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Учись говорить

по-английски
Пособие для учащихся
I X — X классов средней школы
(факультативный курс)

ВЇВЛ10ТЕКА|

Щ ^ Д І Ї ' Є Г І Ч Й О Г О і не т і у XX Л
Ьь 1в. Франка 'жЖщ

ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО «ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ» - МОСКВА-1972


4И(Англ) ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
У 92

В . Л . С К А Л К И Н , Г . А. Р У Б И Н Ш Т Е Й Н ,
В . Н . А Н И К И Н А , С. М. ГРОССМАН,
М. С. Л А Т У Ш К И Н А

В процессе подготовки настоящего пособия работа


между авторами распределилась следующим образом.
В. Л. Скалкин и Г. А. Рубинштейн разработали
структуру книги. Им принадлежит также разработка
всех с и т у а ц и й к т е м а м п о с о б и я и п о д с т а н о в о ч н ы х
образцов. Отбор и комплектование тематических во-
кабуляров выполнены Г. А. Рубинштейном, В . Л . Скал-
к и н ы м и С. М . Г р о с с м а н о м .
В составлении текстового материала (диалогов и Н а с т о я щ е е пособие предназначается д л я учащихся факульта­
монологов) п р и н и м а л и участие все авторы. Н а на­ тивных групп старших классов средней ш к о л ы . О н о может быть
чальном этапе в работе по отбору с л о в а р я р я д а тем т а к ж е использовано в ш к о л а х с преподаванием ряда предметов
у ч а с т в о в а л а Г . С. Э р л и х . А в т о р ы п р и н о с я т Г . С. Э р л и х на английском я з ы к е , слушателями курсов иностранных я з ы к о в ,
глубокую благодарность.
П р е д л о ж е н и я и критические замечания просим а т а к ж е лицами, изучающими английский разговорный я з ы к са­
н а п р а в л я т ь п о а д р е с у М о с к в а , Г С П - 1 1 0 , 3-й п р о е з д мостоятельно.
М а р ь и н о й р о щ и , 41, изд-во «Просвещение». Ц е л ь к н и г и — п о м о ч ь обучающемуся расширить и системати­
Авторы зировать свои з н а н и я по обиходной л е к с и к е на базе общественно-
бытовых тем и, используя данный в пределах каждой темы ил­
люстративный материал, активизировать навыки устной речи.
Пособие построено по тематическому п р и н ц и п у . Определяя
тематику книги, авторы учитывали тематические списки программ
д л я средней школы, включая и программы д л я ф а к у л ь т а т и в н ы х
з а н я т и й . Последовательность р а с п о л о ж е н и я тем в пособии осно­
вывается на следующих п р и н ц и п а х :
I . Учет степени сложности лексико-грамматического материала
темы. Т а к , тема «Комната», описательная по содержанию и увя­
з а н н а я со структурой There is (are), изучается раньше темы
«Встреча с товарищем», к о т о р а я предполагает использование
Present Perfect.
П . Коммуникативная важность ситуаций, включенных в дан­
Учись говорить по-английски. Пособие д л я уча- ный тематический раздел. Н а п р и м е р , темы «Семья», «Еда», «Одеж­
У92 щихся I X — X классов сред, ш к о л ы ( ф а к у л ь т а т и в ­ да», «Учеба» предшествуют темам «На почте», «Музыка и танцы»
ный курс). М . , «Просвещение», 1972. и др.
304 с. с и л . I I I . Учет возможности использования языкового материала
На обороте тит. л. авт.: В. Д. Скалкин, Г . А. Рубинштейн, В. Н . одних тем д л я коммуникативных задач, решаемых при разговоре
Аникина и др.
на д р у г и е темы. Т а к , обсуждая кинофильм (тема «Кино»), уча­
щ и е с я , естественно, будут описывать внешность, х а р а к т е р и по­
6-6 4И(Англ) ведение героев. Следовательно, соответствующие темы («Внешность
3
человека», « Х а р а к т е р , поведение, настроение и манеры человека») 1) Работа с тематическим вокабуляром. К а к известно, объем
с л о в а р я учащегося в о многом определяет степень владения ино­
д о л ж н ы быть изучены ранее. странным я з ы к о м *.
I V . Расчленение тематического комплекса и расположение одно­ П р и с т у п а я к работе н а д темой, учащиеся д о л ж н ы п р е ж д е
родных тем-ситуаций в чередовании с д р у г и м и темами, что обе­ всего усвоить определенный минимум тематической л е к с и к и , не­
спечивает планомерную повторную проработку изученных ситуа­ обходимый к а к д л я в о с п р и я т и я речи (аудирования), т а к и д л я ее
ций на базе нового и более сложного языкового материала. Т а к , продукции (говорения). Поэтому преподавателю необходимо:
н а п р и м е р , темы «В городе», «Путешествия» и «Осмотр достопри­ а) внимательно ознакомиться с в о к а б у л я р о м темы, избранной
для изучения;
мечательностей» помещены не подряд, а чередуются с д р у г и м и
темами. б) определить номенклатуру лексических единиц, п о д л е ж а щ и х
П р и комплектовании в о к а б у л я р а темы п р и м е н я л с я принцип усвоению, с учетом к о н к р е т н ы х условий обучения (объем учеб­
ного времени, степень языковой подготовки у ч а щ и х с я и п р . ) ;
тематической частотности лексики или вероятности употребления
д а н н о й лексической единицы в в ы с к а з ы в а н и я х на соответствую­ в) сгруппировать отобранную л е к с и к у по семантическому,
структурно-семантическому или какому-либо иному п р и з н а к у (это
щ у ю тему. Материалом д л я отбора л е к с и к и п о с л у ж и л и учебники
в значительной степени у ж е осуществлено составителями пособия).
английского я з ы к а д л я средней ш к о л ы , а т а к ж е оригинальная
х у д о ж е с т в е н н а я и публицистическая л и т е р а т у р а . Отобранную л е к с и к у рекомендуется вводить «порциями», «до­
зами», величина которых зависит от условий обучения и д о л ж н а
К а ж д а я тема состоит и з : а) перечня типичных речевых ситуа­
быть определена самим преподавателем.
ц и й , раскрывающих содержание темы; б) тематического с л о в а р я ,
П р е д ъ я в л е н и е и первичная а к т и в и з а ц и я новой л е к с и к и может
в котором л е к с и к а сгруппирована по структурно-семантическому осуществляться разными приемами: переводным способом, введе­
п р и н ц и п у , и в) иллюстративного м а т е р и а л а . Последний включает нием новой л е к с и к и в типичных контекстах, с помощью серий
р я д речезых образцов, снабженных кассой подстановки, короткие вопросов, содержащих новую л е к с и к у или предполагающих ее
т е м а т и ч е с к и е диалоги и монологические тексты. употребление в ответах, н а к о н е ц , с помощью определения поня­
тий, обозначаемых новыми словами, и вопросов по поводу пред­
Введение новой л е к с и к и в книге основано на следующих прин­
л о ж е н н ы х определений.
ципах. Например:
Л е к с и ч е с к а я единица впервые появляется в в о к а б у л я р е того A p i l l o w is a thing we put under our head when we lie down
р а з д е л а , д л я которого она является тематической. Отсюда сле­ to sleep.
дует, что отдельные слова и в ы р а ж е н и я могут встречаться к а к A carpenter is a worker who makes things from wood.
вспомогательная л е к с и к а в иллюстративном текстовом материале What is a wardrobe used for?
предшествующих разделов. С другой стороны, некоторые слова Where do we keep our clothes? Etc.
в х о д я т в состав двух и более тем, поскольку в к а ж д о й нз них Преподавателю следует стремиться к тому, чтобы у п р а ж н е н и я
они выступают к а к тематические. по первичной а к т и в и з а ц и и тематического в о к а б у л я р а имели по
В случае многозначности слов в в о к а б у л я р а х тем даются т о л ь к о возможности коммуникативный х а р а к т е р и соотносились с реаль­
их тематические значения. Л е к с и к а , непосредственно не связан­ ными условиями общения. Рекомендуется м а к с и м а л ь н о апеллиро­
н а я с данной темой, в словарях не приводится. О д н а к о наибо­ вать к жизненному опыту у ч а щ и х с я , к конкретным условиям
лее трудные д л я учащихся слова и обороты речи, встречающиеся учебного заведения, города (села), местным событиям и т . д .
Например:
в иллюстративных т е к с т а х , с н а б ж е н ы переводом; эта л е к с и к а рас­
I live on the second floor, and w h a t about you?
сматривается к а к ф а к у л ь т а т и в н а я .
РАБОТА С ПОСОБИЕМ I have never travelled by air, and what about your father?
Изучение к а ж д о г о тематического раздела настоящего пособия W h a t feature f i l m is on at the cinema nearest to your house?
Первичное з а к р е п л е н и е л е к с и к и всегда осуществляется на
предполагает следующие основные э т а п ы :
основе некоторых речевых образцов. В процессе такой активиза­
1) работа с тематическим в о к а б у л я р о м ;
ции следует использовать подстановочные у п р а ж н е н и я и, в част­
2) работа с речевыми о б р а з ц а м и ;
ности, речевые о б р а з ц ы , с н а б ж е н н ы е кассой подстановки, которые
3) работа с иллюстративными образцами диалогической и мо­
нологической речи; l :

'I) работа по развитию неподготовленной (спонтанной) речи. J963,Sp.i07. Х Э Г б


° Л Д Т
- И з у Ч е
" И е
странных языков. М., Учпедгиз,

Рассмотрим к а ж д ы й и з перечисленных выше видов работы 5


б о л е е подробно.
содержатся в пособии. Т а к и е образцы не только иллюстрируют ц и и . Это, однако, не означает, что обучение аудированию и го­
употребление тематической лексики в типичных коммуникативных ворению непременно следует разделять во времени. Н а п р о т и в ,
контекстах, но позволяют активизировать новые лексические еди­ обучение этим двум видам речевой деятельности м о ж н о и н у ж н о
ницы путем их подстановки в данные речевые модели. осуществлять п а р а л л е л ь н о .
2) Работа с речевыми образцами. Речевые образцы, снабжен­ О б р а з ц ы д и а л о г и ч е с к о й р е ч и рекомендуется предъяв­
ные кассой подстановки, представляют собой такой вид трениро­ л я т ь в виде фонограмм, начитанных двумя дикторами (если ус­
вочных у п р а ж н е н и й , который обеспечивает максимальную повто­ ловия в школе позволяют изготовить т а к и е фонограммы). Д о п у ­
ряемость заданных моделей, конструкций и грамматических яв­ стимо, однако, и чтение образцов самим преподавателем. Если
лений на базе изучаемой тематической л е к с и к и . Они эффективны учащиеся испытывают затруднения в восприятии речи на слух,
при первичной активизации лексического материала, создавая д а ж е после повторного предъявления иллюстративного образца,
контекст д л я отдельного слова и. и л л ю с т р и р у я особенности упо­ следует использовать опору на печатный текст.
требления его в речи. О б р а з ц ы связной речи обязательно д о л ж н ы быть затем про­
Речевые образцы в данном пособии, к а к п р а в и л о , снабжены говорены (прочитаны) самими учащимися. П р и проговяриванпи
л и ш ь одной кассой подстановки. Поэтому при выполнении диалогов следует использовать работу в п а р а х .
у п р а ж н е н и я не требуется производить специального выбора эле­ Д а л ь н е й ш а я работа с иллюстративными диалогами включает
ментов замены. Д р у г а я особенность речевых образцов пособия видоизменение диалогов путем подстановки в них других эле­
состоит в том, что они подаются в контекстуальной связанности, ментов, продолжение беседы с использованием данного диалога
я в л я я с ь , по существу, репликами одного диалога. Т а к и м об­ в качестве ее начала, заучивание отдельных диалогов наизусть
разом, выполнение этих упражнений предполагает парные виды с последующей их драматизацией, а т а к ж е составление собствен­
работы. ных диалогов учащимися на основе предложенных учителем тем
Н а ч а л ь н а я стадия работы с речевым образцом д о л ж н а быть и ситуаций.
н а п р а в л е н а на то, чтобы отработать его с учащимися, добиваясь О б р а з ц ы м о н о л о г и ч е с к о й р е ч и т а к ж е лучше предъ­
высокой степени автоматизма при его устном воспроизведении. я в л я т ь в звукозаписи, контролируя с помощью вопросов степень
Это позволит ученикам удерживать в памяти речевой образец понимания услышанного. Если сообщение делает сам препода­
и п р и выполнении у п р а ж н е н и я пользоваться лишь кассой под­ ватель, учащимся можно предложить задавать вопросы не только
с т а н о в к и . В более подготовленном классе элементы замены могут после всего сообщения, но и по ходу его. Впоследствии перед
п р е д ъ я в л я т ь с я на с л у х . учащимися может быть поставлена задача сделать аналогичные
сообщения.
Разумеется, учителю не следует ограничиваться лишь теми
кассами подстановки, которые имеются в пособии, а использовать П р и этом, однако, учащимся следует разъяснить, что состав­
ленные ими рассказы, истории и информации д о л ж н ы иметь ясный
д л я замены и другой лексический материал из тематического во-
коммуникативный адрес («Вы д о л ж н ы себе четко представить,
кабуляра. кому вы хотите это сообщить»).
П о с к о л ь к у речевые образцы (как об этом говорилось выше)
И н ф о р м а ц и я , содержащаяся в монологическом тексте, может
п р е д с т а в л я ю т собой связный разговор, на заключительном этапе
п о с л у ж и т ь основой д л я дальнейшего обсуждения и дискуссии.
у ч а щ и м с я м о ж н о предложить вести беседу в парах на основе
Отдельные монологи ученики могут выучить наизусть.
п р о р а б о т а н н о г о м а т е р и а л а . Вопрос о том, в к а к о й степени уча­
4) Работа по развитию неподготовленной (спонтанной) речи.
щ и е с я д о л ж н ы пользоваться при этом пособием, решает учитель.
Развитие неподготовленной речи по теме осуществляется с по­
3) Работа с иллюстративными образцами диалогической и мо­
мощью системы специальных у п р а ж н е н и й , среди которых в а ж н о е
нологической речи. Усвоив определенный минимум тематической 1
место рекомендуется отводить учебным речевым с и т у а ц и я м .
л е к с и к и , учащиеся у ж е в известном смысле подготовлены к вы­
Примерный перечень к о м м у н и к а т и в н ы х ситуаций по изучаемой
полнению речевых у п р а ж н е н и й , к восприятию и продукции связ-
теме должен помочь преподавателю ц е л е н а п р а в и т ь продукцию
нбй речи. Работа с иллюстративными образцами связной речи
речи учащихся как в диалогической, так и в монологической
п р е д п о л а г а е т , с одной стороны, восприятие их на с л у х . С другой
форме.
стороны, учащрмся предоставляется возможность активно усвоить
Следует, однако, иметь в виду, что основные коммуникативные
х а р а к т е р текста, который им придется устно продуцировать (т. е. они
ситуации, данные перед к а ж д о й темой, не являются учебно-рече-
д о л ж н ы усвоить, к а к надо и к а к можно говорить на ту или иную
т е м у в той или иной ситуации). 1
См.: В . Л . С к а л к и н , Г. Л . Р у б и н ш т е й н . Р е ч е в ы е с и т у а ц и и к а к
П р и овладении языком в реальных условиях коммуникации с р е д с т в о р а з в и т и я н е п о д г о т о в л е н н о й р е ч и . « И н о с т р а н н ы е я з ы к и в ш к о л е » , 1966,
N9 4.
п р о ц е с с в о с п р и я т и я речи, к а к п р а в и л о , предшествует ее продук­
7
пыми ситуациями, используемыми в классе непосредственно.
Последний вид ситуаций представляет собой весьма конкретное
описание определенных обстоятельств действительности и отно­
1
шений между участниками разговора. Поэтому к а ж д у ю из пред­
л о ж е н н ы х общих речевых ситуаций необходимо к о н к р е т и з и р о в а т ь ,
MY ROOM
снабдить ее деталями обстановки, «вписать» в реальный контекст
реальной действительности. Полезно т а к ж е дать ключевые слова. КОМНАТА
Т а к , к о м м у н и к а т и в н а я ситуация темы «На почте» — You are
sending a money order at a post-office (No. 3, " A t a Post-Office.
T e l e p h o n i n g " ) — м о ж е т быть к о н к р е т и з и р о в а н а , например, такими
деталями:
Y o u want to send a money order. The clerk gives you à form
and tells you how to f i l l i t in. After you have done i t he finds
that you have filled i n the form incorrectly.
Guide words:
That w o n ' t do;
W h a t a nuisance; I feel very comfortable in my room.
to ink i t over.
Etc. A. SITUATIONS
Д л я ведения д и а л о г а или производства монологических сооб­
щений учащимся может понадобиться дополнительный лексический 1) You describe your room (or the room of your friend).
м а т е р и а л , содержащийся в тематическом в о к а б у л я р е . 2) You give a description of the furniture of your friend's room.
Р а з у м е е т с я , при обучении темам устной речи не следует ог­ 3) You find out (or inform) where a certain thing is i n the room.
р а н и ч и в а т ь с я материалом данного пособия. Следует ш и р о к о . и с ­ 4) You find out (or inform) whom a particular thing belongs to.
пользовать р а з л и ч н ы е дополнительные источники информации 5) You find out (or inform about) the number of certain objects
(газетные сообщения, диафильмы и диапозитивы, кинофильмы, in the room.
сюжетные к а р т и н к и и т. п.), которые могут быть предметом 6) You give some advice as to a better place for a particular piece
о б с у ж д е н и я , комментирования, беседы и дискуссии. of furniture.
Ко всем темам пособия даются иллюстрации, которые т а к ж е
м о ж н о использовать на з а н я т и я х .

B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y

balcony [ ' b a l k a n i ] балкон


We grow flowers on the balcony. У нас на балконе растут
цветы,
ceiling ['si:hrj] потолок
The room has a high (low) ceiling. В этой комнате высокий
(низкий) потолок,
corner ['кэ:пэ] угол
There was a chair in the corner of the room. В углу комнаты
был (стоял) стул,
door [do:] дверь
to open (to shut, to close) the door открывать (закрывать) дверь
to knock [nok] at the door постучать в дверь
9
drawer fdro:9] выдвижной ящик
floor [ f b : ] 1) пол
chest-of-drawers комод
parquet [ ' p a k i t ] floor паркетный пол
upper (top) drawer верхний ящик
linoleum [h'nouljam] floor пол, покрытый линолеумом
lower drawer нижний ящик
2) э т а ж
l
furniture ['faimtja] мебель
ground floor {В. E. ) первый э т а ж
2
a piece of furniture мебель (отдельная вещь)
first floor (В. E.) второй э т а ж ; первый э т а ж (А. Е. )
mirror ['гшгэ] з е р к а л о
second floor (В. Е.) третий э т а ж ; второй э т а ж (А. Е.)
Syn. looking-glass ['lukirj,glas]
M y room is on the first floor. Моя комната на втором этаже,
rack [raek] вешалка
room [ru:m] 1) комната (в к в а р т и р е , в общежитии); .номер в го­
shelf [Jelf] (pi shelves [Jelvz]) полка
стинице
sofa ['soufa] софа, мягкий диван
room-mate т о в а р и щ по комнате
stool [stu:l] табурет
classroom к л а с с н а я комната, аудитория
table ['teibl] стол
to share a room with somebody п р о ж и в а т ь в комнате с кем-л.
bedside table ночной столик, тумбочка
2) пространство, место
pullout table р а з д в и ж н о й стол
There is no room for two beds here. Здесь нет места д л я д в у х
table-cloth скатерть
кроватей,
\writing-table письменный стол
wall [wd:1] стена
wardrobe ['wo:droub] гардероб, платяной ш к а ф
wall-paper обои
Hang this picture on the w a l l . Повесь эту к а р т и н у на стену.
3
I placed the table against (at) the w a l l . Я поставил стол у
стены, ash-tray ['aeTtrei] пепельница
window ['wmdou] окно carpet ['kapit] ковер
This window faces (overlooks) the yard. Это окно выходит во The floor (wall) was covered w i t h a nice carpet. П о л (сте
двор. был (была) покрыт(а) к р а с и в ы м ковром,
window-sill подоконник curtain ['ka:tn] з а н а в е с к а , занавес
to draw the curtain з а д е р н у т ь занавеску
lamp [1азтр] лампа
2 desk lamp н а с т о л ь н а я лампа
wall lamp бра
bed [bed] к р о в а т ь floor-lamp торшер
single ['srrjgl] bed односпальная к р о в а т ь to switch on (off) the lamp включить (выключить) лампу
double-bed ['dAblbed] д в у с п а л ь н а я к р о в а т ь piano ['pjaenou] п и а н и н о , фортепиано
double-deck bed д в у х ъ я р у с н а я к р о в а т ь (детская) , picture [ ' p i k t j a ] к а р т и н а
bookcase ['bukkeis] к н и ж н ы й ш к а ф radio set ['reidiou 'set] радиоприемник
cabinet ['kaebinit] ш к а ф небольшого размера (различного назна­ rug [глд] к о в р и к , д о р о ж к а
чения) telephone ['tehfoun] телефон
kitchen cabinet кухонный ш к а ф T V set [ ' t i : v i : ' s e t ] телевизор
chair [tjea] стул vase [va:z] ваза
arm-chair кресло
cane chair плетеное кресло 4
deck-chair шезлонг
rocking-chair к р е с л о - к а ч а л к а blanket ['blamkit] одеяло
to take a chair сесть counterpane ['kauntapem] п о к р ы в а л о (для кровати)
cupboard ['kAbad] буфет, сервант bed cover (A. E.)
divan-bed ['daivaenbed] д и в а н - к р о в а т ь , тахта cushion ['kujan] диванная подушка"; м а л е н ь к а я "подушка
pillow ['pilou] подушка
1
sheet [Ji:t] простыня
В. Е. — British English
2
А. Е. = American English
towel ['taual] полотенце

10
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N O F U S E
cottage Г к э М з ] домик (в сельской местности)
flat Iflaet] к в а р т и р а
a three-room flat т р е х к о м н а т н а я к в а р т и р а SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
hostel ['hostal] общежитие
hotel [hou'tel] гостиница 1) "What is this?"
house [haus] (pi houses ['hauziz]) дом (обычно большой, много " I t is (certainly) a table."
этажный) a divan-bed
a w a l l lamp
an arm-chair
6
2) " A n d what is that?"
" I t h i n k that is an ash-tray."
garden ['gctdn] сад
a wardrobe
park [ р а к ] парк
a vase
street [ s t r i : t ] улица
a mirror
yard [jad] двор
3) "What was there i n his room?"
"There was a fine chair and a lovely sofa in his room."
7 •' wardrobe arm-chair
pullout * ble floor-lamp
hare [Ьез] голый; пустой (не заставленный, не завешанный) carpet chest-of-drawers
This w a l l is bare. Эта стена голая,
comfortable fkAmfatabl] удобный, комфортабельный, уютный 4) "Where was the table?"
dark [dak] темный the divan-bed
fine I fain] хороший, п р е к р а с н ы й , превосходный the arm-chair
light | l a i t ] светлый the carpet
nice [nais] хороший, славный, приятный, милый " I t was in the middle of the room."
against a w a l l
between the windows
under the table
above the sofa
(о cover I'kAva] покрывать
to face I fets] выходить на (в) 5) "What did he place i n the middle of the room?"
My windows face" the garden. Окна моей комнаты выходят near the door
в сад. -y . between the windows
to keep | k i : p ] (kept, kept) д е р ж а т ь , хранить on the balcony
I keep m y things i n this wardrobe. Я х р а н ю (держу) свои "He put the arm-chair there."
вещи в этом ш к а ф у , the wardrobe
to move [mu:v] 1) двигать, двигаться the table
Н е moved his chair to the window. Он подвинул свой стул the cane chair
к окну. the sofa and the floor-lamp
2) переселяться 6) "What does your window overlook (face)?"
We are moving this week. Мы переезжаем на этой неделе, " I t overlooks (faces) the street."
(о move in (out) вселиться (выселиться, съехать с квартиры) the yard
to overlook [,ouv9Tuk] выходить на (в) a nice garden
Two of m y three windows overlook (face) the street. Д в а из a small street
трех моих окон выходят на улицу, a large park
to place [pleis] ставить, помещать a big house
12
illlillilllW

7) "What was the floor covered with?" If


"The floor was covered w i t h parquet*"
a large carpet "This is a mirror, isn't it?"
rugs "Yes. W h a t do you think?"
linoleum " W e l l , first I took i t for a door."
8) "What was his divan-bed covered with?" "Everyone makes a mistake like that. That's because of the cur­
" I t was covered w i t h a blanket." t a i n hanging over i t . "
a counterpane
a carpet
a sheet Ill
9) "What was there on his bed?"
"There was a sheet on i t . " "Do you like this arm-chair?"
a blanket "Yes, is looks very comfortable. B u t I t h i n k you've put I t In a
(and) a pillow dark place."
a towel " W e l l , i t isn't quite so. Let me switch on the w a l l lamp . . . W h a t
a counterpane would you say now?"
10) "Where do you keep your books?" "Oh, fine!"
" I keep them in the bookcase."
on the shelf
in m y writing-table IV

к "Do you share the room w i t h anybody else?"


"Certainly. There are t w o beds here, aren't there?"
"Oh, yes. I d i d n ' t notice i t at first. W e l l , where is your room­
mate now?"
" I don't know. I t h i n k he is playing tennis i n the garden."

V
"That corner seems bare. W h y not place the bookcase there?"
" I tried to put the bookcase there, but Bob said i t was the wrong
place for i t , so I moved i t aside."
"Probably he is right. W e l l . . . and what if you move the sofa
1
into i t so as to make passage to that window?"
2
"Oh, yes, that is surely better. I t never occurred to me."

" I s there anyone i n the room?" VI


CONVERSATIONS "What is that piece of furniture used for? I t is something between
an arm-chair and a sofa."
"Never m i n d what i t looks like. One may sit on i t or lie if he
likes i t better."
"What does this window overlook?"
"But i t must be very uncomfortable to lie on i t as it's rather short."
" I t faces a public garden."
" W e l l , i t depends on who w i l l l i e . "
"Oh, how nice! Green is always pleasant to one's eyes, isn't it?"
"On the one hand i t is. B u t on the other . . . there is a children's 1
to make passage ['paesid3] с д е л а т ь п р о х о д , д о с т у п
corner just opposite m y window, you know." 2
to occur [а'кэ:] зд. п р и х о д и т ь н а у м

14 15
VII it as there are only two rooms w i t h balconies on m y floor. The
balcony and one window overlook the garden, the other faces the
"Where is my pen?" street.
"Look on the writing-table." The furniture is very simple: two beds, a pullout table i n the
"But i t isn't on the table." middle of the room, a wardrobe, a shelf and two bedside tables.
"Then look under the table . . . or i n front of your chair . . . or There are also three chairs and one arm-chair. The arm-chair is very
behind the sofa. I t must be somewhere i n the room." comfortable and you w i l l like to sit i n i t when you come.
"No, not under the table . . . Oh, here i t is!" A small cabinet which hangs on the wall w i l l be used for
"Where was it?" plates and cups. On the balcony I found a cane chair. I think i t w i l l
" I t was i n m y pocket." be used, too. The walls of the room are actually bare, though on 1

one of them there is a picture of a town and on the other a small


mirror. When it's dark you may switch on a wall lamp or the lamp
VIII which hangs down from the ceiling. There. is a rug on the floor.
I n one of the corners of the room there is a bookcase where we
"What is there under the table?" keep our books. . . . I said 'we'. W e l l , I forgot to tell you that
" I t h i n k it's Harry's b a l l . " I share the room w i t h a fellow student who is i n the same year
"No, I see a ball against the w a l l near the door. But that Is w i t h me. He is a nice chap and I think he w i l l be a good'room­
something different." mate. That is a l l .
"Let me have a look. O h , it's a cushion, i t has fallen down from Come and see how I ' v e settled. W i l l you? 2

the sofa."
1
actually ['sektjuah] ф а к т и ч е с к и
2
to settle ['setl] п о с е л и т ь с я , у с т р о и т ь с я
IX
"Put the telephone on the bedside table, please."
"But there's no room for i t : there are too many things on the table."
"You may take the vase away and move the ash-tray aside."
"And what about the desk lamp? May I take i t away, too?"
О

X
" I don't remember where I put m y book."
" I t h i n k it's i n the upper drawer of the desk."
"How do you know that?"
" W e l l , . . . I read i t a b i t when you were out."/

A STORY

(A new student of the University got accommodation in the students'


hostel and he describes his room to his friend.)

I've got a room i n the students' hostel. Do you want to hear


anything about it? W e l l , listen then.
The room isn't very large but i t ' s rather nice. I t has two w i n ­
1
dows and a balcony . . . Yes, a balcony. I t ' s just l u c k that I have

1
I t ' s just luck М н е п р о с т о п о в е з л о

16 Б 1 Б Л l О Т Е К A
ЦКкпдг.ич. ;. ого Г.'рнгяотТОГ
ШК • < 4 I .. I > li|<- f i n y»J}'

1*1. I n . Лпшыы*
grandfather ['grand,fa3a] дедушка
Syn. coll. grand-dad, grandpa
grandmother ['дгэеп,тл5э] б а б у ш к а
Syn. coll. granny, grandma
grandson ['graensAn] внук
mother [ ' т л б э ] мать
Syn. coll. mamma [mae'ma], mum [ г а л т ]
parent ['pearant] родитель; pi родители
Syn. pi coll. old folks [fouks]
grandparents дедушка и б а б у ш к а
sister ['sista] сестра
half-sister сводная сестра
son [sAn] сын
stepson пасынок
twins [twinz] близнецы
twin brothers (sisters) братья (сестры) -близнецы
" T r y t o r e m e m b e r l Where d i d y o u
bury Daddy?"
2
A. SITUATIONS
aunt [ a n t ] т е т я , тетка
1) You describe your family to your new friend. auntie [ ' a n t i ] ласк, тетушка
2) You show a friend your family album and answer all his cousin ['kAzn] двоюродный брат (сестра)
questions. v
second cousin троюродный брат (сестра)
3) Y o u talk to a distant relative t r y i n g to find out in what rela­ Н е is my second cousin. Он мне доводится троюродным братом,
tionship you stand to each other. nephew ['nevju] племянник
4) Your father tells you about his brother (sister) whom you have niece [ni:s] племянница
never seen. relative ['relativ] родственник, родственница
5) You talk w i t h your grandmother (aunt) whom you have come Syn. relation, kinsman (kinswoman)
to v i s i t . She has no l i v i n g relatives on her mother's side. Co стороны
6) Your elder brother (sister) describes to you his (her) bride's матери у нее не осталось
(bridegroom's) family. родственников в ж и в ы х ,
7) You ask your father about the age of his brother (uncle, etc.).- distant relative д а л ь н и й род­
ственник
remote kinsman (kinswoman)
разг. седьмая вода на киселе
B. TOPICAL VOCABULARY
uncle ['лдЫ] д я д я

1
3
brother ['ЬглЗэ] брат
half-brother сводный брат bride [braid] невеста, новобрач­
daughter ['do-.ta] дочь ная
stepdaughter падчерица bridegroom ['braidgrum] ж е н и х ,
father T/faQa] отец новобрачный
Syn. coll. dad [deed], daddy ['dsedi], papa [рэ'ра] brother-in-law [ ' Ь г л З э п п Ь : ] з я т ь
stepfather отчим (муж сестры); ш у р и н ; д е в е р ь ; « М а > r d l i k e у о ц t o meet m y
granddaughter ['graen,do:ta] в н у ч к а СВОЯК bridegroom!"

I-I
Н е is of m i l i t a r y age. Он призывного возраста.
child [tfaild] (pi children ['tfildran]) ребенок, дитя Н е doesn't look his age. Он в ы г л я д и т моложе (старше) своих
Syn. coll. kid лет.
the only child единственный ребенок She is a middle-aged woman. Она ж е н щ и н а средних л е т .
foster-child приемный ребенок, приемыш to be (come) of age быть (стать) совершеннолетним
childless бездетный(-ая) Are you of age? Вы совершеннолетний?
childhood детство No, I ' m s t i l l under age. Нет, я еще несовершеннолетний,
daughter-in-law жена сына, невестка, сноха teen-ager ['ti:n,eid39] юноша (девушка) 13—19 лет
father-in-law свекор; тесть They are teen-agers. Им еще нет д в а д ц а т и ,
mother-in-law свекровь; теща youngster ['jArjsta] юноша, подросток, мальчик
son-in-law зять (муж дочери) youth [ju:9] 1) юность, молодость; 2) юноша; 3) молодежь
wife [waif] (pi wives) ж е н а

4 Ь)

ancestor ['aensista] предок eider ['eldg] (eldest ['eldist]) старше, старший


descendant [di'sendant] потомок M y elder brother is an engineer. Мой старший брат — и н ж е н е р .
bachelor ['baetfila] холостяк Helen is my eldest daughter. Е л е н а — моя с т а р ш а я дочь.
nurse [na:s] н я н я Syn. senior ['simja] самый старший (употребляется при срав­
orphan ['o:fen] сирота нении)
I t was a boarding-school for orphans who lost their parents Ant. junior младший
during the war. Это был интернат д л я детей, потерявших роди­ elderly пожилой
телей во время войны. Syn. aged ['eid3id]
widow ['widou] вдова grown-up ['дгоип,лр] взрослый
widower ['widoua] вдовец old [ould] 1) старый
old man (woman) с т а р и к (старуха)
to grow old стареть, постареть
5 - 2) употребляется в вопросах и ответах о возрасте
family ['faemih] семья How old are you? С к о л ь к о вам (тебе) лет?
He has a large family. У него б о л ь ш а я семья. I ' m twelve years old. Мне двенадцать лет.
family name фамилия young [jArj] молодой, юный; юношеский
family man семейный человек Н е is too young to go to school yet. Он еще слишком мал
engagement [m'geidgmant] помолвка чтобы идти в ш к о л у .
marriage ['maendg] 1) б р а к ; женитьба; замужество; 2) свадьба John is younger than Pete. Д ж о н моложе П и т а ,
wedding ['wedin] свадьба; бракосочетание young man молодой человек
Were you at their wedding? В ы были у них на свадьбе?
silver (golden, diamond) wedding с е р е б р я н а я (золотая, брил­
лиантовая) свадьба 7
wedding-ring обручальное к о л ь ц о
newly-weds молодожены to adopt [9'dopt] усыновить, удочерить
They had no children of their own, so they adopted a child
from the orphanage. У них не было своих детей, и они усы­
6
новили ребенка из детдома.
to be born [Ьэ:п] родиться
а) Where were you born? Где вы родились?
age [eids] возраст to bring [brro] (brought, brought) up воспитывать
What's his age? ( = H o w old is he?) С к о л ь к о ему лет? She has brought up four children. О н а ' вырастила (воспитала)
Children usually begin school at the age of seven. Д е т и обычно, четверых детей.
идут в школу в возрасте семи лет.
21

<
to court [ka:t] у х а ж и в а т ь
3) " H o w is your brother called?"
J i m is courting my elder sister. Д ж и м у х а ж и в а е т за моей
elder brother
старшей сестрой.
youngest sister
Syn. to make love to
"His name is Oscar,"
to die [dai] умереть, скончаться
William
Shakespeare died in 1616. Шекспир умер в 1616 году.
Lizzi
to die of an ilfhess умереть от болезни Edward
to die for one's country умереть за Родину
4) "Your brother has an unusual name, hasn't he?"
to divorce [di'vo:s] расторгнуть б р а к , развестись
sister curious
to engage [m'geids] обручить, помолвить
cousin rare
to be engaged быть помолвленным(и)
strange
Are they engaged yet? О н и у ж е помолвлены?
"Yes, he was named after his grandfather."
to marry ['maenj ж е н и т ь с я ; выходить з а м у ж ; женить (to); выдавать
his great grandfather
з а м у ж (to)
a famous writer
She married a doctor. О н а вышла з а м у ж за доктора. a public man
Mr. West married his daughter to a rich man. М-р Уэст выдал
5) "Where were you born?"
свою дочь з а м у ж за богатого человека.
" I was born i n Moscow."
M y brother says he won't marry before he graduates from the
Poland
college. Мой брат говорит, что не женится, пока не окончит
the c i t y of Riga
колледжа.
the town of Pskov
Syn. to get married
the village of Kamenka
to be unmarried быть незамужем (неженатым)
6) " H o w old is your brother?"
to present [pn'zent] smb. with smth. подарить кому-л. что-л.
younger sister
a present ['prezant] подарок
father
to relate [ n ' l e i t ] состоять в родстве
uncle
I am not related to h i m in any way. Я ему никем не д о в о ж у с ь ,
"He is twenty years o l d . "
to retire [n'taia] уйти на пенсию, в отставку
about 30
Н е retired on a pension at 60. Он ушел на пенсию в 60 лет.
over 40
M y parents are retired. Мои родители на пенсии (пенсионеры), fifteen
to take [teik] (took, taken) after пойти в кого-л. under 50
Who(m) does he take after? В кого он пошел? in his early forties
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF U S E

SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS

1) "Are you related to Helen?"


M r . Fox 7) "Is his (her) family large or
this person small?"
"Yes, he is m y cousin." " W e l l , he (she) is an orphan."
brother-in-law a widower
nephew a widow
remote kinsman a bachelor
2) "What relationship is Peter to Jane?" single
. David to Harry
•''They are cousins."
twins
brother and sister
just friends The f a m i l y tradition.

22 23
8) "To whom Is she (he) married?" IV
"She (he) is married to my brother."
m y elder sister " W h y don't you help Mother about the house?"
a doctor " I ' m very busy w i t h m y studies at School, you know."
1
Mr. Smith "Very busy? You must be k i d d i n g . I f there ever was a busy
woman, Mother is one."
9) "What does your brother do?"
"Don't be too hard on me, brother. I ' l l polish the floor i n the
mother
evening."
sister
"He works at a factory*"
studies at a college
serves i n the army
V
is a housewife
"Where were you born?"
is retired (on a pension)
" I n Odessa. B u t m y parents come from Siberia."
10) "Who are you?" "How surprising! I also come from that part of the country,"
" I ' m John's brother." "Oh, the world is but a l i t t l e place, after a l l . "
Mr. Brown's daughter
Peter Green
Henry, Mrs. Black's nephew VI
your friend's uncle
" M y , what a beautiful b i r t h d a y party A n n had!"
"Yes, indeed. M y sister-in-law is a charming hostess."
CONVERSATIONS " I t h i n k everybody in the family helped her w i t h the party.
"Most certainly."

I
VII •
"How old is your younger brother?"
"But I have no brothers." "Next Friday is Grandfather's birthday and we've got to t h i n k of
"Isn't this k i d your brother?" a present for h i m . "
"Oh, no, he's m y nephew." " W e l l , why not present h i m w i t h a pair of ear-phones? He likes
to watch T V very much and looks i n t i l l late at n i g h t . "
"And now using those ear-phones he could watch T V at any time
II w i t h o u t keeping Granny awake."
"Quite r i g h t . Isn't i t a lucky idea?"
"Have you sent greetings to our relations?"
"Only to grandparents."
"And what about aunts, uncles and cousins? May Day is only a VIII
week away."
' 1 t h i n k I ' l l s t i l l manage. I ' l l w r i t e them i n the afternoon." " W e l l , N i c k , I must tell you something important."
"What is it?"
" I ' m breaking the promise, but Father is going to present you
Ill w i t h a camera for your birthday."
2
"A camera? H o w nice! M y dreams are coming true. W e l l , haven't
"What's the name of your elder sister?" we got kind parents?"
"Mai у "
"Really? How curious, we both have a sister called Mary." 1
to kid ш у т и т ь
a
\ \ . \ \ , Mary l l quite a popular name." to come true о с у щ е с т и и т ь с я

25
IX miles from London. Some of our relations live close by, including
my grandparents, who are retired, aunt and uncle and their chil­
"Are you any relation to J i m Brown, the well-known football dren, m y cousins.
player?" Father works in a bank, Mother Is a housewife, m y eldest
"Yes, he's my uncle." brother Tom is an accountant, m y second brother Charles is an
1
"What a lucky dog you are! I ' d like to meet h i m . " artist and I am i n the fourth form at m y grammar school. Both
"Oh, it's very easy to arrange. He's going to see us tomorrow eve­ of m y brothers work i n London.
ning. W i l l you come around, too?" Since we all leave home at different times in the morning,
1
the evening meal is our one o p p o r t u n i t y of s i t t i n g down together.
At week-ends we see more of one another, although Tom is often
X away playing soccer and Charles frequently goes to v i s i t his friend,
who lives in the country.
"What relationship is Jack to you?" However we do t r y to spend Sunday together as a family day,
" W e l l , he's my remote kinsman." when our relations often join us for tea or sometimes for dinner.
"Oh, really? B u t he always says you are close relations." Though our family are usually fond of watching T V , we have a
" I f he likes to say that, let h i m do i t . I n fact I've got some new rule that i t is not switched on on Sunday, because this destroys
2

relations of late since I starred in that successful f i l m . " conversation. A n d we t h i n k i t antisocial.


Today, however, we broke our rule. There was on an interna­
3
tional soccer match which Tom was eager to see. Father was
XI certainly dead against i t , as he felt i t was breaking the established
rule w i t h o u t good reason. He would not have minded so much,
4

" I hear your sister Helen and H a r r y have got married lately." had i t been a program of common interest. Fortunately for Tom,
"Oh, yes. They registered the other day and became husband and both m y cousins wished to watch the match as well. So Father
5

wife." gave w a y , but he did insist that they take the T V into another
"Now Harry w i l l be your brother-in-law, w o n ' t he?" room. I t was amusing since after only fifteen minutes of the match
"Why do you say ' w i l l be'? He actually is and we've already got a blizzard started and became so bad that the match had to be
the first quarrel as close relations." stopped. Father said that this was poetic justice."
1
opportunity [ , o p 3 ' t j u : n i t i ] в о з м о ж н о с т ь
2
antisocial зд. н е с п о с о б с т в у ю щ и й о б щ е н и ю
XII 3
eager ['г.дэ]: to be eager о ч е н ь х о т е т ь
4
He would not have minded so much, had it been a program of common
"By the way, where are your cousins B i l l and Kate now?" interest. О н б ы т а к с и л ь н о н е в о з р а ж а л , е с л и б э т а п р о г р а м м а п р е д с т а в л я л а
интерес д л я всех.
"They are staying w i t h me." 6
to give way с д а т ь с я
"Oh, you must be very lucky to have them w i t h you. They are 6
this was poetic justice с п р а в е д л и в о с т ь в о с т о р ж е с т в о в а л а
2
so charming."
" I ' d like them to be somewhere in Africa now."
"Really? B u t why?"
3
"Because they're getting on m y nerves."
A STORY
(Dick Green is telling his teacher all about his family.)
My family is not a large one. There are five of us: Father,
Mother, two brothers and myself. We live in a small town, sixty

1
What a lucky dog you are! Н у и в е з е т тебе!
2
charming [ ' t j a r m r j j о ч а р о в а т е л ь н ы й
3
to get on smb.'s nerves [ns:vz] д е й с т в о в а т ь к о м у - л и б о н а н е р в ы

26
mistress ['mistns] 1) х о з я й к а (дома)
2) (сокр. Mrs. fmisiz]) миссис, госпожа (упот­
3 ребляется перед фамилией замужней женщины и полностью в
этом случае никогда не пишется, например: Mrs. West!)
MEETING P E O P L E miss [mis] мисс (употребляется при обращении к девушке или
незамужней женщине, например: Miss Jones!)
• madam ['maedam] мадам (вежливое обращение к женщине, обычно
ВСТРЕЧА старшей по возрасту или положению; фамилия при этом не
С ТОВАРИЩЕМ употребляется )
sir [sa:] 1) сэр (вежливое обращение к мужчине, фамилия при
этом не называется)
2) перед именем обозначает титул knight или baronet,
например: Sir John
doctor ['dokta] доктор (употребляется без фамилии только при
обращении к врачу; с фамилией используется при обращении
к ученому, доктору наук, например: Dr. West!)

