such lexical units, which acquire in the game having new meanings, for example:
strafe – ‗move from place to place, dodging bullets and shooting at the moment of stop‘;
aim – ‗shooting accuracy‘;
drop – ‗a box with an object inside, which falls from the plane‘;
hit box – ‗model of a player‘;
frag – ‗murder‘;
kick – ‗ejection from the game‘;
cancer – ‗kill‘;
prefire – ‗shoot the enemy in advance‘.
Thus, the appearance of new objects and phenomena in the language is accompanied by the process
of nomination. The nomination can be classified according to the type of language forms (word, sentence,
text or discourse) and according to the objects (subjects, qualities, processes, relations, microsituations). It is
very important to admit that the secondary nomination is used when slang expressions appear. It means that a
familiar word is used in a slightly different meaning. The use of the secondary nomination is of great
importance and makes it possible to avoid the appearance of language lacunae, creates an emotional, stylistic
effect.

References:
1. Розенталь Д.Э., Теленкова М.А. Словарь-справочник лингвистических терминов. – М.:
Просвещение, 1985. – 400 с.
2. Сусов И.П. Введение в теоретическое языкознание. – М.: Восток-Запад, 2006. – 382 с.
3. Харитончик З.А. Лексикология английского языка: учеб. пособие. − Минск: Выш. шк.,
2002. − 229 с.

Аннотация. В статье дается описание структурных и семантических параметров номинации в


геймерском сленге. Дается трактовка понятия «номинация», описывается сам процесс и способы номинации,
исследуются ее категории в зависимости от языковых форм ее выражения, так выделяется номинация через
слово, через предложение, через текст. Анализируются два вида семантических значений номинации,
дифференцируется первичная и вторичная номинации. В работе дается семантический и анализ геймерского
сленга сетевой игры Player Unknown‘s Battlegrounds.
Ключевые слова: номинация, семантическое значение, геймерский сленг, вторичная номинация,
первичная номинация.
Summary. The structural and semantic peculiarities of the nomination in gaming slang are described in the
article. The interpretation of the notion of ―nomination‖ is given, the process and methods of nomination are described,
its categories are investigated according to the language forms of its expression, so the nomination through the word,
the sentence, the text is distinguished. Two kinds of semantic meanings of nomination are analyzed. So, the primary and
the secondary nominations are differentiated. The semantic analysis of gaming slang of the network game Player
Unknown's Battlegrounds is given in the work.
Key words: nomination, semantic meaning, gaming slang, secondary nomination, primary nomination.

УДК 81‘373.7
THE STRUCTURAL PECULARITIES OF THE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH THE
AMERICAN REALIA COMPONENT
Alexandra Gromova
3d year student, Institute of Foreign Philology,
Crimean Federal V. I. Vernadsky University
e-mail: aleksandra060598@mail.ru
Svitlana Chornobay
Scientific advisor, Senior Lecturer,
Institute of Foreign Philology,
V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University

66
In recent decades Russian and foreign scholars have shown a great interest in scrutinizing
phraseological units which in turn has helped to transform phraseology into a separate linguistic discipline
and increase the number of studies in this field. The phraseological level of a language consists of the image
system reflecting the peculiarities of social, cultural and religious lives. Such images form a phraseological
picture of the world. In the context of globalization of the Western culture, the set expressions reflecting
daily routine, traditions and history of the American society are especially widespread and this fact defines
the relevance of the study.
The purpose of the study is to scrutinize the English phraseological units containing American realia
component and to specify the peculiarities of their structure. To achieve the purpose the descriptive and the
component analysis methods are applied.
The study object is phraseological units with American realia component. The main sources of the
data are The Farlex Idioms and Slang Dictionary [2], Longman Dictionary of English Idioms [3],
―The realia-americanisms‖ by G. D. Tomakhin [1].
According to Michael McCarthy and Felicity O‘Dell idioms, the term which is more common in
Anglo-American and European Linguistics for phraseological units, are ―fixed expressions which have a
meaning that is not immediately obvious from looking at the individual words‖ [4, p. 6].
The English phraseological stock contains both British English idioms and idioms which have
emerged in regional varieties of the language and in territorial dialects (Indian, New Zeeland, Canadian
English, etc.). American English has become one the most fundamental national variants of the language and
has contributed to the English phraseology and lexicology as well.
Comparing American and British English phraseological stock, we can divide phraseological units
into three groups: a) common for both variants (rain cats and dogs, when pigs fly, inch by inch); b) common,
but containing peculiarities which depend on the language variant (flogging a dead horse (Br) – beating a
dead horse (Am), peaks and troughs (Br) – peaks and valleys (Am)); c) specific to one of the variants (Billy
Wind (Br), I‘m from Missouri (Am), Black as Newgate's knocker (Br), Pull a Benedict Arnold (Am)). Most of
the idioms with the realia component belongs to the third group.
Phraseological image remains national identities of the phrasemes, because it is often based on realia
common only for one nation, that‘s why idioms of such type are rather difficult for integration.
Realia as the component of the idiom are usually either a noun or a noun functioning as an adjective.
In most cases, realia are words or collocations, which do not possess connotative meaning (Dixie, Kool aid)
and they obtain the additional one in the context. The function of the context can be realized in an idiom
(Whistle Dixie – engage in unrealistic fantasies; Drink Kool aid – go along with a doomed or dangerous
idea because of peer pressure). However, there is a number of realia which possess an extra meaning and
stand both for separate realia and a phraseological unit with the component of realia (Alphabet soup, baby-
kisser, Big Apple).
Phraseological units with the American realia component have a special structure. The adjective
component of the phraseological units under consideration can be simple and compound. It can be expressed
by qualitative (Cheap shot, Cold turkey, Blue collar, Black ingratitude, Black Friday, Big league,),
possessive (Hail Mary‘s pass, Chinaman's chance) or relative adjectives (Brownie points, New York minute,
Minute Men, Alphabet soup). The realia as a part of American or English phrasemes have an incomplete
grammatical paradigm, i.e. these adjectives can‘t possess comparative and superlative forms which
potentially exist, e.g: Long green, Cold turkey, Big Apple.
Most of American phrasemes have two components: Adj +N (Ground rules, Bible belt, White collar,
Stuffed turkey, Big league Blue collar, Chinaman's chance) or V+N (Spill the beans, Go west. Whistle Dixie,
Touch base, Go south, Go postal. Get off scot-free, Walk away scot-free, Pull a Benedict Arnold).
Phraseological units with the component of American realia are essential means of reflecting
mythological, religious and ethical views of the American nation in different historical periods. The
structural peculiarities of these phrasemes are dictated by specific application of realia as the part of an
idiom.

References:
1. Томахин Г.Д. Реалии-американизмы: пособие по страноведению. – М.: Высшая школа,
1988. – 239 с.
2. The Free Dictionary by Farlex [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://www.thefreedictionary.com (дата обращения: 10.02.2018).
3. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. – Longman, 1979. – 387 p.

67
4. McCarthy M., O‘Dell F. Idioms in Use. – Cambridge University Press, 2002. – 190 p.

Аннотация. В данной статье рассматриваются особенности структуры английских


фразеологических единиц, содержащих в своем составе американские реалии. Особое внимание было обращено
автором на роль реалии как структурного компонента фразеологической единицы. В результате исследования
выявлена наиболее распространѐнная конструкция исследуемых идиом: двухкомпонентная существительное +
прилагательное, глагол + существительное. Для достижения цели применяются методы компонентного
анализа и дескриптивный метод.
Ключевые слова: фразеологизм, реалия, национальный вариант, английский язык
Summary. The paper scrutinizes the structural peculiarities of English phraseological units which contain
American realia as their components. Paculiar attention was given to the role of realia as a structural component of
phraseological unit. In study findings, the author identifies the most widely used construction of phrasemes under
consideration – idioms which have two components: adjective + noun, verb + noun. To achieve the aim methods of
component analysis and descripive one are applied.
Key words: phraseologism, realia, national variant, the English language

УДК 811.111‘366.573=111
CAUSATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Natalya Demyanenko
1st year MA student,
Linguodidactics and Foreign Philology Department,
Sevastopol State University,
e-mail:tysya.dem@mail.ru
Olga Shutova
Scientific advisor, PhD in Philology,
Linguodidactics and Foreign Philology Department б
Sevastopol State University

Causation is the cause-and-effect relationship between two predicative complexes, when one
situation precedes another. Causation is meant to be one of the verbal categories which could be attributed
both to grammatical and functional semantic categories. The semantic structure of causative verbs has
different levels of complexity. They may be used independently or coupled with other verbs [1, p. 86].
According to this, causative verbs tend to fall into two groups:
1) Functional causative verbs: let, get, make, have;
2) Notional (instrumental) causative verbs: order, аsk, persuade.
The presence of Past Participle implies the passive perspective of causative constructions [5]. In
causative constructors the agent doesn‘t implement any action towards the patient; it is perceived as a reason
for agent‘s action which is referred to Past Participle:
Even while he saw the black horde racing southward he saw another force, mysteriously assembled
… [3, p. 345].
The above example displays the causative construction saw another force, mysteriously assembled
which implements the action towards the agent of the participle. ―Referent of the action, expressed by
participle, is not formally presented in the sentence structure‖ [4, p. 132].
Furthermore, the Past Participle semantics and its object allow us to conceptualize the referent and
identify its belonging to a certain occupation:
They could not let such an outburst go unpunished [3, p. 334]
The causative construction let such an outburst go unpunished involves the penalty for the unwished
deed, the punishment can be organized by special authorities. Therefore, the profession of a policeman or a
judge is meant here.
Past Participle defines not the action itself, but the state of the object caused by this action, which is
more deactivated in comparison with other verbal forms. Deactivated, ―passive participle refers to something
observed; its referent is always linked to the space-time context, to which there is either explicit or implicit
reference in the sentence [2, p. 117].
68
Hence, passive constructions include not only passive causal structures, but also those structures
where passivisation is being implemented with the means of Past Participle. Referent of the action is
formally displayed as something abstract. According to the substantive content causal constructions
correspond to grammatical passive constructions.

References:
1. Бессалов А.Ю. Каузативные глаголы как средство выражения причинно-следственных
отношений в английском // Вестник Московского государственного областного Университета. – М.:
МГОУ, 2010. – №6. – С. 85-90.
2. Кравченко А.В. Язык и восприятие. Когнитивные аспекты языковой категоризации.–
Иркутск: Изд-во Иркутского ун-та, 1996. – 159с.
3. Оруэлл Дж. 1984. – СПб: КАРО, 2015. – 384 с.
4. Римская М.А. Концептуальный анализ категории пассивного залога: на материале
немецкого языка // Вестник Челябинского государственного университета. – 2013. – № 24. – С. 136-
139
5. Babby L.H. Hybrid Causative Constructions: Benefactive Causative and Adversity Passive //
Causatives and Transitivity / ed. by B. Comrie, M. Polinsky. – Amsterdam, 1993. – P. 343-366.

Аннотация. Статья рассматривает проблему способов образования каузативных конструкций в


английском языке. Дано определение каузативным конструкциям. Проанализированы различные способы
образования каузативных конструкций в английском языке. Также выявлено соответствие каузативных
конструкций грамматическим пассивным конструкциям.
Ключевые слова: пассив, каузация, каузативная конструкция.
Summary. The article tackles the problem of ways of building causative constructions. The definitions of
causation and causative constructions are given. The ways of building causative constructions are analyzed. The author
also considers the correlation between causative constructions and grammatical passive constructions in the English
language.
Key words: passive, causation, causative construction.

УДК 82-6: 004. 738. 5=111


THE EVOLUTION OF EPISTOLARY DISCOURSE: THE PECULIARITIES OF MODERN
INTERNET COMMUNICATION
Margarita Zhevlakova
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail:rita.margarita.z@mail.ru
Mariya Nekrasova
Scientific advisor, senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Communication, being the exchange of messages and information, is an integral part of human life.
It is a very important process of interaction within a certain group or between communities, institutions and
organizations. From the very beginning of human society people of the whole world needed communication.
To effectuate this process people have used both oral ways of transferring information, like forums or
meetings and written forms, represented by letters. The later way of communication is referred to epistolary
form. All types of information exchange have developed a lot since they first appeared, but the written one
changed greatly due to technological progress.
The aim of the given article is to analyze the modern types of written communication. Particular
attention is paid to the development of epistolary discourse and the modern way of people‘s correspondence.
Studying the content and structure of letters, one should consider linguistic features of text
organization, typical for this way of communication. Thus discursive approach is the most efficient for the
present analysis. Determining the epistolary as discourse, it is important to mention that discourse is created

69
in the process of interaction between communicants and reflects the contact and interpersonal relations
between the author and the addressee at the language level. On the foreground comes not the reality itself,
but a person as an observer and interpreter of the events mentioned in the text of the letter [5, p. 34].
Based on the researches of O. Fesenko, the epistolary discourse can be determined as the unique way
of expressing information within special epistolary conditions, including all the features inherent in the main
participants of correspondence, the time and place it takes. It is not the same as genre or style, because it
covers much more points being above all genres and styles [6, p.10].
Epistolary discourse seems to have disappeared in the era of new technologies, but on the contrary, it
finds its place in many spheres of people‘s life. Classifying the variety of epistolary types of discourse,
A. Kuryanovich suggests that business correspondence, journalistic and political texts should be studied as
special forms of epistolary discourse [4].
The widest use gets business correspondence. There are some special courses in educational
organizations to teach students to use the basis of business communication. Business letters are used mostly
in regulatory relationships, i.e. within and between state organizations, between sellers and buyers, etc. In
most cases, recipients are legal bodies. So epistolary texts of this type lose their modality, and become
official ones, getting more informative value.
In journalistic sphere, epistolary discourse is used as new method of influence on readers. It concerns
letters from editor to readers, which draw readers‘ attention because unconsciously they think, that it is
personal appeal to them. This kind of epistolary text can be more emotional, with some modality and may
contain key-phrases, which drive readers to some thoughts and acts. These texts have public character and
some features of oratory style. Here one should mention the advertisements, using epistolary text to draw the
attention of the audience and to appeal to the readers in familiar forms.
Politics uses epistolary texts with manipulative aims. There are not so many familiar or emotional
features as in journalistic. These texts can be defined as a mixture between official business correspondence
and public style. The shape and lexical units can be taken from the first one, but the aim – to appeal to
readers feelings – is taken from the second one.
Surely, the main type of epistolary discourse is the private correspondence, which has undergone
serious changes. Studying the difference between emails and letters, it should be mentioned that if letters of
old times had important structural parts, such as greeting, main body with ideas or thoughts, questions,
ending, the emails can contain no useful information, except for some words drawing recipient‘s attention to
the content of the letter. These words usually have modal meaning and express the sender‘s attitude, which
can be often found in the theme of the email:
―Theme: A personal hello
Welcome to BugHerd! My name is Alan, I‘m one of the co-founders of BugHerd. If there is anything
just I can do to help, just let me know.
Cheers,
Alan.‖ [1]
Of course, there are some emails containing important information, they are not written strictly
according to the traditional style and rules, but can have the shape of it. They are rarely used in private
correspondence, and remind business epistolary discourse. When the sender wants to make an advertisement
or writes with some business aims but his recipient is his friend or good acquaintance, a non-official offer
may take place:
―Hi there Jim,
Thank you for a wonderful present! I‘m happy to be the owner of a new tent!
I‘m looking forward to going hiking with my friends. Come in summer and join us.
See you soon,
Michael‖ [2]
Among the types of Internet-communication social networks should be paid great attention to. It is
rather different than all ways of writing messages. Firstly, the tendency of shortening the words and the
amount of words should be pointed out. Social networking tends to use abbreviations, acronyms and short
forms of the simple words and phrases like you – u, normal – norm, by the way – btw, etc. However,
messages are still non-official, with some emotional coloring and the grammar rules are often broken.
―Hi! I have seen John yesterday and he told me that last night in the pub was amazing event! I
wanted to go but my mum…u know she‘s so angry last week, so I don‘t dare even ask…‖ [2]
―Hi! What‘s up? Have u smth new 4 2day?‖ [2]
The modern discourse in the era of voice and video messages is very interesting to observe. This way
people, practicing Internet discourse and communication, are divided into two types: those who often use

70
short forms, and those, who try to avoid this trend. Conflicts between them bring new colors to the ordinary
correspondence [3].
Summing up the article, it should be pointed out that modern epistolary discourse is completely
different from one of the previous historical periods. All its categories from aims to content changed and
made it more than a means of communication. It became indispensible for modern people. The simplification
of epistolary texts gave a new life to all kinds of correspondence.

References:
1. 21 приветственное письмо: вдохновение для вашего e-mail маркетинга [Электронный
ресурс] // Медиа-холдинг «Мега»: сайт. – URL: http://mega-
eworld.com/pub/section97133/element2352696/#!prettyPhoto
2. Как написать email на английском языке [Электронный ресурс] // Инглекс. Онлайн-школа
английского языка: сайт. – URL: http://englex.ru/how-to-write-an-email-in-english/
3. Кожеко А.В. Эпистолярные жанры: традиционные и современные формы [Электронный
ресурс] // Современные проблемы науки и образования. – 2015. – № 2(3). – URL: http://science-
education.ru/ru/article/view?id=23775 (дата обращения: 01.03.2018).
4. Курьянович, А.В. Эпистолярный дискурс как средство современной межличностной и
социальной коммуникации // Сибирский филологический журнал. − 2008. − № 4. − С. 215−224.
5. Некрасова М.Ю. "Письмо с фронта" и "письмо к редактору" как виды эпистолярного
дискурса Крымской войны // Гуманитарные чтения "Свободная стихия": материалы научно-
практической конференции, Севастополь, 8-9 сентября 2016 года – Севастополь: "РИБЕСТ", 2016. –
С. 33-39.
6. Фесенко, О. П. Комплексное исследование фразеологии дружеского эпистолярного
дискурса первой трети XIX века. Автореф. дис. ... доктора филол. наук / О.П. Фесенко. – Омск:
Омский экономический институт, 2009. – 37 с.

Аннотация. В данной статье рассматривается обмен информацией как одна из важнейших


составляющих деятельности человека. Обосновано изучение эпистолярия как дискурса. Дано определение
эпистолярного дискурса и его отличия от текста и жанра. Рассмотрены специальные формы эпистолярного
дискурса, такие как деловая переписка, письма читателей газет и политическая переписка. Особое внимание
уделяется изменениям, коснувшимся переписки в результате технологического прогресса и развития
Интернет-коммуникаций.
Ключевые слова: эпистолярный дискурс, интернет коммуникация, деловая переписка, дискурс
журналистики, электронное сообщение.
Summary. The article concerns the information exchange, as an integral part of human‘s life. The studying of
epistolary as a type of discourse is grounded. The definition of epistolary discourse is given and its difference from style
and genre is explained. Some special forms of epistolary discourse like business correspondence, journalistic and
political texts are described. Much attention is paid to the changes in the way of corresponding as a result of
technological progress and development of Internet-communication.
Key-words: epistolary discourse, Internet-communication, business correspondence, journalistic discourse, e-
mail.

УДК 81‘42: [794.088.2:004.92] =11


GAME COMMUNITY DISCOURSE: LINGUISTIC AND PRAGMATIC ASPECT
Aleksei Kalinichenko
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
E-mail: aleksey_1995@mail.ru
Yevgeniia Barmina
Scientific advisor, PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

71
In the modern world, game communities have huge popularity. Gamers entered the virtual reality not
so long ago and are not always aware that even the simplest phrase placed on the website could be
thoroughly prepared to influence them. To fully understand the mechanisms of the influence it is necessary
to analyze the linguistic peculiarities of the game community manipulation.
This research is relevant, as the virtual reality has become a part of our everyday life and the problem
of manipulative influence within game community discourse is alarming. Thus, it is crucial to be fully aware
of all possible means of linguistic manipulation.
The aim of the research is to determine the place and peculiarities of the game community discourse
as well as to define the means of linguistic manipulation.
Our research is based on the scientific works of such Soviet and Russian linguists as
N. D. Arutyunova, T. M. Nikolaeva, Yu. S. Stepanov, V. I. Karasik, V. A. Zvyagintsev, as well as the works
of such foreign scientists as T. A. van Dyke, A. J. Greimas.
The new technologies have brought a new communicative environment known as cyberspace which
became the object of discourse researches. The whole text, which creates communicative situations within
virtual reality, is considered a new discourse type known as virtual discourse. As any other discourse, virtual
discourse obtains the whole specter of functional aims: communicative, manipulative, educational and
socializing [3].
The virtual discourse participants, as a rule, automatically skip the formal introduction and start the
conversation ignoring the age, racial, gender and social differences. The basic behavior model is changed for
the new one which varies depending on the role chosen by the participant. One more peculiarity of virtual
discourse is that it has no clear time and territorial boundaries.
The speech of virtual discourse communicants is of great interest. It is a composition of spoken and
written language which includes internet slang, computer jargon, shortenings and abbreviations [2].
The virtual reality is a great platform for industrious people who in order to achieve their goal use all
the possible language means to influence the target audience. The virtual reality has become the weapon of
manipulators.
The main manipulation methods are the following: 1) influence with love; 2) influence with fear; 3)
influence with guilt; 4) influence with authority; 5) influence on vanity and pride; 6) influence with pity [1].
The last method has its drawback. When the manipulator influences his target with pity too often, the
communicant develops irritation towards the manipulator and this method can simply fail.
To achieve maximum efficiency, the manipulator chooses a particular strategy and carries it out with
the help of ―manipulative technologies‖. They are: 1) distortion of information (juggling with facts,
incorrect comparisons); 2) concealment of information; 3) implicit presentation of information; 4) use of
neologisms; 5) abundant use of key words and their synonyms; 6) use of words with positive and negative
connotations; 7) use of emotional nouns instead of neutral ones [1].
We will examine the use of linguistic means and manipulation methods comparing three language
variations of the article written by Blizzard Entertainment Company which deals with a charitable purchase
of an in-game pet.
In order to draw the gamers` attention, the author of the article capitalizes the headline enlarging the
print and changing the typeface.
НОВЫЙ ПИТОМЕЦ: ЛИС ТЕНЕК СПЕШИТ НА ПОМОЩЬ НУЖДАЮЩИМСЯ
NEW PET: ADOPT SHADOW THE FOX AND HELP SUPPORT DISASTER RELIEF EFFORTS
NEUES HAUSTIER: ADOPTIERT SCHATTEN DEN FUCHS UND UNTERSTÜTZT DAMIT DIE
KATASTROPHENHILFE
From the very first passage of the article, the manipulation methods are implied. The author
influences the Russian gamer with pity showing that «великолепный лисѐнок по имени Тенѐк уже ждѐт
своего хозяина! ». Here we can notice a stylistically marked word «великолепный» as well as affectionate
diminutive suffixes -ѐнок- and -ѐк- in the words «лисѐнок» and «Тенѐк» respectively which amplify the
feeling of pity towards the poor animal. American gamers are given the chance to show their nobility
because the author offers to accept the fox into their families, to help it out of trouble, to take responsibility
for the pet:
Introducing the latest World of Warcraft companion up for adoption… an artful fox named Shadow!
Similar means are used to influence German players:
Wir stellen den neuesten Begleiter für World of Warcraft vor, den ihr adoptieren könnt: einen
gerissenen Fuchs namens Schatten!
In all three cases, the authors use exclamatory sentences to make gamers buy the pet as soon as
possible. Various means on the lexical level prove to be of special effect in the act of manipulation. These

72
are, for example, the words and phrases with striking positive and negative connotation: «нужно
действовать без промедления» («we need to act now», «jetzt der Zeitpunkt zum Handeln ist»),
«гуманитарная помощь», «disasters big and small», «Katastrophen»).
Throughout the whole article, we can notice the repetition of the same key words: «стихийные
бедствия» («natural disasters», «Naturkatastrophen»), «благотворительность» («charity»),
«пожертвовать» («donate», «spenden»), «нуждающиеся» («affected», «Betroffene»), «Красный крест»
(«Red cross», «Rote Kreuz»). These words and phrases make us focus our attention on the problem of people
affected by the natural disaster.
The obtained results of our research lead to the following concussions:
1. The conversation within the virtual discourse is carried out beyond time and territorial boundaries.
All the social differences are changed for various behavior models.
2. Manipulators use different means and ―manipulative technologies‖ to achieve their aim.
3. Manipulators focus on the mentality of the object of influence. The most effective language means
prove to be connotative-marked words, affectionate diminutive suffixes and constant use of key words and
phrases.
The conclusions of our research can later be used in the more detailed study of this topic. We can
also take a closer look at a reversed manipulative influence when players affect game industry designers.

References:
1. Виды и типы манипуляций. Способы выхода из манипуляций [Электронный
ресурс]. ‒ Режим доступа: http://www.semdorog.ru/publ/otnoshenija/tip-manipuljaciy (дата обращения:
15.02.2018).
2. Жанровая классификация виртуального дискурса [Электронный ресурс]. ‒ Режим доступа:
https://studexpo.ru/angliyskiy/zhanrovaya-klassifikatsiya-virtualnogo-diskursa (дата обращения:
17.02.2018).
3. Лутовинова О.В. Лингвокультурологические характеристики виртуального дискурса
[Электронный ресурс]. ‒ Режим доступа: http://www.dissercat.com/content/lingvokulturologicheskie-
kharakteristiki-virtualnogo-diskursa (дата обращения 18.02.2018).

Аннотация. Статья посвящена определению места и особенностей дискурса игровых сообществ, а


также проблеме выявления способов и технологий манипулирования игроками. Автор указывает социальные и
речевые особенности виртуального дискурса. В статье отображены основные способы манипулирования, а
также лингвистические особенности «манипулятивных технологий». Проанализировав статью компании
Blizzard Entertainment автор выявляет закономерность использования языковых средств и их эффективность в
зависимости от менталитета игрока.
Ключевые слова: виртуальный дискурс, игровые сообщества, манипуляция, манипулятивные
технологии, методы манипуляции.
Summary. The article is devoted to the determination of the place and peculiarities of game community
discourse as well as to the problem of methods and technologies definition of game manipulation. The author points out
social and language peculiarities of the virtual discourse. The article shows the main manipulation methods and
linguistic features of ―manipulative technologies‖. Having analyzed the article by Blizzard Entertainment Company,
the author reveals the use regularity of language means and their efficiency depending on the mentality of a player.
Key words: virtual discourse, game communities, manipulation, manipulative technologies, manipulation
methods.

УДК 811.111
LEXICAL PECULIARITIES OF GAMING SLANG IN THE ONLINE COMPUTER GAME
“TOM CLANCY‟S RAINBOW SIX SIEGE”
Andrey Kaloshin
8th form pupil
State Budgetary Educational Institution
of the city of Sevastopol
―Educational Complex ‗Bukhta Kazach'ya‘‖
e-mail: an.caloschin@yandex.ru

73
Olga Shutova
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Linguodidactics and Foreign Philology Department,
Sevastopol State University

The advent of computers has been the greatest discovery in human life. The natural fact is that with
the advent of computer technology and the gaming industry a new language – gaming slang was born. The
gaming slang is the type of special language which is used by gamers and people in gaming communities
while playing computer games [1, p. 249]. In connection with the popularization of computer games gaming
slang is constantly updated with new lexical units. Since most games are written in English, it is the main
source of formation of slang.
Each game has its own specifics, its genre and plot, which means that for each game you need a
certain thematic vocabulary, among which as a result new words and word combinations are singled out.
Global Language Monitor conducted research, during which it was found that every 98 minutes there is one
new word, therefore, the relevance of the study of gaming slang is undeniable [3, p. 6].
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege – is a network computer game in the genre of tactical shooter,
which is presented in the first person. It was developed by Ubisoft for Microsoft Windows, Xbox one and
PlayStation 4. Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege was announced by Ubisoft on June 9, 2014 at E3 and
released on December 1, 2015. The project became the successor of the closed Patriots. In basis of the
process of this game there is intense asymmetrical fighting between assault squad and defenders in limited
space conditions [2]. So, vocabulary in this game is abound with military terminology, namely: names of
weapons and verbs with the meaning of ‗shoot‘ which motivate to actions. So, for instance:
Ballistic Shield – щит;
Automatic / Semi-automatic Assault Rifle – автоматическая / полуавтоматическая штурмовая
винтовка;
Automatic Light Machine Gun – автоматический пулемет;
Semi-automatic Handgun – полуавтоматический пистолет;
Automatic / Semi-automatic Submachine Gun - автоматический / полуавтоматический
пистолет-пулемет;
Shotgun – дробовик;
blow smoke grenade / flashbang grenade / EMP (electromagnetic pulse) grenade – кидать
дымовую гранату / светошумовую гранату / электромагнитную импульсную гранату;
- siege – штурмовать;
- fuze – взрыватель.
Also, the game is widely used abbreviations and acronyms, for example:
- S.A.S. – the Special Air Service, is a special forces regiment of the British Army;
- GIGN - the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group, (French: Groupe d'Intervention de la
Gendarmerie Nationale), is a special operations unit of the French Armed Forces;
- GSG 9 - Border Protection Group 9 of the Federal Police (German: Grenzschutzgruppe 9
der Bundespolizei), is a German counter-terrorism and special operations unit;
- FBI SWAT – FBI Special Weapons and Tactics Teams are specialized tactical teams of the
federal Bureau of Investigation. SWAT agents are trained to intervene in high-risk events like hostage and
barricade situations;
- SPETSNAZ – force of special purpose, is umbrella term for all special forces in Russia.
Also, it is very important to admit the style of communication in this game, for example:
At door / window Glaz!, which means ‗Pay attention! Glaz is standing at the door / at the window‘.
Or Ela check! – ‗Be very attentive Ela is close to you‘. Thus, it should be noted that the communication
between gamers is characterized by concise and brevity. So, to save time and to achieve the fastest result of
the action, players in the game use short slang expressions with a wide semantic meaning.
Thus, the gaming slang which is used in online game Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege is
characterized by a wide use of abbreviations and acronyms, as well as a brief and concise style of
communication, which in that way expands the computer slang.

References:
1. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка: учеб. Для ин-тов и фак.
иностр. яз. 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. - М.: Высш. шк., 1990. – 295 с.

74
2. Aarseth E. Computer Game Studies, Year One [Электронный ресурс] // Game Studies: The
International Journal of Computer Game Research: сайт. - URL: http://gamestudies.org/0101/editorial.html
(дата обращения: 24.02.2018).
3. Ensslin A. The language of gaming. - New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. – 224 p.

Аннотация. В данной статье рассматривается игровой (геймерский) сленг как средство


коммуникации современной молодежи в процессе онлайн игры. Дается трактовка термина «геймерский
сленг», приводится статистика появления новообразований в компьютерном сленге. В работе анализируется
лексика присущая сетевой компьютерной игре в жанре тактический шутер Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege.
Описывается тематическая принадлежность лексических единиц и их структурные особенности. Также дана
характеристика стилю коммуникации геймеров в процессе данной компьютерной игры.
Ключевые слова: геймерский сленг, лексическая единица, лексическое значение, аббревиатура,
акроним.
Summary. The gaming slang as means of communication between the present day young people during an
online game is investigated in the article. The notion of the term ―gaming slang‖ and the statistics of emergency of new
words in computer slang are given. Language of a network computer game in the genre of tactical shooter Tom
Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege is analyzed in the work. Thematic and structural peculiarities of lexical units are described.
The characteristic of the style of gamers‘ communication while playing this computer game is given.
Key words: gaming slang, lexical unit, lexical meaning, abbreviation, acronym.

УДК: 811.111‘373
EUPHEMISMS IN CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL DISCOURSE
Maria Kliueva
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: mkluieva@mail.ru
Elena Abramicheva
Scientific advisor,
Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The main focus of our article is the euphemization of political discourse as a means of realization of
the Category of Implication.
The problem of the quality and value of the received information remains one of the major issues not
only for Text Linguistics but also for Communication Theory. To fully comprehend the information we are
exposed to, in the world of mass communication, we should consider 1) the form in which it is delivered; 2)
the content (or the message) which is sent; and 3) the way it is presented (explicit/direct or implicit/indirect).
It is common knowledge that euphemism is ―a word of more or less pleasant or at least inoffensive
connotation‖ that ―becomes synonymous to one that is harsh, obscene, indelicate or otherwise unpleasant‖
[1, p. 207]. ―The main distinguishing feature of euphemization is indirectness. From psychological point of
view the process involves setting up associative links between direct denotatum (the direct meaning of which
is under taboo) and associative denotatum. Here the implicational part of meaning rendering all types of
traditional associations is actively involved‖ [2, p. 354].
Euphemisms are employed for many reasons: to avoid tension, controversy, to follow the rules of
public conduct and politeness. The ―Regulatory Principle‖ is the main pragmatic principle that dictates the
use of euphemisms in the political discourse. Politics is the sphere where properly chosen words help to form
and manage the public opinion. The desire to secure control over the public makes politicians come up with
words and phrases that conceal the true negative consequences of their policies, thereby achieve a positive
propaganda effect. What is more, appearing neutral on the surface, euphemisms tend to serve as a coded
language since they signal some information to a certain group.
In our article we will consider one of the most affected by euphemization spheres – the sphere of
political communication, and analyze some of the most frequent euphemisms currently used by American
top-politicians, media, and government officials.

75
Let us consider chief thematic domains exposed to euphemization. American military terminology
has a long list of euphemisms that are intended to reduce the culpability of military actions taken by the
American government. One of the most widely used terms is a term ―collateral damage‖ which describes
accidental killing or wounding of civilians, unintentional damage of equipment or facilities that were not the
targets of the military actions but were affected during them. Another euphemism is the phrase ―boots on the
ground‖ used by Barack Obama when he promised that there wouldn‘t be ―boots on the ground‖ in Syria
and then announced that America would deploy Special Forces Advisers to the country. That made the
journalists wonder what kind of troops could be described by this term. ―How important is it, ultimately, to
determine whether U.S. soldiers stationed in a war zone are considered ―boots‖ only when they‘re part of a
combat mission, or while actually in combat as part of an advisory mission, or anytime they‘re in the
theater?‖ (Kathy Gilsinan, The Atlantic: 5 November, 2015).
The word ―war‖ is another unpleasant concept much avoided by politicians. Instead they say
―conflict‖, ―armed conflict‖, ―confrontation‖, and ―military action‖. Different periphrastic names have
always been given to some actions that violate many national and international laws. ―Extraordinary
rendition‖ is one of them. Used as a legal term to describe CIA practice of seizing terrorism suspects and
taking them with no court hearing to the countries where torture is practiced. The word ―torture‖ also got its
own euphemism that was used by the former US President George W. Bush who said that ―the CIA had
saved lives by using "enhanced interrogation techniques" to acquire information from suspects and insisted:
"This government does not torture people"‖ (BBC: 10 December, 2014). ―Special methods of questioning‖
is another term for this. The term ―detainee‖ was used to talk about prisoners in ―The Guantanamo Bay
detention camp‖ which is in fact a United States military prison for indefinitely detained suspects.
War is not the only source of euphemisms; economy also makes politicians search for the convenient
and right words. Thus, instead of using the word ―spending‖ which has a negative connotation, politicians
prefer to call it ―investing‖, instead of saying ―tax increase‖, they say ―revenue enhancement‖ or ―closing
loopholes‖. ―Slow economic downturn‖ and ―period of uncertainty‖ are used instead of ―recession‖. During
the financial crisis of 2007–2008 politicians and media widely used the phrase ―credit crunch‖. ―A term is
more likely to catch on if it's alliterative... Then, there's the onomatopoeia factor. "Crunch" sounds decisive,
punchy and, crucially, short: it's an event, rather than a decade‖ (Anne Karpf, The Guardian: 30 July,
2008). Paradise Papers leak in 2017 reminded us about the word ―offshore‖ that is sometimes used as a
euphemism that describes legal evasion of domestic taxes and restrictions.
Another topical and recurring theme that has always been well equipped with evasive expressions is
immigration. And it is particularly relevant to America known as the ―nation of immigrants‖. But it all
changed in 2015 when Donald Trump started his way toward the presidency by winning surprising support
for his new line that America does not welcome immigrants anymore. And if earlier euphemisms served to
create a positive image of immigrants, they now serve to euphemize Trump‘s immigration policy to make it
easier for those who don‘t agree with him on this issue. And though the number of euphemisms in Trump‘s
immigration rhetoric is extremely small in comparison with all the harsh words he uses towards immigrants,
they still play an important role, helping him not to cross the line.
In 2017 the USA President Donald Trump signed an executive order that banned entry into the USA
by anyone from Muslim-majority countries. The order caused chaos at airports, strikes across the country
and lots of controversy. What made people furious was not only its contents, but also its name. The argument
began when the Trump campaign website, stating that the purpose of the order was to prevent Muslim
immigration, gave the reason to call it the ―Muslim ban‖. This disturbed the public as the name implied that
the suggested measures targeted people on the basis of their religion rather than on the risk they pose for the
national security. As the phrase ―Muslim ban‖ made the order sound unconstitutionally discriminating, it was
widely used by Trump‘s opponents to call attention to the President‘s prejudices and his Islamophobic views.
Media used the neutral term ―travel ban‖ to describe the order. There appeared other terms among
which are ―refugee ban‖, ―visa ban‖, ―immigration ban‖. But the word ―ban‖ clearly has a negative
connotation, that is why the White House explicitly rejects it. The term that the Trump administration wants
people to use is ―extreme vetting‖. This euphemism stresses that the order is not about religion. ―…White
House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly defined "extreme vetting" as verifying the identities of people traveling to
the United States. ‗Extreme vetting is, we simply interview people and have to satisfy ourselves that the
person we‘re talking to is indeed the person who they claim…‘‖ (Philip Rucker, The Washington post: 31
October, 2017). This euphemism helps the government to clear itself of the ideas of discrimination, but still
advocate its policy.
Immigration rhetoric has accumulated many evasive terms, serving to create positive attitude
towards immigration. Liberals, pro-immigration politicians and media reject the terms ―illegal immigrant‖

76
and ―illegal alien‖, which seem to label immigrants as ―criminals‖, and substitute them for the term
―undocumented immigrants‖. They also choose not to use the term ―amnesty‖ but the phrase ―a path to
citizenship‖. These euphemisms were much used during the immigration debates in 2006, 2007, and 2013,
when George W. Bush and Barack Obama were presidents and advocated comprehensive legislation. But
with Donald Trump being the President, the immigration rhetoric has changed. He eschews these
euphemisms and uses taboo words like ―chain migration" to frame the issues his way. In August 2015 a
reporter asked Trump about his use of the term ―anchor baby‖ and suggested that he should use the
euphemism ―American-born child of undocumented immigrants‖. ―Oh, you want me to say that instead,
OK? No, I‘ll use the word ‗anchor baby,‘‖ Mr. Trump said‖ (David Sherfinski, The Washington Times: 21
August, 2015).
Trump‘s administration tries hard to moderate President‘s language to protect him from media and
opponents‘ criticism. When the scandal around Trump‘s reaction to the protection of immigrants from Haiti,
El Salvador and African countries discussion arose, they had to come up with euphemisms to describe the
President‘s words. ―Rough talk‖, ―tough language‖, ―impassionate conversation‖ were the phrases
Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen used to avoid mentioning the exact words of the President.
Though euphemisms are used with intention to produce positive effect, they sometimes run the
contrary. The previous historic experience has given us the whole list of trigger words that immediately give
away some deceiving names. Among such words is the word ―reform‖ that usually substitutes the negative
word ―cuts‖.
That is why Trump‘s recent welfare reform has caused lots of debates. While some people support it,
others state that cuts in public assistant program funding signify reducing spending for the Department of
Housing, Urban Development and can be catastrophic for people who really need help. What is more, not
only do they call this phrase a euphemism for ―cuts‖, but they also describe the word ―welfare‖ as coded
racial and point out that Trump is blowing a racist dog whistle when using this term. In their opinion this
reform and its name help Trump to foster negativity against immigrants and nonwhites as Trump uses it to
stress that most of them take advantage of the federal aid programs.
Politicians, including Trump, are often accused of lying, but the word ―lie‖ is seldom heard even
from the media. Trying to be politically correct, journalists use euphemisms, such as ―provable falsehood‖,
to avoid the harsh word. Politicians come up with their own phrases, for example, ―alternative facts‖ or
―misdirection play‖, etc.
Nowadays, when rudeness and personal insults are becoming the norm in affairs of state, when being
at risk of a nuclear war, the leaders of opposing countries call each other names, euphemisms may seem to
become useless, but still they are the part of the harshest rhetoric and effective multi-taskers in maintaining
political correctness and managing political communication in the world arena.

