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Why Study Research
Today in this dynamic world dramatic changes have been occurred in all areas of business.
Previously business organizations focused on the production pr their product and don’t care
for customers. But with the evolution in industrials sector and with the invention of new
technology business needs and organization response has been changed.
Now customers, suppliers, stakeholders, employees are all more informed and more sensitive
about their interest. Information technology, globalization, and means of communication
have impact on society and make drastic changes in society.
All these changes required that a manager working in an organization must equip himself
with more knowledge and information which can help him in decision making.
A valued and judged decision depends on the available alternative and capability to make
choices of best one.
So in this complex environment organization needs to research new ways of doing business,
solving problems, designing tools for measurement. All these things required that managers
must have knowledge of research so that new techniques and tool can be used for
quantitative and qualitative methods which can be successful for business.

Research is a simple process of finding solution to a problem after a thorough study and
analysis of the situational factors.

An organized, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation
into a specific problem undertaken with the purpose of finding answer or solution to it.

Business research comprises a series of steps designed and executed, with the goal of finding
answers to the issues that are of concern to manager in the work environment. This means
that for research following steps are
To know where the problem area exist in organization
To identify as clearly and specifically as possible the problems that needs to be studied and
When problem has been identified then gather information, analyze the data, and determine
the factors that are associated with problems and solve it by taking the necessary corrective
So research involves a series of well -thought-out and carefully executed activities that will
enable the manager to know how organizational problems can be solved or at least
considerable minimized.

Need and Importance of Research

There are four situations in which you can gain advantages having knowledge of research.

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1. Decision making require more information for sound decision. If you have knowledge
of research you can gather more information and have multiple choices and
alternative for decision making. When you have not knowledge of research you have
limited choice. So research provides you skill and makes you superior in decision
making and your decision will be valued and judged decision.
2. When higher executive in an organization requires some research work and if you
have such knowledge then there is an opportunity for career building in this
organization by taking this research tasks and make impressing to high executive. So
research knowledge provides you impressing personality.
3. When being a manager you need some research work and you hire some researcher
from outside, you can understand, evaluate the research design and communicate to
other very easily. So research work provides you understanding and evaluating of
other’s research work.
4. when you have research knowledge especially as marketing and finance analyst you
have career opportunities in the market
There are other reasons
1. research sharpen the sensitivity of manager to the numerous variables operating in a
situation and remind then frequently of the multicausality and multifinality of
phenomena , thus avoiding the inappropriate, simplistic notions of one variable
causing other
2. when manager understand research report about their organizations handed to them
by professionals, they will be equipped to take intelligent, educated, calculated risk
with known probabilities attached to the success or failure of their decisions
3. because manager become knowledgeable about scientific investigation, vested
interest inside or outside the organization will not prevail
4. Manager knowing about research shared important information with consultant or
researcher hired.

What Is The Purpose Of Study?

Based on objectives research study can be classified into four types
1. Reporting: A type of study in which researcher only report to high executive on the
problem. In these types of research usually data are available and researchers only
gather information and analyze data fro reporting.
This type of research is useful in qualitative and clinical research.

2. Descriptive: These types of research are carried out to discover answer of those
questions which are not on surface and management wants to surface them. In these
studies researcher develop a profile of group under investigation and define subject.
There are involved one or more than one variable effecting the problem. Descriptive
studies are carried out in planning, monitoring and evaluating the policies. In
descriptive study researcher observe the phenomenon and does not describe the

3. Explanation: This type of study is based on theory and explain the reason for the

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For example production in an organization continuously declining and manager wants
to know the reasons behind this decline. The study carried out will be explanation

4. Prediction: These types of study are also based on theory and male recommendation
for future implementation of recommendation. This type of study is carried out in
business in some specific course of action or for future value or prediction

Is Research Is Always Problem Based?

One prominent author define research as a “systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical
investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypothesis about the presumed
relations among such phenomena”
According to this definition all researches either applied which is carried out to solve current
problems and or basic or fundamental which is carried out to enhance knowledge or
understanding for future problems are based on problems. We know that different types of
studies that is reporting, descriptive, explanation and prediction are carried out to solve or
predict future values or forecast. So we can say that research is always based some types of

How Scientific Is Business Research?

Development of scientific methods in business research lags behind the physical science.
Physical scientists are more rigorous (stick with their hypothesis) in their concept and
research procedure. They have resources and strong theory development. Government also
support them
Business researchers have limited resources and are not so strict in following the procedure
and rules. Business research are business secret and to disclose these secret means to loose
business so they are kept secret and not shared with outside world where as physical research
has no such restriction.
Physical investigations are conducted under controlled environment in a laboratory where as
business environment are not favorable under controlled environment. Business research is
done to measure attitude, values, behavior of people in organizations and all these
characteristics are continuously with the change of environment.
Even with these obstacles business research has make great contribution in scientific field.
New techniques are being developed and rigorous research procedures are advancing rapidly.
New techniques and tools that a manager can used in business for decision making are
available which make a manager successful having knowledge of it otherwise failure of his

What is good research?

A good research use scientific method
Characteristics of a scientific method are
1. Purposeful: researcher must know the purpose of his research and problems should be
defined clearly. There should be no ambiguity in defining problems. The limitation and
scope of research be clearly defined
2. Research procedure clearly defined: researcher should defined the procedure which he
adapted during data gathering and interpreting so that when ever in future researcher or

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management want to evaluate his research, can understand the procedure followed and
adapted by him.
3. Procedural design clearly defined: researcher should mention the appropriate
representative ness of population or sampling used in design. Which types of study is,
sampling units, measuring units effect of study etc should be clearly defined
4. Researcher should represent his report with full confidence and any flaws and weakness
in procedural design should be clearly mentioned. Report should reflect confidence and
5. Reliability and validity of data collection method: researcher should analyze the data and
mentioned the methods of data collection and analysis. Which sampling method he used.
Validity and reliability of data should be checked
6. Objectivity: researcher should confine to his finding and be specific to his area of
interest. Conclusions should be limited to justify by data.
7. Researcher Reputation: Experienced researcher are more reliable and their work is more

Research and Decision Making

Business research helps management in decision making. Managers are responsible for final
outcome by making right decisions at work. Knowledge of research provided information
about innumerable internal and external factors of varied nature operating in the work and
organizational environment.
Complicated technology is available for organization and manager knowing importance and
use can make best decision for its use. In this global world rapid information and their
manipulation can create problems for organizations, and manager who is final authority for
recommendation for implementation of equipments depends upon sharpness of manager
decision making. Management having information about customers, products, employees and
competitors can make appropriate decision. Thus knowledge of research greatly enhance the
decision making skill of the manager


Applied Research:
Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific
problems currently being experienced in the organization

Basic / Pure/ fundamental Research

Research done primarily (mainly) to enhance the understanding of certain problem that
commonly occur in organization setting, and seek methods of solving them, the findings of
such research contributes to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of
business. Such knowledge generated is usually later applied in organizational setting for
problems solving.


Case Study:

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Case study involves in-depth, contextual analysis of similar situation in other organizations,
where the nature and definition of the problems happen to be the same as experienced in the
current situation.

Action Research:
Action research is sometime undertaken by consultants who want to initiate change processes
in organization. In other words, action research methodology is most appropriate while
effecting planned changes. Here, the research begins with a problem that is already
identified, and gathers relevant data to provide a tentative problem solution. This solution is
then implemented. The effects are then evaluated, defined, and diagnosed and research
continue on an ongoing basis until the problem is fully resolved.
Action research is constantly evolving project with interplay among problems, solution,
effects or consequence, and new solution. A sensible and realistic problem definition and
creative way of collecting data are critical to action research.

1. Applied research is carried out to solve existing problems by investigating problems
and good managerial decision making
2. the objective of basic research is to generate more knowledge and understanding of
the phenomena of interest and to build theories, based on the research results, such
theories subsequently form the foundation of further studies of many aspect of


In business research is conducted in functional area to solve problematic issue in, or

interrelated among functional areas

1. Budget control system
2. Practices and procedure are frequently examined
3. Inventory control methods
4. Accelerated depreciation
5. Time series behaviors of quarterly earnings
6. Transfer pricing
7. Cash recovery rates
8. Taxation methods are researched

1. The operation of financial institution
2. Optimum financial ratio
3. Merger and acquisition
4. Leveraged buyout
5. Inter corporate financing
6. Yield on mortgage
7. Behavior of stock exchange

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1. Product image
2. Advertising
3. Sale promotion
4. Distribution
5. Packaging
6. Pricing
7. After sale services
8. Consumer preference
9. New product development and other marketing aspects

1. Employees attitudes and behaviors
2. HRM
3. Impact of changing demographics on management practices
4. Production operation management
5. Strategy formulation information system


Being knowledgeable about research and research methods help professional manager to:
1. Identify and effectively solve minor problems in the work setting
2. How to discriminate goods from bad research
3. Appreciate and be constantly aware of the multiple influence and multiple effects of
factors imposing on situation
4. Take calculated risk indecision making, knowing well the probabilities associated
with the different possible outcome
5. Prevent possible vested interest from exercising their influence in a situation
6. Relates to hired researchers and consultant more effectively
7. Combine experience with scientific knowledge which making decision

Different people think problems differently. Scientific inquiry is a way by which people think

There are different sources that provide help in scientific research. These are the sources
through which a researcher reaches at his destination and find the answer of research
question. These sources are:

EMPIRICISM: (empiric means based on experience only)

People think or observes the thing on the basis of their past experience and method of logical
deduction. Empiricism is often used in research where researcher face repeated problems and
find the past solution will be implemented.

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We mean that reason is primary source of knowledge. Rationalist believes all knowledge can
be deduced from known or basic truth nature

Untested opinion is a form of knowing that people stick to despite contrary evidence. “That is
the way we always done it here” is phrase that confuses entrenchment and habit with


It could be deduced from known laws of nature for example people would die no matter what
precaution were taken.

We rely on persons of authority to improve our confidence. Too often authority depends on
status or positions rather that true expertise

The literary style is responsible for many classic case studies in social science. Case studies
played a prominent role in the development of business knowledge

POSTULATION: assumption without proof


1. Direct observation of phenomena
2. Clearly defined variable, methods and procedure
3. Empirically testable hypothesis
4. Ability to rule out rival hypothesis
5. The statistical rather that linguist justification of conclusion
6. The self correctly process


1. Purposiveness: Every research has a definite purpose. For example in organization

manager wants to increase the commitment of employees. Then this research focuses
on purpose of commitment.

2. Rigor: Rigor means careful, accurate and degree of exactness in research

investigation. In example of employees manager may ask question from 12 to 15 to
indicate employee’s commitment is not rigor. A rigorous research involves a good
theoretical base and a carefully thought out methodology.

3. Testability: means that hypothesis developed can be testable and the data gathered
support the logically developed hypothesis.