A. SITUATIONS
Good morning! Д о б р о е утро!
1) You r u n into an old friend and have a talk w i t h h i m (her) Good afternoon! Д о б р ы й день!
about your studies (common friends, etc.). Good evening! Д о б р ы й вечер!
2) You introduce your new friend to your sister (mother). (можно использовать и более простое: Morning! Evening!)
3) You congratulate your friend on his (her) success i n studies Hallo! = Hello! Hullo! Здорово!
Cheerio! Здорово! Привет! Пока!
(work, sports, etc.).
How do you do? Здравствуйте!
4) You greet your friend on the eve of some holiday (New Year,
M a y Day, etc.). (при ответе используется та же форма H o w do you do?)
5) You express best wishes to a friend (classmate) on the occasion
of his (her) birthday.
Good-bye! Д о свидания! Прощайте!
(i) Meeting your pen-friend whom you have never seen, you intro­ Good-bye for the present! Д о свидания!
duce yourself. Bye-bye! разг. Прощай!
7) You invite your friend to your place (to the cinema) arranging So long! П о к а !
See you later! Д о скорого свидания!
the time that suits you b o t h . See you tomorrow! Д о завтра!
8) You tell your friend of an unexpected encounter w i t h your Good night! Спокойной ночи!
m u t u a l acquaintance. Good morning!
9) You address a stranger taking h i m for a friend of yours and
Good afternoon!
Д о свидания!
Good day!
apologize for doing so. Good evening!
(употребляется в официальных случаях)

It. TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y 4
How are things? К а к дела?
1 How are you? Как- вы себя чувствуете?
mister I'misto] (сокр. M r . ) мистер, господин (употребляется перед How's your brother? К а к (поживает, чувствует себя) в а ш брат?
фамилией лица мужского пола или названием занимаемого им How's everything? К а к дела?
поста, например: M r . West! Mr. Chairman! Mr. Secretary! Без 29
употребления указанных выше слов обращение mister будет
звучать грубо-фамильярно, например: Listen to me, misterl
Hey, mister!)
Syn. Meet my friend,
5 to remember [ п ' т е т Ь э ] 1) помнить; 2) передавать привет
Please remember me t o your brother. П о ж а л у й с т а , передайте
to acquaint [ak'wemt] 1) знакомить; 2) сообщать, извещать
привет от меня вашему брату,
acquaintance 1) знакомство; 2) знакомый
to run [глп] (ran, run) in навестить, з а г л я н у т ь
J i m is my new acquaintance. Д ж и м — м о й новый з н а к о м ы й ,
to be acquainted with быть знакомым с to run into с л у ч а й н о встретить
I've often heard of N . , b u t - I ' m not acquainted w i t h him. Yesterday I ran into a friend w h o m I hadn't seen for 10 years.
Я часто слышал об Н . , но я с ним не знаком, Вчера я случайно встретил товарища, которого не видел
to make smb.'s acquaintance познакомиться с кем-л.
When did you make his acquaintance? Когда вы с ним позна­ десять л е т .
комились? to see [si:] (saw, seen) much of smb. видеть кого-л. часто
to apologize [g'polgdjaiz] извиняться to see little of smb. видеть кого-л. редко (мало)
J i m apologized to his teacher for coming to school late. Д ж и м to wish [ w i j ] ж е л а т ь
I wish you good luck! Ж е л а ю удачи!
попросил прощения у учителя за то, что опоздал в ш к о л у . I wish you a pleasant journey! П р и я т н о г о путешествия!
to call [ko:l] навещать, заходить
I called on M r . West at his office. Я зашел в контору
к м-ру Уэсту.
I ' m sorry I was out when you called. Сожалею, что меня не
было дома, когда в ы з а х о д и л и . 6
to call for заходить за кем-л.
to celebrate ['sehbreit] праздновать, отмечать* birthday [/b9:0dei] день рождения
English people celebrate Christmas and Scottish people celebrate birthday present подарок к о д н ю рождения
New Year. Англичане празднуют рождество, а шотландцы Many happy returns of the day! П о з д р а в л я ю с днем рож­
отмечают Новый год.
дения!
to congratulate [kan'graetjuleit] smb. on smth. поздравлять кого-л.
May Day Первомай
с чем-л.
"My best congratulations to you on May Day!" "Thanks, the
I congratulate you on passing the examinations. Я п о з д р а в л я ю
same to you!" « П о з д р а в л я ю в а с с П е р в ы м мая!» «Благодарю,
вас с успешной сдачей экзаменов,
congratulation [kan,graetju'leij9n] поздравление 4 вас также».
Congratulations! I ' m awfully glad. Поздравляю! Я очень рад. New Year I'nju: ' j i 9 ] Н о в ы й год
Congratulations to you on your success! П о з д р а в л я ю вас с успе­ New Year's Day 1 я н в а р я
хом! (Форму Congratulations! можно использовать при поздрав­ New Year's tree новогодняя е л к а
лениях практически по любому поводу, за исключением Нового to see (he New Year iri встречать Н о в ы й год (т. е. отмечать
года. При ответе на поздравления говорят Thank you.)
to drop [drop] in з а г л я н у т ь , зайти НОВОГОДНИЙ праздник)
Several friends dropped in to, tea. Н е с к о л ь к о д р у з е й зашли Л Happy New Year! П о з д р а в л я ю вас (тебя) с Н о в ы м го-
на чашку ч а я .
to give one's regards [n'gadz] to smb. передать кому-л. привет дом! (при атом слова congratulate, congratulations не употреб­
Please give my kind regards to your sister. Передайте, пожа­ ляются)
луйста, мои наилучшие п о ж е л а н и я (привет)- вашей сестре. New Year's Eve к а н у н Нового года
to greet [gri:t] приветствовать October Day |,>к'ІоііІм Міч ] годовщина (праздник) В е л и к о й
W h y d i d n ' t you greet him? Почему ты не поздоровался с ним? (Іктябрьско'і социалистическом революции
greeting -приветствие We heartily congratulate- you on your national holiday—October
"Dear Sir" is a greeting used in letters. «Дорогой с э р » — п р и ­ Day! MM сердечно т п д р а и л я с м нас с нашим национальным
ветствие, используемое в письмах,
праздником Дмем О к т я б р я !
to introduce [ intre'dju:s] представлять, знакомить
(
Soviet Army Day |'sonvicl пни ' d e i | Д е н ь Советской Армии
Allow me to introduce my friend to you. Позвольте вам пред-
i i .inn и. м о е ю друга, Soviet Constitution Day ['sOUVtel ,1. >i is 11'tju: Тэп 'dei] Д е н ь Совет­
31
ской Конституции
Victory Day I ' v i k l . i n Міч І Д е н ь 11 обеды
7
3) "How are you?"
colleague f k o l k g ] коллега are you getting on
co-worker [,kou'w3:k8] сотрудник are things
fellow student товарищ по институту is life
is your mother
"Thanks, fine! H o w are you?"
8
so-so
as usual
What's the news [nju:z]? Ч т о нового? pretty w e l l
What's the matter ['maeta] w i t h you? Ч т о с тобой (с вами)? not too bright
I haven't seen you for ages! Я не видел вас (тебя) вечность! not bad
I don't see much of George. Я очень редко в и ж у (встречаю) could be better
Джорджа. 4) "Do you see much of Jane?"
Everything is a l l right. Все в п о р я д к е . "As a matter of fact, I've
Things are not bright. Д е л а не блестящие. seen l i t t l e of her lately."
How about going to see N . together? К а к ты смотришь на то, I've seen much of her lately
чтобы вместе пойти к Н . ? I meet her .every day
Syn. What do you say to going to see N.? I see her now and then
Have you got anything special for tonight? У вас (тебя) имеются 5) "My best congratulations to you on
какие-нибудь особые планы на сегодняшний вечер? May Day!"
International Women's Day
9 October Day
Constitution Day
I am sorry. Простите. Виноват. 'Thank you, the same to you!"
J beg your pardon. П р о ш у п р о щ е н и я . (i) "1 wisli you good luck."
Excuse me. И з в и н и т е меня. every success
Pardon me. Простите меня. all the happiness In the
I must apologize. Я д о л ж е н и з в и н и т ь с я . world
Oh! That's a l l r i g h t . Н у , что вы! " i hank y o u for all your good wishes."
Not at a l l . Ничего, п о ж а л у й с т а . 7) "How are you going to celebrate
May Day?"
October Day
C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE your birthday
New Year
" I ' l l probably go to dinner to my
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS aunt."
go to the theatre
1) " A h , hallo, N i c k , here you are! Glad to meet you!" go to a dance
Lily I ' m glad we've met! go and see Kate
old man How nice to see you again! celebrate i t w i t h my
It's good to see you again! family
"Cheerio! Glad to see you, too."
8) " W e l l , good-bye. My kind regards to
2) "How do you do, Mr. Brown? Glad to meet you!"
your sister!"
Glad to see you again",
Remember me
How nice to see you again!
My love
Haven't seen you for agesi
"Thanks, I w i l l by all means. Good­
I low ' I " you do, Peter?"
bye!"

2 Я» 2416
9) "So long! See you later!" CONVERSATIONS
the day after tomorrow
on Monday I
"Cheerio!"
"By Jove! I f i t isn't Pete! Hallo, I ' m awfully glad to see you.
10) "Nora, meet m y friend, Jack." What luck running into you!"
classmate "Oh, Jack, I ' m glad to see you, too. I haven't seen you for ages!
fellow student How are you getting on?"
brother
"Fine, and you?"
co-worker
"Me too." .
"How do you do, Jack?"
11) "Miss Jane! A l l o w me to introduce Mr. Fox to you!"
Comrade Bobrov
II
m y fellow student "It's been nice to see you, Bob."
"How do you do, M r . Fox? Pleased to meet you." "Why, thanks, I ' v e enjoyed seeing you, too."
H a p p y to meet you "Come and see me some day. You know where I live, don't you?"
I t ' s a pleasure to make "Certainly, I do, I ' l l drop i n one of these days."
your acquaintance
12) "Come over to us some day."
Ill
on Saturday
sometimes " D o ' y o u know, I met Jane yesterday?"
1
when you're free "Fancy t h a t ! I haven't seen her for a long t i m e . D i d you speak
any time you wish to her?"
" I ' l l call around one of these days." "Why, yes. She was much interested i n you. She said she was
drop i n going to have a talk w i t h you."
run i n "Oh, what about, I wonder?"
13) "What are you doing this afternoon? How about going to "She d i d n ' t tell me that."
the pictures?"
the skating-rink IV
the park
see Helen "My best wishes for the New Year, Jack!"
"That's a good idea!" "Thank you, the same to you."
"Have you got any special plans for the 31st of December?"
14) "Mr. Hopkins, I guess?" "Not much of a plan. I t ' s a family holiday w i t h us, you know,
Kate Brown and we are going to celebrate i t at home."
Miss Jane
1
"That's right, sir. The same at your service."
That's me. V
I t ' s my name.
"How are things?"
15) " I beg your pardon, I seem to know your face." "Not so w e l l . "
I saw you somewhere "Is anything wrong?"
2
I b e t I know-your name "Nothing i n particular. Robert went to Paris to spend his vaca­
your name has slipped my m i n d
tion and there's no news of h i m though he left ten days ago."
" I ' m sorry, you take me for somebody else." 2
"Oh, I think he's safe and sound. Things w i l l come r i g h t , I ' m
sure."
1 1
The same ад. О н с а м Fancy that! П о д у м а т ь т о л ь к о !
• 1 bet Ь ы о с ь об з а к л а д 2
Things w i l l come right В с е о б о й д е т с я

2* 35
VI "Oh, that's a nice how d'you d o ! You've quite forgotten that 1

he's having his b i r t h d a y today."


"What's the news?" "My boy! I t escaped m y memory. A l l right then, fetch me at "six
"Nothing special. Nora's coming to see us tonight." o'clock."
"Oh, why d i d n ' t you tell me that before? I must shave at once."
" B u t i t isn't for certain she'll come; she only said she would A STORY
probably come . . . "
(Nick tells his classmate about an unexpected meeting he had yesterday.)

Guess whom I met yesterday! I ' m sure you w o n ' t . I t was Alec
VII Gorin. I was surprised to see h i m i n our neighbourhood and he
"Have you anything special for today?" said he was here quite accidentally. I haven't seen h i m since his
"Not that I know of." family moved to a new district and he transferred to another school.
"How about seeing a f i l m then?" He changed greatly, you know. He got much taller and I
"Agreed." could hardly recognize h i m . Of course he asked me thousands of
questions about our boys and girls and sent a l l of them his best
2
wishes. Alec said first he was m i s s i n g our school, boys and teach­
" I ' l l call for you at seven." ers but then he got used to his new school and made a lot of
new friends.
B y the way, Alec wasn't alone when I r m h i m . There was a
VIII nice g i r l w i t h h i m and he introduced me to her. I t was his cousin
"Have you made up your m i n d what you are going to do on New and he said they were going to their uncle's place to wish h i m
Year's Eve?" many happy returns of the day.
"Not quite. I ' d like to go to the ball, but it's a b i t complicated. 1
Alec told me he got much interested in astronautics and read
I can't find the partner." a lot of books on that subject. He said he had constructed a tel­
2 3
"Oh, w i t h me it's the other way r o u n d . I ' d like to stay at home, escope and m o u n t e d i t on the roof of his house. He invited us
but Kate wants to go to the b a l l . " to go and see his "observatory". W e l l , I don't t h i n k his success is
"Look here, Jack. A n d what if I go w i t h Kate to the ball and as great as he described but it would be interesting to see how
you stay at home?" his research is going on.
Alec laughed very much when I told h i m George had become
IX an excellent pupil and dropped his pigeons. I n fact, first he d i d n ' t 4

believe me and thought I was joking.


"Can you do me a favour, Jim? W o u l d you mind introducing me I took his new address and I t h i n k we shall call on h i m some
to Miss Jones?" day.
"Oh, yes, w i t h pleasure, though i t ' s rather strange you don't know 1

each other yet." that's a nice how d'you do вот-те н а


2
to miss с к у ч а т ь
"Just I d i d n ' t have a chance to get acquainted w i t h her. Is she a 3
to mount [ m a u n t ] м о н т и р о в а т ь , у с т а н а в л и в а т ь
good girl?" 4
pigeon [ ' p i d 3 8 n ] г о л у б ь
"Yes, of course, and she has a very nice dog."

X
"How about going to see Nick?"
3
"What's the big idea?"
1
complicated с л о ж н ы й
2
the other way round (все) н а о б о р о т
3
What's the big idea? С ч е г о б ы э т о в д р у г ?
bridge [bnd3] мост
bystreet ['baistri:t] переулок
Syn. lane
city ['siti] город (крупный)
embankment [im'bamkmant] н а б е р е ж н а я
outskirts ['autska:ts] pi о к р а и н а , предместья (города)
He lives on the Outskirts of the c i t y . Он живет на окраине
города.'
pavement ['peivmant] т р о т у а р
The car ran onto the pavement. Машина в ъ е х а л а на т р о т у а р .
Syn. sidewalk (A. E.)
road [roud] 1) дорога, путь; шоссе; 2) улица, мостовая
Let's cross the road here. Д а в а й т е перейдем здесь дорогу.
This road goes to the embankment. Эта дорога ведет к набе­
режной.
Syn. roadway froudwei] шоссе, мостовая
Never play on the roadway. Н и к о г д а не играйте на мостовой,
street [stri:t] у л и ц а
A. SITUATIONS I live in Lenin Street. Я ж и в у на улице Л е н и н а .
I live Number 10 Lenin Street. Я ж и в у на улице Л е н и н а , 10.
1) You ask a passer-by how to get to the place you want. suburb ['sAba:b] 1) пригород; 2) pi предместья, окрестности
2) You show the way to a stranger (a tourist). She lives i n the suburbs. О н а живет в пригороде,
3) You are a passenger of a bus (tram, trolley-bus). town [taun] город
4) You hire a taxi in the street. to go down town ехать в центр города
5) You ride in an overcrowded bus (tram).
6) You exchange the addresses with a new friend and explain to
each other how to get to your place.
2
7) You tell your friend about the town you were born in (or
visited).
8) You have returned from a journey to some big city abroad, corner ['кэ:пэ] угол
and tell your friends about your impressions of it. I ' l l meet you at the corner of the street. Я встречу тебя на
9) You explain to your little sister (brother) the most important углу у л и ц ы .
rules of street traffic. I t ' s just round the corner. Это сразу ж е за углом. 7
10) You tell your friend (parents, etc.) about an incident which crossing ['krosroj переход (через улицу); перекресток
happened to you (or you witnessed) in the street. This crossing is one of the busiest in our town. Это один из
11) You discuss with your friend the problem of city transport. самых оживленных перекрестков в нашем городе,
direction [di'rekjan] направление
In which direction did he go? В к а к о м направлении он пошел?
B, T O P I C A L VOCABULARY entrance ['entrens] вход
Where is the entrance to the museum? Где вход в музей?
exit ['eksit] выход
1 route [ru:t] 1) маршрут; 2) трамвай (троллейбус и т. д.) опреде­
ленного м а р ш р у т а
avenue ['aavmju:] проспект Does Route 5 stop here? П я т ы й номер здесь останавливается?
block fbbk] квартал Which route do you take? В к а к о м направлении вы едете
To roach the post-office, walk two blocks and then turn left. (идете)?
Чтобы дойти до почты, пройдите два квартала и поверните seat [si : t] место (для сидения)
налево. Though the bus was not overcrowded, there were no vacant
sa 39
seats. Хотя автобус не был passenger ['paesmd39] п а с с а ж и р
переполнен, свободных мест passer-by ['pasa'bai] п р о х о ж и й
не было. Several passers-by stopped at the crossing w a i t i n g for the traf­
I always give up m y seat to fic lights to t u r n green. Н е с к о л ь к о п р о х о ж и х остановились на
older people. Я всегда усту­ перекрестке, о ж и д а я зеленого света.
паю место старшим, pedestrian [pi'destran] пешеход
stop [stop] остановка policeman [po'lhsmon] полицейский
You must get off at the last There is a policeman over there. Go and ask h i m . Вон там
stop but one. В а м выходить полицейский. Спросите у него.
на предпоследней остановке, stranger ['stremd39] незнакомец
request stop остановка по
требованию
bus stop автобусная оста­ 4
новка
subway ['sAbwei] подземный пе­ building ['bildin] здание
реход, тоннель cafe ['kaefei] кафе
taxi-rank ['taeksijaerjk] останов­ department store [ d i ' p a t r r a n t 'sto:] универмаг
к а такси hospital ['hospitl] больница
terminus ['toimmas] конечная library ['laibren] библиотека
с т а н ц и я , остановка museum [mju'zkam] музей
Terminus, the bus is going park [ р а к ] п а р к
back in t w o minutes. Конеч­ place [pleis] 1) место
н а я остановка. Автобус пой­ I liked that place very much. Мне там очень п о н р а в и л о с ь .
дет обратно через две ми­ places of interest достопримечательности
нуты. 2) ж и л и щ е ; загородный дом
turning [ Ч э : п т ] поворот We met at his place. Мы встретились у него дома,
Take the first (second) post-office ['poustpfis] почта
turning on your right. Д о й ­ General Post-Office главпочтамт
дете до первого (второго) port [po:t] порт
поворота и н а п р а в о . airport ['e9po:t] аэропорт
way [wei] путь; дорога river ['nvg] port речной порт
W h i c h is the shortest way skating-rink ['skeitinrirjk] каток
there? К а к о й туда кратчай­ stadium ['steidiam] стадион
ший путь? Are you coming station ['steijgn] станция, вокзал
m y way? В а м со мной по bus station автовокзал
пути? railway ['reilwei] station железнодорожный в о к з а л
sea station морской вокзал
swimming-pool ['swimirjpu:l] бассейн д л я п л а в а н и я
3
theatre ['6i9t9] театр
driver ['draiva] водитель; шофер opera-house ['opgrehaus] оперный театр
Н е ' paid the driver and got Zoo [zu:] зоопарк
off. Он расплатился с шофе­
ром и вышел (из машины),
tram-driver [4raem,drarv9] ва­ 5
гоновожатый
Conductor | k.>n'(Ukto] кондуктор bicycle ['baisikl] велосипед
militiaman [гш'ЬГвтэп] мили- Syn. bike
IIIIIIIII'P bus [bAS] автобус
41
Shall we walk or go by bus? Пойдем пешком или поедем н а There was a jam in the traffic for some minutes. Н а несколько
автобусе? минут д в и ж е н и е застопорилось,
On his way home on the bus he usually reads a book. Когда traffic-light ['traefikJait] светофор
он едет домой в автобусе, он обычно читает к н и г у , The car stopped at the traffic-light and waited t i l l the lights
саг [ка] автомобиль (легковой) showed green. Машина остановилась у светофора и ж д а л а ,
double-decker f'dAbl'deka] д в у х э т а ж н ы й автобус (троллейбус и т. п.) пока появится зеленый свет,
lorry ['1эп] грузовик traffic rules [ru:lz] п р а в и л а уличного д в и ж е н и я
taxi ['taeksi] т а к с и We must observe traffic rules. Мы д о л ж н ы соблюдать правила
Shall we go by bus or take a taxi? Мы поедем автобусом или уличного д в и ж е н и я .
возьмем такси?
Syn. cab
7
tram [trasm] трамвай
The tram w i l l take you right there. Т р а м в а й привезет вас
to be on one's way ехать, идти (находиться в пути)
прямо туда,
I was on my way from school to the library when I met her.
trolley-bus I'trohbAs] троллейбус
Я шел (ехал) из школы в библиотеку, когда я ее встретил.
underground ['Andagraund] метрополитен
to be right [rait] for быть на правильном пути
Syn. metro ['metrou]; subway (A. E.)
A m I right for the Zoo? Я п р а в и л ь н о иду к зоопарку?
to cross [kras] переходить; пересекать
6 D o n ' t cross the street here. He переходите здесь у л и ц у .
to change [tfemd3] п е р е с а ж и в а т ь с я , делать пересадку
accident ['aeksidant] несчастный с л у ч а й , а в а р и я Where do we change? Где нам н у ж н о делать пересадку?
I saw an accident yesterday. Вчера я был свидетелем несчаст­ Y o u ' l l have to change for (to) the tram next stop. Вам при­
ного с л у ч а я на у л и ц е . дется на следующей остановке пересесть на т р а м в а й .
D o n ' t drive your car so fast, you may meet w i t h an accident. to drive [draiv] (drove [drouv], driven ['dnvn]) 1) управлять (ав­
He гоните машину с такой скоростью, вы можете попасть томобилем); 2) ехать (в автомобиле)
в аварию. We took a taxi and drove to the airport. Мы в з я л и такси и
change [tfeind3] сдача; мелкие деньги, мелочь поехали в аэропорт,
I have no change. У меня нет сдачи, to get [get] (got [got], got) прибыть, добраться
small change мелочь How can I get to the station? К а к мне добраться до станции?
I have по small change about me. У меня нет мелочи. to get about ехать, передвигаться
fare [fea] плата за проезд The traffic was heavy and i t was not easy to get about. Д в и ­
(All) fares, please! Оплатите проезд, пожалуйста! ж е н и е было оживленным и передвигаться по городу было
W h a t is the fare to the river port? Сколько стоит билет до нелегко.
речного порта? to get in входить, садиться
incident ['msidant] с л у ч а й ; инцидент Syn. to get on (a tram, a bus, etc.)
A n interesting incident happened when I was reaching the ter­ Get on a No. 5 bus. Садитесь на пятый номер автобуса.
minus. Когда я п о д ъ е з ж а л к конечной остановке, произошел to get off сойти, слезть
интересный с л у ч а й . Do you get off (at) the next stop? Вы сходите на следующей
rush-hours ['глТ,аиэг] pi часы «пик» остановке?
A t (during) rush-hours the buses are always crowded. В часы to give somebody a lift подвезти кого-л. (на машине)
«пик» автобусы всегда переполнены. W i l l you give me a lift? В ы меня подвезете?
traffic ['trsefik] движение; транспорт to go Igou] (went, gone) идти; ехать
The traffic is heavy (light) on this road. Н а этой улице дви­ Does this tram go to the University? Этот трамвай идет к уни­
ж е н и е сильное (слабое). верситету?
Traffic keeps to the left in England. В Англии движение to go as far as . . . доехать до . . .
транспорта левостороннее, Go as far as Darwin Square. Д о е з ж а й т е до площади Д а р в и н а .
traffic pi" [dgajrn] «пробка», затор (в уличном движении) to knock [nok] down сбить с ног

43
'Г.!
You nearly knocked me down.
Вы чуть меня не сбили с ног. Do not go far. He уходите д а л е к о .
to lose [lu:z] (lost [lost], lost) Syn. a long way д а л е к о (на далеком расстоянии)
терять I t is a long way to the planetarium. Д о планетария д а л е к о ,
to be lost заблудиться near [шз] б л и з к о
I was completely lost. Я со­ M y school is quite near. Моя школа совсем близко.
вершенно з а б л у д и л с я . Syn. in the neighbourhood поблизости, по соседству
Syn. to lose one's way Is there a post-office in the neighbourhood? Здесь поблизости
to move [mu:v] двигаться, пе­ есть почта?
редвигаться Syn. no distance at all (at hand) недалеко (рукой подать)
W i l l you move aside, please?
Пожалуйста, подвиньтесь
(отодвиньтесь).
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N O F U S E
Move forward, please. По­
жалуйста, продвигайтесь
вперед. SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
' N o w t h a t I r i d e on h i m I never
Syn. to move ahead, to move
come l a t e for m y w o r k . "
along, to move up
to pass [pees] проходить, п р о е з ж а т ь 1) "Could you tell (show) me the shortest way to the airport?"
Please, let me pass. Р а з р е ш и т е , п о ж а л у й с т а , пройти. the railway station
to reach [ r i : t f ] достигать the Zoo
Shall I be able to reach the airport i n half an hour's time? the Circus
Я смогу за полчаса достичь (добраться до) аэропорта? the terminus
to ride [raid] (rode [roud], ridden ['ndn]) ехать (в автобусе, трам­
вае и т. д.) "Get on a No. 5 bus and go as far as Newton Street."
I saw you riding in a bus. Я видел, к а к вы е х а л и в автобусе, Park Lane
to run [глп] (ran [гзеп], run) ходить; курсировать Times Square
Does this tram run to the centre? Этот трамвай идет к центру? the bridge
to run over задавить, переехать (кого-л.) 2) "How can I get to the
The dog was run over by a car. Собаку переехала машина, nearest cinema?"
to take [teik] (took [ t u k ] , taken ['teikn]) 1) пользоваться (транспортом) post-office
The taxi took,me to the station. Я поехал на в о к з а л на такси. department store
I took a No. 3 bus in Gorky Street. Я сел на третий номер taxi-rank
автобуса на улице Горького. bus stop
2) свернуть (на к а к у ю - л . underground (Metro)
улицу) station
Take the street on your right. Сверните на у л и ц у вправо. "Go along the street and take
3) занимать (о времени) the avenue
H o w long w i l l i t take me to get there? С к о л ь к о (времени) мне the lane
понадобится, чтобы добраться туда? this road
to turn [to:n] повернуть the first turning on your left."
We turned to the right (to the left, round the corner). Мы second right
повернули направо (налево, за угол). third
3) "Conductor, does this bus go
8 to the Public Library?"
the stadium " W i l l you t e l l me, please, how 1 can
far [fa] д а л е к о (употребляется обычно в вопросительных и отри­ cross t h i s street?" " O h , t h a t ' s s i m p l e —
цательных предложениях) the Picture Gallery first take a bus and r i d e three stops,
How far is your school? Д а л е к о ли твоя школа? /the opera-house then change for the t r a m and i n four
the embankment stops y o u ' l l see the subway ..."
44
45
CONVERSATIONS
"Yes, i t stops right in front of it."
on the other side of the road
a block from i t I
not far from i t
4) " A m I right for the river port?" "Excuse me, sir..."
the railway station "Yes, what is i t ? "
the General Post-Office " I ' m a stranger i n London and I ' m completely lost. Could you
the City Bank possibly tell me the way to Piccadilly Circus?"
"Yes, i t ' s just near at hand." " W e l l , I happen to be going i n the same direction myself, so
round the corner I m i g h t show you the way."
behind that house "Oh, thank you. I t ' s very k i n d of you."
about five minutes' walk
5) "Does this trolley-bus run to the centre of the city?"
bus II
tram
"Pardon me, madam, which is the quickest way to the centre of
"No, y o u ' l l have to change for (to) No. 3."
"the town?"
a No. 5 bus
"Take a Number 16 bus and go as far as Newton Street."
Route No. 15
a No. 8 t r a m " W i l l i t be the very centre of the town?"
the underground "Yes, certainly."
6) "Where do I get off to reach the railway station?"
the stadium Ill
the skating-rink
the Central Park "Pardon me, sir, could you show me the way to the Arts Museum?"
"You must get off at the next stop." "Let me t h i n k . . . Take the street on your right and go straight
at the last stop but one on. I t w i l l lead you right to the Museum."
in two stops "Thank you very much."
7) "How d i d you get here?" "Not at a l l . "
" I came here by bus."
by tram
by taxi IV
by underground
by car "Do you get off at the next stop?"
on foot " W e l l , what's that stop? . . . The Drama Theatre? . . . Oh no, i t
8) "How long w i l l i t take me to get there?" isn't m y stop, I ' m going farther."
" I t ' l l take you .10 minutes, I believe." "Could you possibly step aside a l i t t l e and;let me pass?"
half an hour
I " W e l l , move forward, please."
quite a time "Thank you."
an hour and a half
9) "Is the stadium far from here?"
V
your school
the skating-rink
" I believe the underground is the quickest way of getting to Park
the hospital
Avenue."
the railway station 1
"Well, i t depends on what part of the avenue you need."
"It's about 10 minutes' walk."
20 minutes' ride
i t o depend зависеть
a good hour's w a l k
.47
'Hi
" I ' d like to go to the Public L i b r a r y . "
1
X
"Then i t ' l l be more convenient for you to go by bus. Its stop is
just round the corner and i t ' l l take you right there. And the "Excuse me, are you getting off at the request stop? I must get
underground station is a long way from the L i b r a r y . " to Market Square."
"Market Square? B u t you're going away from i t . The tram is
going i n the opposite direction."
VI "Oh, is that really so?"
"For sure, madam."
2
" I never expected there is so much traffic i n your small town.
I was nearly run over twice."
" I t is really very heavy, especially during the rush-hours. Some­ XI
times i t takes you rather long to cross the street."
" W e l l , do they plan to build subways at the busy crossings?" "Why have you come late?"
"Oh, yes, one is being constructed three blocks from here." "You know, an old woman was
knocked down by a car."
"Really? Where did i t happen?"
VII " A t the corner of H i g h Street
and Park Avenue. The car ran
"Is this the right bus to the Central Park, conductor?" onto the pavement and went
"Yes, sir... We go past the Park... Fares, please!" into a w a l l . So there was a bad
"What is the fare to the Park?" jam for about twenty minutes."
"Fivepence, please... Move ahead, please. No standing on the plat­
form!"
" W i l l you let me know when I am to get off?"
L u c k y as usual.
"Very w e l l , sir."
XII
"Pardon me, madam, I've got to get off at the next stop."
VIII "You needn't push! You nearly knocked me over!"
1
" I beg your pardon. The bus threw me off my balance."
"Are you engaged, driver?" "But you're s t i l l standing on my foot!"
"No, sir. Step i n , please! Where shall I take you?" "Oh, I ' m so sorry. Excuse me."
" I must get to the airport i n an hour's time."
"No worry, w e ' l l make i t . "
A STORY
"But I ' l l have also to pick up my luggage at the railway station."
" W e ' l l manage that, too." (A story of a girl who came to stay at her aunt's in a big city
and who nearly lost herself when she went to see the town alone.)

IX A u n t Mary! If you only knew how happy I am to see you


2
E again! I had such an exciting t i m e when you were out. I tried
"Hey, George! Where are you walking?" to make a short round about the neighbourhood though I knew
"Oh, that's you, B i l l y . I ' m hurrying to the cinema. Can you give you would not let me out alone. I n fact, I nearly got lost.
me a lift?" . . . F i r s t I went along the street your house is i n , then I took a turn­
8
" W i t h pleasure. Take the front seat. Close the door more t i g h t l y . " ing to the left. There was a fine building at the end of the lane
3
I turned to and I wanted to see i t closer. A l l of a sudden I got

1 1
convenient [ k a n ' v i m j a n t ] у д о б н ы й to throw smb. off one's balance в ы в е с т и к о г о - л . и з р а в н о в е с и я
2
2
to expect [ i k s ' p e k t ] о ж и д а т ь I had an exciting time М н е п р и ш л о с ь п о в о л н о в а т ь с я
3
3
tightly п л о т н о closer ['klousa] б л и ж е

48 49
to a small square w i t h old houses around i t , a fountain i n the
middle and a tall clock tower i n one of its corners. I t was a nice
1
5
and I ' d say —a very cosy place. There were plenty of pigeons on
the pavement and elsewhere. I sat down on a bench to have a rest
and looked around. Several narrow bystreets began at the square. WEATHER
So when I started m y w a l k back I probably chose the wrong one. AND CLIMATE
I t led me to a broad avenue w i t h heavy traffic. Hundreds of cars,
lorries and buses rushed by and I couldn't cross the roadway. Of 9
course I d i d n ' t know there was a subway at the end of that block
ПОГОДА И КЛИМАТ
and a passer-by helped me to find i t .
But that isn't the end of the story. When I found myself on
the other side of that big street I noticed I was there for the first
2
time. A l l the houses, shops and all seemed quite u n f a m i l i a r to
me. I turned to the right and again the street was unknown to
3
me. I stopped at a loss and was about to cry.* I understood I
w o u l d n ' t find your street myself and I asked an old woman the way
here. I was very much surprised when she said I had to take
a trolley-bus and ride four stops. I t ' s good luck I had some small
change on me. 5 A. SITUATIONS

1
cosy ['kouzi] у ю т н ы й
1) You intend to go out and ask your sister (brother, mother)
2
unfamiliar н е з н а к о м ы й who has just come in about the weather.
3
at a loss в р а с т е р я н н о с т и 2) You plan to go h i k i n g and discuss w i t h your friend the pros­
* I . . . was about to cry. Я . . . ч у т ь б ы л о н е з а п л а к а л а . pects of the weather for the coming week.
8
I had some small change on me. У м е н я с собой б ы л о н е м н о г о м е л о ч и .
3) Planning to spend your holidays in the south (north) you talk
to a friend who lived there about the weather i n those parts
at this time of the year.
4) You tell your English pen-friend of the climate of the region
where you live.
5) Friends talk about their favourite seasons.
6) Being a great partisan of the climate i n your parts you point
out its advantages to a friend who has a different view.
7) You tell your friend about a case when the weather made you
change your plans.
8) You exchange remarks about the weather w i t h your fellow
traveller.
9) You tell your friend the weather report you have heard over
the radio or read in the papers.
10) You discuss w i t h your friends the plans of the Soviet scien­
tists to change the climate in various parts of the country.

B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y

1
autumn ['o:tam] осень
We are having a late autumn this year. В этом году у нас
поздняя осень.
51
2 medicine ['medsin] лекарство
mustard plaster горчичник
Ц ache 4eik] п р о д о л ж и т е л ь н а я боль ointment ['amtmant] мазь
toothache з у б н а я боль p i l l [ p i l ] пилюля
headache головная боль prevention [ p n ' v e n j a n ] предупреждение болезни (профилактика)
I have a splitting headache. У меня у ж а с н о болит голова spoonful |'spu:nful] л о ж к а
у (голова р а з л а м ы в а е т с я от боли),
э
a tea spoonful of the mixture чайная л о ж к а микстуры
j?"' J~Jstomach-ache боль в ж е л у д к е
treatment [ ' t r k t m a n t ] лечение
appendicitis [a'pendi'saitis] аппендицит
attack [a'taek] приступ
Н е had a heart attack. Он перенес сердечный приступ, 4
boil [boil] нарыв
dentist ['dentist] зубной врач
\| bronchitis [bran'kaitis] бронхит
patient ['peijant] больной, пациент
cancer ['kaensa] р а к
in-patient госпитализированный больной
• cold [kould] простуда
out-patient амбулаторный больной
cold in the head насморк
physician [fi'zijan] врач, доктор
complication [,kamph'keijan] осложнение
specialist ['spejahst] специалист
chicken-pox ['tfikmpaks] ветряная оспа, в е т р я н к а
eye specialist окулист
cholera f'kalara] холера
consumption [kan'sAmpJan] т у б е р к у л е з Syn. j oculist
Syn. tuberculosis, T B C ear, nose and throat specialist отоларинголог
vj disease [di'zi:z] болезнь surgeon ['sa:d3an] х и р у р г
fever ['fi:va] л и х о р а д к а therapeutist [,8era'pju:tist] терапевт
scarlet fever с к а р л а т и н а Syn.,G. P. (general practitioner)
\j (the) flu грипп
Syn. grippe
indigestion [,indi'd3est/an] несварение ж е л у д к а 5
malaria [ma'leana] м а л я р и я to ache [eik] болеть, ныть
(the) measles ['mi:zlz] корь to bandage ['baendids] перевязывать
mumps [mAmps] свинка to be down with pneumonia л е ж а т ь с воспалением легких
^ pain [pein] боль (особенно о с т р а я , внезапная) to be operated on for (cancer, etc.) перенести операцию (рака и т. д.)
I feel some pain in the back. Я чувствую боль в спине, to be put on sick-list получить бюллетень (освобождение от работы)
a pain in the knee боль в колене to be X-rayed пройти рентген
plague [pleig] чума to bring down the temperature сбить температуру
N pneumonia [njm'mounia] воспаление легких ID catch (a) cold простудиться
t quinsy f k w m z i ] ангина In cough [kaf] к а ш л я т ь
rash [г аз J] сыпь to сир ставить банки
small-pox ['sma:l,paks] оспа lo cure [kjua] вылечить, излечить (от болезни)
typhus ['taifas] т и ф Dr. Brown has cured her. Д о к т о р Б р а у н вылечил ее.
whooping-cough ['hu:pitjkafj к о к л ю ш l i e managed to cure that disease. Е м у удалось излечить эту
болезнь.
3 to die of (consumption, etc.) умереть от (туберкулеза и т . д.)
|0 examine a patient осмотреть больного
cups [kAps] банки l<> t a l l i l l заболеть
i drops [drops] к а п л и to feel feverish [ ' f i : v a n j ] чувствовать ж а р
hot-water bottle г р е л к а In [eel one's pulse щупать пульс
-! injection [m'd3ekj9n] у к о л , и н ъ е к ц и я l<> give an Injection (of penicillin) сделать у к о л (пенициллина)
inoculation h^nakju'leijan] (against) п р и в и в к а (от) io have a (bad) cold (сильно) простудиться

180 V 181
to have a prescription made up 1 have a pain i n my back (side,
з а к а з а т ь лекарство (в ап- etc.). У меня болит спина
- — теке) (бок и т . д . ) .
to have a tooth crowned поста­ I t hurts (badly). (Очень) болит.
вить к о р о н к у на зуб It is hard to swallow. Т р у д н о
to have a tooth filled запломби­ глотать.
ровать зуб My cheek i s ' swollen. У меня
to have a tooth (pulled) out выр- опухла щ е к а .
\ вать зуб My foot is out of j o i n t . Я вы­
tcTheal [hi:l] з а ж и в а т ь ; излечи­ в и х н у л себе ногу.
вать My head is swimming. У меня
The wound healed slowly. к р у ж и т с я голова.
Рана з а ж и в а л а медленно. My nose is clogged up. У меня
to keep one's bed оставаться в з а л о ж е н нос.
постели, соблюдать постель­ The f l u (quinsy, etc.) is catching.
ный режим Г р и п п (ангина и т.д.) з а р а з е н . «i d o n ' t t h i n k i t ' s going t o be as easy
to listen to one's heart (lungs) What do you complain of? Ha as i t looks. He's swallowed a m a g n e t . "
выслушать сердце (легкие) что вы жалуетесь?
to make one's blood-count делать What do you take for a headache? Ч т о вы принимаете от голов­
анализ крови ной боли?
to make out a prescription выпи­ Where do you feel pain? Где у вас болит?
сать рецепт I ' m quite f i t . Я чувствую себя (вполне) хорошо.
to measure one's blood pressure
измерять давление крови
to prescribe some medicine выписать лекарство C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
to recover [ п ' к л у э ] выздороветь, выздоравливать
He recovered slowly after his long illness. Он медленно выздо­ SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
равливал после своей длительной болезни.
She recovered her eyesight. К ней возвратилось зрение. 1) "What do you complain of, sir?"
to sneeze [sni:z] чихать "I've got a splitting headache."
to sound one's lungs (chest) прослушать легкие, грудную клетку a terrible toothache
to suffer from (a disease) страдать от (болезни) an awful ear-ache
to take a treatment for (a disease) принимать лечение (от болезни) a stomach-ache
to take a medicine принимать лекарство a pain i n my back
to take one's temperature измерять температуру V.) "Did you ever suffer from
to treat (for an illness) лечить (от болезни) malaria, sir?"
Which doctor is treating you for your illness? К а к о й доктор bronchitis
лечит вас от этой болезни? mumps
pneumonia
"No, never."
G
11 Where's Jack? I can't see
I am running a temperature. У меня температура. him anywhere."
I am sick. Меня тошнит. "Well, he isn't at work. He's
I feel seedy. Мне не по себе. down w i t h flu."^
I got an infection from h i m . Я от него з а р а з и л с я . quinsy
I have a sore throat (a toothache, an ear-ache, a sore eye). У меня indigestion
болит горло (зубы, уши, глаз). pneumonia

.182 183
4) "What w i l l you recommend i n the first place, doctor?" "You've got to consult a doctor."
" I n the first place you must have your blood tested." "That's what I ' m going to do. I t h i n k 1 must be X-rayed."
lungs X-rayed "Certainly."
_ 4 „ blood pressure measured
5) "How do I take a l l those pills, doctor?"
"You should take them twice a day." Ill
three times a day
every morning "Oh, 1 do feel awful. Look at my cheek!"
6) "What are these pills for?" "Your cheek is swollen. I t is a tooth, isn't it?"
those drops "Yes, the back one. I ' l l probably have to have i t pulled out."
these tablets 1
"But y o u ' l l have to w a i t t i l l the swelling subsides."
"This medicine is for rheumatism."
a cough
the f l u IV
a bad digestion
7) "What specialist must I consult?" " I have an awful toothache. I t feels as if m y lower jaw was fall­
"You must see a surgeon." ing to pieces."
an eye specialist "Would you open your mouth, please . . . Does the touch hurt?"
a dentist "Yes, very. I t gives me a sharp pain." " -
a therapeutist "Well, no treatment w i l l help your bad tooth. I t has to be pulled
8) "Have you heard from Aunt B e t t y lately?" out. You've applied too late."
"Yes, certainly. She's in hospital now." " A n y t h i n g w i l l do so long as i t stops the pain, doctor."
in a sanatorium
at a rest-home
at a health resort
in clinic
9) "What is she doing there, I wonder?" "Here you are, y o u ' l l feel much better w i t h your tooth filled."
" W e l l , she's taking a treatment for pneumonia." "You're just so r i g h t . H o w much do I owe you?"
stomach-ache "Just gratitude. A l l medical aid is provided free in the Soviet
heart disease Union."
high blood pressure
some illness
VI
CONVERSATIONS
"Please, give me a glass of water."
I - "Here you are. What's the matter w i t h you?"
"Outch !" 1 "My head is swimming."
"Here, lie down, y o u ' l l feel much better in a minute."
"What's the matter?"
"I've cut m y finger."
VII
"Oh, I ' m sorry, come here, I ' l l bandage i t . "
" Y o u shouldn't muffle up the baby."
" I ' m so much afraid of colds."
II O v e r h e a t i n g w i l l get h i m colds much easier."
" I don't like your cough." "You're right, thank you, but I ' m always t r y i n g to be on guard."
"Yes, it's pretty bad, I just can't get r i d of i t .
і Outch [ a u f j l Ой! (возглас) I to subside [sab'said] спадать, становиться меньше

m .183
VIII 1
portant and u r g e n t . Besides, you have given your word the work
2
w i l l be ended in time — a n d alas!
"Mum, I want an ice." I n the morning you find out suddenly that you can't get up
"You said in the morning you had a sore throat and i t was hard as usual. You have a s p l i t t i n g headache. You feel a l i t t l e dizzy
to swallow your porridge." and you cough; you can't recognize your voice because your nose
" I t isn't any more." is clogged. Besides, it's hard for. you to swallow.
You fight back the thought you are i l l . You look for the
thermometer. A t last the temperature is taken: 38.4. T h a t means
IX you are running a high temperature. So the last hope you're all
right is destroyed. You are i l l , that's certain. I t can't be helped.
"Tell me your trouble, young man." You have to stay at home.
" W e l l , I must have caught cold. I've been sneezing and coughing You inform your mother of your illness. Now the doctor w i l l
all the time and on the top of that i t ' s hard for me to swallow." be sent for. H e ' l l be here i n an hour or two. H e ' l l take your
"Open your mouth, please, let me have a look at your throat . . . hand and say, " W e l l , what troubles you, young man? H a v i n g
Your pulse, please . . . Now take off your coat and shirt, I ' l l listen a cough? I see you're sneezing . . . W e l l , let me feel your pulse . . .
to your heart and sound your lungs . . . Got a temperature?" Now let's sound your lungs; please strip to the waist . . . Breathe,
"Yes, but not very high — thirty-seven, point three." please." Then he w i l l conclude, " W e l l , nothing serious, just a f l u .
"There's nothing serious the case w i t h you. Just take care not But y o u ' l l have to keep your bed for a few days. Don't go out
1
to expose yourself and avoid draughts, keep the bed for a few earlier or else y o u ' l l get complications . . . A n d here's the prescrip­
days and take the medicine I ' l l prescribe you." tion. Take the pills regularly and keep yourself w a r m . Wish you
good luck, old fellow!"
The doctor w i l l leave. He's very busy, he has a lot to do, he
X must go. You may have a lot to do, too, but you w i l l stay in
bed: you are i l l .
"When were you operated on for your appendicitis?"
"Two days ago. They brought me here in an ambulance, you know. 1
urgent ['a:d58nt] с р о ч н ы й
Had I been brought to hospital a l i t t l e later I m i g h t have died 2
alas [s'la;s]l у в ы !
of blood poisoning."
"How do you feel now?"
" I ' m still a b i t too weak and somewhat dizzy. B u t the doctor
says I ' l l be picking up in no time. I f everything goes well they
2
w i l l take out the stitches next Friday. . . . W e l l , and how's
everybody?"
"Thanks, all right. Asking how you are . . . I ' l l be leaving now.
Hope to see you in a better shape soon, er?"
"Thanks a lot for coming round to see me. Good-bye."

A STORY

(Boris Petrov describes how it is to get ill.)

Of all things people probably hate diseases most.