References:
1. Арнольд И. В. Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб. для ин-тов и фак.
иностр. яз. – М.: Высш. шк., 1986. – 295 с.
2. Заботкина В.И. Слово и смысл. – М.: РГГУ, 2012. – 428 с.
3. Holder R.W. A dictionary of euphemisms. How not to say what you mean. – Ref. Libr. – 2008. –
410 p.

Аннотация. Статья посвящена изучению эвфемизмов в англоязычном политическом дискурсе. В


работе рассмотрены политические эвфемизмы, связанные с военной, экономической тематикой и вопросами
иммиграции. Отражены прагматические и семантические особенности эвфемистических наименований,
служащих для реализации определенных политических стратегий.
Ключевые слова: политический эвфемизм, политическая коммуникация, импликация.
Summary. The article is devoted to the study of euphemisms in English political discourse. Political
euphemisms connected with military, economic, and immigration spheres are analyzed. Euphemisms are considered in
terms of their pragmatics and semantics that serve the realization of specific political strategies.
Keywords: political euphemism, political communication, implication.

77
УДК 811.113.2
BESONDERHEITEN DES INTERNET-WORTSCHATZES IN DER MODERNEN
DEUTSCHEN SPRACHE

Anna Lebedeva
2nd year master student,
Crimean Engineering Pedagogical University
e-mail: anytik_lebedeva94@mail.ru
Irina Yevtikhova
Scientific advisor, PhD in Philology,
German Philology Department,
Crimean Engineering Pedagogical University

Das Internet ist ein wichtiger und nötiger Bestandteil der modernen Gesellschaft. Heutzutage
beobachten wir die zunehmende Rolle der Internetkommunikation in allen Sphären. Die Kommunikation
über das Internet wird von der Wissenschaft unter dem Begriff der computervermittelten Kommunikation
vereinheitlicht, welche den ―Austausch von Informationen via Computer-Netzwerke‖ beschreibt [1, с. 53].
Der Sprachgebrauch im Internet wird anschließend unter dem Aspekt der Schriftsprache sowie unter
Berücksichtigung der sprachlichen Besonderheiten analysiert. Diese Erkenntnisse dienen zuletzt als
Grundlage für die abschließende Untersuchung, inwiefern die Internetsprache Einfluss auf die Entwicklung
der Gegenwartssprache nimmt.
In einem Fremdwörterlexikon wird der Begriff Internetsprache wie folgt definiert:
Die Internetsprache ist eine ―im Internet verwendete Schriftsprache, die häufig Merkmale der
Umgangssprache bzw. der gesprochenen Sprache enthält‖.
Der Sprachgebrauch im Internet weist laut dieser Definition viele Gemeinsamkeiten mit der
Alltagssprache in der mündlichen Kommunikation auf.
Im Folgenden werden verschiedene Formen der virtuellen Kommunikation im Internet kenntlich
gemacht [4, S. 58].
Das Internet schafft große Möglichkeiten in der zwischenmenschlichen und zwischenkulturellen
Kommunikation. Whatsapp, Facebook, Instagram, Google+, Twitter, Tumblr, Pinterest, etc. – Jugendliche
mögen die sozialen Netzwerke und verbringen entsprechend viel Zeit damit: rund 80 Prozent der
Jugendlichen besuchen soziale Netzwerke täglich oder mehrmals pro Woche, so die Studie (Soziale).
Der Internetwortschatz hat auch seine Besonderheiten. Die zwischenmenschliche
Internetkommunikation kann in Grad der Interaktivität variieren. Die universellen pragmatischen Merkmale
dieser Kommunikation sind Kontakt, Strategie der Empathie und Ausdruck der Kommunikanten. Die
Forscher markieren die Hauptmerkmale des Internetwortschatzes, die zur Realisierung dieser pragmatischen
Aspekte beitragen [2, с. 173]. Im Internetwortschatz sind die Entlehnungen überwiegend in Form von
individuellen Abkürzungen oder als eigenständige Wörter, die englischsprachigen Ursprungs sind, aber
bereits tief verwurzelt und gut verständlich sind:
1) Anrede: ―Liebe User‖, ―Liebe Freunde‖, ―Mein Schatz‖.
2) Adressen: ―IP-Adresse‖ (eine Adresse in Computernetzen auf dem Internetprotokoll), ―MAC-
Adresse‖ (Media-Access-Control-Adresse).
3) Computertechnologien: ―der Router‖, ―der Repeater‖, ―der PC‖, ―Start Menü‖, ―WIN XP‖
(Windows XP), ―Google-Suchliste‖, ―Desktop-PCs‖, ―Browser‖, ―Cyberspace‖, ―fan fiction‖, ―Flash-
Mob‖, ―Netpoint‖.
4) Programme: ―ІЕ‖ (Internet Explorer), ―Windowsfirewall‖, ―IP Scanner‖.
5) Personen: ―Noob‖ (ein Neuling, meist bei Online-Spielen), ―M-model‖, ―Prinzessin‖.
6) Entlehnungen aus dem Französischen: ―Attachment‖, ―Initiative‖, ―Terrasse‖, ―Chauffeur‖,
―Revolution‖.
7) Abkürzungen: CU – ―Man sieht sich!‖, CUL8R – ―Bis später‖; dad – ―Denk An Dich‖, GLG –
―Ganz liebe Grüße‖, XOXO – ―Kisses and hugs!‖, kA – ―Keine Ahnung‖ [3, S. 221].
Produktiv sind auch Transkriptionen und Transliterationen mit der gleichen Bedeutung der
ursprünglichen englischen Einheit, die in der modernen deutschen Sprache präsentiert sind. Infolgedessen
enthält der Jugendcomputerwortschatz viele englische Wörter, die oftmals erneuert oder absichtlich verzerrt
werden können. Jugend-Computer-Slang und Jugend-Internet-Slang haben sowohl gemeinsame als auch
diverse Merkmale. Die wichtigsten Quellen dieser beiden Arten von Slang bleiben die englischen
Entlehnungen.

78
Literaturverzeichnis:
1. Агагюлова С.И. Интернет-коммуникация как новая речевая формация: колл. монография /
С.И. Агагюлова, Е.Н. Галичкина, Е.И. Горошко. – М.: Флинта: Наука, 2012. – 328 с.
2. Ахренова Н.А. Интернет-дискурс как глобальное межкультурное явление и его языковое
оформление / Н.А. Ахренова. – М.: Изд-во МГОУ, 2009. – 220 с.
3. Duden. Das Wörterbuch der Abkürzungen. Über 50.000 nationale Abkürzungen und kurzwörter
mit ihren Bedeutungen. – 6., überarb. u. erw. Aufl. v. A. Steinhauer. – Mannheim: Duden, 2011. – 512 S.
4. Siever T. Das Wort in der Netzkommunikation / T. Siever // Handbuch Wort und Wortschatz. –
Berlin, 2015. – S. 53–74.

Аннотация. В данной статье рассматриваются особенности Интернет-лексики в современном


немецком языке. Анализ языкового материала позволил выделить наиболее часто используемые аббревиатуры,
заимствования в Интернет-лексики современного немецкого языка.
Ключевые слова. сокращения, интернет-коммуникация, языковые особенности, немецкий язык.
Summary. This article discusses the peculiarities of Internet vocabulary in modern German. Analysis of
linguistic material allowed to identify the most commonly used abbreviation, borrowings in the Internet vocabulary in
modern German.
Key words. acronyms, Internet communication, linguistic peculiarities, German language.

УДК 81‘42
INTERTEXTUALITY IN POSTMODERN FICTION

Natalya Leshchinskaya
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: natalesch@mail.ru
Elena Abramicheva
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The postmodern fiction as a cultural phenomenon is characterized by variability, tendency to


experiment with cultural and historical heritage, violation of the common norms and rules. The postmodern
literary texts tend to have a multilayered, non-linear semantic structure, which results in the text being open
to various interpretations. Intertext is considered to be a principal tool of creating a polyphonic structure in
the postmodern fiction. Intertext integrates a new text into the existing cultural context with the definite
components of this context being reflected and reconsidered in the recipient text.
This article is aimed at determining the functions of the intertextual inclusions in the postmodern
fiction on the material of Alan Lightman‘s literary works. N.A. Fateeva‘s classification of the intertextual
inclusions is assumed the basic one in the text analysis suggested in the given research.
N. A. Fateeva distinguishes the following types of intertextuality:
– intertextuality proper, including quotations and allusions;
– paratextuality representing the interrelations between the text and its title, epigraph, or epilogue;
– metatextuality including rewriting, editing, rephrasing and any other violation of the precedent
text;
– architextuality implying genre blending;
– hypertextuality referring to the parodic reevaluation of the original work [1, p. 120 - 160].
Hypertextuality can be considered a predominant feature of Lightman‘s poetic discourse as his style
presupposes a language game with the pretexts and their markers. The peculiarities of the author‘s intertext

79
stem from the sources of the intertextual inclusions, which are scientific, literary and mythological
discourses.
The intertextual inclusions from the scientific sphere refer to various scientific works as well as
precedent names (including the names of famous scientists and the names of their theories, laws,
discoveries). The diverse terminology is the most productive type of intertextual elements since the scientific
approach to different art and life phenomena determines the author‘s literary method and actualizes his
playful and ironic attitude (novels ―Mr g‖, ―Einstein‘s Dreams‖, essays ―Origins‖, ―Ironland‖, etc, verses
―Many hours I spend with Zafir‖, ―Newton, thin as a mathematical line‖ and others). Stylistically, scientific
(mainly, physics) terminology in Lightman‘s texts acquires expressive functions contributing to the creation
of the extraordinary poetic images.
Different theorems, scientific arguments and speculations are included into the author‘s novels and
essays by means of metatext. The implementation of the intertextual elements of this type creates multi-
voiced narration and enables a reader to analyze the discussed subject from different points of view. The
wide use of the precedent names of famous scientists is also an essential part of Lightman‘s intertext as the
dialogue between them and the author himself becomes an effective means of conveying Lightman‘s irony,
and quite often, criticism.
The intertextual inclusions from mythological texts are also characterized by diversity and
heterogeneity. The elements derived from the precedent texts of different mythologies, religions and beliefs
create a collage type of intertext. This can be observed in the formation of the images of Lightman‘s
characters. The intertextual inclusions from pretexts of different or even contrasting religions serve the basis
for building up the system of personages that coexist and interact within a new text, affecting the
conventional paradigms and usual way of thinking. That is why Lightman‘s characters are often very
complex and dynamic. Their true meaning comes as a result of amalgamation of three constituents: the
meaning of the precedent name in the precedent text, the meaning it acquires in the recipient text, and the
connotations that result from its co-existence and interaction with the characters adopted from other
precedent mythological texts.
Lightman‘s fiction is also abundant with intertextual inclusions from world literature. One of the
techniques employed is plot citation implying the transposition of characters and plot collisions from the
pretext into the recipient text. This creates a vertical context that becomes a powerful tool of explicating the
author‘s mindset.
One more type of intertextual inclusions is the citation of the title. As it‘s formally detached from the
text, the title can function as a hint at the implicit information the text contains. For example, being a line
from a folk kid song, the title of the essay ―If Birds Can Fly, Why, Oh Why, Can‘t I?‖ reveals the ironic
attitude of the author who‘s speculating about the possibility of humans for flying.
Thus, the intertext in Lightman‘s poetic discourse can be defined as multilayered and polyphonic.
The intertextual elements are derived from scientific, mythological, and literary sources, which forms a
collage type of intertext in the author‘s fiction. The combination of the intertextual elements of different
origins creates the author‘s unique code manifesting his outlook and message.

References:
1. Фатеева Н.А. Контрапункт интертекстуальности, или Интертекст в мире текстов. – М.:
Агар, 2000. – 280 с.
2. Lightman, A. Dance for Two: Essay. – Pantheon Books, 1996. – 93 p.
3. Lightman, A. Song of two worlds. – Pantheon Books, 2009. – 99 p.
4. Lightman A. Mr g: a novel about the creation. – Pantheon Books, 2012. – 224 p.

Аннотация. Данная работа посвящена исследованию функций интертекстуальных включений в


литературе постмодернизма на материале произведений Алана Лайтмана. Источниками интертекстуальных
заимствований в произведениях писателя являются наука, мифология и литература, что обусловливает
сложный, коллажный характер авторского интертекста.
Ключевые слова: интертекст, постмодернистская литература, прецедентный текст, Алан
Лайтман, коллажный характер интертекста.
Summary. The article is devoted to the functions of intertext in the postmodern fiction on the material of Alan
Lightman‘s literary works. The intertextual inclusions from scientific, religious and mythological sources form a
multilayered and collage type of intertext in the author‘s fiction.
Key words: intertext, postmodern fiction, precedent text, Alan Lightman, collage type of intertext.

80
УДК 811.111
LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FEATURES OF COCKNEY IN THE PLAY “PYGMALION”
BY GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
Arina Lukashuk
2nd year student, Foreign Philology Department
Sevastopol State University
e-mail:arina.lukashuk@mail.ru
Olga Shutova
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Linguodidactics and Foreign Philology Department,
Sevastopol State University

Cockney is one of the most famous types of English vernacular, named by the scornful and mocking
nickname of the natives of London from the middle and lower layers of population [1, p. 181].
It is the most popular dialect of English language in the United Kingdom. This dialect had been
developed in the East part of London, in East-End. The area of distribution of the language includes the
following areas: Aldgate, Bethnal Green, Bow, Limehouse, Mile End, Old Ford, Poplar, Ratcliff,
Shoreditch, Spitalfield, Stepney, Wapping and Whitechapel. However, according to John C. Wells,
the true cockney was born within earshot of the bells of St. Mary-Le-Bow, Cheapside [4, p. 53].
Native speakers of Cockney identify 3 types of it:
1. Classic – widely used and recognized since the days of Robert Peel;
2. Modern – those lexical units, that are created and used by modern native speakers;
3. Mockney – false cockney – modified cockney, imitation of cockney by a person from a middle or
a top class of England [2, p. 65].
In the 18th century, Cockney appeared in literature. It was used in Charles Dickens's successful
novels, in ―The Pickwick Papers‖ written by Sam Weller, in The Trilogy of Desire‖ by Theodore Herman
Albert Dreiser ―, in ―The Catcher in the Rye‖ by Jerome David Salinger. But the most illustrious example of
Cockney language is found in Bernard Shaw‘s play ―Pygmalion‖.
The main character of this play a flower-girl Eliza Doolittle is a native Cockney speaker. Analyzing
her speech, it should be noted a big usage of colloquial expressions and slang words which belong to
Cockney dialect. For example: She thought you was a copper‘s nark where a copper‘s nark is lexical unit of
Cockney and it means ‗a police informant‘ [3, p. 31].
It‘s very important to admit that in Cockney dialect rhyming phrases are frequently used. They are
made with the help of formation of a number of phonetic counterparts. For instance, girl Eliza Doolittle
rhymes in her exclamation the word Garn with God damn. Also, Eliza uses in her speech incomplete rhymed
phrases: I won't go near the king, not if I'm going to have my loaf cut off, where loaf is the shortening of the
phrase ‗loaf of bread‘ in the meaning of ‗head‘ [3, p. 103].
Grammatical peculiarities of Cockney dialect include:
1. Adding the ending –s to all predicates in Present Simple tense regardless of the person and number
of the subject: I sez you, I can;
2. Usage predicates without ending of the 3rd person singular in Present Simple tense: Tell him where
he come from if you want to go fortune-telling;
3. Usage the past form of the verb to be in the 3rd person singular after the subject in plural: I called
him Freddy or Charlie same as you might yourself if you was talking to a stranger and wished to be
pleasant;
4. Usage the equal shortening ain‘t for both verbs to be and to have for all persons: He ain't a tec; I
ain‘t done nothing wrong by speaking to the gentleman;
5. Usage the double negation: Ain't no call to meddle with me, he ain't; I ain‘t got no mother;
6. Usage the conjunction as instead of interrogative pronoun who: I‘ve got the true gent in my nature,
and them as ain‘t got it
7. Usage adjectives in the function of adverbs: I did it easy;
8. Usage indefinite article a instead of an: The shallow depression in the west of these islands is
likely to move slowly in a easterly directions.
To conclude the research it‘s very important to admit that shortenings, rhymed phrases, double
negations, grammatically wrong endings of the predicates, usage of incorrect parts of speech in the

81
communication are peculiarities of Cockney dialect. Also such dialect is characterized by the special
phonetic features which will be the next topic of our research.

References:
1. Емельянов А.А. О функциональных особенностях английского рифмованного сленга //
Вестник гуманитарного факультета ИГХТУ – 2008 – №3. – С. 180-195.
2. Milroy J., Milroy J. Real English: the Grammar of the English dialects in the British Islands. –
London and New York: Longman – 2003. – 343 p.
3. Shaw G.B. Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw A Penn State Electronic Classics Series
Publication. - The Pennsylvania State University – 2004. – 308 p.
4. Wells John C. Accents of English 2 / John C. Wells. - Cambridge University Press. – 1982. –
187 p.

Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются лексико-грамматические особенности кокни на материале


пьесы Бернарда Шоу «Пигмалион». В работе дается трактовка понятия «кокни», описывается три его типа:
современный классический и фальшивый, указываются литературные произведения, в которых употребляется
данный диалект. Описываются и анализируются на материале пьесы лексические особенности данного
диалекта. Дается грамматическая характеристика кокни: указываются особые формы образования
настоящего времени, использование двойного отрицания, замещение местоимения союзом.
Ключевые слова: диалект, кокни, лексико-грамматические особенности.
Summary. The lexical and grammatical features of Cockney in the play by Bernard Shaw "Pygmalion" is
distinguished in the article. The interpretation of the notion "Cockney" is given in the work. Three types of this dialect
are examined, such as: modern Cockney, classic and mockney. Works of literature where this dialect is used are
indicated. The lexical features of this dialect are described and analyzed on the material of the play. The grammatical
peculiarities of Cockney are given, they are: special formation of the Present Simple tense, use of double negation,
substitution of pronouns by conjunctions.
Key words: dialect, Cockney, lexical and grammatical features.

УДК 811.11‘373.7:28-24
MODIFICATIONS OF QURANIC IDIOMS
(based on the English Quran Versions)
Viktoriya Meleka
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: vita_l_1995@mail.ru
Evgeniya Mikhaylova
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University,

Now scientists of different scientific directions are actively engaged in the study of the Quranic
subject. As noted by E.R. Kuliyev: ―In the history of mankind there are books which grow a number of
generations, and there are books which are ahead of time and for many centuries excite the minds and
imaginations of readers. The Holy Quran remains a source of the spiritual guidance and inspiration for
fourteen centuries already‖ [1, p. 7]. Special attention is paid to the study of the Holy Scriptures of Muslims
on account of the desire to gain a deeper understanding of their culture and strengthen relations with the
Muslim world.
Many linguists, such as S. Sadiq, L.N. Frolova, M. Zhellali, Ya.Yu. Abdulvakhid, L.L. Grigorieva,
V.D. Ushakov were engaged in the study of the Quran. They examined the problems of its translation,
ranged and classified Quranic idioms, determined their place in the formation of the artistic peculiarities of
the Quranic text and identified the lexico-semantic difficulties associated with the interpretation of the

82
Sacred Book. However, there are few works devoted to the comparison of Quranic idioms in the English
Quran Versions. This fact determines the relevance of the current research.
The idioms originating from the Holy Scripture are of special interest for linguists, as they are
distinguished by special eloquence and carry a thousand-year-old folk wisdom. These idioms give the Quran
a kind of sophistication and the power of emotional and expressive impact.
The purpose of our study is to find out to what modifications Quranic idioms in the modern English
Quran Version by Sam Gerrans are subjected.
To achieve this goal, we must solve the following tasks:
1. to determine the role of modifications in the phrasicon of the language;
2. to identify Quranic idioms components substitution peculiarities and the causes of these
modifications.
Phraseology is not without reason called the greatest treasure and enduring value of any language,
because it is the accumulator of cultural memory of people: it reflects the history and centuries-old
experience of people, their moral and spiritual values, as well as the world of their feelings, images,
thoughts. Moreover, phraseology is an inexhaustible source of language cognition as a changing and
dynamic system. It includes both modern language formations and the relicts of the ancient epochs [2, p. 14].
Since language, as any other social phenomenon, is continuously developing, its phrasicon is also in
the constant evolution. Although many phraseologists insist that idioms are set expressions, more detailed,
first of all, diachronic studies show that idioms are by no means a stiffened mass of words. Any deviations in
the meaning and (or) structure of the idiom from the meaning and form fixed by the dictionary are called
modifications.
We carried out the comparative analysis of the idioms operating in different English Quran Versions.
Translations of Abdullah Yusuf Ali (1934) and Sam Gerrans (2016) served as the material. Abdullah Yusuf
Ali‘s translation was canonized by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for this reason it was taken as a basis.
In Sam Gerrans‘s translation in the idiom the hand of Allah, i.e. ―the power, the might of Allah‖ [3,
p. 167], we observe a substitution of the proper name Allah by the lexical unit God. The proper name Allah
designates the Creator only in Islam while the lexical unit God denotes ―the Supreme Almighty being who
governs the world‖ and can be used in any religion. Thus, the lexical unit with a narrower meaning was
replaced by the word with a broader denotation, which is explained by the author‘s aspiration to make the
translation clear and available to representatives of different religions:
A.Yu. Ali: The Hand of Allah is over their hands.
S. Gerrans: The hand of God is above their hands /48:10/.
The following idiom to devour the inheritance means ―to waste the inheritance‖. In 2016 translation
we can trace a replacement of the verb to devour designating ―to eat with greed; to destroy completely; to
exterminate‖ by the verb to consume. The word to consume designates ―to eat, drink, or ingest; to destroy
completely; to use up; to waste‖. As we can see, these lexical units coincide in some of the meanings,
however the verb to consume, unlike the bookish word to devour, is neutral. The usage of clear and
frequently used words was one of the main purposes of creating of the modern English Quran Version, so the
translator considered that in the epoch of ―consumer society‖ the verb to consume was the most
understandable to the reader:
A.Yu. Ali: And ye devour inheritance – all with greed.
S. Gerrans: But consume the inheritance completely /89:19/.
Under the idiom those who bear the throne Muslims understand the angels. In the translation by Sam
Gerrans we can find a substitution of the lexical unit to sustain with the language unit to bear. Instead of the
bookish word to sustain the neutral verb to bear, which is its synonym in the meaning ―to support‖, is used.
A.Yu. Ali: Those who sustain the Throne … Sing Glory and Praise to their Lord; believe in Him.
S. Gerrans: Those who bear a throne … Give glory with the praise of their lord, and believe in him
/40:7/.
In the idiom to thrust one‘s fingers into one‘s ears expressing obstinacy or arrogance we observe a
substitution of the verb to thrust with its synonym to put. The bookish lexical unit to thrust was replaced by
the verb to put belonging to neutral lexicon. Thus, in Sam Gerrans‘s version we deal with a lexical variant of
the idiom in which the so-called stylistic substitution of a lexical component of an idiom took place. In
addition, in this translation we can trace a replacement of the preposition consisting of four letters into with
the preposition of two letters in. The reason for this substitution is the lingual factor, namely the linguistic
economy:
A.Yu. Ali: … they thrust their fingers into their ears.
S. Gerrans: … they put their fingers in their ears /71:7/.

83
Some of the idioms functioning in the texts of the English versions of the Quran were not modified.
This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that these idioms reflect concepts that remain inviolable in the
linguistic picture of the Anglo-Saxon world in the course of time. These are such idioms as:
 his light meaning ―Allah‘s religion (Islam)‖
A.Yu. Ali: Allah won‘t allow but that His light should be perfected...
S. Gerrans: And God refuses save that he perfect his light... /9:32/.
 to eat the flesh of smb. in the meaning ―to discredit, to slander someone‖
A.Yu. Ali: Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?
S. Gerrans: Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? /49:12/
 Mother of Cities i.e. ―the sacred city of Mecca‖
A.Yu. Ali: … that thou mayest warn the Mother of Cities …
S. Gerrans: … that thou warn the mother of cities … /42:7/.
Thus, we identified and analyzed the following phenomena: substitution of a bookish word by a
neutral one, replacement of a lexical unit having a broader meaning with a word having a narrower
denotation, linguistic economy. We came to the conclusion that the main reason for the formation of idiom
modifications is the translators‘ aspiration to attract the modern reader‘s attention, to make the statement
understandable within the framework of the rapidly changing reality and other perception of the world.

References:
1. Кулиев Э.Р. Корановедение / Э.Р. Кулиев, М.Ф. Муртазин. – М.: Изд-во Московского
исламского ун-та, 2011. – 522 с.
2. Молотков А.И. Фразеологический словарь русского языка / А.И. Молотков. – М.: АСТ,
2006. – 543с.
3. Ушаков В.Д. Фразеология Корана / В.Д. Ушаков. – М. : Восточная литература РАН, 1996. –
203 с.
4. Ali A.Yu. The Holy Quran / A.Yu. Ali. – India: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers of Lahore,
1934. – 978 p.
5. Gerrans S. The Qur‘an: A Complete Revelation / S. Gerrans. – Publisher: Quranite, 2016. – 1200
p.
6. Mir M. Verbal idioms of the Qu‘ran / M. Mir. – Michigan: The University of Michigan Center for
Near Eastern and North African Studies, 1989. – 404 p.
7. Oxford Dictionaries [Электронный ресурс]. Oxford: Oxford university press, 1997. – 1
электрон. опт. диск (CD-ROM).

Аннотация. Статья посвящена анализу особенностей модификаций коранических фразеологизмов в


текстах современной англоязычной версии Корана в переводе Сэма Джерренса (2016 г.) в сравнении с ранней
версией в переводе Абдуллы Юсуфа Али (1934 г.), которая была канонизирована Королевством Саудовской
Аравии. Анализируются виды субституций компонентов контекстуальных фразеологизмов, являющихся
частью текста Корана, и определяются причины возникновения данных модификаций.
Ключевые слова: модификация, коранический фразеологизм, субституция, англоязычная версия
Корана.
Summary. The article is devoted to the analysis of the Quranic idioms modification peculiarities in the texts of
the modern English Quran version translated by Sam Gerrans (2016) in comparison with the early version translated
by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (1934), which was canonized by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The types of the contextual idioms
components substitutions are pointed out. The causes of modifications of the idioms that are part of the Quranic text are
considered.
Key words: modification, Quranic idiom, substitution, English Quran Version.

84
УДК: 811.111‘42=111
EUPHEMISMS IN THE SPHERE OF LAW
Nadezhda Mikova
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: nadyamikova96@mail.ru
Elena Abramicheva
Scientific advisor,
PhD inPhilology, Associate Professor,
Translation Theory and Practice Department,
Sevastopol State University

As the modern world and people relations keep changing, the language we speak is developing too.
The words that seemed acceptable in our everyday life several years or decades ago now have become
inadmissible and unallowable. We are seeking new ways of saying something without insulting other people,
and euphemisms become a successful substitute. However, are they really necessary in every sphere of
human activity and bring no harm to us? This question is rather multi-sided, and the best way to answer it is
to study the very nature of euphemisms.
According to Fowler‘s definition, ―Euphemism means the use of a mild or vague or periphrastic
expression as a substitute for blunt precision or disagreeable use‖ [3, p. 8]. In terms of their linguistic
function, euphemisms are to enlarge the synonymic sets of currently used words. In terms of their
communication and stylistic function, they help us to mitigate a rude or impolite expression in a
conversation. The need for using them is social, as these mild expressions prevent us from being rude and
injuring somebody‘s feelings.
There is a number of dictionaries in which scholars register these expressions and divide them into
groups according to the sphere of their usage. The most famous are ―Dictionary if Euphemisms‖ by John
Ayto, and ―Dictionary of euphemisms. How not to say what you mean‖ by R.W. Holder, which became the
source of the material in our previous research. The variety of the thematic groups of euphemisms
represented in it highlights the idea that almost every aspect of human activity is examined thoroughly
nowadays in order to elicit unpleasant and ineligible expressions. This fact concerns even the sphere of law,
where it is quite difficult to avoid direct and explicit meanings of words without losing their sense.
Considering the sphere of law, it is overflown with euphemisms. Our research focuses on their
semantic peculiarities and application spheres. Thus, our objectives are the following: 1) to consider thematic
groups of euphemisms in law; 2) to go into their semantic features; 3) to suggest some socio-linguistic
analysis of the concrete examples.
As we mentioned in our previous research [1], euphemisms in the English language may be
represented by: semantic extension (linguistic metaphor or metonymy), e.g. ―blackbird‖ for ―an American
slave‖, ―limb of the law‖ for ―a policeman‖, ―knight of the road‖ for ―road criminal‖; abbreviation, e.g. ―G-
man‖ for ―federal agent‖; circumlocutions, e.g. ―be on vacation‖ instead of ―be in prison‖; idioms, e.g.
―enjoy her Majesty‘s hospitality‖ meaning ―be in prison‖; foreign words, e.g. ―voyeur‖ for ―eavesdropper‖;
polysyllabic words belonging to high-flown style, e.g. ―ethically challenged‖ for ―a crook‖, ―help the police‖
for ―to be in custody and presumed guilty of an offence with which you have not been charged‖; slang words,
e.g. ―to rip off‖ for ―to steal‖, ―meat‖ instead of ―corpse‖, etc. Personal (―Dickless Tracy‖ for ―a
policewoman‖), historical (―Queen‘s evidence‖ for ―betraying a fellow malefactor‖) and geographical names
(―Lydford Law‖ for ―arbitrary punishment‖), and periphrases (―sports medicine‖ for ―illegal drugs‖; ―OAR‖/
―Olympic Athletes from Russia‖ for ―Russian Athletes‖) can also serve as euphemisms.
Examples representing crime and punishment take the major part of the euphemisms in law. And
they can be found in different law areas. For example, the system of modern juvenile court cannot exist
without them. «Euphemisms transform the language of punishment and obscure its unpleasant reality
perhaps nowhere more completely than in juvenile courts» [2, p. 68]. Despite the fact that young criminals
commit crimes, can be already sentenced and punished, psychologists consider it inadmissible to use some of
the real juridical terms towards children during law procedures explaining that by the idea, that their state of
mind can be seriously damaged. In this way court officials file a petition ―in the welfare of a child‖ to
initiate a delinquency proceeding and not to let the prosecutors charge children with a criminal complaint or
indictment. ―Delinquent‖ is used instead of ―guilty of an offence‖, and young criminals receive ―disposition‖
and not a ―sentence‖. ―Anti-social‖ kids are sent not to prisons, but to ―approved schools‖, or ―attendance

85
centers‖, or even ―youth centers‖, and children ―in trouble‖ are treated in polite and well-intentioned
manner. Nevertheless, the basis of the juvenile court becomes vulnerable and unstable, as these euphemisms
hide the truth and after some time can make children‘s perception of the reality distorted [2, p. 68].
Another area of juridical euphemisms usage is the public life of celebrities. As not all scandals,
pieces of gossip and accusations can be said or discussed directly in Mass Media, some of the issues are
made implicit. One of the recent euphemisms that covers the issue of sexual harassment and assault is the
phrase ―casting couch‖. According to some observers, this metaphor helped to normalize the practice of this
criminal case and ―blur the lines of responsibility and blame in a way that promotes silence‖ [5].
Let us consider certain thematic groups of euphemisms related to the law and justice.
I. Criminal Law / Offences
The brightest example here is euphemisms standing for ―bribe‖ or ―bribery‖ and the number of them
impresses – 44 expressions. The semantic content of these words is different. Some of them are quite neutral
words:
o ―Brown envelope‖ received its name due to the cover in which it is handed over and which
is unidentifiable.
o ―Commission‖ is used in commercial sphere where a gloss of legality is used to conceal
bribery.
o ―Distribution‖ is the payment of a bribe where there are several recipients, or where the
organizer of a corrupt deal hands on bribes to others, which may then be called a secondary distribution.
These expressions bear no subjective attitude of a speaker toward the crime and can be used in law
procedures without concealing the case. Still, this thematic group contains certain euphemisms with a
distinctive negative connotation:
o ―Sensitive payment‖ is described so because of its impropriety and probable illegality in the
hands of the recipient, if others find out about it.
o ―Travel expenses‖ stands for bribes or money claimed dishonestly. Paid for trips which were
not made, or for first class when you rode second
Another example of euphemisms in criminal law is the group used for ―blackmail‖. ―Biographic
leverage‖ is the jargon of espionage and American politics that renders neutral connotation. At the same time
―wet job‖ which means ―murder‖ conveys explicit subjective estimation and diminishes the gravity of the
criminal case. As far as the verbs are concerned, the most liable to substitution among them is ―to steal‖
which boasts 40 euphemisms. Most of them are slang words, like ―to grab‖, ―to hustle‖, ―to rip off‖ and
accordingly, cannot be used by the official servicemen.
II. Law Enforcement
1) People who are punished/ offenders
o ―Cannon‖ means ―a pickpocket‖. It is derived from the situation when the thief bumps into
his victim, causing him to stumble, which enables the thief to take the wallet or watch in the confusion, with
imagery from the billiards or pool table. This word is used by common people and thus isn‘t acceptable for
the official use.
o ―Cobbler‖ is used for a forger. This euphemism is a criminal and espionage jargon and
suggests someone who forges credit cards, passports or other documents. This euphemism has gained the
popularity in criminal terminology and conveys negative connotation, as ―to cobble‖ was literary ―to repair
in a slipshod manner, although we expect more of our shoemakers‖.
o ―Guest‖ means ―a prisoner‖ and is used more often as ―guest of her majesty‖ or ―guest of
Uncle Sam‖. These ironical expressions convey the subjective perception of the situation by a speaker.
o ―Irish evidence‖ is ―a perjurer‖. This euphemism has two versions of derivation. The first
explains that Irish Catholics, forced to swear on a Protestant bible, felt no compunction to tell the truth.
According to the other version, the word comes from the denigration of all Irish things by the English. We
consider this phrase to be inadmissible, as it doesn‘t follow the norms of political correctness today.
o ―Stripper‖ means ―a thief‖ and usually is referred to criminals who steal radios from cars.
This word also has come into criminal jargon and is mostly found in American English.
2) Places of detainment
o ―Black hole‖ is an obsolete name for a prison which was called so because it was insanitary,
unlit, and below ground.
o ―Cross-bar hotel‖ is a common description of prisons among the American criminal
fraternity. In this punning usage, the bar secures the gate. A cross-bar apartment is a cell. Another reference
to jails marked by mordant humor, is ―sheriff‘s hotel‖. Both euphemisms bear negative connotation and are
inadmissible in juridical terminology.

86
o ―Individual behavior adjustment unit‖ means a cell for solitary confinement. This
circumlocution is seasoned with evasion and obscurity, and disguises the negative connotation of the word
―prison‖.
o ―Flowery‖ is a prison cell and it is a rhyming slang on ―flowery dell‖ which sometimes refers
to the prison itself. This jocular phrase diminishes the gravity of such institution as prison.
3) Law officials
o ―Blue‖ is an American euphemism for policemen or prison warders. It is connected with the
blue colour of their uniform, like ―blue suit‖, ―bluecoat‖, ―blue-and-white‖. These expressions have a neutral
connotation, and are considered professional slang.
o ―Dickless Tracy‖ stands for a policewoman. It‘s a shortening from the name of the cartoon
character and is used basically among common people.
o ―G-man‖ is a federal agent working for the US government. The euphemism bears no
evaluative connotation and is quite acceptable in juridical terminology.
o ―Peeler‖ stands for a policeman. It originates from a real bobby Sir Robert Peel, who
reorganized the Dublin Police in 1828 and those in London. One more version of the derivation of this
euphemism is the American slang ―to peel‖ meaning ―to arrest‖.
o ―Peeper‖ is used for a private detective. They were at one time frequently involved in the
providing evidence of adultery. It is a shortening from ―Peeping Tom‖, a sexual voyeur. The history of this
euphemism is rather entertaining. The Anglo-Saxon Lord of Coventry agreed to postpone an increase in
taxes if his wife rode naked through the streets. The citizens were forbidden to watch, and only Tom
managed to peep, who later on spread this news.
4) Punishment
o ―Queen‘s evidence‖ is betraying a fellow malefactor in order to have a punishment reduced.
The derivation if this British euphemism is from the convention that the Crown prosecutes in British criminal
cases. The possible version is ―King‘s evidence‖, depending on the occupant of the throne.
o ―Lydford law‖ is arbitrary punishment. It is one of many British local geographical
euphemisms. The tin-mining district known as the Stannary made and policed their own laws. Once a judge
in the Devon border town of Lydford caused a tin-miner to be hanged in the morning before sitting in
judgement on him the same afternoon.
o ―To eat porridge‖ is the British euphemism used for a prison confinement and is based on a
staple of the prison diet that is porridge.
o ―Hot seat‖ is an electric chair used for execution. It is the American slang, based on
metaphoric transfer.
o ―Preventive detention‖ is an arbitrary imprisonment, and literally means a long sentence for a
dangerous or hardened criminal. In a totalitarian state the euphemism evasively describes the incarceration of
critics, without process of law.
We may conclude that in most cases the usage of law euphemisms is officially unacceptable, as they
diminish the harm that results from a criminal conduct, and accordingly blur the lines between appropriate
and inappropriate behavior. And judging by the latest world events, euphemisms in the sphere of law start
losing their primary function, that was to disguise the unpleasant and impolite expressions. Now they are
gaining the political outreach and have negative influence on the international relations.

