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A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING THROUGH

KAIRALI TV CHANNEL

PROJECT REPORT

SUBMITTED BY

RAJEEV JOSEPH
REG.NO:08BA020

SUBMITTED TO

Dr. R. MARY METILDA


ASST.PROFESSOR (SG)

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD


OF THE DEGREE OF “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION”
OF KARUNYA UNIVERSITY

KARUNYA SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT


KARUNYA UNIVERSITY
COIMBATORE - 641114
2008-2010

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SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
KARUNYA UNIVERSITY

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF


ADVERTISING THROUGH KAIRALI TV CHANNEL”, is a bonafide work done by
RAJEEV JOSEPH, Reg No. 08BA020 and is submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration, Karunya University.

Dr. Samuel Joseph Dr.R.Mary Metilida


Director I/C Faculty Guide

PLACE: Karunya Nagar


DATE:

VIVA-VOICE EXAMINATION HELD ON___________________

____________________ _______________________
INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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DECLARATION

I RAJEEV JOSEPH , hereby declare that this project work entitled “A STUDY ON
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING THROUGH KAIRALI TV CHANNEL” is an
original work done by me under the supervision and guidance of Dr.R.Mary Metilida and is
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of
Business Administration, Karunya University.

I also declare that this report has not been submitted by me fully or partially for the
award of any degree, diploma, title, recognition or any other fellowship of any other
university before.

Place:

Date: RAJEEV JOSEPH

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Initially, let me thank the almighty God for guiding me all through the
project work.

I express my deep and sincere gratitude to Mrs. R. Mary Metilida, Faculty


guide for providing the necessary assistance for the project.

I sincerely acknowledge my gratitude to Mr. Mohammed Arif C.C, Sr.


Manager (Personnel, Administration) of KAIRALI TV for giving me an
opportunity to do this project. I am thankful to Mr. B. Sunil, the Project
Guide for his guidance and support throughout the study.

I also owe my sincere thanks to all the staff in KAIRALI TV CHANNEL,


and the faculties of the Department of Business Administration, Karunya
University for their valuable guidance and suggestion in the preparation of
this report and completing the same successfully.

RAJEEV JOSEPH

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ChaptersContentsPage No:CHAPTER-11Introduction1.1Theoretical
Background21.2Statement of Problem51.3Need of Study61.4Review of
Literature7CHAPTER-22Industry Profile and Company Profile2.1Industry
Profile232.2Company Profile28CHAPTER-33Methodology3.1Objectives of the
Study323.2Hypotheses323.3Data Collection333.4Sample Size343.5Tools of
Analysis343.6Limitations of the study35CHAPTER-44Analysis and
Interpretation37CHAPTER-55Findings, Suggestions &
Conclusion5.1Findings985.2Suggestions995.3Conclusion100Bibliography101App
endix102

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CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN OF STUDY

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CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION

The project deals with finding the effectiveness of the television advertising for different
product categories targeted at different consumer segments. The client or the company has
some vision in mind when they think of advertising for a new product or an existing one or
for brand promotion. At the same time the particular Tv channel have also an aim to provide
a good support for that through wide reach. Advertisement revenue provides a significant
portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. The company has to
weigh the benefits from advertising against the cost incurred in way of advertisements. Being
able to reach the precise target audience is not just a function of the distribution channels or
the pricing of the goods or services; it is advertising that communicates everything to the
consumer.

A television advertisement or television commercial is a span of television programming


produced and paid for by an organization that conveys a message. The vast majority of
television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a
few seconds to several minutes. Advertisements of this sort have been used to sell every
product imaginable over the years, from household products to goods and services, to
political campaigns.

Many television advertisements feature songs or melodies that generate sustained appeal,
which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising
campaign. Advertising agencies often use humor as a tool in their creative marketing
campaigns. Advertising agencies often use humor as a tool in their creative marketing
campaigns. For example Vodafone ads. In fact, many psychological studies tried to
demonstrate the effect of humor and indicate the way to empower advertising persuasion.

The project intends to find what factors might govern the television advertisement
effectiveness, and also how those factors affects viewers of different age groups and different

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locality(Urban/Rural). In this context, it is very important to identify the viewers perception
about a better ad through the Tv channels without interrupt the program performance.

1.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Advertisement is defined as the paid form of non-personal communication for a product or


services through an identified sponsorer. Advertising is a persuasive communication attempt
to change or reinforce ones‟ prior attitude that is predictable of future behavior. Ads that
trigger an emotional response can grab an audience by the heart, hold their attention, and
leave them with a warm and cozy feeling about the company, product or service.
A somewhat better understanding of the communication process is provided by a more
detailed model shown in the below given model.This modelintroduces a new elements that
serve to demonstrate the complex nature of the communication.
Figure: 1.1.1 Elements of communication

When we send any of advertising message ,we need to encode with some form of simbolic
representation.Most advertising consists of words ,colors,shapes,pictures and posibly musics
,each of which is designed to convey some form of impressionto the viewer.All of these
elements are inteneded to be understood by the reciever of the messageand ,together they
combine to deliver a desired impression of the product or services to the consumers. The
message will need to be placed in to some form of medium that the sender believes will be
seen by the reciever.This might be television,magazine or newspapers available to the
sender.