Suppose you plan to finish your work tomorrow. I t ' s very im-

1
draught [ d r a f t ] с к в о з н я к
2
s t i t c h [stitf] ш о в

186
competition [,kompi'tij9n] состязание, соревнование
D i d you watch the swimming competition? Вы смотрели сорев­
нование пловцов?
boxing competition соревнование по боксу
chess competition соревнование по шахматам
Syn. contest
event [I'vent] соревнование по определенному виду спорта
Soviet sportsmen are world champions in many events.
Советские спортсмены д е р ж а т мировое первенство по многим
видам спорта.
game Igeim] 1) игра, п а р т и я
W h i c h side won the game? Кто выиграл эту игру?
Let's play a game of tennis. Д а в а й т е сыграем партию в.теннис.
2) pi с о с т я з а н и я , игры
Olympic Games Олимпийские игры
match [maetf] состязание, матч
A. SITUATIONS Who is refereeing the international ice-hockey match? Кто су­
1) You ask your new friend what kind of sports he (she) goes in дит международную встречу по хоккею?
for (likes). set [set] п а р т и я (в игре)
2) You tell your new friend about the sports activities (facilities, sport [sport] 1) спорт, спортивные игры
equipment) at. your school. What is your favourite kind of sport? К а к о й ваш любимый
3) You describe to your friend the newly b u i l t Palace of Sports вид спорта?
you have visited. 2) pi спортивные состязания
4) You meet a friend on his way from the stadium (where he W i l l you take part in the school sports? Вы будете принимать
watched the match) and find out the score. участие в ш к о л ь н ы х соревнованиях?
5) You tell your friend about the sports review you heard over sports society [sa'sarati] спортивное общество
the radio (watched on T V ) . Do you belong to this sports society? Вы член этого спортив­
6) You discuss w i t h your friend the result of a football match ного общества?
(track-and-field competition). team [ t i : m ] команда
7) You explain to your younger brother (sister) the rules of some Have you a strong basket-ball team? У вас сильная баскет­
game. больная команда?
8) W h i l e playing chess w i t h your friend you exchange remarks Our team took the second place. Н а ш а команда вышла на
connected w i t h the game. второе место.
9) You are interviewing the coach of a volley-ball (basket-ball) Which team is in blue (red) jerseys and white shorts? К а к а я
team. команда в синих (красных) м а й к а х и белых трусах?
10) You talk w i t h your friend about your favourite sports and home team хозяева поля
games (your favourite sportsman). visiting team команда гостей
11) Your pen-friend tells you about the popular sports and games tournament ['tuanamant] т у р н и р , соревнование
in England. all Union tournament всесоюзный турнир
Tournament of Nations of the U.S.S.R. Спартакиада народов СССР
12) You tell your friend about some sports contest you took part i n .
*
B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y 2
1
championship ['tf aempian,fip] первенство, чемпионат Ьаю ball |'beisba:l] бейсбол
When does the national football championship start? Когда начи­ Baikel hall |'ba:skitba:l] баскетбол
нается розыгрыш первенства страны по футболу? i IK V. I IfesI шахматы
world championship соревнование на первенство мира Ли- you keen on chess? Вы любите шахматы?
189
cricket ['krïkit] к р и к е т champion ['tfaempian] чемпион
draughts [drafts] ш а ш к и Who is the champion in
football ['futbo:l] футбол weight-lifting? Кто чемпион
Do you care for football? В ы интересуетесь футболом? по штанге?
Syn. soccer Syn. record-holder
golf [golf] гольф Olympic Champion олимпий­
handball ['haendbo:l] гандбол, ручной мяч ский чемпион
tennis ['tenis] теннис world champion чемпион мира
Are you good at tennis? Вы хорошо играете в теннис? coach [koutf] тренер
table-tennis настольный теннис Who is the coach of the team?
volley-ball ['vohbo:l] волейбол Кто тренер команды?
water-polo ['woita'poulou] водное поло Syn. trainer
fan [fan] болельщик
Are you a football fan? Вы
3 болельщик футбола?
Syn. supporter, backer
goal-keeper ['goulkkpa] г о л к и п е р , в р а т а р ь
aquatics [ak'wsetiks] водные виды спорта W h y did they change the goal-keeper? Почему они заменили
athletics л е г к а я атлетика вратаря?
Syn. track-and-field athletics, light athletics opponent [a'pounant] противник, соперник
boating ['boutin] лодочный спорт Syn. contender
boxing ['boksin] бокс player ['pleia] игрок
callisthenics [,ksehs'6eniks] художественная гимнастика He is a player of high class. Он игрок высокого к л а с с а .
cycling ['saikhrj] велоспорт football-player футболист
diving ['daivin] п р ы ж к и в воду hockey player хоккеист
fencing ['fensin] фехтование referee [,refa'ri:] судья
gymnastics [d3im'naestiks] гимнастика ikater ['skeita] конькобежец
motoring ['moutanrj] мотоспорт »kk*r I 'ski:э] л ы ж н и к
mountaineering [,maunti'ni9rir)] а л ь п и н и з м I his skier made the best time. Этот л ы ж н и к п о к а з а л лучшее
Syn. climbing ['klaimin] премя.
rowing ['rouirj] гребля kpoi Isnian ['sportsman] спортсмен
skating ['skeitin] к а т а н и е на к о н ь к а х I le is a keen sportsman. Он страстный спортсмен.
figure-skating фигурное к а т а н и е Weight-lifter ['weit'hfto] т я ж е л о а т л е т
skiing ['ski:m] хождение на л ы ж а х Wrestler I'resb] борец
swimming ['swmnrj] п л а в а н и е
weight-lifting ['weit'hftirj] т я ж е л а я атлетика, поднимание тяжестей
wrestling ['reslirj] борьба
yachting ['jotirj] парусный спорт
їй H 11 часть состязания; забег, заплыв и т . д .
jump | i l , м п р | п р ы ж о к
high Jump п р ы ж о к в высоту
4 Іоні; jump прыжок в длину
hopi itcp, and jump тройной п р ы ж о к
п і к | и і I состязания в беге, в скорости; гонки
athlete ['a01i:t] спортсмен; легкоатлет ІЮНІ гш г лодочные гонки
I am no athlete, but I like sport. Я не спортсмен, но я люблю ІМіїїііІІюіі I'micraOan] race марафонский бег
спорт. irlny une і 'і і : її •[ ICI s I эстафетный бег, эстафета
captain ['kaeptin] к а п и т а н Iprllll і aces бег на короткие дистанции

190
191
bar [Ъа] планка
run [глп] бег
horizontal [,han'zantl] bar перекладина, т у р н и к
60 metre run бег на 60 мет­
parallel ['paeralel] bars п а р а л л е л ь н ы е б р у с ь я
ров
wall-bars гимнастическая стенка
shotput(ting) ['jatput(irj)] толка­
facilities [fa'sihtiz] оборудование
ние ядра
puck [рлк] шайба
sprint [sprint] бег на к о р о т к у ю
racket ['raekit] р а к е т к а
дистанцию, спринт
throw(ing) ['0rou(m)] метание, stick [stik] к л ю ш к а (для игры в х о к к е й , гольф и т. д.)
бросание
discus ['diskas] throwing ме­
8
тание диска
hammer-throwing ['haema
'0roum] метание молота chess-board ['tfesba:d] шахматная доска
javelin-throwing ['dsasvlm chessman ['ffesmaen] ш а х м а т н а я фигура
'Grouin] метание копья Syn. piece [pi:s]
pole-vaulting ['poul,vo:ltin] пры­ bishop ['bifap] слон
ж к и с шестом castle ['kasl] л а д ь я
check [tfek] шах
checkmate [ ' t f e k ' m e i t ] ш а х и мат
6 You are a checkmate. В а м шах и м а т .
base [beis] база king [kin] к о р о л ь
skiing ['skiarj] base л ы ж н а я Your king is i n check. В а м ш а х .
база knight [nait] конь
Syn. ski depot ['depou] pawn [pa:n] пешка
centre ['senta] центр queen [ k w i : n ] ферзь
children's sport centre детская
спортшкола
«I
court [ka:t] корт
basket-ball court баскетболь­
ный корт jtrtw |dra:] ничья
tennis court теннисный корт I lie game was a draw. И г р а окончилась вничью.
field [ f k l d ] поле The match ended i n a 3:3 draw. Матч окончился вничью,
football field футбольное поле i о счетом 3:3.
ground [graund] спортивная площадка record |'reka:d] рекорд
gym [d3im] гимнастический з а л , спортзал lb- set up a new record i n high j u m p . О н установил новый
pool [pu:l] бассейн рекорд по п р ы ж к а м в высоту.
Syn. swimming-pool His record was broken. Е г о рекорд был побит.
rink [rink] каток I t i u l l [п'глИ] результат
Syn. skating-rink What are the results of the last National Championship? К а к о в ы
stadium ['steidiam] стадион результаты последних соревнований на первенство страны?
station ['steifan] станция M i n i [point] очко
boating station лодочная станция I h e y won by six points to four. О н и победили со счетом 6:4.
yachting station яхт-клуб nunc I ska:] счет очков (в игре)
What's the score? К а к о й счет?
W i t h what score did the team w i n (lose)? С к а к и м счетом
7 команда выиграла (проиграла)?
ball [bo:l] мяч The score is 3:1 i n favour of the Dynamo team. Счет 3:1 в
bench [bentf] скамейка пользу команды «Динамо».

192 /
'/ Mi. Ill, 193
10 2) "What game are you most keen on?"
" I ' m very keen on tennis."
to balance on a balance-beam '['baelansbkm] ходить по буму
volley-ball
(бревну)
hockey
to clear [klia] брать высоту
cricket
He cleared 2 metres. Он в з я л высоту 2 метра,
3) "Is ping-pong popular w i t h your schoolmates?"
to climb [klaim] лезть, взбираться
boxing
to climb a rope лезть по канату
fencing
to climb a pole лезть по шесту
water-polo
to compete [ k a m ' p k t ] состязаться, соревноваться
"Yes, I should t h i n k so."
They compete for the first place. Они соревнуются за первое место,
"No, I can't say i t is."
to defeat [ d i ' f k t ] нанести п о р а ж е н и е , победить
4) "Shall we play a game of chess?"
This team has not been defeated this year. Эту команду еще
draughts
никто в этом году не п о б е ж д а л .
badminton
Ant. to suffer a defeat потерпеть п о р а ж е н и е
table-tennis
to even ['i:van] the score сравнять счет
" I don't m i n d . Go and fetch the chess-board.'
to go in for заниматься (каким-л. видом спорта)
the rackets
I go i n for gymnastics. Я занимаюсь гимнастикой,
the balls
to jump прыгать
!>) "How did you like the match?"
to high-jump 1) прыгать в высоту; 2) взять высоту
the competition
Н е high jumped 2 metres. О н в з я л высоту 2 метра.
the tournament
to long-jump 1) прыгать в д л и н у ; 2) взять длину
the game
Н е longjumped 7 metres. О н прыгнул в длину на 7 метров,
"Oh, I enjoyed i t greatly."
to put the shot толкать я д р о
(i) "What is the name of this sportsman?"
Syn. to push the weight
this boxer
to root [ r u : t ] поддерживать; поощрять, болеть (for)
the team captain
I root for the Spartak team. Я болею за команду «Спартак».
the referee
Syn. to support
the winner
to score [sko:] выигрывать; иметь успех, удачу
Number Six
to score a goal забить гол
" I ' m afraid I missed i t myself."
to score a point выиграть очко
i) What do you do i n the gym?"
to score a victory одержать победу
at your athletics lessons
to win [win] (won [wAn], won) выиграть; победить, одержать победу
during your trainings
Our sports society won the cup. Н а ш е спортивное общество
"Well, we usually do exercises on the horizontal bar."
завоевало к у б о к .
the parallel bars
Н е won the gold (silver, bronze) medal. Он получил золотую
the balance-beam
(серебряную, бронзовую) медаль.
the rings
M) W h a t team do you support?"
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE like best
belong to
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS " I root for the Dynamo team."
belong to Spartak
1) "What sports do you go in for?l' Lions
" I go i n for gymnastics." 'м What is the score?"
callisthenics ["he score Is l : 0 M n favour of our team."
cycling 5:3 the visiting team
swimming - 12:2 Zenith
skiing ' i и г и , i d one to n i l Spartak
I'.H
10) "With what score did "Cardiff has a first-class football team."
the game end?" "Yes, but the Edinburgh players won because they are faster."
the match " I t looks like that."
the meeting IV
the first half
"Our team won the game 5 : 1 . " "What's your result i n the hop, step, and jump?"
1

lost the game 1:5 "Well, nothing to boast of."


evened the score "But you used to be the school champion!"
to a 3:3 draw "That's right, 'used to be' . . . M y record was beaten twice last
defeated the oppo­ year and I s t i l l can't regain m y usual sporting form."
nents by 5:4
11) "What are his results i n
• the long jump?" her " I ' m looking for a partner for a game of tennis."
the high jump your "Oh, I ' l l be glad to play w i t h you."
the 100 metre "David? No, you're too fast for me."
; run • "Never fear, * I ' l l give easy balls and y o u ' l l be able to take them.
pole-vaulting " H e was offside, D a d l " So come along!"
shotputting VI
" W e l l , at the last contest he managed to long-jump 6 metres."
to high-jump 180 c m . "By the way, how did the game
to clear 2 metres of table-tennis end?"
to take the first place: "You mean the one I played
11.5 seconds w i t h Robert? He lost i t 3 to 2."
- to w i n the run w i t h a "Oh, no, I mean the one you
time of 8 m i n 42.1 sec. played w i t h Kate."
" W i t h Kate? Let me see . . .
CONVERSATIONS She won i t 5 to 0."

1 VII
"What sport do you go i n for?" "Shall we consider the game a
" W e l l , I ' m not much of a sportsman. Just sometimes I play ten­ draw?"
nis. I ' m rather a supporter." "Why should we? Your k i n g is
"Do you back some definite team?" in check." • Penalised players: "Say, ref, can't we
"Certainly, I ' m a fan of Spartak." "i >h, you don't want to finish have a few more m i n u t e s . "
11 in a draw, then you w i l l
II cud i t i n a checkmate. There, I ' l l save m y king from the check by
" I say, J i m , wasn't i t you who dived at the Society's swimming- taking your k n i g h t . "
pool the other day?" "Now, wait a minute. I d i d n ' t notice i t . . . "
3
"Why, yes, that was me. D i d I do anything wrong?" "Serves you r i g h t , now you're a checkmate."
"Oh, no, but I thought you went i n for gymnastics as you had
t o l d me." Ml!
"That's right, I ' m s t i l l keen on gymnastics, and diving is one of " I hear cricket is the national game i n England. H o w is i t played?"
the things that we gymnasts must do." " I I ' • . rather difficult to describe; you have to see i t played. One
i inie may last two days."
Ill r , 1
lo boast [boust] х в а с т а т ь
" W e l l , that was a good game, wasn't it?" I Never fear H e б о й с я
II

"Yes, the best we've seen this winter." ( I I ) Serves you r i g h t Т а к тебе и н а д о

197
196
"Two days! That must be very t i r i n g . " 1 sport is an important part of the Englishman's daily life. But of
"But the players don't all play at the same time, and nine play­ all sports at least two have won" the greatest popularity among
ers are always w a i t i n g for their t u r n to play." Britons: these are football (which is, unlike i n the Soviet Union,
"There are eleven players on each side, aren't there?" played i n winter) and cricket (played i n summer).
"Yes, but the players on one side go and play i n pairs, while I can't but mention also Rugby, a kind of English football in
eleven on the other side are t r y i n g to beat them." which the players use their hands for carrying the b a l l . This game
"So i t ' s eleven against two all the time. That sounds rather un­ is played by teams of 15 men w i t h an oval b a l l .
1

fair." Other sports such as golf, tennis, b o w l i n g , horse-racing are


"No, i t isn't unfair. Cricket is supposed to be the fairest game i n also very popular i n England. Young people go in. for traditional
the world. B u t you should see i t for yourself . . . " athletics—running, jumping, rowing, swimming, boxing and s o o n .
But those who take to motoring, hunting or fishing continue w i t h
IX these sports even i n middle age and on.
I n Scotland where there are good conditions for winter sports,
"Look, there is that wonder-boy again." skiing and climbing have attracted the enthusiasm of thousands,
"Yes, I see h i m practising every Sunday." particularly i n recent years.
"Practising once a week? That w o n ' t give h i m enough s k i l l , I ' m B r i t a i n enjoys the reputation of a sporting nation, but s t i l l ,
afraid." 2
to the public at l a r g e sport means i n the first place being a fan
"Of course not, and he's t r a i n i n g every day. I only said I could or a backer.
watch h i m on Sundays."

X
"What are the most popular w i n t e r sports i n the Soviet Union?" STORY 2
" I t h i n k i t ' s skiing and skating. You can see thousands of people
leaving b i g cities for the country on a Sunday morning." (Ted Elliot describes how golf and bowling are played.)
2
"And what about tobogganing? I t h i n k i t must be also very
widely spread i n Russia." W h a t is golf? I n short, the game consists of h i t t i n g a hard
"Well, sledges are s t i l l great fun for villagers and children, but l i t t l e ball and then walking after i t . There are nine or eighteen
toboggan is practically unknown in this country." holes made i n the ground about a hundred yards from each other.
Around each hole there's a smooth flat lawn. You h i t the ball
XI from hole to hole and the player who reaches the last hole w i t h
8
the fewest strokes wins the game.
" I wish I could swim as fast as that g i r l . " Bowling is also great fun. The ground for i t is rather l a r g e -
" W e l l , what prevents you from achieving her success?" half a tennis court. The game is usually played indoors. You are
"Time . . . rather—lack of time. I can't a f f o r d training every 3
given a big heavy wooden ball, the size of child's head w i t h a
day, you know." hidden handle i n i t . You take this ball by the handle, take
very careful aim and send i t rolling along a special track to beat
4
"1 think you lack something more than time, say, will-power, eh?" the nine p i n s at the end of i t . On the face of i t , * the game
leems very easy — you take a ball and throw i t , but actually it
STORY 1
lakes a l i t t l e practice, because at first the ball would never go
Itraight.
(Ted Elliot, an English schoolboy, tells his Soviet friends about
Now, did you understand the way those two games are played?
favourite sports in Britain.)
You ask me about sports i n B r i t a i n . I t ' s rather difficult to
describe the subject i n a short talk. W e l l , speaking i n general, 1
bowling ['boulrrj] и г р а в ш а р ы
2
1
tiring у т о м и т е л ь н ы й public at large ш и р о к а я п у б л и к а
:l
2
tobogganing [ t s ' b o g a n i r j ] к а т а н и е н а с а л а з к а х типа т о б о г г а н (toboggan stroke [ s t r o u k ] у д а р , п о п ы т к а
тобогган, сани без полозьев, скользящие днищем) * p i n [ p i n ] зд. к е г л я
6
3
to afford [ 3 ' f o ; d ] п о з в о л и т ь с е б е On the face of it Н а п е р в ы й в з г л я д

198
to give somebody a call позвонить кому-л. (по телефону)
I shall give you a call. Я вам позвоню.
to put through a call соединить (по телефону)
Your call has been put through. Вас соединили,
trunk-call [Чглпккэ:1] вызов но междугородному телефону
Where can I make a trunk-call? Откуда м о ж н о позвонить по
междугородному телефону?
delivery [di'hvan] доставка, разноска (писем, газет)
Your letter came by the second delivery. Вам п р и ш л о письмо
со второй почтой,
mail [meilj почта, почтовая корреспонденция
I had a lot of mail yesterday. Вчера я получил большую
почту (т. е. много писем, газет и т. д.).
Syn. post
air-mail авиапочта
post [poust] почта
D u r i n g the stone age: "You lucky Has the post come yet? Почта у ж е прибыла?
d e v i l , I have a letter for y o u . " by post (посылать) по почте
A. SITUATIONS I ' l l send the book by post. Я пошлю эту книгу по почте,
book post пересылка бандеролью
1) You buy envelopes (postage stamps, post-cards, etc,) at a post- parcel post служба посылок
office counter. phone [foun] (telephone ['tehfoun]) телефон
2) You ask the post-office clerk of the charge of a letter (tele­ May I use your phone? М о ж н о воспользоваться вашим теле­
gram, money order, etc.) you want to send. фоном?
3) You are sending (or cashing) a money order at a post-office. You are wanted on the phone. В а с п р о с я т к телефону.
4) You book a trunk-call. The telephone is dead. Телефон не отвечает.
5) You inquire the Information for the telephone number of the I couldn't get h i m on the phone. Я не мог к нему дозвониться.
person you need. to speak over (on, by) the telephone говорить по телефону
6) You are having a business talk over the telephone. home phone домашний телефон
7) You ask a telephone exchange officer to put your private house phone внутренний телефон (в гостинице)
telephone right. private ['praivit] phone личный телефон
8) You find a letter (book, parcel, etc.) put into your mailbox public phone телефон-автомат
by mistake and have a talk w i t h the postman. I ' m calling from the public phone. Я звоню из автомата;
9) You ring up your friend who turns to be out and leave a mes­ Syn. call-box
sage for h i m . (telephone) directory телефонный справочник
10) You explain to your younger brother (sister) or a small boy
(girl) in the street how to use the public phone.
11) You tell a jocular story connected w i t h misuse of the tele­
phone.
12) You discuss w i t h your friends the problem "Means of Commu­ Imolh [bu:5] б у д к а
nication Today and a Century Ago". telephone booth телефонная будка
Is there a telephone booth anywhere here? Есть ли здесь по­
B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y близости телефонная будка?
exchange [iks'tjemds] ц е н т р а л ь н а я телефонная с т а н ц и я , коммутатор,
1 подстанция АТС
trunk exchange междугородная телефонная станция
call Iко: 11 телефонный вызов, звонок по телефону Information [.mfa'meifan] справки (по телефону)
Were there any calls for me? Мне звонили? I didn't know his telephone number, so I called up the Infor-
I shall be w a i t i n g for your call. Я буду ж д а т ь вашего звонка.
201
200
mation. Я не знал номера его телефона, поэтому я позвонил anonymous [a'nanimas] letter анонимное письмо
в справочную. ordinary ['a:dman] letter простое письмо
. office ['afis] контора; пункт; окно registered ['redsistad] letter з а к а з н о е письмо
parcel office окно приема посылок I want to have the letter registered. Я хочу отправить з а к а з ­
post-office почтовое отделение ное письмо.
General (Central) Post-Office (G.P.O.) главпочтамт paste restante letter письмо до востребования
call-office переговорный пункт air-mail letter письмо, отправляемое авиапочтой
inquiry office справочное бюро collect letter доплатное письмо
poste restante ['poust 'restant] 1) отделение на почте д л я коррес­ Syn. unstamped letter
понденции до востребования; 2) «до востребования» (надпись letter of attorney [a'ta:ni] доверенность
на конверте) letter-box почтовый ящик
When I travel, I get letters poste restante. Когда я путеше­ Syn. mailbox, pillar-box (В. E.) уличная тумба с почтовым
ствую, я получаю письма до востребования, ящиком
savings-bank ['seivnjzbamk] сберегательная касса message j'mesid-,] сообщение; письмо, послание
switch-board ['swit fbo:d] коммутатор (распределительный щит) Is there any message for me? Мне ничего не передавали?
postal (money) order ['a:da] почтовый перевод
Where do they deal w i t h money orders? Где оформляют по .то-
3 вые переводы?
parcel ['pasl] посылка; пакет, сверток
addressee [,aedre'si:] адресат Where do they weigh parcels? Где- взвешивают посылки?
I want the telegram to reach the addressee by tonight. Я хочу, book parcel бандероль
чтобы телеграмма попала к адресату до вечера, post-card ['poustkad] почтовая открытка
addressee unknown адресат не числится, выбыл plain post-card обычная открытка
clerk [ k l a k ] с л у ж а щ и й , почтовый с л у ж а щ и й picture post-card художественная о т к р ы т к а
customer ['kAstama] клиент printed matter ['prmtid 'maeta] бандероль
operator ['apareita] телефонист(ка), телеграфист(ка) A t what window do they deal w i t h printed matter? В к а к о м
Operator! Town (City), please. Коммутатор! Город, п о ж а л у й с т а , окне принимают (выдают) бандероли?
postman ['poustman] почтальон Can I have the printed matter registered? Можно отправить
sender ['sends] отправитель з а к а з н у ю бандероль?
stamp [ s t a m p ] м а р к а
4 Give me one rouble's worth of stamps, please. Д а й т е мне, по­
ж а л у й с т а , на рубль марок.
address [a'dres] адрес telegram ['tehgraem] телеграмма
Do you charge for the address of a telegram? Вы берете плату What does a telegram of fifteen words cost? С к о л ь к о стоит
за адрес в телеграмме? телеграмма в пятнадцать слов?
return address обратный адрес Syn. wire, cable телеграмма (посланная по подводному кабелю),
envelope ['enviloup] конверт express telegram срочная телеграмма
stamped envelope конверт с маркой urgent telegram телеграмма-молния
A stamped envelope, if you please. Конверт с маркой, пожа­ phototelegram [,fouta 'teligraem] фототелеграмма
луйста,
form [fa:m] б л а н к
Give me a telegraph form, please. Д а й т е мне, п о ж а л у й с т а , •>
г

телеграфный б л а н к .
F i l l i n this form. З а п о л н и т е этот б л а н к , money ['галш] деньги
letter ['letaj письмо to draw money out получить в к л а д (в сберкассе) "
The letter must go off now. Письмо необходимо отправить to put money in делать денежный в к л а т (в сберкассу)
сейчас ж е . rate [reit] т а р и ф
Here is a letter in your name. Вот письмо на ваше и м я . What is the rate for a telegram? К а к о в т а р и ф на телеграммы?

202 233 '


What is the rate per word? С к о л ь к о стоит слово (в телеграмме)? Syn. to telephone, to phone, to give smb. a ring
at lower rate по льготному тарифу Let's give h i m a ring. Д а в а й т е ему позвоним,
postage ['poustid3] почтовая оплата, почтовые расходы to send [send] (sent, sent) о т п р а в л я т ь
What is the postage on registered letters? С к о л ь к о стоит от­ to send smth. insured ( w i t h declared value) отправлять что-л.
п р а в к а з а к а з н ы х писем? с объявленной ценностью
Syn. charge оплата услуг Do you want to send the parcel insured or otherwise? Вы хо­
receipt [ n ' s k t ] квитанция тите отправить посылку с объявленной ценностью или без?
Don't forget to get the receipt. He забудьте получить кви­ to send smth. by book post отправить что-л. бандеролью
танцию. to send smth. by air-mail отправлять что-л. авиапочтой
to send collect посылать доплатным
to take up the receiver снять т р у б к у
Syn. to pick up the receiver
to accept [ok'sept] принимать to wire ['waiaj телеграфировать
Do you accept parcels? Вы принимаете посылки? Wire your arrival. Телеграфируйте о своем прибытии.
to answer the telephone подойти к телефону Syn.' to cable, to telegraph
to apply [a'plai] обращаться
A p p l y to the clerk at the next window. Обратитесь в следую­
щее окно. Are you there? В ы у телефона?
to book a trunk-call to N . з а к а з а т ь междугородный разговор с Н . The line is clear (engaged). Л и ­
Syn. to make (to put through) a trunk-call ния свободна (занята).
to call [ko:l] звонить по телефону You are through. Вас соединили.
Who shall I say is calling? А к а к с к а з а т ь , кто говорит? Говорите.
to cash [kаеJ] получить деньги You've got the wrong number.
I'd like to cash the money order. Я хочу получить деньги по Вы набрали не тот номер.
переводу. Who's that calling (speaking)?
to collect [ko'lekt] получать (посылки, письма до востребования, Кто это говорит?
денежные переводы и т. п.) Would you like to leave a mes­
Can I collect a parcel? Можно получить посылку? sage? Хотите что-нибудь пе­
to collect smth. by proxy получить что-либо по доверенности редать?
to correspond [,kons'pond] переписываться Would you mind calling later?
to dial ['daiol] набирать номер (по автоматическому телефону) Позвоните, пожалуйста,
What number did you dial? К а к о й вы набрали номер? позже.
to drop [drop] опускать, отправлять письмо Number, please? К а к о й номер?
Please, drop this letter into the nearest letter-box. П о ж а л у й с т а , Speaking. Я у телефона. (Слу­
опустите это письмо в б л и ж а й ш и й почтовый я щ и к , шаю.)
to drop a line черкнуть, написать несколько слов
Drop me a few lines. Черкните (напишите) мне. С I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
to enclose [m'klouz] вкладывать (в письмо и т. п.)
There was a photo enclosed in the letter. В письмо была вло­ NllltSTlTUTION PATTERNS
жена фотография.
to f i l l i n ; to fill up (A. E.) заполнить I) "Where can 1 hand i n this letter?"
to get in touch w i t h smb. соединиться, с в я з а т ь с я с кем-л. post parcel
to hang up (hung [Ьлу], hung) повесить т р у б к у book parcel
Don't hang up! l i e вешайте т р у б к у ! printed matter
Syn. Hold the wire! Hold on! "They deal w i t h i t on the first floor, Window 5, please."
to post [poust] отправлять по почте Counter 8
Syn. to send, to mail "Book Post" window
to ring [rig] up (rang [ram], rung [глп]) звонить по телефону "Parcel Post" window
205
204
2) "Is this the right window for posting registered letters?" 7) "Can I book a call through to Moscow now?"
sending telegrams to Paris
receiving parcels to London
poste restante letters " I ' m sorry, but the line is engaged now."
booking a trunk-call the line is out of order
stamps and post-cards there's no connection w i t h that c i t y
"No, sir (madam), you have to apply to the next window." you can be put through only in two hours.
Window 6 8) " H u l l o , operator! Put me through to number seven-six-eight."
the "Money Orders'' to the secretary
to M r . Jones
3) "What's the charge for a registered letter?" window to the c i t y
an air-mail letter to the hotel manager
an express telegram " I ' m p u t t i n g your call through, sir."
a trunk-call to Moscow 9) " H u l l o ! Is this number two-twenty-two?'
" I t w i l l cost 2 pence." the secretary
cents Mr. Jones
kopecks Information
4) "When w i l l the addressee receive this letter if I send i t r i g h t Manager's Office
away?" book parcel " I can't hear you w e l l . "
money order make out what you're saying
telegram hear your name
"It'll be deliveredin two hours." make out who's speaking
in two
days CONVERSATIONS
tomor­
row morning
5) "Hey, Jack, the postman has I
brought a foreign letter for you."
"Hullo!"
a money order
" W i l l you please call Robert to the phone?"
an unstamped letter
"Sorry, he isn't i n , he's gone on holidays."
an urgent telegram
"When do you expect h i m back?"
" I ' m looking forward to i t .
"In about a week, I t h i n k . "
Where is it?"
6) "What shall I do w i t h this
form?" II
"You just write your name in
full here," "Speaking."
write your name "Hullo! I t ' s Bob Brown calling. May I speak to Ann?"
1
legibly "Лип is out. W o u l d you like to leave a message?"
fill it in "No, thank you, I ' l l call later."
f i l l in the reverse
2
side
sign here Ill
write the address
in block letters 'SI George's Hospital."
[way I speak to Doctor Nelson Brown?"
1
"He's busy at the moment. W h o shall I say is calling?"
l e g i b l y ['ledssbh] р а з б о р ч и в о
l
' reverse side о б р а т н а я с т о р о н а "oh, never m i n d , I ' l l call up later."
207
206
IV IX
"You can call me at number 832—82—14." "Please, how much is air-mail to Moscow?"
"Is there any extension?" "It's 6 kopecks, sir."
"Give me two 6-kopecks stamps, please."
"None, just dial the number and I ' l l be there at your service." "Here are the stamps, but I can offer you an air-mail envelope."
"No, thank you, I want the stamps."

V"
"Were there any calls today?" X
"Yes, there was one."
"Who was calling? D i d he leave a message for me?" "Can I send a parcel from here?"
"Oh no, that was a wrong number c a l l . " "By all means, sir."
"Do I have to have the parcel wrapped?"
"We can do i t for you, sir. You've got to tell us the address."
VI
"Thanks."
" I must get in touch w i t h H a r r y . H o w can I do it?"
" I f you want to see H a r r y , you ought to go and visit h i m . B u t
he is also on the phone and I can give you his telephone number." XI
"Do you t h i n k a visit is better than a telephone conversation?"
" W e l l , i t depends. For a serious matter i t certainly is." " I hope y o u ' l l drop me a line about yourself."
" I ' d gladly do, but how shall I know your address when you are
(ravelling?"
VII "You know which towns w e ' l l stop i n , don't you?"
"Yes, I do, and the dates, too."
1
"Hello, Lizzie! That y o u ? I say, w h y d i d n ' t you come yesterday? "Very w e l l . So address your letters poste restante, General Post-
I was w a i t i n g for you for no less than two hours." Office."
"Oh, I ' m awfully sorry, Paul, but I d i d n ' t feel w e l l . I couldn't
give you a call as our telephone was out of order."
"Yes, I was t r y i n g to get you on the phone but I failed. What do XII
you say to going to the pictures tomorrow?"
" W e l l , I don't know if I ' l l be all right by then. Anyhow, ring me "Is that you, Sam? Hello!"
up tomorrow morning, w i l l you?" "1 lello! That's me. W h a t is i t you want to tell me? Just in a
1
"Certainly, L i z . " n u t s h e l l if you please. I must be going."
"Where are you going?"
T i n going to the stationer's."
VIII "To the station? Are you going away?"
" I said I was going to the stationer's. I have to buy two or three
"Is this Dr. Jones' flat?" Invelopes. I want to write some letters today."
"Yes, i t is. Who's speaking?" " I beg your pardon."
"Tony Richards. I ' m Mary's friend. Is Mary at home?" I aid I wanted to write some letters."
"Yes, she is. She's having lunch at the moment." " Y m i want to write some letters at the station?"
" I ' l l ring her up i n twenty minutes if you don't m i n d . " "No! A t home."
"You're welcome, Tony." " Y o u ' l l be at home? B u t you said you were going to the station!"

' T h a t you? coll. = Is t h a t you? 1


in a nutshell BKpaTue, B flByx CJIOBSX

208 209
A STORY
20
(Kate Somova tells the story about her friend Lena who works at a
post-office.)
IN T H E COUNTRY.
FARMING
S H E W O R K S AT T H E POST-OFFICE

If we want to register a letter, to buy stamps or envelopes, to It ДЕРЕВНЕ. СЕЛЬСКОЕ


send a telegram or a money order, we go to the post-office. Here,
we generally get a quick service and we seldom t h i n k of those who
ХОЗЯЙСТВО
are on the other side of the counter.
A postal clerk's work may seem boring and mechanical to some
people, but m y friend Lena, who is one, disagrees. She thinks her
work offers endless variety. I ' d like to tell you a fewwords about her.
When she finished a secondary school t w o years ago, she de­
cided to work at a post-office. Why? She s t i l l thinks that this was "Eh—most people grow carrots from
1
not her v o c a t i o n at all but she chose i t because she's a good , seed!"
2
mixer. A. S I T U A T I O N S
8
Lena's small post-office is i n a large new housing estate. A t
the b i g post-offices machines read addresses, sort the m a i l which 1) You tell your friend of your visit to a farm.
is then automatically taken to the lorries running to the railway 2) On returning from a h i k i n g tour you tell your friends about
stations and airports. B u t at the small post-offices the m a i l is the scenery of the places you have visited.
'Л) sorted by hand and that is not so easy. That's why almost all the You are a tourist interviewing a farmer.
1
telephone-exchange operators and m a i l sorters whose job calls for 4 ) Being a b u d d i n g amateur gardener, you consult your experi­
great concentration work six hours a day instead of eight as in enced neighbour on some gardening essentials.
other trades. •'>) Members of the Young Naturalist Society plan their work on
Lena knows all the regular customers. The girls share their l i t t l e the school plot for the coming season.
secrets w i t h her. Youngsters prefer the poste restante system as a I.) You talk to a guide at the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x h i b i t i o n .
means of escaping, as they t h i n k , the "inquisitive eyes" of parents. 7) Having helped the collective farmers to gather i n the crops,
She's always ready to do all she can to help the customers and you tell your father (mother, etc.) of your work i n the fields.
this attracts elderly people to her, too. K) Wishing to present your friend (mother) w i t h a bouquet of
Her work begins at 8 a . m . and the first customers come up flowers, you have a t a l k w i t h the florist while choosing them.
to her counter: "May I register this letter, please?", "Lena, is there 9) While on a train (coach) passing by the fields (orchards or
anything for me in the poste restante?", "Is this the right counter woods), you t a l k w i t h your fellow passenger and compare notes
for parcels?", "Good morning. I ' d like a stamp and two envelopes.". of the view opening to your eyes.
The working day passes q u i c k l y . 10) Your English pen-friend, the son of a farmer, tells you about
Several times she has worked in the post-office w h i c h is set up their farm.
at the K r e m l i n during international congresses. She says she found 11) You discuss the news reports from the fields.
some difficulty because she doesn't know English or French very I',') You discuss the advantages of the socialist way of farming.
w e l l . Now she is taking a correspondence course i n foreign lan­
guages. . . . I I . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y
Please send letters and telegrams at Lena's counter.
1
1
v o c a t i o n [ v o u ' k e i j a n ] зд. п р и з в а н и е
2
mixer общительный человек
n i ' i к iiItnre ['aegnkAltfa] сельское хозяйство, земледелие
8
new housing estate н о в ы й ж и л о й р а й о н ' ( / " f a r m i n g , husbandry
' Untitling перен, начинающий

211
field husbandry полеводство There is a job for everyone in the harvest. В о время ж а т в ы
animal husbandry животноводство для всех хватает работы,
cattle ['kaetlj скот hay [hei] сено
How many head of cattle are there on your farm? С к о л ь к о A t haymaking time the pupils helped the collective farmers
голов скота у вас в хозяйстве? to make hay. В о в р е м я сенокоса ученики помогали к о л х о з н и к а м
Syn. livestock убирать сено.
cattle breeding скотоводство hay stack [staek] стог сена
crop [kropj 1) сельскохозяйственная к у л ь т у р а land [ l a n d ] з е м л я , почва, грунт
What crops does your farm grow? К а к и е к у л ь т у р ы выращива­ The land is very fertile here. З е м л я здесь очень п л о д о р о д н а я .
ются в вашем хозяйстве? Syn. soil почва i
field crop полевая к у л ь т у р а virgin ['va:d3in] land ц е л и н н а я земля
industrial crop техническая к у л ь т у р а irrigated ['ingeitid] lands поливные земли
2) урожай silage ['sailid.3] силос
heavy crop богатый у р о ж а й Have you ever watched silage put up? В ы когда-нибудь видели,
crop failure неурожай как закладывают силос?
Syn. harvest, yield straw [stro:] солома
farm [fain] ферма, хозяйство yield [ j i : l d ] у р о ж а й ; количество производимой п р о д у к ц и и
How long have you been working on this farm? Сколько вре­ This tree gave a poor yield last year. В прошлом голу это
мени (как долго) вы работаете в этом хозяйстве? дерево д а л о плохой у р о ж а й .
collective farm колхоз yield (per hectare, per acre) урожайность (т. е. урожай
dairy I'dean] farm молочная ферма, молочное хозяйство с гектара, с а к р а и т . д.)
poultry ['poultn] farm птицеферма milk yield удой молока
state farm совхоз
Syn. household ['haushould] хозяйство, семья
peasant household крестьянское хозяйство
2
farming ['famin] сельское хозяйство, з а н я т и е сельским хозяйством bed [bed] грядка
How many people are engaged in farming? С к о л ь к о людей за­ flowerbed клумба
нято в сельском хозяйстве? field [ f i : l d ] поле
animal farming животноводческое хозяйство Fields in England usually have hedges, fences or stone walls.
diversified [dai'va:sifaid] farming многоотраслевое хозяйство П о л я в Англии обычно о г р а ж д а ю т с я изгородями, заборами
grain farming зерновое хозяйство или каменными оградами,
fertilizer ['fa:tilaiza] удобрение ïtrden ['ga:dn] 1) сад; 2) огород
Fertilizer is used to make the soil more fertile. Удобрения ис­ Syn. kitchen-garden огород
пользуют д л я того, чтобы сделать почву более плодородной. Meadow ['medou] л у г
fodder [ Ъ З э ] корм, ф у р а ж < ows and sheep graze in the meadow. Коровы и овцы пасутся
We have a good fodder base to develop cattle breeding. У нас на л у г у .
есть х о р о ш а я кормовая база д л я развития скотоводства. Syn. grassland
grain [grem] зерно, зерновая к у л ь т у р а Orchard I'oitfad] фруктовый сад
The chief grains grown in w a r m climates are rice, maize and Mlture I'pastfa] пастбище, выгон
m i l l e t . Главные зерновые к у л ь т у р ы , возделываемые в ж а р к и х I>I<>I [plot] участок земли
странах,— это рис, к у к у р у з а и просо. Wood Iwud] роща, лес (часто pi)
harvest ['havist] 1) у р о ж а й '•un. forest
We shall gather in a rich harvest. Мы соберем богатый у р о ж а й .
to beat down the harvest снизить у р о ж а й
The drought [draut] beat the harvest down. З а с у х а снизила
урожай. lil.iv.niii I'bbssm] цвет (фруктовых деревьев), цветение
Syn. crop, yield the cherry blossoms smell so sweetl Цвет вишни так приятно
2) жатва пахнет!
212 213
Is your orchard i n blossom yet? В а ш с а д у ж е цветет? bunch [ЬлптТ] б у к е т (одинаковых цветов)
Syn. bloom цвет, цветение (о р а с т е н и я х , не дающих съедоб­ corn-flower ['komflauo] василек
ных плодов) dahlia ['deiljo] георгин
branch [brantf] ветка, ветвь daisy ['deizij м а р г а р и т к а
bud [bAd] почка W h a t about picking a bunch of daisies? Почему бы не н а р в а т ь
bush [ b u j ] куст, кустарник б у к е т и к маргариток?
- ear [is] колосок forget-me-not [ b ' g e t m m o t ] незабудка
flower f'flaua] цветок H o w sweet these forget-me-nots smell! К а к п р и я т н о п а х н у т эти
grass [gras] трава незабудки!
leaf [ l i : f ] (pi leaves) лист lilac [Tailak] сирень
to come into leaf п о к р ы т ь с я листвой Illy [ ' l i b ] л и л и я
plant [ p l a n t ] растение
Your lilies are a picture this year. В этом году у вас в е л и к о ­
root fru:t] корень
seed [si:d] семя, семена лепные л и л и и .
stalk [sto:k] стебель Illy of the valley [ ' l i b ov 5 э 'vaeh] л а н д ы ш
stump [stAmp] пень peony ['рюш] пион
trunk [tnrnk] ствол poppy ['popi] м а к
Itiiip ['tju:hp] т ю л ь п а н
4 May I cut some of these lovely tulips? М о ж н о срезать н е с к о л ь к о
этих прелестных тюльпанов?
barley ['bah] ячмень
When is barley sown? Когда сеют ячмень?
cotton f k o t n ] хлопок Г>
flax [flaeks] лен
acacia [o'keija] а к а ц и я
Flax is your chief crop, isn't it? Л е н — в а ш а основная к у л ь ­
т у р а , не так л и ? birch [bo:tJ] береза
maize [meiz] к у к у р у з а chestnut ['tjesnAt] к а ш т а н
liiuc(-tree) [laim] л и п а
The maize is almost ripe to be harvested. К у к у р у з а почти со­
Lime-trees usually come into leaf after willows. Л и п ы обычно
зрела для у б о р к и .
Syn. corn (А.Е.) покрываются листвой вслед за и в а м и .
oats [outs] pi овес Iliaplc [ m e i p l ] клен
n.ili( tree) [ouk] дуб
Oats are chiefly used as food for horses. Овес главным образом
используют как корм д л я лошадей. pl.inc(-tree) [plem] п л а т а н
rye [rai| рожь poplar ['popio] тополь
sugar-beet I ' f u g a b k t ] с а х а р н а я сбекла i tvll'ow ['wilou] ива
sunflower ['sAnflaua] подсолнух
weed [ w i : d ] сорняк
Great harm is caused by weeds. Сорняки причиняют большой
вред.
wheat [ w i : t ] пшеница iiiinbiiie I'kombain] (combine harvester) комбайн
spring wheat яровая пшеница hull пилы
winter wheat озимая пшеница Inn row I'haerou] борона
hoc I bouI с а п к а , мотыга
5 tit Н К11 if* machine [ ' m i l k i n m o ' J i m ] д о и л ь н а я машина
ріші^іі Iplau] плуг
bluebell f'blmbel] к о л о к о л ь ч и к
pi lining shears ['prmniij 'Jioz] секатор
bouquet f'bukei] букет (разных цветов)
Гйкг 11«-1 i< I грабли
Isn't that a nice bouquet? Р а з в е это не замечательный букет?
«і < Hie | s i i i O | коса
Syn. nosegay | ' i u ) i i / i | C i |
lllovt'l I'J"лv 11 лопата (совковая)
VI I 215
sickle ['sikl] серп
sowing-machine [ ' s o u m m a j k n ] с е я л к а sheep [Ji:p] (pi sheep) овца
spade [speidj лопата, заступ The sheep bleat. О в ц ы блеют,
thresher ['бгеГэ] молотилка a flock of sheep о т а р а овец
ram баран
lamb [1азт] ягненок
8
10
barn [ban] амбар
cowshed ['каиГэа] коровник to cultivate ['kAltiveit] к у л ь т и ­
hotbed ['hotbed] парник вировать (почву, растения)
hothouse Thothaus] теплица, о р а н ж е р е я to dig [dig] (dug, dug [dAj]) ко­
Syn. greenhouse пать
incubator ['mkjubeita] инкубатор This plot needs to be dug up.
mill [ m i l ] мельница Этот участок н у ж н о вско­
pigsty fpigstai] свинарник пать.
stable ['steibl] конюшня, хлев lo fertilize ['faitilaiz] удобрять
to gather in ['даеЗэг ' i n ] соби- " T h a t t h i n g gets better fed t h a n I do!"
9 рать у р о ж а й
When w i l l you gather in the crop? Когда вы будете собирать
bull [bul] бык урожай?
The bulls bellow. Б ы к и ревут. to harrow ['haerou] бороновать
After ploughing the ground should be harrowed thoroughly.
Syn. OX (pi ОХеП; 6 Ы К , В О Л
cock [кэк] петух После в с п а ш к и землю следует тщательно забороновать,
The cocks crow [krouj "Cock-a-doodle-do". Петухи к у к а р е к а ю т lo mow [mou] косить, ж а т ь
(кричат «кукареку»), What is hay mowed w i t h nowadays? Чем сейчас косят сено?
cow [kau] корова to plant [ p l a n t ] с а ж а т ь , сеять
The cows low [lou]. К о р о в ы мычат. Why not plant an apple-tree here? Почему бы здесь не поса­
a herd of cows стадо к о р о в дить яблоню?
calf [ka:f] теленок (о plough [plau] п а х а т ь
heifer ['hefa] телка to prune [pru:n] подрезать
dog [dog] собака to rake [reik] з а р а в н и в а т ь , подчищать граблями
The dogs bark, growl [graul] and howl [haul]. Собаки лают, (о reap [ri:p] ж а т ь
рычат и воют. to ripen ['raipn] созревать
puppy f'pApi] щенок Cherries w i l l ripen soon. Вишни с к о р о созреют,
duck [с1лк] у т к а lo sow [sou] (sowed, sown) сеять
The ducks quack [kwsek]. У т к и к р я к а ю т . Next year we shall sow this field w i t h rye. В будущем году
drake [dreik] селезень мы засеем это поле р о ж ь ю ,
duckling утенок (о stack [staek] hay (straw) скирдовать сено (солому)
goat [gout] коза, козел lo hike to root приниматься (о растениях)
hen [hen] к у р и ц а to thresh [0rej] молотить
The hens cackle and cluck. К у р ы к у д а х ч у т . to weed [wi:d] полоть
chick цыпленок When shall we weed this plot? Когда мы будем полоть этот участок?
horse [1ID:S] лошадь to wither ['wida] у в я д а т ь , в я н у т ь , сохнуть; высушить
The horses neigh. Л о ш а д и р ж у т . II
a herd of horses табун лошадей
to breed [ b r i : d ] (bred, bred) разводить, выводить
pig [pig] свинья
The pigs grunt. Свиньи х р ю к а ю т . We breed sheep for meat and for wool. Мы разводим овец,
чтобы получить мясо и шерсть.
216
217
a breed порода 3) "Do you employ farm machinery on a wide scale?"
Our farm has only the best breeds of cattle. У нас в хозяйстве "Certainly, we use all kinds of modern machines including
т о л ь к о л у ч ш и е породы скота. combine harvesters."
to develop [di'velap] р а з в и в а т ь , выводить, осваивать potato planters
Plants develop from seeds. Р а с т е н и я развиваются из семян, haymaking machines
to develop new lands осваивать новые земли m i l k i n g machines
to be engaged [in'geid3d] in smth. заниматься чём-л.
4) " W h a t farm buildings have you put up lately?"
This collective farm is engaged in diversified farming. Этот к о л ­ "Last year we b u i l t a new hothouse."
хоз ведет многоотраслевое хозяйство. incubator
to graze [greiz] пасти; пастись barn
Where do you graze your cattle? Где вы пасете скот? cowshed
to grow [grou] (grew, grown) в ы р а щ и в а т ь pigsty
Fruits are now grown even i n Siberia. Ф р у к т ы сейчас в ы р а щ и ­
вают д а ж е в Сибири. 5) "Where do you graze your cattle?"
Syn. to raise sheep
cows
to increase [ m ' k r k s ] п о в ы ш а т ь , увеличивать
goats
A n important task is to increase crop yields. В а ж н а я задача "They graze on the pasture over there."
состоит в том, чтобы повысить у р о ж а й н о с т ь . on the meadow
to milk доить on the grazing ground
Cows are generally milked twice a day. К о р о в обычно доят in the field
два раза в день. in the valley
6) "What do you want (to do) w i t h that spade?"
the rake
the hoe
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE the fork
the pruning shears
" I ' m going to plant a tree."
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS to dig a hole
to weed the bed
to dig this plot
1) " W h a t is this state farm engaged in?"
to water the flow­
collective farm ers
farm to rake the soil
region smooth
" I t ' s engaged in cattle breeding."
breeding sheep 7) "Look: how beautiful! W h a t
breeding poultry k i n d of flowers are these?"
growing sugar-beet "As far as I know, these are
grain farming bluebells."
animal farming daisies
2) "What crops do you raise on your farm?" forget-me-nots
grow tulips
cultivate corn-flowers
"Mainly we go i n for wheat and barley." 6) "Can you tell one tree from
potatoes beet another?" " T h a t apple-tree I b o u g h t , I ' v e
flax oats bush fertilized i t , watered i t , pruned i t , and
grapes peaches plant what .1«! 1 get? P l u m s ! "

218 219
" I n most cases 1 can. The one in front of us, for instance, Is V
a fir-tree."
an oak-tree "What is this machine used for?"
a poplar "It's employed for c u l t i v a t i n g (weeding) maize crops."
a willow "Can we see how i t operates?"
a birch "Certainly, the demonstration grounds are just behind the livestock
an acacia pavilion." %

CONVERSATIONS VI

I "You've got so sunburnt. No doubt you worked in the field."