References:
1. Микова Н.А. Лексикон учителя и политкорректность (статья конференции) – англ.яз.
ProfMarket: Education. Language. Success (ProfMarket: Образование. Язык. Успех): сборник
материалов I Молодежного научного форума с международным участием «ProfMarket: Education.
Language. Success» (г. Севастополь, 27 марта 2017 г.) / Министерство образования и науки РФ ;
Севастопольский государственный университет ; под ред. М. В. Варлагиной, О. А. Москаленко, Н. С.
Руденко, Ю. А. Сабадаш . – Севастополь: ФГАОУ ВО «СевГУ», 2017. – С.62-65.
2. Barry C. Feld Bad Kids: Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court (Studies in Crime and
Public Policy) // Bad Kids: Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court (Studies in Crime and Public
Policy) // C. Feld Barry Cambridge, MA – 1999. – 392 p.
3. Holder R.W. A dictionary of euphemisms. How not to say what you mean. // R.W. Holder // Ref.
Libr. – 2008. – 410 с.
4. Justin Peters ―Olympic Athletes From Russia‖ Is a Craven Euphemism for a Craven Olympic
Games [Электронный ресурс]. // – Режим доступа: https://slate.com/culture/2018/02/olympic-athletes-
from-russia-is-a-craven-euphemism-for-a-craven-olympic-games.html (дата обращения: 15.02.2018)

87
5. Noelle Swan 'Casting couch' or 'crime scene'? Hollywood's culture of sexual harassment
[Электронный ресурс]. // – Режим доступа: https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Society/2017/1018/Casting-
couch-or-crime-scene-Hollywood-s-culture-of-sexual-harassment (дата обращения: 20.02.2018)

Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена изучению процесса эвфемизации в англоязычном юридическом


дискурсе. Рассматриваются функции и способы образования эвфемизмов. Анализируются примеры
эвфемизмов криминально-правовой сферы, дается их объяснение и анализ.
Ключевые слова: эвфемизмы, юридический дискурс, коннотация, деривация.
Summary: The process of euphemisation in the sphere of law is studied. The derivation and functions of
euphemisms are considered. The examples of euphemistic expressions used in the juridical sphere are provided.
Key words: euphemisms, juridical discourse, connotation, derivation.

УДК 070.15(73)=111
VERBAL AGGRESSION IN THE US MEDIA
Anastasia Ozimkova
5thyear student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: yamano.nana@gmail.com
Natalia Gulevets
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Talking about the US, the first thing we remember is freedom, freedom of religion, freedom of will,
and freedom of speech. In fact, infringement of freedom does exist in the US. For example, considering
freedom of speech, we may talk about such infringements: self-censorship, market demands, journalists
influenced by media owners and publishers, legal restrictions, etc. Still, there are some periodicals that
publish ―free‖ information, but their texts contain examples of aggression. A vivid example is the publication
on the topic of ―psychological warfare‖. The purpose of these publications is to destabilize society, its
internal unity, and to spread disinformation. Here we may observe negative attitude towards Russia. Even in
the headings one can see negative stereotypes that incline readers to the ―necessary‖ point of view:―Putin‘s
Phoney Election, Human Rights a black hole in Russia, The hell of Russian bureaucracy, Putin‘s shoots a
tiger as Europe grapples with Russian aggression‖ [2].
The war in South Ossetia is described with obvious aggression by the famous newspaper ―The
Guardian‖ (American edition). The Russian media defined this armed conflict as ―Georgia‘s attack on South
Ossetia‖, while the US and many Western European media defined it as ―Russia‘s attack on Georgia‖: ―The
USA today called on the EU to suspend talks on closer ties with Russia in protest at its invasion of Georgia‖
[4].
American newspapers use a strategy of discrediting and distort the image of the referent. This leads
to violation of laws regulating communication.
The success of this strategy in the US media is conditioned by communicative task to discredit a
person in the eyes of society. An example is N. MacFarkyuhara‘s article ―The Vladimir Putin‘s vulnerable
side for at least in a call-in show‖in the newspaper ―The New York Times‖ [3], which highlights the annual
television event ―The Straight Line‖ with V. V. Putin. And the purpose of this article consists in
representation of the President of the Russian Federation disfavored. To achieve this purpose such tactics are
used:
- the technique of ―riddle‖: the author asks why the President ―somewhat humbled‖ or―at least
not swaggering‖ and explains this kind of behavior from his point of view;
- reception of illusion: the author hints that the event is a specially arranged theatrical show –
―choreographed calls‖;

88
- the situation in Russia is characterized by the word ―plight‖, and phrase ―punishing year of
recession‖;
- the reception of ridicule which is expressed through the antithesis: ―diatribes – praise‖, where
―diatribes‖ denotes accusatory speech in relation to the United States.
In conclusion, the author of the article compares the «straight line» with the sprint marathon,
thereby defining the key idea of rivalry. At the same time, the author indirectly points to the opinions
prevailing in America about the relations between Russia and the United States: ―Mr. Putin could handle
America‖.
The purpose of the article is to encourage readers‘ belief that the Russian program, organized to
provide direct contact between the President of the Russian Federation and the population, should not be
trusted. All these factors combined implement a strategy of discredit, the purpose of which is to
undermine the credibility of politics through indirect hints and lexical comparisons.
Thus, in the American pressverbal aggression is used to describe Russia as an aggressor country
and to discredit the leader of our country andour social and moral ideals.

References:
1. Гузенко В.О. Феномен речевой агрессии в текстах западных СМИ [Электронный
ресурс] // Cyberleninka сайт. – URL: https: // cyberleninka.ru/article/n/fenomen-rechevoy-agressii-v-
tekstah-zapadnyh-smihtm (дата обращения: 17.02.2018).
2. Gledennding L. Putin shoots a tiger as Europe grapples with Russian aggression
[Электронный ресурс] // The Guardian (American edition), 2015 – URL:
https://www.theguardian.com/news/blog/2008/sep/01/russia (дата обращения: 17.02.2018).
3. MacFarquhar N. Vladimir Putin‘s Vulnerable Side Is at Fore in Call-In Show
[Электронный ресурс] // The New York Times, 2016 – URL:
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/15/world/europe/vladimir-putin-russia.html (дата обращения:
17.02.2018).
4. Traynor I. Ukraine suspends talks on EU trade pact as Putin wins tug of war [Электронный
ресурс] // The Guardian (American edition), 2013 – URL:
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/ukraine-suspends-preparations-eu-trade-pact (дата
обращения: 17.02.2018).

Аннотация. В данной статье рассматриваются особенности выражения речевой агрессии в


деловых изданиях США на примере The Guardian (American edition) и The New York Times. Затрагивается
актуальность проблемы свободы слова, самовыражения и манипуляции массами при помощи печатных
СМИ. Рассматриваются различные стратегии и тактики, по средствам которых происходит
выражение агрессии в американских СМИ, а также анализируются цели и задачи публикаций с
примерами речевой агрессии. Сделаны выводы о целях и средствах выражения речевой агрессии.
Ключевые слова: лингвистика, речевая агрессия в СМИ, деловые издания, США.
Summary. This article deals with verbal aggression in the US business mass media on the example of
The guardian (American edition) and The New York Times. The relevance of the problem of freedom of speech,
self-expression and manipulation of the masses by means of print media is touched upon. Various strategies and
tactics are considered, with the means of which an expression of aggression in the American media occurs, as
well as the purposes and tasks of publications with examples of verbal aggression. Conclusions are drawn about
the aims and means of expression verbal aggression.
Key words: Linguistics, verbal aggression in mass media, business newspapers, the USA.

89
УДК 81.2
LOS ESTEREOTIPOS SOCIALES Y EL LENGUAJE SEXISTA
Daria Okun
Alumna del 11 grado,
Escuela Secundaria №45 con
el aprendizaje profundizado del español
e-mail: wonderlandtrip@mail.ru
Tatiana Antonova
Asesor científico, profesora del español,
Escuela Secundaria №45 con
el aprendizaje profundizado del español
e-mail: escuela45sevastopol@mail.ru

Las personas nacen libres con los derechos iguales. Este es una fórmula de la sociedad democrática.
―Todos los ciudadanos tienen derecho a la vida y a la integridad física y moral, sin que en ningún caso
puedan ser sometidos a torturas ni a penas o tratos inhumanos o degradantes‖ [4]. Pero el problema de la
discriminación hacia la mujer en nuestra sociedad existe hasta hoy. La existencia de comportamientos
verbales sexistas esta presente en la lengua. El lenguaje puede usarse, en efecto, con múltiples propósitos.
Puede emplearse para describir, ordenar, preguntar, ensalzar o insultar, entre otras muchas acciones, y, desde
luego, también puede usarse para discriminar a personas o grupos sociales. ―Con el lenguaje transmitimos
ideología, ideas políticas e ideas de la relación entre hombres y mujeres‖ [2, p. 2].
Los estereotipos de género se muestran en niveles diferentes de la comunicación. Cada idioma refleja
el desarrollo cultural de su pueblo: la creación, restauración y destrucción de valores, ideologías, su
combinación. Las ideas de la igualdad social de hombres y mujeres siempre tienen mucha importancia
actualmente y llaman atención de los sociologos, lingüistas, políticos, artistas, etc. [3]. Por eso el estudio del
uso del lenguaje no-sexista es actual. ―Una de las formas más sutiles de transmitir esta discriminación es a
través de la lengua, ya que ésta no es más que el reflejo de los valores, del pensamiento, de la sociedad que la
crea y utiliza‖ [1, p. 6].
En el estudio realizado fueron analizados los ejemplos del uso del lenguaje sexista:
Gente que solo busca su pan, su hembra, su fiesta en paz.
En la oración el sustantivo ―la hembra‖ se emplea como el sinónimo del sustantivo ―mujer‖ y
enfrenta al sustantivo ―gente‖ que tiene significado de ―hombres‖. Es un ejemplo llamativo del lenguaje
sexista.
Hasta los acontecimientos más importantes de nuestra vida, como elegir nuestra esposa o nuestra
carrera, están determinados por influencias inconscientes, ya que introducen una marcada perspectiva
androcéntrica en una afirmación general sobre los seres humanos.
Hay siempre discriminación en las expresiones nominales construidas en masculino con la intención
de abarcar los dos sexos.
Existe un uso sexista de la lengua española en la expresión oral y escrita que transmite y refuerza las
relaciones asimétricas, jerárquicas e inequitativas que se dan entre los sexos. Lo demuestran los proverbios
(cuadro1).
Cuadro 1 – Los ejemplos de los proverbios
Los proverbios sobre las mujeres Los proverbios sobre los hombres
La mujer es un animal de pelo largo y El hombre para ganar, la mujer, para gastar.
pensamiento corto. Cuando el hombre algún bien quiere hacer,
La mujer y la burra, cada día un zurra. le quita la gana su mujer.
Suegra viviendo con su yerno, la antesala
del Infierno.

El género en sí mismo no es una categoría lingüística, pero en gran medida su contenido puede ser
revelado mediante el análisis de las estructuras del lenguaje. En el sentido más amplio se puede definir como
la sociedad y las instituciones sociales con el apoyo del sistema de valores, normas y características de
comportamiento masculino y femenino, estilo de vida y forma de pensar, las funciones y relaciones de las
mujeres y los hombres que las adquirieron como individuos en el proceso de socialización. La confusión
entre género y sexo reclama una mayor atención en la enseñanza y educación a la vez que aboga por

90
soluciones dentro de la sensatez del uso de la lengua. La lengua obedece a unas reglas de la sociedad. Si
quieres ser bienentendido usa la lengua correcta [1]:

Cuadro 2 – Los ejemplos del lenguaje sexista y no-sexista


Uso sexista Uso no sexista
Sustitución con valor genetico por sustantivos colectivos, abstractos y de referencia general
NO RECOMENDADO RECOMENDADO
Se avisa a los alumns que el horario de Se avisa al alumnado que el horario de
tutorial es de 11.30 a 12.30 tutorial es de 11.30 a 12.30
Ante los sustantivos que no tengan variación morfológica para el masculino y el femenino, intentar
prescindir del uso de determinantes o artículos siempre que sea posible
NO RECOMENDADO RECOMENDADO
Se contará con la presencia de aquellos Si es necesario se contará con la presencia
especialistas que sean necesarios de especialistas suficientes

La lengua, al ser el reflejo de la sociedad que la utiliza, transmite la ideología imperante en la misma,
pues refleja y refuerza las desigualdades derivadas de la discriminación ejercida hacia las mujeres en la
sociedad actual. Como dicen, el lenguaje es en sí mismo una costumbre y el uso no-sexista del lenguaje
debería convertirse en costumbre.

Referencias:
1. García Meseguer A. ¿Es sexista la lengua española? Una investigación sobre el género gramatical.
– Barcelona: Paidós Ibérica, 1994. – 256 p.
2. María Julia Pérez Cervera. Manual para el uso no sexista del lenguaje. – México, 2011. – 90 р.
3. Camara Aguilera, Elvira. El español y la variación intralingüística [El recurso electronico]. – El
acceso: http://www.elcastellano.org/ecamara
4. Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos [El recurso electrónico]. – El acceso:
http://www.un.org/es/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Аннотация. Все люди рождаются свободными и имеют равные права. Однако в современном
мире все ещѐ существует проблема дискриминации в отношении женщин, а гендерные стереотипы
проявляются на различных уровнях коммуникации. Испанский язык представляет картину мира с мужской
точки зрения. Лексика, морфология и синтаксис испанского языка не гарантируют «проявления женщины».
Именно поэтому использование гендерно-нейтрального языка так актуально на сегодняшний день.
Корректное использование гендерно-нейтрального языка является неотъемлемым условием существования
современного общества.
Ключевые слова: гендерная дискриминация, сексизм, стереотипы, язык, развитие, образование.
Summary. All people are born free and equal. However, in the modern world there is still a problem of
discrimination against women, and gender stereotypes are being manifested at various levels of communication.
Spanish represents the picture of the world from men‘s perspective. The lexics, morphology and syntax of Spanish don't
guarantee "manifestation of the woman". It goes without saying that the use of gender-neutral language is of great
importance today. The correct use of gender-neutral language is set to be an integral condition of the existence of
modern society.
Key words: gender discrimination, sexism, stereotypes, language, development, education.

91
УДК 81‘26=133.1
LE FONCTIONNEMENT DES SOMATISMES EN FRANÇAIS
Marie Pastouchkova
étudiante de troisième année,
Chaire de Théorie et pratique de la Traduction
l'Université d'État de Sébastopol
e-mail: pastushkova-m@mail.ru
Olga Aslanyan
professeur de français
Chaire de Théorie et pratique de la Traduction
l'Université d'État de Sébastopol
e-mail: olga.aslanyan@yandex.ru

La phraséologie est l'un des domaines de la linguistique les plus intéressants. La phraséologie aide à
mieux comprendre la culture et l'histoire du pays à travers la langue nationale. À la fin du XXe siècle, le fait
que le phénomène de l'homme peut être compris à travers le langage, et pas seulement à travers l'art, les
sciences naturelles et humaines, est complètement reconnu. À cet égard, il y a un intérêt élevé pour l'étude
des somatismes, c'est à dire des expressions figées avec des noms de parties du corps. Le français n'est pas
une exception et la couche somatique est l'une des principales dans la phraséologie.
En fait, les parties de notre propre corps nous accompagnent alors partout et elles sont toujours avec
nous. Il est tout à fait naturel qu‘elles participent à notre vie quotidienne [7, p.31].
On exprime le caractère, les émotions, les actions, l‘état mental et physique d'une personne
principalement à travers des unités phraséologiques somatiques.
Ayant étudié des travaux scientifiques sur le thème des somatismes dans la langue française, on peut
tirer une conclusion que les auteurs divers distribuent le rôle des composants particuliers de manière très
différente. Mais tous les auteurs distinguent les parties du corps comme «la tête», «le bras» et «la jambe»
comme les plus fréquentes dans la composition des idiomes.
L'un des plus évoqué dans les idiomes et proverbes est le somatisme «la tête».
La tête est le symbole de la pensée, de la raison, des réflexions. La tête renvoie, dans chaque cas, au
cerveau en tant que boîte osseuse de l‘organe de la raison. Par suite, cette partie indique la force ou la
faiblesse de la faculté intellectuelle de quelqu‘un [7, p.79].
Les locutions qui signifient l‘activité mentale sont: se rompre la tête – «ломать себе голову»;
bourrer la tête – «забивать голову»; prendre une chose par la tête et par la queue – «изучить что-либо
досконально»; ça prend la tête– «постоянно думать о чѐм-то».
Mais une personne peut perdre la capacité de raisonner, quand il est amoureux, ce qui ce qui fait
naître l'idiome perdre la tête («терять голову») et tourner la tête («кружить голову»).
Les expressions avec un composant «la tête» peuvent porter à la fois des connotations positives et
négatives. Telles unités phraséologiques caractérisent l‘intelligence d‘un homme : un homme de tête –
«умный человек»; tête bien ordonnée – «здравый, методичный ум»; à tête reposée – «на свежую
голову ».
Ces expressions peuvent aussie indiquer sang-froid (tête froide – «спокойный, владеющий собой
человек»), l‘insistance (se mettre qch en tête – «вбить себе в голову»), la confiance (en tête à tête –«с
глазу на глаз»). Ce sont les qualités positives mais il y a aussi les connotations négatives.
Il y a les unités phraséologiques avec le somatisme «la tête» qui indiquent les qualités humaines
négatives suivantes: la bêtise: tête de bois – «каменное, лицо»; tête sans cervelle – «безответственный
человек»; la tête de buis – «дурак»; l‘obstination: tête de fer – «твердолобый, упрямый»; la tête de cochon
– «упрямый, как осел»; la distraction: la tête en l`air – «в полной растерянности»; la vanité: avoir la
grosse tête – «быть тщеславным»; la faiblesse: tête de Turc – «козел отпущения».
Les expressions somatiques avec le composant «la tête» marquent l‘état émotionnel comme la
tristesse, le désespoir, la confusion: avoir une sale tête – «иметь расстроенный вид»; avoir de l`eau par
dessus la tête – «идти ко дну»; avoir des dettes par-dessus la tête – «быть по уши в долгах»; j‘en ai par-
dessus la tête – «мне это смертельно надоело»; baisser la tête – «опустить голову, признать себя
виноватым»; avoir la tête dans un sac – «терзаться неизвестностью»; perdre la tête – «терять голову».
Il est intéressant d‘ observer comment nos gestes sont reflétés dans la phraséologie. La position de la
tête est associée à l'état psychologique positif ou négatif d'une personne, avec confiance ou manque de
confiance en soi. C‘est pourquoi nous avons les expressions: relever la tête(«завоевать доверие») et
courber la tête («признать себя побеждѐнным»).

92
Les examples choisis montrent que la plupart des unités phraséologiques avec un composant «la
tête» marquent les caractéristiques négatives.
Les somatismes avec le composant «la main/ le bras» sont l'un des groupes les plus utilisés.
L‘activité d'utilisation est liée à la compréhension de la main comme le symbole général du travail, de
diverses actions. C‘est pourquoi il y a beaucoup d‘unités phraséologiques qui signifient l‘experience et
l‘assiduité: un homme à toute main – «мастер на все руки» ; avoir cent bras – «быть неутомимым»; faire
de ses propres mains – «сделать собственными руками»; ne vivre que de ses bras – «жить собственным
трудом»; avoir les bras retroussés jusqu‘au coude – «засучить рукава, приступить к делу»; se faire la
main – «набить руку, наловчиться, напрактиковаться».
Il y a aussi des unités phraséologiques avec le sens opposé de l'inaction et le manque d'expérience:
s‘en laver les mains – «умыть руки, снять с себя ответственность»; avoir toujours les mains dans ses
poches – «пальцем об палец не ударить»; rester les bras croisés – «сидеть сложа руки»; avoir des mains
de beurre – «все валится из рук, дырявые руки»; les bras lui en tombent – «у него руки опускаются»;
avoir la main lourde – «иметь тяжелую руку, делать неловко».
La simple jonction des mains de quelques personnes est un symbole de leur l‘union, la сoncorde,
l‘amitié, qui est noté dans les idiomes: demander la main de quelqu'un – «просить руки»; tendre la main à
qqn – «протягивать руку помощи»; taper les mains – «давать пять»; la main dans la main – «рука в руке,
не отходя друг от друга ни на шаг».
Telles unités phraséologiques peuvent caractériser les propriétés positives comme la chance (avoir la
main heureuse – «быть удачливым»; avoir la main légère – «иметь легкую руку»); la honnêteté (la main
sur son coeur – «положа руку на сердце, клясться»); la sympathie (à bras ouverts – «с распростертыми
объятиями»; se jeter dans les bras de qn – «бросаться в объятия»); la confiance (être en de bonnes mains –
«быть в хороших руках»; bras droit de qn – «правая рука, заместитель»; manger de la main (à)... – «есть
из рук, быть очень близким»); la volonté d'aider (ouvrir les bras à qn – «оказать теплый прием»; avoir
qn, qch sur ses bras – «заботиться о ком-то»).
On peut distinguer un groupe séparé avec les somatismes «la main» et «le bras» qui prouvent l'usage
de l'homme «comme la mesure de toutes choses» dans l'aspect de la vitesse(en un tour de main – «в два
счета, одним махом»), de la distance (à la portée de la main – «на расстоянии вытянутой руки»; sous la
main – «под рукой») et de la qualité (de bonne main – «из надежного источника»; de la première main –
«из первых рук, из первоисточников»).
Une analyse de cette catégorie a montré que les somatismes «la main/le bras» sont utilisés comme
symboles du pouvoir et du contrôle. Cela est reflété dans les unités phraséologiques qui signifient la
restriction de la liberté: tomber sous la main – «попасть под руку»; avoir la main forcée – «действовать по
принуждению»; avoir le bras long – «властвовать»; lier les bras à qn – «связывать руки, лишать
свободы действий»; tenir dans les mains – «держать в руках»; mettre sur les bras de qn – «взвалить на
чьи-то плечи».
Certaines unités phraséologiques sont utilisées dans des connotations négatives comme la menace, la
force, l‘hostilité : avoir la main prompte– «любить пускать в ход кулаки»; avoir la main leste – дать волю
рукам; bras de fer –«стычка, перепалка»; la cupidité (avoir la main fermée – «быть скупым»); la
malhonnêteté (il n‘a pas les mains nettes – «он нечист на руку»); la désespoir (baisser les bras – «опустить
руки, сдаться»).
La catégorie avec le somatisme «le pied/ la jambe» est unifiée par la signification générale "les
membres inférieurs" parce que nos pieds sont un support et un moyen de déplacement. Beaucoup d‘unités
phraséologiques avec un composant «le pied/ la jambe» portent une couleur négative. Les idiomes avec ces
somatismes indiquent les qualités suivantes: la paresse (rester les deux pieds dans le meme soulier – «сидеть
сложа руки, палец об палец не ударить»); l‘impunité (avoir quatre pieds blanсs – «все с рук сходит»); l‘
irritation (se lever du mauvais pied – «вставать не с той ноги»); l‘incertitude (perdre pied – «сомневаться,
потерять уверенность»); l‘humiliation (tomber auxpieds de qn – «в ногах валяться»); l‘importunité
(casser les pieds – «надоедать»); la menace (mettre le pied sur la gorge de qn – «поставить нож к горлу»).
Ils peuvent aussi indiquer les états physiques comme la mort, la maladie, la fatigue: sortir les pieds
devant – «умереть»; avoir un pied dans la tombe – «быть одной ногой в могиле»; tirer la jambe de fatigue
– «валиться с ног от усталости»; n‘aller que d'une jambe – «едва волочить ноги».
On peut aussi trouver les caractéristiques positives dans les idiomes avec les somatismes «le pied/ la
jambe» comme l‘amitié, la prospérité, etc.: avoir de bonnes jambes – «быть легким на подъем»; être sur un
bon pied – «быть на короткой ноге, иметь прочное положение»; vivre sur un grand pied – «жить на
широкую ногу»; avoir les pieds chauds – «жить припеваючи»; avoir des jambes de vingt ans – «хорошо
сохраниться»; mettre sur pied – «поставить на ноги».

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Pour conclure, on peut dire que le vocabulaire somatique est l'un des groupes lexicaux universels qui
sont présents dans plusieurs langues. Chaque catégorie d'unités phraséologiques avec un certain somatisme
réalise certaines fonctions et a les connotations positives et négatives.

Bibliographie:
1. Городецкая И.Е. Соматический компонент фразеологизмов русского и французского
языков // Вестник Ставропольского государственйого университета No51– Ставрополь: СГУ, 2007. –
233с.
2. Кечина Э.А. Фразеологические выражения с компонентами-соматизмами в латинском,
русском и французском языках: материалы VIII Междунар. науч.-практ. конф. – Чебоксары: ЦНС
«Интерактив плюс», 2017. – С. 265-268.
3. Кравцов С.М. Картина мира в русской и французской фразеологии (на примере концепта
«Поведение человека): монография / Кравцов С.М. –Таганрог: ТТИ ЮФУ, 2016.– 386 с.
4. Молотков А.И., Жост М.-Л. Учебный русско-французский фразеологический словарь. – М.:
Астрель, АСТ, 2001. – 336с.
5. Назарян А.Г. Идиоматические выражения французского языка. Пособие для учителей
французского языка.– М.: Просвещение, 1978.–159с.
6. ASHRAF, M. & MIANNAY, D., Dictionnaire des expressions idiomatiques, Paris : Le livre de
poche, 1995.
7. FEKETE G. Les phrasèmes concernant les parties du corps en français et en hongrois (Le cas de
structures avec « avoir » et de leurs équivalents en hongrois), Grenoble, 2003.

Аннотация. Французский язык обладает очень богатым фразеологическим фондом и существенную


часть этого фонда занимает именно соматическая фразеология, то есть устойчивые выражения с
названиями частей тела, так как человек является мерой всех вещей. Использование описания частей тела
можно считать одним из первых устоявшихся языковых явлений, но в то же время динамически
развивающихся. Мы выбрали три наиболее часто используемых соматизма: голова, рука, нога.
Ключевые слова: фразеологизмы, соматизмы, части тела.
Summary. French has a very rich phraseology base and somatic phraseology takes an essential part in it, that
is to say frozen expressions with names of body parts, as man is the measure of all things. The use of the description of
the body parts can be considered as one of the first established linguistic phenomena which is at the same time in
dynamic development. We chose the three most frequently used somatisms: the head(la tête), the hand / the arm(la
main/ le bras), the foot / the leg( le pied/ la jambe).
Key words: phraseological units, somatisms, body parts.

УДК 81‘26=133.1
LE VERLAN COMME UN PHÉNOMÈNE DE MODE
Evgeniia Porkhunova
étudiante de troisième année,
Chaire de Théorie et Pratique de la Traduction,
l'Université d'État de Sébastopol
e-mail:eugenie02404@gmail.com
Olga Aslanyan
professeur de français
Chaire de Théorie et pratique de la Traduction
l'Université d'État de Sébastopol
e-mail: olga.aslanyan@yandex.ru

Qui vole un œuf vole un bœuf (un proverbe).


Qui vole un bœuf se fait serrer par les keufs (M.C. Solaar) [4, p.320].
Il a été bien souvent signalé que la langue parlée a son vocabulaire propre qu‘il ne serait pas de mise
d‘utiliser dans la langue écrite. Le cas le plus connu est l‘argot français, consideré comme un jeu rhétorique
sur la langue. C‘est en effet un lexique, produit par un travail, qui s‘exerce soit sur le sens des mots soit sur le
sens sur leur morphologie. Exemples de travail sur le sens: souris «в нейтральном контексте: мышь» –

94
fille «девочка»; ratichon (слово является устаревшим) – curé «священник»; Exemples de travail sur la
forme: baraka «достаток», mochetingue «синоним слова laid, т.е. уродливый». L‘argot présente un cas
assez exeptionnel de manipulation de la forme [1, 60 p.].
L‘argot a une fonction sociale, c‘est-à-dire, les créations argotiques servent à souder le groupe qui en
est l‘usager – philatelistes, informaticiens, membres de la Rave culture, etc. Du coté des argots, cette
fonction sociale est dominante: ils expriment la cohesion du groupe qui en usent, et, en échange, signifient
son alterité par rapport à la société globale. L‘un des exemples assez spécifiques est le verlan. Dans les
années 1960, le verlan était parlé par les jeunes «blousons noirs» (rockeurs aux allures de voyous). Peu à peu
cet argot s‘était installé aux banlieues. Comme l‘argot traditionnel, le verlan pourrait jouer un rôle d‘un
langage secret grâce auquel les membres d‘un groupe pouvaient se communiquer sans être compris par les
personnes exterieures au groupe.
Malgré qu‘à l‘origine cette langue n‘était qu‘un mode d‘appartenance à un groupe, celui des jeunes,
plus spécifiquement des banlieues, ce mode de communication, très exploité par le rap, est devenu bien
utilisé dans toutes les couches de la societé, surtout sur les radios et aux cours des conversations menées par
les animateurs de télévision (une émission pour les enfants de France 3 a pour titre Les Minikeums, – les
petits «mecs, ребята»).
Le verlan est un argot moderne, un langage des ‗marginaux‘(puisque les banlieues sont en marge des
villes) et «d‘exclus», parce que la partie de la jeunesse des banlieues, qui étaient, très souvent, les immigrés,
se sentait meprisée par la société française.
Mais qu‘est-ce que c‘est, le verlan? Et donc, comment verlanise-t-on les mots? Le verlan est un jeu
de mots populaire, qui consiste à dire les syllabes des mots à l'envers («verlan» est d'ailleurs le verlan de
«l'envers»).
1. Les mots d‘une seule syllabe (ou qu‘on prononce en une seule syllabe).
– si la syllabe est ouverte, on inverse les phonèmes ou sons: ouf pour fou «дурак, безумец» , ouate et
ouam pour toi et moi, asse pour ça.
– lorsque la syllabe est fermée, on l‘ouvre en lui ajoutant le son ―eu‖ avant de verlaniser le tout: fête
«праздник» est transformé en fêteu, puis est verlanisé en teuf; bus «автобус» est transformé en busseu, qui
donne au final seubu; on passe de dingue «странный» à dingueu, puis à gueudin, et de lourd «тяжелый» à
loureu puis à reulou. Mais certains mots subissent en plus d‘autres modifications: par exemple, meufa,
femme en ―pur‖ verlan, et punk devient keupon, tandis que mate ―regarde, т.е. взгляд‖ fait tema.
2. Les mots de deux syllabes (ou qu‘on prononce en deux syllabes) sont ceux qui se prêtent le mieux
à la verlanisation. On inverse simplement l‘ordre des syllabes en simplifiant souvent l‘orthographe: méchant
«злой» fait chanmé ( et s‘imploie au sens de «cool», «super»), bizarre «нелепый, несуразный» donne zarbi,
musique devient zicmou.
3. Les mots de trois syllabes sont plus rarement verlanisés. Lorsque ça arrive, on trouve diverses
combinaisons: parfois la première syllabe est rejetée à la fin du mot (garetsi, pour cigarette), parfois la
dernière devient la première et vice-versa (gaitupor pour portugais), et parfois la troisième syllabe est place
en tête (énervé donne vénèr).
4. Les expressions courtes peuvent subir la verlanisation qui parfois se fait dans les règles de l‘art (
ziva pour vas-y «вперед», sakom ou commasse pour comme ça «таким образом», chelaoim pour lâche –
moi «пусти меня»), et il arrive aussi que ce soit du porte-nin wak, du portnawak ou du nawak, c‘est-a-dire
n‘importe quoi «без разницы»[3,p. 24].
Le verlan a beau être consideré comme une langue des meprisés, aujourd‘hui il est devenu un
phénomène de mode. Cette mode s‘est très vite répandue dans toutes les couches de la societé, touchant les
collèges, les lycées, les enfants, les adolescents et leurs parents. Tels mots comme béton dans Laisse béton
(1977), ripou(x) par l‘intermediaire d‘un titre de film à succès (de Claude Zidi, en 1984), et d‘autres mots du
chanteur Renaud grâce à qui les mots comme keuf, meuf ont devenus fort popularisés.
Cette chanson de Renaud «Laisse Béton» (béton pour tomber, «отвали») a poussé une explosion du
verlan:
j'vais t'apprendre un jeu rigolo
à grands coups de chaine de vélo
j'te fais tes bottes à la baston !
moi j'y ai dit :
Laisse béton [2]!
Le succès de la chanson était suivi par celui du film «les Ripoux» ( Ripoux pour Pourris) de Claude
Zidi. Ici on donne le discours oral:

95
―– Heureusement qu'il n'y a pas que des ripoux chez les flics ! […] – Dites donc, ça veut dire quoi
ripou ? – Ah tu connais pas le verlan ? Tu inverses les syllabes des mots. Ripou pourri, pourri ripou. – Ah
oui, oui, oui…– Tu comprends biledé, par exemple ? – Biledé... Dé... Débile ! – Voilà, tu y es mon petit
bonhomme!‖
On peut illustrer la popularité du verlan avec les paroles des chansons. Par exemple, la chanson de
Le 6-9 «Faut passer ton bac» (2002):
Par un keuf qui passé
Qui lui
A pas eu son bac {x3}
ou keuf est «flic», un mot familier qui signifie un policier.
Dans sa chanson «Y a Pas De Mérite» (2003) un groupe hip-hop français Sniper évoque Renaud:
Et tu joueras le mec hardcore
Te-bê, y'a pas d'mérite à avoir fait du placard
Si t'es béton c'est qu't'as pas été en m'sure de les ber-bar.
Guizmo dans la chanson ―C‘est tout‖ (2012) utilise le verlan aussi que les anglicismes:
Faut qu'j'me concentre, que j'sois scred «discret», et que j'aille dans la bonne direction
Faut du bon sens dans mes cahiers pour être au top quand j'vais kicker l'son
Faut qu'j'parle à ma génération, que j'les calme un peu
Parce que, crois-moi, ils sont vénèr «à fond!»
Ici les mots «scred» et «vénèr» sont le verlan pour les mots «discret» «скромный, тихий» et énervé
«нервный, встревоженный».
La chanson de Kerredine Soltani ‗Le Verlan‘ est apparue en 2012 et contient un mélange
de l‘argot le plus utilisé:
Un ami proche tu dis gros
Pour les vacances tu dis cansva
Pour dire voiture tu dis gova
Te faire avoir c'est rotka
Un Braquage c'est québra
Pour dire j'adore tu dis kiff
Pour les cheveux tu dis tifs
Puis quand t'as faim tu dis imf
Un africain tu dis kinf
Pour dire bourgeois du dis geoibourg
Pour dire flirter tu dis pécho
Le sujet du verlan provoque toujours beaucoup de discussions. Certains s‘inquiètent que la belle
langue de Molière sera menacée. On se soucie notamment de la pauvreté et de l‘aggressivité du vocabulaire
employé. En plus, il y a les personnes qui craignent que la jeunesse s‘enferme dans un qhetto linquistique. Le
français classique a certes quelque chose de magique, mais la vraie beauté d‘une langue n‘est-t-elle pas de
savoir évoluer? Comme un être vivant, le français respire, s‘avance et se développe à grande vitesse et notre
tâche est de nous adapter aux nouveaux changements.

Bibliografie:
1. Чеснович Е. П. Хрестоматия по лексикологии французского языка. – Л.: Просвещение,
1981. – 149 с.
2. Переводы песен с французского языка [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: https://fr.lyrsense.com
(дата обращения: 10.02.2018).
3. Balta C. L‘argot fascine //Le français dans le monde. – 2014. – № 391. – С. 36-37.
4. Cerquiglini B., Corbeil J.C., Klinkenberg J. M., Peeters B. Le français dans tous ses états.
Flammarion, Paris. 2000. – 415 p.
5. Dollez C., Pons S. Alter Ego 4 / С. Dollez, S. Sylvie // Hachette. – 2007. – P. 18-19.
6. Lepoutre D. Cœur de banlieue. Codes, rites et langages. Éditions Odile Jacob, Paris. 1997. – 362
p.
7. Zarbi, zarbi… Vous avez dit zarbi? //Virgule. – 2008. – № 54. – P.24.