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4. Replicability: means that the result of tests of hypothesis should be supported again
and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar

5. Precision and Confidence: Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to

“reality” based on a sample. For example if we say that we results are close to 30 and
40 against actually 35 we say it precision but 20 to 40 is not precision
Confidence: refers to the probability that our estimations are correct that is when we
say 95 % confidence there is chance of plus minus 5 of failure.

6. Objectivity: the conclusion drawn through the interpretation of results of data analysis
should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts of findings derived from
the actual data, and not on our own subjective or emotional values. The more
objective the interpretation the more scientific the research investigation becomes.

7. Generalize ability: Generalizability refers to the scope of applicability of the research

findings in one organization setting to other settings.

8. Parsimony: means that our research framework will be simple not complex. A simple
framework requires fewer variables to control that contribute to research and are
economically beneficial for research.


The Scientific Attitude:

It is a phrase that if tool of thinking are the mind of science then the scientific attitude is the
spirit. Scientific attitude compel the researcher to thinks scientifically about the thing.
Searching, investigation gives the researcher to explore the things. If we look at all the
discovery we see that these are all result of scientific thinking of researcher or scientists

Understanding Theory:
Theory, an assumption or system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure
based on limited information or knowledge, devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain
the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena; abstract reasoning.

Sets of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to
explain and predict phenomena are theories.

Difference between Theory and Hypothesis

It is very difficult to distinguish between theory and hypothesis because both involve
concepts, definitions, and relationship among variables. The basic difference is the level of
complexity and abstraction. Theories tend to be abstract and involve multiple variables, while
hypothesis tend to be simple, two variable propositions involving concrete instances.

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Theory and Research
In research theory serves in many useful ways.
1. First as orientation, it narrows the range of facts we need to study
2. Theory suggest that how the problems be studies and which way is most important for
better results
3. Theory suggest for researcher the system for data gathering and classifying it in
meaningful way
4. Theories summarize what can be observed and what is beyond the observation of
5. Theory can be used prediction of further facts

Model is a representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspects of that system
or the system as a whole.

CONCEPT: A concept is a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain

events, objects, conditions, situation and the like. Classifying and categorizing objects or
events that have common characteristics beyond the single observation create concepts

Source of concepts:
1. Shared usage developed concept
2. Through personal experience
3. Some concepts are unique to particular culture and are not easily translated

Importance to research
Concepts are basic to all thoughts and communication
1. We design hypothesis using concepts
2. We devise measurement concept by which to test these hypotheses statements
3. We gather data using these measurement concepts
4. We invent new concepts to express ideas
The success of research depends on
1. How clearly conceptualize and
2. How well others understand the conceptive use

Problems in concept use:

1. People differ in the meaning they include under the particular label. Different concept
like household, regular user, personality ( 400 definition of personality)
Construct: is an image or idea specifically invented for given research and / or
theory building purpose. Constructs are building by combing the simpler
concept especially when the idea or image we intended to convey is not directly
subject to observation.
2. Concepts and construct are easily confused


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There are different types of definition; the most familiar are dictionary definition. In these a
concept is defined with synonym. For example a customer is defined as patron: a patron in
turn is defined as customer or client of an establishment

An operational definitional is one stated in term of specific testing criteria or operation.
These terms have empirical referent ( that is we must be able to count, measure or in some
other way gather the information through our sense)
Whether the object is defined is physical (i.e machine tool) or highly abstract e.g
achievement motivation) the definition must specify the characteristics to study and how they
are to be observed. The specification and procedure must be so clear that any competent
person using them would classify the object in the same way. The basic purpose of definition
or operational definition is to provide an understanding and measurement concept.

A variable is any thing that can take on differing or varying values. The values can differ at
various times for the same object or person, or at the same time for different object or person.

Dependent Variable: the dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the
researcher. The researcher’s goal is to understand and describe the dependent variable, or to
explain its variability, or predict it. In other words it is the main variable that lends itself for
investigation as a variable factor.

Independent Variable: An independent variable is one that influences the dependent

variable in either a positive or negative way. That is, when the independent variable is
present, the dependent variable is also present, and when each unit of increase in the
independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable also.

New Product Stock Market

Success Prices

Dependent Variable
Independent Variable

Moderating Variable: the moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on
the independent variable-dependent variable relationship. That is, the presence of a third
variable (moderating variable) modifies the original relationship between the independent
and dependent variable.

Intervening Variable: An intervening variable is one that surface between the time the
independent variable start operating influence the dependent variable and the time their

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impact is felt on it. There is thus temporal quality or time dimension to the intervening
variable. The intervening variable surfaces as function of the independent variable operating
in any situation, and help to conceptualize and explain the influence of the independent
variables on the dependent variable.



Training Game

Team Work

Intervening Variable

Research problems are solved through reasoning. Every day we reason (think) with varying
degree of success and communicate our message, called meaning, in ordinary language or, in
special case, in symbolic, logical form.
There are two type are reasoning

Deductive Method:
The process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a
known facts
Example: all high performers are highly proficient in their job. If Aslam is high performer we
then conclude that he is highly proficient in his job.

Inductive Method:
Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at
conclusion. In other words, in induction we logically establish a general proposition based on
observed facts.
Example: production processes are prime feature of factories or manufacturing plants. We
therefore conclude that factories exist for production purposes

Combining Induction & Deduction

Induction and deduction processes are used in research reasoning in a sequential manner. It is
also called double movement of reflective thought. Deduction occur when we observe a

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fact and ask, “Why is this” answer this question we advance a tentative explanation
(hypothesis). The hypothesis is a good if it explains the event or condition (fact) that
prompted the question. Deduction is the process by which we test whether the hypothesis is
capable of explaining the fact.
1. You push the light switch and find no light
2. You ask the question “Why no light”
3. You infer a conclusion (hypothesis) to answer the question and explain the fact that
the bulb is burned out
4. You use this hypothesis to conclude (deduce) that the light will not go on when we
push the switch. We know from experience that a burned out bulb will not light.
5. A new bulb put in the lamp will result in light when the switch is pushed
6. We put in the new bulb and push the switch. The light goes on.

Fact 1


Fact 2

The theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based. It
is logically developed, described and elaborated network of association among the variable
deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through process as interviews,
observation, and literature survey.

A statement about concepts that may be judged as true, or false to observable phenomena.

A hypothesis can be defined as a logically assumed relationship between two or more
variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. Relationships are assumed on the
basis of the network of association established in the theoretical framework formulated for
the research study. By testing the hypotheses and confirming assumed relationship, it is
expected that solution can be found to correct the problem encountered.

A proposition formulated for empirical testing is called hypothesis. Hypothesis also

described as statements in which we assign variables to cases.

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Example: If the pilots are given adequate training to handle midair crowded situations, air-
safety violation will be reduced


Example: 1 Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently
Example: 2 If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leaves less frequently


If relationship between two variable terms as positive, negative, less than, more than and
like then these are directional hypotheses

Example: the grater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of
It is a directional hypothesis

Example: there is relationship between age and job satisfaction

It is a non directional hypothesis


The null hypothesis is a proposition that states a definitive, exact relationship between
two variables. That is, it state that the population correlation (Population and sample
means=0) between two variables is equal to zero or that the difference in the means of
two groups in the population is equal to zero ( or some definitive number). In general, the
null statement is expressed as no (significant) relationship between two variables or no
(significant) difference between two groups. The alternate hypotheses, which is the
opposite of the null, is the statement expressing as relationships between two variables or
indicating difference between groups

Null Hypotheses HO: µ m= µ w

HO is null hypotheses
µ m is mean motivational level of men
µ w is mean motivational level of women

Alternate for the above is

HO: µ m> µ w
HO: µ m< µ w

The role of Hypothesis:

In research hypothesis play very important role

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1. It guides the direction of study.
2. It limits the researcher what shall be studied and what shall not be
3. It identify facts that are relevant and those that are not
4. It suggest which form of research design is most appropriate
5. It provide a framework for organizing the conclusion that result

Good Hypothesis
A good hypothesis fulfill the three condition:
1. Hypothesis be adequate for its purpose. For descriptive hypothesis, this means it
clearly states the condition, size, or distribution of some variable in term of values
meaningful to research task. For exploratory hypothesis, it must explain the facts
that give rise to the need for explanation.
2. Hypothesis must be testable:
3. Hypothesis must be better than its rival


Deductive Method:
The process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a
known facts
Example: all high performers are highly proficient in their job. If Aslam is high performer we
then conclude that he is highly proficient in his job.

Inductive Method:
Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at
conclusion. In other words, in induction we logically establish a general proposition based on
observed facts.
Example: production processes are prime feature of factories or manufacturing plants. We
therefore conclude that factories exist for production purposes

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Refinement of Theory Ob
Or Implementation serv

Ide on of
ati blem
Pro ea

Interpretation of
Theoretical Frame work
Network Association

Analysis of data


Research Design Concept


The seven step process in Hypothetico-Deductive Method

1. Observation
2. Preliminary information gathering
3. Theory formulation
4. Hypothesizing

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5. Further scientific data collection
6. Data Analysis
7. Deduction



The first step is the Identification of the broad problem through observation and focusing
on situational factors. It is entire situation where manager see a possible need for
Problems may be of four types:
a) current problems
b) areas where manager wants improvements
c) conceptual and theoretical issues which tightened the basic research to
understand the certain phenomena
d) some question which researcher wants to answer empirically


e) Nature of data to be gather
i) back ground information of the organization
ii) managerial philosophy, company policies, and other structural aspects
iii) perception, attitudes, behavioral response of organizational members and
client system
f) Literary survey
i) reason for literary survey
ii) conducting the literary survey
iii) identifying the relevant sources
iv) extracting the relevant information
v) writing up the literature review


Define problem using funnel techniques


a) Variables


a) Statements of hypothesis


a) Purpose of study
i) exploration
ii) description
iii) hypotheses testing
iv) case study

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b) types of investigation
i) Causal versus correlational
ii) Group difference
iii) Ranks
c) extent of researcher interference
i) minimal
ii) normal
iii) manipulation
iv) control
d) study setting
i) contrived
ii) non contrived
e) Unit of analysis
i) Individual, dyads, group, organization, culture

f) time horizon: cross sectional versus longitudinal studies

g) measurement of variable:
i) operational definition
ii) Measuring Scales
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio
iii) Rating Scales
a) Dichotomous scale
b) Category
c) Likert
d) Numerical
e) Semantic differential
f) Itemized rating
g) Fixed or constant sum rating
h) Staple
i) Graphic
j) Consensus scale
iv) Ranking scale
a) Paired comparison
b) Forced choice
c) Comparative scale
h) Data collections methods:


If the tools of thinking are mind of science, then the scientific attitude is the spirit. The
scientific attitude set free the creative drive that makes discoveries possible. All scientists

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think scientifically and make discoveries. For example Newton third law of force was just his
scientific attitude which makes discovery of force of gravity.