"Yes, we did some jobs i n the field —weeding, haymaking and doing
"What are you going to do in the garden now?" other things. We had also to do some work on a dairy farm, too."
" I ' d like to cut the grass and water the trees." "Oh, really. D i d you learn to m i l k cows?"
"And when w i l l you plant new flowers on the round bed?" "Unfortunately, we d i d n ' t , as the milkmaids didn't let us. They
" I think I ' l l do that at sunset as i t ' s very hot now and they may didn't trust us those m i l k i n g machines."
not take to root."

II VII

"I've just returned from the agricultural exhibition."


"Mr. Jackson, they say you're an experienced gardener. I ' d like to
ask you something." "What did you like best there?"
"You're welcome. What is it?" "The incubators. Or better s t i l l the chicks i n them —so yellow and
1
"You see, one of m y apple-trees gave a poor yield last year and downy."
now it's turning yellow and withering. W h a t do you think the
reason could be?"
1
"Oh, there might be plenty of reasons: insects, diseases, too much
VIII
of chemicals, l i t t l e water and so on. I ' m afraid I have to see the
tree for myself." " I ' d like to have a bunch of flowers."
" W i l l i t be a present or just for home?"
" I ' m going to a friend's birthday oarty."
Ill "Then I ' d recommend you these dahlias."
" A l l r i g h t . Won't you add some green leaves?"
"What do you want w i t h the rake, Pete?" "No, I think I needn't. The- bouquet is just lovely as i t is."
" I want to weed the flowerbeds."
"But you can't do i t w i t h the rake, I ' m afraid."
" I ' l l take care not to destroy the flowers." IX

"bred, we must stop here and get out. Look how lovely i t is.
IV It's just what we were looking for."
"i'.ul why? There's nothing here but the fields."
"What grain crops do you grow here?" " t h a t ' s just i t . I've never seen such open fields. Wheat crops as
"Practically all of them—wheat, barley, rye and oats." 1.11 as you can see."
"You did not mention buckwheat."
"Well, I think i t isn't wheat, i t ' s rye. Besides, what's so surprising
"No, 'cause our soil is not f i t for i t . "
about that? As to me, I like woods better."
1
insect ['insekt] Haceisoivioe downy [ ' d n i u i i | iiyiimcTbiH

220 221
X First we were shown new cowsheds, pigsties, barns and other
farm buildings. The collective farm (as we were told) raises cows
"Alec! Kate! J i m ! Come here, all for.meat and for m i l k , and sheep for wool. Besides, i t breeds
of you!" poultry: hens, ducks, geese and even turkeys.
"What is i t , Jane?" There were no horses on the collective farm. A t least we d i d n ' t
"Just look: how plenty of straw- see them. A l l their job- is done now by tractors and lorries. The
berries! They're so ripe and juicy." collective farmers use modern machinery, such as combine harvest-
"Oh, how did you find them so ers, potato harvesters and others.
many? What if we pick them all?" I n the fields we saw all kinds of grain crops: wheat, barley,
"Yes, but what about the train? rye, oats, maize. The collective farm also grows a lot of vegetables:
I t ' s due out i n t h i r t y minutes." potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, beets, carrots and onions. There is a
large orchard on the farm, too, where we saw all kinds of fruit-
trees: apple-trees, cherry-trees, pear-trees and plum-trees.
XI The more we saw, the more we liked the collective farm. We
asked the chairman a lot of questions. We wanted to know how
"What a lovely orchard you the collective farmers ploughed the fields, looked after the cattle,
have!" fertilized the soil and did other things. The chairman was ready to
"Yes, i t is nice, thanks. I t ' s not big though." answer all our questions. He also told us about the yields of
"But I see here apple-trees, and peach-trees, and cherry-trees." different crops and the incomes of the collective farm.
"That's almost so, i n fact there is a tree of every fruit that grows Everything we saw and learned was very instructive. We prom-
in these parts: apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, apricot and aiso ised the chairman to come in autumn and help the collective
some berries." farmers to take i n their crops.

XII
"You live in a marvellous town, Ada."
" Vhy, thanks, I know I do, but what makes you t h i n k so?"
"Your streets — there is not a street without trees—chestnuts, lime-
trees, plane-trees, and even poplars."

"And best of all acacia-trees, I t h i n k , — the pride of m y town."

A STORY
(Nina Karpova tells her father about the visit she and her classmates
made to a collective farm.)

ON A C O L L E C T I V E FARM

There is a large collective farm not far from our c i t y . We heard


a lot about i t and decided to go and see i t . One day we took a
bus and i n an hour came to the collective farm.
We found the chairman of the collective farm i n the potato
field, and he was glad to show us everything we wanted to see.
The farm is really big. I t has large areas under field crops and
fruit-trees. The collective farmers breed livestock, too. I t ' s a
mixed collective farm.
222
branch of industry отрасль промышленности
automobile ['a:tamabi:l] (motor-car) industry автомобильная
промышленность
chemical ['kemikal] industry химическая промышленность
heavy industry т я ж е л а я промышленность
light industry л е г к а я промышленность
machine building industry машиностроительная промышленность
mining industry г о р н о р у д н а я промышленность
manufacture l^msnju'faektja] производство
Manchester is the centre of English cotton manufacture. Ман­
ч е с т е р — ц е н т р производства х л о п ч а т о б у м а ж н ы х т к а н е й в Ан­
глии.
metallurgy [me'tsebdji] м е т а л л у р г и я
ferrous ['feras] metallurgy черная м е т а л л у р г и я
non-ferrous metallurgy цветная м е т а л л у р г и я
A. SITUATIONS
2
1) You tell your friend (mother, father) of your visit to a plant
(factory). consumer [kan'sju:ma| потребитель
2) The director (chief engineer) of the plant tells a group of pu­ We try to meet consumers' demands in the best way. Мы ста­
pils of senior forms all about the enterprise and its production. раемся лучше удовлетворить запросы потребителей.
3) You are a guide of a group of foreign tourists going to a factory designer [di'zama] конструктор
in your c i t y . foreman [ Ъ : т э п ] мастер
4) You describe the system of labour teams and co-operation be­ innovator ['maveita] новатор, р а ц и о н а л и з а т о р
tween them at the plant where you had industrial training. We have quite a number of innovators at our plant. У нас на
5) You discuss the factors raising labour productivity. заводе много р а ц и о н а л и з а т о р о в .
6) You talk of the latest achievements in science and technology shop superintendent [,sju:parm'tendantl н а ч а л ь н и к цеха
which are or may be used at factories. team-leader [ ' t k m l k d a ] бригадир
7) While in the factory yard, you try to find out where a par­ Who is the leader of the best team i n your shop? К т о брига­
ticular office or shop is situated. дир лучшей бригады в вашем цехе?
8) You talk w i t h your friend of the professions engaged in pro­ worker l/wa:ka] рабочий
duction at a particular plant. Syn. operator ['apareita] рабочий (на определенном рабочем
9) You have a talk w i t h your team-leader on the matter connected месте, например: crane-operator—крановщик; engine-operator—
w i t h your production task. машинист)
10) You ask your father (brother) about his factory. shock-worker ударник

B. TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y 3

1 cannery ['кэепэп] консервный завод


commerce fkomars] т о р г о в л я , коммерция
combine I'kombam] комбинат
textile 1'tekstail] combine текстильный комбинат
Syn. trade
enterprise I'entapraiz] предприятие
trade mark ['treid'mak] фабричная марка
What food industry enterprises are there in your town? К а к и е
industry ['indAstn] промышленность
предприятия пищевой промышленности есть в вашем городе?
The U.S.S.R. is a powerful socialist state w i t h a highly devel­
oped industry. СССР —могучее социалистическое государство factory | ' l a ; k t a n ] завод, фабрика
с высокоразвитой промышленностью. Our factory w i l l double its output next year. В будущем году
наш 38BQU УДВОИТ ВЫПуСХ продукции.
224
а и к*!» 225
line [lain] л и н и я , конвейер; магистраль, трубопровод
chemical ['kemikl] factory химзавод automatic [ p i t a ' m s e t i k ] line автоматическая л и н и я
sewing ['souirj] factory швейная ф а б р и к а semi-automatic line полуавтоматическая л и н и я
mill [ m i l ] завод, фабрика main assembly line сборочный конвейер
textile mill текстильная ф а б р и к а pipe-line ['paiplam] трубопровод, нефтепровод
plant [ p l a n t ] завод
machine [ т э ' Г к п ] станок, машина
What does your plant produce? Ч т о производится на вашем milling machine фрезерный станок
заводе?
planing machine строгальный станок
power-station ['pau3,steij"3n] э л е к т р о с т а н ц и я polishing machine полировальный станок
atomic power-station атомная э л е к т р о с т а н ц и я machinery [ i m ' J k n a n ] оборудование, машины
hydropower-station ['haidr3pau3,steif3n] гидроэлектростан­ up-to-date machinery современное оборудование
ц и я (ГЭС)
This plant is equipped w i t h up-to-date machinery, Этот завод
refinery [ n ' f a i n s n ] рафинировочный завод; нефтеочиститель­ оборудован современными машинами,
ный завод
unit [ ' j u m i t ] б л о к , с е к ц и я
works [wa:ks] завод
engineering works машиностроительный завод
works management з а в о д о у п р а в л е н и е
6

4 fibre ['faiba] волокно


artificial [,ati'fij9l] fibre искусственное волокно
forge [b:d$] к у з н и ц а , кузнечный цех synthetic [sin'0etik] fibre синтетическое волокно
foundry ['faundn] л и т е й н а я , литейный цех goods [gu:dz] pi т о в а р ы
shop [ f o p ] цех consumer [kan'sjmma] goods товары широкого потребления
What shop is this? К а к о й это цех? manufactured Lmsenju'fsektjsd] goods промышленные товары
assembly [a'sembh] shop сборочный цех material [ma'tiarial] материал
engineering [,end5i'ni9nn] shop механический цех raw materials с ы р ь е
repair [ п ' р е э ] shop ремонтный ц е х output ['autput] п р о д у к ц и я ; п р о д у к т ; выпуск
welding shop сварочный цех The output of the plant has been increased this year. В этом
tool-room [ ' t m l r u m ] инструментальный цех году выпуск продукции этого завода у в е л и ч и л с я ,
part [ p a t ] д е т а л ь , часть
5 service ['s3:vis] parts запасные части, запчасти
Syn. repair parts
device [di'vais] прибор scrap [skrap] металлолом
What is this device called? К а к называется этот прибор? Shall we gather scrap this week? Мы будем на этой неделе
computer [kam'pjutta] счетно-вычислительное устройство, элек- собирать металлолом?
тронновычислительная машина (ЭВМ) reject [n'd3ekt] б р а к
equipment [ik'wipmant] оборудование They t r y to reduce rejects to a m i n i m u m . О н и стараются, до­
We received new equipment last m o n t h . В прошлом месяце мы нести б р а к . д о минимума.
получили новое оборудование, Syn. spoilage
furnace ['farms] печь, топка waste |weist] отходы; бракованное изделие -
blast [blast] furnace доменная печь
lathe [lei<3] станок
Syn. machine-tool [ т э ' f i : n t u : l ]
7
boring lathe расточный станок lUtomatlon [,o:t3'meifan] автоматизация
He operates a boring lathe. Он работает на расточном станке, Mechanization and automation stimulate production and make
drill lathe сверлильный станок working conditions easier. М е х а н и з а ц и я и автоматизация сти­
metal-cutting lathe м е т а л л о р е ж у щ и й станок мулируют производство и облегчают условия т р у д а .
turning lathe т о к а р н ы й станок
п* 227
226
capacity [ka'paesiti] мощность
The capacity of this plant is 8
200,000 refrigerators per year.
to apply [a'plai] применять
Мощность этого завода — 200
to bring into operation вводить
тыс. холодильников в год.
в строй
competition [,kompi'tij3n] 1) кон­
Next month a new blast fur­
к у р е н ц и я (в капиталистичес­
nace w i l l be brought into oper­
к и х странах); 2) соревнова­
ation. В следующем месяце
ние (в социалистических
вступит в строй новая домна.
странах)
to соре with с п р а в л я т ь с я
Socialist competition is w e l l
The factory coped w i t h the
organized at our factory.
production task. Фабрика
У нас на фабрике хорошо
справилась с производствен­
о р г а н и з о в а н о социалистичес­
ным заданием.
кое соревнование.
to equip [i'kwip] оборудовать
Syn. emulation Lemju'leijan]
to re-equip переоборудовать,
design [di'zam] план; проект; Automation,
реконструировать
конструкция
The plant has been almost "It's for you."
What new designs are being worked out? К а к и е новые проекты completely re-equipped. З а ­
(конструкции) разрабатываются? вод был почти полностью переоборудован.
energy fenadji] энергия to fit [fit] монтировать
nuclear ['nju:kha] energy ядерная энергия to fulfil one's plan (ahead of schedule ['Tedju:l]) выполнить план
solar ['soula] energy солнечная энергия (досрочно)
engineering [,end3i'ni3nrj] т е х н и к а lo introduce [,mtra'dju:s[ внедрять, вводить
power engineering энергетика lo pledge [pled3] oneself взять на себя обязательства
safety fserfti] engineering техника безопасности They pledged themselves to overfulfil the quotas. Они в з я л и
labour ['leiba] т р у д на себя обязательство перевыполнить нормы,
manual fmaenjual] labour ручной т р у д to put into operation вводить в действие
labour productivity [,prodAk'tiviti] производительность т р у д а lo prevent an accident предотвратить несчастный с л у ч а й
We must increase labour productivity. Мы д о л ж н ы увеличить Labour safety helps to prevent accidents. О х р а н а труда помо­
производительность труда. гает предотвращать несчастные с л у ч а и .
labour safety I'seifti] о х р а н а (безопасность) труда In turn out производить, выпускать
j
• H o w is labour safety for workers organized? К а к организована
This plant turns out T V sets. Этот завод выпускает телевизоры.
охрана труда рабочих?
Syn. to produce [pra'dju:s]
maintenance ['meintmans] техническая э к с п л у а т а ц и я , уход за ма-
' шиной; текущий ремонт C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
production [pra'dAkfan] производство IIISriTUTION PATTERNS
quota ['kwouta] норма I) Pardon me, sir (miss), I ' d like to see the manager."
What are'your production quotas? К а к и е у вас нормы? the chief engineer
shift [Jift] смена
the foreman
Tomorrow 1 work in (on) the day shift. З а в т р а я работаю the director
в дневную смену, "Sorry, sir, but he is out."
supply [sa'plai] поставка, снабжение away
technique [ t e k ' n k k ] техника, технические приемы on a business t r i p
technology [tek'nolad3i] 1) т е х н и к а ; 2) технология in conference
on leave
trade mark ['treid ' т а к ] торговая м а р к а
on siel< l e a v e
223
229
2) "Excuse me, sir, could you direct me to the assembly shop?" 7) "When w i l l the new assembly line be put into operation?"
the forge automobile works
the welding shop power-station
the factory office repair shop
"Go straight along this wall and then t u r n t o the right." factory
shop the left "According to the programme, by the end of this year."
road the schedule
fence the plan
the ministry's decision
3) "What are the m a i n industries of your town?"
8) "Does your factory often fulfil (cope w i t h ) the plan?"
city the programme
region the task
country "Yes, we generally (over)fulfil the plan by 10 per cent."
"I think i t ' s automobile industry." by 5 or 8 per cent
chemical ahead of schedule
aircraft
mining
textile CONVERSATIONS
footwear
4) "What factories is your c i t y famous for?" I
plants
enterprises "What does your factory produce?"
works " I t isn't easy to answer" your question. We are a b i g company,
"Oh, there are lots of plants i n our c i t y , but one can't but you know."
mention the automobile wdrks." "Yes, but at least you could tell me the sphere of your productive
the shipyard activities, couldn't you?"
the refinery " W e l l , that's simple—radio engineering."
the textile factory
the tractor works
the candy factory
II
5) "What does your factory produce?" "Look, George, there's your firm's trade mark on the iron I bought
"We produce a l l kinds of agricultural machines." yesterday."
lathes "Really? W e l l , I d i d n ' t know we manufactured consumer goods."
cotton fabrics "How's that? Y o u don't know what you produce!"
food-stuffs "Of course, I know, but not everything. There're twenty shops at
canned fruit our plant."
footwear
6) "Has your factory increased its production i n recent years?" Ill
works
plant "What are England's most important industrial areas?"
mill "Well, the main centres of English industry are in the Midlands
"Oh, yes, we've increased the output of steel by 1 0 per cent." (around Birmingham) and also in Sheffield, Manchester and New-
castle. The area round Birmingham is often called the Black Country,"
cement 20 per cent
coal 30 per cent "Yes, I ' v e heard that name. W h a t does i t mean?"
1

fabrics three times " I t means just what the name tells you—smoke, dust and soot."
footwear 1
sooi ksut] casta
canned meat
230 231
VIII
"What do you know about industrial and commercial advertising?" "Is i t not dangerous to operate these huge machines?"
1
" W h y , it's an inseparable part of commerce. But i t ' s especially "Of course i t is dangerous, but we usually prevent accidents."
characteristic of capitalist trade and very popular w i t h capitalist "By making people more responsible?"
manufacturers who believe the things sell well only if they're adver­ "Mostly by using a l l sorts of safety controls."
tised w e l l . "
"Do you think advertisements sometimes make people buy things IX
they don't need?"
"Of course, I do. I t ' s proved by numerous sociological surveys." 2
"Your plant is equipped w i t h up-to-date machinery."
"Yes, we've just put into operation another most modern auto­
matic line."
V . . . "Does 1
it supplement your m a i n assembly line?"
"Yes, we have practically no manual labour units."
"Pardon me, sir, can you direct me to the works management?"
" W h y , yes, w a l k straight along this w a l l , then take the first turning
to the r i g h t . Y o u ' l l see a tall brick building in front of you." X
"Thank you very much. B u t is there any sign-board on it?" "That machine looks so sophisticated." 2

"Oh, yes, there's a very long sign-board along the whole house — " I t is a very wise tool. We've just got i t back from the Interna­
E A S T O I L R E F I N E R Y , and beneath i t —a small sign: Man­
tional Fair."
agement."
" I t must have been a h i t there."
"Yes, i t gained the highest prize."

VI
XI s
Pardon me, miss, I w a n t t o see the chief engineer." "What are your working hours?"
"Sorry, sir, he's in conference now. H e ' l l be free i n an hour or so. "We work by shifts, so i t depends."
Y o u may speak to his assistant if you like." "Your quota is the same, no matter what shift you work on."
" W e l l , I ' v e brought the technical documents for the lathe. I ' m afraid " W e l l , i t depends on the type of operati i , not on the shift. I f
I must see M r . Howard in person." the operation requires more s k i l l , your quota is smaller."
"Wait a l i t t l e , sir, I ' l l report
about you."
XII
VII "Hallo there! You're back from your leave?"
"Yes, Pavel, I got sick and tired of i t . Is our shop still lagging
"Burton, have you studied the
behind the schedule?"
drawing carefully?"
"Oh no, we have fulfilled our quota ahead of time."
"Oh yes, I have."
"That's fine, but how could you cope w i t h it?"
" I t h i n k you haven't. Look, the
3
"We've introduced some new techniques and employed high-speed
dimensions are wrong here."
methods."
''They are correct, just i t ' s hard
to measure the diameter here. T r y
again, please." A STORY

1
(The school arranged a visit to one of the leading plants of the
inseparable [m'separebl] н е о т ъ е м ­
лемый town. Nick Somov comes home and tells his father his impressions.)
2
survey ['sa:vei] о б с л е д о в а н и е
1
8
dimensions [di'menjsnz] раз­ to supplement [ ' s A p h m a n t j д о б а в л я т ь , з а в е р ш а т ь
2

меры, габариты " N o , you i o o l , s t r i k e t h e i r o n ! " sophisticated [ s o ' f i s t i , k e i t [ d ] с л о ж н ы й

232 233
AT A PLANT
22
Daddy, I've had a very exciting morning today. You know, we
d i d n ' t have classes but instead we were taken to the automobile works.
We enjoyed our visit immensely. I t ' s quite a modern enterprise. RADIO
We were shown a l l the shops there. I ' m afraid I don't remember
their names, but I am sure we were taken to the engineering shop, AND T E L E V I S I O N
to the repair shop, to the forge and to the welding shop. The
superintendent of one of the shops told us that the administration
of the plant was now introducing all types of computer devices РАДИО
and they had already introduced some remote control equipment. И ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЕ
I t was great fun to watch the assembly line. A t its beginning,
one could see only different parts of future cars, w h i l e at the end
of the conveyer, new, completely fabricated automobiles ran off
i t and lined up out in the factory yard. There are hundreds V
of them already there, and a special loader takes them into the
wagons. I t ' s a breath-taking sight, I must say, though I doubt I A. SITUATIONS
could work at the assembly line w i t h o u t proper training because
i t requires very much concentration and speedy actions and you 1) You instruct your sister (or friend) how to operate a radio
always say I ' m a dawdler. (TV set, tape-recorder, record-player).
2) You tell a friend all about your new radio (TV) set.
The factory is certainly a highly industrial enterprise and
3) You talk w i t h the repairman about the defects of your tape-
we were surprised to learn that they also produce all sorts of con­
recorder (radio set, etc.).
sumer goods. The consumer goods shop we were shown first is equipped
4) You exchange recordings w i t h a friend of yours.
w i t h up-to-date machinery and i t manufactures some kinds of
electric household appliances, the other one makes refrigerators. 5) You discuss w i t h a friend some telecasts you saw (some broad­
Our guide who took us round the plant was a young engineer. casts you heard).
He told us many interesting things. The administration does very 6) You discuss the role played by radio and T V in socialist and
much to improve the working conditions of the workers, especially capitalist societies.
those of the young ones, and takes 7) You discuss the role of radio and T V i n teaching and learning.
care to prevent accidents. We saw 8) You discuss the problems of cosmic television.
a large gym and a swimming- 9) You talk of the requirements put forward to a T V announcer.
pool, clean cloak-rooms, showers, 10) You tell your friend a story connected w i t h radio or televi­
libraries and several cosy can­ sion.
teens and snack bars. We made
a fine meal in one of them.
B. TOPICAL VOCABULARY
We could see many slogans
1
everywhere. They r a n the work­
ers pledged themselves to over­ 1
fulfil the production programme
and complete their five-year plan radio t'reidiou] 1) радио; радиовещание
ahead of time. Of course, each I heard i t on (over) the radio. Я с л ы ш а л это по радио.
of us thought of our studies and 2) радиоприемник
we felt like doing them better. Switch on the radio, please. Включите приемник, п о ж а л у й с т а ,
On the other hand, though, we'd television ['teli,vi3an] телевидение; сокр. T V [ ' t i : ' v i : j
like to get to this factory as He spoke on television. Он выступил по телевидению.
workers and engineers, as soon colour television цветное телевидение
as it could be. wireless ['waiahs] радио; радиоприемник
1
What's on the wireless tonight? Ч т о сегодня вечером передают
to r u n ад. г л а с и т ь Modernization. по радио?
235
2 5
bobbin ['ЬэЫп] бобина, кассета (с магнитной лентой)
radiograin(mophone) ['reidiougrœrn(afoun)], р а д и о л а Let's put on this bobbin. Д а в а й поставим эту кассету.
receiver [ n ' s k v a ] 1) приемник; 2) радиоприемник: . Syn. reel, spool
colour receiver цветной телеприемник extension [iks'tenjan] приставка
Syn. radio set, TV set remote control [ n ' m o u t kan'troul] extension приставка д л я
record-player ['reko:d,plei3] проигрыватель дистанционного у п р а в л е н и я
set [set] 1) прибор, а п п а р а т ; 2) радиоаппарат record ['reka:d[ пластинка
Your set wants repairing (mending). В а ш приемник н у ж н о почи­ long-playing record долгоиграющая пластинка
нить. Syn. disk
How does your T V set work (go)? К а к работает ваш телевизор? recording [п'кэ-.drn] запись
speaker ['spi:ka] громкоговоритель Have you got any new recordings? У тебя' есть какие-нибудь
Syn. loud-speaker новые записи?
plug-in speaker радиоточка
tape-recorder ['teipn,ka:da] магнитофон
transistor [tram'zista] транзистор, портативный радиоприемник на
полупроводниках
band [baend] полоса частот
transmitter [traenz'mita] передатчик
channel ['ifami] к а н а л
How many channels has your T V set? Сколько каналов в твоем
3 телевизоре?
revolution [ ,reva'lu:Jan] зд. оборот
This record is for 33 revolutions per minute (33 r.p.rn.).
announcer [a'naunsa] диктор
Эта пластинка на 33 оборота в минуту. -
listener [Trsna] слушатель
wave [weiv] радиоволна
radio amateur ['semata:] радиолюбитель
long waves длинные волны
repairman [n'peaman] мастер
medium ['mirdjam] waves средние волны
(tele)viewer ['telivju:a] телевизионный зритель, телезритель
short waves к о р о т к и е волны
I ' m a regular viewer of the Moscow programmes. Я р е г у л я р н о
смотрю программы из Москвы.
7
antenna [зепЧепэ] антенна
4
Syn. aerial ['eanal]
control [kan'troul] 1) управление; 2) регулятор, ручка
broadcast ]'bro:dkast] радиопередача dial ['daial] ш к а л а , диапазон
newscast ['nju.-zkastj (А. Е.) передача последних известий (по 1
Switch on the o t h e r ' d i a l , please. Включите, п о ж а л у й с т а , дру­
радио) гой диапазон,
Let's listen to the newscast. Д а в а й послушаем последние из­ key-button [ ' k i : ' b . \ m ] к н о п к а , к л а в и ш а
вестия. You've pressed the wrong key-button. Вы н а ж а л и не ту
programme ['prougrœm] программа кнопку,
listeners' request programme программа по з а я в к а м радиослу­ knob [nob] ручка р е г у л я т о р а
шателей Turn the knob clockwise. Поверните р у ч к у по часовой стрелке,
reporting [ri'po:tirj] репортаж screen [skri:n] э к р а н
actuality (spot) reporting р е п о р т а ж с места событий What's the size of the screen? К а к о й размер экрана?
sportscast ['spa:tskctst] спортивная передача, спортивный выпуск tube [tju:b] электронная лампа
последних известий I ' l l t r y to replace the tube myself. Я попытаюсь сам заменить
telecast l'tehkast] телепередача лампу.
We receive telecasts both from Riga and T a l l i n n . Мы прини­ Syn. valve [veelv]
маем телепередачи к а к из Риги, т а к и из Т а л л и н а .
237
235
8
2) "Can your younger brother switch on the radio set?"
to be at fault [fo:lt] быть неисправным operate the receiver
Some valve must be at fault. Наверное, к а к а я - н и б у д ь л а м п а handle the T V set
вышла из с т р о я , switch off
to be on the air передаваться, т р а н с л и р о в а т ь с я "He can but I don't allow h i m to."
There's nothing on the air now. Сейчас ничего не передают, 3) "Be so k i n d as to make the sound softer."
to broadcast ['bnxdkast] (broadcast, broadcast) передавать no to get Moscow
радио to switch on another channel
to get a station поймать станцию to make the sound louder
Can you get Warsaw on your set? Вы принимаете В а р ш а в у на to turn that knob clockwise
своем приемнике? " A l l right."
to listen in с л у ш а т ь радио 4) "What am I to do to switch on the other dial?"
to look in смотреть телевизор on long waves
to operate ['opareit] у п р а в л я т ь , обращаться с on short waves
It's very difficult to operate this tape-recorder. С этим магни­ on ultra-short waves
тофоном очень трудно о б р а щ а т ь с я . "Just press down the key-button."
Syn. to handle turn the knob clockwise
to play a record поставить (проиграть) п л а с т и н к у counter-clockwise
W i l l you play this record for me? Поставьте эту п л а с т и н к у to the right
д л я меня. 5) "What is on the wireless tonight?"
This record-player can't play long-playing records. Этот п р о и г р ы ­ on the air
ватель не рассчитан на д о л г о и г р а ю щ и е п л а с т и н к и , on television
to record [n'ko:d] записывать "There w i l l be a concert followed by a newscast."
to re-wind [ ' n ' w a m d ] (re-wound, re-wound) перематывать (о пленке) a lecture a sportscast
to switch on в к л ю ч а т ь , переключать a play a listeners' request
I ' l l switch on another channel. Я переключу на другой к а н а л . a press conference programme
Syn. to turn on "Do you receive Moscow on your set?
6)
Ant. to switch off, to turn off Polish stations
to televise ['tehvaiz] передавать по телевизору Hungarian telecasts
What's being televised now? Ч т о сейчас показывают по теле­ "Yes, sure, though sometimes i t isn't very easy to get them."
визору?
to transmit [tramz'mit] передавать по радио 7) "Please turn on the T V set.
Н е learned to transmit messages i n Morse code ['mo:s 'koud]. A n interesting telecast is being
Он н а у ч и л с я передавать сообщения азбукой Морзе, televised now."
to tune in to (on) a station настраивать(ся) на радиостанцию newscast
telefilm
spot reporting
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE musical show
press confer­
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
ence
1) "How is your wireless going?" " I ' d rather not : I have a head-
TV set ache." M u m is unwell
record-player it's too late
tape-recordep
radio set let's have a
transistor walk instead
"Rather w e l l . " Mike is doing "This is the o n l y w a y to take the
his lessons Children out lor a w a l k . "
238
239
CONVERSATIONS V
I "Have you listened i n today?"
"No, I ' m just up. A n y t h i n g spe-
" I wonder what Kate is doing at the moment." cial?"
"That isn't difficult to say. She's watching T V . " "Oh, yes, a manned spaceship
"What makes you so sure?" has been launched i n the direc-
"Because she watches T V day and n i g h t . You won't drag her away tion of the Moon."
from the screen. She sees everything what's shown on T V . " "That's splendid! T u r n on the
wireless, please. I ' d like to hear
the news myself."
II
"Are you a regular televiewer, George?"
1
vi
"WelU to some e x t e n t yes."
"Do you watch all the telecasts running?" "Well, how's your radio set
"Certainly not. I look through the T V programme i n advance and going?" " I wonder when those Joneses are
choose what I t h i n k might be interesting for me." "Not too badly, though 1 have g o i n g t o get a set of t h e i r o w n . "
"So what do you generally prefer to see?" some difficulties i n getting distant
"Sportscasts and news and of course telefilms and plays." stations. I suppose, i t ' s the weather."
"No, I don't t h i n k i t ' s really the weather. Your set has only three
valves and i t is not sensitive enough."
Ill "But still last week I was successful in receiving one of the dis-
tant African stations. A n d there was practically no hum."
"Please switch on the radio, J i m . A n interesting reporting is being
broadcast now."
"What metre band?" VII
" I think it's on medium waves as usual."
"But there's nothing on the air here."
"My set wants mending J^adly. The picture isn't stable and some-
"Step aside, please. Oh, what a head! You've pressed the wrong times the sound disappears."
key-button.", "Let me have a look . . . I t h i n k t w o valves are at fault. They%

are to be replaced."
"How much w i l l i t come to?"
iv "Oh, you needn't bother. Your service guarantee term isn't over
yet, is it?" ,
"It's almost nine o'clock. Time for the newscast. Turn on the T V
set, please."
" I ' m t r y i n g to do that but i t w o n ' t switch on. There must be
something wrong w i t h i t , I ' m afraid. Look: the picture won't VIII .
appear on the screen."
"Aw! What a nuisance! Let me take a quick look inside. I hope "I've called to bring your bobbin back. I n fact I couldn't record
it isn't very serious." — anything from i t . There's something strange on i t . "
"Just I wonder what on earth is making all this trouble." " W e l l , let me see . . . Oh, pardon me, Paul. Here's the recording
" A h , no wonder! The plug has been pulled out. W e l l , I think of aircraft noise, the noise of the sea and all that stuff. That's
t h a t ' s you who's done that. Y o u pressed clothes here, didn't you, er?" my father's hobby. He's crazy about all that . . . Don't get angry
w i t h me. And here's the reel I promised. I must only re-wind i t .
W a i t a moment."
1
to some extent [ i k s ' t e n t ] RO neKOTopoii creneim "Well, Jack, you needn't bother, I can do i t myself. Thank you."

240 £41
I believe radio hamming is a t h r i l l i n g pastime combining the
IX 1
romance of distant travel w i t h will-power, and on top of all
that i t is closely connected w i t h one of the most interesting
" W i l l you take your record-player to our party tomorrow?" branches of modern engineering.
" W e l l , I m i g h t , but all the records I have are pretty o l d . I gave Radio amateurs are "bom" at radio clubs. They learn to estab-
up buying new records, you know." lish two-way radio communications i n the short and ultra-short
"It's a l l r i g h t . We might as well ask Bob to bring some of his wave bands, to receive and transmit i n Morse code, to take part
new long-playing records." in "fox-hunting" competitions.
"Long-playing you say? T h a t ' l l hardly do. H o w many revolutions "Fox-hunting" is a game i n which amateurs must locate w i t h
per minute?" the help of a radio-receiver (built by themselves) several low-pow-
"As far as I know, sjxteen." ered transmitters which are hidden a l l over a given area. The one
" I haven't got thar speed on m y record-player." who is the quickest at finding out a l l the "foxes" is the winner.
Our hams, as you know, have won first place i n the European
X "fox-hunting" championships and brought home gold medals several
years running.
"How did you like the T V programme last night?" The contests usually include a quick march, p u t t i n g the station
" I can't say anything definite. You see, m y set wasn't in good into operation, establishing two-way communications and transmit-
order. Now the picture was not stable, now i t became completely ting a radio-telegram.
dark. So I couldn't make out anything." Thousands and thousands of people a l l over the world go i n for
"What a p i t y , indeed! You missed an exciting show. They were radio hamming. Their calls can be heard on the air round-the-
broadcasting International Motor Races." clock. The veteran amateurs have acquaintances i n many countries.
"Did they really? That must have been entertaining. I could see They keep contacts w i t h their friends a l l over the world by means
only the beginning of i t . B u t I hope t h e y ' l l repeat its video-record- of radio. The common interests which unite radio hams are a good
ing one of these days." basis for mutual understanding and friendship between them. W o u l d
" I think they w i l l . " you .like to become a radio amateur?

XI STORY 2
1
"They say you are an inveterate h a m . "
" W e l l , i n a way yes." (Maria Petrova describes an incident which happened at the Central
"What are you doing now?" TV Station.)
" I ' m assembling a T V set w i t h remote control. Y o u ' l l be able to
operate i t while you're i n bed."
GOOD E V E N I N G , T E L E V I E W E R S !
"Oh, you don't say so! I ' d like to have a t h i n g like that."
I ' m going to tell you a story of an incident which happened
at the Central T V Station. One evening most of us watched Mos-
STORY i cow's favourite announcer, V . Leontyeva, conducting a 40-minute
programme w i t h o u t "noticing a n y t h i n g unusual. O n l y some viewers
(Misha Krotov, member of the school radio club, speaks to a group saw that there was something w h i t e showing from under her right
of pupils inviting them to go in for radio hamming.) sleeve, and that's a l l .
The broadcast ended and another announcer took over. B u t at
BECOME A R A D I O AMATEUR! this moment V . Leontyeva was i n ambulance being taken to hos-
pital.
Are there many radio amateurs i n the Soviet Union? Yes, . . . E v e r y t h i n g had been as usual that evening at the Central
many. You can find them among the youngest of young pioneers TV Station. Actors, announcers, scientists and journalists had taken
as well as among the oldest of pensioners.
romance h\>'iii;nr.| pOMAHTHKI
1
i n v e t e r a t e [ m ' v e t a r i t ) ham 3asi/i;iLjH paflHojuoGHxejib
2-13
242
1
their turns before the cameras. A famous animal l a m e r had had
his bears performing for televiewers. 23
V . Leontyeva made ready to appear just as the circus show
was ending. Just then a big bear, nervous from the lights and
2
noise, suddenly charged at her and b i t her right hand. The an­ AT A T H E A T R E
imal tamer, cameramen and others brought the bear under control.
"Get her to hospital at once!" the chief director said.
"Oh, no, just dress m y hand and that's a l l . No one else knows В ТЕАТРЕ
the text of the next telecast. We can't spoil the programme," said
V . Leontyeva.
Then she took her place before the camera, powdered her pale
cheeks, closed her eyes for a moment, and then smiled and told
3
the cameramen, "Shoot, please!"
A n d as her familiar image appeared on the screens, we heard
her say softly and calmly, "Good evening, televiewers!"

1
animal t a m e r — д р е с с и р о в щ и к
2
to charge (at) б р о с а т ь с я ( н а к о г о - л . )
3
Shoot, please! зд. В к л ю ч а й т е к а м е р ы , п о ж а л у й с т а ! A. SITUATIONS

1) You book a ticket at the booking-office.


2) You discuss w i t h your friend what performance to see next
week (tomorrow, etc.).
3) You describe to your small brother (sister) the interior of
a theatre.
4) You talk w i t h your friend about the repertory and the quality
of productions of a particular theatre.
5) You tell a friend of yours the plot of the performance which
you saw.
6) You compare notes of a theatrical performance you saw.
7) You describe to a visitor to your c i t y (town) its theatrical
life and recommend to see some particular performances.
8) You ask the usher to help you to find your seat in the audi­
torium.
9) The house being sold out long before, you fish for a ticket
at the entrance of the theatre asking the coming spectators for
an extra one.
10) You ask a spectator to change seats w i t h you or your friend
so as to sit together.
11) You discuss the problem "Theatre and Cinema".

B. TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y

1
ballet-dancer ['baelei,da:ns3] балерина; солист балета
compere [ ' к з т р е э ] конферансье
conductor [kan'dAkta] д и р и ж е р

245
director [di'rekta] режиссер 3
dramatist ['dramatist] д р а м а т у р г
Syn. playwright curtain ['ka:tn] з а н а в е с
extra ['ekstra] статист curtain call вызов (актера, т а н ц о р а и т. д.) на сцену апло­
make-up man гример дисментами
producer [pra'djmsa] постановщик I t seemed there would be no end of curtain calls that night.
prompter ['pramta] суфлер К а з а л о с ь , вызовам артистов в тот вечер не будет к о н ц а ,
spectator [spek'teita] зритель footlights ['futlaits] pi рампа
theatre-goer ['Oiatagoua] т е а т р а л scenery ['si:пап] д е к о р а ц и я
understudy ['Anda,stAdi[ д у б л е р (в театре) The scenery was designed by Petrov. Д е к о р а ц и и сделаны no
usher [ ' л | э ] билетер эскизам Петрова,
usherette билетерша wings [wmz] pi к у л и с ы

2 4
a u d i t o r i u m [,a:di'to:nam] зрительный зал choir ['kwaia] х о р , ансамбль певцов
The newly b u i l t theatre has an auditorium seating 1300. corps de ballet [,ko: da 'baelei] кордебалет
З р и т е л ь н ы й з а л вновь построенного театра вмещает 1300 зри­ orchestra ]'a:kastra] оркестр
телей. theatre ['Oiata] театр
Syn. hall W h a t ' s on at the theatre tonight? Ч т о идет сегодня в театре?
aisle [ail] проход между рядами drama ['drama] theatre драматический театр
balcony ['baelkani] балкон Syn. playhouse
box [baks] л о ж а opera house оперный т е а т р
They had a box in the second tier. У них была л о ж а во вто­ puppet theatre к у к о л ь н ы й театр
ром я р у с е . variety [va'raiati] theatre театр эстрады
cloak-room ['kloukrum] гардероб
dress-circle ['dres,sa:kl] б е л ь э т а ж
Two seats in the dress-circle for Saturday, please. Мне, пожа­ 5
луйста, два билета в б е л ь э т а ж е на субботу.
foyer ['faiei] фойе act [sekt] акт, действие; номер
Syn. lobby Pygmalion is a play in three acts. « П и г м а л и о н » — п ь е с а в трех
gallery ['gaelan] 1) г а л е р е я ; разг. г а л е р к а ; 2) з р и т е л и , сидящие действиях.
на г а л е р к е acting ['aektin] и г р а , исполнение; мастерство актера
pit [pit] амфитеатр W h a t do you t h i n k of the acting? К а к вам п о н р а в и л а с ь игра
refreshment-room [ n ' f r e j m a n t r u m ] буфет (актера, актеров)?
row [rou] ряд applause [a'pb:z] аплодисменты
seat [si:t] место, кресло, стул и т. д. The audience burst into a stormy applause. П у б л и к а р а з р а з и ­
I have bought three seats for the theatre, Я к у п и л три билета л а с ь бурными аплодисментами.
в театр, audience ['a:dians] з р и т е л и , п у б л и к а ; а у д и т о р и я
stage [steidg] сиена Her acting moved the audience to tears. Е е игра р а с т р о г а л а
stage version и н с ц е н и р о в к а п у б л и к у до слез.
backstage за к у л и с а м и b i l l [ b i l ] афиша, п л а к а т
I went backstage to congratulate her on her success. Я пошел H i s play is in the b i l l again. Е г о пьеса снова п о я в и л а с ь на
за к у л и с ы , чтобы поздравить ее с успехом, афишах.
stalls [sta:lz] партер Syn. p l a y - b i l l , poster
Syn. orchestra stalls, orchestra (A. E.) первые ряды партера cast [kast] состав исполнителей
standing-room место д л я с т о я н и я , входной билет The production had an excellent cast. Состав исполнителей
tier [tia] я р у с был великолепен.
247
246
encore [ э д ' к э : ] бис! 6
Encore! Encore! Б и с ! Б и с !
The dancer got an encore. Т а н ц о р а в ы з ы в а л и на бис.
to act [aekt] играть
The singer gave three encores. П е в е ц исполнил т р и вещи на
Г doubt anyone could act the part better. Я сомневаюсь,
бис. . : . ' . . ,.'*;". ' X
чтобы кто-нибудь смог сыграть эту роль, лучше.
first-night премьера
to applaud | a ' p b : d | аплодировать
I t ' s always very difficult to get tickets for the first-night.
The audience applauded the young actor for almost half an
Всегда очень т р у д н о достать билеты на премьеру,
hour. З р и т е л и а п л о д и р о в а л и молодому а к т е р у в течение почти
interval ['intavalj а н т р а к т
получаса.
Syn. intermission (А.Е.)
to be a failure 1'feilp] не иметь успеха, п р о в а л и т ь с я
matinee ['msetmei] дневной с п е к т а к л ь
The play was a failure. П ь е с а п р о в а л и л а с ь .
part [ p a t ] 1) роль, п а р т и я
Syn. to be a flop
Н е played the part of Higgins w i t h great s k i l l . Он сыграл роль
to be a success [sak'ses] иметь успех
Х и г г и н с а с большим искусством.
The new production at the, drama theatre is a great success.
Syn. role
Н о в а я постановка в драматическом театре пользуется боль­
2) р о л ь , текст роли
шим успехом.
She knew her part badly. О н а з н а л а свою роль плохо.
Syn. to be a h i t
Syn. lines
to delight [ d i ' l a i t ] восхищать
performance [pa'fa:mans] исполнение, игра; с п е к т а к л ь
The audience was delighted w i t h his acting. З р и т е л и были
That was one of the best performances I have seen this season.
в восторге от его игры,
Это б ы л о одно из л у ч ш и х представлений, которые я видел
to perform [pa'fa:m] и с п о л н я т ь , играть
в этом сезоне.
The t i t l e role was performed b r i l l i a n t l y . З а г л а в н а я роль была
play [plei] пьеса
сыграна блестяще,
If the play is bad, no acting w i l l save i t . Е с л и пьеса п л о х а я ,
to play [plei] и г р а т ь , исполнять
н и к а к а я игра не спасет ее.
Who played the leading roles? К т о исполнял ведущие роли?
production [pre'dAkJ'en] постановка
to rehearse [n'ha:s] репетировать
H i s new production was a great success w i t h the public. Е г о
Y o u ' l l have to rehearse this scene once more. Вам придется
новая постановка имела у п у б л и к и большой успех.
еще р а з прорепетировать эту сцену,
rehearsal [n'ha:sal] репетиция
to run [ Г Л П ] (ran, run) идти, демонстрироваться
The first rehearsal was appointed for Monday. П е р в а я репети­
This play w o n ' t run very long. Эта пьеса не будет долго идти,
ц и я была назначена на понедельник,
to take the audience by storm вызвать восторг у п у б л и к и , про­
dress rehearsal г е н е р а л ь н а я репетиция
извести фурор
repertoire ['repatwa] репертуар
Syn. repertory ['repatari]
H i s production is s t i l l i n the repertory of the theatre. Его
постановка все еще в р е п е р т у а р е т е а т р а , 7
role [roulj роль
leading part (role) в е д у щ а я , г л а в н а я роль magnificent [meeg'mfisant] великолепный
t i t l e role з а г л а в н а я роль Her acting was magnificent beyond any words. Е е игра была,
run [глп] период показа пьесы безусловно, великолепна,
The play had a long r u n . Пьеса ш л а долго, moving ['mu:virj] проникновенный
scene [si:n] сцена, явление; место действия natural ['naetfaral] естественный
There are 3 scenes i n Act I I . Во втором действии т р и сцены. original [a'ridgmal] 1) о р и г и н а л ь н ы й ; 2) первоначальный
The scene is laid i n I t a l y . Действие происходит в И т а л и и , talented ['taelantid] т а л а н т л и в ы й
tour [tua] гастроли, т у р н е true to life естественный, правдоподобный
Our theatre is back after its successful tour abroad. Н а ш versatile ['va:satari] разносторонний
театр возвратился после своих успешных гастролей за г р а н и ц е й . Brown possesses a versatile talent of an actor. Б р а у н обладает
to be on tour быть на г а с т р о л я х разносторонним актерским дарованием.
248 249
8
3) "Do you know the repertoire
Covent Garden (The Royal Opera House) Ковент Гарден (Королев­ of the Bolshoi Theatre?"
ский оперный театр) the Maly Theatre
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre Шекспировский театр the Moscow A r t Theatre
Old Vic театр «Олд Вик» the Drama Theatre
The Bolshoi Theatre Б о л ь ш о й театр "Yes, I do."
The Moscow Art Theatre Московский Художественный театр 4) "Which of their productions
(МХАТ) would you advise me to see?"
The Maly Theatre Малый театр plays
operas
shows
" I ' d recommend you to see
9 Pygmalion as a first choice."
King Lear
Much Ado [a'du:] About Nothing «Много шума из ничего» Don Quixote
Othello «Отелло» Swan Lake
Romeo and Juliet «Ромео и Д ж у л ь е т т а »
Twelfth N ight «Двенадцатая ночь»
5) "Is that a really good production?"
Inspector-General «Ревизор»
"Certainly, i t ' s simply splendid."
The Queen of Spades «Пиковая дама»
a great success
The Three Sisters «Три сестры»
too funny for words
The Sea-Gull «Чайка»
just marvellous
Cherry Orchard «Вишневый сад»
Giselle «Жизель»
The School for Scandal «Школа злословия> 6) "What does that play deal with?"
Don Quixote-['don 'kwiksat] «Дон Кихот» " I t tells of the life of a famous novelist."
Swan Lake «Лебединое озеро» the episodes of the Great Patriotic War
The Kremlin Chimes «Кремлевские куранты» love and friendship of young people
the events in England in Cromwell's times
the adventures of a schoolboy
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
7) "Who is performing the leading part i n that production?"
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS acting
singing
1) "What kind of theatre is the dancing
one you've just mentioned?" "As far as the b i l l says, the leading part is performed by
"It's an operetta theatre."
the t i t l e role
a drama the main character
a comedy the part of Romeo
a variety the well-known actor X . "
a puppet a totally unknown singer
2) "What can you .say of it?" the People's A r t i s t of the U.S.S.R. Petrov
"It's certainly one of the best the famous English actor Laurence Olivier
theatres i n our c i t y . "
the oldest
the most serious 8) "Is i t easy or difficult to get tickets for this performance?"
the most popular " H o w about i f we n i p r o u n d the back Play
the most original and s w i t c h t o the other channel?" ballet
show
250
J251
"Very difficult: you can get them only long in advance." V
in a long queue "Do you know where I went last night?"
two weeks before it " I have no idea. Where d i d you go?"
9) " I n what part of the auditorium do you like to sit?" " I went to the theatre and saw Uncle Vanya. And you know, of
" I usually book seats i n the orchestra stalls." course, how difficult i t is to get tickets, don't you?"
the dress-circle "So how did you get them?"
the balcony "At the entrance to the theatre, just before the performance began.
the gallery 1
A c c i d e n t a l l y , I was passing by and a girl offered me a ticket."
the second tier-box "A lucky dog you are!"
the p i t

CONVERSATIONS VI

I "Oh, there you are at last, Kate!"


"Hallo, B i l l , I ' m sorry I kept you w a i t i n g . I t hasn't started yet,
has it?"
"Wherever can Jane be now, I wonder?"
"No, but there's a long queue i n the cloak-room and we might not
"She is either at home or at the theatre."
be let to the h a l l . "
"But she isn't at home, I've rung her up."
"Let's hurry up. I think w e ' l l make i t . Don't get upset, dear."
"Then she must be at the opera."
"Is she a theatre-goer like that?"
"Yes, she is. She's crazy about theatre, you know."
VII

II " I have an extra ticket for the matinee tomorrow. Would you care
to come along w i t h me?"
"What is the best theatre i n your city?" "What theatre? And what is on?"
"What do you mean?" "It's the ballet Giselle."
" I mean the cast of course." "Why, thank you, I ' d love to see i t . "
"That's difficult to say, since we have one theatre for every type "So how shall we meet?",
of art — that's w h y we have the best operatic cast, the best corps " I suggest we should meet, at the entrance to the theatre."
de ballet, the best musical comedy and the best drama performers."

VIII
Ill
" W e l l , how did you enjoy the play, Kate?
"What is on at the musical comedy today?" "Oh, enormously! I think the production was really b r i l l i a n t and
" I think i t is some performance by the touring company." so was the acting. And what do you think?"
"Are they good?" " I think just the same. If Jackson hadn't been i l l , i t would have
"Well, yesterday the house was so full that there was no room been even better. They say he's wonderful in the part of the in­
even in the aisles." spector."
"But his understudy was very good, too, especially in the last act.
2
Of course the plot was rather absurd . . . "
IV " W e l l , it's a usual detective story."

" I want two seats for Saturday to the Opera House."


"Let me see, I have one seat in the boxes." 1
Accidentally Случайно
"What about the stalls, please?" 2
absurd [9b'sa:d] а б с у р д н и й
" A l l sold, I ' m sorry."

252
IX
The house was f u l l , there were even chairs put in the aisles.
I had a friend s i t t i n g in the box, and m y seat was i n the first
" I was very much moved by 1 row of the balcony. The leading ballet-dancer got many curtain
performance of Smirnov." calls and gave three encores.
"Oh, that >s a talented actor." As you perhaps heard, Indian dancing is very expressive and
"And so versatile." every movement means something: an elephant, a fish or any other
"Superb!" k i n d of animal. Anyhow, the performance is very simple, there's
no scenery at all though sometimes they use light for effect. And
X the leading ballet-dancer was so magnificent that she moved the
audience to tears. When the last curtain fell, there was a storm
"There was so much talk about of applause. The audience stood applauding the dancers for almost
the performance and after all i t half an hour. A n d , by the way, i t wasn't a first-night performance.
ended in a flop." So you can imagine what i t was like at their first show. The
" W e l l , i t is not so bad." dancers were so versatile and each of them was so original that
"How can you say that, when I wonder if they can have understudies.
i t is a complete failure." I suggest you should go and see them by all means.
"Oh, you're too c r i t i c a l . "

XI

" I never knew there was a play of that t i t l e . "


"Yes, i t was made after the book, though they have changed a few
things."
"Changed what?"
" W e l l , the scene is laid i n a big c i t y , instead of a castle. I t ' s
sort of modernized."

A STORY

(Jane, a schoolgirl, is fond of folk-dances and she attends many


performances of this kind. Here are her impressions of visiting an
Indian folk-dance ensemble.)

Hallo, Mary! Would you like to know what I saw yesterday?


You won't believe but I was at the performance of the Indian
folk-dance ensemble. Yes, i t was very difficult to get tickets, you
know. Anyhow I was lucky enough to get them. I n fact I had
an exciting evening. Indian dances are so beautiful and colourful.
You probably don't know but according to a legend the first Indian
dancer was god Brahma and originally i t was not shown to the
public. B u t now they have a lot of dancing companies touring a l l
over the w o r l d . A n d yesterday's was one of them. They are such
a success that they do not only give evening performances but
matinees, too.

254
piece [pi:s] 1) вещь, произведение, пьеса; 2) м у з ы к а л ь н ы й ин­
24 струмент
rhapsody ['raepsadi] рапсодия
sonata [sa'nata] соната
MUSIC AND DANCE symphony ['simfani] симфония
symphony orchestra симфонический оркестр

МУЗЫКА И ТАНЦЫ

1) string instruments струнные инструменты


banjo ['baend30U] б а н д ж о
'cello ['tjelou] (violoncello) виолончель
guitar [gi'tu:] г и т а р а
harp [hap] арфа
piano ['pjaenou] п и а н и н о
grand piano ['grsend 'pjaenou] р о я л ь
A . SITUATIONS v i o l i n [,vai3'lm] с к р и п к а
2) wind instruments д у х о в ы е ин­
1) You discuss w i t h your friend the programme of the symphonic струменты
(chamber, light) music concert you plan to go to. accordion [a'ka:djan] а к к о р ­
2) You compare notes of the musical concert and the perform­ деон; гармоника
ers of particular pieces after v i s i t i n g the Philharmonic. bagpipe ['baegpaip] волынка
3) You have bought rare recordings of a certain musician or singer flute [ f l u : t ] флейта
and invite your friend to come to your place and listen to them. harmonica [ha'momka] губная
4) You exchange records w i t h your friend. гармоника
5) A t a party, you ask a friend of yours who can play the piano saxophone ['saeksafoun] сак­
(the guitar, etc.) to perform some piece or a popular song. софон
6) You invite your friend to go to a dancing party. trumpet ['trAmpit] т р у б а
7) A t a dancing party, you ask the conductor of the band to play to blow one's own trumpet
a dance you like. хвалиться, заниматься
8) Holding different views on music, you have an argument w i t h саморекламой
your friend. .-' 3) percussion [pa'kAfan] instru­
9) A boy invites a g i r l for a particular dance. ments ударные инструменты
cymbals ['simbalz] т а р е л к и "He's been w i t h us t w o years and
10) You discuss the problem "Music as a Hobby and a Profession". I s t i l l d o n ' t k n o w w h a t i n s t r u m e n t he
11) You discuss the problem of sporting aspect of modern dances. drum [drArn] б а р а б а н
plays!"

B. TOPICAL VOCABULARY
3

1 bass [beis] бас


baritone ['basntoun] баритон
aria [ ' а п э ] а р и я contralto [kan'traeltou] к о н т р а л ь т о
He sang Lensky's aria w i t h great feeling. Он спел арию Лен­ soprano [sa'pranou] сопрано
ского с большим чу-ВСТВОМ. mezzo-soprano ['medzousa'pranou] меццо-сопрано
concerto [kon'tjealou] концерт (музыкальная форма) tenor |'l(4i.)| тенор

9 H 'Mie 257
256
4 jazz music д ж а з о в а я м у з ы к а
light music л е г к а я м у з ы к а
accompanist [o'kAmpomst] а к к о м п а н и а т о р symphonic [sim'fonik] music симфоническая м у з ы к а
drummer [ ' а г л т э ] б а р а б а н щ и к programme ['prougraem] программа
jazzman [ ' а з з е г т э п ] м у з ы к а н т д ж а з о в о г о оркестра What's on the programme? Ч т о в программе?
musician [mjui zijan] м у з ы к а н т ; композитор technique [ t e k ' n k k ] т е х н и к а (исполнения)
pianist ['pjfemst] пианист The technique of this violinist is superb ( b r i l l i a n t ) . Техника
soloist ['soulouist] солист игры этого с к р и п а ч а превосходная (блестящая),
Violinist [,vara'lmist] с к р и п а ч

8
б
dance [dans] 1) танец
voice [vois] голос May I have the next dance w i t h you? Можно мне в а с при­
He is not i n good voice tonight. Он сегодня не в голосе. гласить на следующий танец?
chest [tj'est] voice грудной голос 2) т а н ц ы , вечер танцев
to give a dance устроить у себя дома т а н ц ы
hoarse [ho:s] voice х р и п л ы й голос
low Ilou] voice 1) тихий голос; 2) низкий голос polka ['poulka] полька
round [raund] voice мягкий голос tango [Чаег/дои] танго
sweet [swist] voice п р и я т н ы й голос twist [twist] твист
waltz [wo:1s] в а л ь в

6 9
chorus ['ko:res] 1) х о р , х о р о в а я г р у п п а ; 2) м у з ы к а л ь н о е про­ to accompany [ э ' к л т р э ш ] а к к о м п а н и р о в а т ь
изведение д л я хора; 3) п р и п е в , подхватываемый всем хором She accompanied me at the piano. Она а к к о м п а н и р о в а л а мне
M r i Brown sang the verses of the song and everybody joined на фортепиано.
in the chorus. Б р а у н пел слова песни, а припев все испол­ to appreciate [ a ' p r k j i e i t ] понимать, ценить
н я л и хором, We appreciate Glinka's music for its folk character. Мы ценим
in chorus хором м у з ы к у Г л и н к и за ее народность.
duet [djur'et] дуэт
;
to interpret [ m ' t o : p n t ] испол­
ensemble [ a n s a m b l ] ансамбль
нять, интерпретировать,
melody f m e l a d i ] мелодия раскрывать художествен­
Syn. tune ный замысел произведения
recital [n'saital] 1) сольный концерт; 2) концерт из произведений I [ike the way she inter­
одного композитора prets Beetheven. Мне нра­
вится, к а к она исполняет
licrxonenn.
7 to play [plei] играть
t o play the guitar играть на
concert ['konsatj концерт гитаре
I t ' s a chamber (symphonic) music concert. Это концерт камер­ to play a tune on the guitar
ной (симфонической) м у з ы к и . сыграть мелодию на гитаре
music ['mjmzikj м у з ы к а to play by notes играть no
to have an ear for music обладать м у з ы к а л ь н ы м слухом нотам
classical f'klsesikol] music к л а с с и ч е с к а я м у з ы к а lo play by ear играть на » i ' never heard h i m p l a y so
v e

chamber [ ' t j e i m b o j music к а м е р н а я музыка СЛУХ enthusiastically."

1'Г.Н o« arvu
to sing [sin] (sang, sung) петь b) " I n fact I disliked i t : it's
Sing us one of your new ballads. Спойте нам одну из своих too noisy."
новых б а л л а д . very complex
to sing to the accompaniment of the guitar петь под аккомпа- trivial
нимент гитары very strange
to sing out of tune ф а л ь ш и в и т ь 6) "Have you heard my brother
to trumpet трубить (sister) sing?"
Robert
Petrov
"Yes, he (she) has a
C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE beautiful voice."
pleasant
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS sweet
rather hoarse
1) "Can you play the piano?" unpleasant
the v i o l i n 7) "May I have this dance w i t h
the guitar you?"
the trumpet waltz
"Yes, a l i t t l e . " tango
2) "What are you going to play?" "Oh, w i t h pleasure."
to give us 8) "Would you care for a dance, Helen?"
to perform " I ' m sorry, but I ' m engaged."
" I ' d like to play a new song by Petrov." I ' m not very good at dancing this
a sonata by Beethoven I ' m awfully tired
a piece from the Tchaikovsky concerto I've already promised Jack
a tune of m y own 9) "The band is playing a bit too fast."
3) "Could you play that melody on the guitar?" a b i t too loud
this song rather badly
Chopin's sonata awfully
this dance tune out of tune
"No, I ' d rather play it on the piano." "That's right."
the accordion
the v i o l i n
4) "What sort of concert is that?" CONVERSATIONS
"It's an evening of classical music."
a concert chamber
[
a show symphonic
light "Could you play this melody on the guitar?"
jazz "1 wonder If it is good on a string instrument."
Soviet "Do try i t . "
5) "Well, what can you say of i t ? " "Bui I haven't got the notes."
his music
this concerto
"Never m i n d , you'll be able to play the tune by ear."
her symphony
a) "Oh, I enjoyed i t very much: i t ' s so beautiful."
tuneful II
original and deep
I yrical "Do you pi n y I he pi lino?"
W e l l , (i l l l l l e , I limit illllile ler.uin, lull II w i n liHitf H i ! " "
"1,1! (Nil
"Here's a l i t t l e poem, I wrote i t myself. Can you set i t to music?"
VIII
"It's not so easy, but I ' l l t r y . I ' l l see if i t suits some of the
melodies I know."
"Have you ever heard Robert sing? They say he's very musical."
"Oh, yes. I once heard h i m sing. A number of people couldn't
1

Ill resist the power of his voice."


" I only hope he w o n ' t do his songs at the party on Saturday."
"What do you usually do on Sundays, Mary?" "No, he w o n ' t , he has a sore throat."
"That depends. Sometimes I stay at home and read a book or
play the piano. Sometimes I go to a concert."
" I know you're very musical. Does your younger sister like music, IX
too?"
" I w o u l d n ' t say so. She prefers the cinema." • "This is a very tuneful melody."
" I t is a Cuban folk-song."
" I love folk-songs, they are so original unlike anything else."
IV "That's right, there is nothing like folk-songs—they are so natural
and tuneful."
"They are g i v i n g a new opera at the Opera House."
"What is it?"
|Tt is Tosca." X
"Have they got a good tenor for Cavaradoci?"
"Of course, there is a new singer w i t h a charming voice." "You must have a special l i k i n g to jazz music. A l l your records
are in this line."
" W e l l , i t is not exactly so. Mine are not all jazz music records—
V there are pieces of symphonic music, too."
"Not very many of them . . ."
"What's on the programme at the Philharmonic next Saturday?"
" W e l l , jazz music is essentially folk music, I can't understand
"There are three participants: a pianist and two violinists."
this dislike of yours."
"Yes, but w h a t is their programme?"
"Oh, the pianist w i l l do a piece of Beethoven and the violinists
w i l l play two or three pieces of Tchaikovsky." XI
" W e l l , you aren't very exact. I t h i n k I ' l l have to see the b i l l
myself."
"Is i t a b i g ensemble?"
"There are six of them—a banjo, an accordion, a flute, a har-
monica and what else . . . "
VI "They can't do w i t h o u t a guitar?"
"You're singing out of tune." "Well, yes, there are two guitars."
"That can't be, here are the notes."
4 " W e l l , let me accompany you on the piano and y o u ' l l see."
"Yes, that was the note do and I took mi." XII
"How wonderfully she dances!"
VII "No wonder, she's a dance "stylist."
"You don't say so! She's a chemist."
"That boy has a marvellous ear for music." "That's right. Ball dances is her hobby."
"Isn't i t surprising how he sings anything the first time he heard it?"
"And the voice is good, too."
"A l i t t l e hoarse maybe but very pleasant to the ear." 1
ID reslsl | i i ' / r . l | in). iiMiiri'ili

262 263
XIII 25
"May I have the next dance w i t h you, Jill?"
"You're a b i t late, Johnny. I ' v e promised i t to Paul. Ask Nell."
"Thanks, but I ' v e just danced w i t h her." AT A F I N E ARTS
EXHIBITION
A STORY •
НА ВЫСТАВКЕ
(Nick tells his mother of his visit to a friend.) ИЗОБРАЗИТЕЛЬНОГО
Yesterday I spent a most wonderful evening w i t h Peter and his ИСКУССТВА
family. Peter is so gifted. To begin w i t h he speaks English like
a born Englishman. He plays the piano, the accordion and what
not. Besides, he knows all types of music there exist in the w o r l d .
He is especially fond of folk music. Peter's father has a large col­
lection of all kinds of folk music, w e l l , you know, European,
Asian, African, there is even an album of Maori war dance music A. SITUATIONS
from New Zealand.
W e l l , yesterday they had a big day. Somebody gave them a 1) You tell your new friend (a stranger) about the picture gal­
brand-new record of Scottish folk music. I can't say I liked i t at leries (Fine Arts Museum) of your town.
the very first hearing. When Peter saw how puzzled I looked he 2) You inquire of a museum attendant or guide what works of
gave me a whole lecture of what Scottish music is. art are represented in the museum.
As a matter of fact the Scots have quite an original musical 3) You are a guide of your school gallery.
tradition. They like various w i n d instruments l i k e horns, flutes, 4) You compare notes w i t h a friend of the exhibition you
trumpets; but of course their national pride is the bagpipe. I t visited.
seems improbable but they manage to play all sorts of music on 5) You discuss the picture of your fellow amateur painter.
the bagpipe, like m i l i t a r y marches, monotonous songs, lyric love 6) You talk w i t h a friend about your favourite painters and their
songs and marvellous ballads of the past times. Some of these pictures.
ballads are ancient, some are modern ones, but they are always 7) You make arrangement w i t h a friend to visit a newly opened
tuneful and often vivacious. The musicians play by ear, or they show.
may play by notes. Often the musician is the poet at the same 8) You discuss different trends in painting.
time. He composes a poem and sets i t to music, or better s t i l l 9) You talk on life and creative activities of artists in socialist
he composes a poem while he is playing the tune. This is a tra­ and capitalist societies.
d i t i o n that goes back to Middle Ages to the famous Scottish bards 10) You discuss the problem "Painting and Photography".
who glorified the immortal Robert Bruce and the beautiful Mary 11) Two amateur painters exchange practical advice on the pic­
of the Stuarts, the Queen of Scots. I w o u l d n ' t know i t if Peter tures they are painting.
hadn't told me. A n d believe i t or not, I began to really like the 12) Y o u talk w i t h an artist i n his studio (on his creative activi-
Scottish music after I learned a l l this. Would you care to listen lics and plarls).
to i t , Mummy?

I I . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y

art |ci;l І lii i' yn I III)


1
a p p l i e d n i l прим i i i i i i i i i i H en v гни
,!|
s l i i ' I» и і і и і у и і ц m l , « b i n і м у ч и и M i ' H v » ' H
Fine Arts изобразительное искусство paint [pemt] к р а с к а
Painting, drawing and sculpture are Fine Arts. Ж и в о п и с ь , гра­ oil paints масляные к р а с к и
фика и с к у л ь п т у р а — в и д ы изобразительного искусства, Syn. oils
folk art народное искусство palette ['pasht] 1) палитра; 2)
graphic ['graefik] art г р а ф и к а творческая манера х у д о ж ­
work of art произведение искусства ника
painting ['pemmj]. 1) ж и в о п и с ь , ж а н р (вид) ж и в о п и с и Looking at the picture one
battle painting б а т а л ь н а я ж и в о п и с ь could tell painter's palette
genre [ з с т г ] painting ж а н р о в а я ж и в о п и с ь at once. П р и взгляде на
landscape painting п е й з а ж н а я ж и в о п и с ь к а р т и н у с р а з у чувствова­
mural ['mjuaral] painting ф р е с к о в а я ж и в о п и с ь лась п а л и т р а х у д о ж н и к а .
Syn. fresco painting sketch [sketj] набросок, этюд
seascape painting морской п е й з а ж , м а р и н а Syn. study
2) к а р т и н а , роспись water-colour ['wo:ta,kAla] аква­
oil painting к а р т и н а , н а п и с а н н а я масляными к р а с к а м и рель
still life натюрморт
sculpture fskAlptJa] с к у л ь п т у р а 4
The sculpture of this fountain is magnificent. С к у л ь п т у р а этого
фонтана великолепна. cartoon [ka:'tu:n] к а р и к а т у р а
antique [ a m ' t k k ] sculpture а н т и ч н а я с к у л ь п т у р а (преим. политическая)
drawing ['dronn] рисунок
pencil drawing рисунок ка­
2 рандашом
engraving [m'greivig] г р а в ю р а
artist ['citist] х у д о ж н и к masterpiece ['rnastapr.s] шедевр
connoisseur [,koni'sa:] знаток, ценитель picture ['piktja] к а р т и н а
He was a great connoisseur i n (of) Dutch painting. Он был print [print] эстамп
большим знатоком голландской ж и в о п и с и , portrait [ ' p o : t n t ] портрет
engraver [m'greiva] гравер self-portrait автопортрет
guide [gaid] гид, экскурсовод statue ['staetju:] статуя
master ['masta] великий х у д о ж н и к , мастер That was the statue of Neptune. Это была статуя Нептуна,
painter ['pemta] х у д о ж н и к , ж и в о п и с е ц statuette [,stcetju'et] статуэтка
animal painter анималист
landscape painter пейзажист
painter of seascapes маринист
sitter ['sita] н а т у р щ и к б
Syn?. model ['modi]
sculptor ['skAlpta] скульптор background ['baekgraund] задний п л а н , фон
I n the picture one can see a castle w i t h a background of hills.
Н а к а р т и н е был изображен замок на фоне холмов,
3 colouring ['кл1эпп] колорит
foreground ['fo:graund] передний плай
brush [ Ь г л | ] к и с т ь ; the brush искусство х у д о ж н и к а life [Iaif] натура, ж и з н ь
This picture belongs to the brush of Goya. Эта к а р т и н а при­ life-like словно живой; очень ПОХОЖИЙ
н а д л е ж и т кисти Гойи. lo palnl from life писа гь с нап уры -
canvas ['ksenvas] 1) холст; 2) полотно, к а р т и н а life s l / e d ii н а т у р а л ь н у ю иелпчину
Look at this canvas. В з г л я н и на эту к а р т и н у . shade |,|Чч(1| ш ie •.. rem.
easel [M:zl] мольберт subject |''.\b'l ,iM I I) ICMII, nnmei, 7) лщ\, придмгч

"її. VM
view [vju:] 1) вид to mould [mould] лепить, придавать форму, отливать
view of the town вид города Н е moulded the head of a girl out of plain clay. Он вылепил
2) осмотр голову девочки из обыкновенной г л и н ы .
to be on view быть выставленным для обозрения, экспони­ to paint [peint] писать к р а с к а м и , заниматься ж и в о п и с ь ю ; изобра­
роваться жать
Н е painted a big ship i n the foreground. Н а переднем п л а н е
он изобразил (нарисовал) большой к о р а б л ь .
to portray [po:'trei] и з о б р а ж а т ь ; рисовать портрет
classicism ['klœsisizm] к л а с с и ц и з м ; следование классическим об­ Н е portrayed poor peasants rather realistically. Он и з о б р а ж а л
разцам бедных к р е с т ь я н достаточно реалистически.
impressionism [ î m ' p r e j a n i z m ] импрессионизм to represent [,repn'zent] 1) представлять
realism ['rializm] реализм The masters of the Renaissance were represented at this exhi­
Socialist realism социалистический реализм b i t i o n rather w e l l . Мастера эпохи В о з р о ж д е н и я были на этой
Renaissance [n'neisans] Ренессанс, Возрождение выставке представлены довольно п о л н о .
style [stail] стиль 2) и з о б р а ж а т ь , п о к а з ы в а т ь , представлять
The picture was in the style of Rembrandt. К а р т и н а была собой
написана в стиле (произведений) Рембрандта. This p a i n t i n g represents a hunting scene. Эта к а р т и н а изобра­
trend [trend] направление в искусстве, тенденция ж а е т сцену охоты.
H i s pictures established a new trend i n modern p a i n t i n g . Е г о to restore [n'sta:] реставрировать
к а р т и н ы утвердили новое направление в современной живо­ The picture was in a very bad state and i t took months to
писи. restore i t . К а р т и н а была в очень плохом состоянии, и пона­
добилось много месяцев, чтобы ее реставрировать.
to sit [sit] (sat, sat) позировать
authentic [a:'0entik] подлинный, достоверный I ' d like to paint your portrait, w i l l you sit for me? Я бы
distinct [dis'tnjkt] отчетливый, ясно различимый хотел написать ваш портрет, вы будете позировать мне?
A l l the shades i n the picture were quite distinct. Все оттенки to sketch [sketf] делать н а б р о с к и , эскизы
на к а р т и н е были ясно р а з л и ч и м ы . to treat [ t r i : t ] т р а к т о в а т ь
marvellous ['mctvalas] чудный, чудесный The subjects of her paintings can be treated i n a different way.
nude [nju:d] обнаженный Сюжеты ее произведений м о ж н о трактовать по-разному.
vague [veig] неясный, неопределенный
vague resemblance отдаленное сходство
valuable ['vaeljuabl] ценный 9
The Tretyakov Gallery is famous for its valuable collections
of works of Russian masters. Т р е т ь я к о в с к а я г а л е р е я известна collection [ka'lekjan] к о л л е к ц и я , собрание (произведений)
своими ценными к о л л е к ц и я м и к а р т и н р у с с к и х мастеров. private collection частная к о л л е к ц и я
This picture by Rembrandt belongs to the private collection
of some B r i t i s h connoisseur and that's w h y it is represented
to convey [kan'vei] передавать (например: идею, чувство и т. д.) here only by a copy. Эта к а р т и н а Рембрандта входит в частную
This picture conveys to you some idea of man's beauty. Эта коллекцию одного английского к о л л е к ц и о н е р а , поэтому она
к а р т и н а передает идею человеческой к р а с о т ы . представлена здесь только копией.
to depict [ d i ' p i k t ] и з о б р а ж а т ь exhibition [ eksi'bij"an] выставка, экспозиция
(

Several men on horseback were depicted i n the background. Ha We were at the annual exhibition of modern painting yesterday.
заднем п л а н е было и з о б р а ж е н о н е с к о л ь к о всадников. Вчера мы были на ежегодной выставке современной ж и в о п и с и .
to execute ['eksikjmt] в ы п о л н я т ь , исполнять gallery ['gselan] к а р т и н н а я галерея
The landscape painting was executed w i t h great s k i l l . П е й з а ж the National Gallery (London) Н а ц и о н а л ь н а я галерея (в Л о н ­
. был выполнен с большим искусством. доне; один из к р у п н е й ш и х в мире музеев европейского изобра­
to exhibit [ig'zibit] выставлять, участвовать в выставках зительного искусства)
Syn. to display museum [mju:'ziam] музей

268 269
the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts Музей и з о б р а з и т е л ь н ы х 5) "What does this artist generally depict in his pictures?"
искусств им. А . С. П у ш к и н а (Москва) canvases
the Russian Museum Р у с с к и й музей (Ленинград) works
the Hermitage ['ha:mitid3] Э р м и т а ж (Ленинград) this one, for example^ he depicts
"Different things. In
a genre scene."
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE a busy street
an oriental market
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS an evening in autumn
the stormy sea
1) "What do you say to visiting the Picture Gallery?"
a caravan in the desert
the Fine A r t s Museum
the e x h i b i t i o n of R. Kent's
landscapes 6) " I can't make out what's
the e x h i b i t i o n of graphic art depicted i n the foreground."
the e x h i b i t i o n of works by the background
W i l l i a m Hogarth the middleground
the display of children's the distance
drawings " I t ' s obviously a horseman."
"Oh, I ' d gladly go." a rock
2) " I n what room are (is) antique sculptures exhibited?" a sail
works of applied arts displayed a haystack
the art of the on view
7) "What idea does this pic­
Renaissance
ture convey?"
" I t is on the ground floor."
"To my m i n d , the picture con­
the second room to the right
veys an idea of man's beauty."
in the left wing of the Museum
an idea of strength of
in Room 15
human spirit
3) " I ' d like to draw your atten­
an idea of mother's love
tion to this still life."
a sense of space (light)
water-colour
picture 8) "What colours does this
engraving painterprefer?"
sculpture tones
drawing shades
portrait "He executes his pieces
fresco mostly i n bright colours."
"Oh, it's wonderful!" dark tones
marvellous warm shades
impressive
just splendid 9) "What school of (trend in)
too lovely for words painting does this artist be­
4) "Who painted this picture?" long to?"
piece "His works are typical spec­
seascape imens of classicism." -
" I t belongs to the brush of a famous Russian painter." romanticism
an unknown Dutch portrait painter real ism
a world known landscapist old Flemish
French animal painter Scln M i l
270
CONVERSATIONS "Because i t conveys its meaning w i t h such a great feeling."
1
"It's just exaggeration. The painting isn't too bad, indeed, but I
I w o u l d n ' t dub i t a masterpiece."

"Today's newspaper reads an e x h i b i t i o n of amateur painters is


to be opened at the c i t y Fine A r t s Museum next m o n t h . " VI
"Oh, that's what George t o l d me about last week. He w i l l
also take part i n this show." "Whose portrait is that?"
" W i l l he really? Can he produce anything sensible?" " W h i c h do you mean, who painted the picture or who is painted
"Certainly, he can. The latest landscape I saw i n his studio in it?"
caught m y imagination. I t h i n k he'll be a success at this exhi- " W e l l , I ' d like to know both."
bition."
"It's Repin's picture of . . . Repin. That is, it's his self-portrait."
II
"Does your gallery contain contemporary B r i t i s h painting?"
VII
"Unfortunately, n o t . I t specializes only i n the arts and culture of "This l i t t l e p o r t r a i t is of great value though i t cost the Gallery
the Far East and I n d i a . " only a few hundred pounds."
" I ' d l i k e to see the works of modern Indian artists. Where are "How's that?"
they displayed?" "The matter is that the picture was bought unrecognized and last
"They are on the second floor." year the experts found that i t belonged to the brush of Goya."
"It's rather curious. I have several l i t t l e oil pictures at home.
D o n ' t you t h i n k I must take them to an expert?"
Ill
VIII
"Do you often discuss art w i t h Jill?"
"Very seldom." "This abstract p a i n t i n g is quite unusual."
"Why, she's so keen on modern art." "And the way some of such 'works' are produced is still more
"That's r i g h t . B u t whenever we start discussing i t we just q u a r r e l . " 1
unusual. I just saw ' p a i n t i n g ' a picture of this kind i n the studio
of a fashionable French artist."
" W e l l , d i d he use some unusual technique?"
"Oh, yes, rather. He made a man and a woman dance barefoot
over a canvas on which o i l paints had been spread. Thus he pro-
"What do you t h i n k of M r . Jones" works?" duced most of his famous pictures."
" W e l l , he's a b r i l l i a n t landscape painter, isn't he?"
"On the whole he is, but there's one t h i n g I ' m not sure I like
about his canvases." IX
"What is i t that you don't like about them?"
"You see, his colours are too dark. D o n ' t you t h i n k so?" "Would you like to sit for a picture, Mary?"
" I ' d like to, but I haven't got the patience for that. W i l l i t last
long?"
v "No, i t ' l l take me only an hour to make a sketch."
"That's too long. N i c k w i l l manage to make that i n half as much
"Oh look at this picture, it's a masterpiece, I believe!" time so I ' d better sit for h i m . "
"Masterpiece, you say? W h a t makes you t h i n k so?" " W e l l , you have a free choice."

1
to q u a r r e l [ ' k w o r a l ] ccopHTbca 1
exaggeration [ig/zaedso'roir.>n| npeysMHieiiHQ

272 VIA
X schools in painting. Several canvases were simply b r i l l i a n t and it
was hard to tear oneself away from them.
" I can't tell what is depicted in the right middle distance." The guide said the old masters had paid special attention to
1
" I ' m not surprised: you're standing too close to the picture. I f you the composition of a picture, precision in lines and colour effects.
stepped back you'd see much better. The artist uses certain tech­ A l l the objects and people in pictures were depicted so v i v i d l y ,
nique." so life-like, that i t was almost impossible to notice the painter's
" I ' d gladly follow your advice, but I ' m short-sighted, you know, technique. Here the" guide cited Oscar W i l d e as saying that one
and I left m y specs at home." should be able to say of a picture not that i t is 'well painted'',
but that i t is 'not painted' at a l l . Each of us enjoyed that sen­
3
timent.
XI But what struck me most of all was the room where the
pictures representing the 19th century realism were displayed.
"Speaking of still l i f e — h o w do you like this one?" One could stand for hours in front of those canvases and admire
" I t ' s fine. The chicken looks pretty delicious. But as to the them.
apples, they are a b i t too blue."
We also liked the section of Soviet painting. As the guide
"You aren't an expert i n painting, for sure. You took the turkey said here one could form an idea of what has been achieved i n
for a chicken and plums for apples." the fifty years of Soviet painting i n spite of the fact that only
" W e l l , am I to blame for that? Isn't i t the painter who misled some of the outstanding works by Soviet masters were on view.
me, eh?" Such pictures as A Partisan's Mother by S. Gerasimov, Lenin
Speaking at the Third Y. C. L . Congress by B . Ioganson and
STORY 1 others s t i l l stand i n my eyes. M y attention was attracted by
a humble painting, entitled Cyclist: a young lad, obviously a work­
er, standing w i t h a bicycle near the highway against a back­
(On visiting the Fine Arts Museum together with his classmates,
ground of several t a l l modern buildings. The picture gives the
Victor Popov tells his father of his impressions.)
feeling of distance and atmosphere. Everything i n the picture is
characteristic of Soviet life.
A VISIT TO T H E F I N E A R T S M U S E U M We all liked the visit to the Museum immensely. Unfortunate­
3
ly the visit d i d n ' t last very long and we s k i p p e d a great deal
Last month our tutor arranged a group visit to the c i t y Fine of interesting works of art. I t h i n k I must go to the Museum
4
Arts Museum. When we came there we were met by the guide again and study the exhibits more thoroughly.
who told us the history of the Museum and how its collections
had started. The Museum was founded at the end of the 19th
century. STORY 2
Then the guide took us to the first room. I t contained a rich
collection of antique sculptures, mostly Greek and Roman. I was (Jim Smith, a senior form pupil, is making a report on English
surprised at the great skill of ancient sculptors. The figures were painters at the school Fine Arts Club.)
so realistic, full of energy and life.
I n another room were the paintings which represented the epoch
of the Renaissance. Many of the pictures were of religious content ENGLISH PAINTERS
and i t wasn't easy to understand them w i t h o u t the guide's expla­
nations. But the great masters of those times painted not only I ' d like to tell you a few words about the most renowned
gods and angels but also scenes taken from everyday life and artists of England and give you a touch on their creative ac­
portraits of ordinary people. Unfortunately, the Museum possesses tivities.
only a few originals of the Renaissance painters. Most of the
artists, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da V i n c i and others are 1
precision [pn'si33ri] точность
represented by copies. 2
s e n t i m e n t [ ' s e n t i m s n t ] высказывание
I was deeply impressed by the works of. masters of later pe­ 3
to skip перескакивать, jiponycK;m>
riods, too. Those artists belonged to the classic and romantic 4
thoroughly ['0лг,>1|| тщательно

274
Some of the greatest foreign masters were attracted to B r i t a i n
1
by honours and titles of n o b i l i t y . Among them was V a n Dyck
[vaen'daik], the famous Flemish painter, who married the daughter
of a lord and lived in England for a long time. He was the father
of the English portrait school. H i s main successors were like h i m
foreigners.
The first t r u l y English painter was W i l l i a m Hogarth ['hougaO]
(1697—1764). For more than a century England was to see
2
a brilliant succession of geniuses: Reynolds, Gainsborough, Law­
rence, Constable and Turner.
One of the glories of English art is portrait painting, another
is landscape. I n both directions i t rose to supreme heights.
W . Hogarth was born in London i n the family of a school­
8
master. A r e b e l and an innovator, Hogarth was a curious observ­
er of people and life. I n his famous set of pictures called Ma­
nage a la Mode* and others he v i v i d l y portrayed the national
character.
Sir Joshua Reynolds I'dsofwo 'remldzj (1723—1792) was one of
-
the b l H I T a n d i n g B r i t i s h portraitists. He was the first president of A. SITUATIONS
the Royal Academy and the principal painter of the king. He
stayed three years in Rome copying Old Masters. Unfortunately, 1) You tell a stranger or a guest all about the places of interest
many of his paintings have cracked and faded. in your town (locality).
Thomas Gainsborough ['gemzbaraj (1727—1788) was the creator 2) You show to a group of visiting schoolchildren the points of
of the English school oTTandscape, though he had to paint a lot interest of your c i t y (town, locality).
of portraits, too. But even i n his portraits he is an out-of-door 3) You inquire of the guide about a particular point of interest
painter. He was a great admirer of V a n Dyck, but his palette was or an e x h i b i t .
quite different. 4) Showing your c i t y to guests, you describe the places connected
John Constable ['kAnstabl] (1776—1837) was one of the greatest w i t h the revolutionary activities and partisan movement.
lancfscapists in history. A t that time there were few people in 5) You compare notes of a sightseeing tour or a visit to a
England who appreciated landscapes. So he had to show his pic­ museum.
5
tures in France where he was awarded the gold medal for one of 6) You are a guide of your school museum.
his paintings. 7) You discuss a plan of setting up a school museum.
Joseph Turner (1775—1851) was a sailor at heart and painted 8) You discuss the problem "Places of Historical Interest and
mostly marine subjects. He tried to portray the mood of the sea Reconstruction of the C i t y " .
through the experiences of man. 9) You discuss the problem "When a T h i n g Becomes an E x h i b i t
of a Museum".
1
t i t l e s of n o b i l i t y д в о р я н с к и е т и т у л ы 10) You discuss the qualities indispensable for a guide,
2
genius ['djfcnjss] г е н и й
3
rebel ['rebl] б у н т а р ь
4
Manage a la Mode « М о д н ы й б р а к » (название серии произведений Хо-
гарта) B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y
6
to be awarded [ a ' w a : d i d ] б ы т ь н а г р а ж д е н н ы м

1
district ['distrikt] район, о к р у г , участок
industrial [m'dAstnal] district промышленный paiion
shopping ['JopmJ .district торговый район
1 111 l! 1 1 1
I live not far from I lie shopping dldtrli l Я '
торгового района,
Syn. section ['sekJan] район, участок города tomb [ t u : m ] 1) могила; 2) надгробный п а м я т н и к
business ['biznis] section деловой район tower [Чаиэ] башня
environs ['environz] pi окрестности the Tower (of London) Т а у э р (арсенал и музей средневекового
The environs of K i e v are buried i n foliage. Окрестности Киева оружия)
утопают в зелени.
outskirts ['autska:ts] pi о к р а и н а , предместья (города)
in the outskirts of н а окраине 3
suburb ['sAba:b] пригород; pi окрестности
Several residential areas have sprung up in the suburbs of our exhibition [,eksi'bifan] выставка
c i t y . Н е с к о л ь к о ж и л ы х районов появилось в окрестностях на­ the U.S.S.R. Exhibition of Economic Achievements Всесоюз­
ш е г о города. ная выставка достижений народного хозяйства
museum [mju:'ziam] музей
archaeological museum археологический музей
2 home museum дом-музей
cannon ['кэепэп] п у ш к а ; орудие mansion ['maenjan] museum музей-усадьба
castle ['kasl] замок, дворец museum of regional ['rkdsanal] studies краеведческий музей
cathedral [ka'0i:dral] кафедральный собор museum of oriental [,a:n'entl] art музей восточного искусства
St. Paul's Cathedral in London is a very beautiful building. the British Museum Б р и т а н с к и й музей (в Лондоне)
Собор св. П а в л а в Л о н д о н е — о ч е н ь красивое здание, K a r l Marx and V l a d i m i r I l y i c h Lenin often worked in the B r i t ­
cemetery ['semitn] кладбище ish Museum L i b r a r y . К а р л М а р к с и В л а д и м и р И л ь и ч Л е н и н
K a r l Marx^was buried at Highgate Cemetery in London. К а р л часто работали в библиотеке Б р и т а н с к о г о м у з е я .
М а р к с был похоронен на Хайгейтском кладбище в Лондоне,
chapel ['tfaepal] часовня, церковь (тюремная, п о л к о в а я , домовая)
ensemble |an'sa:mbl] ансамбль 4
architectural [,a:Ki'tektfaral] ensemble а р х и т е к т у р н ы й ансамбль
fortress ['fo:tns] крепость antiquity [asn'tikwiti] 1) древность, с т а р и н а ; 2) pi древности
monument ['monjumant] монумент, п а м я т н и к armour [ ' а т э ] вооружение; доспехи; л а т ы ; п а н ц и р ь
The monument to Nelson (the Nelson monument) i n the centre ' carving ['kavirj] резьба по дереву, р е з н а я работа
of Trafalgar- Square i n London is 185 feet high. П а м я т н и к * embroidery [im'broidan] в ы ш и в к а
Н е л ь с о н у в центре Т р а ф а л ь г а р с к о й площади в Лондоне имеет find [famd] находка
высоту 185 футов. archaeological find а р х е о л о г и ч е с к а я находка
Syn. memorial п а м я т н и к fossil I'fosl] окаменелость, иско­
to erect [i'rekt[ a monument (to) воздвигнуть п а м я т н и к паемое
Who is this monument erected to? К о м у воздвигли этот па­ glassware ['glaswea] стекло;
мятник? стеклянные изделия, по­
palace['paelis] д в о р е ц суда
Buckingham Palace Б у к и н г е м с к и й дворец (лондонская резиден­ jewellery ['domain] драгоцен­
ц и я короля) ности, ювелирные изделия
remains [n'memz] pi остатки (то, что уцелело от р а з р у ш е н и я , manuscript ['mamjusknpt] ру­
гибели и т. д.) копись
You can s t i l l see the remains of Roman fortresses in many mummy [ ' т л т і ] мумия
Danube towns. Во многих п р и д у н а й с к и х городах все еще pottery ['potan] 1) г л и н я н ы е из­
можно видеть остатки римских крепостей. д е л и я , фаянс; 2) к е р а м и к а
Syn. ruins ['ru:mz] pi р у и н ы rarity ['rsanti] редкая вещь
sights [saits] pi достопримечательности relic ['rehk] р е л и к в и я
Syn. places of interest stuffed [ s M t ] animal чучело
to see the sights (of) осматривать достопримечательности ЖИВОТНОГО
Syn. to do the sights; to go sightseeing vase [vaz] ваза