Аннотация. Арго – неотъемлемая часть любого языка. Во французском языке существуют разные его
типы, самым распространенным из них стал верлан. На первый взгляд он представляет собой обычную игру

96
слов, распространенную среди подростков. На самом же деле верлан проник в лексикон практически всех слоев
франкоговорящего населения благодаря современной поп-культуре.
Ключевые слова: верлан,aрго, поп-культура, общество
Summary: Argo is an essential part of any language. In French there are many forms of it, the most specific
one is verlan. Even though its main function is mostly play-based, i.e. this language is built on a play of words; it has
also become an indispensable element of the modern language and the popular culture. Verlan is deeply engrained into
the French culture and in this article we are going to try to understand its usage and reasons for its popularity
nowadays.
Key words: verlan, argo, modern French, pop-culture, society

УДК 81‘42
CRIMEAN EVENTS OF 2014 IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE MEDIA DISCOURSE
Mariia Razumenko
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: masha1995.sev@mail.ru
Evgeniia Barmina
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Discourse is one of the most complex and ambiguous concepts in the history of linguistics. According
to N. D. Arutyunova discourse is a speech "submurged in life" [1, p. 136]. Thus, this leads us to the
conclusion that discourse is a complex communicative phenomenon including extralinguistic factors without
which it is impossible to fully assess the influence of the media on public opinion.
Media plays an important role in the functioning of modern society. According to S. G. Kara-Murza,
the mass media has become the main tool for the circulation of information affecting public opinion [2].
Therefore, it is generally accepted that in mass media discourse the mechanisms of formation and
manipulation of public opinion are realized to the greatest extent.
According to V. A. Maslova, speech manipulation is "the process of imposing on the public views,
opinions, ways of actions that speakers can consider deliberately false, but profitable for themselves; this is
achieved by the use of special techniques aimed at lowering critical thinking of recipients" [3, p. 44].
The accession of the Republic of Crimea in the Russian Federation in 2014 was perceived
ambiguously in the world, therefore in media discourse these events were covered in different ways. An
exceptional role in the discourse was played by speech tools that generally help to form the necessary point
of view among the target audience and therefore to manipulate it. Knowledge of the mechanisms and
strategies of persuasion helps to form your own point of view which explains the relevance of this study.
The aim of the article is a comprehensive analysis of verbal means of implementing persuasion
strategies in the English-language media discourse.
The object of the article is the English-language mass media discourse of the Crimean events of
2014.
In the late 30s of the 20th century, in the USA the methods of influencing mass consciousness which
are widely used in the mass media were first formulated. This classification is better known as the
―Propaganda techniques‖ and it consists of the following methods: name calling, glittering generality,
transfer, testimonial, plain folks, card stacking, and band wagon [2].
A vivid means of influencing public opinion is transfer. Describing the events of the Crimean spring
of 2014, the American and English press widely used this method. However, trying to form a negative point
view of the population about the actions of Russia, journalists enjoyed a negative transfer: ―Mr. Putin knows
this; his defense of the ousted government is a pretext to tighten Russian control over Crimea, buttress his
claims to special rights over what he calls Russia‘s "near abroad" and to humiliate Ukraine, the way he
humiliated Georgia in 2008, for looking wistfully westward‖ (URL:
https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/03/opinion/russias-aggression. html). In this article, the author draws a

97
parallel with the events in Georgia in 2008 and thereby awakens negative associations among the target
audience. A greater effect is also achieved by accent and repetition of the word humiliate – word with an
expressive and evaluative connotation. Additional evaluative meaning is also brought by the periphrasis
Russia's "near abroad", thus focusing attention on one of its features, that is, the fact that Russia considers
Crimea to be Russian.
Another means used by journalists to manipulate the public opinion is name calling. These "names"
bring about a negative attitude because they are associated with something dishonest and cause negative
associations in people‘s minds. There was much discussion about the Crimean events in the world and
journalists somehow touched the actions of Russia and its government. The NY Times says: ―Mr. Putin and
his cronies preside over a country with the planet‘s largest land mass and the vast material wealth that
comes with it‖ (URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/opinion/ukrainian-hopes-russian-failings.html).
The expression "Mr. Putin and his cronies" openly expresses a disdainful attitude toward the government
and the whole passage is perceived as being extremely negative.
Quite often journalists use card stacking to bring more memorable arguments. It is based on the
emphasizing of only negative features of the event without covering the opposite ones. ―With the voting
complete, Mr. Putin...is now under pressure to make a decision. He could move ahead – a complex and
costly venture given the peninsula’s geographic isolation – or leave more than two million people, whose
well-being he vowed to protect, in the limbo of other Russian-backed breakaway regions like Abkhazia
and South Ossetia, in Georgia” (URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/17/world/europe/crimea-ukraine-
secession-vote-referendum.html). In this example, it is clear that the reporter artificially creates the illusion
of the choice – speaking about the consequences of the Crimean spring for Crimea itself and for the
government of Russia, he provides two ways to solve it. However, you need to choose from two negative
ones. Thus, the target audience is bound to come to the conclusion that the results of the referendum are
completely negative since positive sides of it are not covered.
Testimonial is also one of the features of the newspaper style. This way of presenting information is
characterized by an artificial increase in the authority of the journalist's statement. He/she quotes people who
have high authority in the society, with utterances often containing evaluative judgments. The task of the
correspondent is to convince the readers that this statement is based on the extensive experience of the
person. For example: ―Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany knows a bit about dealing with Russia. She
has spoken with Russia’s president, Vladimir Putin, more often than any other Western leader, and, more
to the point, she grew up under Moscow’s yoke in East Germany. So when she says that it‘s far too early to
lift the sanctions imposed on Russia, Western capitals should listen‖
(URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/04/opinion/to-give-ukraine-a-chance-sanct- ions-on-russia-must-
continue.html). In addition to her high political status, Angela Merkel is said to be good at dealing with
Russia. Thus, the audience has increased confidence in Angela Merkel who expressed her opinion on anti-
Russian sanctions.
Thus, in mass media discourse speech manipulations are represented by a variety of linguistic and
psychological techniques and means. Tools of verbal manipulation of different levels relate to each other
contributing to more effective impact on the reader and, thus, forming a definite opinion on the described
events.
The analysis of the fragments with the potential for manipulative effect shows that the most frequent
mеans is name calling (42%). The effect is achieved through the use of such lexical means as words with
expressive and evaluative connotation, metaphors, phraseological units. The second in frequency mеans is a
negative transfer. Its share among the total number of examples is 38%. It is worth noting that the
perlocutionary effect of the negative transfer is achieved mainly through comparisons and periphrases. Less
frequent is testimonial (10%). Card stacking, band wagon and glittering generality account for 8 and 6
percent correspondingly. The prospect of this study is the analysis of persuasion strategies in German,
Russian and Ukrainian media discourse.

References:
1. Арутюнова Н. Д. Дискурс / Н. Д. Арутюнова // Лингвистический энциклопедический
словарь. – М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1990. – 688 с.
2. Кара-Мурза С. Г. Манипуляция сознанием. / С. Г. Кара-Мурза. – М.: Изд-во: Эксмо, 2005. –
832 с.
3. Маслова В. А. Политический дискурс: языковые игры или игры в слова? [Электронный
ресурс] / В. А. Маслова // Политическая лингвистика. – 2008. – № 1 (24). – С. 43–48. – Режим доступа:
http: //philology.ru/linguistics2/maslova-08. htm.

98
Аннотация. Статья посвящена комплексному анализу речевых средств реализации
манипуляции в англоязычном массмедийном дискурсе. В работе изучены стратегии убеждения и их реализация
на материале Крымских событий 2014 года. Показаны основные приемы манипуляции общественным мнением
в англоязычных статьях, а также способы достижения перлокутивного эффекта. В ходе работы были
выявлены основные стратегии убеждения, которые используются в англоязычном массмедийном дискурсе.
Ключевые слова: речевая манипуляция, массмедийный дискурс, речевое воздействие, стратегии
убеждения, язык СМИ.
Summary. The article is devoted to the complex analysis of speech means of manipulation realization in the
English language mass media discourse. The author studies persuasion strategies and their implementation on the
material of the Crimean events of 2014. The main methods of manipulating public opinion in English language articles
as well as the ways to achieve a perlocutionary effect are shown. In the course of the work the author reveals the main
persuasion strategies used in the English language mass media discourse.
Key words: speech manipulation, mass media discourse, speech impact, persuasion strategies, mass media
language.

УДК: 811. 111


SPORT DICTIONARIES
Rekhacheva Tatiana
2nd year master student,
Department of foreign languages
Omsk State University n. a. F.M. Dostoevskiy
e-mail:mileendomsk@rambler.ru
Olga Osipchuk
Scientific advisor, PhD in Pedagogy,
Romano-Germanic languages and cultures Division,
Omsk State University n. a. F.M. Dostoevskiy

Nowadays spot is playing very important role in our life. Millions of people are waiting for the
Olympic Games, World championships, World cups and local sport events. Sport is around us even if we do
not want to notice it. Every news program has sport block, every newspaper has sport page. Even popular
social networks such as Facebook and VK have many groups dedicated to sport news and events. You
cannot escape from it.
Due to popularity of sport around the world many translators and interpreters have to translate news
or interviews about it. That is why translators and interpreters need special sport dictionaries. Sport contains
many branches where is used special terminology. However, this terminology is often used by athletes,
coaches and sport managers but translators and interpreters do not have such information and they do not
know it. During the preparation for translation sessions they do not have enough time to properly catch on
topic, and sport dictionaries can solve this problem.
There are several problems with it.
First of all, today we do not have many professional sport dictionaries. The professional sport
dictionary should contain following elements:
- abbreviations used in the dictionary;
- symbols used in the dictionary;
- labels used in the dictionary;
- foreword;
- key to dictionary entries;
- the dictionary;
- maps;
- colour topic pages;
- reference section.
This structure was taken from Oxford Dictionary [3] because it is one of the best dictionaries.
Aforesaid elements belong to high quality dictionaries. Unfortunately, many dictionaries have only
―abbreviations‖ and ―the dictionary‖ elements. Sometimes sport dictionaries contains ―foreword‖, e.g.

99
specially prepared Olympic term glossary to different sport events (biathlon and cross-country skiing,
alpine skiing and snowboard, figure skating, ice hockey)[1,2].
Secondly, each dictionary entry should contain following elements:
- headword;
- part of speech;
- pronunciation;
- entry;
- homonym number;
- spelling variant.
Unfortunately, many dictionaries have only ―headword‖ and ―translation‖. It is dangerous because
Dictionaries without ―entry‖ and ―examples‖ are not valuable dictionaries because they do not provide full
information about the word. Very often, it is impossible to understand meaning without dictionary entry. E.g.
sport term ―babyheads‖. Urban dictionary [4] gives following entry: ―Mountain biking term. Roundish rocks
which tend to be found in a loose jumble on hairpin corners or other difficult-to-negotiate sections of trail.
Similar to death cookies, but bigger‖. Now we understand that babyheads is used to describe hindrances
during race.
Thirdly, sport dictionaries contain either too many words or small amount of it. We cannot create
one big sport dictionary because there are many sport disciplines. Biathlon is very different from Alpine
skiing or ski jumping but they all shares skies. We cannot use biathlon terms in ski jumping and Alpine
skiing term is useless during cross-country skiing. We need different dictionaries to these sports. In addition,
we cannot use only one small dictionary where we can find only generic words; it is useless to translators
and interpreters.
Online dictionaries have the same problems; they do not give enough information.
There is only one way to solve this problem. The big sport dictionary should be published. The
dictionary should contain aforesaid elements of dictionaries and dictionary entries but it must be online
dictionary because translators and interpreters do not need only monolingual dictionary, they need several
languages and it is easy and better to do it online. All information includes examples and references should
be given on different languages e.g. English, German, Russian. At the beginning the dictionary could contain
only terms of Olympic sports but then other sports are welcome to. The main language will be Russian, so
we can put their and some traditional Russian sports.
Each entry should have pronunciation card and image or short video if it is necessary e.g. in figure
skating or mogul. This information will help interpreters to understand how to pronounce and what 'jump' or
'move' it was. Sport interpreters are working in this field and for them it is very important to understand what
is going on.
As it was mentioned above, Russian language will be the main; second language for all entries will
be English; third language will be French or German, everything depends on sports and sport tradition.
The main form of the dictionary should be online because it is more comfortable to people to use it.
Second form could be printed version, which will contain only one sport discipline, two or three languages
and no images.

References:
1. Общий терминологический глоссарий XXII Олимпийских зимних игр и XI
Паралимпийских зимних игр 2014 года в Сочи / англо-русский. – М.: Оргкомитет «Сочи 2014», 2012.
– 1050 с.
2. Терминологический глоссарий XXII Олимпийских зимних игр и XI Паралимпийских
зимних игр 2014 года в Сочи. Спортивные дисциплины: биатлон, лыжные гонки, лыжное двоеборье. /
Библиотека «Сочи 2014» Оргкомитет Олимпийских зимних игр и XI Паралимпийских зимних игр
2014 года в городе Сочи. М., 2010 – 11с.
3. Oxford advanced learner‘s Dictionary. Oxford University press. Seventh edition. 2010.
4. Urban dictionary [Электронный ресурс] // URL:
https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Babyheads (дата обращения 27.02.2018).

Аннотация. Статья посвящена современным спортивным словарям. Даются некоторые


рекомендации по содержанию самого словаря и отдельных словарных статей. Рассматриваются проблемы
составления словаре, и возможные пути устранения этих недостатков. Кроме того рассматривается и
кратко описывается возможность создания одного большого словаря спортивной лексики в рамках онлайн
словаря с возможной сокращенной печатной версией в языковых парах русский-английский и русский-немецкий,
как основные пары для составления спортивных словарей.

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Ключевые слова: спортивные словари, спортивная терминология, спортивные глоссарии

Summary. The article is devoted to modern sports dictionaries. The article contains some recommendations
how to do the dictionary itself and individual dictionary entries. The article describes problems of compiling
dictionaries and possible ways of solution. In addition, briefly describes the possibility of creating one big online sport
dictionary and abbreviated printed version in the language pairs Russian-English and Russian-German, as the main
pairs for the compilation of sports dictionaries.
Key words: sport dictionaries, sport terminology, sport glossaries.

УДК 811.111‘373.612.2=111
METAPHOR AS A MEANS OF MANIPULATING THE PUBLIC CONSCIOUSNESS IN
MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE
Elizaveta Ryazhina
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
Yevgeniia Barmina
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The role of the media in various spheres of public life is diverse and quite large. Modern media form
the information field, including in the virtual sphere. Because of its close connection with the processes,
political science, linguistics and psychology, the thesis of the ―fourth power‖ is increasingly becoming the
focus of special attention and is being actively discussed in society. In mass media discourse various
expressive means are often used as a tool of manipulation. One of the most vivid elements of manipulative
techniques system is a metaphor used with the purpose of forming an audience evaluation of a certain event,
thereby manipulating the public consciousness. This determines the relevance of the study of mass media
metaphor.
The novelty of our research work can be considered in the results of our study when we studied the
distinctive features of the mass media metaphor and determined that a mass media metaphor is used with the
purpose to form an audience evaluation of a certain event, thereby manipulating the public consciousness.
Before we study the functions of a mass media metaphor, we‘ll give the notion of metaphor in
general, according to N. D. Arutyunova, who regards it as ―a trope consisting of the use of a word, which
denotes a certain class of objects, phenomena, actions or characteristics, to designate another class of objects
or an individual similar to the given. In the broad sense, the term ―metaphor‖ also refers to other uses of
words in a figurative sense‖ [2, c. 296].
Until we begin considering the functions of mass media metaphor, we‘ll mark the notion of
discourse. Exploring discourse, the science of language does not depart from the main object at all. Thus,
according to V. G. Borbotko, ―in the image of discourse, the language turned to the linguist with its
unusually complex dynamic side, which requires the search for new approaches and methods that are
different from the traditional ones‖ [3, c. 5].
Moreover, there‘s a special subtype of discourse that draws our attention in this study. I mean mass
media discourse. The concept of ―mass media discourse‖ refers to the problematic sphere of mass
communication as a process of information exchange between all the subjects of society whose purpose is to
form public opinion about the socially significant moments of life. The peculiarity of the mass media
discourse is its social evaluation, disclosure of the author's position and texts, the content of which
corresponds to the political and ideological situation in the country, as its goal is to influence the public
consciousness and change it by forming positive or negative public opinion about certain events, occurring in
society [1, c. 19].
With the help of mass media discourse we‘ve studied the nature of media and their impact on the
society. The media nowadays are not only a channel for information transfer, but also a channel of speech
impact. One of the most important tasks of the media today is the manipulation of the public consciousness,

101
in other words, they support, form or change a particular phenomenon to create a wanted attitude of the
recipient towards certain events and, as a result, to simulate his behavior in society [4, c. 39].
Metaphor is one of the most vivid means of implementing the function of impact on the audience.
Metaphor, as a means of language influence, possesses persuasiveness. The term "persuasiveness" is
understood as the effect of the author of a message (written or oral) on his recipient in order to persuade him
or call for the performance of a specific action. It can be distinctly seen in press [5, c. 25].
For instance, in the British newspaper ―The Guardian‖, in an article touching on the acute problem of
Britain's withdrawal from the European Union, Michael Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York, says
that ―I did not think that I was thinking the same thing stupidest thing, but then we Trumped it‖. In our
opinion, the metaphor ―we Trumped it‖ vividly demonstrates its manipulative feature. In this case, it means
that Trump's choice as president for American citizens is the most unwise decision they could make, and one
of the most unwise things that happened in other countries. Thus, it forms in the reader a rather negative
attitude towards Donald Trump, forcing him to look for additional disadvantages in Mr. Trump [6].
Now, look at the phrase, taken from the article ―Communism through rose-colored glasses‖ from the
newspaper ―The New York Times‖. The author uses the words of Winston Churchill to express his attitude
to Vladimir Lenin and thereby influence how his readers will relate to him. He writes ―when the Germans
allowed the leader of the Bolsheviks to travel from Switzerland to St. Petersburg, Petersburg in 1917, they
turned on Russia the most grisly of all weapons‖. The allotted metaphor "they turned out to be the most
grisly of all weapons" means that Lenin, in fact, was almost the most terrible and dangerous person who
decided the fate of an entire nation [7].
To maintain his negative assessment of V. I. Lenin, the author of the article writes that ―They
transported Lenin in a sealed truck like a plague bacillus. A century on, the bacillus is not eradicated, and
our immunity to it is still in doubt‖. Using the metaphor of ―plague bacillus‖ and saying that ―the bacillus is
not eradicated‖, the author compares the political communist leader to a plague that took the lives of
millions of people in his time, just as he maimed more than one thousand lives. Thus, he rooted in the minds
of the audience the view that one person could destroy the life of millions of people so much that his
influence can still be seen in society [7].
So, to sum up our study, I‘d like to conclude that the mechanism of manipulation lies in the fact that
the author presents his vision of the situation not directly, but causes the reader certain positive or negative
associations that influence the evaluation of the information received. It‘s clear now that press in the world is
quite emotional and its main feature is the social appraisal, openness of the author's position and texts, the
content of which corresponds to the political and ideological situation in the country. This social appraisal is
achieved through expressive means of the language, one of which is a metaphor. It is used to influence the
reader with political or propaganda methods to control the public consciousness.

References:
1. Абрамова Е.С. Массмедийный дискурс: сущность и особенности // Филологические науки.
Вопросы теории и практики. – Тамбов : Грамота, 2014. − № 12. − С. 17-19.
2.Арутюнова Н.Д. Метафора // Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь / Гл. ред.
В. Н. Ярцева. − М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 1998. − С. 296-297.
3. Борботько В.Г. Принципы формирования дискурса: От психолингвистики к
лингвосинергетике. − М. : Книжный дом «ЛИБРОКОМ», 2011. − 288 с.
4. Знаменская Т.А. Метафора и эпитет как средство манипуляции общественным мнением в
СМИ / Молодой ученый. – 2015. − № 10.5. − С. 39-40.
5. Чернявская В.Е. Дискурс власти и власть дискурса: проблемы речевого воздействия. − М.:
Флинта, 2006. − 134 с.
6. Ruddick G. Michael Bloomberg: Brexit is stupidest thing any country has done besides Trump
[Электронный ресурс] // The Guardian, 2017. – Режим доступа:
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/oct/24/michael-bloomberg-brexit-is-stupidest-thing-any-country-
has-done-besides-trump (дата обращения: 24.10.2017).
7. Stephens B. Communism Through Rose-Colored Glasses [Электронный ресурс] // NY Times,
2017. – Режим доступа: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/27/opinion/communism-rose-colored
glasses.html (дата обращения: 27.10.2017).

Аннотация. В данной статье определено само понятие метафоры, как одного из средств языковой
выразительности в соотствии с определением, данным Н. Д. Арутюновой. Проанализированы основные
характерные особенности дискурса в целом и массмедийного дискурса как его подтипа. На примере газет

102
«The Guardian» и «The New York Times» проиллюстрированы функции метафоры, как одного из средств
речевой выразительности, обладающее персуазивностью и манипулирующее общественным сознанием.
Ключевые слова: метафора, дискурс, массмедийный дискурс, персуазивность.
Summary. The notion of metaphor as one of expressive means is determined, according to the definition, given
by N. D. Arutyunova. The main features of discourse in general and mass media discourse as its subtype are analyzed.
On the example of the newspapers ―The Guardian‖ and ―The New York Times‖ the functions of a metaphor as one of
expressive means are illustrated. Metaphor is a means, possessing persuasiveness and manipulating the public
consciousness.
Key words: metaphor, discourse, mass media discourse, persuasiveness.

УКД 801. 37
CONCEPT “LUCK” IN AMERICAN PROVERBS
Lilia Samigullina-Caserta
Assistant Professor,
Ferris State University
e-mail: casertal@ferris.edu
Maria Kulkowa
Scientific advisor, Professor of Philology,
German Philology Department,
Kazan Federal University (Volga Region)

One of the major elements of nationality is a language. Through the language, we express our ideas,
ways of thinking, and understanding of the world. Russian linguist A. Potebnya describes language as a
―spirit of people‖ [2, с. 100]. Every nation has its own unique historical and cultural experiences, which
represented in language in form of probers – stable idiomatic expressions. Proverbs demonstrate and
preserve orally and in writing social and historical experiences. National character of proverbs represent
unique worldview of each nation, which is based on historical, political, and economical systems and culture
of the country. Through proverbs we can understand life of people, trace the evolution of their country. As a
result, studying of proverbs is a part of successful international and intercultural communication in a modern
world. Studying of proverbs with a goal of understanding stereotypes of human behavior is important part of
linguistic culture. The study of paremias helps better understanding patterns of stereotyped representations,
which are based on semiotic functions and properties of linguistic material. Modern linguistics distinguishes
the following stereotyped properties of paremia: hereditary character of functioning, generalization and
evaluation of meanings, national cultural affiliation, stability and repeatability. From the point of view of
semantics, paremia are an adequate reflection of objective reality in typical communicative situations [3,
p.173]. From the point of view of syntax, stable expressions are ready-made speech formulas. The pragmatic
function of paremia is the ability to influence participants in a communicative situation [1, p.17].
American proverbs are one of the most desirable areas of modern language studies. The purpose of
our research of American proverbs is to identify stereotypes of behavior, which represent national
understanding of the world. For example, linguistic analysis of concept ―Luck‖ in American proverbs
illustrates a complicated American moral value system. It also allows us to identify the national specifics,
manifested in various ways of verbalization of the concept, the degree of generalization and interpretation of
the concept. Research of 400 paremias from ―A Dictionary of American Proverbs‖ by W. Mieder allow us to
identify three semantic groups of paremias; each group illustrates unique interpretation concept of ―Luck‖ as
a part of national worldview and perception of success in American society.
First semantic group of proverbs representing concept ―Luck‖ associate luck with hard work. Luck is
when preparation meets opportunity. The harder you work, the luckier you get. Bad luck is a bad
management. Diligence is the mother of good luck. Ability, not luck, conquer. Hard work conquers the worst
luck. Good luck is a lazy man‘s explanation of another‘s success. Proverbs of this group interpret ―Luck‘ as a
work, preparation and success, it is very good illustration of American attitude, where a hard work and effort
valued highly, excellent work ethic is one of the keystone of society.
Second semantic group of proverbs interprets ―Luck‖ as good fortune, unpredictable and unstable.
The only sure thing about luck is that it will change. You never know your luck till the wheel stops. Hard luck
can‘t last one hundred years. If luck is with you, even your ox will give birth to a calf. Luck is for few, death
is for the many. Paremias of this group represent American positive outlook in life. Americans believe in

103
stability, good skills and respect. Proverbs illustrate traditional American stereotype – good work has better
value compare to good fortune.
Third semantic group of proverbs identify concept ―Luck‖ in a negative way as a ―Bad Luck.‖ Bad
luck is a good luck for someone. Bad luck can‘t be dated. Bad luck comes in threes. Behind bad luck comes a
good luck. Good luck disappears like our hair; bad luck lasts like our nails. Never trust luck. Proverbs about
―Bad Luck‖ illustrate traditional understanding of American value system: active vision of yourself in life,
responsibly for personal success, positive worldview. Proverbs explain how Americans react during critical
time or crisis: positive and supportive.
Modern American society uses proverbs every day to illustrate common knowledge and wisdom.
Proverbs with concept ―Luck‖ objectively illustrate American worldview and value system, where one of the
most important elements are work, optimism, and respect. Even in negative interpretation of ―Luck‖
American people express in proverbs very positive attitude: bad times will pass, there is always something to
learn from our misfortunes, we should not despair. This explains why American almost never wish each
other ―good luck‖ before job interviews or important decisions, but often use expression, ―Just do your best.‖
or ―Do good work.‖ Prevalence of proverbs, which are interpret ―luck‖ as a result of the hard work allow us
to conclude following statement: in American society good work is one of most valued elements, American
people don‘t trust good fortune, they work to secure their success and practice positive attitude and optimism
during difficult times. Proverbs are material for study and understanding unique national character,
worldview and value system. Proverbs are linguistic tool to successful to international and intercultural
communication in modern world.
References:
1. Караджиев Б.И. Коммуникативно-прагматический потенциал русских пословиц: автореф.
дис. канд. филол. наук. – Москва, 2009. – 17 с.
2. Потебня А.А. Из лекций по теории словесности. Басня. Пословица, Поговорка. - М.:
Красанд, 2012. – 172 с.
3. Радбиль Т.Б. Основы изучения языкового менталитета. - М., 2010. – 173 c.
4. Mieder W. A Dictionary of American proverbs. – Oxford University Press, 1992. – 707 с.
Аннотация. Исследование паремий как языкового материала, отражающего национальное
мировосприятие, необходимо для успешного международного сотрудничества и международной
коммуникации. Американские паремии являются одной из наиболее востребованных областей изучения
современной лингвистики. Цель статьи – рассмотреть речевые стереотипы поведения американцев
посредством анализа паремиологического материала с последующим выявлением элементов национального
мировоззрения и национального характера как повторяющихся моделей поведения. Объектом исследования
является концепт «удача» – «luck», который рассматривается на материале американских паремий. В
статье приводится этимология лексемы «удача», проводится анализ паремий, выбранных из словаря В
Мидера. В исследовании акцентируется внимание на выявлении культурно-специфических компонентов
концепта «удача», учитывается американская лингвокультура. В результате анализа языкового материала
автором были выделены три семантические группы, определяющие лексему «удача» в американском
мировосприятии. Проведенный анализ 400 американских паремий позволяет сделать следующие выводы:
паремии вербально и письменно достоверно выражают мировосприятие нации; жизненная философия
американцев отражает своеобразное отношение к жизни. В данном контексте лексема «удача» логически
связана с категориями «возможность», «успех», «обязанность», «работа».
Ключевые слова: паремия, речевой стереотип, мировосприятие, лексема, удача, национальный
характер.
Summary. The research of paremias as a linguistic material representing a national worldview is a necessary
process for successful international collaboration and international communication. American proverbs are one of the
most desirable areas of research in modern linguistics. The purpose of our research is to compare the stereotypes of
behavior of American people through proverbs to find unique interpretation of national worldview and national
character as stable, repetitive models of behavior. Object of our research is a linguistic concept ―Luck,‖ which is
observed upon the data from the American proverbs and saying. The article explored the etymology of lexical unit
―luck‖ and analyzed proverbs from the dictionary written by Wolfgang Mieder. In our research, we focused our
attention on identification of unique cultural interpretations of concept of ―luck‖ representative to American language
and culture. As a result of our research, we identify three semantic groups, representing lexical unit ―luck‖ that are
essential in American life philosophy. Analysis of 400 American proverbs allow us make following conclusions:
proverbs verbally and in writing truthfully represent understanding of the world by a nation in short form; life
philosophy of American people reflect a unique attitude. Concept ―luck‖ closely related to semantic linguistic
categories ―opportunity,‖ ―success,‖ ―work.‖
Key words: paremia, proverb, stereotype of behavior, national worldview, lexical unit, luck, national
character.

104
УДК 811.111'373.231=111
OLD ENGLISH ETYMA IN THE MODERN ENGLISH ANTHROPONYMYCON
Natalia Serdobolskaya
4th year student, Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University,
e-mail: natalia16051996@gmail.com
Anna Sokol
Senior Lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
Tatiana Chornaya
Senior Lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

A name represents an enormous source of unique linguistic and cultural information and sometimes
it can be the only credible proof of some historical facts.
This research deals with Old English etyma in Modern English anthroponymycon. We have studied
English names as an exponent of national idiosyncrasies of the Anglo-Saxon period on the British Isles.
A lot of prominent Russian scholars such as G.D. Tomahin, E.M. Vereshagin, V.G. Kostomarov,
L.N. Sobolev and J.I. Retsker studied culture specific elements, but names have not been paid much attention
to as yet.
The object of this research is modern English names which appeared under the influence of the
Anglo-Saxon rule.
Our goal is to study the impact of Anglo-Saxons on the most stable part of the lexical field,
anthroponymycon, to evaluate the scope of this impact and to make up the glossary of modern English
names which have Old English stems. The practical value of this research is that the insight into the meaning
of culture specific elements enables us to understand the phenomenon of a culture more deeply and to
determine idiosyncrasies and uniqueness of any folk, which contributes to mastering translation skills. The
notion "translation of names" from practical perspective may seem a bit weird; Shakespeare will be
Shakespeare in any language of the world but what is to be translated? But "shake" may be translated into
Russian as «трясти» and "speare" – as «копьѐ»; and a context may demand such translation and a translator
should be ready for that.
The interest in such research is not random. It is during the Anglo-Saxon period when the genesis
and the beginning of a long process of the development of the English nation took place. Without studying
the ethnic processes on the territory of Europe it is impossible to understand the process of the development
of modern nations. New political thinking in the era of tight bonds between nations and nationalities within
states and countries requires not only a deeper studying of history but also the knowledge of their genesis
and roots.
This research is conducted within Linguistic and Cultural Studies and is connected with Onomastics,
more precisely, with Anthroponymics. "Anthroponymics is the study of the names of human beings" [3]. It is
a branch of Onomastics which deals with proper names in general.
From the perspective of Linguistic and Cultural Studies a name is a unique source of information and
is referred to the category of anthroponyms regarded as culture specific elements. This side of the English
name is not studied enough and, thus it represents a great interest.
The English nation represents a fusion of many ethnical elements: ancient Iberian population, several
Celtic tribes, various Germanic tribes, Scandinavians and later, Normans. However, this research is
dedicated to the Anglo-Saxon period which starts from the moment when Britain was conquered by Anglo-
Sacons, when in 499AD the legendary brothers Hengist and Horsa arrived on the British Isles [2].
The modern English names, which appeared under the influence of Anglo-Saxons, can be classified
into particular groups according to their meaning.
Group 1. Nature. Anglo-Saxons who had pagan roots strongly believed in powerful forces of nature,
which are reflected in the names [4]. Anthroponyms of this group are indicative of the residence and the
origin of an Anglo-Saxon person. However,they can also be regarded as natural sacral symbols, this
characteristic in the Anglo-Saxon culture is notably associated with such sacral tokens as water, a hill, a
field, a forest. Atwell. Etymology: wella. General meaning: ―well‖, ―rill‖ [1].

105
Group 2. Sacral animalistic symbols. Anglo-Saxons believed that benevolent name words were
endowed with magical capabilities of providing the name owner with protection, wealth, health, fame and
prosperity [4]. Anglo-Saxons compared a person to an animal or a bird as if asking for protection and favour.
Culver. Etymology: culfre. General meaning: ―culver‖ [1].
Group 3. Appearance, traits of character, social status. The anthroponyms of this group describe the
appearance of the name owner, his behaviour, spiritual values, vices and virtues. This is where pagan beliefs
of Anglo-Saxons manifested themselves as well as the basic traits of Anglo-Saxon society such as loyalty to
masters, a strong connection with family and others. Blake. Etymology: blæk. General meaning: ―black‖,
―dark‖ [1].
Group 4. Territory administration system. The next group is a group of anthroponyms which are
connected with such notions as land ownership, town and settlement, which emerged later on when the
territory administration system began to develop and first towns appeared. To the highest extent this group
reflects the phenomena of later periods for example, Christianity, social differentiation and so on. Garth.
Etymology: geard. General meaning: ―gated yard‖ [1].
Group 5. Abstract notions. Eve. Etymology: Efe. General meaning: ―life‖ [1].
Group 6. War and peacemaking symbols. The social linguistic analysis of Anglo-Saxon period
indicates martial ardour of Anglo-Saxons, who were courageous warriors. This couldn't but be reflected in
names. We can distinguish two subgroups of names: names connected with war and names connected with
peacemaking. Ward. Etymology: weard. General meaning: ―guard‖. Alden. Etymology: eald + wine.
General meaning: ―old friend‖ [1].
Group 7. Occupation. In the society each person served his function. A name was given according to
this function. Modern English names reflect only a small portion of the social life of Anglo-Saxons. Baxter.
Etymology: bæcestre. General meaning: ―a backer‖ [1].
Group 8. Religion, faith. Anglo-Saxons believed in pagan deities, after that they adopted
Christianity. All these processes are also reflected in anthroponymycon. Easter. Etymology: Eostre. General
meaning: ―Eostre‖ – pagan goddess of sprig [1].
Group 9. The institution of supreme power. This category deals with the signs of repositories of
supreme power. Aldrich. Etymology: eald + rice. General meaning: ―old+power‖ [1].
The total number of names that have been studied amounts to 3000, of which 289 (or 9,6%) have
Old English etymology. The statistic data obtained in this research confirm the fact that Anglo-Saxon rule
has had a significant impact on the life of the British Isles. In this research we have also revealed linguistic
devices which show the national idiosyncrasies of the Anglo-Saxon ethos. The knowledge of these devices
appears to be an asset in terms of the cultural perception of the language. Further research of names is
beyond Linguistic and Cultural Studies and requires the data of Ethnic Psychology, Sociological Linguistics
and Anthropology. The material collected during this research can be used as educational aids for mastering
professional skills of language perception and enhancing the level of communicative competence.

References:
1. Рыбакин А.И. Словарь английских личных имѐн. – М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1973. –
408 с.
2. The Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим
доступа: http://www.england-history.org/2012/10/the-anglo-saxo.. (дата обращения: 23.02.2018).
3. Anthroponymy [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthroponymy (дата обращения: 22.02.2018).
4. Monmouth, Geoffrey. The history of the Kings of Britain. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. London:
Penguin Books, 1998.

Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена исследованию английских личных имѐн, возникших во время
англосаксонского господства на Британских островах. Английские личные имена рассматриваются как
выразители национального своеобразия англосаксонского периода. Цель данной работы состоит в том,
чтобы определить глубину влияния англосаксонского завоевания на британскую культуру путѐм рассмотрения
личных имѐн как реалий. Данная статья также содержит классификацию современных английских имѐн,
имеющих древнеанглийские основы, согласно их значению. Вопрос, лежащий в основе данного исследования,
имеет большое значение в рамках развития переводческих навыков. Более того, осознание значения реалий
позволяет глубже понять феномен культуры.
Ключевые слова: антропонимы, антропонимикон, национальное своеобразие, англосаксы, реалии,
этимон.

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Summary. The paper focuses on exploring English names which appeared during the Anglo-Saxon period on
the British Isles. We regard the English names as an exponent of national idiosyncrasies of the Anglo-Saxon period.
The aim of this research is to reveal the scope of the Anglo-Saxon impact on the British culture by invistigating the
English names as culture specific elements. The paper contains the classification of the modern English names with Old
English stems according to their meaning. The issue raised in the research is of great importance in terms of
translation skills. Moreover, the insight into the meaning of culture specific elements enables us to understand the
phenomenon of a culture more deeply.
Key words: anthroponyms, anthroponymycon, national idiosyncrasies, Anglo-Saxons, culture specific
elements, etymon.

УДК 81`1/ `4
CURRENT TENDENCIES IN FORMATION AND USAGE OF ENGLISH PROTOLOGISMS
Mariya Sokolova
2nd year student, Theory and
Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
Alina Derevyanko
Scientific advisor, Senior Lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department
Sevastopol State University

Due to the never-ending evolution of the English language, new words, word combinations and set
phrases which reflect the changes in all spheres of human activity appear in the English lexicon every year.
They are defined as neologisms and differ from the other words and word combinations by not being fully
accepted into the dictionary.
The thorough analysis of the foreign mass media proves that political, social and cultural events
always contribute to the invention of new words or encourage the alteration of the old meanings. The
topicality of the current issue can be explained by the constant necessity to perceive new concepts more
effectively and be ready to interpret the contents both with high correctness and professionalism, especially
in the sphere of international communication.
The problem is that though this linguistic phenomenon has been classified according to different
aspects of its existence (structure, usage, origin, formation, etc.) [1], there is no exact and properly examined
description of currently coined words. In these conditions it is extremely curious and helpful to trace the
tendencies of the present-day word formation and formulate its most curious features. Thus, the purpose of
the given research is to describe the latest neologisms (protologisms) from the following aspects: the spheres
of their usage, formation and connotative meaning.
As we know, neologisms pass through three stages of formation: creation, trial and establishment.
The new term enters common language as a „protologism‟, and it is used only by a limited audience (the
unstable version of a neologism). It is then diffused (a diffused neologism), until finally it becomes widely
accepted (a stable neologism) [4]. All the neologisms under consideration are taken at the stage of entering
the English language, and no one can predict what is to happen to them: whether they will die out within a
short period of time or turn into widely recognizable vocabulary units. We have chosen the following
internet sources for the material basis of our research: ―Word Spy‖ (The Word Lover‘s Guide to New
Words) [6] and ―Urban Dictionary‖ [5]. The period of their occurrence in the language is restricted by 2017
(the whole) and 2018 (January and February). The total number of the detected protologisms comprises 244
(56 from ―Word Spy‖ and 188 from ―Urban Dictionary‖). According to the sphere of their usage, the
quantity distribution can be represented in this way (with several examples): human relationships and
behavior – 52 protologisms found (beauty sus, micropretension, sarah huckasplain, stable genius, boonk,
ghostlighting, sassterhood, virtual date, backup bestie, failson);
1) Internet and modern technologies – 43 (cyber pretty, click itch, rectangle time, internaive, analog
shit, slave to the gram, zuckerversary, face jerking);
2) politics and social relationships – 41 (hair furor, presidential annulment, Badumpa-Trump,
girther, Dunning-Hitler effect, clickskreig, wokeness);

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3) lifestyle and leisure – 20 (runcommute, executive time, trump anthem, binge-sleep, tea off, sauna
bomb);
4) medicine and anatomy – 18 (nuclear button, brain spurs, blessed from behind, verbicaine);
5) feelings and emotions – 16 (contact shame, uncanon, Kushner eyes);
6) ecology – 14 (tree blindness, fatberg);
7) language and communication – 9 (levidrome, blind cite, Freudian spell check);
8) courts and trials – 7 (Shanksgiving, manafucked, Scalia-ness);
9) mass media and television – 7 (boxset boyfriend, stormy daniels, sound byte hoe, cord-never);
10) economics – 5 (shitcoin, fearonomics);
11) food and drinks – 4 (orange russian, meat umbrella);
12) measures – 3 (dickjillion, scaramucci);
13) history – 2 (witness tree);
14) clothes – 2 (upperwear);
15) architecture – 1 (iceberg home).Judging by the results, we can suppose that for these two years
the most protologism-productive spheres are human relationships / behavior (21%), the Internet / modern
technologies (18%), politics / social relationships (17%) and lifestyle / leisure (8%).
The commonest methods of forming neologisms are: compounding (where existing words are
combined); blending (where parts of existing words are fused together); re-appropriation (with new senses
for words); abbreviation; affixation (where recognized affixes are creatively attached to give rise to new
concepts); conversion (transition from one part of speech to another); borrowing from other languages and
reduction (truncated words) [3]. Taking into account these linguistic processes through which neologisms are
formed, we have divided the present number of protologisms into the following groups in which blending,
compounding and re-appropriation prove to be the most popular methods: blending – 82 examples (manel,
bananaficiary, pretendergy, distractivated, boysplaining, cigarettiquette, Gladimir Putin, deathiversary);
1) compounding – 70 (trump bump, ride critic, shelf friend);
2) re-appropriation – 49 (shit-hole, interrogatories, claustrophobic);
3) affixation – 24 (inkremlinate, twittatorship);
4) abbreviation – 9 (tw/s, IRLYBITSTTY, XAI);
5) borrowing from other languages – 7 (Schrödinger‘s text, scheissegeist, covfefe);
6) conversion – 3 (to Trump);
7) reduction – 0.Connotative meaning, i.e. ―feelings and ideas that people may connect with that
word‖ [2] is of special interest if a linguist chooses among several possible variants of translation –
especially being unable to correlate them with the macro context or being deprived of the cultural and
historical background which may have stimulated the creation of a certain protologism and is likely to create
more with the similar semantic and morphological structures. The results of the given research allow us to
assert that the majority of protologisms taken from the sphere of politics are the derivations from the proper
name ―Trump‖, the USA President (15 out of 41), or words and word combinations semantically connected
with Donald Trump (6 out of 41). It is noteworthy that negative connotation is always attributed to these
protologisms (the connotative meanings of disgust, deception and inefficiency):
President Toddler; betrumped (= swindled); Trumpmosphere (= releasing negative or toxic energy
into the open); to Trump (= to blow off all responsibilities and go away in order to play golf); hair furor
(Trump‘s chaotic and disorderly administration).
The above mentioned results and statistics can be used for further research into linguistics,
phraseology, translation studies, literature or journalism.