Exploration begins with the typically published data. There are two types of data
1) primary data
2) secondary data
Primary data is one which researcher first time collects

Sources of primary data:

• Observation
• Interviews
• Questionnaires

While secondary data means data already gathered by someone else and researcher collects
his for their research.

Sources of secondary data:

• Books
• Novels
• Periodicals
• Magazine
• Journals


g) Nature of data to be gather
iv) back ground information of the organization
v) managerial philosophy, company policies, and other structural aspects
vi) perception, attitudes, behavioral response of organizational members and
client system
h) Literary survey
vi) reason for literary survey
vii) conducting the literary survey

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viii) identifying the relevant sources
ix) extracting the relevant information
x) writing up the literature review

Data Collection

To the casual observer, it is the methods of data collection which may distinguish qualitative
from quantitative approaches. Whereas quantitative researchers may make use of a wide
variety of data collection instruments including

• laboratory apparatus
• psychometric instruments
• and other forms of pencil and paper tests,

The main data collection instrument of the qualitative researcher is often the researcher
themselves. This is one reason why empathy between the researcher and the participants in a
study is so important in qualitative research. It is also argued that only the human researcher
is capable of recognizing and recording the often very subtle verbal and non-verbal cues
which accompany social interaction. Thus the main task of the qualitative researcher is to
record in as much detail as possible the events, the actions, and the behaviours of all
participants in that event. This will include the responses of the individual, but also perhaps
the pattern of interaction between individuals. Superficially this may seem relatively
straightforward, and indeed this may be one of the reasons qualitative research seems so
attractive, particularly to the inexperienced researcher. But what appears simple is in fact an
immensely complex task and although there are tools available to assist in data collection and
analysis, the complexity of this type of research should not be underestimated. It should also
be noted that the techniques described below, although more likely to be used by qualitative
researchers, may also be found in research which is more traditionally quantitative - the
methods are not exclusive to a particular research approach, quantitative or qualitative.

One obvious way to collect this type of data is to keep a detailed set of notes which describe
the interactions under study. However, since the researcher may be playing an active part in
that interaction this is not always very easy to do. Nowadays it is common for researchers to
make use of available technology to assist in the data collection - e.g. audio or even video
recording. It should be noted however that even this may cause difficulties for some people,
particularly if sensitive issues are being discussed. Obviously where recording is possible it
should be used as this will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the data collected.
Objectivity is important in qualitative research, and even though the researcher may have a
closer relation with the participant than in quantitative research, the nature of this
relationship, nor the ideological biases of the researcher should be allowed to confound the
data collected. The data should be an accurate reflection of the "truth" for a given situation,
otherwise the researcher is engaged in journalism, (or worse - fiction writing!) rather than

Focus groups are an increasingly popular technique used by both quantitative and qualitative
researchers. A focus group is essentially a situation contrived by the researcher in which a

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number of people are brought together to discuss a particular issue. It may be thought of as a
collective interview in which it is hoped that the participants, through their interaction, may
provide data and insights which may not have been revealed through interviews with
individuals. Even within this relatively simple scenario there are a number of variables which
the researcher might manipulate. The size of the group, its composition in terms of age,
gender, social class and so on may all be important. The degree of structure imposed by the
researcher may be important - do they allow a totally open discussion between the
participants or is more structure imposed in terms of the discussion points, time allows for
discusses the nature of the research question, and the resources available will determine
many of these factors. While the researcher might to some extent have an "open agenda" as
far as the focus groups are concerned it is vitally important that they have clear aims and a
well defined purpose for the focus groups.

The use of diary techniques by qualitative researchers is quite common. Diaries may be kept
by the researcher or the participant in a study and may be a rich source of data which would
be unobtainable using any other technique. The difficulty with using diaries as a research tool
is in determining exactly what is to be recorded. Given that it is impossible to record
everything the researcher must have clear criteria for determining what is to be recorded and
what is not. This will be influenced by the nature of the study, but the researchers' own
theoretical perspective may also be important. For example if a researcher was looking at the
development of autism in young children, and believed that an environmental factor (e.g.
diet) was significant, then they may ask parents of autistic children to keep a diary that
included details of food intake. A researcher with a different perspective may not request that
any information on diet be included in a diary but may (for example) choose to focus on
social interaction. While there are many advantages in using diary techniques these types of
studies will be particularly prone to accusations of observer bias and lack of generalisability.
Comparisons between different diary studies, even of the same topic, are often fraught with

Observation studies are of two basic types - participant and non-participant. As the name
suggests, participant observation studies involve the researcher becoming an active
participant in the study. For example a nurse who was interested in the social interaction
between nurses may choose this approach to collect data. The extent to which a participant
observer divulges their research to other participants will depend on the investigation. In
some studies the researcher has let it be known to other participants that they are actively
collecting data for a research project. However in other cases, such disclosure might
prejudice the data collection and researchers have chosen to keep their activities secret from
the other participants (notwithstanding the ethical problems with this!). Participant
observation studies offer a number of advantages to the researcher, but there are of course
also a number of difficulties. Advantages include the degree of flexibility offered by this
approach. Although the aims of the study should be clearly defined, it is not unknown for this
type of study to identify research questions which alter the direction of the research. Field
research in which the social behaviour of groups of people is the focus of the research is
more likely to reveal the "truths" sought, than the more objective techniques. Indeed for this
type of research, a degree of participation by the researcher may be the only way in which
data can be collected. The most obvious difficulty with participant observation is that the

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presence of the researcher (if known) may change the very behaviour under study. For a
researcher to remain hidden from the other participants does not remove all the difficulties.
Participating in the group activities may make the unobtrusive collection of data, at the very
least, difficult, and some would suggest leaves the researcher open to accusations of bias and
distortion. This would be especially so if the researcher had to rely on memory to record data
on an event after a significant period of time - perhaps at the end of the day or even later.
Participant observers will of course become involved with the group at a social and
emotional level. This may well influence their own behaviour and their degree of
involvement with the group - and this of course may change the very phenomena under
study. There may also be ethical problems for the researcher, e.g. if the group under study is
involved in illegal (euthanasia) or unethical (making jokes about patients) activities. If the
researcher attempts to change this behaviour by the group then their research may well be
compromised - even if the behaviour is not directly relevant to the research being undertaken.

The non-participant observer makes little or no attempt to hide what they are doing although
they may seek to minimize their intrusion on the situation being observed. The degree of
structure imposed by the observer on the situation under observation may vary quite
considerably. At one extreme we have the fully controlled laboratory observational study,
though experimental studies are usually excluded from this category. A typical laboratory
observational study might put doctors into a typical interview situation in which actors play
the part of patients. This would be useful if we were interested in the way doctors interact
with patients while collecting a patient history. In another type of study we might install a
video camera in an operating theatre to observe the behaviour of surgeons and how they
interact with other members of the surgical team. In the former situation the people under
study, would of course know this; in the latter study they may or may not depending on
whether the researcher thought it was important. In terms of imposed structure, the laboratory
situation allows a greater degree of control over the situation than does the field study in the
operating theatre. The degree of control that can be exerted will of course influence the
extent to which hypotheses may be formally tested. One of the main problems with any form
of observational study concerns the reliability of the observational techniques used. These
techniques may vary from the very detailed video recording of the situation to rather more
crude time-sampling techniques in which pencil and paper records of the observed behaviour
are made at different intervals of time over the research period. Not only are the instruments
used to record the data important, but so is the person using the instrument, who may or may
not be the researcher themselves. In clinical situations the researcher may be asking
clinicians to record the observations and this may bring into question their reliability in the
task. Clinicians are likely to be very busy with their routine tasks, they may not be well
motivated or even interested in the research, indeed the research outcomes may have negative
implications for their role in the health care team. It is always desirable in observational
studies, where possible, to have some measure of observer reliability, and where more than
one observer is being used, to have a measure of inter-rater reliability.

Data Analysis

Qualitative studies typically produce a great deal of data - audio and video recordings,
interview transcriptions, descriptions of the situations observed. The researcher has to impose

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some form of order onto this data if it is to make sense and to contribute to our understanding
of the research problem. Content analysis, or more commonly now, discourse analysis are
techniques which have been developed specifically for sampling and analyzing data of this
type. These procedures will initially require that the researcher samples from the wide range
of materials that may have been collected. This may involve the researcher in decisions
which are often more subjective than objective, but where possible the researcher should
represent their inclusion/exclusion criteria clearly. In beginning the analysis of the data
decisions about the coding units will also have to be made - these coding units may be
individual words, phrase, themes, stories, characters etc. The time spent on a topic or its
frequency of occurrence may also be used as coding units. Using the chosen coding units the
data analysis might precede by simply identifying the number of times particular items occur,
or it may introduce more sophisticated techniques e.g. requiring the researcher to indicate
how confident they feel about a particular theme that emerges. Again problems of inter-rater
reliability and the potential for researcher bias needs to be considered. In recent years
computer packages (e.g. NUDIST) have been developed to aid the researcher with the data

It should perhaps be emphasized that unlike quantitative analysis which is usually the end
point in a study, in qualitative research the analysis and theoretical statements which follow
emerge from the data and often influence the subsequent direction of the research. Thus
qualitative researchers may see the data analysis as part of the data collection phase of the
research. Indeed supporters of Grounded Theory argue that researchers should put aside any
theoretical preconceptions when they begin their research. The theory should emerge as the
data is collected, rather than the researcher trying to impose a theoretical perspective on the
situation before the data is even collected.

Qualitative research is often criticized for the degree of subjectivity and lack of rigour in the
techniques used. Although they would argue that their methods produce richer, more valid
data, qualitative researchers have developed other techniques aimed at improving the
reliability and validity of their studies. Triangulation involves using two different methods to
study the same phenomena, e.g. using observational techniques in conjunction with
structured interviews. Hopefully both methods will reveal similar findings about the topic
being researched. Qualitative research tends to operate iteratively i.e. the researcher cycles or
repeats their research activities as themes emerge. This allows the researcher to test their
assumptions and to check hypotheses in a wider context. One major difference between
quantitative and qualitative approaches is that the qualitative researcher may involve the
participants in the study in the analysis of the data. They may consult with the participants to
check the validity of the conclusions arrived at. This would be very rare to find in a
quantitative study.


Research is a sequential process involving clearly defined steps. It is not uncommon that
there exist some variations in these steps, some steps are completed first and some continue
along the pother steps. Some steps carried out simultaneously. However we can say that there
is much similarity among sequence proposed.