278 279
5 8

style [stail] стиль bronze ['branz] бронза


baroque [Ьз'гоик] style стиль" б а р о к к о clay [klei] глина
The baroque style is most r i c h l y represented in this architectu­ gem № е т ] драгоценный камень
ral ensemble. Стиль б а р о к к о наиболее богато представлен в этом granite ['grsemt] гранит
архитектурном ансамбле. ivory ['aivan] слоновая кость
classic(al) ['klaesik(l)] style классический стиль fossil ivory мамонтовая кость
Gothic ['goGik] style готический стиль leather ]'1еЭэ] к о ж а
Renaissance [ra'neisans] style стиль ренессанс marble ]'ma-.bl] мрамор
to be built in the Gothic (baroque, classic, Renaissance, etc.) plaster of Paris ['plasta av 'psens] гипс
style быть построенным в готическом (барокко, классическом, porcelain ]'pa:slm] фарфор
ренессанс и т . д.) стиле

С . л 9
arch [atf] свод; арка guide-book ] ' g a i d , b i k ] справочник, путеводитель
column ] ' к э 1 з т ] колонна itinerary [ai'tmaran] м а р ш р у т
The interior of the Parthenon was surrounded by columns of the What's the itinerary of your tour? К а к о в маршрут вашей
Doric order. Интерьер Парфенона о б р а з о в ы в а л а к о л о н н а д а экскурсии?
в дорическом стиле. tour [tua] путешествие; поездка; э к с к у р с и я
Syn. pillar ['pita] столб, опора, колонна Syn. excursion [iks'ka:Jan] э к с к у р с и я
cupola ['kjmpala] купол to make a tour of the town совершить э к с к у р с и ю по городу
Close to the palace there is a cathedral crowned w i t h a huge visit ['vizit] посещение, э к с к у р с и я
cupola. Р я д о м с дворцом расположен собор, увенчанный ог­ class visit учебная э к с к у р с и я
ромным к у п о л о м . to make a visit to совершить э к с к у р с и ю в
Syn. dome [doum] к у п о л , свод Everybody liked the idea of making a class visit to the
facade [fa'sad] фасад Tretyakov A r t Gallery. Всем понравилась мысль совершить
The facade of the museum is a portico of four Corinthian col­ учебную экскурсию в Т р е т ь я к о в с к у ю галерею.
umns. Ф а с а д музея представляет собой портик из четырех
коринфских колонн.
niche [mtf] ниша 10
plaque [plak] м е м о р и а л ь н а я доска
spire ['spaia] ш п и л ь ancient ['emjant] д р е в н и й , античный
ancient Greece [gri:s] (Rome [roum]) Д р е в н я я Греция (Рим)
majestic [ma'd3estik] величественный
7 medieval [,medi'i:val] средневековый
The Gothic style is characteristic of the medieval architecture
architect ['akitekt] архитектор
of Western Europe. Готический стиль характерен д л я средне­
The palace was built after the design of architect N . Д в о р е ц
вековой а р х и т е к т у р ы З а п а д н о й Е в р о п ы .
был построен по проекту а р х и т е к т о р а И .
memorial [mi'mo:nal] мемориальный
curator [kju'reita] смотритель, х р а н и т е л ь (музея) Tourists from many countries visit the K a r l Marx Memorial
guide [gaid] гид, экскурсовод Library in London. Т у р и с т ы из многих стран посещают Ме­
tourist ['tuanst] турист, путешественник мориальную библиотеку К а р л а Маркса в Лондоне.
Syn. sightseer ['sait,sra] т у р и с т , осматривающий достопримеча­ picturesque |,piktjVresk] ж и в о п и с н ы й
тельности unique [ j u : ' n i : k ] единственный в своем роде, у н и к а л ь н ы й
281
'•'•'О
" I n the first place you
Ii shouldn't fail to see
the cathedral."
to admire [ad'maio] smth. (smb.) восхищаться чём-л. (кем-л.)
the Obelisk i n remembrance
Everybody admired this monument. Все восхищались этим
of fallen soldiers
монументом.
the ruins of the old fortress
to be beautiful ['bju:tifal] for smth. славиться чём-л.
the architectural ensemble
Paris is beautiful for its architecture. П а р и ж славится своей
the caves
архитектурой.
the chapel
to be famous for smth. быть знаменитым (известным) чем-л.
the cemetery
Leningrad is famous for its numerous fine buildings most of
which have both an artistic and historical value. Л е н и н г р а д 2) "What museums are there
известен своими многочисленными прекрасными з д а н и я м и , in the city?"
большая часть которых обладает к а к художественной, т а к и "They are many, but I ' d
исторической ценностью. recommend you to visit
to be worth seeing представлять интерес д л я осмотра the Historical Museum."
That town is worth seeing. Тот город стоит посмотреть. the Lenin Museum
to date [deitj относиться (о времени) the archaeological museum "It doesn't leave m u c h t i m e for
, This fortress dates back to the 1st century В . C. (Before Christ) the ethnographical museum sightseeing!"
and that arch dates back to the 5th century A . D . (Anno the Museum of Revolution
the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
D o m i n i ) . Эта крепость относится к I веку до нашей э р ы , а та
the museum of regional studies
а р к а относится к V веку нашей э р ы .
the Gorky Memorial Home Museum
to do (did, done) smth. осматривать что-л.
I t took us almost two hours to do that old district. У нас ушло 3) "What's of special interest i n this museum?"
почти д в а часа на осмотр того старого р а й о н а . "It's famous for its unique collection of ivory carvings."
to dominate ['dommeit] smth. возвышаться, д о м и н и р о в а т ь , господ» rare ancient pottery
ствовать над чем-л. marvellous medieval armoury
The huge cupola of St. Peter's Cathedral dominates the vast interesting 17th century costumes
area of Rome. Огромный к у п о л собора с в . Петра в о з в ы ш а е т с я icons
над большим районом Р и м а . glassware
to erect [i'rekt] воздвигать, с о о р у ж а т ь fossils
The Monument is the name for the high column erected i n 4) "What's this object made of?"
London to commemorate the Great Fire of 1666. «Монумент» — " I t ' s made of bronze."
так называется высокая колонна, в о з д в и г н у т а я в Лондоне marble
в память о большом п о ж а р е 1666 года. stone
Syn. to raise, to b u i l d , to construct porcelain
to make an entry делать запись (в книге посетителей) leather
We enjoyed our visit to the museum and made entries i n the 5) "What times does this article belong to?"
visitors' book. Н а м очень понравилось посещение м у з е я , и мы exhibit
сделали записи в книге посетителей. thing
vase
" I t dates back to the 4th century B . C."
C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
the 12th century A . D .
the Middle Ages
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS the time of the Renaissance
the prehistorical epoch
1) "What's worth seeing i n this city?" the reign of Peter the Great
the outskirts of the town the period of the Roman Empire
this locality
283
6) "What's the style of this building?" CONVERSATIONS
palace
mansion I
cathedral
' I t was b u i l t in the classical style." "Is there anything worth seeing in your town?"
Gothic "Oh, there are a great many things to see here."
Renaissance "What would you recommend me to see i n the first place?"
baroque " W e l l , you should see the remains of the medieval fortress, the
botanical gardens and, of course, the local museum."
7) "What's that structure over there?" " I ' d like to begin w i t h the latter. When is the museum open to
building to the right
the public?"
monument to the left
"On all the days of the week except Monday, from 10 a. m . to
in the distance
on the top of the h i l l 6 p. m . "
behind the fountain
on the left of the sky-scraper II
"As far as I know, it's a newly built school."
it looks like an old chapel " I can see a magnificent palace on the top of that h i l l . When
it seems to be a dwelling house was i t b u i l t ? "
some theatre " I t was b u i l t i n Catherine's times."
the T V tower "It's such a large building. W h o was i t occupied by?'
the Central Department Store " I t was occupied by the landlord's f a m i l y . "
the Palace of Pioneers "And what is there now?"
"Now i t ' s been turned into a mansion museum."
8) "Now I ' d like to attract your
attention to this spire."
column Ill
arch
staircase "This cathedral looks really impressive."
monument 1
"Yes, Westminster Abbey s t i l l remains an unsurpassed specimen
of early Gothic."
"Oh, how magnificent: it's
a real piece of art." "You sound like a real guide. Do you happen to know when i t
impressive was built?"
fine "Certainly I do. I t was b u i l t as far back as the 11th century and
beautiful rebuilt in the 13th century, i n which form i t exists today."
marvellous "One can hardly believe that!"

9) "What does this monument


commemorate?" IV
obelisk "If i t ' s I t a l y , and on Tuesday we were
column i n H o l l a n d , then i t proves we've
"Is this the Sightseeing Bureau? Can you put us down for a tour
memorial already seen B e l g i u m . " of the city?" .
"Certainly we can. B u t the next excursion coach leaves in an hour.
' I t was raised in commemoration of the heroic defence of the city." W i l l the t i m e suit you?"
set up the battle at Stalingrad " W e l l , how long does the round last?"
erected the launching of the first "Two hours."
built artificial satellite of the
Earth 1
unsurpassed ['Ansar'past] непревзойденный
284 285
"Vm afraid we shan't manage i t . We may be late for the plane. IX
Where can we buy a guide-book?"
"Let's look at that memorial closer. .
" I can't see any memorial here. Just ruins of a house
V "That's right. This building was destroyed during W o r l d War u
and i t was left unrestored as a natural monument of war.
"Have you seen the memorial to the heroes of W o r l d War I I "Oh that's what i t is! I t ' s undoubtedly impressive, I must say.
yet? I t was unveiled last year."
"Do you mean the monument in Central Square?"
"That's r i g h t . You should do it by all means." X
"Well, I saw some monument yesterday when on a bus but I ' m
not sure that was the one you speak about." "Come on, I ' d like to see the collection of antique pottery. They
"There's no doubt you saw some other monument. There are many say i t ' s somewhere on the third floor."
of them i n this town. I f you'd seen t h a t memorial, you w o u l d n ' t "Another collection? I t ' s impossible! M y legs won't carry me any
have mixed i t w i t h anything else."
more."
" W e l l , you m i g h t w a i t for me In the lobby if you like. You don't
VI seem to be very curious."
" I n fact there are too many collections for m y curiosity."
"You say this temple was b u i l t as far back as the 2nd century
A. D."
"Yes, i t ' s as old as that."
XI
" I t looks impressive. I n fact i t ' s the oldest building I've seen that "What impressed you most of all?"
is i n such a good condition." "You know, J i l l , there were so many interesting things to see that
" I t m i g h t have looked still better if it had not been for the I can hardly tell what was the most impressive."
earthquake several years ago which ruined i t still more." " W e l l , how d i d you like the new suspension bridge?" 1

"Oh, that's marvellous beyond any words! A surely impressive


VII structure!"

"Are these exhibits genuine or only models?"


STORY 1
"Does i t make any difference? For me it's just the same. I can
never tell genuine things from their copies."
(Boris I varum, a Muscovite, was a member of a tourist group visiting
"This piece of antique column, for one, is surely a plaster copy."
Novgorod. Here is his story about the visit.)
" W e l l , let's consult the guide-book . . . Oh, you're just wrong. I t ' s
authentic, as the book reads."

I N ANCIENT NOVGOROD
VIII
A t r i p to Novgorod. " W h y to Novgorod?" you may ask. "What's
"This fountain has a rather large stone basin." so special about it?" I believe a t r i p t o Novgorod is a wonderful
"Yes, and there's a very interesting belief about i t . " journey into Russia's history . . .
2

"You say a belief? W h a t is i t about?" The c i t y of Novgorod was first mentioned i n chronicles i n
"They say if a visitor comes to this fountain at midnight and 859 A . D .
drops a coin into the water, he is sure to return to this c i t y at
some future t i m e . "
"Oh, fine! A n d how much is the traveller to drop into i t ? " suspension bridge в и с я ч и й м о с т
" W e l l , I don't know that." 2
chronicle [ ' k r o n i k l ] х р о н и к а , л е т о п и с ь

286 287
If you arrive in Novgorod by train, i t does not strike you as Our museum is housed i n an old two-storey mansion standing
an ancient c i t y at first sight —everywhere there are new modern on a h i l l t o p , which gives a view of the surrounding country and
1
buildings—houses, cinemas, shops, cafes and so on. A l l of them the w i n d i n g river. But the pride of the place is not outside but
were built comparatively recently on the ruins left by W o r l d inside the museum which contains over three thousand exhibits.
War I I . In one of the rooms are displayed articles of folk applied arts:
Then suddenly you notice surprisingly a graceful church at the wood carvings, pottery, embroidery, articles made of metals, paint­
end of the street, a cathedral at the end of another, and another ings on wood, old jewellery, etc. I n another room you can see
old church i n a third street. Novgorod is planned i n such a way various archaeological findings, such as ancient coins, arms and
that the cupolas of its churches and monasteries and the towers of armoury, and other antiquities. The exposition of the natural his­
its K r e m l i n can be seen from every street and every square of the tory section includes a number of stuffed animals, skeletons of
City, wherever you happen to be. A n d a l l of them are wonder­ l i v i n g animals and fossils, collections of various minerals, stones
ful monuments of architecture, painting and culture of old times. and plants.
I think no other ancient town of Russia has preserved so many You may ask where we get those numerous exhibits from.
splendid examples of Russian architecture and monumental There are different ways to get them. Most of them are collected
paintings of the 11—17th centuries as Novgorod. by the pupils themselves. Others were sent to us from the cen­
There are many monasteries i n and around the c i t y . Probably tral museums. Last year an archaeological expedition worked i n our
2
I ' l l mention only the 12th century YUryevsky Monastery. Its ca­ locality. Several senior pupils helped them i n excavations and
thedral was b u i l t by a Russian master i n 1119. Massive and tow­ were given some findings for the museum.
ering, i t looks like a group of knights i n helmets on the look­ Our museum is visited not only by local people but also by
out for the enemy. Many people come to Novgorod to admire the guests who come from different parts of the country. I n the visi­
1
frescoes by Theophanos, the famous Byzantine artist. The images tors' book you can find entries made by pupils, students, workers
on his murals are very expressive. and collective farmers of a i r Soviet republics and some foreign
You w i l l be also impressed by the K r e m l i n , this traditional countries.
landmark of a l l ancient Russian cities. I t is in the centre of.
Novgorod. The simple walls and towers of the K r e m l i n surround a' 1
w i n d i n g [ ' w a m d i r j ] H3BHBaioin.HHCfl
great many unique relics of different eras. I t is an unforgettable 2
excavations [,ekska'veij9nz] pi pacKonKii
place. . .
A guide w i l l tell you a lot of interesting things about Novgorod
and of its architectural monuments. He w i l l also tell you the
legend about the Novgorod "guest", the merchant Sadko. The
poetic legend inspired Rimsky-Korsakov, the well-known Russian
composer, to w r i t e the opera Sadko. A n d I ' m sure, when you hear
the .wonderful melodies of this opera again, you w i l l remember
that splendid museum c i t y of Novgorod.

STORY 2

(Alia Sanina tells a story of the museum set up by the pupils of


her school.)

OUR MUSEUM

Several years ago schoolchildren i n our village set up a mu­


seum. Our idea was not only to collect relics and rarities. We
wanted to study different epochs i n the history of art, the works
of individual artists, and history i n general.
1
Byzantine [bai'zs^ntain] BH3aHTHficKnfl

vim 10 № 2416
the House of Commons ['komanzj палата
27 общин
The House of Commons has 630 mem­
bers elected by ballot in the various
IN ENGLAND constituencies of Great B r i t a i n . В па­
лате общин заседает 630 членов п а р ­
ламента, избираемых тайным голо­
В АНГЛИИ сованием в р а з л и ч н ы х избирательных
округах Англии.
the House of Lords палата лордов
lord [ b : d ] 1) лорд, пэр; 2) член п а л а т ы
лордов
Syn. peer [pia]
Lord Chancellor ['tfansala] л о р д - к а н ц ­
лер (председатель п а л а т ы лордов и
верховный судья Англии) H a s t i n g s : the old section
the Speaker ['spkkaj с п и к е р (председатель of the t o w n .
п а л а т ы общин)

о
L o n d o n : Tower B r i d g e .
bill [ b i l ] з а к о н о п р о е к т , билль
A. SITUATIONS to pass a bill п р и н я т ь законопроект
to reject [ri'dsekt] a bill отклонить законопроект
1) You discuss w i t h the members of the English-speaking club
The Lords can reject a b i l l only once. П а л а т а лордов может
the p o l i t i c a l , economic and social structure of England.
отклонить какой-либо законопроект т о л ь к о один р а з .
2) You are taking part i n the get-together w i t h a person who is
division парл. разделение голосов во время голосования; голо­
just back from England.
сование
3) You speak of the traditions and customs i n different spheres
to call for a division объявить голосование
of British life.
to divide [di'vaid] парл. голосовать
4) You discuss the political situation i n England and its interna­
Divide! Divide! возгласы, требующие прекращения прений и
tional role i n modern w o r l d .
перехода к голосованию
5) You speak on the Anglo-Soviet relations.
6) You make a report on the life and activities of some British
prominent public figure (statesman, author, actor, artist, etc.). 3
7) You listen to a lecture on England and put questions to clarify
(Great) Britain ['bntanj В е л и к о б р и т а н и я
certain details.
England ['mgtand] А н г л и я (название государства и название одной
8) You are going to visit England and you are making a detailed
из составных частей Великобритании)
schedule for the tour of the country.
the English pi собир. англичане
9) Your English friend takes you for a round of London (Liver­
Englishman ['njghJ/тэп] (pi Englishmen ['inghfrnen]) англича­
pool, Edinburgh, etc).
нин; Englishwoman ['mghj/wuman] (pi Englishwomen ['irjghj-
. ,wmnn]) а н г л и ч а н к а
B. TOPICAL VOCABULARY Ireland ['aialand] И р л а н д и я
Northern ['пэ:5зп] Ireland Северная И р л а н д и я
Syn. Ulster [ ' л Ы э ] Ольстер
1 the Irish pi собир. и р л а н д ц ы
the House [haus] п а л а т а (парламента) Irishman ['aianjman] (pi Irishmen) и р л а н д е ц ; Irishwoman (pi
Syn. chamber ['tfeimbaj Irishwomen) и р л а н д к а

290 10* 291


kingdom ['knjdam] королевство 5
United K i n g d o m of Great B r i t a i n and Northern Ireland. Сое­
диненное Королевство Великобритании и Северной И р л а н д и и May Day первое м а я , весенний праздник в Англии
(официальное название Англии) maypole ['meipoul] майское дерево (украшенный цветами столб,
Scotland ['skatland] Шотландия 'вокруг которого танцует молодежь первого мая)
•the Scotch pi собир. ш о т л а н д ц ы — - May-queen [ ' m e i ' k w k n ] девушка, избранная за красоту «коро­
Scotchman ['skatfman] (pi Scotchmen) шотландец; Scotchwoman левой мая» (в майских играх)
(pi Scotchwomen) шотландка Mary, who was elected May-queen, stepped on to the maypole
Wales [welz] У э л ь с platform and boys and girls began to dance round her. Мэри,
the Welsh pi собир. в а л л и й ц ы избранная «королевой мая», ш а г н у л а на площадку майско­
Welshman ['weljman] (pi Welshmen) валлиец; го дерева, и мальчики и девочки начали танцевать в о к р у г
Welshwoman (pi Welshwomen) в а л л и й к а нее.
May Week ['mei ' w i : k ] майская неделя (студенческие празднества
по случаю окончания учебного года в первые две недели июня)
4
show [Jou] зрелище, с п е к т а к л ь , выставка
dart [dat] 1) острое метательное о р у ж и е ; дротик; с т р е л а ; 2) pi Syn. pageant ['paedjant] пышное зрелище; и н с ц е н и р о в к а ; к а р ­
darts «дартс» (игра, популярная среди простых людей Англии) навальное шествие
I n every English pub people play darts, a popular game i n Lord Mayor's ['b:d'meaz] Show пышная процессия в честь
which the players throw darts at the dart-board. В к а ж д о й вступления в должность лондонского лорд-мэра
английской закусочной играют в « д а р т с » — п о п у л я р н у ю и г р у , Lord Mayor's Show has been annually held on the 9 t h of No­
участники которой бросают дротики в стенную мишень. vember since 1215. Ежегодно 9 н о я б р я , начиная с 1215 года,
hare [hea] and hounds [haundz] спорт, «лисички» (игра, в которой проводятся пышные процессии в честь нового лондонского
одни участники бегут, оставляя за собой след из бумажек, а лорд-мэра.
другие, вышедшие позже, их преследуют, стараясь перехватить)
hopscotch ['hopskatf] детская игра «классы»
English children are fond of playing hopscotch.Английские дети
любят играть «в классы».
6
race [reis] состязание в скорости; гонки; pi с к а ч к и
ceremony ['senmani] церемония
boat-race состязания по гребле
The ceremony of coronation of English kings takes place in
Ь и т р [ Ь л т р ] race бамп-рейс (состязания по гребле, при которых,
Westminster Abbey. Церемония коронации английских коро­
обгоняя переднюю лодку, следует стукнуть ее носом по корме)
лей происходит в Вестминстерском аббатстве.
horse-race с к а ч к и
custom ['kAstam] обычай
dog race собачьи бега
The English stick to old customs and habits. А н г л и ч а н е при­
pancake ['psenkeik] race бег с блинами (соревнования в Англии;
проводятся ежегодно в первый вторник марта) д е р ж и в а ю т с я старых обычаев и привычек.
I n pancake races one has to make the pancake first and then festivity [fes'tiviti] празднество, г у л я н и е
run, tossing the pancake as one goes. Участник бега с бли­ May is the month of popular festivities i n England. М а й —
нами сначала должен приготовить блин, а затем бежать, под­ месяц народных празднеств и г у л я н и й в Англии.
брасывая его. service ['sa:vis] с л у ж б а (церковная), церемония
Rugby ['глдЫ] регби The Cenotaph Commemoration Service церемония возложения
Rugby is a football game (15 to each side) i n which players венков и почтения памяти солдат, погибших в I и I I миро­
are allowed to use their hands in carrying the ball and hold­ вых войнах, у Кенотафия (ул. Уайтхолл), происходящая ежегодно
ing their opponents. Р е г б и — э т о разновидность футбольной в ближайшее к 11 ноября воскресенье, обычно в присутствии
игры (между командами по 15 человек), в которой игрокам королевы (короля)
разрешается перемещаться по полю с мячом в р у к а х , а так­ tradition [tra'diTan] т р а д и ц и я
ж е д е р ж а т ь противника. to stick [stik] to tradition придерживаться традиций
soccer ('solo] футбол
Syn. association
293
292
C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE "That town is known as a biggest centre of textile industry."
a largest port on the Western coast
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
a centre of shipbuilding
1) " I n what part of the U n i t e d K i n g d o m is Oxford situated?" a large industrial centre
Belfast a University centre
Glasgow a famous sea resort on the Southern coast
Cardiff 3) "What do you t h i n k I must see in London as a first choice?"
Edinburgh " I believe you should begin w i t h the Tower by all means."
Birmingham Westminster Abbey
"As far as I know, i t ' s i n England." Hyde Park
central part of England St. Paul's Cathedral
Scotland Trafalgar Square
Wales the B r i t i s h Museum
Northern Ireland (Ulster) Piccadilly Circus
2) "What's the c i t y of Manchester known for?" the Houses of Parliament
Newcastle
4) "What are the most notable buildings and structures in London?"
Glasgow
famous
Cambridge
interesting
Liverpool
"There are lots of them and Buckingham Palace is only one of
the many,"
Nelson's Column
Westminster Abbey
London University
Tower Bridge
the K a r l Marx Memorial L i b r a r y
Royal Festival H a l l
5) "What are the most interesting traditional events and festivities
taking place i n London i n spring?"
summer
autumn
winter
"One of the loveliest events in May is surely
the Royal Windsor Horse Show."
Trooping the Colour June
the International Motor Show October
the Lord Mayor's Show November
the Cenotaph Commemoration
Service
6) "What popular festivity or game do you like best of all?"
"Speaking of m y personal likes and dislikes, I ' d rather enjoy
pancake race better than anything else."
maypole
dog races
cricket
hare and hounds
boat-races
L o n d o n : P i c c a d i l l y Circus. - May Week

294 295
CONVERSATIONS "And where did V . I . Lenin live i n London?"
"During his stay i n London i n 1902 —1903 V . I . Lenin and N . K . .
1

I Krupskaya lived in H o l f o r d Square. Unfortunately, the house was


destroyed by Nazi bombs during World War I I . "
"Is England the only name for that country?"
1
"No, i t isn't. I t ' s also called 'Great B r i t a i n ' , or simply ' B r i t a i n . "
"So i t has two names?" VI
"There's also a third name—'The United K i n g d o m of Great B r i t a i n
and Northern Ireland', or just 'The United K i n g d o m ' . " "Which are the most notable picture galleries in London?"
"But that sounds more official, doesn't it?" " W e l l , the National Gallery, to begin w i t h , then comes the National
"Yes, it's the official name for the country." Portrait Gallery, then the Tate Gallery."
"Yes, but what about the B r i t i s h Museum? I've heard a lot of i t . "
"Oh surely, you ought to go there, but the British Museum is not
II a museum of Fine Arts. I n the first place it's a museum of history,
archaeology and ethnography. I t ' s also one of the largest libraries
"Is England a monarchy or a parliamentary republic?" in the w o r l d . "
" B r i t a i n is a parliamentary monarchy."
"How's that?"
"It's simple: there's the K i n g , or the Queen and there's a parlia­ VII
ment enjoying the right to pass laws and elect the government."
" W h y , it's No. 10 Downing Street!"
"Exactly so. Here the Prime Minister of B r i t a i n lives."
Ill "And where's the residence of the Queen?"
"There are two chambers in B r i t i s h Parliament, aren't there?" "The London residence of the B r i t i s h kings is Buckingham Palace.
"Yes, the House of Lords and the House of Commons." When the Queen is in residence the Royal Standard is flown at
2

"The seats i n Parliament are h e r e d i t a r y , aren't they?" 1 the mast-head."


"Not exactly. The seats are hereditary i n the House of Lords, but
as to the members of the House of Commons, they are elected VIII
every five years."
"What's 'Trooping the Colour'? I often heard of i t but I never know
IV what i t means."
"Oh, i t ' s one of the most colourful spectacles of the year.
" I ' d l i k e to see some places connected w i t h K a r l Marx. W h i c h I t ' s the ceremony which celebrates the birthday of the Queen.
would you say are the most interesting?" I t ' s performed by troops of the Household Brigade i n full dress
" W e l l , I t h i n k , the Marx House in Dean Street and Highgate uniform."
Cemetery." "When and where is i t held?"
" I was told Marx had been extremely fond of taking walks in " I t ' s held near St. James's Park i n June."
Hampstead Heath. Is that so?"
"Yes, very much so. Especially in summer, when the whole Marx
family had their picnics there." IX
"They don't celebrate May Day i n B r i t a i n i n the way we do, do
V they?"
" W e l l , officially they don't and the 1st of May isn't a holiday.
"Here's the house where V . I . Lenin published Iskra." B u t the working-class people keep this day of international labour
"Really? Can you tell me what's there now?" solidarity on one of the first Sundays of May."
" W h y , yes, it's the K a r l Marx Memorial L i b r a r y . "
1
Holford ['houlfad]
a
1
hereditary [ h i ' r e d i t e n ] н а с л е д с т в е н н ы й , п е р е д а в а е м ы й no н а с л е д с т в у mast-head [ ' m a s t h e d ] ф л а г ш т о к

29G 297
"And what is 'May H o l i d a y ' in England? I often heard of i t . " W e l l , but as far as I know the B r i t i s h Empire does not exist
"Oh, it's a centuries old traditional holiday, widely marked by any more, though the ravens are still there."
1

the English." "That's r i g h t . Their wings are c l i p p e d . "


"Do you mean the maypole?"
"Yes, there are all kinds of games during this holiday and it's XIV
a custom to choose the May-queen."
"Oh my! What are they all doing?"
2
"To keep up the t r a d i t i o n they p e l t the newly-married couples
X w i t h handfuls of rice."
"They do stick to traditions and habits, these English."
" I t h i n k w e ' l l get off the bus near the C i r c u s . . . "
"To be sure they do."
"Do you mean to i n v i t e me to a circus show? I ' d love to see i t
in London."
"Oh no, I mean Piccadilly Circus, i t ' s just a square." XV
" I see. W h y is i t called that? Is i t round, or what?"
" W e l l , i t isn't exactly round. As a matter of fact any open space "How did you enjoy your stay in Britain?"
where a number of streets meet can be called a 'circus'. You can "Oh, very much indeed. We could see a great deal w i t h i n those
come across them all over England. B u t when a Londoner speaks of fifteen days of our v i s i t . "
the Circus he means Piccadilly Circus." "What did your programme include?"
"London, Stratford-upon-Avon, Leeds, Glasgow and Edinburgh."
"What's your general impression?"
XI " W e l l , i t isn't easy to describe i t in one word."
" I suppose you've been to Covent Garden?"
"Covent Garden? I ' m afraid not. I have only been to Green XVI
Park, Regent's Park and Kensington Gardens."
"Dear me! D o n ' t you know what Covent Garden is?" " I say, A n n , speaking of your visit to B r i t a i n you mentioned
" I certainly do. I t ' s the Royal Opera House. I was just pulling Lord Mayor's Show. What is it?"
1
your l e g . "

XII
"This is Fleet Street."
"Its name suggests a sea voyage."
"Nothing of the k i n d . I t suggests journalism."
"Why?"
"Because all the big B r i t i s h daily newspapers are published here."

XIII
"While seeing the Tower of London, have you noticed several
2
ravens in the courtyard?"
"Oh yes, I have, there were some."
"There's a belief that the B r i t i s h Empire w i l l come to an end F i n c h i n g f i e l d (Essex): a v i l l a g e w i t h old cottages o v e r l o o k i n g a
when those ravens leave the Tower." green and a d u c k p o n d .

1
1
to pull smb.'s leg разг. дурачить кого-л., разыгрывать to clip п о д р е з а т ь
2
2
raven f ' r e i v n ] в о р о н to pelt з а б р а с ы в а т ь , посып;.ть

298
m
"Well, it's a colourful ceremony and procession i n London i n European parliaments. The first strange thing about those benches
November." is that they don't provide seat for a l l 630 members of the House,
"Have you seen i t w h i l e i n London?" but only for the two-thirds of their number. So, i n case all the
1

"Yes. I t ' s very impressive. I t gives you a feeling as i f you had MP's appear at the session there w o n ' t be enough room for si I
ting. The second thing is that the rows of benches face each other
lived two or three centuries ago."
while the Speaker's chair is i n the centre of the House, between
"And who takes part i n this Show?" those rows of benches.
1
"The Lord Mayor himself and his suite. A l l are dressed i n medi­
eval costumes. Six horses in red and gold harness are drawing 2 The front benches on the Speaker's right are for the members
of the Government, the,front benches on his left are for the leaders
a 300-year-old gilded coach where the Lord Mayor sits."
of the Opposition. The back benches are occupied by the ordinary
members who are called 'back-benchers'.
STORY 1
These traditions of Parliament as well as many other England's
(The members of the school English-speaking club have invited Anna customs and habits do not change.
Glebova who studies at Cambridge University under the students
exchange scheme, to tell them something about England, its customs
and traditions. Here are some of her stories.) STORY 2

T R A D I T I O N S OF T H E B R I T I S H PARLIAMENT PANCAKE RACES A N D PANCAKE FIGHT

Speaking about old English customs and habits I can't but I think everybody knows that the English are very fond of
mention in the first place those that are kept in Parliament. They races: boat-races, motor-races, horse-races and dog races. They are
have a long history and some of them look rather funny nowadays. just crazy about racing. They even race w i t h . . . pancakes, and,
The Lord Chancellor, chairman of the House of Lords, still frankly speaking, I w o n ' t be astonished much, if some day they
sits on the large sack of wool covered w i t h red cloth. Many, many race w i t h beefsteaks and that sort of thing. Since foreigners usually
years ago, when wool was the main product of England, i t naturally know very l i t t l e or nothing about pancake races I ' d like to say
was the symbol of the country's power. Today the Woolsack is a a few words about them.
mere t r a d i t i o n . I n early spring in some English villages and towns there is a
Many traditions are found i n the House of Commons, too. pancake race. The Olney Pancake Race, for instance, is for house­
When its new chairman, the Speaker, is elected, he is dragged to wives. The race at Oxford is for anyone who likes to enter and
his chair p u t t i n g up a show of resistance. This custom dates 3
students often take part. The peculiar thing, however, is that in
from the times when i t was dangerous to be the Speaker. all these races, one has to make the pancake first and then run,
2
Now take the voting procedure in the House of Commons. tossing i t as one goes. The Olney Race is 415 yards long; the
After the discussion of a b i l l the Speaker asks if it has the ap­ housewives have to toss their pancakes three times during the
4
p r o v a l of the House. I n case the approval is not unanimous some race. You say, i t ' s not a very difficult thing to do? W e l l , t r y i t
5
of the members shout ' A y e ' (which is derived from the old French and y o u ' l l see that i t is!
word meaning 'Yes') and others shout ' N o ' . Then the Speaker But the English not only race w i t h pancakes, but they fight
'calls for division', or i n other words, puts the b i l l to the vote. for them, too. M y English friends invited me to Westminster School,
This is called 'division' since the voting is done by d i v i d i n g : the in London, to see the pancake fight. M y , what an exciting fight
members leave their seats and pass into the corridors through i t was! Before dinner the school cook fried a pancake, took i t out
different doors, to show which way they are voting. The votes are into the school yard and tossed i t high into the air and the boys
counted as the members go through. (one from each class) fought for i t . The winner was the boy who
And here is another Parliament t r a d i t i o n . I n the House of got the biggest piece of the pancake. He won a guinea (21 shillings).
Commons there are benches and not separate seats as i n most The other pancake fighters, my friends and me had a pancake for
dinner, which was really delicious to eat. I wish you had had i t ,
1
suite [sw'r.t] с в и т а too. I ' m sure you would have appreciated the school cook's s k i l l .
2
harness [ ' h a m s ] у п р я ж ь
3 resistance [ n ' z i s t a n s j с о п р о т и в л е н и е
1
* approval 1э'рги:уэ1] о д о б р е н и е MP's = Members of P a r l i a m e n t
5
Aye [ai] to toss [tos] п о д б р а с ы в а т ь в в е р х

300 .401
STORY З players throw darts, small metal bodies w i t h a steel point and
three feathers, at a target, called a dart-board. The darts are usually
MAY W E E K A T CAMBRIDGE about 5 inches long and the dart-board has numbered sections. As
you can easily see, the score depends on the section in which the
1
What impressed me at Cambridge? W e l l , most of a l l , May dart lands. Now each player has a set of three darts and throws
Week, I should say. I t is, indeed, the most interesting t i m e of the them i n t u r n . The game is really very simple, but you must have
year at Cambridge, and i t is neither i n May, nor a week. I can a good eye and a steady hand that is something achieved in the
see you are surprised, so was I when I learned about i t . As & course of long training.
matter of fact, May Week is the name given to the first two weeks
in June, the very end of the University year.
I n May Week everything, as far as
STORY 5
possible, has to happen i n the open air —
parties, games, picnics on boats, concerts
and plays. Colleges prepare various events DERBY DAY 1

for May Week. The most important of


these are the May Balls (for which some "You know," I said to m y English friends as I looked through
2
girls p l o t years i n advance to get in­ the list of horses i n the evening paper, "I've never been to Epsom
vitations) and the May Races. W h a t is to see the Derby."
May Races? W e l l , of course it's rowing "What? Never seen the Derby? You've missed something, Ann!"
races. You see, rowing plays an essential said one of them. " W h y not go this year? D o n ' t lose your chance!
part in Cambridge life, and no less than Let's go together!"
128 crews of eight compete i n the 'Mays' " W h y not?"
over a period of four days. Derby Day was fine and sunny. We bought a pork pie and
Music and drama also have a part to some tomatoes at the supermarket—and off we went.
play i n the festivities. Nearly every col­ The traffic on the road was very heavy: people i n old and i n
lege i n the University (and there are 20 shining new cars, people i n buses, people on bicycles and on foot —
of them) holds a May Week concert. everything was moving to Epsom.
So if you're going to v i s i t Cambridge, We reached the racecourse at last, bought a race-card, found
come there i n May Week. I ' m sure i t C a m b r i d g e : K i n g ' s Collei an empty stretch of grass and sat down.
w i l l be your most exciting experience. and C h a p e l . 2
There was plenty to watch: bookmakers calling out and taking
8
bets; t i p s t e r s telling people which horses to bet on; people selling
ice-cream, candies, cold drinks.
STORY 4 4
M y friends put ten shillings on a horse named Bingo.
A n d then the race started. I t was a very exciting race, I should
DARTS
say. M y friends shouted, "Come on, Bingo! Come on!", while other
6

You ask me, "What are the most popular games i n England people shouted at the top of their voices, "Pearly Queen! Pearly
today?" W e l l , first of a l l , I ' d like to mention the ball games, Queen! You're winning! You're winning!" But Pearly Queen d i d
such as cricket, golf, soccer, Rugby and, of course, b o w l s . These 3 not w i n , and Bingo d i d . M y friends were very happy. We really had
a grand time.
are extremely popular i n England and, perhaps, except bowls, are
known i n this country, too.
But have you heard anything about darts? This is a traditional 1
Derby [ ' d a b i ] Д е р б и (скачки в Эпсоме близ Лондона, происходящие еже­
English game dating back to the M i d d l e Ages. I t ' s rather interesting годно в первую среду июня)
Derby Day д е н ь с к а ч е к
and very popular w i t h ordinary people. Is i t also a ball game? 1
bookmaker б у к м е к е р (лицо, принимающее ставки на скачках)
No, i t is played w i t h darts and a dart-board. How? W e l l , tha 8
tipster (лицо, дающее «.советьп, на каких лошадей лучше делать ставки)
* Bingo Б и н г о (кличка лошади)
Pearly ['рэ.-li] Queen К о р о л е в а Ж е м ч у г а (кличка лошади)
Cambridge [ ' k e i m b r i d 3 ]
to p l o t т а й н о з а м ы ш л я т ь ; зд. с т а р а т ь с я
bowls [ b o u l z ] и г р а в ш а р ы (см. тему «Спорт»)

302
STORY З

7
MAY W ' ^ <f

Ле 3
.лата 9 15. Кино 157
умья 18 16. Путешествия 166
3. в с т р е ч а с т о в а р и щ е м . . . 28 17. У доктора 179
4. В г о р о д е 38 18. Спорт 188
б. П о г о д а и к л и м а т 51 19. Н а п о ч т е . Р а з г о в о р по т е л е ф о н у 200
6. Е д а 61 20. В деревне. Сельское хозяйство 211
7. О д е ж д а 75 21. Н а заводе. Промышленность 224
8. У ч е б а . . . . . . . . . . 86 22. Радио и телевидение . . . 235
9. П р о ф е с с и я и р а б о т а . . . . 99 23. В театре 245
10. Ч е м я у в л е к а ю с ь 111 24. Музыка и танцы 256
11. В м а г а з и н е 122 25. Н а выставке изобразительного
12. Д о м а 131 искусства 265
13. В н е ш н о с т ь ч е л о в е к а . . . . 140 26. О с м о т р достопримечатель­
14. Х а р а к т е р , п о в е д е н и е , н а с т р о е ­ ностей. В музее 277
ние и м а н е р ы ч е л о в е к а . . 149 27. В А н г л и и 290

Редактор Ф. И. Юрасова
Художественный редактор Н, М. Ременникова
Технический редактор 3. Б. Хамидулина
Корректор Л. П. Шелягина

Сдано в набор 11/Х 1971 г. Подписано к печати 21/П 1972 г.