References:
1. Классификация неологизмов [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://studwood.ru/1343772/literatura/klassifikatsiya_neologizmov (дата обращения: 25.02.2018).
2. Cambridge Dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/connotative (дата обращения: 26.02.2018).
3. Kalinowska I. Neologisms – their origin and how they reinvigorate language [Электронный
ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://termcoord.eu/2016/08/neologisms-their-origin-and-how-they-reinvigorate-
language/ (дата обращения: 27.02.2018).
4. Neologism as a Linguistic Phenomenon in Mass Media Textbook with Reference to Translation
[Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=36994 (дата
обращения: 25.02.2018).

108
5. Urban Dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.urbandictionary.com/
(дата обращения: 27.02.2018).
6. Word Spy. The Word Lover‘s Guide to New Words [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://www.wordspy.com/ (дата обращения: 27.02.2018).

Аннотация. Статья посвящена особенностям формирования и наиболее популярным сферам, в


которых создаются и используются английские протологизмы, а также основным коннотативным
значениям, отличающим некоторые протологизмы. В результате анализа текущего языкового материала
были установлены наиболее продуктивные сферы появления протологизмов, определены наиболее
эффективные способы их формирования в период с начала 2017 г. до февраля 2018 г. включительно и выявлены
негативные коннотативные значения самых распространѐнных протологизмов из сферы политики и
социальных отношений.
Ключевые слова: протологизм, неологизм, сфера использования, способ образования, коннотативное
значение, создавать слова.
Summary. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of formation and the most popular spheres where English
protologisms are coined and used as well as to the predominating connotation of some protologisms. As a result of the
analysis of the current language material, the most productive spheres of prolologisms creation are defined, the most
effective methods of their formation since the beginning of 2017 are detected and the negative connotative meanings of
the most popular prolotogisms in the sphere of politics and social relationships are revealed.
Key words: protologism, neologism, the sphere of usage, the methods of formation, connotative meaning, to
coin words.

УДК 81.25
LENGUAJE CHAT
Alina Tsevan
Alumna del 11 grado,
Escuela Secundaria №45 con
el aprendizaje profundizado del español
e-mail: alinatsevan95@gmail.com
Tatiana Antonova
Asesor científico, profesora del español,
Escuela Secundaria №45 con
el aprendizaje profundizado del español
e-mail: escuela45sevastopol@mail.ru

¿Ke l spñol xa no s lo k ra ntes?


El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, de la información y comunicación afecta todas las esferas de la
vida cotidiana. Hemos cambiado nuestra manera de aprender, pensar, comunicarnos, hablar y escribir.
Dentro de los progresos de nuestro tiempo y como parte de las nuevas tecnologías tenemos la
comunicación en la Red. El lenguaje chat es el lenguaje que emerge a través del uso del ordenador y otros
dispositivos conectados a Internet [3]. El lenguaje chat está generando una revolución en el idioma, que sin
prejuicios, lleva cambios en el proceso de alfabetización de los jóvenes del siglo XXI.
En el estudio presentado llamamos atención a los cambios que pueden sufrir las nuevas fórmulas de
comunicarse y como pueden afectar al aprendizaje de la lengua castellana. El lenguaje chat cambia normas
de escritura, expresión y reglas básicas de la comunicación escrita, dando el uso continuado e infructuoso de
un lenguaje generado con una doble finalidad: comunicar más y no perder el tiempo [1].
El fin de este estudio es entender los procesos del lenguaje chat, la evolución del lenguaje, presentar
a los alumnos una guía lingüística del lenguaje chat.
El deseo de hacer la comunicación ―on-line‖ más rápida nace esta forma de lenguaje abreviado y con
símbolos que significan sentimientos, cosas, etc. [3]. Es sin duda, una manera de aprovechar de forma
eficiente el lenguaje escrito. Lógicamente, también se incorporan palabras y expresiones en inglés, dando
dinamismo a comunicación escrita.
Para entender bien los mensajes en chat y no gastar tiempo escribiendo las frases recomendamos
seguir las reglas básicas [2]:

109
1. No se acentua.
2. Uso de la ―H‖. La letra "h" es muda en la pronunciación, así que en mensajes cortos se obvia y de
esta forma se ahorra un carácter (ej. ola! por hola)
3. Uso de la ―E‖. La "e" al principio de palabra también se suprime (ej."str" por estar; "n" por en)
4. Sin vocales (ej. Mañana - "mñn"; Hacer - "hcr")
5. Sonido de consonantes. La "k" representa el sonido de "ca"; la "t" al de "te"; la "m" el de "me"; y
la "q" el de "cu"(ej. ¿Ke l spñol xa no s lo k ra ntes?)
6. Ni ―CH‖ ni ―LL‖. La Real Real Academia Española las eliminó como letras independientes, en
los mensajes cortos desaparecen por completo. De tal forma que la "X" sustituye a la "CH" y la "Y"
sustituye a la "Ll". Se ahorra un carácter.
7. Uso de las matemáticas. Cuando es posible se usan signos matemáticos o número en sustitución
de expresiones o sílabas. Por ejemplo: "-" significa por menos; "+" significa por más; "x" puede significar
sonidos como por, per, par; el "1" sustituye a uno y una. Se puede escribir "t2" que significa todos y "s3"
que significa estrés.
8. Uso del inglés: Expresiones sintéticas del inglés son de uso común: "OK" (de acuerdo, bien,
vale); "U" por you (tú) o "F2T" por free to talk (libre para hablar).
9. Humor e ironía.
10. Uso de los emoticonos. Los emoticonos sirven para ahorrar muchas palabras, expresar estados
de ánimo y completar el sentido de alguna oración que pueda llegar a tener algún sentido ambiguo.
11. Uso de las abreviaturas (ej. teléfono - "telf."; locución - "loc."; volumen - "vol.")
12. Uso de las frases a siglas (ej. ¿qué tal estás? - "Kte?"; te quiero mucho - "tqm")
13. Uso de emoticones. Son un conjunto de símbolos que se pueden escribir con los mismos
caracteres que usamos regularmente. Todo el alfabeto, los números y signos de puntuación son útiles para
expresar emociones, actitudes o situaciones individuales. La palabra emoticón es la contracción de las
palabras icono y emoción ( ej.  ).
El lenguaje Chat es nueva forma de escribir y comunicarse. Es una variación idiomática,
aprovechando la fonética de las palabras, sílabas y letras para conseguir como objetivo final un ahorro de
espacio, tiempo (cuadro 1).
Сuadro 1 – Los ejemplos del lenguaje chat
ted por te echo de menos
t tien lokta te tiene loquita
es nbidioso es envidioso
ya toy aki ya estoy aquí
q tl stas wapa? ¿Qué tal estás guapa?

La costumbre de acortar palabras en el chat, al redactar mensajes de texto no empeora el nivel


ortográfico de los más jóvenes. Al contrario de los temores el uso del lenguaje corto desarrolla creatividad
lingüística.

Referencias:
1. Devis A. El español en la red: ¿destrucción o reforma del lenguaje? [El recurso electrónico]. – El
acceso: http://cvc.cervantes.es/literatura/aispi/ pdf/20/II_ 06.pdf
2. Roquet García Guillermo (2004). Los chats y sus usos en educación. [El recurso electrónico]. – El
acceso: http://www.distancia.unam.mx/educativa2/ doctos/t11chat.pdf
3. Wikipedia. El lenguaje chat. [El recurso electrónico]. – El acceso:
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenguaje_chat

Аннотация. Развитие новых технологий, информации и коммуникации затрагивает все сферы


повседневной жизни. Мы изменили наш способ обучения, мышления, общения и письма. Он-лайн общение
характеризуется динамизмом, который в то же время предполагает лингвистическое творчество. Цель
данного исследования заключается в понимании процесса он-лайн общения, выделении основных
закономерностей языка чата, представлении ученикам лингвистического руководства по языку чата. Язык
чата меняет нормы написания, выражения и основные правила письменной коммуникации.
Ключевые слова: он-лайн общение, язык чата, лингвистическое творчество, эволюция языка,
технологии.
Summary. The development of new technologies, information and communication influences all spheres of
everyday life. We have changed our way of learning, thinking, communication and writing. The online communication
is characterized by dynamics which assumes linguistic creativity at the same time. The objective of this research

110
consists in understanding the process of online communication, defining the main patterns of chat language,
representing linguistic guide of chat language to pupils. The chat language changes the norms of writing, expression,
and basic rules of written communication.
Key words: online communication, chat language, linguistic creativity, evolution of language, technology.

УДК 811.11‘38:27-23
COMPARATIVE AND CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EMOTIVE LEXIS IN THE
TEXTS OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE VERSIONS
Olga Chernenko
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University,
e-mail: miss.tchernencko@yandex.ru
Vyatcheslav Golubev
Senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
Evgenia Mikhailova
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University,
e-mail: lastochkina1969@mail.ru

In today‘s modern world the studying of emotions, their classification, as well as the ways they are
expressed in the language arouse great interest. Such scientific disciplines as linguistics, translation studies,
philosophy, sociology and psychology are actively investigating this question. Emotions are an integral part
of human life. Any communication involves the expression of certain emotions. Therefore, it is natural that
the research devoted to the emotional aspect of lexis is relevant, and the study of this layer of linguistic units
in diachrony on the base of the texts of the English Bible Versions introduces a certain novelty in this work.
The goal of our work is to identify and analyze the emotive lexis in the English – language texts of
the British and American versions of the Bible. To achieve this goal it was necessary to solve the following
tasks:
1. to define the concept of ―emotionology‖ in modern linguistic literature;
2. to analyze the emergence and its further development of emotionology as a science;
3. to identify and analyze the types of substitutions of emotive lexis in the texts of the English
Bible Versions.
The term ―linguistics of emotions‖ or ―emotionology‖ is the concept in linguistics in which the
classifications of emotions are studied as well as the role of emotions in human life is determined. The
question of the possibility of considering emotional aspects in linguistics has been a subject of considerable
discussions of scientists for a long time. Linguists could not reach a consensus in this point for a long time.
Some (KL Buhler, E. Sapir, G. Guillaume, and others) believed that the main function in the language is the
cognitive one. Therefore, they excluded the study of the emotional component based on studies of the
language. Another group of scientists (Sh. Bally, van Ginneken, M. Breal) believed that the main function of
language is the expression of emotions [2, www].
Until the mid – 1970s, the emotive aspect was not considered at all, it was treated like a ―dangerous‖
and ―exotic‖ theme of the study, which in most cases provoked rejection rather than interest [3, p. 74]. In the
XX century, science – emotionology (linguistics of emotions) was formed, which studies the role of
emotions in human life. The representatives of this discipline: V. I. Shakhovsky, A. Vezhbitskaya, V.I.
Zhelvis, PA Lukashevich, investigate the relationship of emotions and language. The origin of the
emotionology was put by the domestic linguists, such as M. Maltsev, SB Berlizin, MD Gorodnikova, ES
Aznaurova, IV Arnold, EM Galkina-Fedoruk, TN. Pavlova, OI Bykova, Mikhailovskaya [2, www].

111
For the first time the emotional aspect was represented by Frantisek Danesh at the plenary session in
Berlin in 1987. During the conference, the emotive aspect was shown as a priority area in modern linguistics
and attracted the attention of many domestic and foreign linguists [2, www].
During our scientific research in diachrony, we have analyzed emotive lexis, which was selected
from the texts of several English Bible Versions. They are: the canonical British version (KJV), which was
created in the early 17th century; American versions of NASB, GNB – the 20th century, the updated British
version of the 20th century – UKJB and the new updated American version of Today‘s New International
Version (TNIV) that appeared in the 21st century.
The lexeme mercy is used in the canonical British version KJV, as well as in the modern American
version TNIV. This word was borrowed from the Old French language, its initial meaning was ―forgiveness
and manifestation of compassion‖ (our translation – by Chernenko O.P). In the NASB version, the meaning
of this word did not change radically. This lexical unit was replaced with the word pity, which means ―regret,
compassion‖. Therefore, we observe in this case a synonymous substitution of the word (―compassion‖ –
―regret‖).
We can notice the word compassion in the British Updated Version UKJV. It was borrowed from the
Old French language. The meaning of this word in Latin should be noted here: compassus means ―suffer
together.‖ This feeling can be even compared with a feeling of love; because a person suffers the grief of
someone else‘s like his in order just to prevent someone from experiencing it. So, here there is a substitution
of the word and concept in the direction of its expansion: the word pity denotes emotion, the lexeme
compassion – first of all, the action, and then the emotional experience.
We see the word kindness in the GNB version. If we compare the linguistic units pity and kindness,
we must note that the lexeme pity cannot always have only a positive connotation. This word also has a
negative meaning: ―to contemn, dislike‖ and there is also another meaning – a statement of ―weakness,
inability or inferiority of another.‖ This word always has some shades of superiority.
The lexeme kindness has only positive connotation:‖he manifestation of humanity, humanity, mercy
in relation to others.‖ This word has nothing to do with pity. Therefore, in this case, a substitution of the
word and concept took place in the direction of its expansion:

KJV: Let not mercy and truth forsake thee ...


TNIV: Let not mercy and truth forsake thee ...
NASB: Let not pity and faithfulness forsake you ...
UKJV: Let compassion and faithfulness never leave you ...
GNB: Let kindness and faithfulness never leave you ... / Mtth. 9: 13 /

In English versions of the Bible, different nouns are used to refer to fear. For example, in the
versions KJV and UKJV there is the word fear. This word of proto – Germanic origin has meant ―a sense of
fear, fear of a threatening danger‖ since 1400.
This word was replaced in the GNB version with the language unit panic that means ―uncontrollable
fear, which makes it difficult to control actions and emotions.‖ Here we observe a substitution of the concept
with an increase in the degree of emotional coloring of the word. The word fear has a neutral connotation
and is a much less emotional word compared to the word panic.
In the American version NASB appears the language unit terror. It has the meaning of ―a feeling of
irresistible, unlimited fear, reaching lethargy.‖ This word is of Anglo – French origin, which is used to refer
to an extreme degree of fear. In this case, when comparing the word panic and terror, the substitution of the
concept takes place with an increase in the degree of emotional coloring of the word.
In the modern American version TNIV, a lexeme disaster has been identified. This word means ―an
unexpected catastrophic event, causing enormous damage, colossal losses or destruction in the event of
natural disasters, on the whole this sudden misfortune, a catastrophe.‖ This language unit does not have
similar meanings with the words fear, panic and terror.
Here substitution was synonymous with the replacement of concepts in the direction of expansion. In
addition, in this case there is an increase in the degree of emotional heat (fear – panic – horror– disaster):

KJV: Be not afraid of sudden fear…


UKJV: Be not afraid of sudden fear…
GNB: You will not have to worry about sudden panic…
NASB: Do not be afraid of sudden terror…
TNIV: Have no fear of sudden disaster… /Prov. 3:25/

112
We have pointed out the following types of substitution: a synonymous substitution (mercy – pity);
substitution of the concept with an increase in the degree of emotional coloring of the word (fear – panic;
panic – terror); substitution synonymous with the replacement of concepts in the direction of expansion
(terror – disaster); substitution of words and concepts in the direction of its expansion (pity – compassion;
pity – kindness).
We have concluded that most of the words in the canonical British version KJV are archaisms, so
they have been replaced in more updated versions. The reason for these changes is that the creators of the
Bible newer versions wanted to adapt the sacred text for better understanding of the modern readers. In
addition, we have found out that there are connotatively colored lexemes in the updated American version
TNIV perhaps in order to strengthen the overall emotional state of a person when reading the Holy
Scriptures.

References:
1.Изард, К. Психология эмоций. Перевод с английского языка / К. Изард. – СПб. : Питер,
1999. – 464 с.
2.Шаховский, В. И. Что такое лингвистика эмоций / В. И. Шаховский [Электронный ресурс].
– Режим доступа: http://tverlingua.ru/archive/012/shakhovsky_03_12.htm
3. Aitchison, J. Cognitive Clouds and Semantic Shadows / J. Aitchison // Language and
Communication. – Oxford, 1985. – P.69-93
4.Good News Bible [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://download.sabda.org/mobile/pdf/GNB.pdf
5. The King James Version of the Holy Bible [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
http://www.bookbindery.ca/KJBIBLE.pdf
6. The New American Standard Bible [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
http://rcbiresources.yolasite.com/resources/PDF%20Bible%20New%20American%20Standard%20Bible%2
01977%20NAS.pdf
7. The Updated King James Version [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
http://www.internetnow.com.my/download/Files/UpdatedKJVPDF.pdf
8. Today‘s New International Version [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
http://www.sufi.ir/books/download/farsi/isa-masih/tinv_new-testament-en.pdf

Аннотация. Данная исследовательская работа посвящена изучению эмоционального аспекта лексики


на материале англоязычных версий Библии. Проводится анализ возникновения и развития эмотиологии, как
науки. В статье выявляются виды субституций эмотивной лексики в текстах четырех англоязычных версий
Библии, принадлежащих разным эпохам, в сравнении с канонической версией короля Якова, и определяются
причины этих замен.
Ключевые слова: эмотивная лексика, эмоциональный аспект, эмотиология, тексты англоязычных
версий Библии.
Summary. The present scientific work is devoted to the studying of the emotive aspect of the lexis on the base
of the texts of the English Bible Versions. The emergence and development of emotionology as a science is analyzed.
The types of substitutions of emotive lexis are identified in the texts of the English Bible Versions belonging to different
epochs, in comparison with the canonical version of King James Version, and the reasons for these substitutions are
determined.
Key words: emotive lexis, emotive aspect, emotionology, texts of the English Bible Versions.

113
TRANSLATION STUDIES


УДК 81‘25:821.111-1=111
RENDERING POETIC ORIGINALITY OF GERARD MANLY HOPKINS‟ VERSE IN
RUSSIAN TRANSLATIONS
Natalya Bobrova
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: natalyabobrova@yahoo.com

Natalia Rudenko
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

British poet Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) belongs to the authors who are widely known and
studied all over the world, but fairly unknown in Russia. Indifference to his poetry may be the result of some
ideological considerations because his poetry is deeply religious in nature. He was still in his student years
when he became Catholic, then entered the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Jesuits, which in the Soviet
times were defined only as ―regressive‖. Moreover, unusual rhythm in his poetry is combined with exquisite
alliteration, syntactical polysemy and other devices that make his poems difficult for translation and
analyses.
The brilliant finding of Hopkins is the so-called ―sprung rhythm‖ which is characterized by the
combination of one stressed syllable with three unstressed instead of the traditional two. However, the poet
himself noted that such a rhythm could be found in folklore and in the poetry of some Old English authors,
like Chaucer, for example. Hopkins devoted a lot of attention to the melodics of the verse, used inversions,
ellipsis, parenthesis, etc. in order to achieve a brilliant sounding.
Despite all the difficulty and extraordinariness of his poems, some translators and litterateurs dared
to translate his poetry into the Russian language, among whom are T. Stamova, D. Silvestrov, and
I. Lihachev and their translations can instantiate some peculiarities of his poetic style and its representation
in the Russian variant.
To start with let us dwell upon the set of stylistic devices which can be observed in the following
excerpt from ―The Leaden Echo‖:
―No there ‘s none, there ‘s none, O no there ‘s none, / Nor can you long be, what you now are,
called fair, / Do what you may do, what, do what you may, / And wisdom is early to despair‖ [3].
And then the translation of this abstract by T. Stamova:
―Нет и нельзя, нет и нельзя, нет / И здешней красой долго здесь владеть не мечтай. / Мы
можем то, что мы можем, – лишь это, мы / Так мало можем – если кто мудр, начинай‖ [1].
And the translation of this abstract by D. Silvestrov:
―Нет, нельзя никак, о, нет, никак, / И недолго вам хвалиться красотой, / Сколько б не
измыслили прикрас. / И подъемлет уже мудрость скорбный вой:..‖ [2, p. 348].
In the first line of the original text we deal with the repetition ―there‘s none‖ which the poet uses to
highlight the definitive negation and in the T. Stamova‘s translation full repetition is present as well, which
cannot be said about D. Silvestrov‘s translation where he added some synonyms to avoid verbatim repetition.
As analytical language English is characterized by the direct word order and compulsory presence of
all sentence components. Nevertheless, the inverted word order is found at the beginning of the second line
and ellipsis occurs at the end of it. Russian language is more flexible to the word order and free word order
isn‘t extraordinary for it. Thus, in both translations we get holistic transformation of the sentence structure.
In the third line the poet plays on words again and we can distinguish chiasmus that disappears in
both translations and this isn‘t astonishing since to translate this line into Russian, preserving this stylistic
device, is practically impossible. But, anyway, both translators managed to convey the message of the poet
clearly.

114
Hopkins paid a lot of attention to rhyme, as it gives special pleasant sounding to the verses. In
addition to the rhyme at the end of the line Hopkins often uses inner rhyme, for example, in ―The Caged
Skylark‖:
―Man‘s spirit will be flesh-bound, when found at best, / But uncumberèd: meadow-down is not
distressed / For a rainbow footing it nor he for his bónes rísen‖ [3].
―Дух правый, вновь облекшись в плоть, роптать / Не будет: радуге, восстав, не смять / Пуха
полей; плоть не стеснит, нетленна‖ [1].
The original inner rhyme ―flesh-bound-found‖ is replaced in the translation by the inner rhyme
―вновь – в плоть‖ which helps to avoid the loss of rhythmicity and becomes an additional linking element
in the long lines.
Another characteristic feature of Hopkin‘s poetry is unorganized stress, hence the amount of stressed
syllables in one line may vary greatly. For instance, in ―The Leaden Echo‖:
―Be beginning; since, no, nothing can be done (6) / To keep at bay (2) /Age and age‘s evils, hoar
hair, (5) / Ruck and wrinkle, drooping, dying, death‘s worst, winding sheets, tombs and worms and tumbling
to decay (12)‖ [3].
―Так начните же, раз пробил горький час, (5) / Раз тверд враг, (2) / Не уйдут годы и годов
невзгоды, влас седой, (6) / Борозд ряд, горб лет, смерти жало, саван склеп, червей рой (7)‖ [2, p. 348].
Here we can see that I. Lihachev in his translation approximately equalizes the number of the
stressed syllables in the lines and makes the verse more balanced.
Then, let us consider the use of alliteration, the device, which is employed to create vivid impression
of the poetic image, as in ―Pied Beauty‖:
―With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim; / He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change: / Praise
him‖ [3].
―Горечь, сласть; нега, скорость; сияние, мрак; / Он творит – всех прекрасней и вне перемен
– / И да будет так‖ [1].
―Чредой: лед, пламень; мед, желчь; солнце, мгла, / Творишь. Твоя краса вне перемен, — / Тебе
хвала‖ [2, p. 347].
The repetition of the consonant sound [s] in the original text is preserved in the first variant of the
translation by T. Stamova, but in the second variant by D. Silvestrov the repeating sound is changed for the
Russian sound [л], but in both variants the translators don‘t omit alliteration as it contributes to the pleasant
sounding of the verse.
In conclusion it should be said that Hopkins‘ verse possesses unique features indicative of his
extraordinary poetic gift, which, however difficult it may be, is still possible to render in Russian translation.

References:
1. Джерард Мэнли Хопкинс / пер. Татьяны Стамовой [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
https://www.stihi.ru/2010/05/05/7637 (дата обращения: 28.02.18).
2. Прекрасное пленяет навсегда: Из английской поэзии XVIII – XIX веков: Сборник / Сост.: А.
Парин, А. Мурик. – М.: Московский рабочий, 1988. – 620 с.
3. Hopkins, Gerard Manley. Poems [Электронный ресурс]. – London: Humphrey Milford, 1918;
Bartleby.com, 1999. – URL: http://www.bartleby.com/122/ (дата обращения: 28.02.18).

Аннотация. В работе рассматриваются особенности поэтического творчества Джерарда Мэнли


Хопкинса на примере нескольких его стихотворений. Особое внимание уделяется стилистическим средствам и
приемам, не характерным для английского языка. Рассматриваются варианты перевода на русский язык
эллипсиса, инверсии, хиазма и аллитерации, а также сохранения внутренней рифмы и неравенства ударных
слогов. Все доводы подкреплены примерами, взятыми из произведений Дж.М. Хопкинса и их русских переводов.
Ключевые слова: Дж.М. Хопкинс, поэтическое творчество, эллипсис, инверсия, хиазм, аллитерация,
перевод.
Summary. The paper deals with specifics of Gerard Manley Hopkins poetry based on some examples from his
poems. Special attention is paid to the unusual techniques and stylistic devices, uncharacteristic of the English
language. The author considers ellipsis, inversion, chiasmus, alliteration, inner rhyme and means of rendering them in
Russian translations.
Key words: G.M. Hopkins, verse, ellipsis, inversion, chiasmus, alliteration, translation.

115
УДК 81‘25:821.111(73)=111
TRANSLATING NOVEL TITLES: CASE STUDY OF “THE HITCHHIKER‟S GUIDE TO
THE GALAXY” BY DOUGLAS ADAMS AND ITS RUSSIAN TRANSLATIONS
Yekaterina Brega
4th year student, \
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: brega.katerina@gmail.com
Natalia Rudenko
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Foreign literature plays an important role in modern life and for many Russian-speaking readers the
only chance to access the works of foreign writers is through translation. That is the reason why a translator
meets the challenge of recreating the author‘s writing style and rendering it into the target language in such a
way that the reader could have an impression that the work being read was written in their native language.
One of the functions of the title of a literary work is to give the reader an immediate opportunity to
realize if he wants to read it or not. That is why the title has to possess such qualities as accuracy, clarity and
simplicity of form. It must be understandable and easy to read for any reader. Moreover, the title organizes
the text, as initially it sets a specific emotional tone and after finishing the book the reader can reflect in
retrospect on the meaning of the title and its interconnection with the text.
The objective of this work is to point out the main functions of the title, to consider the strategies of
translating it and to draw comparison among the translations of the title ―The Hitchhiker‘s Guide to the
Galaxy‖ by Douglas Adams into Russian in order to identify the most adequate of them.
According to L.S. Barkhudarov, the title must perform such functions as 1) intriguing (it must draw
the reader‘s attention), 2) informative (it should give the reader the idea of where the story takes place or
who are the main characters) and 3) contextual (it should be linked with the text and convey its theme and
idea) [1, p.20].
There are three strategies of translating the title. The easiest one is the direct translation, which may
be employed when the unique sociocultural context is not present in the text and there is no discrepancy
between form and content. The second strategy consists in transformation of the title caused by lexical,
stylistic and pragmatic factors. The most difficult strategy is substitution of the title. This strategy is used
when it is impossible to render the pragmatic meaning of the source text, for example, either when the author
employs phraseological units or a play on words, or when the meaning is comprehensible only to the native
speakers or to those who possess deep knowledge of the source culture.
Douglas Noel Adams (1952-2001) was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist
and dramatist. Adams is best known as the author of ―The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy‖, which
originated in 1978 as a BBC radio comedy before developing into a ―trilogy‖ of five books that sold more
than 15 million copies in his lifetime and generated a television series, several stage plays, comics, a
computer game, and a feature film in 2005.
The idea of creating the novel came to Adams when he was hitchhiking through Europe. The reason
why the atmosphere in the novel is so true-to-life is that Adams had cultural background when he was
writing it.
Douglas Noel Adams is one of the most challenging authors for the translators, as his unique writing
style is based predominantly on different means of achieving humourous effect, which is quite difficult to
render in other languages. The translator should do his best to provide an insight into the author‘s writing
manner and to get the reader interested from the first look at the title.
Let‘s focus our attention on Russian translations of the novel ―The Hitchhicher‘s Guide to the
Galaxy‖. Six translations have been published so far: ―Путеводитель вольного странника‖ (V. Bakanov,
1993), ―Путеводитель по Галактике для автостопщиков‖ (Y. Arinovich, 2003), ―Путеводитель
хитч-хайкера по Галактике»‖ (V. Philipov, 1995-1997), ―Путеводитель «Автостопом по Млечному
Пути»‖ (V. Sherbatyuk, 2007), ―Путеводитель вольного путешественника по Галактике‖
(S. Pechkin, 2004), ―Путеводитель «Автостопом по Галактике»‖ (M. Spivak, 2004).

116
As we can see, all translators chose the strategy of transforming the title. V. Bakanov employs
lexical transformation replacing ―hitchhiker‖ with ―вольный путешественник‖. His translation strategy
loses from the point of view of informative and contextual functions of the title, as the key element (place) is
omitted. The given title translated by V. Bakanov gives no indication of where the story takes place and of
the way of travelling chosen by the main characters.
The same strategy of lexical transformation is used by S. Pechkin and his variant can hardly be
called adequate. According to the dictionary, to hitchhike means ―to get a ride in a passing vehicle by
holding out your arm with your thumb up as you stand on the side of the road‖ [4] and to travel is ―to move
or go from one place to another‖ [4]. Therefore, we may observe that there is a great difference between a
hitchhiker and a traveler, as the hitchhiking assumes stopping a car by an arm, whereas travelling is just
change of places, no matter in what way.
From this point of view, we may consider S. Pechkin‘s variant to be more equivalent according to
informative function of the title, as the place (Galaxy) is not omitted, but the way of travelling is still not
rendered, which is a serious omission.
The next translation to be discussed is that of V. Philippov, where he applies the method of
transcription. The word хитч-хайкинг is not found in the National Corpus of the Russian Language as yet
and was included into the dictionary of foreign words only in 2006, so we may say that this version of the
title fails to perform the informative function, as at the moment of publication the readers just didn‘t
understand who a hitchhiker was. ―The Hitchhicher‘s Guide to the Galaxy‖ is not only the title of the novel,
but also the title of the most popular guide in the Galaxy. Its title must be precise and brief and at the same
time vivid and bright. V. Philippov suggests an interesting variant, but it doesn‘t appeal to the reader‘s
imagination, it doesn‘t help to create any images, and thus fails to recreate the author‘s style and manner in
translation.
As for the variant of Y. Sherbatiuk, who uses the method of contextual concretization, replacing the
word ―galaxy‖ with ―млечный путь‖, which makes the title more expressive. But in terms of the
informative function the translator makes a serious mistake, miscolouring the plot, as the actions take place
not only within the Milky Way, but within the whole Universe.
From the standpoint of pragmatics, the most equivalent to the original are the variants of M. Spivak
and Y. Arinovich. Both translators employ the grammatical substitution of the parts of speech. Y. Arinovich
replaces the possessive case in the word ―hitchhiker‘s‖ with genitive and the singular number with plural.
Moreover, he shifts this word into the end of the phrase, changing the topic-comment relation and
highlighting that it is hitchhikers who this guide is devoted to.
Maria Spivak replaces the noun with an adverb, making the title more brief and facile. Her variant is
the most equivalent to the original, putting it into comparison with the others. The phrase ―Автостопом по
Галактике‖ sounds natural, the beginning of the phrase sounds familiar to the readers, as there are lots of
guides with such title, for example ―Автостопом по Европе‖, but at the same time the ending ―по
Галактике‖ comes as a surprise, creates oxymoron and intrigues the reader.
To sum up, it should be said that translation strategy of Maria Spivak appears to be the most
appropriate one, because her variant conveys the functional specifics of the original title as well as the
author‘s style and sense of humour which, along with unexpected plot twists, is part and parcel of Adams‘
literary works.

References:
1. Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод: вопросы общей и частной теории перевода. – М.:
Международные отношения, 1975. – 311 с.
2. Гейман Н. Не паникуй! История создания книги «Автостопом по Галактике». – М.: АСТ,
2016. – 352 с.
3. Комиссаров В.Н. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский / В.Н. Комиссаров,
Я.И Рецкер, В.И. Тархов. – М.: Просвещение, 1982. – 159 с.
4. Merriam-Webster Dictionary online [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: https://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/hitchhiker (дата обращения: 20.02.2018)

Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются трудности перевода заголовков романов и особенности их


перевода, обусловленные рядом факторов: необходимостью привлечь внимание читателя, потребностью
изложить в заголовке в краткой форме содержание произведения и выделить наиболее важные факты.
Описываются стратегии перевода заголовков, а также проводится сравнительный анализ переводов
заголовка романа Дугласа Адамса ―The Hitchhiker‘s Guide to the Galaxy‖.

117
Ключевые слова: заголовок, функции заголовка, стратегии перевода заголовка, переводческие
трансформации, Дуглас Адамс.
Summary. The article highlights the problems of translating novel titles. The author dwells upon specific tasks
of translating the title, presupposed by its functions such as to draw the reader‘s attention, to convey in a short form the
theme and the idea and to point out the most important facts. The strategies of translating the title of the novel by
Douglas Adams ―The Hitchhiker‘s Guide to the Galaxy‖ into Russian are considered in detail.
Key words: title, functions of the title, strategies of translating the title, translation transformations, Douglas
Adams.

УДК [821.134.2-31―19‖:394.2(46)]=134.2
LA IMAGEN DE LA CORRIDA DE TOROS EN LA NOVELA DE VICENTE BLASCO
IBÁÑEZ «SANGRE Y ARENA»
Lyubov Budyachenko
Estudiante del cuarto año,
Teoría y Práctica del Departamento de Traducción,
Universidad Estatal de Sevastopol
e-mail: budyachenko.lyuba@mail.ru
Yulia Toporkova
asesora científica, Doctorada en Pedagogía,
profesora asociada,
Teoría y Práctica del Departamento de Traducción,
Universidad Estatal de Sevastopol

Cada pueblo tiene sus propias peculiaridades culturales muy diversas. Son tradiciónes, la vida de
hogar, los hábitos, las costumbres y otros. Representando los fenómenos socioculturales mediante la
lengua nacional, el escritor usa los medios específicos de imágen. De modo que tanto el traductor como el
lector necesitan los conocimientos de fondo sobre la realidad que se les revela [4]. V. Vinogradov
mencionaba con justeza que ―…el modo de vida sociocultural de cierta comunidad nacional tiene sus
peculiaridades que lo diferencian de otros modos nacionales. Estas peculiaridades se reflejan en el léxico
constituyendo en éste la información de fondo que revela los conocimientos sobre las formas y las
manifestaciónes de la cultura espiritual y material de la nación‖ [2].
Cuando se trata de España, la corrida de toros es lo primero que merece la mención, porque para
la mayoría ambas nociónes – España y la corrida – son fenómenos indivisibles, y no pueden existir uno
sin otro [3].
La novela ―Sangre y arena‖ (1908) escrita por el autor español Vicente Blasco Ibáñes (1867-
1928) está dedicada a la vida del matador Juan Gallardo. Saliendo de la miseria de los niveles bajos
sociales él se convierte en el torero famoso, pero muere de una cornada (la herida producida por el golpe
dado con el cuerno del toro).
Describiendo la aparición de los toreros en el redondel (la arena), V. Ibáñez compara a los
hombres bravos y alentados con los muñequillos para representar sus debilidades y vulnerabilidad ante la
amenaza ineludible. En el redondel los matadores luchan con la muerte, pero para los espectadores ellos
son nada más que la parte del espectáculo entretenido:
―Avanzaban los toreros súbitamente empequeñecidos al pisar la arena por la grandeza de la
perspectiva. Eran como muñequillos brillantes, de cuyos bordados sacaba el sol reflejos de iris‖ [5] /
«Тореро выступили вперед, сразу уменьшившись в размерах на фоне огромной арены. Они
казались блестящими куклами в раззолоченных одеждах, отливавших лиловыми отсветами под
лучами солнца» (traducido por I. Leitner и R. Linder). [1, p. 32].
Al describir las acciones del Gallardo V. Ibáñes compara la agilidad y precisión de los
movimientos del torero con la celeridad de ensueño y con la muelle que se suelta del afianzador, porque
la vida y la salud del matador dependen de su destreza y su habilidad de usar faena: ―de pronto, con
celeridad de ensueño, como un muelle que se suelta del afianzador, lanzose sobre el toro, dándole una
estocada que sus admiradores llamaban de relámpago‖ [5] / «внезапно, со скоростью мысли, со
стремительностью развернувшейся пружины, бросился на быка и нанес ему удар шпагой,
который его поклонники называли молниеносным» (traducido por I. Leitner и R. Linder) [1, p. 42].
La imagen del toro en la novela es también notable. Es un animal intelegente, y por eso el toro a
que preservaron la vida en la corrida nunca más va a participar en los espectáculos, – un animal listo

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memora todos los movimientos y los subterfugios del matador y puede hacerle un daño serio. V. Ibáñez
dota al toro con el intelecto, el desgraciado animal no alcanza para que le hacen participar en las corridas,
pero en el fondo de su conciencia el toro comprende que todo se finalizará con su propia muerte:
―Quedose inmóvil el toro algunos instantes, como cansado de este juego, mirando con ojos de sombría
reflexión al hombre y al trapo rojo, sospechando en su obscuro pensamiento la existencia de un engaño
que, de acometida en acometida, le empujaba hacia la muerte‖ [5] / «На несколько мгновений бык
замер, словно утомленный этой игрой. В мрачном раздумье он уставился на человека и красный
лоскут, догадываясь в глубине своего темного сознания об обмане, который с каждым новым
нападением толкает его все ближе к смерти» [1, p. 36].
Para los españoles el toro no es sólo un animal sino un símbolo del valor y de la fuerza, por eso
en su novela V. Ibáñez muestra toda la grandeza de esta criatura contraponiéndola a la imagen del
matador a quién compara con la rana ataviada: ―…hasta que la poderosa bestia, con un cabezazo, lo
expulsó a algunos metros de distancia, cayendo el torero pesadamente en la arena, abiertos los remos,
como una rana vestida de seda y oro‖ [5] / «Могучим движением головы бык отшвырнул матадора
на несколько метров, и он тяжело рухнул на арену, распластавшись, как разряженная в шелк и
золото лягушка» [1, p. 42].
La imagen del público también es una de las partes integrantes de la corrida: ―Sus graciosos
movimientos enardecían a la gente con un entusiasmo igual al del niño ante un juguete maravilloso. La
loca ráfaga que agita a las muchedumbres, estremeciendo sus nervios dorsales y erizando su piel sin saber
ciertamente por qué, conmovió la plaza entera‖ [5] / «Зрители восхищались их ловкими, красивыми
движениями, словно дети, увидевшие чудесную игрушку. Публику охватил один из тех безумных
порывов, которые порой приводят в волнение огромные массы людей» [1, p. 32].
V. Ibáñez aplica una analogía entre la reacción de los espectadores a las acciones del torero y la
reacción de un niño pequeño que vio un juguete maravilloso. Esta comparación ayuda al autor transmitir
al lecor las emociones y el estado de ánimo de los hombres que van a contemplar el espectáculo.
Pero el público no siempre está benévolo a los toreros ni siempre les muestra su admiración. Al
mostrar el matador la menor debilidad, las exclamaciónes de desaprobación se oyen inmediatamente.
V. Ibáñez expresa la actitud inunívoca al público, nombrando la corrida de toros una tragedia para
divertirse: ―Apareció el extenso redondel, la verdadera plaza, el espacio circular de arena donde iba a
realizarse la tragedia de la tarde para emoción y regocijo de catorce mil personas‖ [5] / «Глазам
открылась правильно очерченная площадь, огромный круг арены, на которой сейчас разыграется
трагедия ради возбуждения чувств, ради потехи четырнадцати тысяч зрителей» [1, p. 31].
Con ayuda de la metáfora viva V. Ibáñez expresa la ambivalencia de los espectadores
demostrando así todo lo debil de la naturaleza humana: ―Todos creían que estaba destinado a morir en la
plaza de una cornada, y esto mismo hacía que le aplaudiesen con entusiasmo homicida, con un interés
bárbaro, semejante al del misántropo que seguía a un domador a todas partes esperando el momento de
verle devorado por sus fieras‖ [5] / «Все были уверены, что Гальярдо суждено умереть на арене от
рогов быка, и именно эта уверенность заставляла публику аплодировать ему с кровожадным
восторгом, – так мизантроп следит с жестоким интересом за работой укротителя, дожидаясь
часа, когда звери наконец разорвут его» [1, p. 33].
Como podemos ver, V. Ibáñez usa con maestría los medios léxicos para crear la atmósfera del
colorido local, para caracterizar a los personajes y transmitir la imagen viva y convincente de la corrida
de toros, mientras los traductores I. Leitner y R. Linder lograron interpretar perfectamente todo lo vistoso
de este arte a la lengua rusa.