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The sequence of the research process is given in the following diagram

Question Answered
Question Problem

Research Question


Research Revision of Research and

Proposal Investigative questions



Sto Budget and Value

p Assessment

Pilot Testing
Revision of Measurement
Project Planning question and procedure

Data Collection
Data Gathering

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Analysis and
And reporting Result Report

The research process (Uma Sekaran )

Broad problems area of research
interest identified

3 4
Variable clearly identified and labled
Research problem
Interviewing literature survey




Research question answered

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10 11
9 REPORT Managerial
REPORT WRITING Presentation Decision

Academic Research Problems:

In an academic setting , a particular study may grow out of little more a student’s need to
selects a research topic for class assignment. More serious academic research tends to be
developed within the bounds of some theoretical framework. In classical it mey be testing of

Tools/ Data Driven Research Problems

Availability of techniques is an important factor in deciding how research be done or whether

a given study can be done. Person’s skills in given techniques are too blinded by their special
competencies. Their concern for techniques dominates the decisions concerning what will
be studied and how.

Management Research Problems

In business research problems originates from the needs of manager. There are so many
needs of manager where he wants to make decisions.

For example: Decision making into three problems types

1) Choice of purposes or objective

2) Generation and evaluation of solutions
3) Trouble/shooting or control situation

Formulating the research problems

Is it Researchable

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Not all questions are researchable and not all research questions are answerable. To be
researchable, a question must be one for which observation or other data collection can
provide the answer. Question of value and policy can be weighed in management decisions.

Ill-defined question:

Some categories of problems are so complex, value – added, and bound by constraints that
they prove to be intractable to traditional forms of analysis. These ill-defined or ill structured
problems have characteristics that are virtually opposite those of well defined problems.

Questions Hierarchy

• Management Questions: Represents a decision that a manager must make and is the
problems prompting the research
• Research Question: Once a researcher has a clear statements of manager question, he
must translate it into a research question: a fact oriented information question
• Investigating Question: Investigative questions are those the researcher must answer
to satisfactorily respond to general research question
• Measurement Question: Are those we actually ask the respondents


Decision making and problems solving

Making Decisions

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Decisions must be made at many levels in a business, from executive decisions on the goals and
objectives that a business wants to pursue, to the day to day repetitive operations performed by lower
level managers. By definition, a decision is a choice made from two or more alternatives. Through
careful analysis these alternatives can be identified from available opportunities or options. While
many decisions are made in order to solve problems, some decisions are more the result of
opportunities that present themselves. In many cases these opportunistic occasions may provide new
ways of doing things or be the beginning of new business if properly pursued and executed.

The formal decision making process:

1. Defining the problem or opportunity

2. Identifying limiting factors
3. Developing potential alternatives
4. Analyzing the alternatives
5. Selecting the best alternative
6. Implementing the decision
7. Establishing a control and evaluation system

• Limiting factors help rule out many possible choices. Time and resources are
usually major limiting factor s to possible decisions.

• Alternatives are the potential solutions that can be identified after considering the
limiting factors.

• Analyzing the alternatives identifies the consequences, the pros and cons, the
advantages and disadvantages for each possible choice.

• Selecting the best alternative is making the choice that offers the most advantages
and the fewest disadvantages.

• Implementing the decision requires taking action to get results. This includes
communicating the decision to appropriate personnel and putting plans, programs, and
procedures into effect.

Establishing a control and evaluation system provides a feedback mechanism for tracking the
implementation of the decision, and allows for modifications or adjustments to be made as necessary.

Quality Decision Making

Decision makers should, to the best of their abilities:

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1. thoroughly check a wide range of alternatives
2. gathers full range of goals and implications of choices
3. weighs costs and risks of both positive and negative consequences
4. Intensively search for new information for evaluating alternatives
5. take all new information into account, even when it doesn't support initial course of
6. reexamine positive and negative consequences of all alternatives, including initially
rejected ones
7. make detailed provisions for implementation, including contingency plans for known

In business research decision making process is a discussed in Research Process By Uma

Sekaran or Emory Models. Manager follows the process and at last make adequate decision


Manager needs information to guide decision in specific area. An appropriate study may
help manager avoid possible losses and increase profit.

Conceptually the value of applied research not difficult to determine. In business, research
produces added value and increase revenue or reduce expenses.

Value of information may be judged in the term of’ “ the difference between the results of
decisions made with the information and result that made without information”


• Ex Post Evaluation: If there is any measurement of the value of research, It is

usually an after the fact event. Manager make CBA and make decision.
• Prior Evaluation: A proposal to conduct a through management audit of operation in
a company may be a worthy one, but neither its costs nor its benefits are easily
estimated in advance
• Option Analysis: method by which management assessing the value of research
when management has a choice a well defined option. Each alternative can be judged
in term of associated cost and benefits associated with it, and a formal analysis can
be conducted, but managerial judgment still plays a major role
• Decision Theory: To compare two or more alternative, a manager must estimates the
expected outcome of each alternative.

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In a dictionary sense, to measure is to discover the extent, dimension, quantity, or capacity of
some thing, especially by comparison with a standard

Measurement in research consists of assigning number to empirical events in compliance
with a set of rules. This definition implies that measurement is a three part process
1. selecting observable empirical events
2. using the number or symbol to represent aspects of the events and
3. applying mapping rules to connect the observation to the symbol

What Is Measured
Concepts used in research may be classified as object or properties. Object includes the
things of ordinary experience, such as, table, people, books, and automobiles. Objects also
include things that are not so concrete, such as genes, attitudes, neutron, and peer group
Properties are the characteristics of the objects. A persons physical properties may be stand
in term of weight, height, posture. Psychological properties include attitudes and intelligence.
Social properties include leadership ability, class affiliation, or status.

In a literal sense, researchers do not measure objects or properties. They measure indicants
(showing) of properties

Sales classifications employ the number system. The most accepted basis for scaling has
three characteristics
1. Numbers are ordered. One number is greater than, less than, or equal to another
2. Differences between numbers are ordered. The difference between any pair of
numbers is greater than, less than, or equal to the difference between any other pair of
3. the number series has a unique origin indicated by the number zero

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Types of Scale Characteristics of Scale Basic Empirical Operation
Nominal Scale No order, distance, or origin Determination of equality
Ordinal Scale Order but no distance or Determination of grater or
unique origin lesser values
Interval Both order and distance, but Determination of equality of
no unique origin interval or difference
Ratio Order, distance, and unique Determination of equality of
origin ratios

Nominal scale partition a set into categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively
Nominal scales are least powerful of the four types
They suggest no order or distance relationship and have no arithmetic origin. The scale
wastes any information about varying degree of the property being measured.
Nominal measures are especially valuable in exploratory study where the objective is to
uncover the relationship rather than secure precise measurement.

Ordinal scale includes the characteristics of the nominal scale plus an indicator of order.
The use of ordinal scale implies the greater than or less than without stating how much
greater than or less than.
In ordinal scale we use as
Greater than or less than
Superior inferior
When more than one property is interested, than it can crate misleading concept for
researchers. For example when we compare colour, flavour or any other property


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The interval scale has the power of both nominal scale and ordinal scale and plus one
additional strength. It incorporate the concept of equality of interval (distance between 1
and 2 is equal to distance between 3 and 4). Calendar time is such a scale

Ratio scale incorporates all the power of previous ones plus the provision for absolute
zero origin. The ratio scale represents the actual amount of variation. Measure of weight,
height, distance and area are example


The ideal study should be designed and controlled for precise and unambiguous
measurement of the variables. Sine attainment of this ideal is unlikely; we must recognize
the sources of potential error and try to eliminate, neutralize, or otherwise deal with them.
The much potential is systematic (result from a bias) while the remainder is random
(occur unreliably) erratic
Four major error sources are
• The Respondent as Error Source: Opinion difference will come from relatively
stable characteristics of respondent that affects the scores. Typically of these are
employees status, ethnic group, membership, social class, and nearness to plants
Respondent may also suffer from temporary factors like fatigue, boredom,
anxiety, or other distraction; like these limit the ability to respond accurately and
fully. Hunger, impatience, or general variation in mood may also have an impact
• Situational Factors: any condition that places an strain on the interview can have
serious effects on the interviewer respondent rapport
• The measure as an Error Source: the interviewer can distort response by
rewording, paraphrasing, or reordering question, careless tabulation, incorrect
encoding etc
• Instrument as an Error Source: defective instrument can cause distortion in two
major ways. First it can too confusing and ambiguous


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There are four criteria for evaluating a measurement tool
• Validity
• Ability
• Practicability
Validity: many form of validity are mentioned in the research literature, and the numbers
expand the concern for more scientific measurement. There are most important are external
and internal validity
The external validity of research finding refers to their ability to be generalized across
persons, setting, and times.
Internal validity is the ability of the research instrument to measure for what its designer
claims it does.

Validity in this context is the extent to which difference found with measuring tools reflects
true difference among respondents being tested. The difficulty of meeting this test is that
usually one does not know what the true difference are; if one did , one would not do the
There are three concept the improve validity
1. Content Validity: the content validity of a measuring instrument is the extent to which it
provides adequate coverage of the topic under study. If the instrument contains a
representative sample of the universe of the subject matter of interest , then content
validity is good
2. Criterion Related Validity: this form of validity reflects the success of measure used for
prediction or estimation.
3. Construct Validity: one may also wish to measure or infer the presence of abstracts
characteristics for which no empirical validation seems possible. Attitudes scales and
aptitude and personality test are generally concern concept that fall in this category.

Reliability: A measure is reliable to the degree that it supplies consistent result. Reliability is
a contributor to validity and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity.

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Reliability is concerned with estimates of the degree to which a measurement is free of
random or unstable error. Reliable instrument used frequently with confidence. And this
confidence is due to
1. Stability: a measure is stable if you can secure consistent results with repeated
measurement of the same person with the same instrument
2. Equivalence: a second perspective on reliability considered how much error may be
introduced by different investigators or different sample of items being studied
3. Internal Consistency: A third approach to reliability uses only one administration of an
instrument or test to assess consistency or homogeneity among the items

Improving Reliability: One can improve reliability if external sources of variation are
minimized and the conditions under which the measurement occurs are standardized

Practicality: The scientific requirement of project call for the measurement process to be
reliable and valid, while operational requirement call for it to be practical. Practicality has
been defined as economy, convenience, and interpretability.
1. Economy: some trade-off is usually needed between the ideal research project and
the budget.
2. Convenience: a measuring device passes the convenience test if it is easy to
3. Interpretability: this aspect of practicality is relevant when persons other than that
the test designer must interpret the result


Many concepts in business are easy to measure. For example , if you study wages and
workers benefits payments, you find they are stated in dollar amounts and accurate records
are kept. In other instances, researchers want to measure concepts such as motivation, sale
effectiveness or market potential. These concepts must be operationally defined by
developing a special measurement procedure.
This process involve four steps

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1. Concepts Development
2. Concepts Specification
3. Indicator Selection
4. Formation of Indexes
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT: The first task is to develop the concept (construct). In
developing these ideas one must enumerate the specific ways the corporation may be
involved with various groups and what the nature of each of these involvement is
CONCEPT SPECIFICATION: the second task is to breakdown these concepts into various
INDICATORS SELECTION: once the dimensions have been set, the indicators to measure
each concept must be developed. Since there is seldom a perfect or absolute measure, several
possibilities should be considered. Indicators can be questions, statistical measures, or other
scoring devices.
FORMATION OF INDEXES: When there are several dimensions of a concept or different
measure for each dimension, it may be considerable to combine them into single index. It is
reasonable to believe that each individual indicator has only a probability relation to what we
really want to know. Any single indicator may not be fair representation of what is being
measured. Use of more than one indicator lends stability to the scores and improves their


Business research concepts (constructs) are frequently complex and abstracts while the
available measurement tools can be crude (simple) or imprecise. We want valid
measurement, but we get something between the true score and test score. When the concept
is concrete and measurement tool is standardized, the variation between the true and test
score is small. When the concept is abstract (attitude toward various institutions) and
measurement tool is not standardized then you will not be confident test result reflects true


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Scaling: is a procedure for the assignment of number ( or other symbol) to a property of a
objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question.
What is defined: Procedurally, we assign numbers to indicants of the properties of objects. If
you wants to measure the temperature of the air, you know that property of temperature is
that it variation leads to an expansion or contraction of material such as mercury.