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Цена без переплета 44 к., переплет 10 к.
2 medicine ['medsin] лекарство
mustard plaster горчичник
Ц ache 4eik] п р о д о л ж и т е л ь н а я боль ointment ['amtmant] мазь
toothache з у б н а я боль p i l l [ p i l ] пилюля
headache головная боль prevention [ p n ' v e n j a n ] предупреждение болезни (профилактика)
I have a splitting headache. У меня у ж а с н о болит голова spoonful |'spu:nful] л о ж к а
у (голова р а з л а м ы в а е т с я от боли),
э
a tea spoonful of the mixture чайная л о ж к а микстуры
j?"' J~Jstomach-ache боль в ж е л у д к е
treatment [ ' t r k t m a n t ] лечение
appendicitis [a'pendi'saitis] аппендицит
attack [a'taek] приступ
Н е had a heart attack. Он перенес сердечный приступ, 4
boil [boil] нарыв
dentist ['dentist] зубной врач
\| bronchitis [bran'kaitis] бронхит
patient ['peijant] больной, пациент
cancer ['kaensa] р а к
in-patient госпитализированный больной
• cold [kould] простуда
out-patient амбулаторный больной
cold in the head насморк
physician [fi'zijan] врач, доктор
complication [,kamph'keijan] осложнение
specialist ['spejahst] специалист
chicken-pox ['tfikmpaks] ветряная оспа, в е т р я н к а
eye specialist окулист
cholera f'kalara] холера
consumption [kan'sAmpJan] т у б е р к у л е з Syn. j oculist
Syn. tuberculosis, T B C ear, nose and throat specialist отоларинголог
vj disease [di'zi:z] болезнь surgeon ['sa:d3an] х и р у р г
fever ['fi:va] л и х о р а д к а therapeutist [,8era'pju:tist] терапевт
scarlet fever с к а р л а т и н а Syn.,G. P. (general practitioner)
\j (the) flu грипп
Syn. grippe
indigestion [,indi'd3est/an] несварение ж е л у д к а 5
malaria [ma'leana] м а л я р и я to ache [eik] болеть, ныть
(the) measles ['mi:zlz] корь to bandage ['baendids] перевязывать
mumps [mAmps] свинка to be down with pneumonia л е ж а т ь с воспалением легких
^ pain [pein] боль (особенно о с т р а я , внезапная) to be operated on for (cancer, etc.) перенести операцию (рака и т. д.)
I feel some pain in the back. Я чувствую боль в спине, to be put on sick-list получить бюллетень (освобождение от работы)
a pain in the knee боль в колене to be X-rayed пройти рентген
plague [pleig] чума to bring down the temperature сбить температуру
N pneumonia [njm'mounia] воспаление легких ID catch (a) cold простудиться
t quinsy f k w m z i ] ангина In cough [kaf] к а ш л я т ь
rash [г аз J] сыпь to сир ставить банки
small-pox ['sma:l,paks] оспа lo cure [kjua] вылечить, излечить (от болезни)
typhus ['taifas] т и ф Dr. Brown has cured her. Д о к т о р Б р а у н вылечил ее.
whooping-cough ['hu:pitjkafj к о к л ю ш l i e managed to cure that disease. Е м у удалось излечить эту
болезнь.
3 to die of (consumption, etc.) умереть от (туберкулеза и т . д.)
|0 examine a patient осмотреть больного
cups [kAps] банки l<> t a l l i l l заболеть
i drops [drops] к а п л и to feel feverish [ ' f i : v a n j ] чувствовать ж а р
hot-water bottle г р е л к а In [eel one's pulse щупать пульс
-! injection [m'd3ekj9n] у к о л , и н ъ е к ц и я l<> give an Injection (of penicillin) сделать у к о л (пенициллина)
inoculation h^nakju'leijan] (against) п р и в и в к а (от) io have a (bad) cold (сильно) простудиться

180 V 181
to have a prescription made up 1 have a pain i n my back (side,
з а к а з а т ь лекарство (в ап- etc.). У меня болит спина
- — теке) (бок и т . д . ) .
to have a tooth crowned поста­ I t hurts (badly). (Очень) болит.
вить к о р о н к у на зуб It is hard to swallow. Т р у д н о
to have a tooth filled запломби­ глотать.
ровать зуб My cheek i s ' swollen. У меня
to have a tooth (pulled) out выр- опухла щ е к а .
\ вать зуб My foot is out of j o i n t . Я вы­
tcTheal [hi:l] з а ж и в а т ь ; излечи­ в и х н у л себе ногу.
вать My head is swimming. У меня
The wound healed slowly. к р у ж и т с я голова.
Рана з а ж и в а л а медленно. My nose is clogged up. У меня
to keep one's bed оставаться в з а л о ж е н нос.
постели, соблюдать постель­ The f l u (quinsy, etc.) is catching.
ный режим Г р и п п (ангина и т.д.) з а р а з е н . «i d o n ' t t h i n k i t ' s going t o be as easy
to listen to one's heart (lungs) What do you complain of? Ha as i t looks. He's swallowed a m a g n e t . "
выслушать сердце (легкие) что вы жалуетесь?
to make one's blood-count делать What do you take for a headache? Ч т о вы принимаете от голов­
анализ крови ной боли?
to make out a prescription выпи­ Where do you feel pain? Где у вас болит?
сать рецепт I ' m quite f i t . Я чувствую себя (вполне) хорошо.
to measure one's blood pressure
измерять давление крови
to prescribe some medicine выписать лекарство C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
to recover [ п ' к л у э ] выздороветь, выздоравливать
He recovered slowly after his long illness. Он медленно выздо­ SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
равливал после своей длительной болезни.
She recovered her eyesight. К ней возвратилось зрение. 1) "What do you complain of, sir?"
to sneeze [sni:z] чихать "I've got a splitting headache."
to sound one's lungs (chest) прослушать легкие, грудную клетку a terrible toothache
to suffer from (a disease) страдать от (болезни) an awful ear-ache
to take a treatment for (a disease) принимать лечение (от болезни) a stomach-ache
to take a medicine принимать лекарство a pain i n my back
to take one's temperature измерять температуру V.) "Did you ever suffer from
to treat (for an illness) лечить (от болезни) malaria, sir?"
Which doctor is treating you for your illness? К а к о й доктор bronchitis
лечит вас от этой болезни? mumps
pneumonia
"No, never."
G
11 Where's Jack? I can't see
I am running a temperature. У меня температура. him anywhere."
I am sick. Меня тошнит. "Well, he isn't at work. He's
I feel seedy. Мне не по себе. down w i t h flu."^
I got an infection from h i m . Я от него з а р а з и л с я . quinsy
I have a sore throat (a toothache, an ear-ache, a sore eye). У меня indigestion
болит горло (зубы, уши, глаз). pneumonia

.182 183
4) "What w i l l you recommend i n the first place, doctor?" "You've got to consult a doctor."
" I n the first place you must have your blood tested." "That's what I ' m going to do. I t h i n k 1 must be X-rayed."
lungs X-rayed "Certainly."
_ 4 „ blood pressure measured
5) "How do I take a l l those pills, doctor?"
"You should take them twice a day." Ill
three times a day
every morning "Oh, 1 do feel awful. Look at my cheek!"
6) "What are these pills for?" "Your cheek is swollen. I t is a tooth, isn't it?"
those drops "Yes, the back one. I ' l l probably have to have i t pulled out."
these tablets 1
"But y o u ' l l have to w a i t t i l l the swelling subsides."
"This medicine is for rheumatism."
a cough
the f l u IV
a bad digestion
7) "What specialist must I consult?" " I have an awful toothache. I t feels as if m y lower jaw was fall­
"You must see a surgeon." ing to pieces."
an eye specialist "Would you open your mouth, please . . . Does the touch hurt?"
a dentist "Yes, very. I t gives me a sharp pain." " -
a therapeutist "Well, no treatment w i l l help your bad tooth. I t has to be pulled
8) "Have you heard from Aunt B e t t y lately?" out. You've applied too late."
"Yes, certainly. She's in hospital now." " A n y t h i n g w i l l do so long as i t stops the pain, doctor."
in a sanatorium
at a rest-home
at a health resort
in clinic
9) "What is she doing there, I wonder?" "Here you are, y o u ' l l feel much better w i t h your tooth filled."
" W e l l , she's taking a treatment for pneumonia." "You're just so r i g h t . H o w much do I owe you?"
stomach-ache "Just gratitude. A l l medical aid is provided free in the Soviet
heart disease Union."
high blood pressure
some illness
VI
CONVERSATIONS
"Please, give me a glass of water."
I - "Here you are. What's the matter w i t h you?"
"Outch !" 1 "My head is swimming."
"Here, lie down, y o u ' l l feel much better in a minute."
"What's the matter?"
"I've cut m y finger."
VII
"Oh, I ' m sorry, come here, I ' l l bandage i t . "
" Y o u shouldn't muffle up the baby."
" I ' m so much afraid of colds."
II O v e r h e a t i n g w i l l get h i m colds much easier."
" I don't like your cough." "You're right, thank you, but I ' m always t r y i n g to be on guard."
"Yes, it's pretty bad, I just can't get r i d of i t .
і Outch [ a u f j l Ой! (возглас) I to subside [sab'said] спадать, становиться меньше

m .183
VIII 1
portant and u r g e n t . Besides, you have given your word the work
2
w i l l be ended in time — a n d alas!
"Mum, I want an ice." I n the morning you find out suddenly that you can't get up
"You said in the morning you had a sore throat and i t was hard as usual. You have a s p l i t t i n g headache. You feel a l i t t l e dizzy
to swallow your porridge." and you cough; you can't recognize your voice because your nose
" I t isn't any more." is clogged. Besides, it's hard for. you to swallow.
You fight back the thought you are i l l . You look for the
thermometer. A t last the temperature is taken: 38.4. T h a t means
IX you are running a high temperature. So the last hope you're all
right is destroyed. You are i l l , that's certain. I t can't be helped.
"Tell me your trouble, young man." You have to stay at home.
" W e l l , I must have caught cold. I've been sneezing and coughing You inform your mother of your illness. Now the doctor w i l l
all the time and on the top of that i t ' s hard for me to swallow." be sent for. H e ' l l be here i n an hour or two. H e ' l l take your
"Open your mouth, please, let me have a look at your throat . . . hand and say, " W e l l , what troubles you, young man? H a v i n g
Your pulse, please . . . Now take off your coat and shirt, I ' l l listen a cough? I see you're sneezing . . . W e l l , let me feel your pulse . . .
to your heart and sound your lungs . . . Got a temperature?" Now let's sound your lungs; please strip to the waist . . . Breathe,
"Yes, but not very high — thirty-seven, point three." please." Then he w i l l conclude, " W e l l , nothing serious, just a f l u .
"There's nothing serious the case w i t h you. Just take care not But y o u ' l l have to keep your bed for a few days. Don't go out
1
to expose yourself and avoid draughts, keep the bed for a few earlier or else y o u ' l l get complications . . . A n d here's the prescrip­
days and take the medicine I ' l l prescribe you." tion. Take the pills regularly and keep yourself w a r m . Wish you
good luck, old fellow!"
The doctor w i l l leave. He's very busy, he has a lot to do, he
X must go. You may have a lot to do, too, but you w i l l stay in
bed: you are i l l .
"When were you operated on for your appendicitis?"
"Two days ago. They brought me here in an ambulance, you know. 1
urgent ['a:d58nt] с р о ч н ы й
Had I been brought to hospital a l i t t l e later I m i g h t have died 2
alas [s'la;s]l у в ы !
of blood poisoning."
"How do you feel now?"
" I ' m still a b i t too weak and somewhat dizzy. B u t the doctor
says I ' l l be picking up in no time. I f everything goes well they
2
w i l l take out the stitches next Friday. . . . W e l l , and how's
everybody?"
"Thanks, all right. Asking how you are . . . I ' l l be leaving now.
Hope to see you in a better shape soon, er?"
"Thanks a lot for coming round to see me. Good-bye."

A STORY

(Boris Petrov describes how it is to get ill.)

Of all things people probably hate diseases most.


Suppose you plan to finish your work tomorrow. I t ' s very im-

1
draught [ d r a f t ] с к в о з н я к
2
s t i t c h [stitf] ш о в

186
competition [,kompi'tij9n] состязание, соревнование
D i d you watch the swimming competition? Вы смотрели сорев­
нование пловцов?
boxing competition соревнование по боксу
chess competition соревнование по шахматам
Syn. contest
event [I'vent] соревнование по определенному виду спорта
Soviet sportsmen are world champions in many events.
Советские спортсмены д е р ж а т мировое первенство по многим
видам спорта.
game Igeim] 1) игра, п а р т и я
W h i c h side won the game? Кто выиграл эту игру?
Let's play a game of tennis. Д а в а й т е сыграем партию в.теннис.
2) pi с о с т я з а н и я , игры
Olympic Games Олимпийские игры
match [maetf] состязание, матч
A. SITUATIONS Who is refereeing the international ice-hockey match? Кто су­
1) You ask your new friend what kind of sports he (she) goes in дит международную встречу по хоккею?
for (likes). set [set] п а р т и я (в игре)
2) You tell your new friend about the sports activities (facilities, sport [sport] 1) спорт, спортивные игры
equipment) at. your school. What is your favourite kind of sport? К а к о й ваш любимый
3) You describe to your friend the newly b u i l t Palace of Sports вид спорта?
you have visited. 2) pi спортивные состязания
4) You meet a friend on his way from the stadium (where he W i l l you take part in the school sports? Вы будете принимать
watched the match) and find out the score. участие в ш к о л ь н ы х соревнованиях?
5) You tell your friend about the sports review you heard over sports society [sa'sarati] спортивное общество
the radio (watched on T V ) . Do you belong to this sports society? Вы член этого спортив­
6) You discuss w i t h your friend the result of a football match ного общества?
(track-and-field competition). team [ t i : m ] команда
7) You explain to your younger brother (sister) the rules of some Have you a strong basket-ball team? У вас сильная баскет­
game. больная команда?
8) W h i l e playing chess w i t h your friend you exchange remarks Our team took the second place. Н а ш а команда вышла на
connected w i t h the game. второе место.
9) You are interviewing the coach of a volley-ball (basket-ball) Which team is in blue (red) jerseys and white shorts? К а к а я
team. команда в синих (красных) м а й к а х и белых трусах?
10) You talk w i t h your friend about your favourite sports and home team хозяева поля
games (your favourite sportsman). visiting team команда гостей
11) Your pen-friend tells you about the popular sports and games tournament ['tuanamant] т у р н и р , соревнование
in England. all Union tournament всесоюзный турнир
Tournament of Nations of the U.S.S.R. Спартакиада народов СССР
12) You tell your friend about some sports contest you took part i n .
*
B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y 2
1
championship ['tf aempian,fip] первенство, чемпионат Ьаю ball |'beisba:l] бейсбол
When does the national football championship start? Когда начи­ Baikel hall |'ba:skitba:l] баскетбол
нается розыгрыш первенства страны по футболу? i IK V. I IfesI шахматы
world championship соревнование на первенство мира Ли- you keen on chess? Вы любите шахматы?
189
cricket ['krïkit] к р и к е т champion ['tfaempian] чемпион
draughts [drafts] ш а ш к и Who is the champion in
football ['futbo:l] футбол weight-lifting? Кто чемпион
Do you care for football? В ы интересуетесь футболом? по штанге?
Syn. soccer Syn. record-holder
golf [golf] гольф Olympic Champion олимпий­
handball ['haendbo:l] гандбол, ручной мяч ский чемпион
tennis ['tenis] теннис world champion чемпион мира
Are you good at tennis? Вы хорошо играете в теннис? coach [koutf] тренер
table-tennis настольный теннис Who is the coach of the team?
volley-ball ['vohbo:l] волейбол Кто тренер команды?
water-polo ['woita'poulou] водное поло Syn. trainer
fan [fan] болельщик
Are you a football fan? Вы
3 болельщик футбола?
Syn. supporter, backer
goal-keeper ['goulkkpa] г о л к и п е р , в р а т а р ь
aquatics [ak'wsetiks] водные виды спорта W h y did they change the goal-keeper? Почему они заменили
athletics л е г к а я атлетика вратаря?
Syn. track-and-field athletics, light athletics opponent [a'pounant] противник, соперник
boating ['boutin] лодочный спорт Syn. contender
boxing ['boksin] бокс player ['pleia] игрок
callisthenics [,ksehs'6eniks] художественная гимнастика He is a player of high class. Он игрок высокого к л а с с а .
cycling ['saikhrj] велоспорт football-player футболист
diving ['daivin] п р ы ж к и в воду hockey player хоккеист
fencing ['fensin] фехтование referee [,refa'ri:] судья
gymnastics [d3im'naestiks] гимнастика ikater ['skeita] конькобежец
motoring ['moutanrj] мотоспорт »kk*r I 'ski:э] л ы ж н и к
mountaineering [,maunti'ni9rir)] а л ь п и н и з м I his skier made the best time. Этот л ы ж н и к п о к а з а л лучшее
Syn. climbing ['klaimin] премя.
rowing ['rouirj] гребля kpoi Isnian ['sportsman] спортсмен
skating ['skeitin] к а т а н и е на к о н ь к а х I le is a keen sportsman. Он страстный спортсмен.
figure-skating фигурное к а т а н и е Weight-lifter ['weit'hfto] т я ж е л о а т л е т
skiing ['ski:m] хождение на л ы ж а х Wrestler I'resb] борец
swimming ['swmnrj] п л а в а н и е
weight-lifting ['weit'hftirj] т я ж е л а я атлетика, поднимание тяжестей
wrestling ['reslirj] борьба
yachting ['jotirj] парусный спорт
їй H 11 часть состязания; забег, заплыв и т . д .
jump | i l , м п р | п р ы ж о к
high Jump п р ы ж о к в высоту
4 Іоні; jump прыжок в длину
hopi itcp, and jump тройной п р ы ж о к
п і к | и і I состязания в беге, в скорости; гонки
athlete ['a01i:t] спортсмен; легкоатлет ІЮНІ гш г лодочные гонки
I am no athlete, but I like sport. Я не спортсмен, но я люблю ІМіїїііІІюіі I'micraOan] race марафонский бег
спорт. irlny une і 'і і : її •[ ICI s I эстафетный бег, эстафета
captain ['kaeptin] к а п и т а н Iprllll і aces бег на короткие дистанции

190
191
bar [Ъа] планка
run [глп] бег
horizontal [,han'zantl] bar перекладина, т у р н и к
60 metre run бег на 60 мет­
parallel ['paeralel] bars п а р а л л е л ь н ы е б р у с ь я
ров
wall-bars гимнастическая стенка
shotput(ting) ['jatput(irj)] толка­
facilities [fa'sihtiz] оборудование
ние ядра
puck [рлк] шайба
sprint [sprint] бег на к о р о т к у ю
racket ['raekit] р а к е т к а
дистанцию, спринт
throw(ing) ['0rou(m)] метание, stick [stik] к л ю ш к а (для игры в х о к к е й , гольф и т. д.)
бросание
discus ['diskas] throwing ме­
8
тание диска
hammer-throwing ['haema
'0roum] метание молота chess-board ['tfesba:d] шахматная доска
javelin-throwing ['dsasvlm chessman ['ffesmaen] ш а х м а т н а я фигура
'Grouin] метание копья Syn. piece [pi:s]
pole-vaulting ['poul,vo:ltin] пры­ bishop ['bifap] слон
ж к и с шестом castle ['kasl] л а д ь я
check [tfek] шах
checkmate [ ' t f e k ' m e i t ] ш а х и мат
6 You are a checkmate. В а м шах и м а т .
base [beis] база king [kin] к о р о л ь
skiing ['skiarj] base л ы ж н а я Your king is i n check. В а м ш а х .
база knight [nait] конь
Syn. ski depot ['depou] pawn [pa:n] пешка
centre ['senta] центр queen [ k w i : n ] ферзь
children's sport centre детская
спортшкола
«I
court [ka:t] корт
basket-ball court баскетболь­
ный корт jtrtw |dra:] ничья
tennis court теннисный корт I lie game was a draw. И г р а окончилась вничью.
field [ f k l d ] поле The match ended i n a 3:3 draw. Матч окончился вничью,
football field футбольное поле i о счетом 3:3.
ground [graund] спортивная площадка record |'reka:d] рекорд
gym [d3im] гимнастический з а л , спортзал lb- set up a new record i n high j u m p . О н установил новый
pool [pu:l] бассейн рекорд по п р ы ж к а м в высоту.
Syn. swimming-pool His record was broken. Е г о рекорд был побит.
rink [rink] каток I t i u l l [п'глИ] результат
Syn. skating-rink What are the results of the last National Championship? К а к о в ы
stadium ['steidiam] стадион результаты последних соревнований на первенство страны?
station ['steifan] станция M i n i [point] очко
boating station лодочная станция I h e y won by six points to four. О н и победили со счетом 6:4.
yachting station яхт-клуб nunc I ska:] счет очков (в игре)
What's the score? К а к о й счет?
W i t h what score did the team w i n (lose)? С к а к и м счетом
7 команда выиграла (проиграла)?
ball [bo:l] мяч The score is 3:1 i n favour of the Dynamo team. Счет 3:1 в
bench [bentf] скамейка пользу команды «Динамо».

192 /
'/ Mi. Ill, 193
10 2) "What game are you most keen on?"
" I ' m very keen on tennis."
to balance on a balance-beam '['baelansbkm] ходить по буму
volley-ball
(бревну)
hockey
to clear [klia] брать высоту
cricket
He cleared 2 metres. Он в з я л высоту 2 метра,
3) "Is ping-pong popular w i t h your schoolmates?"
to climb [klaim] лезть, взбираться
boxing
to climb a rope лезть по канату
fencing
to climb a pole лезть по шесту
water-polo
to compete [ k a m ' p k t ] состязаться, соревноваться
"Yes, I should t h i n k so."
They compete for the first place. Они соревнуются за первое место,
"No, I can't say i t is."
to defeat [ d i ' f k t ] нанести п о р а ж е н и е , победить
4) "Shall we play a game of chess?"
This team has not been defeated this year. Эту команду еще
draughts
никто в этом году не п о б е ж д а л .
badminton
Ant. to suffer a defeat потерпеть п о р а ж е н и е
table-tennis
to even ['i:van] the score сравнять счет
" I don't m i n d . Go and fetch the chess-board.'
to go in for заниматься (каким-л. видом спорта)
the rackets
I go i n for gymnastics. Я занимаюсь гимнастикой,
the balls
to jump прыгать
!>) "How did you like the match?"
to high-jump 1) прыгать в высоту; 2) взять высоту
the competition
Н е high jumped 2 metres. О н в з я л высоту 2 метра.
the tournament
to long-jump 1) прыгать в д л и н у ; 2) взять длину
the game
Н е longjumped 7 metres. О н прыгнул в длину на 7 метров,
"Oh, I enjoyed i t greatly."
to put the shot толкать я д р о
(i) "What is the name of this sportsman?"
Syn. to push the weight
this boxer
to root [ r u : t ] поддерживать; поощрять, болеть (for)
the team captain
I root for the Spartak team. Я болею за команду «Спартак».
the referee
Syn. to support
the winner
to score [sko:] выигрывать; иметь успех, удачу
Number Six
to score a goal забить гол
" I ' m afraid I missed i t myself."
to score a point выиграть очко
i) What do you do i n the gym?"
to score a victory одержать победу
at your athletics lessons
to win [win] (won [wAn], won) выиграть; победить, одержать победу
during your trainings
Our sports society won the cup. Н а ш е спортивное общество
"Well, we usually do exercises on the horizontal bar."
завоевало к у б о к .
the parallel bars
Н е won the gold (silver, bronze) medal. Он получил золотую
the balance-beam
(серебряную, бронзовую) медаль.
the rings
M) W h a t team do you support?"
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE like best
belong to
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS " I root for the Dynamo team."
belong to Spartak
1) "What sports do you go in for?l' Lions
" I go i n for gymnastics." 'м What is the score?"
callisthenics ["he score Is l : 0 M n favour of our team."
cycling 5:3 the visiting team
swimming - 12:2 Zenith
skiing ' i и г и , i d one to n i l Spartak
I'.H
10) "With what score did "Cardiff has a first-class football team."
the game end?" "Yes, but the Edinburgh players won because they are faster."
the match " I t looks like that."
the meeting IV
the first half
"Our team won the game 5 : 1 . " "What's your result i n the hop, step, and jump?"
1

lost the game 1:5 "Well, nothing to boast of."


evened the score "But you used to be the school champion!"
to a 3:3 draw "That's right, 'used to be' . . . M y record was beaten twice last
defeated the oppo­ year and I s t i l l can't regain m y usual sporting form."
nents by 5:4
11) "What are his results i n
• the long jump?" her " I ' m looking for a partner for a game of tennis."
the high jump your "Oh, I ' l l be glad to play w i t h you."
the 100 metre "David? No, you're too fast for me."
; run • "Never fear, * I ' l l give easy balls and y o u ' l l be able to take them.
pole-vaulting " H e was offside, D a d l " So come along!"
shotputting VI
" W e l l , at the last contest he managed to long-jump 6 metres."
to high-jump 180 c m . "By the way, how did the game
to clear 2 metres of table-tennis end?"
to take the first place: "You mean the one I played
11.5 seconds w i t h Robert? He lost i t 3 to 2."
- to w i n the run w i t h a "Oh, no, I mean the one you
time of 8 m i n 42.1 sec. played w i t h Kate."
" W i t h Kate? Let me see . . .
CONVERSATIONS She won i t 5 to 0."

1 VII
"What sport do you go i n for?" "Shall we consider the game a
" W e l l , I ' m not much of a sportsman. Just sometimes I play ten­ draw?"
nis. I ' m rather a supporter." "Why should we? Your k i n g is
"Do you back some definite team?" in check." • Penalised players: "Say, ref, can't we
"Certainly, I ' m a fan of Spartak." "i >h, you don't want to finish have a few more m i n u t e s . "
11 in a draw, then you w i l l
II cud i t i n a checkmate. There, I ' l l save m y king from the check by
" I say, J i m , wasn't i t you who dived at the Society's swimming- taking your k n i g h t . "
pool the other day?" "Now, wait a minute. I d i d n ' t notice i t . . . "
3
"Why, yes, that was me. D i d I do anything wrong?" "Serves you r i g h t , now you're a checkmate."
"Oh, no, but I thought you went i n for gymnastics as you had
t o l d me." Ml!
"That's right, I ' m s t i l l keen on gymnastics, and diving is one of " I hear cricket is the national game i n England. H o w is i t played?"
the things that we gymnasts must do." " I I ' • . rather difficult to describe; you have to see i t played. One
i inie may last two days."
Ill r , 1
lo boast [boust] х в а с т а т ь
" W e l l , that was a good game, wasn't it?" I Never fear H e б о й с я
II

"Yes, the best we've seen this winter." ( I I ) Serves you r i g h t Т а к тебе и н а д о

197
196
"Two days! That must be very t i r i n g . " 1 sport is an important part of the Englishman's daily life. But of
"But the players don't all play at the same time, and nine play­ all sports at least two have won" the greatest popularity among
ers are always w a i t i n g for their t u r n to play." Britons: these are football (which is, unlike i n the Soviet Union,
"There are eleven players on each side, aren't there?" played i n winter) and cricket (played i n summer).
"Yes, but the players on one side go and play i n pairs, while I can't but mention also Rugby, a kind of English football in
eleven on the other side are t r y i n g to beat them." which the players use their hands for carrying the b a l l . This game
"So i t ' s eleven against two all the time. That sounds rather un­ is played by teams of 15 men w i t h an oval b a l l .
1

fair." Other sports such as golf, tennis, b o w l i n g , horse-racing are


"No, i t isn't unfair. Cricket is supposed to be the fairest game i n also very popular i n England. Young people go in. for traditional
the world. B u t you should see i t for yourself . . . " athletics—running, jumping, rowing, swimming, boxing and s o o n .
But those who take to motoring, hunting or fishing continue w i t h
IX these sports even i n middle age and on.
I n Scotland where there are good conditions for winter sports,
"Look, there is that wonder-boy again." skiing and climbing have attracted the enthusiasm of thousands,
"Yes, I see h i m practising every Sunday." particularly i n recent years.
"Practising once a week? That w o n ' t give h i m enough s k i l l , I ' m B r i t a i n enjoys the reputation of a sporting nation, but s t i l l ,
afraid." 2
to the public at l a r g e sport means i n the first place being a fan
"Of course not, and he's t r a i n i n g every day. I only said I could or a backer.
watch h i m on Sundays."

X
"What are the most popular w i n t e r sports i n the Soviet Union?" STORY 2
" I t h i n k i t ' s skiing and skating. You can see thousands of people
leaving b i g cities for the country on a Sunday morning." (Ted Elliot describes how golf and bowling are played.)
2
"And what about tobogganing? I t h i n k i t must be also very
widely spread i n Russia." W h a t is golf? I n short, the game consists of h i t t i n g a hard
"Well, sledges are s t i l l great fun for villagers and children, but l i t t l e ball and then walking after i t . There are nine or eighteen
toboggan is practically unknown in this country." holes made i n the ground about a hundred yards from each other.
Around each hole there's a smooth flat lawn. You h i t the ball
XI from hole to hole and the player who reaches the last hole w i t h
8
the fewest strokes wins the game.
" I wish I could swim as fast as that g i r l . " Bowling is also great fun. The ground for i t is rather l a r g e -
" W e l l , what prevents you from achieving her success?" half a tennis court. The game is usually played indoors. You are
"Time . . . rather—lack of time. I can't a f f o r d training every 3
given a big heavy wooden ball, the size of child's head w i t h a
day, you know." hidden handle i n i t . You take this ball by the handle, take
very careful aim and send i t rolling along a special track to beat
4
"1 think you lack something more than time, say, will-power, eh?" the nine p i n s at the end of i t . On the face of i t , * the game
leems very easy — you take a ball and throw i t , but actually it
STORY 1
lakes a l i t t l e practice, because at first the ball would never go
Itraight.
(Ted Elliot, an English schoolboy, tells his Soviet friends about
Now, did you understand the way those two games are played?
favourite sports in Britain.)
You ask me about sports i n B r i t a i n . I t ' s rather difficult to
describe the subject i n a short talk. W e l l , speaking i n general, 1
bowling ['boulrrj] и г р а в ш а р ы
2
1
tiring у т о м и т е л ь н ы й public at large ш и р о к а я п у б л и к а
:l
2
tobogganing [ t s ' b o g a n i r j ] к а т а н и е н а с а л а з к а х типа т о б о г г а н (toboggan stroke [ s t r o u k ] у д а р , п о п ы т к а
тобогган, сани без полозьев, скользящие днищем) * p i n [ p i n ] зд. к е г л я
6
3
to afford [ 3 ' f o ; d ] п о з в о л и т ь с е б е On the face of it Н а п е р в ы й в з г л я д

198
to give somebody a call позвонить кому-л. (по телефону)
I shall give you a call. Я вам позвоню.
to put through a call соединить (по телефону)
Your call has been put through. Вас соединили,
trunk-call [Чглпккэ:1] вызов но междугородному телефону
Where can I make a trunk-call? Откуда м о ж н о позвонить по
междугородному телефону?
delivery [di'hvan] доставка, разноска (писем, газет)
Your letter came by the second delivery. Вам п р и ш л о письмо
со второй почтой,
mail [meilj почта, почтовая корреспонденция
I had a lot of mail yesterday. Вчера я получил большую
почту (т. е. много писем, газет и т. д.).
Syn. post
air-mail авиапочта
post [poust] почта
D u r i n g the stone age: "You lucky Has the post come yet? Почта у ж е прибыла?
d e v i l , I have a letter for y o u . " by post (посылать) по почте
A. SITUATIONS I ' l l send the book by post. Я пошлю эту книгу по почте,
book post пересылка бандеролью
1) You buy envelopes (postage stamps, post-cards, etc,) at a post- parcel post служба посылок
office counter. phone [foun] (telephone ['tehfoun]) телефон
2) You ask the post-office clerk of the charge of a letter (tele­ May I use your phone? М о ж н о воспользоваться вашим теле­
gram, money order, etc.) you want to send. фоном?
3) You are sending (or cashing) a money order at a post-office. You are wanted on the phone. В а с п р о с я т к телефону.
4) You book a trunk-call. The telephone is dead. Телефон не отвечает.
5) You inquire the Information for the telephone number of the I couldn't get h i m on the phone. Я не мог к нему дозвониться.
person you need. to speak over (on, by) the telephone говорить по телефону
6) You are having a business talk over the telephone. home phone домашний телефон
7) You ask a telephone exchange officer to put your private house phone внутренний телефон (в гостинице)
telephone right. private ['praivit] phone личный телефон
8) You find a letter (book, parcel, etc.) put into your mailbox public phone телефон-автомат
by mistake and have a talk w i t h the postman. I ' m calling from the public phone. Я звоню из автомата;
9) You ring up your friend who turns to be out and leave a mes­ Syn. call-box
sage for h i m . (telephone) directory телефонный справочник
10) You explain to your younger brother (sister) or a small boy
(girl) in the street how to use the public phone.
11) You tell a jocular story connected w i t h misuse of the tele­
phone.
12) You discuss w i t h your friends the problem "Means of Commu­ Imolh [bu:5] б у д к а
nication Today and a Century Ago". telephone booth телефонная будка
Is there a telephone booth anywhere here? Есть ли здесь по­
B . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y близости телефонная будка?
exchange [iks'tjemds] ц е н т р а л ь н а я телефонная с т а н ц и я , коммутатор,
1 подстанция АТС
trunk exchange междугородная телефонная станция
call Iко: 11 телефонный вызов, звонок по телефону Information [.mfa'meifan] справки (по телефону)
Were there any calls for me? Мне звонили? I didn't know his telephone number, so I called up the Infor-
I shall be w a i t i n g for your call. Я буду ж д а т ь вашего звонка.
201
200
mation. Я не знал номера его телефона, поэтому я позвонил anonymous [a'nanimas] letter анонимное письмо
в справочную. ordinary ['a:dman] letter простое письмо
. office ['afis] контора; пункт; окно registered ['redsistad] letter з а к а з н о е письмо
parcel office окно приема посылок I want to have the letter registered. Я хочу отправить з а к а з ­
post-office почтовое отделение ное письмо.
General (Central) Post-Office (G.P.O.) главпочтамт paste restante letter письмо до востребования
call-office переговорный пункт air-mail letter письмо, отправляемое авиапочтой
inquiry office справочное бюро collect letter доплатное письмо
poste restante ['poust 'restant] 1) отделение на почте д л я коррес­ Syn. unstamped letter
понденции до востребования; 2) «до востребования» (надпись letter of attorney [a'ta:ni] доверенность
на конверте) letter-box почтовый ящик
When I travel, I get letters poste restante. Когда я путеше­ Syn. mailbox, pillar-box (В. E.) уличная тумба с почтовым
ствую, я получаю письма до востребования, ящиком
savings-bank ['seivnjzbamk] сберегательная касса message j'mesid-,] сообщение; письмо, послание
switch-board ['swit fbo:d] коммутатор (распределительный щит) Is there any message for me? Мне ничего не передавали?
postal (money) order ['a:da] почтовый перевод
Where do they deal w i t h money orders? Где оформляют по .то-
3 вые переводы?
parcel ['pasl] посылка; пакет, сверток
addressee [,aedre'si:] адресат Where do they weigh parcels? Где- взвешивают посылки?
I want the telegram to reach the addressee by tonight. Я хочу, book parcel бандероль
чтобы телеграмма попала к адресату до вечера, post-card ['poustkad] почтовая открытка
addressee unknown адресат не числится, выбыл plain post-card обычная открытка
clerk [ k l a k ] с л у ж а щ и й , почтовый с л у ж а щ и й picture post-card художественная о т к р ы т к а
customer ['kAstama] клиент printed matter ['prmtid 'maeta] бандероль
operator ['apareita] телефонист(ка), телеграфист(ка) A t what window do they deal w i t h printed matter? В к а к о м
Operator! Town (City), please. Коммутатор! Город, п о ж а л у й с т а , окне принимают (выдают) бандероли?
postman ['poustman] почтальон Can I have the printed matter registered? Можно отправить
sender ['sends] отправитель з а к а з н у ю бандероль?
stamp [ s t a m p ] м а р к а
4 Give me one rouble's worth of stamps, please. Д а й т е мне, по­
ж а л у й с т а , на рубль марок.
address [a'dres] адрес telegram ['tehgraem] телеграмма
Do you charge for the address of a telegram? Вы берете плату What does a telegram of fifteen words cost? С к о л ь к о стоит
за адрес в телеграмме? телеграмма в пятнадцать слов?
return address обратный адрес Syn. wire, cable телеграмма (посланная по подводному кабелю),
envelope ['enviloup] конверт express telegram срочная телеграмма
stamped envelope конверт с маркой urgent telegram телеграмма-молния
A stamped envelope, if you please. Конверт с маркой, пожа­ phototelegram [,fouta 'teligraem] фототелеграмма
луйста,
form [fa:m] б л а н к
Give me a telegraph form, please. Д а й т е мне, п о ж а л у й с т а , •>
г

телеграфный б л а н к .
F i l l i n this form. З а п о л н и т е этот б л а н к , money ['галш] деньги
letter ['letaj письмо to draw money out получить в к л а д (в сберкассе) "
The letter must go off now. Письмо необходимо отправить to put money in делать денежный в к л а т (в сберкассу)
сейчас ж е . rate [reit] т а р и ф
Here is a letter in your name. Вот письмо на ваше и м я . What is the rate for a telegram? К а к о в т а р и ф на телеграммы?

202 233 '


What is the rate per word? С к о л ь к о стоит слово (в телеграмме)? Syn. to telephone, to phone, to give smb. a ring
at lower rate по льготному тарифу Let's give h i m a ring. Д а в а й т е ему позвоним,
postage ['poustid3] почтовая оплата, почтовые расходы to send [send] (sent, sent) о т п р а в л я т ь
What is the postage on registered letters? С к о л ь к о стоит от­ to send smth. insured ( w i t h declared value) отправлять что-л.
п р а в к а з а к а з н ы х писем? с объявленной ценностью
Syn. charge оплата услуг Do you want to send the parcel insured or otherwise? Вы хо­
receipt [ n ' s k t ] квитанция тите отправить посылку с объявленной ценностью или без?
Don't forget to get the receipt. He забудьте получить кви­ to send smth. by book post отправить что-л. бандеролью
танцию. to send smth. by air-mail отправлять что-л. авиапочтой
to send collect посылать доплатным
to take up the receiver снять т р у б к у
Syn. to pick up the receiver
to accept [ok'sept] принимать to wire ['waiaj телеграфировать
Do you accept parcels? Вы принимаете посылки? Wire your arrival. Телеграфируйте о своем прибытии.
to answer the telephone подойти к телефону Syn.' to cable, to telegraph
to apply [a'plai] обращаться
A p p l y to the clerk at the next window. Обратитесь в следую­
щее окно. Are you there? В ы у телефона?
to book a trunk-call to N . з а к а з а т ь междугородный разговор с Н . The line is clear (engaged). Л и ­
Syn. to make (to put through) a trunk-call ния свободна (занята).
to call [ko:l] звонить по телефону You are through. Вас соединили.
Who shall I say is calling? А к а к с к а з а т ь , кто говорит? Говорите.
to cash [kаеJ] получить деньги You've got the wrong number.
I'd like to cash the money order. Я хочу получить деньги по Вы набрали не тот номер.
переводу. Who's that calling (speaking)?
to collect [ko'lekt] получать (посылки, письма до востребования, Кто это говорит?
денежные переводы и т. п.) Would you like to leave a mes­
Can I collect a parcel? Можно получить посылку? sage? Хотите что-нибудь пе­
to collect smth. by proxy получить что-либо по доверенности редать?
to correspond [,kons'pond] переписываться Would you mind calling later?
to dial ['daiol] набирать номер (по автоматическому телефону) Позвоните, пожалуйста,
What number did you dial? К а к о й вы набрали номер? позже.
to drop [drop] опускать, отправлять письмо Number, please? К а к о й номер?
Please, drop this letter into the nearest letter-box. П о ж а л у й с т а , Speaking. Я у телефона. (Слу­
опустите это письмо в б л и ж а й ш и й почтовый я щ и к , шаю.)
to drop a line черкнуть, написать несколько слов
Drop me a few lines. Черкните (напишите) мне. С I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
to enclose [m'klouz] вкладывать (в письмо и т. п.)
There was a photo enclosed in the letter. В письмо была вло­ NllltSTlTUTION PATTERNS
жена фотография.
to f i l l i n ; to fill up (A. E.) заполнить I) "Where can 1 hand i n this letter?"
to get in touch w i t h smb. соединиться, с в я з а т ь с я с кем-л. post parcel
to hang up (hung [Ьлу], hung) повесить т р у б к у book parcel
Don't hang up! l i e вешайте т р у б к у ! printed matter
Syn. Hold the wire! Hold on! "They deal w i t h i t on the first floor, Window 5, please."
to post [poust] отправлять по почте Counter 8
Syn. to send, to mail "Book Post" window
to ring [rig] up (rang [ram], rung [глп]) звонить по телефону "Parcel Post" window
205
204
2) "Is this the right window for posting registered letters?" 7) "Can I book a call through to Moscow now?"
sending telegrams to Paris
receiving parcels to London
poste restante letters " I ' m sorry, but the line is engaged now."
booking a trunk-call the line is out of order
stamps and post-cards there's no connection w i t h that c i t y
"No, sir (madam), you have to apply to the next window." you can be put through only in two hours.
Window 6 8) " H u l l o , operator! Put me through to number seven-six-eight."
the "Money Orders'' to the secretary
to M r . Jones
3) "What's the charge for a registered letter?" window to the c i t y
an air-mail letter to the hotel manager
an express telegram " I ' m p u t t i n g your call through, sir."
a trunk-call to Moscow 9) " H u l l o ! Is this number two-twenty-two?'
" I t w i l l cost 2 pence." the secretary
cents Mr. Jones
kopecks Information
4) "When w i l l the addressee receive this letter if I send i t r i g h t Manager's Office
away?" book parcel " I can't hear you w e l l . "
money order make out what you're saying
telegram hear your name
"It'll be deliveredin two hours." make out who's speaking
in two
days CONVERSATIONS
tomor­
row morning
5) "Hey, Jack, the postman has I
brought a foreign letter for you."
"Hullo!"
a money order
" W i l l you please call Robert to the phone?"
an unstamped letter
"Sorry, he isn't i n , he's gone on holidays."
an urgent telegram
"When do you expect h i m back?"
" I ' m looking forward to i t .
"In about a week, I t h i n k . "
Where is it?"
6) "What shall I do w i t h this
form?" II
"You just write your name in
full here," "Speaking."
write your name "Hullo! I t ' s Bob Brown calling. May I speak to Ann?"
1
legibly "Лип is out. W o u l d you like to leave a message?"
fill it in "No, thank you, I ' l l call later."
f i l l in the reverse
2
side
sign here Ill
write the address
in block letters 'SI George's Hospital."
[way I speak to Doctor Nelson Brown?"
1
"He's busy at the moment. W h o shall I say is calling?"
l e g i b l y ['ledssbh] р а з б о р ч и в о
l
' reverse side о б р а т н а я с т о р о н а "oh, never m i n d , I ' l l call up later."
207
206
IV IX
"You can call me at number 832—82—14." "Please, how much is air-mail to Moscow?"
"Is there any extension?" "It's 6 kopecks, sir."
"Give me two 6-kopecks stamps, please."
"None, just dial the number and I ' l l be there at your service." "Here are the stamps, but I can offer you an air-mail envelope."
"No, thank you, I want the stamps."

V"
"Were there any calls today?" X
"Yes, there was one."
"Who was calling? D i d he leave a message for me?" "Can I send a parcel from here?"
"Oh no, that was a wrong number c a l l . " "By all means, sir."
"Do I have to have the parcel wrapped?"
"We can do i t for you, sir. You've got to tell us the address."
VI
"Thanks."
" I must get in touch w i t h H a r r y . H o w can I do it?"
" I f you want to see H a r r y , you ought to go and visit h i m . B u t
he is also on the phone and I can give you his telephone number." XI
"Do you t h i n k a visit is better than a telephone conversation?"
" W e l l , i t depends. For a serious matter i t certainly is." " I hope y o u ' l l drop me a line about yourself."
" I ' d gladly do, but how shall I know your address when you are
(ravelling?"
VII "You know which towns w e ' l l stop i n , don't you?"
"Yes, I do, and the dates, too."
1
"Hello, Lizzie! That y o u ? I say, w h y d i d n ' t you come yesterday? "Very w e l l . So address your letters poste restante, General Post-
I was w a i t i n g for you for no less than two hours." Office."
"Oh, I ' m awfully sorry, Paul, but I d i d n ' t feel w e l l . I couldn't
give you a call as our telephone was out of order."
"Yes, I was t r y i n g to get you on the phone but I failed. What do XII
you say to going to the pictures tomorrow?"
" W e l l , I don't know if I ' l l be all right by then. Anyhow, ring me "Is that you, Sam? Hello!"
up tomorrow morning, w i l l you?" "1 lello! That's me. W h a t is i t you want to tell me? Just in a
1
"Certainly, L i z . " n u t s h e l l if you please. I must be going."
"Where are you going?"
T i n going to the stationer's."
VIII "To the station? Are you going away?"
" I said I was going to the stationer's. I have to buy two or three
"Is this Dr. Jones' flat?" Invelopes. I want to write some letters today."
"Yes, i t is. Who's speaking?" " I beg your pardon."
"Tony Richards. I ' m Mary's friend. Is Mary at home?" I aid I wanted to write some letters."
"Yes, she is. She's having lunch at the moment." " Y m i want to write some letters at the station?"
" I ' l l ring her up i n twenty minutes if you don't m i n d . " "No! A t home."
"You're welcome, Tony." " Y o u ' l l be at home? B u t you said you were going to the station!"