Referencias:
1. Ибаньес В.Б. Кровь и песок. – Ташкент: Шарк, 1993. – 380 с.
2. Виноградов В.В. Лексические вопросы перевода художественной прозы. – М.: МГУ,
1978. – 174 с.
3. Пантелеева О.О. Лакунарный концепт «Коррида» в русском переводе романа Б.
Ибаньеса «Кровь и песок» [Электронный ресурс] // Вестник ВГУ. Серия: Лингвистика и
межкультурная коммуникация. 2006. №2. – URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/lakunarnyy-
kontsept-korrida-v-russkom-perevode-romana-b-ibaniesa-krov-i-pesok (дата обращения: 27.02.2018).
4. Салеем Касем Мохаммед Хелал, Попова М.К. Художественные функции
лингвистических средств в романе Бласко Ибаньеса «Кровь и песок» [Электронный ресурс] //
Вестник ВГУ. Серия: Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация. 2013. №1. – URL:

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https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/hudozhestvennye-funktsii-lingvisticheskih-sredstv-v-romane-blasko-
ibaniesa-krov-i-pesok (дата обращения: 27.02.2018).
5. Ibanez V.B. Sangre y arena [Электронный ресурс] – URL:
http://juanlarreategui.com/blasco_arena.pdf (дата обращения: 25.02.2018)

Аннотация. Данная статья посвящена исследованию образа корриды и его составляющих (образы
матадора, быка и публики) в произведении Висенте Бласко Ибаньеса «Кровь и песок», а также анализу
соответствующих образных средств. Метафора и сравнения в романе «Кровь и песок» являются
основными средствами передачи образа корриды и его составляющих; они помогают раскрыть
культурные особенности испанского народа.
Ключевые слова: коррида, образ матадора, образ быка, образ публики, образность, метафора,
сравнение.
Summary. This article is dedicated to the research of the image of a bullfight and its components (the
image of a matador, the image of a bull, the image of the audience) in the novel ―Blood and sand‖ written by
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, and to the analysis of the corresponding stylistic devices. Metaphor and similes are the main
means of bullfight image and its components; they help to reveal cultural peculiarities of the Spanish nation.
Key words: bullfight, image of matador, image of bull, image of audience, images, metaphor, simile.

УДК: 81'255.2
RENDERING OF BUNIN‟S CHARACTERIZING COMPLEX EPITHETS IN THE ENGLISH AND
THE GERMAN LANGUAGES

Iuliia Bykovskaia
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: bykovskaiayu@gmail.com

Elena Abramicheva
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

«The last classicist of Russian literature» — that is what they usually call Ivan Bunin, one of the
most revealing and romantic writers of the XX century. He managed to capture the unique imagery and
sensitivity of the first love — of a phenomenon, that fully embodies Slavic soul, its dramatic poetry
reflecting our mentality. «For the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions
in prose writing» [1] — that is how the decision of Nobel Prize Committee on Bunin‘s reward was
formulated in 1933.
A great interest in Bunin‘s prose abroad accounts for the necessity of its good-quality translation
providing a sort of impact on the foreign reader that is emotionally equal to the original.
One of the idiostylistic features characteristic of Bunin‘s prose is a wide use of different epithets,
especially complex ones. A bright imagery and emotional potential of the trope, and the unique combination
of its components account for difficulties of its translation into English and German languages.
The main objectives of our research were (1) to analyze the ways the complex epithets were
rendered in English and German translations; (2) to determine the equivalence and quality of translated
epithets.
The translations of «Dark Avenues» by Bunin executed by Olga Shartse into English and Ilona
Koenig into the German language served the material for our research. The English translation is a part of
«Light Breathing and Other Stories» collection published by «Raduga Publishers Moscow» in 1988, while
the German one was published much earlier, in 1969, by «J.F. Steinkopf Verlag» as a part of Nobel Prize
laureate selection.
The phenomenon of a complex epithet has been studied for centuries. It is believed to take its roots
from «Iliad» and «Odyssey» by Homer in which Olympic gods and heroes were given their characteristics

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by means of two- or three-root compounds. Therefore, B. Tomashevkii distinguished a separate class of
«Homerian» epithets that are «literal translations of Greek compound epithets» [cit. after 2]. Modern
linguistic studies on complex epithets enjoyed the contributions of A. Kuksina, T. Fadeeva, S. Gubanov, T.
Chetverikova.
The definition of a complex epithet given by T. Fadeeva has been chosen as a basic one for this
study: «Complex epithet is a composite unit that serves as a conceptual, emotional and esthetic attribute to an
object (in its broad meaning) and shows its content in a compressed way, actualizing its expressive potential
within a given context and expressing specific traits of cognitive model of an author‘s linguistic profile» [3].
To classify a corps of Bunin‘s complex epithets we rely on the existing structural and syntactic
typology and suggest our own semantic classification that reflects the author‘s emotional, esthetic and
conceptual perception of the reality. Thus, Bunin‘s complex epithets may be divided into several categories
among which are (1) perceptional (coloristic, olfactory, haptic, synesthetic), (2) paradoxical, and (3)
characterizing, so called «female», complex epithets. The given article focuses on the last class of the
complex epithets on the grounds of their unique expressive potential characteristic of Bunin‘s original style.
The «female» epithets in their turn may be divided into several sub-groups: (1) those characterizing
«corporal» portrait (простонародно развитая телом (―The Second Coffee Pot‘‘) [11, c. 350]); (2) psycho-
behavioral portrait (вся скромно-нарядная (―Natalie‘‘) [4, p. 137]); and (3) emotional portrait of a heroine
(ангельски невинная девушка» [4, p. 292]). The main difficulty of their adequate rendering in foreign
languages lies in re-creating a visible, almost haptic image of a Russian village girl or a noblewoman.
Let us consider certain examples.
Example 1: Она, вся нежно-душистая — she, sweetly fragrant — sie, zart, duftig (―Heinrich‘‘) [4,
p. 105; 5, p. 285; 6, p. 280]. The English translator does not render a synesthetic image (the component
«нежно-» has a haptic meaning and refers to the character as a whole, whereas «душистая» characterizes
its olfactory counterpart) and preserves only the original comparison of a girl with a flower, while the
German translator fails to render the complex epithet structure, replacing it with a chain of simple epithets.
Both translations preserve the authenticity of the imagery to some extent, and therefore seem quite
successful.
Example 2: Изысканно-худая рука — exquisitely thin hand — selten magere, edle Hand
(―Heinrich‘‘) [4, p. 106; 5, p. 286; 6, p. 282]. This example demonstrates another approach to translation of
complex epithets. The German translator changes the form by way of which preserves the original imagery,
though, undoubtedly, fails to render a style-forming element of Bunin‘s prose. The English translator, on the
contrary, opts for literal translation, which brings his variant closer to the original.
Example 3: Color-filled complex epithet блестящая смуглость ног — legs‘ swarthy sheen —
seidig braune Haut der Beine (―Rusja‘‘) [4, p. 38; 5, p. 222; 6, p. 251] is fully rendered in English: its form,
image and expressiveness are preserved whereas its German variant retains the image and expressiveness,
and offers simple epithets substituting the complex one.
Example 4: Молочно-седая королева — a queen with milky–grey hair — ___ die Tante
(―Antigone‘‘) [4, p. 48; 5, p. 232; 6, p. 270] appears to be difficult to render in German. The translator seems
to have considered the complex epithet an unimportant characteristic of a heroine. We believe that such
omission is unjustified and can be treated as the translator‘s fault. The original coloristic epithet does not
contain non-equivalent elements that might have become a hindrance to its translation into German.
All the things considered, we can make the following conclusions:
1) There are several main functions of characterizing «female» epithets in Bunin‘s prose: they create
the original imagery, render a peculiar author‘s lyricism, and serve a means of the author‘s evaluation of his
heroines;
2) The English translator opts for preserving both the form and meaning, fully rendering an authentic
image or replacing it with a close one, and often using a literal translation;
3) The German translator prefers to replace a complex epithet with a chain of simple epithets that
may be easily comprehended by a wide audience, or simply omits the whole epithet. The roots of this
approach may be found in the peculiarities of historical and cultural norms of the language prone to linguistic
economy and compression;
4) Both translation tactics seem to be quite successful in rendering the author‘s style but sometimes
the foreign reader is deprived of the possibility to see the key details in the author‘s characterization and
evaluation of his personages.

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References:
1. The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1933/bunin-facts.html (дата обращения:
25.02.2018)
2. Классификация эпитетов в научной литературе [Электронный ресурс] // Портал
профессиональной переподготовки «Инфоурок». – URL: https://infourok.ru/statya-klassifikaciya-
epitetov-v-nauchnoy-literature-714301.html (дата обращения: 25.02.2018)
3. Фадеева Т.М. Сложный эпитет – ядерная единица художественного пространства в русском
языке: автореферат [Электронный ресурс] // Научная электронная библиотека диссертаций и
авторефератов. — URL: http://cheloveknauka.com/v/568570/a?#?page=6 (дата обращения: 25.02.2018)
4. Бунин И.А. Темные аллеи. Окаянные дни: Повести, рассказы. – М.: Мартин, 2015. – 464 с.
5. Bunin I. Light Breathing and Other Stories (translated by O. Shartse). — Raduga Publishers 1988,
2001. – 412 p.
6. Bunin I. Dunkle Alleen (Übertragung von I. Koenig). – J.F. Steinkopf Verlag, Stuttgart. – 377 S.
Аннотация. В данной статье представлены результаты исследования, посвященного
систематизации и классификации сложных эпитетов И. А. Бунина, сопоставительному анализу их переводов
на английский и немецкий языки, а также оценке экспрессивности переводческих решений в отношении класса
характеризующих «женских» эпитетов. В ходе работы был выявлен функциональный потенциал СЭ как
стилеобразующего элемента творчества Бунина и проведен анализ переводческих решений.
Ключевые слова: сложный эпитет, характеризующие СЭ, «женские» СЭ, перевод.
Summary. This article presents the results of the research on the typology of Bunin‘s complex epithets and the
comparative analysis of their English and German translations. The expressiveness of the translations of the so called
«female» characterizing epithets has also been investigated. The functional potential of the complex epithets as a style–
forming element of Bunin‘s prose was outlined, and the analysis of translations adequacy was performed.
Key words: complex epithet, characterizing complex epithet, «female» complex epithet, translation.

УДК 811.111‘255.4:821.111-31(73)
THE IMAGE OF A PERSON WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER
AS THE PROBLEM OF TRANSLATION
(based on D. Keyes's novel "The Minds of Billy Milligan" and its translations into Russian)
Dariya Zhuravlyova
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: dashaexplorer1996@mail.ru
Olga Skidan
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Despite the abundance of theory works dedicated to the adequate translation of fiction texts, there is
a lack of universal solutions for translating some of structural and stylistic elements. The translation
universals considering the image of a person with multiple personality disorder should obviously be
developed and scientifically interpreted. Daniel Keyes in his novel ―The Minds of Billy Milligan‖ uses a
strict range of stylistic devices for each of Billy Milligan‘s personality without depicting their appearance so
that the reader could understand who is in charge at the moment.
The article is relevant because there is a huge interest towards the works, where the main character
suffers from the multiple personality disorder. This fact sets a new complicated task for translators: to keep
all the individual peculiarities of each personality, as well as its linguistic adaptation while translating within
one image.
The aim of the article is to provide the comparative-translation analysis of means that create the
image of a person with the multiple personality disorder in the novel ―The Minds of Billy Milligan‖ and in
its translations into Russian.

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From the scientific point of view, the literary translation is a special kind of translation activity,
which main task lies in creation of speech act capable of giving esthetic impact on the recipient [2, c. 251].
The image is one of the most important esthetic categories, which obtains the method of reality
reflection and reconsideration typical only for the art. Without a doubt we can say that the image is not only
the description of a human but also it depicts the human life in general, which center is the human and
everything that surrounds him [3].
The literary translation peculiarity is so that the fiction texts are ―quite sensitive‖ towards any kind of
changes, modifications and rereadings. That is why the choice of effective translation strategies is closely
connected to the problem of translation unit selection. The image goes through the entire work, so it needs to
be reproduced and reconstructed at both micro- and macrolevels of translation [1, c. 3-38].
It should be noted that mainly American writers take great interest in the phenomenon of ―multiple
personality disorder‖. Therefore, this topic has had an extended coverage in English language followed by
the development of special stylistic devices, which help to show the peculiarities of the given phenomenon.
Having analyzed the original novel and its translation into Russian made by A. Boykov and A.
Kostrova as well as the modern one by Yu. Fedorova we selected one of the most interesting personality ‒
Yugoslav Ragen Vadaskovinich.
In the foreword, the author mentions his nationality and notices that Ragen speaks English with a
strong Slavic accent. To illustrate this statement we will analyze the first appearance of Ragen personality in
the novel:
―Is not right. Vas not good to reveal secret.‖
Even after David tells secret by mistake, I vas against it.‖
It did not sound like an imitation of a Slavic accent. His voice now truly had the natural sibilant
quality of someone who had been raised in Eastern Europe, had learned to speak English, but had never lost
his accent.
From the syntactic point of view the Ragen‘s phrases are full of English grammar mistakes: the
omission of subject, the absence of sequence of tenses in composite sentences. Daniel Keyes uses errative
constructions and graphon to reproduce the speech and phonetic peculiarities in the text.
In the translation by A. Boykov and A. Kostrova we can notice that the errative constructions were
lost because of Russian syntax and graphon because of Russian language is Slavic.
- Зря всѐ это… Не надо было открывать секрет.
- Даже после того как Дэвид выболтал наш секрет, я был против.
Это не было имитацией славянского акцента. Его речь и вправду изобиловала шипящими
звуками, как у человека, который вырос в восточной Европе, выучил английский, но так и не
избавился от акцента.
This fact may serve as the example of translators‘ negligence of personality image peculiarities and
shows the discrepancy to the original novel.
Having made the comparative-translation analysis of Yu. Fedorova version we described her
translation methods also based on Ragen Vadaskovinich personality. We will go through the illustrative
examples, regarding Ragen‘s nationality and language peculiarities.
- Плохо думали. Нельзя было разглашать секрет.
- Даже при том, что Дэвид проболтался по ошибке, я против.
Не похоже было, что он лишь имитировал акцент, речь действительно шипела и свистела,
как у человека, выросшего в Восточной Европе. Он выучил английский язык, но акцент остался при
нем.
In this translation the author uses such stylistic devise as cacophony: bringing in words with a big
amount consonants, hissing in particular. While describing the speech the translator turns to onomatopoeia,
especially verbs used to describe snakes. It helps a reader to correspond Ragen with a snake and points out
the individual character of this personality for Russian speaking audience.
The translation strategy by Yu. Fedorova is more oriented towards the original novel and aimed at
the foreignization of the translation. The translator strives to achieve the full equivalence of the translation
unit (image), following the standards of Russian literary language and choosing the most adequate stylistic
devises.
The obtained results of our research lead to the following concussions:
1. Not all translation methods of fiction include the character image selection as the main translation
unit.
2. The phenomenon of multiple personality disorder as the image of literary work is hardly studied in
the Russian literature and translation study.

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3.The main aim of literary and translation study in the context of such literary works is determination
and classification of the main stylistic devices for the representation of the image of the person with the
multiple person disorder as well as the translator‘s striving for foreignization.
The conclusions of our research can later be used in the more detailed study of this topic. We can
also take the closer look at other Billy Milligan‘s personalities.

References:
1. Аверинцев С.С., Андреев М.Л., Гаспаров М.Л., Гринцер П.А., Михайлов А.В. Категории
поэтики в смене литературных эпох // Историческая поэтика. Литературные эпохи и типы
художественного сознания. Сб.статей. М.: Наследние, 1994. С.3-38.
2. Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты): Учеб. для ин-тов и фак.
иностр. яз. / Репринтное воспроизведение издания 1990 г. ‒ М.: Альянс, 2013. ‒ 253 с.
3. Художественный образ [Электронный ресурс]. ‒ Режим доступа: http://
studwood.ru/1290315/psihologia/hudozhestvenny_obraz_struturnaya_edinitsa

Аннотация. Статья посвящена художественному образу как единице перевода, в частности


рассматривается образ множественной личности как проблемы перевода. Автор проводит сопоставительно-
переводческий анализ произведения «Minds of Billy Milligan» и его переводов на русский язык. В статье
отображены дефиниции понятий «художественный образ» и «единица перевода». Проанализировав образ
одной из личностей (Рейджен Вадасковинич) автор выявляет основные подходы переводчиков по
использованию языковых средств и их адекватность в процессе перевода.
Ключевые слова: художественный образ, единица перевода, проблемы перевода, художественный
перевод, стратегии перевода, множественная личность
Summary. The article is devoted to the image as the translation unit, as well as to the image of the person with
the multiple personality disorder as the translation problem. The author makes the comparative-translation analysis of
the novel ―The Minds of Billy Milligan‖ by D. Keyes and its translations into Russian. The article deals with the
definitions such as ―image‖ and ―translation unit‖. Having analyzed the image of one of personalities (Ragen
Vadaskovinich) the author points out the main translation usage of language means methods and their adequacy in the
translation process.
Key words: image, translation unit, problems of translation, fiction translation, translation methods, person
with the multiple personality disorder

УДК 811.111
TRANSLATION PROBLEMS IN GLUTTONIC DISCOURSE
Anastasiia Kuchumova
1st year student of Magistracy
Department of Translation and Applied Linguistics
Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
e-mail: kuchumovaan@gmai.com

Elena Polikarpova
Scientific advisor, Candidate of Philology,
Department of Translation and Applied Linguistics
Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

This article deals with the problem of determining the place of gluttonic (gastronomic) vocabulary in
the English language system, revealing the links between the language picture of the world and
gastronomic objects. The research is based on the materials of the recipes of the national cuisine English-
speaking people, menus, culinary articles, etc.
These problems are quite relevant. Many researchers note that neither in linguistics nor in translation
studies there are so far relatively clear criteria for determining gastronomic (culinary) realities and the
specificity of linguistic units that denote these realities has not been studied at all.
In the 70s of the 20th century a search for long-forgotten recipes begins and books on traditional
national cuisine are published. Rapidly growing popularity of tourism among the population of Canada, the
United States and Europe has also become one of the most important reasons for the international interest in

124
life and customs of different nations. The totality of these reasons could not but affect the demand for
translation in the field of gastronomy.
The term «gluttonia» (Latin «gluyttony») , introduced in 2003 by A.V. Olianych , determines
entirely of the whole food process - from extraction and primary processing of food to method its preparation
[3, р. 180].
Let's consider the main, in our opinion, works devoted to a comprehensive study of the facets of
gastronomic discourse and translations in this field. The problems of gastronomic discourse are described in
the works of the following authors: P. P. Burkova (2004), E. A. Gashimova (2005), D. Yu. Gulinova (2004),
N. N. Danilova (2005), N. P. Golovnitskaya (2008), A. V. Zanadvorova (2003), N. A. Zemskova (2008), N.
E. Kamovnikova (2003), A. V. Olianych (2003, 2004, 2008), E. V. Pletneva (2006), V. V. Pokhlebkin 1995,
2000). Gluttonic discourse, like discourse as a whole, is a complex phenomenon
with diverse characteristics. Traditionally, it is customary to refer to texts containing gluttonic vocabulary
such linguistic material as recipes of national cuisine, menus, culinary articles, gluttonic terminology, etc.
Olianych A.V., the author of the term «gluttonia», speaks about the existence of ethnocultural
and linguocultural specifics of nominations related to cooking. In his opinion, this term correlates with the
concept of gastronomy and correlates with any ethno-culture.
Despite a significant number of works written on this topic, the problem of identifying the features of
the corresponding lexical units and the features of their translation remains unsolved. Thus, the purpose of
this article is to examine gluttonic vocabulary in a semantic aspect and to determine effective ways of
transferring the studied lexemes from English into Russian.
It is important to understand that it is the person who is the central figure of the gastronomic
linguistic picture of the world and he is also the source, the adresser and recipient of gastronomic discourse.
«Human» qualities are often used as basic attributes for naming, for example, flavoring characteristics of
food products («Европеец» – a cocktail consisting of 1/3 of Russian vodka and French wine; «Казацкая
уха» - Ukrainian fish soup; «Буржуа» – a duet of milk and chocolate mousses [5, p. 42].
Gastronomic objects and their language representatives in the language picture of the world interact
primarily at the level of names (nominations). Specificity of gastronomic names is characteristic for each
individual nation and reflects the stock of language facilities. This phenomenon can be clearly traced, for
example, at the level of designation of products of consumption that are significant for national cultures:
Russian vodka «Столичная»; English tea ―Earl Gray Tea‖, pudding ―Yorkshire Pudding‖, «Котлеты по-
киевски» - Kyiv-style cutlets [2, p. 110-112].
A distinctive feature of the gastronomic linguistic picture of the world is also names of times
consuming food and drinks. For Russians are characteristic such as «завтрак», «обед» and «ужин»,
«полдник» for children and the elderly audience. Additionally, for a Russian person there is a term
«закуска». Now «закуска» is understood as a small amount of food after drinking, but earlier this term had a
wider meaning.
For English-speaking people, are characterized by such names as breakfast, lunch and supper (or
dinner). There is also such a thing as snack («закуска») – refers to all foods eaten between meals. For special
cases of food intake there are feasts or banquets. For meals from several dishes, dishes are usually called
according to the chronology of their presentation. In English, this is the first filing, which is called the
appetizer – the food supplied before hot, and then the main course. And finally, dessert. And despite the fact
that many culinary terms present in the English culinary tradition are borrowed from the French, as a rule,
borrowings undergo small semantic shifts [4, p. 171].
Thus, the language picture of the world and gastronomy are in active interaction and are inseparable
components of the national culture. The names of gastronomic phenomena reflect the attitude of native
speakers to these phenomena and in this case one can observe not only the historically developed nuances of
gastronomy, but also the national character, and maybe even national psychology.
In the process of communication in general, in addition to interlingual, intercultural communication
also takes place. The success of this type of communication depends on the completeness of mutual
understanding among participants who belong to different cultures. The differences of cultures in the modern
world are so great and significant that the modern purpose of translation is not only to convey the semantic
component, but also to overcome intercultural barriers.
Conclusion. The transfer of cultural realities in translation remains one of the most difficult tasks.
Gastronomic vocabulary is a constant subject of discussions and disputes in the search for the most effective
ways of translating untranslatable vocabulary.
Existing ways of translating gastronomic realities do not allow us to convey their full meaning.
Probably, in the process of translation of lexical units should be used several methods to achieve the desired

125
level of equivalence and adequacy. In this regard, this problem remains relevant for modern linguists and is
likely to be reflected in further research on translation studies.

References:
1. Земскова А.Ю. Лингвосемиотические характеристики англоязычного гастрономического
дискурса: дис. ... канд. филол. наук. – Волгоград, 2009. – 175 с.
2. Кирсанова Е.М. Прагматика единиц семантического поля «пища»: системный и
функциональный аспекты (на материале английского и русского языков): дис. канд. филол. наук. –
М., 2009. – 294 с.
3. Олянич А.В. Гастрономический дискурс в системе массовой коммуникации: семантико-
семиотические характеристики / А. В. Олянич // Массовая культура на рубеже XX-XXI веков:
человек и его дискурс: сб. науч. тр. / РАНЮ Ин-т языкознания. – М., 2003. – С. 167-201.
4. Ундрицова М.В. Меню как текстовая разновидность гастрономического дискурса и
особенности их регионально-переводческой адаптации // Языки. Культуры. Перевод. Материалы II
международного научно-практический форума. – М.: Издательство Московского университета, 2014.
– С. 165-176.
5. Douglas M. Deciphering a meal / M. Douglas // Food and culture: A reader / ed. by C. Counihan
and P. Van Esterik. – New York; London: Routledge, 1971. – p. 36-54.

Аннотация. В массовой коммуникации одно из важнейших мест занимает коммуникация, связанная с


пищевыми ресурсами и процессами их обработки и потребления. Ядром данной статьи является
глюттоническая лексика в семантическом аспекте и определение наиболее эффективных способов перевода
исследуемых лексем. Изучается роль кулинарной лексики как одного из средств выражения культурных
концептов и базисной составляющей национальной картины мира. Дается анализ того, насколько важным
является правильный перевод кулинарной лексики для передачи смысла исходного текста.
Ключевые слова: глюттоническая лексика, глюттонический дискурс, гастрономический дискурс,
языковая картина мира, перевод.
Summary. In the process of mass communication, one of the most important places is communication,
connected with food resources and the processes of their preparation and consumption. The core of this article is the
gluttonic vocabulary in the semantic aspect and the definition of the most effective ways of translating the studied
lexemes. The role of culinary vocabulary as one of the means of expression of cultural concepts and the basic
component of the national picture of the world is studied. It is analyzed how important is the correct translation of the
culinary vocabulary to convey the meaning of the source text.
Key words: gluttonic vocabulary, gluttonic discourse, gastronomic discourse, linguistic picture of the world,
translation.

УДК 81'25.811.111
INTERFERENCE IN TRANSLATION OF POPULAR SCIENCE ARTICLES FROM
ENGLISH INTO RUSSIAN
Shazie Mamutova
2nd year student, Taurian Academy,
Crimean Federal University
e-mail: mamutova.shazie@mail.ru

Svetlana Skorokhodko
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Department of Translation Theory and Practice
Crimean Federal University

At the time of globalization, integration and development of international contacts, translation is one
of the main aspects of cross-cultural communication. In this respect, the problems of the interaction between
the cultural and linguistic views of the world, as well as of the mutual influence of the structure and features
of the languages involved in the translating process may lead to interference, that is the transfer of the
features between the source language (SL) and the target language (TL).

126
The importance of the study and the topic itself is specified by constant contacts between languages
which requires of translators understanding of the nature and mechanisms of interference. The purpose of the
work is to specify the notion of ―interference‖ as well as to determine the features of the phenomenon which
occurs when translating popular science texts. The following methods are used in the study: method of
continuous sampling, comparative and quantitative methods. The research is conducted on the basis of
translations of the articles from the American popular science journals Popular Mechanics, Quanta Magazine
and Scientific American, which were made by Russian-speaking translators and visitors of the site of
inosmi.ru. Nineteen English articles and their translations in Russian were examined and 20 cases of
destructive interference were found.
Having analyzed the scientific literature on the problem, we found that there is no agreement among
scholars on issues related to interference. Thus, there is a narrow and wide definition of the phenomenon.
Peter Newmark says that interference in the narrow sense takes place when the features of the source
language (SL) are ―carried over or literally translated as the case may be into the target language (TL) text‖
[3, p. 78]. In a wider sense interference involves cases when the TL is affected by the SL so that sentence
length, punctuation, proper names, neologisms, cultural words are transferred in the process of translation to
the TL . We share the opinion of those scholars who consider interference as a phenomenon in its wider
definition as above mentioned features of the original text often lead to deviation from a target language
norm.
There is no uniform view on the classification of interference. Thus, Yu. A. Zhluktenko characterizes
semantic interference as the subtype of the lexical one [2, p. 152]. We share the opinion as the convergence
of the vocabulary of the languages involved in the translating process results in their semantic assimilation.
The latter leads to complexity of distinguishing between these phenomena, which means that semantic
interference is a peripheral type of lexical one. V. V. Alimov, however, singles out semantic interference as a
separate form, defining it as the penetration of the meanings of words from one language into another, which
leads to a deviation from the norms of the TL [1, p. 19].
The question of whether interference can be positive or it has only a negative outcome is also
debatable. Some linguists tend to see in the phenomenon only destructive influence of the structure of one
language on another, whereas the majority of translators consider interference as the one that may have
positive effect. Peter Newmark points out that the positive aspect of interference takes place when the
translator decides to express some specific cultural, linguistic or universal values of the SL in the TL. In this
research we refer to the destructive effects of interference since they are most frequently observed in
translation; however the constructive interference is not negated by us.
The results of the research show that the most frequent cases of interference are presented by
grammatical interference: 11 mistakes, which account for 55% of the total number of deviations found from
the norms of the Russian language. The second most frequent type of interference is lexical interference: 5
mistakes (25%). The less frequent is stylistic interference: 4 mistakes (20%).
The following conclusions can be made basing on the result of the research:
1. Interference is a complex phenomenon viewed from different perspectives and points of view;
2. No examples of intralingual interference were found, which can be explained by the character of
this type of interference. It is characterized by incorrect correspondences within the language, whereas the
process of translation itself primarily presupposes the interaction between languages;
3. There are two types of interference: constructive and destructive. The latter is more frequent in
translation indicating that it is difficult for a translator to fully master all the features of another language
which contains the linguistic view of the world of its speakers;
4. In the articles analyzed by us no spelling and punctual interference were detected which must be
connected with the better mastering of the rules of spelling and punctuation by translators as well as the
easier identification of such mistakes when checking the translation.
We consider interference as the problem which both novice and proficient translators face. However,
having acquainted with the nature and mechanisms of the phenomenon, the translator is capable of
anticipating its manifestation and minimizing mistakes related to interference.
The future perspective of the work is the study of the cases when neither SL, nor TL is the native one
for translator.

References:
1. Алимов В.В. Интерференция в переводе (на материале профессионально-ориентированной
межкультурной коммуникации и перевода в сфере профессиональной коммуникации): автореф. дис.
… докт. филол. наук. – М., 2005. – 40 с.

127
2. Жлуктенко Ю.А. Лингвистические аспекты двуязычия. – Киев, 1974. – 191 с.
3. Newmark Р. About Translation. – Multilingual Matters, 1991. – 184 p.

Аннотация. Исследование посвящено интерференции как одному из факторов, влияющих на качество


перевода. На примере переводов статей из американских научно-популярных журналов с английского на
русский язык авторы анализируют деструктивную интерференцию, которая ведѐт к отклонению от нормы в
переводящем языке. В работе также рассматриваются те аспекты явления, в отношении которых у учѐных
нет единого мнения. Исследуются вопросы понятия интерференции. Рассматривается проблема разных
классификаций уровней проявления интерференции. Анализируется характер данного явления.
Ключевые слова: интерференция, перевод, языковая картина мира, деструктивная интерференция.
Summary. The study deals with interference as one of the factors influencing the quality of translation.
Through the careful analyses of translations of the articles from the American popular science journals from English
into Russian the author analyzes destructive interference, which leads to deviation from a norm in the target language.
The study also presents those aspects of the phenomenon under study that find no agreement among scholars. The
authors examine issues concerning the definition of interference. The article also reveals some differences in its
classification, as well as in the nature of the phenomenon.
Key words: interference, translation, linguistic view of the world, destructive interference.

УДК [811.111’25’276:821.111–31(73)”19”] =111


J.D. SALINGER’S THE CATCHER IN THE RYE: TRANSLATING THE SLANG
Ekaterina Mironenko
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: yekaterinamironenko@yandex.ru
Alexander Lobkov
Scientific Advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

There is no straight term for slang in English. Slang is unhomogenous. The dictionary by Merriam-
Webster (“Third New International Dictionary”) gives to slang following terms: 1) Slang is a language which
characterizes a certain social group. A) Usually, this group is of a low social activity (Thieves, beggars), it is
they who are able to take in this language. B) Jargon words that are used by a certain group or words that
were common during a past epoch. 2) An emotional language full of reductions which is spoken in a definite
geographical region [3, p. 95].
The “New Oxford English Dictionary” defines slang as 1) Vulgarisms. 2) Professional jargon. 3)
Colloquial words or expressions used in the meaning that differs from a dictionary meaning. According to
these examples, I can point out that slang is polysemantic. The term 'slang' should specify some elements
which may be called over-colloquial. Slang is an entire language or even a dialect that has its unique
phonetic, morphological, and syntactical peculiarities. Nowadays, native speakers prefer slang more than
literary language. Neutral language stays still during centuries, but slang always changes historically [3, p.
95].
Slang takes an important part in the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger. The book was
published in 1951. The main character is a teenager, who speaks American slang and young people all over
the USA copy his language. Often teenagers feel bored to speak Queen’s English that’s why it is they who
use it constantly.
The novel was translated three times into Russian: in 1955 by Rita Rait-Kovaleva «Над пропастью
во ржи», in 1998 by Sergei Makhov «Обрыв на краю ржаного поля детства», in 2008 by Maxim Nemtsov
«Ловец во ржи». Every of these translations is a reflection of a define epoch in the history of our society.
Rita Rait-Kovaleva translated during Soviet times. Due to censorship of those times and slang
couldn’t influence Russian literary language. That’s why the translator was trying to mild vulgarisms, sex
terms. Undoubtedly she was motivated by the norms of Russian literary language. Where there is no ground

128
for such expressions. After publishing “The Catcher in the Rye”, Soviet young people had a tendency to
employ translated slang from this book: David Copperfield kind of crap / дэвидкопперфилдовскую муть,
My parents would have about two hemorrhages apiece / два инфаркта на брата, He’s got a lot of dough
/денег у него куча, Being a prostitute / скурвился, Strictly for the birds / вот уж липа, etc.
Of course, the translations made in 1998 and in 2008 differ from the translation in 1955. It is
connected with political and social events that took place in Russia. There was a redundancy of Russian
slang. Vulgarisms and swearings are seemed to be appeared in the translations. Slang’s cultural role is
changed. Not only Makhov and Nemtsov were trying to translate the book and slang, but also they added
some extra kind of Russian view on the past events.
Sergei Makhov translates profanities which are more frequent with stylized violence: «мура»,
«больно уж занудно», «предки», «трепаться», «икру метать», «обидчивые до чертиков», «паршивое»,
«хреновина», «оклематься», «дыра», «тачка», «дает до трехсот кэмэ в час», «ни фига», «клевый»,
«обалденный», «продается как девка», «жучилы».
Moreover, we observe the same traces in Maksim Nemtsov’s translation, he imploys: «дебил»,
«гроши», «фараон», «жмурик», «туфта», «дурацкий», «зашибись», «четкий», «я чуть не сдох». These
two translations are changing reader’s perception as if he/she turned out to be in two realities at once, in the
USA of 50’s and in a contemporary Russia.
As an object prove let’s analyze the passage from the original novel and its three translations into
Russian. ”The phone was right next to me, and started to call down and have them send up some breakfast,
but I was sort of afraid they might send it up with old Maurice. If you think I was dying to see him again,
you’re crazy. So I just laid around in bed for a while and smoked another cigarette. I thought of giving old
Jane a buzz, to see if she was home yet and all, but I wasn’t in the mood” [5, p.78].
The translation of Rita Rait-Kovaleva: «Телефон стоял рядом, и я хотел было позвонить вниз –
заказать завтрак в номер, но потом побоялся, что завтрак пришлют вместе с этим самым лифтером
Морисом, а если вы думаете, что я мечтал его видеть, вы глубоко ошибаетесь. Я полежал в постели,
выкурил сигарету. Хотел звякнуть Джейн – узнать, дома ли она, но настроения не было» [1, p.102].
The translation of Sergei Makhov: «Рядом стоит переговорное устройство; я уже начал звонить
вниз, дабы прислали какой-нибудь завтрак, но вроде как побоялся: вдруг притащит старина Морис. А
коли думаете, до смерти желал ещѐ одной с ним встречи, то у вас не все дома. Посему чуток
полежал, выкурил ещѐ одну. После думаю: позвоню-ка старушке Джейн, небось уже приехала
домой-то, и вообще. Но чѐ-то настроенье не покатило» [2, p. 98].
The translation of Maksim Nemtsov: «Телефон стоял рядом, поэтому я стал было звонить, чтоб
завтрак в номер принесли, но как бы испугался, что его пришлют с этим Морисом. Вы долбанулись,
если думаете, будто я по нему соскучился. Потом я полежал немного в постели и выкурил еще сигу.
Решил было звякнуть этой Джейн, проверить, может она уже дома и всяко-разно, только что-то мне
было не в струю» [1, p. 463].
According to NTC’s Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions, the word “crazy”
has one meaning – a crazy person. The word combination “to give a buzz” means to call on the phone [4, p.
56].
In the given passage in English, slang is an adj. “old”, word combinations “you’re crazy” and “to
give a buzz”. Rita Rait-Kovaleva did not reflect the adj. “old” in the case with Jane. Finally, the slang words
in Makhov’s and Nemtsov’s translations are more prevalent in the Russian version than in American.
To sum up, I’d like to say, that the translations made in different time, differ in a lot of
characteristics. There is no appropriate way how to translate slang. Rita Rait-Kovaleva was inclined to make
slang neutral and omit some moments. But translations of Makhov and Nemtsov are obviously exaggerated
with slangisms and we notice traits of their personality, this information is additional.