Selection of scale require the decision in six key areas
1. Study Objective: A scale may be designed to
a. Measure the characteristics of the respondents who complete it or
b. Use these respondents as judge of the objects or stimuli presented to them
2. Response Scale: Scale may be defined as categorical and comparative. These
approaches are also known as rating and ranking respectively. Categorical (rating
scale) are used when respondent score some objects without direct reference to other
object. In comparative (Ranking) scaling, the respondents are asked to choose which
one of pair is best one.
3. Degree of Preference: Scaling approach may also involve preference
measurement or non preference evaluation. In the former, respondents as asked to
choose object each favours or solution each would prefer. In the latter, they are
asked to judge which objects has more of some characteristics or which solution
takes the most resources, without reflecting any personal preference toward objects
or solutions.
4. Scale Properties: Scales approaches may also be viewed in the term of the scales
properties possessed by each. Such as nominal scale, ordinal scale, interval and ratio
5. Number Of Dimension: Scales are either unidimensional or multidimensional.
With unidimensional scale, one seeks to measure only one attribute of the
respondent or object. Multidimensional scaling recognize that an object might be
better describe in attributes space of n dimensions rather than on a unidimensional

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6. Scales Construction: We can classify scale by the methods used to build them.
There are five scale design techniques
a. Arbitrary Approach: In which the scale is developed on an ad hoc basis.
b. Consensus Scale: A panel of judges evaluates the items to be included in the
instrument based on relevance to the topic area and lack of ambiguity.
c. Item Analysis Approach: Individual items are developed for as test that is
given to a group respondent. individual items are then analysed to determine
which one discriminate between persons or objects with high total scores and
low total scores.
d. Cumulative Scale: are chosen for their conformance to a ranking of items
with ascending and descending discriminating power.
e. Factor Scale: are constructed from Interco relation of items. Common
factors counts for relationship.

RATING SCALE: Rating scales have several response categories and are used to
elicit response with regard to the object, event, or person studied.

Rating Scales:
1. Dichotomous Scale: is used to elicit yes or no answer
2. Category Scale: use multiple items to elicit a single response
3. Likert Scale: is designed to examine how strongly subjects agree or disagree with
statements on five points scale
4. Semantic Differential: Several bipolar attributes are identified at the extreme of the
scale and respondents are asked to indicate their attitude
5. Numerical Scale: The numerical scale is similar to semantic differential scale with
the difference that numbers on the 5 points or 7 points are provided with bipolar
objective at end
6. Itemised rating Scale: A 5 point or 7 point scale with anchor ,as needed, is provided
for the each item and the respondent states the appropriate number on the side of each

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7. Fixed Or Constant Scale: The respondent are asked to distributes a given number of
points across various items
8. Stapel Scale: This scale simultaneously measure the direction and intensity of the
attitude toward the item under study.
9. Graphic Rating Scale: a graph is used to represent the answer of the question
10. Consensus Scale: A panel of judges evaluates the items to be included in the
instrument based on relevance to the topic area and lack of ambiguity

Ranking scales make comparison between or among object, events, or persons and elicit
the preferred choice and ranking among them.
1. Paired Comparison: Is used when, among a small number of objects
respondents are asked to choose between two objects at a time. Formula
(n ( n+1))/2
2. Forced Choice: The forced choice enables respondent to rank objective relative
to one another, among the alternative provided.
3. Comparative Scale: The comparative scale provides a benchmark or a point of
reference to assess attitude toward the current object, event, or situation under


1. Leniency error: The error of leniency occurs when a respondent is either is an “easy
rater” or “hard rater”. The latter is a negative leniency. The raters are inclined to
score those people higher whom they know well and with whom they have ego-
involved. There is also opposite to this situation- where one rates acquaintance
(Social contact) lowers because one is aware of the leniency danger and attempts to
counteract it.
2. Central Tendency: The raters are reluctant to give extreme judgement, and this fact
accounts for the error of central tendency.
3. Halo Effect: The halo effect is the systematic bias that the rater introduces by
carrying over a generalized impression of the subject from one rating to another.

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Arbitrary scales are designed by collecting several items that are believed are unambiguous
and appropriate to given topic. Some are chosen for inclusion in the instrument. Consider the
following example for image of company

How do regard company reputation

1 As place to work bad - - - - Good
2 As a place of civic project bad - - - - Good
3. For ecological concern bad - - - - Good
4 As employer of minorities bad - - - - Good

We might score each of these from 1 to 5 depending upon the degree of favorableness
reported. The results may be studied in several ways. Total may be made by individual items,
by company, by company as palace of work, for ecological concern and so on. Totals for
each company, or for individual may be calculated to determine how they compare to others.
Based on a total for these four items, each company would be scored from 4 to 20 by each
respondent. These data may be analyzed from a respondent centre point of view. Thus, we
might use attitude score of each individual to study difference among them

• Easy to develop
• Inexpensive
• Highly specific
• Designed approach is subjective
• No evidence that respondent view each item with same frame of reference

Consensus scale require that items are selected by a panel of judges who evaluate them on
1. relevance to topic area

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2. potential for ambiguity , and
3. the level of attitude it represents
A widely used approach is Thur-Stone Differential Scale
A Differential Scale also known as the method of Equal appearing Interval was developed to
create an interval rating scale for attitude measurement. Often 50 or more judges evaluate a
large number of statements expressing different degree of favorableness toward an object.
There is one statement per card. The judges sort each card into 1 of 11 piles representing
their evaluation of the degree of favorableness that the statements express. The judge’s
agreement or disagreement with the statement is not involved. Three of the 11 piles are
identified to the judges by labels of “favorable” and “unfavorable” at the extreme and
“neutral” at the midpoint. The eight intermediate piles are unlabled to create the impression
of equal –appearing interval between the three labled positions.
The scale position for a given statement is found by calculating its medial score. A measure
of dispersion, usually the interquartile range, is calculated for each statement. If a given
statement has large interquartile range, it is judged to be too ambiguous to be used in final
scale. Statements included in the finale attitude scale are selected by taking a sample of those
with median scores spread evenly from one extreme to other and with small interquartile
• differential scale are reliable
• It is costly
• Time consuming
• Involve 50 or more individual for decisions

The item analysis procedure evaluates an item based on how well it discriminates between
those persons whose total scores is high and those whose total score is low. The most popular
type using this approach is summated scale
Summated scale consists of statements that express either a favorable or unfavorable attitude
toward the object of interest. The respondent is asked to agree or disagree with each

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statement. Each response is given a numerical score to reflect its degree of attitude
favorableness, and the score are totaled to measure the respondent’s attitude.
The most frequently used form is the likert scale. With scale the respondent is asked to
respond to each statement by choosing one of five agreement choices
I consider my job rather unpleasant
Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly
nor Disagree Disagree
1 2 3 4 5

The number indicates the values to be assigned to each possible answer with 1 indicating the
least favorable degree of job satisfaction and 5 the most favorable.

Total score on cumulative scale have the same meaning. Giving a person’s total score, it is
possible to estimate which item were answered positively and negatively. The major scale of
this type is Guttman scalogram. Scalogram analysis is a procedure for determining whether
a set of items forms a unidimensional as defined by Guttman. A scale is said to be
unidimensional if the responses fall into a pattern in which support of the item reflecting the
extreme position results also in supporting all items that are less extreme.

Suppose we are surveying the new style of running shoe. We have developed a preference
scale of four items as follow
1. Style X is good looking
2. I will insist on style X next time because it is great looking
3. The appearance of style X is acceptable to me
4. I prefer style X to other style
Respondents are asked to express themselves on each item by indicating whether agree or
disagree. If these items form a unidimensinal scales, the response pattern will be approach
the ideal configuration as shown

Ideal Scalogram Response Pattern

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2 4 1 3 Response
x x x x 4
- x x x 3
- - x x 2
- - - x 1
- - - - 0
x = agree
- = disagree

In developing a Scalogram, one first define the universe of content. Assume you are
interested in attitude of people toward television advertising. You might define the universe
of content as “viewer attitude toward TV advertising” the second step is to develop items that
can be used in pretest that tell us if this topic is scalable. Guttman suggest that a pretest
includes 12 or more items, while the final scale may have only 4 to 6 items. Pretest
respondent numbers may be small say 20 or 30 but final scale use should involve 100 or
more respondents
Take the pretest results and order the respondents from top to bottom – form those with the
most favorable totals to least favorable. Then order the statements left to right from the most
favorable to least favorable. The next step is to discard those statements that fail to
discriminate well between favorable and unfavorable respondents. Finally calculate a
coefficient of Reproducibility (CR)

Reproducibility = 1- e/n(N)
Where e is the number of errors, n is the number of items, and N is the number of cases.
Reproducibility should be 0.90 or better for a scale to be considered uni-dimensional

Factor Scales includes a variety of techniques that have been developed for two problems
1. how to deal with the universe of content that is multidimensional and
2. How to uncover underlying dimension that have not been identified.

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There are many approaches used for factor scale but most important is


This scaling method developed by Osgood and his associates, is an attempt to measure the
psychological meanings of an object to an individual.
Semantic differential is based on the proposition that an object can have several dimension of
connotative meaning. The meanings are located in multidimensional properties space, called
semantic space.
This method consist of a set of bipolar rating scale, usually seven points, by which one or
more respondents rate one or more concepts on each scale items. The scale items appears as

Good ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ____: Bad

Passive ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ____: Active

SD Scale for Analyzing Candidates for an Industry Leadership Position

(E) Sociable (7) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) Unsociable
(P) Weak (1) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (7) Strong
(A) Active (7) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) Passive
(E) Progressive (7) ___: ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) Regressive
(P) Yielding (1) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (7) Tenacious
(A) Slow (1) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (7) Fast
(E) True (7) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) False
(P) Heavy (7) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) Light
(A) Hot (7) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (1) Cold
(E) Unsuccessful (1) ___ : ___: __: ___: ___: ___: ___: (7) Successful

Nature of Secondary Data Sources

Every study is a research for information about some topic. Researchers are more confident
of their information’s integrity by drawing from all relevant sources. Information sources are
classified into two sources

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1. Primary Data: Those come from the original sources and are collected especially to
answer our research question. Researcher collects that information which he needed.
He can specify its operational definition, eliminate it, or control and record it.
2. Secondary Data: Study made by other for their own purpose.