' T h a t you? coll. = Is t h a t you? 1


in a nutshell BKpaTue, B flByx CJIOBSX

208 209
A STORY
20
(Kate Somova tells the story about her friend Lena who works at a
post-office.)
IN T H E COUNTRY.
FARMING
S H E W O R K S AT T H E POST-OFFICE

If we want to register a letter, to buy stamps or envelopes, to It ДЕРЕВНЕ. СЕЛЬСКОЕ


send a telegram or a money order, we go to the post-office. Here,
we generally get a quick service and we seldom t h i n k of those who
ХОЗЯЙСТВО
are on the other side of the counter.
A postal clerk's work may seem boring and mechanical to some
people, but m y friend Lena, who is one, disagrees. She thinks her
work offers endless variety. I ' d like to tell you a fewwords about her.
When she finished a secondary school t w o years ago, she de­
cided to work at a post-office. Why? She s t i l l thinks that this was "Eh—most people grow carrots from
1
not her v o c a t i o n at all but she chose i t because she's a good , seed!"
2
mixer. A. S I T U A T I O N S
8
Lena's small post-office is i n a large new housing estate. A t
the b i g post-offices machines read addresses, sort the m a i l which 1) You tell your friend of your visit to a farm.
is then automatically taken to the lorries running to the railway 2) On returning from a h i k i n g tour you tell your friends about
stations and airports. B u t at the small post-offices the m a i l is the scenery of the places you have visited.
'Л) sorted by hand and that is not so easy. That's why almost all the You are a tourist interviewing a farmer.
1
telephone-exchange operators and m a i l sorters whose job calls for 4 ) Being a b u d d i n g amateur gardener, you consult your experi­
great concentration work six hours a day instead of eight as in enced neighbour on some gardening essentials.
other trades. •'>) Members of the Young Naturalist Society plan their work on
Lena knows all the regular customers. The girls share their l i t t l e the school plot for the coming season.
secrets w i t h her. Youngsters prefer the poste restante system as a I.) You talk to a guide at the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x h i b i t i o n .
means of escaping, as they t h i n k , the "inquisitive eyes" of parents. 7) Having helped the collective farmers to gather i n the crops,
She's always ready to do all she can to help the customers and you tell your father (mother, etc.) of your work i n the fields.
this attracts elderly people to her, too. K) Wishing to present your friend (mother) w i t h a bouquet of
Her work begins at 8 a . m . and the first customers come up flowers, you have a t a l k w i t h the florist while choosing them.
to her counter: "May I register this letter, please?", "Lena, is there 9) While on a train (coach) passing by the fields (orchards or
anything for me in the poste restante?", "Is this the right counter woods), you t a l k w i t h your fellow passenger and compare notes
for parcels?", "Good morning. I ' d like a stamp and two envelopes.". of the view opening to your eyes.
The working day passes q u i c k l y . 10) Your English pen-friend, the son of a farmer, tells you about
Several times she has worked in the post-office w h i c h is set up their farm.
at the K r e m l i n during international congresses. She says she found 11) You discuss the news reports from the fields.
some difficulty because she doesn't know English or French very I',') You discuss the advantages of the socialist way of farming.
w e l l . Now she is taking a correspondence course i n foreign lan­
guages. . . . I I . TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y
Please send letters and telegrams at Lena's counter.
1
1
v o c a t i o n [ v o u ' k e i j a n ] зд. п р и з в а н и е
2
mixer общительный человек
n i ' i к iiItnre ['aegnkAltfa] сельское хозяйство, земледелие
8
new housing estate н о в ы й ж и л о й р а й о н ' ( / " f a r m i n g , husbandry
' Untitling перен, начинающий

211
field husbandry полеводство There is a job for everyone in the harvest. В о время ж а т в ы
animal husbandry животноводство для всех хватает работы,
cattle ['kaetlj скот hay [hei] сено
How many head of cattle are there on your farm? С к о л ь к о A t haymaking time the pupils helped the collective farmers
голов скота у вас в хозяйстве? to make hay. В о в р е м я сенокоса ученики помогали к о л х о з н и к а м
Syn. livestock убирать сено.
cattle breeding скотоводство hay stack [staek] стог сена
crop [kropj 1) сельскохозяйственная к у л ь т у р а land [ l a n d ] з е м л я , почва, грунт
What crops does your farm grow? К а к и е к у л ь т у р ы выращива­ The land is very fertile here. З е м л я здесь очень п л о д о р о д н а я .
ются в вашем хозяйстве? Syn. soil почва i
field crop полевая к у л ь т у р а virgin ['va:d3in] land ц е л и н н а я земля
industrial crop техническая к у л ь т у р а irrigated ['ingeitid] lands поливные земли
2) урожай silage ['sailid.3] силос
heavy crop богатый у р о ж а й Have you ever watched silage put up? В ы когда-нибудь видели,
crop failure неурожай как закладывают силос?
Syn. harvest, yield straw [stro:] солома
farm [fain] ферма, хозяйство yield [ j i : l d ] у р о ж а й ; количество производимой п р о д у к ц и и
How long have you been working on this farm? Сколько вре­ This tree gave a poor yield last year. В прошлом голу это
мени (как долго) вы работаете в этом хозяйстве? дерево д а л о плохой у р о ж а й .
collective farm колхоз yield (per hectare, per acre) урожайность (т. е. урожай
dairy I'dean] farm молочная ферма, молочное хозяйство с гектара, с а к р а и т . д.)
poultry ['poultn] farm птицеферма milk yield удой молока
state farm совхоз
Syn. household ['haushould] хозяйство, семья
peasant household крестьянское хозяйство
2
farming ['famin] сельское хозяйство, з а н я т и е сельским хозяйством bed [bed] грядка
How many people are engaged in farming? С к о л ь к о людей за­ flowerbed клумба
нято в сельском хозяйстве? field [ f i : l d ] поле
animal farming животноводческое хозяйство Fields in England usually have hedges, fences or stone walls.
diversified [dai'va:sifaid] farming многоотраслевое хозяйство П о л я в Англии обычно о г р а ж д а ю т с я изгородями, заборами
grain farming зерновое хозяйство или каменными оградами,
fertilizer ['fa:tilaiza] удобрение ïtrden ['ga:dn] 1) сад; 2) огород
Fertilizer is used to make the soil more fertile. Удобрения ис­ Syn. kitchen-garden огород
пользуют д л я того, чтобы сделать почву более плодородной. Meadow ['medou] л у г
fodder [ Ъ З э ] корм, ф у р а ж < ows and sheep graze in the meadow. Коровы и овцы пасутся
We have a good fodder base to develop cattle breeding. У нас на л у г у .
есть х о р о ш а я кормовая база д л я развития скотоводства. Syn. grassland
grain [grem] зерно, зерновая к у л ь т у р а Orchard I'oitfad] фруктовый сад
The chief grains grown in w a r m climates are rice, maize and Mlture I'pastfa] пастбище, выгон
m i l l e t . Главные зерновые к у л ь т у р ы , возделываемые в ж а р к и х I>I<>I [plot] участок земли
странах,— это рис, к у к у р у з а и просо. Wood Iwud] роща, лес (часто pi)
harvest ['havist] 1) у р о ж а й '•un. forest
We shall gather in a rich harvest. Мы соберем богатый у р о ж а й .
to beat down the harvest снизить у р о ж а й
The drought [draut] beat the harvest down. З а с у х а снизила
урожай. lil.iv.niii I'bbssm] цвет (фруктовых деревьев), цветение
Syn. crop, yield the cherry blossoms smell so sweetl Цвет вишни так приятно
2) жатва пахнет!
212 213
Is your orchard i n blossom yet? В а ш с а д у ж е цветет? bunch [ЬлптТ] б у к е т (одинаковых цветов)
Syn. bloom цвет, цветение (о р а с т е н и я х , не дающих съедоб­ corn-flower ['komflauo] василек
ных плодов) dahlia ['deiljo] георгин
branch [brantf] ветка, ветвь daisy ['deizij м а р г а р и т к а
bud [bAd] почка W h a t about picking a bunch of daisies? Почему бы не н а р в а т ь
bush [ b u j ] куст, кустарник б у к е т и к маргариток?
- ear [is] колосок forget-me-not [ b ' g e t m m o t ] незабудка
flower f'flaua] цветок H o w sweet these forget-me-nots smell! К а к п р и я т н о п а х н у т эти
grass [gras] трава незабудки!
leaf [ l i : f ] (pi leaves) лист lilac [Tailak] сирень
to come into leaf п о к р ы т ь с я листвой Illy [ ' l i b ] л и л и я
plant [ p l a n t ] растение
Your lilies are a picture this year. В этом году у вас в е л и к о ­
root fru:t] корень
seed [si:d] семя, семена лепные л и л и и .
stalk [sto:k] стебель Illy of the valley [ ' l i b ov 5 э 'vaeh] л а н д ы ш
stump [stAmp] пень peony ['рюш] пион
trunk [tnrnk] ствол poppy ['popi] м а к
Itiiip ['tju:hp] т ю л ь п а н
4 May I cut some of these lovely tulips? М о ж н о срезать н е с к о л ь к о
этих прелестных тюльпанов?
barley ['bah] ячмень
When is barley sown? Когда сеют ячмень?
cotton f k o t n ] хлопок Г>
flax [flaeks] лен
acacia [o'keija] а к а ц и я
Flax is your chief crop, isn't it? Л е н — в а ш а основная к у л ь ­
т у р а , не так л и ? birch [bo:tJ] береза
maize [meiz] к у к у р у з а chestnut ['tjesnAt] к а ш т а н
liiuc(-tree) [laim] л и п а
The maize is almost ripe to be harvested. К у к у р у з а почти со­
Lime-trees usually come into leaf after willows. Л и п ы обычно
зрела для у б о р к и .
Syn. corn (А.Е.) покрываются листвой вслед за и в а м и .
oats [outs] pi овес Iliaplc [ m e i p l ] клен
n.ili( tree) [ouk] дуб
Oats are chiefly used as food for horses. Овес главным образом
используют как корм д л я лошадей. pl.inc(-tree) [plem] п л а т а н
rye [rai| рожь poplar ['popio] тополь
sugar-beet I ' f u g a b k t ] с а х а р н а я сбекла i tvll'ow ['wilou] ива
sunflower ['sAnflaua] подсолнух
weed [ w i : d ] сорняк
Great harm is caused by weeds. Сорняки причиняют большой
вред.
wheat [ w i : t ] пшеница iiiinbiiie I'kombain] (combine harvester) комбайн
spring wheat яровая пшеница hull пилы
winter wheat озимая пшеница Inn row I'haerou] борона
hoc I bouI с а п к а , мотыга
5 tit Н К11 if* machine [ ' m i l k i n m o ' J i m ] д о и л ь н а я машина
ріші^іі Iplau] плуг
bluebell f'blmbel] к о л о к о л ь ч и к
pi lining shears ['prmniij 'Jioz] секатор
bouquet f'bukei] букет (разных цветов)
Гйкг 11«-1 i< I грабли
Isn't that a nice bouquet? Р а з в е это не замечательный букет?
«і < Hie | s i i i O | коса
Syn. nosegay | ' i u ) i i / i | C i |
lllovt'l I'J"лv 11 лопата (совковая)
VI I 215
sickle ['sikl] серп
sowing-machine [ ' s o u m m a j k n ] с е я л к а sheep [Ji:p] (pi sheep) овца
spade [speidj лопата, заступ The sheep bleat. О в ц ы блеют,
thresher ['бгеГэ] молотилка a flock of sheep о т а р а овец
ram баран
lamb [1азт] ягненок
8
10
barn [ban] амбар
cowshed ['каиГэа] коровник to cultivate ['kAltiveit] к у л ь т и ­
hotbed ['hotbed] парник вировать (почву, растения)
hothouse Thothaus] теплица, о р а н ж е р е я to dig [dig] (dug, dug [dAj]) ко­
Syn. greenhouse пать
incubator ['mkjubeita] инкубатор This plot needs to be dug up.
mill [ m i l ] мельница Этот участок н у ж н о вско­
pigsty fpigstai] свинарник пать.
stable ['steibl] конюшня, хлев lo fertilize ['faitilaiz] удобрять
to gather in ['даеЗэг ' i n ] соби- " T h a t t h i n g gets better fed t h a n I do!"
9 рать у р о ж а й
When w i l l you gather in the crop? Когда вы будете собирать
bull [bul] бык урожай?
The bulls bellow. Б ы к и ревут. to harrow ['haerou] бороновать
After ploughing the ground should be harrowed thoroughly.
Syn. OX (pi ОХеП; 6 Ы К , В О Л
cock [кэк] петух После в с п а ш к и землю следует тщательно забороновать,
The cocks crow [krouj "Cock-a-doodle-do". Петухи к у к а р е к а ю т lo mow [mou] косить, ж а т ь
(кричат «кукареку»), What is hay mowed w i t h nowadays? Чем сейчас косят сено?
cow [kau] корова to plant [ p l a n t ] с а ж а т ь , сеять
The cows low [lou]. К о р о в ы мычат. Why not plant an apple-tree here? Почему бы здесь не поса­
a herd of cows стадо к о р о в дить яблоню?
calf [ka:f] теленок (о plough [plau] п а х а т ь
heifer ['hefa] телка to prune [pru:n] подрезать
dog [dog] собака to rake [reik] з а р а в н и в а т ь , подчищать граблями
The dogs bark, growl [graul] and howl [haul]. Собаки лают, (о reap [ri:p] ж а т ь
рычат и воют. to ripen ['raipn] созревать
puppy f'pApi] щенок Cherries w i l l ripen soon. Вишни с к о р о созреют,
duck [с1лк] у т к а lo sow [sou] (sowed, sown) сеять
The ducks quack [kwsek]. У т к и к р я к а ю т . Next year we shall sow this field w i t h rye. В будущем году
drake [dreik] селезень мы засеем это поле р о ж ь ю ,
duckling утенок (о stack [staek] hay (straw) скирдовать сено (солому)
goat [gout] коза, козел lo hike to root приниматься (о растениях)
hen [hen] к у р и ц а to thresh [0rej] молотить
The hens cackle and cluck. К у р ы к у д а х ч у т . to weed [wi:d] полоть
chick цыпленок When shall we weed this plot? Когда мы будем полоть этот участок?
horse [1ID:S] лошадь to wither ['wida] у в я д а т ь , в я н у т ь , сохнуть; высушить
The horses neigh. Л о ш а д и р ж у т . II
a herd of horses табун лошадей
to breed [ b r i : d ] (bred, bred) разводить, выводить
pig [pig] свинья
The pigs grunt. Свиньи х р ю к а ю т . We breed sheep for meat and for wool. Мы разводим овец,
чтобы получить мясо и шерсть.
216
217
a breed порода 3) "Do you employ farm machinery on a wide scale?"
Our farm has only the best breeds of cattle. У нас в хозяйстве "Certainly, we use all kinds of modern machines including
т о л ь к о л у ч ш и е породы скота. combine harvesters."
to develop [di'velap] р а з в и в а т ь , выводить, осваивать potato planters
Plants develop from seeds. Р а с т е н и я развиваются из семян, haymaking machines
to develop new lands осваивать новые земли m i l k i n g machines
to be engaged [in'geid3d] in smth. заниматься чём-л.
4) " W h a t farm buildings have you put up lately?"
This collective farm is engaged in diversified farming. Этот к о л ­ "Last year we b u i l t a new hothouse."
хоз ведет многоотраслевое хозяйство. incubator
to graze [greiz] пасти; пастись barn
Where do you graze your cattle? Где вы пасете скот? cowshed
to grow [grou] (grew, grown) в ы р а щ и в а т ь pigsty
Fruits are now grown even i n Siberia. Ф р у к т ы сейчас в ы р а щ и ­
вают д а ж е в Сибири. 5) "Where do you graze your cattle?"
Syn. to raise sheep
cows
to increase [ m ' k r k s ] п о в ы ш а т ь , увеличивать
goats
A n important task is to increase crop yields. В а ж н а я задача "They graze on the pasture over there."
состоит в том, чтобы повысить у р о ж а й н о с т ь . on the meadow
to milk доить on the grazing ground
Cows are generally milked twice a day. К о р о в обычно доят in the field
два раза в день. in the valley
6) "What do you want (to do) w i t h that spade?"
the rake
the hoe
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE the fork
the pruning shears
" I ' m going to plant a tree."
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS to dig a hole
to weed the bed
to dig this plot
1) " W h a t is this state farm engaged in?"
to water the flow­
collective farm ers
farm to rake the soil
region smooth
" I t ' s engaged in cattle breeding."
breeding sheep 7) "Look: how beautiful! W h a t
breeding poultry k i n d of flowers are these?"
growing sugar-beet "As far as I know, these are
grain farming bluebells."
animal farming daisies
2) "What crops do you raise on your farm?" forget-me-nots
grow tulips
cultivate corn-flowers
"Mainly we go i n for wheat and barley." 6) "Can you tell one tree from
potatoes beet another?" " T h a t apple-tree I b o u g h t , I ' v e
flax oats bush fertilized i t , watered i t , pruned i t , and
grapes peaches plant what .1«! 1 get? P l u m s ! "

218 219
" I n most cases 1 can. The one in front of us, for instance, Is V
a fir-tree."
an oak-tree "What is this machine used for?"
a poplar "It's employed for c u l t i v a t i n g (weeding) maize crops."
a willow "Can we see how i t operates?"
a birch "Certainly, the demonstration grounds are just behind the livestock
an acacia pavilion." %

CONVERSATIONS VI

I "You've got so sunburnt. No doubt you worked in the field."


"Yes, we did some jobs i n the field —weeding, haymaking and doing
"What are you going to do in the garden now?" other things. We had also to do some work on a dairy farm, too."
" I ' d like to cut the grass and water the trees." "Oh, really. D i d you learn to m i l k cows?"
"And when w i l l you plant new flowers on the round bed?" "Unfortunately, we d i d n ' t , as the milkmaids didn't let us. They
" I think I ' l l do that at sunset as i t ' s very hot now and they may didn't trust us those m i l k i n g machines."
not take to root."

II VII

"I've just returned from the agricultural exhibition."


"Mr. Jackson, they say you're an experienced gardener. I ' d like to
ask you something." "What did you like best there?"
"You're welcome. What is it?" "The incubators. Or better s t i l l the chicks i n them —so yellow and
1
"You see, one of m y apple-trees gave a poor yield last year and downy."
now it's turning yellow and withering. W h a t do you think the
reason could be?"
1
"Oh, there might be plenty of reasons: insects, diseases, too much
VIII
of chemicals, l i t t l e water and so on. I ' m afraid I have to see the
tree for myself." " I ' d like to have a bunch of flowers."
" W i l l i t be a present or just for home?"
" I ' m going to a friend's birthday oarty."
Ill "Then I ' d recommend you these dahlias."
" A l l r i g h t . Won't you add some green leaves?"
"What do you want w i t h the rake, Pete?" "No, I think I needn't. The- bouquet is just lovely as i t is."
" I want to weed the flowerbeds."
"But you can't do i t w i t h the rake, I ' m afraid."
" I ' l l take care not to destroy the flowers." IX

"bred, we must stop here and get out. Look how lovely i t is.
IV It's just what we were looking for."
"i'.ul why? There's nothing here but the fields."
"What grain crops do you grow here?" " t h a t ' s just i t . I've never seen such open fields. Wheat crops as
"Practically all of them—wheat, barley, rye and oats." 1.11 as you can see."
"You did not mention buckwheat."
"Well, I think i t isn't wheat, i t ' s rye. Besides, what's so surprising
"No, 'cause our soil is not f i t for i t . "
about that? As to me, I like woods better."
1
insect ['insekt] Haceisoivioe downy [ ' d n i u i i | iiyiimcTbiH

220 221
X First we were shown new cowsheds, pigsties, barns and other
farm buildings. The collective farm (as we were told) raises cows
"Alec! Kate! J i m ! Come here, all for.meat and for m i l k , and sheep for wool. Besides, i t breeds
of you!" poultry: hens, ducks, geese and even turkeys.
"What is i t , Jane?" There were no horses on the collective farm. A t least we d i d n ' t
"Just look: how plenty of straw- see them. A l l their job- is done now by tractors and lorries. The
berries! They're so ripe and juicy." collective farmers use modern machinery, such as combine harvest-
"Oh, how did you find them so ers, potato harvesters and others.
many? What if we pick them all?" I n the fields we saw all kinds of grain crops: wheat, barley,
"Yes, but what about the train? rye, oats, maize. The collective farm also grows a lot of vegetables:
I t ' s due out i n t h i r t y minutes." potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, beets, carrots and onions. There is a
large orchard on the farm, too, where we saw all kinds of fruit-
trees: apple-trees, cherry-trees, pear-trees and plum-trees.
XI The more we saw, the more we liked the collective farm. We
asked the chairman a lot of questions. We wanted to know how
"What a lovely orchard you the collective farmers ploughed the fields, looked after the cattle,
have!" fertilized the soil and did other things. The chairman was ready to
"Yes, i t is nice, thanks. I t ' s not big though." answer all our questions. He also told us about the yields of
"But I see here apple-trees, and peach-trees, and cherry-trees." different crops and the incomes of the collective farm.
"That's almost so, i n fact there is a tree of every fruit that grows Everything we saw and learned was very instructive. We prom-
in these parts: apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, apricot and aiso ised the chairman to come in autumn and help the collective
some berries." farmers to take i n their crops.

XII
"You live in a marvellous town, Ada."
" Vhy, thanks, I know I do, but what makes you t h i n k so?"
"Your streets — there is not a street without trees—chestnuts, lime-
trees, plane-trees, and even poplars."

"And best of all acacia-trees, I t h i n k , — the pride of m y town."

A STORY
(Nina Karpova tells her father about the visit she and her classmates
made to a collective farm.)

ON A C O L L E C T I V E FARM

There is a large collective farm not far from our c i t y . We heard


a lot about i t and decided to go and see i t . One day we took a
bus and i n an hour came to the collective farm.
We found the chairman of the collective farm i n the potato
field, and he was glad to show us everything we wanted to see.
The farm is really big. I t has large areas under field crops and
fruit-trees. The collective farmers breed livestock, too. I t ' s a
mixed collective farm.
222
branch of industry отрасль промышленности
automobile ['a:tamabi:l] (motor-car) industry автомобильная
промышленность
chemical ['kemikal] industry химическая промышленность
heavy industry т я ж е л а я промышленность
light industry л е г к а я промышленность
machine building industry машиностроительная промышленность
mining industry г о р н о р у д н а я промышленность
manufacture l^msnju'faektja] производство
Manchester is the centre of English cotton manufacture. Ман­
ч е с т е р — ц е н т р производства х л о п ч а т о б у м а ж н ы х т к а н е й в Ан­
глии.
metallurgy [me'tsebdji] м е т а л л у р г и я
ferrous ['feras] metallurgy черная м е т а л л у р г и я
non-ferrous metallurgy цветная м е т а л л у р г и я
A. SITUATIONS
2
1) You tell your friend (mother, father) of your visit to a plant
(factory). consumer [kan'sju:ma| потребитель
2) The director (chief engineer) of the plant tells a group of pu­ We try to meet consumers' demands in the best way. Мы ста­
pils of senior forms all about the enterprise and its production. раемся лучше удовлетворить запросы потребителей.
3) You are a guide of a group of foreign tourists going to a factory designer [di'zama] конструктор
in your c i t y . foreman [ Ъ : т э п ] мастер
4) You describe the system of labour teams and co-operation be­ innovator ['maveita] новатор, р а ц и о н а л и з а т о р
tween them at the plant where you had industrial training. We have quite a number of innovators at our plant. У нас на
5) You discuss the factors raising labour productivity. заводе много р а ц и о н а л и з а т о р о в .
6) You talk of the latest achievements in science and technology shop superintendent [,sju:parm'tendantl н а ч а л ь н и к цеха
which are or may be used at factories. team-leader [ ' t k m l k d a ] бригадир
7) While in the factory yard, you try to find out where a par­ Who is the leader of the best team i n your shop? К т о брига­
ticular office or shop is situated. дир лучшей бригады в вашем цехе?
8) You talk w i t h your friend of the professions engaged in pro­ worker l/wa:ka] рабочий
duction at a particular plant. Syn. operator ['apareita] рабочий (на определенном рабочем
9) You have a talk w i t h your team-leader on the matter connected месте, например: crane-operator—крановщик; engine-operator—
w i t h your production task. машинист)
10) You ask your father (brother) about his factory. shock-worker ударник

B. TOPICAL V O C A B U L A R Y 3

1 cannery ['кэепэп] консервный завод


commerce fkomars] т о р г о в л я , коммерция
combine I'kombam] комбинат
textile 1'tekstail] combine текстильный комбинат
Syn. trade
enterprise I'entapraiz] предприятие
trade mark ['treid'mak] фабричная марка
What food industry enterprises are there in your town? К а к и е
industry ['indAstn] промышленность
предприятия пищевой промышленности есть в вашем городе?
The U.S.S.R. is a powerful socialist state w i t h a highly devel­
oped industry. СССР —могучее социалистическое государство factory | ' l a ; k t a n ] завод, фабрика
с высокоразвитой промышленностью. Our factory w i l l double its output next year. В будущем году
наш 38BQU УДВОИТ ВЫПуСХ продукции.
224
а и к*!» 225
line [lain] л и н и я , конвейер; магистраль, трубопровод
chemical ['kemikl] factory химзавод automatic [ p i t a ' m s e t i k ] line автоматическая л и н и я
sewing ['souirj] factory швейная ф а б р и к а semi-automatic line полуавтоматическая л и н и я
mill [ m i l ] завод, фабрика main assembly line сборочный конвейер
textile mill текстильная ф а б р и к а pipe-line ['paiplam] трубопровод, нефтепровод
plant [ p l a n t ] завод
machine [ т э ' Г к п ] станок, машина
What does your plant produce? Ч т о производится на вашем milling machine фрезерный станок
заводе?
planing machine строгальный станок
power-station ['pau3,steij"3n] э л е к т р о с т а н ц и я polishing machine полировальный станок
atomic power-station атомная э л е к т р о с т а н ц и я machinery [ i m ' J k n a n ] оборудование, машины
hydropower-station ['haidr3pau3,steif3n] гидроэлектростан­ up-to-date machinery современное оборудование
ц и я (ГЭС)
This plant is equipped w i t h up-to-date machinery, Этот завод
refinery [ n ' f a i n s n ] рафинировочный завод; нефтеочиститель­ оборудован современными машинами,
ный завод
unit [ ' j u m i t ] б л о к , с е к ц и я
works [wa:ks] завод
engineering works машиностроительный завод
works management з а в о д о у п р а в л е н и е
6

4 fibre ['faiba] волокно


artificial [,ati'fij9l] fibre искусственное волокно
forge [b:d$] к у з н и ц а , кузнечный цех synthetic [sin'0etik] fibre синтетическое волокно
foundry ['faundn] л и т е й н а я , литейный цех goods [gu:dz] pi т о в а р ы
shop [ f o p ] цех consumer [kan'sjmma] goods товары широкого потребления
What shop is this? К а к о й это цех? manufactured Lmsenju'fsektjsd] goods промышленные товары
assembly [a'sembh] shop сборочный цех material [ma'tiarial] материал
engineering [,end5i'ni9nn] shop механический цех raw materials с ы р ь е
repair [ п ' р е э ] shop ремонтный ц е х output ['autput] п р о д у к ц и я ; п р о д у к т ; выпуск
welding shop сварочный цех The output of the plant has been increased this year. В этом
tool-room [ ' t m l r u m ] инструментальный цех году выпуск продукции этого завода у в е л и ч и л с я ,
part [ p a t ] д е т а л ь , часть
5 service ['s3:vis] parts запасные части, запчасти
Syn. repair parts
device [di'vais] прибор scrap [skrap] металлолом
What is this device called? К а к называется этот прибор? Shall we gather scrap this week? Мы будем на этой неделе
computer [kam'pjutta] счетно-вычислительное устройство, элек- собирать металлолом?
тронновычислительная машина (ЭВМ) reject [n'd3ekt] б р а к
equipment [ik'wipmant] оборудование They t r y to reduce rejects to a m i n i m u m . О н и стараются, до­
We received new equipment last m o n t h . В прошлом месяце мы нести б р а к . д о минимума.
получили новое оборудование, Syn. spoilage
furnace ['farms] печь, топка waste |weist] отходы; бракованное изделие -
blast [blast] furnace доменная печь
lathe [lei<3] станок
Syn. machine-tool [ т э ' f i : n t u : l ]
7
boring lathe расточный станок lUtomatlon [,o:t3'meifan] автоматизация
He operates a boring lathe. Он работает на расточном станке, Mechanization and automation stimulate production and make
drill lathe сверлильный станок working conditions easier. М е х а н и з а ц и я и автоматизация сти­
metal-cutting lathe м е т а л л о р е ж у щ и й станок мулируют производство и облегчают условия т р у д а .
turning lathe т о к а р н ы й станок
п* 227
226
capacity [ka'paesiti] мощность
The capacity of this plant is 8
200,000 refrigerators per year.
to apply [a'plai] применять
Мощность этого завода — 200
to bring into operation вводить
тыс. холодильников в год.
в строй
competition [,kompi'tij3n] 1) кон­
Next month a new blast fur­
к у р е н ц и я (в капиталистичес­
nace w i l l be brought into oper­
к и х странах); 2) соревнова­
ation. В следующем месяце
ние (в социалистических
вступит в строй новая домна.
странах)
to соре with с п р а в л я т ь с я
Socialist competition is w e l l
The factory coped w i t h the
organized at our factory.
production task. Фабрика
У нас на фабрике хорошо
справилась с производствен­
о р г а н и з о в а н о социалистичес­
ным заданием.
кое соревнование.
to equip [i'kwip] оборудовать
Syn. emulation Lemju'leijan]
to re-equip переоборудовать,
design [di'zam] план; проект; Automation,
реконструировать
конструкция
The plant has been almost "It's for you."
What new designs are being worked out? К а к и е новые проекты completely re-equipped. З а ­
(конструкции) разрабатываются? вод был почти полностью переоборудован.
energy fenadji] энергия to fit [fit] монтировать
nuclear ['nju:kha] energy ядерная энергия to fulfil one's plan (ahead of schedule ['Tedju:l]) выполнить план
solar ['soula] energy солнечная энергия (досрочно)
engineering [,end3i'ni3nrj] т е х н и к а lo introduce [,mtra'dju:s[ внедрять, вводить
power engineering энергетика lo pledge [pled3] oneself взять на себя обязательства
safety fserfti] engineering техника безопасности They pledged themselves to overfulfil the quotas. Они в з я л и
labour ['leiba] т р у д на себя обязательство перевыполнить нормы,
manual fmaenjual] labour ручной т р у д to put into operation вводить в действие
labour productivity [,prodAk'tiviti] производительность т р у д а lo prevent an accident предотвратить несчастный с л у ч а й
We must increase labour productivity. Мы д о л ж н ы увеличить Labour safety helps to prevent accidents. О х р а н а труда помо­
производительность труда. гает предотвращать несчастные с л у ч а и .
labour safety I'seifti] о х р а н а (безопасность) труда In turn out производить, выпускать
j
• H o w is labour safety for workers organized? К а к организована
This plant turns out T V sets. Этот завод выпускает телевизоры.
охрана труда рабочих?
Syn. to produce [pra'dju:s]
maintenance ['meintmans] техническая э к с п л у а т а ц и я , уход за ма-
' шиной; текущий ремонт C. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE
production [pra'dAkfan] производство IIISriTUTION PATTERNS
quota ['kwouta] норма I) Pardon me, sir (miss), I ' d like to see the manager."
What are'your production quotas? К а к и е у вас нормы? the chief engineer
shift [Jift] смена
the foreman
Tomorrow 1 work in (on) the day shift. З а в т р а я работаю the director
в дневную смену, "Sorry, sir, but he is out."
supply [sa'plai] поставка, снабжение away
technique [ t e k ' n k k ] техника, технические приемы on a business t r i p
technology [tek'nolad3i] 1) т е х н и к а ; 2) технология in conference
on leave
trade mark ['treid ' т а к ] торговая м а р к а
on siel< l e a v e
223
229
2) "Excuse me, sir, could you direct me to the assembly shop?" 7) "When w i l l the new assembly line be put into operation?"
the forge automobile works
the welding shop power-station
the factory office repair shop
"Go straight along this wall and then t u r n t o the right." factory
shop the left "According to the programme, by the end of this year."
road the schedule
fence the plan
the ministry's decision
3) "What are the m a i n industries of your town?"
8) "Does your factory often fulfil (cope w i t h ) the plan?"
city the programme
region the task
country "Yes, we generally (over)fulfil the plan by 10 per cent."
"I think i t ' s automobile industry." by 5 or 8 per cent
chemical ahead of schedule
aircraft
mining
textile CONVERSATIONS
footwear
4) "What factories is your c i t y famous for?" I
plants
enterprises "What does your factory produce?"
works " I t isn't easy to answer" your question. We are a b i g company,
"Oh, there are lots of plants i n our c i t y , but one can't but you know."
mention the automobile wdrks." "Yes, but at least you could tell me the sphere of your productive
the shipyard activities, couldn't you?"
the refinery " W e l l , that's simple—radio engineering."
the textile factory
the tractor works
the candy factory
II
5) "What does your factory produce?" "Look, George, there's your firm's trade mark on the iron I bought
"We produce a l l kinds of agricultural machines." yesterday."
lathes "Really? W e l l , I d i d n ' t know we manufactured consumer goods."
cotton fabrics "How's that? Y o u don't know what you produce!"
food-stuffs "Of course, I know, but not everything. There're twenty shops at
canned fruit our plant."
footwear
6) "Has your factory increased its production i n recent years?" Ill
works
plant "What are England's most important industrial areas?"
mill "Well, the main centres of English industry are in the Midlands
"Oh, yes, we've increased the output of steel by 1 0 per cent." (around Birmingham) and also in Sheffield, Manchester and New-
castle. The area round Birmingham is often called the Black Country,"
cement 20 per cent
coal 30 per cent "Yes, I ' v e heard that name. W h a t does i t mean?"
1

fabrics three times " I t means just what the name tells you—smoke, dust and soot."
footwear 1
sooi ksut] casta
canned meat
230 231
VIII
"What do you know about industrial and commercial advertising?" "Is i t not dangerous to operate these huge machines?"
1
" W h y , it's an inseparable part of commerce. But i t ' s especially "Of course i t is dangerous, but we usually prevent accidents."
characteristic of capitalist trade and very popular w i t h capitalist "By making people more responsible?"
manufacturers who believe the things sell well only if they're adver­ "Mostly by using a l l sorts of safety controls."
tised w e l l . "
"Do you think advertisements sometimes make people buy things IX
they don't need?"
"Of course, I do. I t ' s proved by numerous sociological surveys." 2
"Your plant is equipped w i t h up-to-date machinery."
"Yes, we've just put into operation another most modern auto­
matic line."
V . . . "Does 1
it supplement your m a i n assembly line?"
"Yes, we have practically no manual labour units."
"Pardon me, sir, can you direct me to the works management?"
" W h y , yes, w a l k straight along this w a l l , then take the first turning
to the r i g h t . Y o u ' l l see a tall brick building in front of you." X
"Thank you very much. B u t is there any sign-board on it?" "That machine looks so sophisticated." 2

"Oh, yes, there's a very long sign-board along the whole house — " I t is a very wise tool. We've just got i t back from the Interna­
E A S T O I L R E F I N E R Y , and beneath i t —a small sign: Man­
tional Fair."
agement."
" I t must have been a h i t there."
"Yes, i t gained the highest prize."

VI
XI s
Pardon me, miss, I w a n t t o see the chief engineer." "What are your working hours?"
"Sorry, sir, he's in conference now. H e ' l l be free i n an hour or so. "We work by shifts, so i t depends."
Y o u may speak to his assistant if you like." "Your quota is the same, no matter what shift you work on."
" W e l l , I ' v e brought the technical documents for the lathe. I ' m afraid " W e l l , i t depends on the type of operati i , not on the shift. I f
I must see M r . Howard in person." the operation requires more s k i l l , your quota is smaller."
"Wait a l i t t l e , sir, I ' l l report
about you."
XII
VII "Hallo there! You're back from your leave?"
"Yes, Pavel, I got sick and tired of i t . Is our shop still lagging
"Burton, have you studied the
behind the schedule?"
drawing carefully?"
"Oh no, we have fulfilled our quota ahead of time."
"Oh yes, I have."
"That's fine, but how could you cope w i t h it?"
" I t h i n k you haven't. Look, the
3
"We've introduced some new techniques and employed high-speed
dimensions are wrong here."
methods."
''They are correct, just i t ' s hard
to measure the diameter here. T r y
again, please." A STORY

1
(The school arranged a visit to one of the leading plants of the
inseparable [m'separebl] н е о т ъ е м ­
лемый town. Nick Somov comes home and tells his father his impressions.)
2
survey ['sa:vei] о б с л е д о в а н и е
1
8
dimensions [di'menjsnz] раз­ to supplement [ ' s A p h m a n t j д о б а в л я т ь , з а в е р ш а т ь
2

меры, габариты " N o , you i o o l , s t r i k e t h e i r o n ! " sophisticated [ s o ' f i s t i , k e i t [ d ] с л о ж н ы й

232 233
AT A PLANT
22
Daddy, I've had a very exciting morning today. You know, we
d i d n ' t have classes but instead we were taken to the automobile works.
We enjoyed our visit immensely. I t ' s quite a modern enterprise. RADIO
We were shown a l l the shops there. I ' m afraid I don't remember
their names, but I am sure we were taken to the engineering shop, AND T E L E V I S I O N
to the repair shop, to the forge and to the welding shop. The
superintendent of one of the shops told us that the administration
of the plant was now introducing all types of computer devices РАДИО
and they had already introduced some remote control equipment. И ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЕ
I t was great fun to watch the assembly line. A t its beginning,
one could see only different parts of future cars, w h i l e at the end
of the conveyer, new, completely fabricated automobiles ran off
i t and lined up out in the factory yard. There are hundreds V
of them already there, and a special loader takes them into the
wagons. I t ' s a breath-taking sight, I must say, though I doubt I A. SITUATIONS
could work at the assembly line w i t h o u t proper training because
i t requires very much concentration and speedy actions and you 1) You instruct your sister (or friend) how to operate a radio
always say I ' m a dawdler. (TV set, tape-recorder, record-player).
2) You tell a friend all about your new radio (TV) set.
The factory is certainly a highly industrial enterprise and
3) You talk w i t h the repairman about the defects of your tape-
we were surprised to learn that they also produce all sorts of con­
recorder (radio set, etc.).
sumer goods. The consumer goods shop we were shown first is equipped
4) You exchange recordings w i t h a friend of yours.
w i t h up-to-date machinery and i t manufactures some kinds of
electric household appliances, the other one makes refrigerators. 5) You discuss w i t h a friend some telecasts you saw (some broad­
Our guide who took us round the plant was a young engineer. casts you heard).
He told us many interesting things. The administration does very 6) You discuss the role played by radio and T V in socialist and
much to improve the working conditions of the workers, especially capitalist societies.
those of the young ones, and takes 7) You discuss the role of radio and T V i n teaching and learning.
care to prevent accidents. We saw 8) You discuss the problems of cosmic television.
a large gym and a swimming- 9) You talk of the requirements put forward to a T V announcer.
pool, clean cloak-rooms, showers, 10) You tell your friend a story connected w i t h radio or televi­
libraries and several cosy can­ sion.
teens and snack bars. We made
a fine meal in one of them.
B. TOPICAL VOCABULARY
We could see many slogans
1
everywhere. They r a n the work­
ers pledged themselves to over­ 1
fulfil the production programme
and complete their five-year plan radio t'reidiou] 1) радио; радиовещание
ahead of time. Of course, each I heard i t on (over) the radio. Я с л ы ш а л это по радио.
of us thought of our studies and 2) радиоприемник
we felt like doing them better. Switch on the radio, please. Включите приемник, п о ж а л у й с т а ,
On the other hand, though, we'd television ['teli,vi3an] телевидение; сокр. T V [ ' t i : ' v i : j
like to get to this factory as He spoke on television. Он выступил по телевидению.
workers and engineers, as soon colour television цветное телевидение
as it could be. wireless ['waiahs] радио; радиоприемник
1
What's on the wireless tonight? Ч т о сегодня вечером передают
to r u n ад. г л а с и т ь Modernization. по радио?
235
2 5
bobbin ['ЬэЫп] бобина, кассета (с магнитной лентой)
radiograin(mophone) ['reidiougrœrn(afoun)], р а д и о л а Let's put on this bobbin. Д а в а й поставим эту кассету.
receiver [ n ' s k v a ] 1) приемник; 2) радиоприемник: . Syn. reel, spool
colour receiver цветной телеприемник extension [iks'tenjan] приставка
Syn. radio set, TV set remote control [ n ' m o u t kan'troul] extension приставка д л я
record-player ['reko:d,plei3] проигрыватель дистанционного у п р а в л е н и я
set [set] 1) прибор, а п п а р а т ; 2) радиоаппарат record ['reka:d[ пластинка
Your set wants repairing (mending). В а ш приемник н у ж н о почи­ long-playing record долгоиграющая пластинка
нить. Syn. disk
How does your T V set work (go)? К а к работает ваш телевизор? recording [п'кэ-.drn] запись
speaker ['spi:ka] громкоговоритель Have you got any new recordings? У тебя' есть какие-нибудь
Syn. loud-speaker новые записи?
plug-in speaker радиоточка
tape-recorder ['teipn,ka:da] магнитофон
transistor [tram'zista] транзистор, портативный радиоприемник на
полупроводниках
band [baend] полоса частот
transmitter [traenz'mita] передатчик
channel ['ifami] к а н а л
How many channels has your T V set? Сколько каналов в твоем
3 телевизоре?
revolution [ ,reva'lu:Jan] зд. оборот
This record is for 33 revolutions per minute (33 r.p.rn.).
announcer [a'naunsa] диктор
Эта пластинка на 33 оборота в минуту. -
listener [Trsna] слушатель
wave [weiv] радиоволна
radio amateur ['semata:] радиолюбитель
long waves длинные волны
repairman [n'peaman] мастер
medium ['mirdjam] waves средние волны
(tele)viewer ['telivju:a] телевизионный зритель, телезритель
short waves к о р о т к и е волны
I ' m a regular viewer of the Moscow programmes. Я р е г у л я р н о
смотрю программы из Москвы.
7
antenna [зепЧепэ] антенна
4
Syn. aerial ['eanal]
control [kan'troul] 1) управление; 2) регулятор, ручка
broadcast ]'bro:dkast] радиопередача dial ['daial] ш к а л а , диапазон
newscast ['nju.-zkastj (А. Е.) передача последних известий (по 1
Switch on the o t h e r ' d i a l , please. Включите, п о ж а л у й с т а , дру­
радио) гой диапазон,
Let's listen to the newscast. Д а в а й послушаем последние из­ key-button [ ' k i : ' b . \ m ] к н о п к а , к л а в и ш а
вестия. You've pressed the wrong key-button. Вы н а ж а л и не ту
programme ['prougrœm] программа кнопку,
listeners' request programme программа по з а я в к а м радиослу­ knob [nob] ручка р е г у л я т о р а
шателей Turn the knob clockwise. Поверните р у ч к у по часовой стрелке,
reporting [ri'po:tirj] репортаж screen [skri:n] э к р а н
actuality (spot) reporting р е п о р т а ж с места событий What's the size of the screen? К а к о й размер экрана?
sportscast ['spa:tskctst] спортивная передача, спортивный выпуск tube [tju:b] электронная лампа
последних известий I ' l l t r y to replace the tube myself. Я попытаюсь сам заменить
telecast l'tehkast] телепередача лампу.
We receive telecasts both from Riga and T a l l i n n . Мы прини­ Syn. valve [veelv]
маем телепередачи к а к из Риги, т а к и из Т а л л и н а .
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235
8
2) "Can your younger brother switch on the radio set?"
to be at fault [fo:lt] быть неисправным operate the receiver
Some valve must be at fault. Наверное, к а к а я - н и б у д ь л а м п а handle the T V set
вышла из с т р о я , switch off
to be on the air передаваться, т р а н с л и р о в а т ь с я "He can but I don't allow h i m to."
There's nothing on the air now. Сейчас ничего не передают, 3) "Be so k i n d as to make the sound softer."
to broadcast ['bnxdkast] (broadcast, broadcast) передавать no to get Moscow
радио to switch on another channel
to get a station поймать станцию to make the sound louder
Can you get Warsaw on your set? Вы принимаете В а р ш а в у на to turn that knob clockwise
своем приемнике? " A l l right."
to listen in с л у ш а т ь радио 4) "What am I to do to switch on the other dial?"
to look in смотреть телевизор on long waves
to operate ['opareit] у п р а в л я т ь , обращаться с on short waves
It's very difficult to operate this tape-recorder. С этим магни­ on ultra-short waves
тофоном очень трудно о б р а щ а т ь с я . "Just press down the key-button."
Syn. to handle turn the knob clockwise
to play a record поставить (проиграть) п л а с т и н к у counter-clockwise
W i l l you play this record for me? Поставьте эту п л а с т и н к у to the right
д л я меня. 5) "What is on the wireless tonight?"
This record-player can't play long-playing records. Этот п р о и г р ы ­ on the air
ватель не рассчитан на д о л г о и г р а ю щ и е п л а с т и н к и , on television
to record [n'ko:d] записывать "There w i l l be a concert followed by a newscast."
to re-wind [ ' n ' w a m d ] (re-wound, re-wound) перематывать (о пленке) a lecture a sportscast
to switch on в к л ю ч а т ь , переключать a play a listeners' request
I ' l l switch on another channel. Я переключу на другой к а н а л . a press conference programme
Syn. to turn on "Do you receive Moscow on your set?
6)
Ant. to switch off, to turn off Polish stations
to televise ['tehvaiz] передавать по телевизору Hungarian telecasts
What's being televised now? Ч т о сейчас показывают по теле­ "Yes, sure, though sometimes i t isn't very easy to get them."
визору?
to transmit [tramz'mit] передавать по радио 7) "Please turn on the T V set.
Н е learned to transmit messages i n Morse code ['mo:s 'koud]. A n interesting telecast is being
Он н а у ч и л с я передавать сообщения азбукой Морзе, televised now."
to tune in to (on) a station настраивать(ся) на радиостанцию newscast
telefilm
spot reporting
С. I L L U S T R A T I O N OF USE musical show
press confer­
SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS
ence
1) "How is your wireless going?" " I ' d rather not : I have a head-
TV set ache." M u m is unwell
record-player it's too late
tape-recordep
radio set let's have a
transistor walk instead
"Rather w e l l . " Mike is doing "This is the o n l y w a y to take the
his lessons Children out lor a w a l k . "
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239
CONVERSATIONS V
I "Have you listened i n today?"
"No, I ' m just up. A n y t h i n g spe-
" I wonder what Kate is doing at the moment." cial?"
"That isn't difficult to say. She's watching T V . " "Oh, yes, a manned spaceship
"What makes you so sure?" has been launched i n the direc-
"Because she watches T V day and n i g h t . You won't drag her away tion of the Moon."
from the screen. She sees everything what's shown on T V . " "That's splendid! T u r n on the
wireless, please. I ' d like to hear
the news myself."
II
"Are you a regular televiewer, George?"
1
vi
"WelU to some e x t e n t yes."
"Do you watch all the telecasts running?" "Well, how's your radio set
"Certainly not. I look through the T V programme i n advance and going?" " I wonder when those Joneses are
choose what I t h i n k might be interesting for me." "Not too badly, though 1 have g o i n g t o get a set of t h e i r o w n . "
"So what do you generally prefer to see?" some difficulties i n getting distant
"Sportscasts and news and of course telefilms and plays." stations. I suppose, i t ' s the weather."
"No, I don't t h i n k i t ' s really the weather. Your set has only three
valves and i t is not sensitive enough."
Ill "But still last week I was successful in receiving one of the dis-
tant African stations. A n d there was practically no hum."
"Please switch on the radio, J i m . A n interesting reporting is being
broadcast now."
"What metre band?" VII
" I think it's on medium waves as usual."
"But there's nothing on the air here."
"My set wants mending J^adly. The picture isn't stable and some-
"Step aside, please. Oh, what a head! You've pressed the wrong times the sound disappears."
key-button.", "Let me have a look . . . I t h i n k t w o valves are at fault. They%

are to be replaced."
"How much w i l l i t come to?"
iv "Oh, you needn't bother. Your service guarantee term isn't over
yet, is it?" ,
"It's almost nine o'clock. Time for the newscast. Turn on the T V
set, please."
" I ' m t r y i n g to do that but i t w o n ' t switch on. There must be
something wrong w i t h i t , I ' m afraid. Look: the picture won't VIII .
appear on the screen."
"Aw! What a nuisance! Let me take a quick look inside. I hope "I've called to bring your bobbin back. I n fact I couldn't record
it isn't very serious." — anything from i t . There's something strange on i t . "
"Just I wonder what on earth is making all this trouble." " W e l l , let me see . . . Oh, pardon me, Paul. Here's the recording
" A h , no wonder! The plug has been pulled out. W e l l , I think of aircraft noise, the noise of the sea and all that stuff. That's
t h a t ' s you who's done that. Y o u pressed clothes here, didn't you, er?" my father's hobby. He's crazy about all that . . . Don't get angry
w i t h me. And here's the reel I promised. I must only re-wind i t .
W a i t a moment."
1
to some extent [ i k s ' t e n t ] RO neKOTopoii creneim "Well, Jack, you needn't bother, I can do i t myself. Thank you."

240 £41
I believe radio hamming is a t h r i l l i n g pastime combining the
IX 1
romance of distant travel w i t h will-power, and on top of all
that i t is closely connected w i t h one of the most interesting
" W i l l you take your record-player to our party tomorrow?" branches of modern engineering.
" W e l l , I m i g h t , but all the records I have are pretty o l d . I gave Radio amateurs are "bom" at radio clubs. They learn to estab-
up buying new records, you know." lish two-way radio communications i n the short and ultra-short
"It's a l l r i g h t . We might as well ask Bob to bring some of his wave bands, to receive and transmit i n Morse code, to take part
new long-playing records." in "fox-hunting" competitions.
"Long-playing you say? T h a t ' l l hardly do. H o w many revolutions "Fox-hunting" is a game i n which amateurs must locate w i t h
per minute?" the help of a radio-receiver (built by themselves) several low-pow-
"As far as I know, sjxteen." ered transmitters which are hidden a l l over a given area. The one
" I haven't got thar speed on m y record-player." who is the quickest at finding out a l l the "foxes" is the winner.
Our hams, as you know, have won first place i n the European
X "fox-hunting" championships and brought hom