References:
1. Сэлинджер Дж. Д. Джером Сэлинджер: Над пропастью во ржи. Ловец на хлебном поле /
Джером Д. Сэлинджер; [пер. с англ. Р.Я. Райт-Ковалевой и М.А. Немцова]. – М.: Like book, 2017. –
576c.
2. Сэлинджер Дж. Д. Обрыв на краю ржаного поля детства: 9 рассказов / Джером Д.
Сэлинджер; [пер. с англ. С.А. Махов]. – М.: Аякс ЛТД, 1998. – 311с.
3. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка / И.Р. Гальперин [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа URL: https://vk.com/doc-61745783_418938277 (Дата обращения: 03.03.2018)
4. Salinger Jerome D. The Catcher in the Rye / Jerome D. Salinger [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа URL: https://vk.com/doc177773516_455882114 (Дата обращения: 03.03.2018)

129
5. NTC‘s Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions / Richard A. Spears
[Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа URL: https://www.pdfdrive.net/dictionary-of-american-slang-
and-colloquial-expressions-e13707989.html (Дата обращения: 03.03.2018)

Аннотация. В тезисах рассматривается проблема перевода сленгизмов на примере романа «Над


пропастью во ржи» Дж.Д. Сэлинджера. Термин «сленг» продолжает оставаться одним из самых
дискуссионных в филологии. Использование сленга в художественной литературе может рассматриваться
как особый прием, нарушающий автоматизм восприятия и преодолевающий стереотипы нормативного
языка. В романе сленг использован для обособления языковой картины мира подростка, не принимающего и не
понимающего условностей мира взрослых. Сленгизмы в романе имеют ярко выраженный эмоциональный,
экспрессивный и оценочный характер, и тесно связаны с историческим контекстом жизни США середины ХХ
века. Роман трижды переводился на русский язык. Каждый из переводов характеризуют свои особенности
понимания художественной функции сленга и, соответственно, способы перевода сленгизмов.
Ключевые слова: сленг, художественный перевод, «Над пропастью во ржи», Дж.Д. Сэлинджер,
Рита Райт-Ковалева, Сергей Махов, Максим Немцов
Summary. In the paper I deal with translating slang according to the novel “The catcher in the rye” by J.D.
Salinger. The term is one of the most controversial in linguistics. Slang is a stylistic device used in literature, which
violates perception and language norms. In the novel a teenager employed slang as a protest not to follow hypocritical
social rules. Slang words are emotional and expressive, they are connected with American historical events in mid 50’s.
The novel was translated three times into Russian. Every translation is characterized by its pecularities, slang litterary
purpose and personal views.
Key words: Slang, literary translation, “The catcher in the rye”, J.D. Salinger, Rita Rait-Kovaleva, Sergei
Makhov, Maksim Nemtsov

УДК 81'255.2
RENDERING INTERTEXTUAL DIALOG IN TRANSLATION OF M. I. TSVETAEVA‟S
POEM “SCOURGE OF GENDARMES, GOD OF STUDENTS…” INTO THE ENGLISH
LANGUAGE
Valentina Miagkova
5th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: valentinamiagkova@gmail.com
Abramicheva Elena
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The issue of the poetic translation has been debatable for centuries and the search for the most
profound and effective interpretation techniques continues. Immeasurable expressive and pragmatic potential
of poetry is achieved with the help of different means and tools, including intertext.
The aim of our research is to define the adequacy degree of conveying the intertextual dialog in the
translated poetry. The relevant issue of the poetry as an instrument of intercultural communication was rarely
considered on the basis of Tsvetaeva's works. The analysis of the translation of this poem with the aim of
estimating the adequacy degree of conveying the intertextual dialogue is conducted for the first time.
Theoretical approach to intertextuality has been forming only since 1966, when Yu. Kristeva
represented her analysis of the works by M. M. Bakhtin in the seminar conducted by R. Bart. Kristeva
emphasized the discovery made by Bakhtin in the field of the theory of literature: ―every text is absorption
and transformation of the other text, every text is built as the citation mosaic‖. Bakhtin perceives
intertextuality as ―the dialog of minds through the prism of forgotten meanings‖. According to Bart, the text
consists of citations, references, reminiscences representing the cultural codes, which penetrate the text and
create ―powerful stereophony‖.
The proper interpretation of the intertextual elements is crucial to preserve the original emotional and
pragmatic effect of the literary work, since in fiction intertextuality often contributes to conveying the

130
authors message, transmitting the cultural peculiarities and to the style-formation. According to
Ya. Assmann, rendering of the intertextual elements requires from the translator deep background knowledge
and understanding of cultural and cognitive context [1, www].
Intertextuality as a translation issue has been covered in the works by P. Torop, G. V. Denisova,
M. L. Malakhovskaya, L. B. Boyko, K. V. Rudenko, and A. A. Guseva.
We try to estimate the translation adequacy from the point of view of the communicative-
pragmatic approach, which implies the primate of rendering the emotive and pragmatic effect of the original
text alongside with the gist of a literary work. We also agree that translating the intertextual elements often
presupposes a great deal of losses, but it is also important to compensate those of them, which prevent the
translated text from making impression equivalent to the one of the original text. The works by
A. V. Fedorov, V. N. Komissarov, E. G. Etkind, A. D. Schweizer, L. S. Barkhudarov,
L. K. Latyshev, V. V. Sdobnikov, L. S. Makarova provided the theoretical basis for our research.
Before we analyze the translated text and try to estimate its quality, it is necessary to consider some
details about the original poem. The poem ―Scourge of gendarmes, god of students‖ was written in 1931 in
Meudon. Biographic background of the poem is vividly described by A. A. Saakyants [2, p. 586-587].
Tsvetaeva opposes the contemporary trend of promoting the exaggerated Russian nature of Pushkin,
calling this attitude low and hypocritical. With a wide variety of bright metaphors and antitheses Tsvetaeva
creates her own, very personal and non-traditional portrait or Pushkin. She builds a multi-levelled
intertextual dialog not only with Pushkin but also with B. Pasternak.
Analyzing the mechanisms of the intertextual connections, we concluded that the ability of the
recipient of the translated text to recognize the intertextual element and build up the cognitive bound with the
precedent text could be named as one of the key-factors of the adequate perception. This process goes along
with less difficulty when the precedent text is widely known within the context of different cultures (e.g. The
Bible or W. Shakespeare‘s works). If the precedent text was translated before, the translator of the recipient
text should do everything possible to provide the closest associative bounds between the translated recipient
and precedent texts. Let us consider several examples of how the translator deals with the allusions to the
precedent texts, which have a number of English translations.
In the poem, Tsvetaeva alludes to two widely known works by Pushkin ―The Stone guest‖
(translated by Nancy K. Anderson and Alan Shaw) and ―The Bronze Horseman‖ (translated by
Waclaw Lednicki and John Dewey): «Пушкин — в роли монумента? / Гостя каменного?»; «Поскакал
бы, Всадник Медный, / он со всех копыт назад». In the first case, Shambat manages to render the allusion
with regard of the translated precedent text recognized by the English-speaking reader (―Pushkin - in a
monument's role? / In a role of a stone guest?‖) and, as the result, preserves the association with the
Pushkin‘s personage — jealous husband willing to take revenge on Don Juan. In the second case, however
the translator fails preserve the intertextual bound to the precedent text (―Would you, O the Copper
Horseman, / On all hooves behind come leap‖), which leads to the inability of the recipient to decode the
original metaphor built with the help of the allusion.
Rather often the translator happens to deal with the references, the source of which hasn‘t been
translated into the recipient language. In this case, it is of great importance to understand which function the
intertextual element performs in the given context, what kind of author‘s message it conveys. Considering
these aspects, the translator should preserve the general idea and pragmatic effect of the original fragment,
even if the semantic and associative intensity provided by the intertextual element is to be lost. Let us
consider the corresponding examples.
In the original poem we can trace two citations, which are rather difficult to be recognized even for
the bearer of the Russian language and culture: ―трусоват был Ваня бедный, / Ну, а он не трусоват‖
from less famous poem by Pushkin ―Vurdalak‖ and ―Этот — голубей олив — / (...) / Лоб — навеки
заклеймив‖ from ―Variation № 4‖ by B. Pasternak, which in its turn contains the allusion to the Pushkin‘s
poem ―Tsygane‖. In case of the first citation Shambat manages to preserve the original antithesis opposing
Pushkin to the ordinary narrow-minded and cowardly Russian man enhancing it with the root-repetition
(―Poor Vanya was a coward, / But he — is not cowardly‖). But the attempt to render the second fragment,
referring to Pasternak‘s poem, which portrays the gypsies with their olive skin seeming blue in the
moonlight, appears to be unsuccessful (―This — pigeons' olives — / The most free, the most far-out /
Forehead‖). The phrase ―pigeons' olives‖ ruins the original vivid epithet and the unity of the line.
In conclusion, the study found that the intertextual elements in this poetic work perform a number of
important functions:
1) Informative (the conceptual information contained in the intertextual elements expands the
information scope of the literary work);

131
2) structural and semantic (intertextuality forms the ideological axis of the poem, reveals Tsvetaeva's
dialogue with a number of addressees: Pushkin, Pasternak, critics of the past and contemporary critics);
3) pragmatic (intertextual elements work to debunk the stereotype, convey an emotionally expressive
point of view of the author);
4) stylistic (intertextual elements in the poem serve to realize such stylistic means as antithesis,
metaphor, periphrasis).
The main difficulty in translating intertextual elements results from the difference in background
knowledge of bearers of different languages and cultures. Therefore, the reconstruction of the original
communicative and pragmatic effect, as well as the adequate rendering of informative and semantic
intertextual components, is possible only if the translator is able to recognize and interpret the source of the
intertextual element, and if the recipient is also familiar with the precedent text.

References:
1. Руденко К. В. К вопросу о специфике перевода русского художественного текста на
английский язык // [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://www.pglu.ru/information/staff/teachers/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=12673 (Дата обращения:
21.01.2018).
2. Саакянц А. А. Жизнь Цветаевой. Бессмертная птица-феникс. М.: Центрполиграф, 2002. —
827 с.
3. Цветаева М. Стихотворения и поэмы. СПб: Азбука, Азбука-Аттикус, 2015. – 512 с.
4. Шамбат И. Переводы избранной поэзии М. Цветаевой // [Электронный ресурс]. — Режим
доступа: http://www.cvetaeva.org.ru/chapter-sb-bk-387-num/0/. (Дата обращения: 14.02.2018)

Аннотация. В статье рассматривается интертекст поэтического произведения как переводческая


проблема. Автором предпринята попытка определить степень адекватности передачи интертекстуального
диалога в переводном произведении. В ходе исследования был проведен сопоставительный анализ
стихотворения М. И. Цветаевой «Бич жандармов, бог студентов…» и его перевода на английский язык,
выполненного И. Шамбатом. Выбор произведения обусловлен сложным характером интертекста, с помощью
которого Цветаева разрушает стереотипный образ А. С. Пушкина и создает оригинальный, многоплановый
портрет русского классика.
Ключевые слова: интертекстуальность, интертекстуальный диалог, адекватность перевода,
аллюзия, функции интертекстуальных элементов.
Summary. The article regards the intertextuality in poetry as translation issue. The author tried to estimate the
adequacy degree of conveying the intertextual dialog in the translated poetry. The research included the comparative
analysis of M. I. Tsvetaevas poem ―Scourge of gendarmes, god of students…‖ and its translation into English by
I. Shambat. The particular material is chosen due to complex character of intertextuality, with the help of which
Tsvetaeva debunks the stereotypical image of A. S. Pushkin and creates an original, multifaceted portrait of the Russian
classical author.
Key words: intertextuality, intertextual dialog, translation adequacy, allusion, functions of the intertextual
elements.

УДК 81‘25:[81‘367.622.12:791.228]=111
RENDERING CHARACTONYMS IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN TRANSLATIONS OF DISNEY
CARTOONS

Katherine Potapenko
3rd year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: katepotap0129@rambler.ru
Natalia Rudenko
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

132
The recent time has witnessed an increased interest of native and foreign scholars to the applied
research in the field of the theory of name. The proper names have been thoroughly investigated throughout
decades by European and American linguists in the domain of stylistics, onomastics, cognitive science and
translation theory. As follows from the numerous literary criticism works on style and translation, proper
names play an important role in a literary work. The names containing in their stems components of common
nouns and of other parts of speech, along with their nominal function can, carry out the function of
characterizing a person or a place [5].
Proper names create a special system in belles-lettres texts and thus demand particular attention
when being rendered into a foreign language. But it is not only literature that is well-known for its famous
charactonyms and their successful translations. Charactonyms play an important role in the cinematography
and animation as well. Animated cartoons by the Walt Disney Company, which have been popular all over
the world with several generations of viewers, contain quite a lot of charactonyms. These films address the
children audience, and therefore adults always take great pains in order to win a small child‘s admiration.
They release pictures with bright colors, vivid characters and fast-moving actions to make children smile.
Computer effects and visual products are not the only things that make the younger generation enjoy
cartoons so much. Absorbing personages with memorable names leave deep and lasting impression on
children. That‘s why translation of ―speaking names‖ has always been an important problem.
The first thought that crosses our minds when we think of the word ―cartoon‖ is ―children‖. A major
percentage of the urban population has grown up watching cartoons. Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Disney
Fairies have become a part of its childhood years. Walt Disney, who made cartoons so famous, has become a
legend and so have his creations. They have become iconic since the time of their first appearance [6].
In order to evoke the right mood and appropriate associations in children‘s mind, translators may
resort to different strategies, procedures and techniques. Like other anthroponyms, charactonyms may be
rendered in literary translation by means of transcription or transliteration traditionally used for rendering
proper names, but in this case fictitious names may become devoid of the sense which they bear in the
original [2, p. 67-69]. So in cartoons they should be rendered strictly in compliance with their inner form of
semantics, which predetermines the application of the domestication strategy, through the techniques of
calquing, contextual replacement, semantic development and, in the most tricky cases, descriptive translation
or the translator‘s footnote [3, p. 43-47].
We conducted an experiment and studies five well-known Disney cartoons and their Russian and
German translations in order to find out the difference between translation techniques used. Translating
charactonyms, one should take into consideration personalities of the characters in question, their thoughts
and actions.
First of all, let us consider some famous animated cartoons from the previous century that heralded
the beginning of the Golden Age of Animation, called ―Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs‖ (1938) and
―Sleeping Beauty‖ (1959). The analysis allows to point out a trend: when translating names of three fairies
(―Sleeping Beauty‖), translators resorted to transliteration (Flora – Флора – Flora; Fauna – Фауна –
Fauna) and to the approximate translation, which aims at preserving a denotative value and consists in the
replacement with a functional analogue (Merryweather – Погодушка – Sonnenschein). Most of the names of
the Seven Dwarfs in ―Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs‖ were replaced by the cultural equivalents (Doc –
Умник – Chef; Grumpy – Ворчун – Brummbär; Happy– Весельчак – Happy; Sleepy – Соня – Schlafmütz;
Bashful – Скромник – Pimpel; Sneezy – Чихун – Hatschi; Dopey – Простачок – Seppl).
There are two more excellent examples of inspiring work of last century translators: ―Chip 'n Dale:
Rescue Rangers‖ (1989-1990) and ―DuckTales‖ (1987-1990). Almost all the names of the main characters
(―DuckTales‖) were rendered by word-for-word translation, which is the process of sequential establishment
of translation conformity to each subsequent word in a sentence or phrase (―Webby‖ Vanderquack – Понка
Вандеркряк; Mrs. Beakley –Миссис Клювдия; Gyro Gearloose – Винт Разболтайло – Daniel Düsentrieb;
Launchpad McQuack – Зигзаг МакКряк – Quack, der Bruchpilot). Moreover, such technique as replacing
realia plays an important role in translation process. For example, the name of a mouse from Australia
Monterey Jack (Monty) (―Chip 'n Dale: Rescue Rangers‖) who has a strong, irresistible craving for cheese
(and probably that is why his name coincides with that of an American semi-hard cheese) was adapted for
Russian viewers and went as Рокфор (Рокки). The name of the main heroine was translated into Russian by
means of replacement with a functional analogue: Gadget – Гаечка – Trixi.
As far as modern animation is concerned, the cartoon ―How to Train Your Dragon‖ (2010) can be
mentioned. Most of the charactonyms are rendered by semantic translation: Hiccup Horrendous Haddock III

133
– Иккинг Кровожадный Карасик – Hicks der Hün; Fishlegs – Рыбьеног – Fischbein; Gobber – Плевака –
Grobian.
Disney‘s choices reflected his time. His animated cartoons, some of which were inspired by the
Grimm Brothers‘ fairy tales, embrace the idea of transformation and see the protagonists as lifters, capable of
acting for change. The fairy tales, upon which some of the cartoons are based, are tinged with different
symbols to teach cognitive skills and moral for children. But, in order for the children to take in these
symbols in the right way, translators must take into account the peculiarities of children psychology and
perception. That is why it is extremely important that charactonyms in translation should, on the one hand,
be understandable, accessible and appropriate for children and, on the other hand, should vividly describe the
characters they name.

References:
1. Ермолович Д.И. Имена собственные на стыке языков и культур. – М.: Р.Валент, 2001. –
274 c.
2. Комиссаров В.Н. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский: Учеб. пособие
для ин-тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. // В.Н. Комиссаров, А.Л. Коралова. – М.: Высшая школа, 1990. –
127 с.
3. Рецкер Я.И. Теория перевода и переводческая практика. – М.: Просвещение, 2010. – 244 c.
4. Соломыкина А.С. Способы перевода имен собственных на материале американской
публицистики [Электронный ресурс] / А.С. Соломыкина, Н.А. Каширина // Современные наукоемкие
технологии. – 2013. – № 7. – URL: https://www.scienceforum.ru/2013/230/3726 (дата обращения:
20.02.2018).
5. Derik I.M. The problem of rendering anthroponyms ‗speaking names‘ in literary translation //
Записки з ономастики. – 2015. – №15. – C. 179-187.
6. Cartoons: their importance in kids‘ development [Электронный ресурс]. – URL:
https://www.mashandco.tv/en/cartoons-their-importance-in-kids-development/ (дата обращения:
20.02.2018).

Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются особенности перевода имен персонажей диснеевских


мультфильмов на русский и немецкий языки. Анализируются различные подходы к переводу «говорящих имен».
Описываются наиболее подходящие способы и приемы перевода, выбранные для воспроизведения «говорящих
имен» в пяти диснеевских мультфильмах.
Ключевые слова: «говорящие имена», способы и приемы перевода, переводческие трансформации,
диснеевские мультфильмы.
Summary. The article dwells on the peculiarities of rendering charactonyms in Russian and German
translations of Disney cartoons. It tackles different approaches to the issue of charactonyms and their place in
translation studies. The most appropriate translation techniques which were used in order to render charactonyms of
five Disney cartoons are considered.
Key words: charactonyms, translation techniques, translation transformations, Disney animated cartoons.

УДК 81.255.4
LOS ASPECTOS PRAGMÁTICOS DE LA LITERATURA JUVENIL
Anastasía Skrípchenko
Alumna del 9 grado,
Escuela Secundaria №45 con el
aprendizaje profundizado del español
e-mail: escuela45sevastopol@mail.ru
Valeria Antonenkova,
Asesor científico, profesora del español,
Escuela Secundaria №45 con
el aprendizaje profundizado del español

El medio más importante para el desarrollo moral, estético e intelectual de niños y adolescentes es la
lectura. La entrada de un niño en el universo del libro se produce principalmente a través de la literatura,

134
creada especialmente para niños. La literatura infantil influye en la formación del carácter del niño, alimenta
su mente y su imaginación, le revela nuevos mundos.
Actualmente, en el contexto de poca actividad de lectores, la sociedad comienza a exigir cada vez
más la calidad de la literatura infantil. Un libro para niños debe ser cognitivo y al mismo tiempo fascinante,
informativo y al mismo tiempo accesible. Gracias a la exitosa introducción de lectores jóvenes a la buena
literatura, ha formado una cultura de la lectura desde la infancia, se ha creado un amor por el libro y se está
desarrollando el deseo de obtener nuevos conocimientos de forma independiente.
Todo lo dicho se aplica completamente no solo a las obras literarias escritas por clásicos nacionales,
sino también por los autores extranjeros. Las obras literarias extranjeras, tanto en el idioma original como en
traducción, abren las mentes de lectores jóvenes, les dan a conocer las tradiciones de otros países. Sin
embargo, existe el problema de pérdida de calidad de la traducción de la literatura infantil en las últimas dos
décadas. El problema se debe a las razones económicas y profesionales. La ―vieja‖ generación de intérpretes
se va, la ―nueva‖ está entrando en la profesión hoy en día y tiene que pasar la etapa de reflexión.
En otras palabras, es necesario desarrollar los criterios de la calidad de la traducción de la literatura
infantil. Este desafío se puede enfrentar si hacemos una evaluación completa de las traducciones exitosas de
los libros infantiles tras realizar la síntesis y la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos básicos, particularmente
importantes para la traducción de la literatura infantil.
El material para la investigación es el libro en inglés de Stephen y Lucy Hawking ―George‘s Secret
Key to the Universe‖ [1, p.1] y su traducción al español ―La clave secreta del universo‖ [2, p.1], hecha por
Laura Martín de Dios. Stephen Hawking es un astrofísico británico, ganador del premio Nobel, autor de la
última teoría de los agujeros negros. Participa activamente en la popularización de la ciencia, que es una de
las tareas de su libro. El libro disfruta de un éxito indiscutible con los lectores en todo el mundo. Los autores
del libro encargan el material didáctico muy serio: mostrar a los lectores jóvenes la importancia de la ciencia
y de los conocimientos. La traducción adecuada de tal libro es una tarea difícil. Es probable que la traducción
exacta sea demasiado complicada y no cautive al lector.
Al examinar el concepto de la pragmática de texto [3] y pragmática de la traducción y la adaptación
pragmática [4], vamos a considerar, cómo el traductor logra transmitir todas las cosas que quería decir a los
lectores el autor del texto original.
Por lo tanto, el tema de nuestro estudio es la capacidad pragmática del texto del libro infantil y la
reproducción de esta capacidad en la traducción. El objeto de estudio es los fragmentos de texto, en los
cuales se destacan las características que más nos interesan. La relevancia de este estudio se debe, por una
parte, a la importancia de la literatura infantil para el desarrollo de la sociedad y el individuo, por otra – a los
problemas asociados con el estudio de la pragmática de la literatura infantil en general y su aplicación en la
traducción, en particular.
Podemos destacar los métodos de adaptación pragmática utilizados por el traductor.
– La traducción semántica de nombres propios ayuda a dar una característica más viva de los
personajes para preservar el juego de palabras, la rima y la similitud sonora de las palabras del original.
The kids called him ―Greeper‖, a nickname that came from the sign on his study door, which read
Dr G.Reeper. Or ―Greeper the Creeper‖ because of his mysterious habit of appearing without warning in
far-flung corners of the school [1, p. 76].
Los niños lo llamaban ―doctor Gripe‖ por la placa de la puerta de su despacho, donde se leía:
DOCTOR G. RIPE. O también ―el buitre de Gripe‖, por su misteriosa costumbre de revolotear por los sitios
y abalanzarse sobre los incautos a la vuelta de la esquina [2, p. 72].
– Al traducir las realidades, la decisión de traducción opuesta también es posible, cuando se
conserva el valor referencial. Tal decisión está dirigida a la implementación de las funciones didácticas de la
literatura infantil. La elección del método de traducción en cada caso está determinada por la importancia de
la realidad para este contexto.
He turned out his pockets and found all his treasures – his conker, a foreign coin, a length of string,
a blob of Blu Tack, a model red sports car and a ball of fluff [1, p. 83].
Le dio la vuelta a los bolsillos y allí estaban todos sus tesoros: una castaña, una moneda extranjera,
un trozo de cuerda, otro de goma adhesiva, un coche deportivo rojo y una bola de pelusa [2, p. 87].
―Blu Tack‖ es un producto de la empresa Bostik, que puede convertirse en un reemplazo de cinta
adhesiva, botones y clips. Es muy probable que este producto sea desconocido para un niño español. Es
imposible dejar el concepto en la traducción sin comentarios, y el comentario aquí solo distraerá la atención
del desarrollo de los eventos, por lo tanto, el traductor omite la información.
Según Riitta Ottinen, la traducción de la literatura infantil puede considerarse una comunicación
entre adultos y niños: son los adultos quienes actúan como traductores [5]. En cualquier comunicación, la

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comprensión mutua es importante. El traductor, actuando como interlocutor, proporciona la comprensión
mutua entre el autor del texto en el idioma original y el lector de la traducción.
Los estudios en el campo de la pragmática de la traducción de literatura infantil ayudan a los
traductores a adquirir conocimientos profesionales, perfeccionar sus competencias profesionales, encontrar
soluciones eficaces en casos difíciles desde el punto de vista de la traducción.

References:
1. Hawking, S. & L. George‘s Secret Key to the Universe. – L.: Random House, 2008. – 320 p.
2. Hawking, S. & L. La clave secreta del universo. – Barcelona: Montena, 2008. – 224 p.
3. Lin, G.H.C. The significance of pragmatics. [Электронный ресурс]// Mingdao Journal – URL:
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/ content_storage_01/0000019b/80/42/c1/95.pdf (дата
обращения: 19.06.2011)
4. Newmark, P. Pragmatic translation and literalism. [Электронный ресурс]// TTR: traduction,
terminologie, rédaction – URL: id.erudit.org/iderudit/037027ar (дата обращения: 28.02.2018)
5. Oittinen, R. Translating for Children. – New York: Garland Publishing, 2002 – 204 p.

Аннотация. В данном исследовании рассматриваются вопросы прагматики текста и перевода.


Определив прагматические задачи детской литературы, мы выявили прагматические факторы, которые
следует учитывать при переводе. Проанализировав перевод на испанский язык произведения Стивена и Люси
Хокинг ―George‘s Secret Key to the Universe‖, мы обозначили текстовые фрагменты, при переводе которых
переводчик использовал прагматическую адаптацию. В результате анализа текстовых фрагментов,
обладающих прагматическим потенциалом, были выделены приемы, способствующие более полной передаче
информации, содержащейся в оригинале.
Ключевые слова: детская литература, перевод, прагматика текста, прагматический потенциал,
прагматическая адаптация.
Summary. This study examines the pragmatics of text and translation. Having determined the pragmatic tasks
of children's literature, we have identified the pragmatic factors that should be taken into account in the translation
process. Analyzing the translation into Spanish of the book by Stephen and Lucy Hawking "George's Secret Key to the
Universe", we designated text fragments, in the translation of which the translator used pragmatic adaptation. As a
result of the analysis of text fragments with the pragmatics potential, techniques have been singled out that contribute to
a more complete transmission of the information contained in the original.
Key words: children's literature, translation, the pragmatics of text, the pragmatics potential, pragmatic
adaptation.

УДК [821.134.2(8)''19''-31:81'25]=134.2
LAS PECULIARIDADES DE LA TRADUCCIÓN DEL LÉXICO INEQUIVALENTE DE LA
NOVELA “CIEN AÑOS DE SOLEDAD” ESCRITA POR GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ DEL
ESPAÑOL AL RUSO
Kira Tarasova
la estudiante de IV año,
la Cátedra de la Teoría y Práctica de la Traducción,
la Universidad Estatal de Sevastopol
e-mail: tarasova.kira@gmail.com
Yulia Toporkova
Asesor científico, la Candidata de Ciencias Pedagógicas,
la Profesora de la Cátedra
de la Teoría y Práctica de la Traducción,
la Universidad Estatal de Sevastopol

En el proceso de la traducción surgen problemas conectados tanto con el sistema gramatical del
idioma como con la composición léxica; al mismo tiempo el fenómeno de la inequivalencia puede
representar para el traductor cierto grado de complicidad.
La actualidad del trabajo por un lado se explica por lo que el problema de la traducción del léxico
inequivalente de la novela ―Cien años de soledad‖ escrita por Gabriel García Márquez no fue considerado

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profundamente antes. Por otro lado el léxico inequivalente representa los valores de la cultura y de las
lenguas de los pueblos de América Latina, revela las peculiaridades del lenguaje de la literatura
latinoamericana.
El fin de la investigación es revelar los tipos principales del léxico inequivalente de la novela ―Cien
años de soledad‖ por Gabriel García Márquez, analizar y destinguir las técnicas de la traducción de éste.
Las tareas son tomar conocimiento de la noción del léxico inequivalente y examinar las
clasificaciónes de éste; estudiar las peculiaridades de la traducción del léxico inequivalente de la obra
estudiada; examinar el léxico inequivalente en el texto original y en el texto de la traducción, hacer el análisis
comparativo de las unidades léxicas correspondientes; destinguir las técnicas principales de la traducción del
léxico inequivalente del español al ruso.
El léxico que no tiene equivalencia ejerce la función importante en la novela y plantea ante los
traductores las tareas, que exigen las soluciónes específicas de traducción.
De acuerdo con L. Barjudarov, las unidades léxicas sin inequivalencia son los elementos léxicos de
la lengua, que no tienen los equivalentes completos o parciales con los elementos léxicos de otra lengua [1].
Entre otros investigadores que hicieron el estudio del fenómeno de la inequivalencia podemos
nombrar a V. Vinogradov [2], a A. Ivanov [3].
A. Ivanov destingue tres grupos del léxico sin inequivalencia: léxico inequivalente de referencia
(referencias culturales, términos, neologismos del autor), léxico inequivalente pragmático (dialectos, jergas,
caló especial, abreviaturas, interjecciónes), léxico inequivalente alternativo (nombres propios, referencias
culturales) [3].
Según Yu. Toporkova, las técnicas básicas de la traducción del léxico inequivalente de la novela
―Cien años de soledad‖ son transliteración, transcripción, traducción descriptiva, traducción hiponímica,
traducción aproximada [7].
Examinemos los ejemplos mas interesantes del léxico inequivalente que hay en el primer capítulo de
la novela; hagamos el análisis comparativo y distingamos las peculiaridades y las técnicas de traducción de
los elementos léxicos inequivalentes en las traducciónes hechas por N. Butyrina, V. Stolbova y por M.
Bylinkina.
Entre las técnicas de la traducción del léxico inequivalente alternativo en la novela ―Cien años de
soledad‖ la primera que se destaca es la transliteración (transcripcìon):
―Muchos años después, frente al pelotón de fusilamiento, el coronel Aureliano Buendía había de
recordar aquella tarde remota en que su padre lo llevó a conocer el hielo‖ [6, p. 3].
―Пройдет много лет, и полковник Аурелиано Буэндиа, стоя у стены в ожидании расстрела,
вспомнит тот далекий вечер, когда отец взял его с собой посмотреть на лед‖ [4, p. 33].
―Много лет спустя, перед самым расстрелом, полковник Аурелиано Буэндия припомнит тот
далекий день, когда отец повел его поглядеть на лед‖ [5, p. 7].
Vamos a examinar los ejemplos de la traducción del léxico inequivalente de referencia.
En el ejemplo siguiente la traducción de la palabra ―cañabrava‖ provoca cierto interés: N. Butyrina
y V. Stolbov usan en la traducción el equivalente ―бамбук‖, mientras M. Bylinkina traduce esta palabra
como ―камышовыми‖, adoptando esta referencia cultural para la compresión rusa.
―Macondo era entonces una aldea de veinte casas de barro y cañabrava construidas a la orilla de
un río de aguas diáfanas que se precipitaban por un lecho de piedras pulidas, blancas y enormes como
huevos prehistóricos‖ [6, p. 3].
―Макондо было тогда небольшим селением с двумя десятками хижин, выстроенных из глины
и бамбука на берегу реки, которая мчала свои прозрачные воды по ложу из белых отполированных
камней, огромных, как доисторические яйца‖ [4, p. 33].
―Макондо был тогда небольшим поселком из двадцати глинобитных, с камышовыми
кровлями домишек, стоявших на берегу реки, которая несла свои прозрачные воды по ложу из белых,
гладких и огромных, как доисторические яйца, валунов‖ [5, p. 7].
En la traducción del nombre de instrumento musical nacional ―timbal‖ N. Butyrina y V. Stolbov
usan equivalente ―тамбурин‖ Tomando en cuenta el contexto de la vida gitana, la traducción de M.
Bylinkina es más correcta, pues lo que se usa en bailes gitanos es ―бубны‖.
―Todos los años, por el mes de marzo, una familia de gitanos desarrapados plantaba su carpa cerca
de la aldea, y con un grande alboroto de pitos y timbales daban a conocer los nuevos inventos‖ [6, p. 3].
―Каждый год в марте месяце у околицы селения раскидывало свои шатры оборванное
цыганское племя и под визг свистулек и звон тамбуринов знакомило жителей Макондо с последними
изобретениями ученых мужей‖ [4, p. 33].

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―Каждый год в марте месяце лохматое цыганское племя ставило свой шатер близ поселка, и
под звонкое дребезжание бубнов и визготню свистулек пришельцы показывали жителям новейшие
изобретения‖ [5, p. 7].
En la traducción de plantas N. Butyrina y V. Stolbov usan equivalentes y transcripcìones
conservando las pecularidades territoriales de vegetación. M. Bylinkina sigue esta misma tendencia a
excepción de la traducción de la palabara ―ahuyama‖: ella usa la traducción hiponimica, haciendo perder así
el matiz nacional del significado.
―Fue ésa la época en que adquirió el hábito de hablar a solas, paseándose por la casa sin hacer
caso de nadie, mientras Úrsula y los niños se partían el espinazo en la huerta cuidando el plátano y la
malanga, la yuca y el ñame, la ahuyama y la berenjena‖ [6, p. 6].
―Именно в эту пору у него появилась привычка говорить с самим собой, разгуливая по дому и
ни на кого не обращая внимания, в то время как Урсула и дети гнули спины в поле, ухаживая за
бананами и малангой, маниокой и ямсом, ауйямой и баклажанами‖ [4, p. 37].
―Именно в это время он приобрел привычку разговаривать сам с собой, прохаживаясь по
дому и никого не замечая, тогда как Урсула в поте лица своего трудилась с детьми на земле,
выращивая маниоку, ямс и малангу, тыквы и баклажаны, ухаживая за бананами‖ [5, p. 11].
En el ejemplo que sigue los nombres de todos los pájaros expecto de ―azulejo‖, son traducidos por
traductores con ayuda del equivalente ruso. La palabra ―azulejo‖ N. Butyrina y V. Stolbov traducen como
―пчелояд‖, y M. Bylinkina como ―синица‖. Ambas traducciónes no son corectas, y no estamos conformes
con ellas. ―Azulejos‖ deben ser traducidos como ―сиалии‖ o ―лазурные птицы‖; ellos habitan en América
Central y no son parecidos a merops (―пчелояды‖) y carboneros (―синицы‖). La imagen de azulejos se
encuentra a menudo en la literatura latinoamericana y está presente en el folklore de americanos nativos.
―En poco tiempo llenó de turpiales, canarios, azulejos y petirrojos no sólo la propia casa, sino todas
las de la aldea‖ [6, p. 11].
―Вскоре он наполнил иволгами, канарейками, пчелоядами и малиновками не только свой
собственный, но и все остальные дома селения‖ [4, p. 40].
―Очень скоро иволги, канарейки, малиновки и синицы заполонили не только его дом, но и все
дома поселка‖ [5, p. 17].
En la traducción de la palabra ―guacamayas‖ N. Butyrina y V. Stolbov usan la traducción
hiponímica mientras M. Bylinkina transcribe la referencia cultural, pero añade la palabra ―попугай‖ para
que un lector ruso comprenda que pajaros son éstos.
―Trataban de aplazar con esa precaución la necesidad de seguir comiendo guacamayas, cuya carne
azul tenía un áspero sabor de almizcle‖ [6, p. 13].
―Этой предосторожностью они пытались отдалить от себя тот день, когда придется
питаться попугаями, синее мясо которых сильно отдает мускусом‖ [4, p. 41].
―Надо было по возможности отдалить тот день, когда придется есть синее мясо попугаев-
гуакамайо, бьющее в нос мускусом‖ [5, p. 18].
En el resultado del análisis comparativo del texto original de la novela ―Cien años de soledad‖ y de
dos sus traducciónes, podemos hacer las conclusiónes siguintes. Las técnicas básicas de la traducción del
léxico inequivalente usadas por los traductores de la novela examinada son transliteración, transcripción,
traducción hiponímica. Los dos tipos principales del léxico inequivalente que se encuentra en la novela son
léxico inequivalente de referencia y léxico inequivalente alternativo.
Podemos concluir que durante la traducción del léxico inequivalente los traductores han logrado
evitar las pérdidas esenciales tanto en el nivel semántico como en el estilístico. A pesar de esto, según
nuestra opinión, la traducción de M. Bylinkina es más viva y más adecuada que la traducción de N. Butyrina
y V. Stolbov, pues a traves de la traducción de léxico ella ha conseguido conservar el colorido
latinoamericano del texto original y transmitir la indentidad nacional y cultural.

Referencias:
1. Бархударов Л.С. Язык и перевод: Вопросы общей и частной теории перевода. – М.: ЛКИ,
2008. – 240 с.
2. Виноградов В.С. Лексические вопросы перевода художественной прозы. – М.:
Издательство Московского университета, 1978. – 172 с.
3. Иванов А.О. Безэквивалентная лексика / А.О. Иванов. – СПб.: Изд-во СПбГУ, 2006. – 200 с.
4. Маркес Г.Г. Сто лет одиночества / Габриэль Гарсия Маркес; [пер. с исп. Н. Бутыриной и В.
Столбова]. – Мастера современной прозы. – Москва: ПРОГРЕСС, 1979. – 586, [33-392] с.

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5. Маркес Г.Г. Сто лет одиночества: [роман] / Габриэль Гарсия Маркес; [пер. с исп. М.И.
Былинкиной]. – М.: Издательство АСТ, 2017. – 477, [3] с.
6. Маркес Г.Г. Сто лет одиночества: Книга для чтения на испанском языке. – СПб.: КОРОНА
принт, КАРО, 2014. – 416 с.
7. Топоркова Ю.А. Способы передачи безэквивалентной лексики романа Г.Г. Маркеса «Сто
лет одиночества» в русском переводе / Ю.А. Топоркова // Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и
практики. – № 8 (74): в 2 ч. – Ч. 1. – Тамбов: Грамота, 2017. – С.151-154.

Аннотация. В данной статье исследуются особенности перевода безэквивалентной лексики романа


«Сто лет одиночества» Г.Г. Маркеса с испанского языка на русский и сопоставляются два перевода этого
романа на русский язык: Н.Я. Бутыриной и В.С. Столбова и М.И. Былинкиной. Выделены основные виды
безэквивалентной лексики анализируемого романа: альтернативно-безэквивалентная лексика и
референциально-безэквивалентная лексика; изучены и выделены основные способы перевода безэквивалентной
лексики романа: транслитерация, транскрибирование и гипонимический перевод. Проанализированы и
обоснованы наиболее удачные переводческие решения.
Ключевые слова: безэквивалентная лексика, транслитерация, транскрибирование, гипонимический
перевод, референциально-безэквивалентная лексика, альтернативно-безэквивалентная лексика.
Summary. In the article the peculiarities of translation of the non-equivalent vocabulary of the novel ―One
Hundred Years of Solitude‖ by Gabriel García Márquez are examined and two translations of this novel into Russian
made by N. Butyrina, V. Stolbov and M. Bylinkina are compared. The main types of the non-equivalent vocabulary used
in the novel under the analysis are distinguished: the alternative non-equivalent vocabulary and the referential non-
equivalent vocabulary; the main techniques used in the translation of the non-equivalent vocabulary of the novel are
pointed out: transliteration, transcription and hyponymic translation. The most successful translation solutions are
analyzed and explained.
Key words: non-equivalent vocabulary, transliteration, transcription, hyponymic translation, referential non-
equivalent vocabulary, alternative non-equivalent vocabulary.