Purpose of secondary research

A. Provide descriptive, statistical information

1. Provide information about basic conditions concerning social, economic,

and educational welfare of nation, state, locality.
Provide information on severity and changing nature of a condition,
--e.g., teenage pregnancy, student achievement
Importance of this function recognized by increased publication of
statistical reports by state and federal agencies

2. Provide information to establish context and rationale for analytic study

-e.g., dropouts

Descriptive information not highly valued in research community, often

overlooked or de-emphasized but important to policymakers and public

B. Secondary/archival data can be used for analytic studies through secondary

statistical analysis

C. Source of information on research design issues—sampling, questionnaire design,


Uses of Secondary Data

Secondary data are used for three research purpose

1. They fill a need for a specific reference on some point.
Examples: Uses of Wheat last Year, Export of Sports equipments etc
2. Secondary data is an integral part of a large research study. Research procedures
typically call for some early exploration to learn if the past can contribute to the
present study.
3. Secondary data may be used as the sole basis for research study.

Steps in Using Secondary Data

1. Locating
2. Accessing
3. Evaluating
a. Purpose of study

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b. Organization who conducted it
c. Information collected (how was it measured?0
d. When information collected
e. How information obtained (how representative)
f. Consistency with other information
4. Analyzing
5. Reporting

Advantages of Secondary Data:

 Can be found more quickly and cheaply
 Less costly than primary data
 In some cases is prohibited
 Secondary data may not meet specific information
 It is collected by other for their own purpose, it definition, units of measure, and
different time involved
 It is difficult to assess the accuracy of the information because one knows little about
research design or the condition under which research occurred
 Secondary information are often out of date

Types of Secondary Sources

 Documentary sources
 Survey sources
 Multiple source

• Organization’s records
• Organizations’ communications
(internal and external)
– Primary data not secondary
• Books, journals, newspapers, etc.
– Secondary
• Use of a table on, say,
consumer expenditure
Government surveys and economic statistics
 Censuses
– Census of Population
– Census of Employment

 Continuous and regular surveys

– General Household Survey
– Labour Force Survey

 Official statistics
– Mainly time-series

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On the basis of above mentioned types of sources we can divide sources into two types
 Internal sources
 External sources

Internal Sources
Internal sources of organization data are so varied that it is difficult to provide generalization
about their use. Main sources are all the departments of an organization
 Management
 Accounting
 Research and development
 Marketing
 Finance
 Interviewing of Secretaries of company

External Sources
All the sources outside the organization are external sources. But published sources of data
are classified into five categories.
1. Computerized Databases: they are composed of interrelated data files. The files are
sets of records grouped together for storage on some medium. Assess may be through
on line of VD-ROM
2. Periodical: the 32nd edition of Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory lists
approximately 140000 periodicals worldwide.
3. Books: it is estimated that 47000 books title are published in US annually
4. Government Documents:
5. Diverse material from special collection. Within this category there are many
reference books, university publication, doctoral dissertation and research record.
Company publication such as financial statements etc.

Research Procedure
An important source of data collection is library.

Electronic and Traditional Library:

First step to conducting research in a library is to decide which source will provide
access to the data need to collect. Indices are available for both electronic and
traditional library

Search for Bibliography: bibliography makes the entire research project more
efficient because you quickly find an inventory of a material on subject. By
inspecting the title s, authors, dates and other indexing information, you can selects
the priority sources for further study.
The logical first step to learn is whether any one else has already prepared a
bibliography on the subject. In contrast to electronic library manual library are time
consuming and costly but can be used as search for data collection.


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Secondary data evaluating depends upon two forms
1. Data Pertinency
2. Data Quality
Data Pertinency means having logical precise relevance to the matter at hand. Or we can say
the how well do the data fit the research need

Data quality means that what confidence you can put in the accuracy and legitimacy of the
The question of data quality is first a question of data accuracy. It is good research practice to
go to the original source of the information rather than use an intermediate source that has
quoted from the original. This enables you to avoid any error in transcription and review the
cautionary and other comments that went along with the original data. Finally you may
uncover revisions that have been made in the data since the intermediate source use it.
Another aspect of data accuracy concern with it completeness: how does the reported
material cover? Is it based upon a narrow sample, a large population or what? Answer to
these questions may suggest that data are nor appropriate for the problem. Another aspect
Data quality concern the capability of sources of the data. In this context there are two
1. First are the persons who conducted the study people in whom you can have
confidence? Are they highly regarded? Is their organization well regarded
2. Second aspect of source capability concern the original source: Could the respondent
answer this question? What are the chances that the respondent would know and be
willing to give such information under the study condition?
A concern that any investigator has in studying the quality of secondary data is the degree
to which the accurately reflects reality.


To survey is to question people and record their response for analysis

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Strength: The greatest strength of questioning as primary data collection techniques is its
Surveys are more efficient and economical than observation
Survey by using telephone or mail can cover moiré geographical area

Weakness: Quality of information depends upon the respondent cooperation

Reasons for non-cooperation may be:
1. respondent gives no value to participation in survey
2. they may feel fear for some personal information in personal
3. they may have not knowledge about specific topic
4. respondent may interpret the topic indifferent meanings
5. respondent intentionally misled the researcher by answering false
Application: the most appropriate applications are those where respondents are uniquely
qualified to provide the desired information

A personal interview (face to face) is a two way conversation initiated by an interviewer to
obtain information from a respondent.


1. depth and detail information are secured
2. interviewer observe behavioral cues of interviewee
3. interview can not condition of interview
4. interviewer have control over condition
5. they can use securing devices for measuring
6. interviewer can adjust the respondent language

Three broad conditions must be met to have a successful personal interview. They are
1. availability of needed information from the respondent
2. an understanding by the respondent of his role
3. adequate motivation by the respondent to cooperate


1. Increasing Respondent Receptiveness:

The first goal in an interview is to establish a friendly relationship with the
respondent. Three factors will help with respondent receptiveness. The respondent
a) believe the experience will be pleasant and satisfying
b) think the survey is important and worthwhile
c) have any mental reservation satisfied

2. The Introduction:

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Interviewer should immediately identify themselves by name and organization,
showing any special identification

3. If the respondent is busy or away:

If it is obvious that the respondent is busy, it may be a good idea to give a general
introduction and try to stimulate enough interest to arrange an interview at another
time. For contracting the proper respondent establish good relationship

4. Good Interviewing Relationship:

The successful interview is based on the good rapport meaning a relationship of
confidence and understanding exist between interviewer and respondent

5. Gathering The Data:

Interviewer interprets the exact wording of question and probe into

6. Recording the interview:

Record the response as they occur if you wait then you miss some valuable

7. Selection and Training:

The job requirement for interview includes some college experience, good
communication skill, flexible schedule, willingness to work and mobility


1. Non Response Error:
Availability is an important source or error fro personal interview. This non response
error occurs when you cannot locate whom you are supposed to study. It is difficult in
probability sampling.
Solution to non response is to make call back. If enough attempts are made it is
usually possible to contact most target respondent

2. Response Error:
When the data reported differ from the actual data, response error occur

3. Interviewer Error:
a) when interviewer not establish good cooperation with respondent
b) interviewers are inconsistent of way of interviewing
c) when interviewer fail to obtain or motivate the respondent
d) interviewer are expensive

Telephone interview helps in setting up personal interviews and screening population for
unusual types of respondents. It is unique mode of communication.


1. Telephone interview offer low cost

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2. response rate is high
3. no requirement of administrative cost and supervision


Computer –assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) : telephone interview can be
conducted by using personal computer and recording the interview by saving time
and money.
Computer-administered telephone survey: there is no interviewer. A computer calls the
phone number, conducts the interview, place data into file for later tabulation, and
terminates. The questions are voice –synthesized and the respondents answer and
computer timing triggers continuation or disconnect. This mode is often compared
to self-administered questionnaires and offers the advantages of respondent


Advantages of Mail Survey:
 Efficient for volume of information collected
 People more likely to provide frank, thoughtful, honest information, tension-free situation
 Gives people more time to complete the questionnaire all respondents receive
same questions in printed form—free from bias

Disadvantages of Mail Survey:

 Low response rate
 One or two follow-ups are needed for a good return
 Questionnaire must be easy to understand
 Difficult to summarize open-ended questions
 Accurate mailing lists are required
 Overuse of this method may make some people reluctant to respond
 Privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity must be assured
 Can be expensive
 Scope is limited results may be misleading if only respondents who are
interested in topic respond

Response of mail survey can be improved by different techniques. These are
1. Follow Up: Follow-up or reminders are very successful in increasing response rate
2. Preliminary Notification: advance notification particularly by telephone is effective
in increasing response rate

There are many other techniques

1. Questionnaire Length:
2. Survey Sponsorship
3. Return Envelopes
4. Postages
5. Personalization
6. Cover Letters
7. Anonymity

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8. Size, Reproduction and color
9. Money incentive
10. Deadline Dates

Data collection and analysis table

Method What it measures Advantages Disadvantages Example

Existing Information Records, files, receipts,  readily available  user may need to sort,  past Plans of
historical accounts,  minimal cost discriminate and Work are
personnel records, reports,  data available on a wide correlate reviewed to
etc. variety of  takes time determine
characteristics  figures may represent program
 can be accessed on a estimates rather than trends, or
continuing basis actual accounts changes
 descriptive data  does not reveal  personnel
 can provide insight into individual values, records -are
program that cannot be beliefs, or reasons examined to
observed in any other underlying current determine
way trends pre-
training of
Case Studies  the experiences and  procedures evolve as  requires absolute a few
characteristics of work progresses, no accuracy participants from
selected persons in a confining categories of  can be very subjective each program are
project classifications  time consuming— visited about
 generally utilized  allows depth of in-sight requires extensive their experience.
with a small number into relation-ships and amounts of data Their colleagues
of individuals or personal feelings  focus is on a limited are interviewed
groups  can be effectively used number of cases;
in combination with cannot necessarily be
other methods, such as generalized to larger
survey and observation community.
 unique opportunity to  not suitable as a
study organization, method in isolation,
group, etc., in depth best for a back-ground
 can be tailor made to or as a guide to further
specific situations study
 several cases are
needed for best