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The notions of audience activeness provide theoretical basis for the reduced opportunity to
see advertisements, compared to programs. Rested in the uses and gratifications tradition, the
active audience theory sees people as motivated and purposive participants in their
communication processes. This theory, however, does not indicate audience activeness for
every communication situation. Rather, it acknowledges the existence of conditional
variables such as audience members' motives and the communication context that make the
audience active or passive in communication processes. Motivation for the media use, for
example, was reported as a moderating variable for audience activeness. Studying television
viewers, Rubin (1984) identified two media use orientations (ritualized and instrumental),
and found that instrumental motivation reflected greater purposive and active media use'.
Likewise, previous research on television viewing suggests different motives and behavior
for programming and advertising and the influence of the individual audience.
It is unlikely that television viewers avoid every commercial they come in contact with
(Danaher, 1995). Instead, avoiding or watching a commercial would likely be influenced by
the communication context surrounding the advertisement. Previous research on ad clutter
and commercial patterning provides evidence for the contextual effect.

For example, studies of advertising clutter have demonstrated that the level of attention and
recall decreases, as the number of commercials in an advertising break increases (Brown &
Rothschild, 1993; Zhao, 1997). According to the advertising clutter research, the duration of
a given advertising break may affect the size of the gap between the ratings for the program
and the advertising break.

For decades advertising researchers have been interested in examining those message
characteristics that may help curb commercial avoidance. For the most part researchers have
focused on the effects of content variables such as information level, message tone and
scenic beauty, while paying less attention to production-oriented advertisement features such
as the pacing of the advertisement. This is understandable, given that pacing is generally not
considered a primary feature of advertising copy.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising

format. In the past few years television advertisements has overshadowed the television

programs . Many small intervals over the broadcasting period may decrease the number of

viewers for the commercials as well as the program. Some of the ads interrupt the interesting

programs.

However, remote controls have now made it easier for audiences to "tune out"

advertisements simply by allowing them to turn down the volume or even switch channels

when the advertisement comes on. Also people tend to do other things while the

advertisements are on, while waiting for the program to resume. Additionally, television

recording mechanisms such as DVR and TiVo have also allowed viewers to skip advertising

completely during television programming. But at the same time more viewers for

interesting ads like Vodafone Zoozoo ads.

As a result of uninteresting ads the number of viewers has decreased gradually. During a

commercial break the viewer may choose to get a snack, go to other works or have a

conversation about whatever they were just watching. The study has been conducted to find

solution to the above mentioned problem and to make advertisements effectively.

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1.3 NEED OF STUDY
The television advertising is the most powerful form of advertising. Advertising on

television allows to show and tell a wide audience for business, product, or service.

Advertiser can show how their product or service works and how it's packaged so

prospective customers will know what to look for at the point of sale. In Television

advertising effectively influence consumers' purchasing behavior.

Although the past decade witnessed the decrease in the audience delivery by television, the

medium will likely stay as one of the most important advertising tools for a while longer.

The issue of television advertising efficiency, therefore, deserves a continuous research

attention. Unfazed by the large number of TV channels ,viewers have a large number of

options before them. The television viewers have little loyalty towards each TV channels.

Due to this channel war people used to switch over from one channel to another during the

commercial breaks. As a result the effectiveness of advertisements has come down. In this

context the study is been conducted –how the viewers could be attracted to our Tv channel

and the advertisements through it. And also this study analyses the viewers perception about

the ad breaks and the factors affecting the TV advertisements.

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1.4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

ARTICLE NO:1
TITLE: The Choice of Commercial Breaks in Television Programs: The Number,
Length and Timing.
author: Wen Zhou (wenzhou@ust.hk)
Source: Journal of Industrial Economics; Sep2004, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p315-326, 12p.
This paper examines the choice of commercial breaks by a television network in a monopoly
setup. It is assumed that viewers dislike commercials, while the network seeks to maximize
the total audience for these commercials through its choice of the number, length, and timing
of commercial breaks. The model predicts that commercial breaks become more frequent
toward the end of the program, and that the length of breaks is single-peaked. When the
television program becomes more popular, the network runs commercials more frequently,
and redistributes commercials so that late breaks become longer while early breaks become
shorter.