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LITERATURE


УДК 821.161.1
SILENCE AND SOUND IN THE DESCRIPTIVE SYSTEM OF V. BYKOV‟S NOVEL
“TO LIVE TILL SUNRISE”
Natalya Antonenko
3rd year student,
Philology Department,
Sevastopol Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University,
e-mail: straga98@mail.ru
Olga Kuzina
Scientific advisor, Assistant Lecturer,
Department of Foreign Languages,
Sevastopol Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University

One of the stylistic features of V. Bykov‘s ―military‖ prose, which has not been analyzed in a proper
way yet, is connected with the writer‘s ability to convey the psychological state of participants of strained
plot events persuasively and to the limit. It is reached with the help of ―neutral‖ (which goes from the
narrator) descriptions‘ reduction and focus on sharp visual and acoustical reactions of the main characters.
The aim of this article is to analyze the correlation between the most pointed narrative twists and
silence and sound contrasts.
According to Alexander Ledenev‘s opinion, the text is braided of colorful threads (not only visual,
but acoustical and taste); the result of such braiding demonstrates that there is interplaying of words,
paintings, sounds on the surface of a text [2].
Soliloquium and inner speech that rest on sounds and colours contrasts reach distinct expression.
These contrasts are rhythmically arranged in a syncopic style: particular state sweeps with agonizing
slowness to be rapidly changed by another one.
Feelings ―materialization‖ with the help of silence and sound contrasts is one of the variants of
psychological modeling in the novel ―To live till Sunrise‖. Belarusian version of the novel ―Дажыць да
свiтання‖ is dated from 1972, author‘s Russian-language version was published in 1976. Secret guerilla
group under the command of lieutenant Ivanovsky has to sneak into the enemy‘s rear and explode the
warehouse.
Accomplishment of mission is attributed to the highest concentration of soldier‘s attention. Each
centimeter of space and each split of second is endured with physiological strain. Hearing becomes the most
important of all spheres of sensual perception. The skill of keeping silence increases chances for survival,
involuntary noise can lead to death. Arranged series of interactive ―noise‖ and ―silence‖ details organize
intensity and semantic depth for the plot.
The events of the plot expand in the space, which is almost deprived of sound, in the ―dumb‖ space.
The reader and characters are submerged in it (―Он выжидательно обвел взглядом строй, в котором
ничто не шелохнулось, и было так тихо, что послышался шорох сдуваемых ветром с крыши
снежинок‖ [1, p. 14]).
The silence in Bykov‘s text descriptively produces two opposed meanings: on the one hand, it is
comprehended as a key to success of special-forces‘ raid (―Поблизости, однако, все было тихо, наши на
пригорочке с сосняком настороженно молчали, молчали впереди и немцы‖ [1, p. 19]). On the other
hand, it is symbolically saturated with the disaster‘s omen («Лейтенант ждал выстрелов, криков,
следующих ракет, но в сгустившейся темноте ночи стояла прежняя напряженно-зловещая тишина»
[1, p. 20]).
Mostly significant details are repeated in the text, creating the effect of tedious waiting. They are
characterized first of all acoustically (it is snow‘s rustle under the skies, the wind‘s howl in wild grasses and
soldiers breath). Almost each aggravation of the plot (worst-case scenario) on the contrary is enriched with
details that include visual ―flashes‖: ―…впереди и совсем близко звучно щелкнуло в воздухе, засипело,
заискрилось, и яркая огненная дуга прочертила по краю неба <...> Она торжественно распустилась

140
вверху букетом ослепительно сияющего пламени, и снежная равнина с кустарником затаилась,
замерла, сжалась, залитая ее лихорадочной яркостью‖ [1, p. 20].
Sound suddenly substitutes silence, as if with the ―syncopic stay‖: the space is impetuously being
filled up with the sound: (―Из ветреной снежной тьмы вдруг донесся какой-то странный крик, за ним
следом – второй, и, прежде чем Ивановский успел сообразить что-либо <...> бабахнул винтовочный
выстрел‖ [1, p. 42]; ―…Ивановский с колена еще выпустил очередь наугад, и тогда весь этот
недалекий край рощи загрохотал выстрелами‖ [1, p. 42]).
The hearing becomes the most important sense for the character‘s state transfer among the sensor
mechanisms. Sometimes the ability to hear is elevated into the sense that can resque: ―<...> слух теперь был
их единственной защитой в этом бесконечном, заметенном снегом противотанковом рву‖ [1, p. 84].
Even in cases, when the character tries to look around, he can rely only to the hearing ability: ―Он стал
ждать, тягостно, упорно, вслушиваясь в каждый шорох ветра на крыше, каждый отдаленный в
деревне звук; он жил в тревожном скупом мире звуков...‖ [1, p. 118].
The sound makes the lieutenant find some strength for the decisive battle march: ―Наверное, он бы
недолго протянул на морозном ветру и навсегда бы остался возле своего напарника, если бы в
скором времени до его слуха не донеслись из ветреной тиши странные звуки. По-видимому, слух был
самым выносливым из его чувств и бодрствовал до последнего предела жизни; теперь именно слух
связывал его с окружающим миром‖ [1, p. 138]. The categories of ―hearing‖ and ―life‖ draw together to
the limit and become almost identical.
Silence refers not only to sound absence in the surrounding world. It becomes consistently
correlative with the existential pillars, with the images of life and death (―Тогда что же – тихо умереть в
этой баньке?‖ [1, p. 111]; «…Ивановский почувствовал, как, в общем, неплохо ему было с этим тихим
безотказным парнишкой…» [1, p. 117]).
Tiring waiting and fear – but the fear of delay, not death – precedes the last battle of lieutenant
Ivanovsky. Fear is produced by the silence (―В первую минуту он даже испугался, подумав, что опоздал:
над дорогой лежала тишина, и ниоткуда не доносилось ни звука‖ [1, p. 141-142]; «...тех звуков,
которых он так дожидался, нигде не было слышно» [1, p. 145]).
Silence retracts. Sounds become the last display of the main character‘s life: ―И он освободил ее
(гранату) как раз в тот момент, когда шаги на дороге затихли поблизости. Он почувствовал под боком
тугой, пружинистый рывок планки, и тотчас неожиданно звучно хлопнул взрыватель. Немец коротко
вскрикнул, очевидно пускаясь наутек, Ивановский успел еще услышать два его отдавшихся в земле
шага и потом ничего уже больше не слышал…‖ [1, p. 150].
Therefore, we may say that the silence and sound contrasts are one of the variants of psychological
modeling in the novel. Hearing becomes the most important of all spheres of sensual perception, whose
manifestations let concisely convey ―materialized‖ feelings of the main character.

References:
1. Быков В. В. Дожить до рассвета. Сотников. Обелиск. Журавлиный крик. Знак беды. М.,
2010.
2. Леденев А. В. Русская проза начала XXI века и наследие В. Набокова // Русский язык и
литература в Азербайджане. – 2013. – № 1. – С. 35-38.

Аннотация. Статья посвящена исследованию взаимозависимости между выстроенной серией


взаимодействующих деталей шума и тишины с одной стороны и напряженностью и семантической глубиной
сюжета с другой. В работе рассмотрена одна из стилевых особенностей прозы В. Быкова, не получившая до
сих пор должного рассмотрения и заключающаяся в концентрации авторского внимания на обостренной
работе сенсорных систем, ведущей из которых в анализируемом произведении оказывается слуховая. В
результате исследования установлена зависимость между звуковыми и цвето-световыми контрастами,
психологическим состоянием героя-протагониста и развитием сюжета.
Ключевые слова: тишина, шум, сенсорные ощущения, сенсорная система, психологическая реакция.
Summary. The paper is devoted to the ways of dependence of the arranged series of interactive noise and
silence details on the one hand and intensity and semantic depth of the plot on the other hand. The article provides
analysis of one of the stylistic features of V. Bykov‘s prose that has not been fully analyzed yet. It is related to the
author‘s attention to sharp work of sensor systems. Hearing becomes the most important of all spheres of sensual
perception. As the result of the research the dependence between sounds and colours contrasts, psychological state of
the protagonist and unraveling of the plot were found out.
Key words: silence, sound, sensor feelings, sensor system, psychological reaction.

141
УДК 821.111
CLERIHEW AS A GENRE OF ENGLISH NONSENSE POETRY
Anastasiya Baksheeva
School 8, 11th form
Sevastopol
e-mail: nyancat12mimi@mail.ru
Natalia Rudenko
Scientific advisor,
PhD in Philology, Associate Professor,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Literary nonsense can be defined as a genre which has a long history in Europe and is found in many
European languages and literatures. In the history of British literature nonsense is often associated with the
Victorian Age and considered to be a response to the English way of life of the 19 th century. The rule of
Queen Victoria provided favorable environment for creating pure nonsense whose best known
representatives are Edward Lear and Lewis Carroll.
Pure nonsense can be described as pure art which does not tolerate any genre merges. The structure
of the text follows strict rules of this or that particular genre, but the contents admits various, even the most
inconceivable, blends and merges. In the works of literary nonsense the characters don‘t act according to the
laws of the culture by which they were created, they act according to the laws of the language and text.
According to ―A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory‖, nonsense writing ―is never intended to
make formal sense; nevertheless it has a kind of internal lunatic logic of its own, and often comprises
enigmatic variations on the absurd‖ [3, p. 475].
Literary nonsense has several basic features among which one can mention 1) the broad context
which allows various interpretations, 2) the so-called ―topsyturvydom‖ or the paradoxical play on word when
the sense is turned inside out and upside down and instantly comes back to its initial place, 3) the ability to
see the absurd in life and smile to it, 4) continuity of humour which flows from one form into the other,
5) clash of the rational and the absurd, 6) whimsical, extraordinary characters.
The genres of the British literary nonsense include clerihew. It is a short poem which describes a
person and a fact from their biography but in a humorous rather than documentary way. This genre was
invented by Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875–1956) and later acquired his name. It is believed that he
devised clerihew during a boring chemistry lesson when on a scrap of blotting paper he wrote the verse
which is now considered to be the model of the genre:
Sir Humphrey Davy
Abominated gravy.
He lived in the odium
Of having discovered sodium. [2, p. 6]
Later on, three collections of clerihews by E.C. Bentley were published (in 1905, 1913, and 1929)
and among E.C. Bentley‘s followers who wrote biographies in in this particular form were his son
N.C. Bentley, G.K. Chesterton, Dorothy Parker, W.H. Auden.
Clerihew has several genre-forming features. First of all, it consists of four lines comprising two
couplets (aabb).
The first line contains the name of a person who is the character of the clerihew. Moreover, this
character has to be well-known. For example, it can be a real person such as a politician, a historic figure, a
scientist, a writer, an artist, etc. Besides, it can be a hero of myths and legends or a literary character, but the
main idea is that the general public should know who that character is. In short, the character of a clerihew
should be recognizable as well as the fact or the detail in the real biography of the character which the
clerihew refers to.
This real biographic fact or detail is connected with this very person so inseparably that it often turns
into a cliché (e.g. Humphrey Davy – discovered sodium, Sir Christopher Wren – St. Paul‘s Cathedral, Dante
Alighieri – ―The Inferno‖) The action which is the cornerstone of a clerihew plot can be improbable and
absurd, but it is real and in some way true-to-life. So the humorous effect is produced on the juncture of
reality and impossibility, even absurdity. But this humor is soft and in no way satirical because the purpose
of a clerihew is to laugh at the situation, but not to deride the character.
One more important feature of clerihew is that its plot has to come to an end in the fourth and last
line. The thought has to be finished as clerihew cannot have an open finale.

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Let us consider an example of a clerihew by E.C. Bentley:
Jonathan Swift
Never went up in a lift;
Nor did the author of Robinson Crusoe
Do so. [3, p. 55]
Here we can see two couplets with terminal rhymes which describe a completed thought. The
character named in the first line is the author of ―Gulliver‘s Travels‖, famous writer and satirist Jonathan
Swift. Among other things he has in common with the author of ―Robinson Crusoe‖ Daniel Defoe, who was
Swift‘s contemporary, popular satirist and novelist, are two: both of their best known works are connected
with travelling, on the one hand. On the other hand, in late 1600th – early 1700th, when both of them lived,
there were hardly any passenger lifts which became common only in the second half of the 19th century. And
this is where the reality comes into contact with the improbability and thus creates the humour of the
clerihew.
To sum up, it should be pointed out that the genre of clerihew comprises basic features of literary
nonsense as well as its own unique characteristics regarding its poetic form, contents and the nature of
humour.

References:
1. Шама И.Н. Жизнь замечательных людей с юмором и без затей. Клерехью – читаем и
переводим. – Запорожье: ООО ―ИПО ―Запозiжжя‖, 2009. – 176 с.
2. Шама И.Н. Знакомесь – клерехью… – Запорожье: ООО ―ИПО ―Запорожье‖, 2009. – 160 с.
3. Cuddon J.A. A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory / J.A. Cuddon. – 5th ed. –pm
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. – 784 p.

Аннотация. В работе рассматривается клерихью как один из жанров английской поэзии нонсенса.
Приводятся основные характеристики литературного нонсенса, описывается история возникновения жанра
клерихью и его жанрообразующие признаки, проиллюстрированные примерами клерихью Э.К. Бентли.
Ключевые слова: английская литература, литературный нонсенс, жанр, клерихью, Э.К. Бентли.
Summary. The paper considers clerihew as one of the genres of English nonsense poetry. Basic
characteristics of literary nonsense are given; the history of clerihew and its genre-forming features are described and
exemplified by the clerihews of E.C. Bentley.
Key words: English literature, literary nonsense, genre, clerihew E.C. Bentley.

УДК 821.111 ―18‖ (049.3) = 111


OPPOSITION OF THE IMAGES OF THE PROVINCIAL LADIES AND LADIES FROM
SMART SOCIETY IN “PRIDE AND PREJUDICE” BY JANE AUSTEN
Anastasiya Velykaya
4th year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: anastasia-velikaya@yandex.ru
Mariya Nekrasova
Scientific advisor, Senior lecturer,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

The Victorian times are not so easy to describe, because the reign of Queen Victoria was incredibly
long. Literary styles and trends changed greatly, and the old world disintegrated so quickly that people could
hardly catch up with it. Great attention then was paid to women's education and upbringing. It should be
noted that educators and teachers who taught girls languages and other subjects were specially hired.
Besides, much attention was paid to music classes, dances, drawing and needlework [5]. It was the essence
of English educated lady. It`s widely known, that in XVIII-XIX centuries there was a certain ideal of female
behaviour, the pattern of a true lady, which girls had to follow from early age: ―keep oneself clean, refined,
elegant, quiet and calm‖ [3, р.398]. This pattern of the female behaviour was directly connected with the idea

143
of a woman as a keeper of family hearth. Marriage remained an essential institution for women, regardless of
the class they belonged to. As the idea of the family organized the life of most people in English society, the
whole system of educating Englishwomen was aimed at upbringing the future wife and mother [4].
The goals of this work are: to retrace and analyse the difference in education, upbringing, human
relationships between the ladies of smart society and provincial ones in Jane Austen`s novel ―Pride and
prejudice‖.
In her novel Jane Austen shows the process of the formation of a new woman, her life in various
spheres:
 social (family, work, education);
 spiritual (changing norms and values);
 economic;
 political (women's role in public affairs) [1, p.95].
The present article is based on the analysis of social and spiritual spheres. Reading the book, we
can`t but notice a banal way of life of the English provincial families, where a noble, but not very rich
gentleman is involved in financial matters and family support. His daughters have only one hope for future
prospective life – to marry successfully. His wife‘s all hopes and thoughts are aimed at this direction. ―If I
can but see one of my daughters happily settled at Netherfield,‖ said Mrs Bennet to her husband, ―and all
the others equally well married, I shall have nothing to wish for.‖ [2, p.8].
It is obvious, that in the province, the issue of marriage is mainly a problem of property. That's why
there are a lot of quotations where ―match‖ and ―fortune‖ are mentioned together. ―As to a fortune it is the
most eligible match,‖ [2, p.127] notes one of the characters about the marriage of Mr Collins and Charlotte
Lucas.
The image of Mrs Bennet is one of the brightest examples of the provincial English lady: ―She was a
woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper. When she was discontented, she
fancied herself nervous. The business of her life was to get her daughters married; its solace was visiting and
news‖ [2, p.5]. She is not much educated, just enough for this type of society, her everyday routine is sewing
and embroidery, but most of her day she spends gossiping and complaining about her ―poor nerves‖.
Quite opposite are the images of senior sisters Bennet. Elisabeth is reasonable, attentive, caring and
prescient. We can easily understand it when she persuades her mother not to let Jane ride to Netherfield on
horseback, because it looks like and her sister may catch a cold. Eventually, she comes to Bingley to care
about Jane. It is interesting to follow how smart ladies begin saying spiteful things behind Elizabeth`s back
after having dinner with her. We realize, that the essence of their small talks is finding faults with other
people, in the opinion of Miss Bingley about Elizabeth we can find: ―Her manners were pronounced to be
very bad indeed, a mixture of pride and impertinence; she had no conversation, no style, no beauty‖ [2,
p.33]. The dialogue between two smart ladies Mrs Hurst and Miss Bingley absolutely lacks sympathy and
understanding. ―She has nothing, in short, to recommend her, but being an excellent walker. I shall never
forget her appearance this morning. She really looked almost wild …Why must she be scampering about the
country, because her sister had a cold? Her hair, so untidy, so blowsy!‖ [2, p.33]. Smart ladies don`t care
about human relationships. They can hardly understand Jane‘s worries, sisterly relations for them are just a
competition.
It‘s worth mentioning the opposition of characters, aspirations, glances comparing sisters Bennet and
sisters Bingley. The later care only about their reputation in the society. ―It is amazing to me,‖ said Bingley,
―how young ladies can have patience to be so very accomplished as they all are.‖ [2, p.36]. We see, these
ladies exactly know the demand of society and they adapt to the rules. ―A woman must have a thorough
knowledge of music, singing, drawing, dancing, and the modern languages, to deserve the word; and besides
all this, she must possess a certain something in her air and manner of walking, the tone of her voice, her
address and expressions, or the word will be but half-deserved.‖ [2, p.36]. Meanwhile, their striving to study
isn`t sincere. ―Do you prefer reading to cards?‖ said he; ―that is rather singular.‖ [2, p.35].
They are small-minded ladies, who know only balls and gossip. They wear a mask of educational
ladies just to show off and are ready to judge others who are lower in status. Through Mrs Hurst`s words we
realize that despite her sympathy to Jane the family is the obstacle for her well-being in smart society. ―I
have an excessive regard for Miss Jane Bennet, she is really a very sweet girl, and I wish with all my heart
she were well settled. But with such a father and mother, and such low connections, I am afraid there is no
chance of it.‖ [2, p.34]. According to Jane Austin's comment on this ―Miss Bennet‘s pleasing manners grew
on the goodwill of Mrs Hurst and Miss Bingley; and though the mother was found to be intolerable, and the
younger sisters not worth speaking to...‖ [2, p.19]. It highlights the gap between provincial and society
ladies.

144
We come to the conclusion, that the ladies from smart society despise provincial ladies for their
origin and consider them silly ones and property-hunters. Opposing two types of ladies we can say, that
though there are some narrow-minded persons among the provincial ladies, there can be very nice and
educated girls with good manners, who despite their ranks are praiseworthy and respected. When the ladies
of smart society prefer to wear the mask and strictly follow the rules of their level, they are not to show their
feelings and sympathy, their education is often just to show off.

References:
1. Вершинина Д. Б. Воспитание и манеры английских леди XVIII–XIX вв. / Д. Б. Вершинина //
Вестник Пермского университета. – 2010. – №2. – 93-97 c.
2. Остен Джейн (Jane Austin) Гордость и предубеждение (Pride and Prejudice) На англ.яз / J.
Austin. – M.: Издательство «Икар», 2014. – 361 с.
3. Davidoff L., Hall C. Family Fortunes. Men and Women of the English Middle Class 1780–1850 /
L. Davidoff, C. Hall. – Routledge, – 2002. – 614 p.
4. Draznin Y. Victorian London's Middle-Class Housewife: What She Did All Day / Y. Draznin. –
Greenwood Publishing Group, – 2001. – 256 p.
5. Gay P. The Naked Heart: The Bourgeois Experience Victoria to Freud / P. Gay – W.W. Norton, –
1996. – 480 p.

Аннотация: Данная статья посвящена оппозиции образов провинциальных леди и леди из высшего
общества в романе Джейн Остин «Гордость и предубеждение». В статье рассматривается понятие «леди» в
Викторианскую эпоху, а также отражены изменения, которые претерпевают женщины данной эпохи.
Дается процесс формирования новой женщины. Большое внимание уделяется ее образованию и воспитанию.
Проведѐн сравнительный анализ оппозиции, определяющий два типажа «леди»: провинциальных леди и леди из
высшего общества. Большое внимание уделяется образованию, человеческим качествам и чувствам героинь
произведения «Гордость и предубеждение» Джейн Остин, где поразительно видна оппозиция между
женскими образами.
Ключевые слова: оппозиция, образы, провинциальные дамы, высшее общество, роман «Гордость и
предубеждение», Джейн Остин, Викторианская эпоха.
Summary: This article is devoted to opposition of the images of the provincial ladies and ladies from smart
society in Jane Austen`s novel «Pride and prejudice». It studies the concept of lady in the Victorian times and reflects
changes, which undergo the women of the epoch. The process of the formation of a new woman is given. Great attention
is paid to her education and upbringing. Comparative analysis, concerning the opposition of two types of ladies: the
provincial ladies and ladies from smart society is pointed out. Great attention is paid to the education, humanity, and
feelings of women characters of ―Pride and Prejudice‖ by Jane Austin, where the opposition of images is clearly seen.
Key words: opposition, images, provincial ladies, smart society, novel ―Pride and Prejudice‖, Jane Austen,
the Victorian times.

УДК 82
THE GENRE AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF HAYAO MIYAZAKI‟S CREATION
CALLED «NAUSICAÄ OF THE VALLEY OF THE WIND»
Sergey Vlasuk
2d year student,
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University
e-mail: tokyokid@bk.ru
Anastasia Soina
Scientific advosir, Teaching assistant
Theory and Practice of Translation Department,
Sevastopol State University

Different aspects of ―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖, the manga, Japanese comics, which was
made by Hayao Miyazaki, are considered in this research. It was written in 1982 and immediately became a
big event in Japanese society. Moreover, after its screening this manga got the world fame.
Foremost, the topicality of this article is linked with the theme of the manga it considers which is
ecology. In our time, ecological problems are starting to become topical again. Also, Hayao Miyazaki was

145
able to include the theme of war. All horrors of war and its consequences are described by the author in the
vivid colors and it is especially important in our turbulent time. The second aspect of the topicality is the fact
that the modern Japanese culture is becoming more and more popular in the last several decades. And since
Hayao Miyazaki is one of the ‗mouthpieces‘ of Japanese animation, his creations shouldn‘t be ignored in
considering this question.
The genre of it is manga, Japanese type of modern literature [1], but we suppose, one can be
attributed to a novel-epopee (according to Mikhail Bakhtin‘s genre classification). It can be possible, because
―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖ has a lot of attributes which are characteristic of this genre.
Firstly, this workn has two traits, which make it related to the novel-epopee. It is the separation from
our modern world and the plot which is linked with some tradition (in this case this one is fictional). All of it
is typical for the epopee. Also, ―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖ has many attributes, which are
characteristic of the novel. The change of time and place, as well as the incessant development of the main
character [2].
The narrative itself is absolutely distanced. The author prefers to refrain from his own comments.
Likewise, even though Hayao Miyazaki decided to include in this creation a lot of different events, he didn‘t
forget about psychological side of the plot; in the theory of literature it is called mixed compilation. The
considerable part of characters has them own inner world, contradiction in the characters and conflicts with
the outside world.
―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖ has a lot of characters, who anyway influence the plot.
The main hero of this creation is Nausicaä, the brave and kind princess of small kingdom. The
tradition of local people is about she saves the humanity from extinction. Also, she has her faithful
companions: Yupa Miralda and Teto. Likewise, her escort is Asbel, the prince of a destroyed kingdom.
Oppose them the brave female warrior Kushana, who wants to win a war in local lands.
There are several secondary characters too. Selm, a resident of wild forests, and Chikuku, the child
who is a telepath.
The second couple of characters, Kurotowa and Charuka, are less unequivocal. The first of them is a
right-hand man of Kushana, he is a talented strategist and intriguer. Charuka is a priest of the most dangerous
person in the local lands, Miralupa. However, in the end of the story he joined to Nausicaä .
And finally, Namulis, as well as above Miralupa, the blood brothers and irreconcilable opponents,
the main antagonists of this manga. The first of them is an emperor of Dorok, powerful and ancient state,
who wants to unite humanity at any cost. In his turn, Miralupa is his senior brother, who is a psychic.
There are third-degree characters too. Ketcha, the girl who is in love with Yupa , Jhil, the king and
father of the main heroine and Absel‘s sister, Lastelle, who is one of Nausicaä‘s journey‘s reasons.
We suppose that the theme of ―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖ is ecology and those
consequences, which can arise because of harmful human activity. Hayao Miyazaki was able to show it well
in the plot of this creation, since his manga is about the far future, where people have destroyed them own
industrial civilization and now they have to survive to in the world, which is in ecological catastrophe.
Also, this manga tackles many other themes. The first and the most important one is man‘s
responsibility for nature. Hayao Miyazaki was able to show all horror of ecological catastrophe and the
terrible life condition of the local people.
The second theme of Hayao Miyazaki‘s creation is pacifism. The main heroine, Nausicaä, believes
that people and Ohmu can live in peace.
The theme of motherly love occupies a considerable place in this manga and it is presented by
different parties. The cold relationships between the main heroine and her mother, Kushana‘s love and
devotion to her one.
And last but not least important theme is messianism. Nausicaä is a savior of the people who was
described in the local tradition and she took this heavy responsibility.
We assume that the problematics of the manga is strongly linked with the thematics.
It is possible that the problem of abuse to animals. Using the example of Nausicaä‘s father
mistreatment of Ohmu Hayao Miyazaki was able to describe it.
The second problem is linked with the relationships between people. The problem of parents and
children which is described through relations of Nausicaä‘s and Kushana‘s family.
The last visible problem is change of personality. It is directly linked with Nausicaä‘s views. She
believes that each person can be overpersuaded and become better.
The conflicts in this creation play an important role.
The first two conflicts are clear because of the problems which were given earlier. They are conflict
of humanity and nature which is illustrated by an example of consequences of the actions of people of the

146
past and Dorok, as well as conflict of people and people which is showed by instance of relationships in the
families of Nausicaä and Kushana. However the second one is not mentioned earlier. The opposition
between humanity and technology. It is traced the examples of reasons of ecological catastrophe and
consequences of the last war of industrial civilizations.
We assume that the idea of «Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind» is the necessity to appreciate
nature and exist in harmony with it. It can be traced in Nausicaä‘s outlook and actions, in sad consequences
of Torumekia‘s and Dorok‘s acts and in the fact that catastrophe was made by people of the past. Poisoned
forest, deserts, barren lands and so on, all of them are the illustrative example of the fact that humanity can
only lose in the war with the nature.
In the end, it can be said that Hayao Miyazaki was able to produce a very valuable work that
consisted a lot of fundamental problems, such as: ecology, militarism, interpersonal relationship and so on,
which remain topical in our time.
The fact that he managed to do it in the manga format, the Japanese type of modern literature
deserves special attention, because Japanese comics are very popular in the homeland and that is what helped
―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖ became a big event in due time. Also, Hayao Miyazaki was able to use
the elements of a novel-epopee genre. All that makes ―Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind‖ an interesting
object for research and analysis.

References:
1. С.И.Петрова, З.Б.Степанова Японский комикс как тип текста (категория информативности)
[Электронный ресурс] // Вестник Северо-Восточного федерального университета им. М.К. Аммосова.
2005. – URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/yaponskiy-komiks-kak-tip-teksta-kategoriya-informativnosti
(дата обращения: 01.03.2018).
2.Алебич Иво. Тематическая структура статьи М.Бахтина: «Эпос и роман» [Электронный
ресурс] //Новый филологический вестник. 2011. – URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/tematicheskaya-
struktura-stati-m-bahtina-epos-i-roman (дата обращения: 25.02.2018).

Аннотация. Работа посвящена манге «Навсикая из Долины ветров» - произведению известного


японского мангаки и аниматора, Хаяо Миядзаки. Сделана попытка краткого литературоведческого анализа
названной манги: рассмотрены тематика, проблематика, основные персонажи, а также идейная
составляющая. Высказана гипотеза о наличии в данном произведении японской массовой литературы
«эпосных» признаков.
Ключевые слова: манга, тема, проблема, экология, природа.
Summary. This work is devoted to « Nausicaä of the Valley of winds», the creation of Hayao Miyazaki who is
a famous Japanese animator and mangaka. Attempted to make short literary analysis of this manga: the theme,
problems, the main characters, as well as the ideological component were considered. The hypothesis of the "epic"
features‘s presence in this work of Japanese literature was voice.
Key words: manga, theme, problem, ecology, nature.

УДК 82.09=111(043):Азимов
ISAAC ASIMOV DISTOPIA “THE END OF ETERNITY” PROBLEMATICS
Elina Glushchenko
Junior Academy of Sciences,
7th Form, School 38, Sevastopol
e-mail: elinaglushenko2007@gmail.com
Anastasia Soina
Scientific advisor, teaching assistant,
Translation Theory and Practice Department,
Sevastopol State University

В рамках данного исследования мы представим попытку осмысления антиутопии Айзека


Азимова «Конец Вечности» через спектр поднимаемых автором проблем. В настоящее время, по
наши данным, жанр антиутопии очень популярен благодаря обострению глобальных проблем
[3,www]. Как известно, антиутопии предупреждают человечество о возможном будущем. Таким
образом, данная тема представляется нам актуальной.

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Ознакомившись с рядом антиутопических произведений, мы выделили следующие черты,
присущие этому жанру:
– общество существует в мрачном, лишенном надежды мире; царят нищета, угнетение, насилие
(например, «1984» Джорджа Оруэлла);
– тоталитарный режим («О дивный новый мир!» Олдоса Хаксли);
– в некоторых произведениях преобладают более развитые (передовые) технологии, чем в
реальном мире. Технологии контролируются исключительно представителями власти («О дивный
новый мир!» Олдоса Хаксли).
– встречается элемент обширной приватизации: огромные корпорации имеют власть над
людьми («Бегущий в лабиринте» Джеймса Дэйшнера);
– личная свобода или отсутствует, или подавляется разными способами. Под надзором власти
может находиться частная жизнь граждан («Королевская Битва» Косюна Таками).
– над представителями интеллигенции и науки осуществляется подавление или полный
контроль («Дивергент» Вероники Рот).
– религия является либо установленной на уровне государства, либо ее не существует
(«Голодные игры» Сьюзен Коллинз).
– государство может ограничить доступ населения к определенным товарам («451 градус по
Фаренгейту» Рэя Дугласа Брэдбери).
Таким образом, антиутопия – некое место, где практически «все плохо». С помощью
антиутопий авторы выносят на свет самые важные проблемы общества. Цель автора – заставить
читателей провести параллель с реальностью и сравнивать реальный и вымышленный мир [4,www].
Исходя из типических черт антиутопии, названных выше, отметим, что в антиутопиях традиционно
прослеживается следующая проблематика: 1)проблема свободы, связанные с формированием в
первой половине ХХ века тоталитарного общества. Общество в антиутопических романах часто
разделено на касты или классы [4,www]; 2)проблема жизни и смерти; 3)проблема любви и дружбы;
4)проблема взаимодействия религии и науки; 5)проблема цензуры.
Рассмотрим проблематику одного из известных романов Айзека Азимова «Конец Вечности».
Отметим, что данный роман повествует о действиях организации под названием «Вечность»,
существующей вне времени и контролирующей Реальности во благо человечества: специально
подготовленные и обученные люди меняют Реальность так, чтобы человечество в своем развитии
избежало войн, катастроф, эпидемий. Протагонистом является техник Харлан 95 Столетия, который
попал в Вечность в возрасте 15 лет и, благодаря успехам в учении, стал личным техником Старшего
Вычислителя. Антагонистом в произведении, по нашему мнению, является коллективный герой,
представители организации «Вечность». По сюжету Харлан встречает девушку из 482-го столетия,
Нойс Ламбент. Нойс оказывается агентом из Скрытых Столетий, где «Вечность» не властна.
Вследствие изменений Реальности, которые делали «вечные» из благих побуждений (уберечь
человечество от войн и бедствий), человечество не развивалось, и в далеком будущем оказалось
пленником собственной планеты. Нойс намерена уничтожить «Вечность» в том числе с помощью
Харлана. Во имя любви Эндрю совершает преступление против Вечности: уничтожает организацию,
изменив Реальность.
Проанализировав роман, мы выделили следующие проблемы:
1. Проблемы гендерной дискриминации. «В Вечности почти нет женщин, так как их
исчезновение приводит к чересчур большим Изменениям Реальности» [1,www].
2. Проблема социального неравенства. «Вычислители, с помощью вычислительной техники
рассчитывающие, какие Изменения Реальности надо провести для достижения нужных целей; судя
по всему, вычислители обладают наибольшим влиянием среди Вечных. Техников в Вечности
презирают. Техники находятся в положении изгоев, почти не общающихся ни с другими Вечными, ни
друг с другом» [3,www]. То есть, человека судят исключительно по профессии и должности.
3. Проблема создания идеального общества. «Целью этих изменений является, как полагают
Вечные, благо человечества, так как отрицательный эффект этих изменений обычно
компенсируется положительным» [1, www]. Изменения реальности стали настолько частым
явлением, что для Вечных история человечества перестала быть незыблемым и неизменным
явлением. Однако времяне не подозревают об этих изменениях, так что времяне, начинающие службу
в Вечности, обычно напуганы тем, что они больше никогда не увидят своих родных, которые могут
исчезнуть или кардинально измениться во время многократных Изменений Реальности. Поднимая
эту проблему, автор пытается донести до нас, что идеал недостижим, а если достижим, – то приведет
к ужасным последствиям («Вечность» не пускала человечество в космос, а по прошествии времени

148
оказалось, что другие жители вселенной уже заняли все свободное пространство и землянам теперь
негде жить, кроме как на Земле). По мнению автора, человечество должно само решать свою судьбу.
4. Проблема власти. Вечные контактируют с времянами – так они называют тех, кто не
служит в Вечности – и осуществляют торговлю между разными столетиями, но скрывают от времян
самое главное – то, что Вечность осуществляет изменения человеческой истории, называемые
Изменениями Реальности.
5. Проблема нравственного выбора. Харлан выбрал погубить вечность, ради того, чтобы
человечество могло идти вперед и развиваться.
6. Проблема «эффекта бабочки» показана через призму вредной привычки «Порой у меня
появляется сильное желание рассчитать такое Изменение Реальности, чтобы одним махом
уничтожить запреты на курение во всех Столетиях. Жаль только, что подобное Изменение
вызовет войны в 58-м и рабовладельческое общество в 1000-м. Всегда что-нибудь да не так»
[1,www].
Рассмотрев основные, на наш взгляд проблемы романа, мы пришли к выводу, что мир не
может и не должен быть идеален, а двигателем прогресса для человечества служит «страдание» –
такова, на наш взгляд, одна из идей автора. Исходя из рассмотренной проблематики антиутопических
произведений в целом, упомянутые в романе проблемы (кроме, возможно, проблемы «эффекта
бабочки»), на наш взгляд, являются типичными для жанра антиутопии.

References:
1. Азимов А. Конец Вечности [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:https://www.e-
reading.club/chapter.php/75794/1/Azimov_-_Konec_vechnosti.html (дата обращения: 1.03.2018).
2.Википедия: Конец Вечности [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki (дата обращения: 1.03.2018).
3. Философия: Энциклопедический словарь. [Электронный ресурс] / М.: Гардарики. Под
редакцией А.А. Ивина. 2004. – Режим доступа: https://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_philosophy/74 (дата
обращения: 1.03.2018).
4. Электронный журнал «Что такое..?» / Что такое антиутопия? [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа: http://chto-takoe.net/chto-takoe-antiutopiya/ (дата обращения: 1.03.2018).

Аннотация. В данной статье рассмотрены ключевые, на наш взгляд, особенности жанра


антиутопии, а также сделана попытка осмысления проблематики известной антиутопии Айзека Азимова
«Конец Вечности» в контексте проблематики антиутопических произведений.
Ключевые слова: Азимов, антиутопия, проблематика.
Summary. In the present work some key features, according to our reckoning, of the dystopia genre are given.
The attempt to comprehend a well-known dystopia ―The End of Eternity‖ by Isaac Asimov problematics in the context
of other dystopia novels is made.
Key words: Asimov, dystopia, problematics.

УДК 82.02
MODERNISM IN LITERATURE AS A LINGUOCULTURAL PHENOMENON

Nadezhda Gukalova
master‘s degree student,
Department of Foreign Languages,
Taganrog State Institute (Branch) of Rostov State University of Economics
e-mail: nadegda-ni@yandex.ru
Yuliya Demonova
Scientific advisor, Ph.D. in Philology,
Department of Foreign Languages,
Taganrog State Institute (Branch) of Rostov State University of Economics

Modernism as a literary movement occupied the years between the First and the Second World War.
It was a radically new approach to methods of art and writing, which left many problems. And one of the
most controversial questions is what the main sources of the shift of art paradigm are.
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It is commonly known that the reason of emergence of the new principles of art and new artistic
forms were the industrial revolution, urbanization, political and economical destabilization and the horrors
of the First World War, which caused the colossal change in people‘s minds. Consequently, the establishing
of modernism should be considered as the result of intellectual pursuit influence. And it is not exaggeration
to say that overwhelming majority of scientists supposed that it is the very thing which led the formation of
new language of literary art. [1, p. 12]
We must say that the ideological foundation of new aesthetic conception was linked with
philosophical and psychological discoveries of the end 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
The aim of the research is to describe how the informational space has effected on the text of modern
prose.
The text of modernist novels was a total synthesis and mirror reflection of all information which
culture had accumulated. And certainly, the most progressive attitudes belong to S. Freud, F. Nietzsche, J.
Frazer, and A. Bergson.
Obviously, in every country modernism had some special features. For instance, modern English
writers were under the influence of French art and their movements such as: ―naturalism, Symbolism,
Decadence, and Aestheticism. Together with the aesthetic theories of Walter Pater, the work of Baudelaire,
Laforgue, Mallarmé, Corbière, and Valéry‖. [4, p.682]
Moreover, a lot of decadent writers and poets had an impact, for example, Oscar Wilde, William B.
Yeats, Gustave Flaubert, Charles Huysmans, and the Russian authors F. Dostoevsky, A. Chekhov, and I.
Turgenev. [1, 2]
But another problem is definition of main persons that presented this literary movement. The major
of authoritative researches are providing such list of authors, which occupied a position of dominance in
English and Irish modern literature: J. Joyce, D. H. Lawrence, V. Woolf, T. S. Eliot, J. Conrad, and others.
However, the last one in Russian philology is called as Victorian writer but the others are explicitly
considering as modern writers. [1, 2]
Furthermore, there a lot of writers and poets that are wrongly classifying as modernists, f