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What it measures Advantages Disadvantages Example
 opinions, attitudes,  can be inexpensive  samples must be  agents report
Surveys (Includes beliefs, behaviors,  sample can be used to carefully selected to how
personal reactions, and provide information ensure statistical frequently
interviews, attributes in response about a population meaning. they use
drop-off to specific questions  can provide an  subject to certain
questionnaires, opportunity for many misinterpretation, resource
telephone people to be involved in depending on how center
interviews.) decision-making questions are designed materials
process and asked  workshop
 can be used to record  tendency for scope of participants
behaviors as well as data to be limited— indicate their
opinions, attitudes, omission of likes and
beliefs and attributes underlying behavioral dislikes
 usefulness enhances if patterns about the
combined with other  time-consuming program
methods, i.e., compared with less offered
observation or case formal methods
What it measures Advantages Disadvantages
Method Example
 opinions, attitudes,  efficient for volume of  low response rate  extension
Mail Surveys beliefs, behaviors, information collected  one or two follow-ups personnel
reactions, and  people more likely to are needed for a good asked their
attributes in response provide frank, return opinion of
to specific questions thoughtful, honest  questionnaire must be staffing
information, tension- easy to understand  extension
free situation  difficult to summarize clientele
 gives people more time open-ended questions questioned
to complete the  accurate mailing lists to deter-
questionnaire are required mine level
 all respondents receive  overuse of this method of
same questions in may make some satisfaction
printed form—free people reluctant to with
from bias respond extension
 privacy, programmin
confidentiality, and g
anonymity must be
 can be expensive
 scope is limited
 results may be
misleading if only
respondents who are
interested in topic

Page 52 of 67
What it measures Advantages Disadvantages
Method Example
 response rate is high  time consuming  workshop
Telephone Surveys  cost is competitive with  telephone numbers are participants
mail survey needed called to
 speedy and efficient  proportion of unlisted determine
source of data numbers or reaction to
 researcher can provide households without program
clarification on unclear phones may cause  extension
questions frame error personnel
 respondents are more  questions should still called to
relaxed with a stranger be simple and easy to assess their
by telephone than face understand (no more opinion of
to face than five response the pre-
 interviewer can read categories) service
questions from script  interviewer’s voice or training
and take notes without identity may lead to process
concern of distracting some biasing
respondents  respondents may feel
 respondents cannot read interview is an
the interviewer’s body invasion of privacy
language  interviewer has little
opportunity to “loosen
up” the respondent
 interviewer cannot
read respondents’
body language
 scope of survey is
 interviewer training
may be necessary
What it measures Advantages Disadvantages
Method Example
Group Administered  opinions, attitudes,  can collect a lot of data  may require the
Survey beliefs, behaviors, inexpensively by cooperation of others end of meeting,
reactions, and having everyone at a (i.e., school program
attributes in response meeting or program administrators, etc.) questionna
to specific questions complete the survey  reach only those who ire
form are present
 easy to clarify items  group dynamics may
which present difficulty affect individual
 provides greatest sense responses
of respondent  opportunity for
anonymity researcher influence
 good method to collect
baseline and attitudinal
 high response rate
 can be used for
quantitative and
qualitative methods

Page 53 of 67
What it measures Advantages Disadvantages
Method Example

Personal  person’s responses  easier to reach those  may be most  district

and views who are considered expensive method specialist
unreachable (the poor,  slowest method of data interviews
homeless, high status, collection and analysis program
mobile, etc.)  responses may be less participant
 may be easier to reach honest and thoughtful about
specific individuals  interviewer’s presence program
(i.e., community and characteristics and
leaders, etc.) may bias results instructor
 higher response rate  interviewer should go
likely to location of
 more personalized respondent
approach  respondents who
 easier to ask open- prefer anonymity may
ended questions, use be inhibited by
probes and pick up on personal approach
nonverbal cues  may reach only a
 qualitative or smaller sample
Group person’s responses and  less expensive and  respondents who  focus group
views faster than personal prefer anonymity may
interviews be inhibited by
 personalized approach personal approach
 group members  input may be
stimulate each other unbalanced because
some group members
 group members and
interviewer can bias
 data more difficult to
analyze and

What it measures Advantages Disadvantages

Method Example
Observation particular physical and  setting is natural,  the evaluator has less  record how
verbal behaviors and flexible and control over the frequently
actions unstructured situation in a natural 4-H
 evaluator may make environment campers
his/her identity know or  Hawthorne effect—if use the
remain anonymous group is aware that appropriate
 evaluator may actively they are being safety
participate or observe observed, resulting measures
passively behavior may be
 can be combined with a affected
variety of other data  observations cannot be
collection methods generalized to entire
 most useful for population unless a

Page 54 of 67
studying a “small unit” plan for
such as a classroom, representativeness is
Extension Council, etc. developed
 if observer chooses to
be involved in the
activity, he/she may
lose objectivity
 not realistic for use
with large groups
What it measures Advantages Disadvantages
Method Example
Mass media/public opinions, ideas  all citizens would have  the “extremes” of a  use of
hearings an opportunity to population tend to public
respond respond—those television
 teleconferencing, call definitely “for” or to address
in, and town meeting “against” the national
methods would be  use of public issue of
quick methods of television and “Youth at
obtaining input teleconferencing is Risk”
limited to those who  public
have access to public hearing or
television and a phone community
 public hearings are meeting
time consuming, concerning
especially for the environment
interviewers al issues of
 summary and analysis use of
of data can be difficult pesticides
 response to public and water
hearings is affected by quality
location, distance &

Interviewing Techniques:
It is important that the interviewer ask the question properly, records the response accurately
and probe meaningfully. To achieve these aims interviewer must be trained to carry out those
procedures that foster a good interviewing relationship.

Page 55 of 67


Proposal may be defined as a kind of report in which the person consult, analyze the specific
problems or issue and then submit proposal to solve the problems, to change the procedure,
to find the answer of an important question, offer advise and training to carryout research for
the improvement of products or services or procedure.

The proposal are generally requires or asked to solve the problems changing the procedure,
to construct the plan or to improve good and services etc. such as the govt. may require the
proposal for to sell the property, to construct the building, to clean the city and traffic control.

There are two types of proposal.
1. Research proposal: The research proposals are academic in nature. These proposals may
be solicited or unsolicited. If govt. agency request or asked for proposal it will be solicited
proposal. And if some one put proposal without any request it will be unsolicited.
2. Business Proposal: These proposals may be solicited or unsolicited. These proposals are
prepared specifically to solve the business problems to improve the business activities.


1. Title Page: it is covering page of report and consist of

a) Topic of report or title of report
It is the topic of report on which report is written.
b) To whom submitted
Name of person or organization to which report is submitted.
c) By whom submitted.
Name of person submitted report.
d) Date/ department
First write name of department and then date

It facilitate the reader to get the over view of the proposal rather than to read the entire
proposal. It summarizes how the objective wills be met and what procedure will be followed.
It is most important part of proposal.

This part of proposal contains written term and conditions.

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Brief proposal usually do not require table of content. Long proposal do require one as well
as list of table figure, and illustration.

It may consist of
a) Purpose: Here we will define that how this proposal will facilitate the respondent,
organization or person who required proposal.
b) Problems: First define the problem that why we changing the proposal. What are
the problems for which this proposal is preparing?
c) Scope: Define the boundaries of proposal. This proposal can be effective within
these limits and ineffective beyond these limits.
d) Project Team: Mentioned the name of team takes part in proposal. Who lead the
team, experience of participants, qualification, pervious proposal planned etc.
e) Back Ground: Tell about company previous experience, proposal prepared and
effective in fields. How companies earned profit by adopting proposal of this
f) Procedure: What procedure we will adopt.
g) Equipment and facilities: Equipment required for this proposal. Technology
adopted or will be adopted. Machinery required etc.
h) Personnel: Human resource used in project.
i) Budget: It is most important part of proposal. First of all allocate budget for
j) Appendix: It contains photograph and other related information.

Business report

Business report

A business report is an impartial, objective, planned presentation of facts

to one or more persons for a specific, significant business purpose. The
report facts may pertain to events, conditions, qualities, progress, results,
products, problems or suggested solutions. They may help the receivers
understand a complex business situation, carryout operational or
technical assignment, or plan procedure, solve problems, ad make policy
decision about strategic planning.


Six steps to be taken before preparing reports
1. Define the problems, purpose of report.
First step in report writing is to show the problems on which the
report is based and give his purpose.

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2. Consider who will receive the report.
While reporting a report keep the person or organization in mind
who will consider this report. So that it should be according to
understand level of receiver.
3. Determine ideas to include.
Get an idea of source to which you may turn.
4. Collect needed material.
For collection of material that may support your idea, you may
(a) Primary research. (b) Secondary research.
5. Sort, analyze and interpret data.
Analyze your idea, suggestion in report and if there is some special
them interpret it.
6. Organize data and prepare final outline.
Means arrange in systemic form and prepare the main structure of
the report on the basis of that data.

Research report section and their order of inclusion

Short Report Long Report

Report Modules Memo or Short Technical Managemen Technical
Letter t
Prefatory information 1 1 1
Letter of transmittal √ √ √
Title page √ √ √
Authorization Letter √ √ √
Executive Summary √ √ √
Table of contents √ √
Introduction 1 2 2 2
Problems √ √ √ √
Research objective √ √ √ √
Background √ √ √ √
Methodology Briefly 3 3
Sample design √
Research design √
Data collection √
Data analysis √
Limitation √ √ √
Finding 3 4 4
Conclusion 2 4 3 5
Summary and √ √ √ √
Recommendation √ √ √ √
Appendices 5 5 6
Bibliography 7

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Prefatory Items
Prefatory materials do not have direct bearing on the research itself.
Instead, they assist the reader in using the research report

1. Letter of Transmittal:
When relationship between the researcher and client is formal, a
letter of transmittal should be included. It is important when a
report is for a specific client and when generated for an out side
organization. The letter should refer to the authorization for the project
and any specific instructions or limitation placed on the study. It should
also state nad explain the purpose and scope of study.

2. Title Page: it is covering page of report and consist of

b) Topic of report or title of report
It is the topic of report on which report is written
b) To whom submitted
Name of person or organization to which report is submitted.
c) By whom submitted
Name of person submitted report
d) Date/ department
First write name of department and then date
Here are some suggestions
i) Remember 5 W’s
ii) Keep title short, eight to ten words desirable
iii) Consider subtitle
iv) Avoid title that is vague, extremely short
v) Eliminate judgment term

3. Fly Title: It is same as title page

4. Authorization Letter: when the report is sent to public

organization, it is common to include a letter of authorization
showing the authority for undertaking the research

5. Executive Summary: an executive summary serves two purpose

 It may be a report in miniature- covering all the aspects in the

body of the report in abbreviated form
 It could be a concise summary of the major findings and
conclusions including recommendation. Two pages are sufficient
for executive summary. Write this section after the rest of the
report is finished

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6. Table of Contents: It contains information about chapter and
topic of report.

Introduction prepares the reader for the report by describing the parts of
project it includes:
 Problems Statement:
The problems statement contains the need for the research project.
The problems is usually represented by a management question
 Research Objective:
Research objectives address the purpose of the project
 Background
Background material may be of two types
1. It may be the preliminary results of exploration from an
experience survey, focus group, or another source.
2. It could be secondary data from the literature review

In short reports and management reports, the methodology should not
have a separation section. Then it should be mentioned in the
introduction with details placed in an appendix. However, for a technical
report, the methodology is an important section. It contains a least five

1. Sample Design: The researcher explicitly define the target

population being studied and sampling methods used
2. Research Design: The coverage of design must be adapted to the
purpose. In an experimental study, the material, tests,
equipment, control conditions, and other devices should be
3. Data Collection: This part of the report describes the specifics of
gathering the data.
4. Data Analysis: This section summarize the methods used to
analyze the data
5. Limitations: this section includes the area which researcher
can’t cover or not allowed for study.

This is the longest section of the report. The objective is to explain the
data rather than draw interpretation or conclusion. When quantitative
data can be presented this should be done as simply as possible with
chats, graphs and tables.


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Summary and Conclusion: The summary is a brief statement of
the essential findings. Sectional summaries may be used if there are
many specific findings
Conclusion may be presented in a tabular form for easy readings
and reference

Recommendation: this section includes suggestion for further

List of illustration: It carries the information about table, graph, design

and list.

Enclosure/Appendix: It contains supporting evidence for points made

in report.

Bibliography: it contains the reference of books, paper and report

consulted in compilation of report.

Index: Alphabetically list of topics.


1. Information report: In this report you want to summaries the

report. There are many kind of report.
a) Conference report: Points of meeting, meeting attended by
people. It includes all the decision and points discussed. The
text of such reports usually organized by topic discussed or
presented simply.
b) Progress report: It shows the progress, accomplishment or
activities in overtime or at given stage of major assignment.
c) Periodic report: The report of specific period, and time. eg.
Weekly, quarterly, monthly or annual. it is the summary of
activities undertaken within specific time period.

2. Analytical report: The analytical report carried out in order to

analyze the situation or problems. It may end with or without
specific recommendation.

3. Justification-Recommendation Report: Persuasion is center to

the recommendation report. In the recommendation reports after
analysis the situation we made the certain recommendation for
specific problems.

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4. Letter report: simply a report in letterform and it is often used to
send information from outside organization. There are two types of
letter reports.
(a) Information letter report (b) Analytical letter report

Sampling Design

Population: Population refers to the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that
the researcher wishes to investigate.

Element: An element is a single member of the population

Population Framework: The population frame is a listing of all the elements in population
from which the sample is drawn. The payroll of an organization would serve as the
population frame if its members are to be studied.

Sample: A sample is a subset of the population.

Subject: A subject is a single member of the sample, just as an element is a single member of
the population.

Sampling: Sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from

population, so that a study of the sample and an understanding of its properties or
characteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics
to the population elements.

Parameters: characteristics of population are called parameter. Such as population means,

population standard deviation or variance.

Reason for sampling:

• It would be practically impossible to collect data from, or test, or examine every
• Even if it is possible it would be prohibited in term or cost, time and human resource.
• Sample study create more reliable result than population in some cases
• Fatigue is reduced and error are removed in sample study
• In some cases study of entire population is impossible like electric bulb.

Probability Sampling: The elements in the population have some known chance or
probability of being selected as sample subject

1. Unrestricted or Simple Random Sampling: Every element of the population has a

known and equal chance of being selected as subject.

Advantages: High generalizability of finding.

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Disadvantages: not as efficient as stratified sampling

2. Restricted or complex Probability sampling: An alternative to unrestricted

sampling. There are five types of it

• Systematic sampling: The systematic sampling design involves drawing

every nth element in the population starting with a randomly chosen element
between 1 and n.

Advantages: easy to use if population frame is available

Disadvantages: systematic biases are possible

• Stratified Random Sampling: It involves a process of stratification or

segregation, followed by random selection of subject from each stratum.

Advantages: Most efficient among all probability design

Disadvantages: Stratification must be meaningful.
More time consuming than sampling random sampling or
systematic sampling

i. Proportionate stratifies sampling: If the subjects drawn are

proportionate then it is called proportionate stratified sampling.

Advantages: All groups a have adequately sampled and comparison among

groups are possible.

ii. Disproportionate stratified sampling: if subject drawn are

disproportionate then it is called disproportionate stratified sampling
Disadvantages: Population frame for each stratum is essential

3. Cluster Sampling: Groups that have heterogeneous members are first identified; then
some are chosen at random; all the members in each of the randomly chosen groups
are studied.

Advantages: In geographic clusters, costs of data collection are low

Disadvantage: the least reliable and efficient among all probabilities
sampling design since subject of cluster are more homogeneous than

i. Single stage cluster sampling: Involves the division of the population

into convenient clusters, randomly choosing the required number of
clusters as sample subject, and investigating all the elements in each of
the randomly chosen cluster
ii. Multistage Cluster Sampling: Multistage cluster sampling involves a
probability sampling of the primary sampling unit. From each of these

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primary units, probability sample of the secondary sampling unit is
then drawn; a third level of probability sampling is done from each of
these secondary units and so on.

4. Area Sampling: Cluster sampling within a particular area or cluster.

Advantages: cost-effective. Useful for decision relating to particular location

Disadvantages: take time to collect data from an area

5. Double Sampling: The same sample or subset of the sample is studied twice.

Advantages: offer more detailed information on the topic of study

Disadvantages: original biases, if any, will be carried over. Individual may be not be
happy responding a second time

Non- Probability Sampling: The elements in the population have not known chance or
probability of being selected as sample subject

1. Convenience sampling; the most easily accessible member are chosen as sample.

Advantages: Quick, convenient, less expensive.

Disadvantages: not generalizable to all.

2. Judgment Sampling: subjects selected on the basis of their expertise in the subject

Advantages: some time, the only meaningful way to investigate

Disadvantages: generalizability is questionable; not generalizable to entire

3. Quota Sampling: Subjects are conveniently chosen from targeted groups according
to some predetermined number or quota.

Advantages: very useful where minority participation is a study is critical

Disadvantages: not easily generalizable

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Business Research Methods

Marketing research

Research covers the search for and retrieval of information for a specific purpose. Research has
many categories, from medical research to literary research.

Types of business research

Businesses engage primarily in four types of research:

Marketing research - Marketing research (also called "consumer research") comprises a form of
applied sociological study which concentrates on understanding the behaviours, whims and
preferences, mainly current and future, of consumers in a market-based economy.

Market research - Market research has a broad scope and includes all aspects of the business
environment. It asks questions about competitors, market structure, government regulations,
economic trends, technological advances, and numerous other factors that make up the business
environment. (See Environmental scanning.) Sometimes the term refers more particularly to the
financial analysis of companies, industries, or sectors. In this case, financial analysts usually carry out
the research and provide the results to investment advisors and potential investors.

Product research - This looks at what products can be produced with available technology, and what
new product innovations near-future technology can develop. (see New Product Development)

Advertising research - This attempts to assess the likely impact of an advertising campaign in
advance, and also measure the success of a recent campaign.

Types of marketing research

Marketing research techniques come in many forms, including:

test marketing - a small-scale product launch used to determine the likely acceptance of the product
when it is introduced into a wider market

concept testing - to determine if consumers consider a concept useful

mystery shopping - An employee of the company conducting the research contacts a salesperson
and indicates they are shopping for the product they sell. They then record the entire experience. This
method is often used for quality control or for researching competitors products.

store audits - to determine whether retail stores provide adequate service

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demand estimation - to determine the approximate level of demand for the product

sales forecasting - to determine the expected level of sales given the level of demand

customer satisfaction studies - exit interviews or surveys that determine a customer's level of
satisfaction with the quality of the transaction

distribution channel audits - to assess distributors’ and retailers’ attitudes toward a

product, brand, or company

price elasticity testing - to determine how sensitive customers are to price changes

segmentation research - to determine the demographic, psychographic, and behavioural

characteristics of potential buyers

consumer decision process research - to determine what motivates people to buy and what
decision-making process they use

positioning research - how does the target market see the brand relative to competitors? - what
does the brand stand for?

brand name testing - what do consumers feel about the names of the products?

brand equity research - how favourably do consumers view the brand?

All of these forms of marketing research can be classified as either problem-identification research or
as problem-solving research.

A similar distinction exists between exploratory research and conclusive research. Exploratory
research provides insights into and comprehension of an issue or situation. It should draw definitive
conclusions only with extreme caution. Conclusive research draws conclusions: the results of the
study can be generalized to the whole population.

Both exploratory and conclusive research exemplify primary research. A company collects primary
research for its own purposes. This contrasts with secondary research: research published
previously and usually by someone else. Secondary research costs far less than primary research,
but seldom comes in a form that exactly meets the needs of the researcher.

Types of marketing research methods

Methodologically, marketing research uses four types of research designs, namely:

Qualitative marketing research - generally used for exploratory purposes - small number of
respondents - not generalizable to the whole population - statistical significance and confidence not
calculated - examples include focus groups, depth interviews, and projective techniques

Quantitative marketing research - generally used to draw conclusions - tests a specific hypothesis -
uses random sampling techniques so as to infer from the sample to the population - involves a large
number of resondents - examples include surveys and questionnaires

Observational techniques - the researcher observes social phenomena in their natural setting -
observations can occur cross-sectionally (observations made at one time) or longitudinally

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(observations occur over several time-periods) - examples include product-use analysis and
computer cookie traces

Experimental techniques - the researcher creates a quasi-artificial environment to try to control

spurious factors, then manipulates at least one of the variables - examples include purchase
laboratories and test markets

Researchers often use more than one research design. They may start with secondary research to
get background information, then conduct a focus group (qualitative research design) to explore the
issues. Finally they might do a full nation-wide survey (quantitative research design) in order to devise
specific recommendations for the client.

Some commonly used marketing research terms

Many of these techniques resemble those used in political polling and social science research. Meta-
analysis (also called the Schmidt-Hunter technique) refers to a statistical method of combining data
from multiple studies or from several types of studies. Conceptualization means the process of
converting vague mental images into definable concepts. Operationalization is the process of
converting concepts into specific observable behaviours that a researcher can measure. Precision
refers to the exactness of any given measure. Reliability refers to the likelihood that a given
operationalized construct will yield the same results if re-measured. Validity refers to the extent to
which a measure provides data that captures the meaning of the operationalized construct as defined
in the study. It asks, “Are we measuring what we intended to measure?�

Applied research sets out to prove a specific hypothesis of value to the clients paying for the
research. For example, a cigarette company might commission research that attempts to show that
cigarettes are good for one's health. Many researchers have ethical misgivings about doing applied

Sugging forms a sales technique in which sales people pretend to conduct marketing research, but
with the real purpose of obtaining buyer motivation and buyer decision-making information to be used
in a subsequent sales call.

Frugging comprises the practice of soliciting funds under the pretense of being a research

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