This study concentrate on the choice of commercial breaks by a monopoly network. Viewers
can turn off their TVs but they do not have the option of switching to other channels. We
assume that the network seeks to maximize the cumulative viewing audience during
commercial breaks and that viewers turn off their TVs only during commercial breaks. The
drop in the viewing audience that occurs with each break increases with the length of that
break. To capture the idea that a longer programming interval builds viewer interest and
makes them more likely to stay with the program, we assume that the fraction of the
audience that turns off their TVs in any commercial break decreases with the length of the
preceding programming interval. The model generates several empirically testable
predictions. The programming intervals get shorter with each break, and the lengths of the
commercial breaks are initially increasing and then decreasing. The intuition for these results
is that the network‟s incentive for keeping viewers weakens as the program progresses, but
earlier commercials are more profitable than later commercials. The interaction of these two
effects gives rise to the „single peaked‟ property. Finally, we obtain a comparative static

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prediction that, when the popularity of the program increases, commercials are more
frequent, early breaks are shorter, and later breaks are longer.

The literature states that the drop in viewing audience during a commercial break decreases
with the length of the preceding programming interval and increases with the length of the
commercial. Longer programming intervals help retain viewers by building their interest in
the program, making it more costly for them to turn off their TVs. Viewers are also often
annoyed when commercial breaks occur too frequently. The marketing literature has long
recognized that longer commercials drive more viewers away from the program.

ARTICLE NO:2
TITLE : Recall of Television Commercials as a Function of Viewing Context: The
Impact of Program-Commercial Congruity on Commercial Messages.
Authors: Sharma, Andrew
Source: Journal of General Psychology; Oct2000, Vol. 127 Issue 4, p383, 14p

The effect of the congruity between the involvement types of advertising commercial and a
television program on the effectiveness of the commercial was studied. Participants viewed
either a cognitive or an affective commercial for a product, which was embedded in either a
cognitive or an affective television program. The results showed that the effects of the
congruence influence the impact on memory. Free recall and cued recall were significantly
influenced by the program-commercial congruity. Free recall and cued recall were
significantly higher for the cognitively involving commercial in the cognitively involving
program context than in the affectively involving program context. Similarly, free recall and
cued recall were significantly higher for the affectively involving commercial in the
affectively involving program context than in the cognitively involving program context.
Schwerin (1960) found that attention to a pair of commercials was influenced by position,
the first position having an impact on gaining and sustaining attention for both commercials.
Axelrod found that the mood induced by a program influenced the attitude toward the
product in the advertisement. Barclay, Doub, and McMurtrey showed that commercials
appearing in higher rated programs were recalled better by viewers than were commercials in

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lower rated programs.Even with the inclusion of the involvement variable, conflicting results
have been found. Much of the survey literature reflects a consistent positive relationship
between commercial recall measures and viewer involvement (Clancy & Kweshkin, 1971;
Krugman, 1983; Leach, 1981; Priemer, 1983; Smith, 1956). In contrast, most experimental
research findings suggest that viewer involvement with the program inhibits commercial
recall (Bryant & Comisky, 1978; Kennedy, 1971; Soldow & Principe, 1981; Thorson &
Reeves, 1985; Thorson et al., 1985). This could be a result of the fact that the
conceptualization of the involvement variable has been inconsistent. Involvement has been
conceptualized in terms of intensity of information processing (Krugman, 1966), need for
closure (Kennedy, 1971), and suspensefulness (Soldow & Principe, 1981), among others. All
these conceptualizations assume the difference in outcome among participants at two
different levels of involvement-high and low.
commercials within more involving programs were more effective than commercials within
less involving programs. These studies, however, incorporated only the level of involvement
as the predictor variable and did not distinguish between the type of involvement with the
program and the type of involvement with the commercial.
The results of this study show that the congruence between the involvement types of a
television program and an advertisement influences the effectiveness of the commercial's
impact on memory. The influence of the congruence was significant for the two impact
measures--free recall and cued recall. Free recall and cued recall were significantly higher
for the cognitively involving commercial in the cognitively involving program context than
in the affectively involving program context and for the affectively involving commercial in
the affectively involving program context than in the cognitively involving program context.

ARTICLE NO:3
TITLE : Serial Position Effects in Recall of Television Commercials Images.
Authors: Terry, W. Scott wsterry@email.uncc.edu
Source: Journal of General Psychology; Apr2005, Vol. 132 Issue 2, p151-163, 13p

The findings of naturalistic studies can be affected by uncontrolled presentation, viewing,


and retention variables. In the present article, college students viewed lists of 15

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commercials in a laboratory simulation and recalled the product brand names. In an
immediate test, the first commercials in a list were well recalled (a primacy effect), as were
the last items (a recency effect), in comparison with the recall of middle items. In an end-of-
session test, the primacy effect persisted, but the recency effect disappeared. Embedding lists
within a television program again produced better recall of the first items during end-of-
session tests of recall and cognition. These results offered convergent validity for the
naturalistic studies of commercial memory, and they supported the usefulness of combining
laboratory and field methods to answer questions about everyday memory.

Memory for television commercials has been studied as a function of variables known to
affect laboratory assessments of word-list memory, such as the frequency and spacing of
repeated commercials, the retention interval, and the recall versus recognition testing formats
(e.g., Brown & Rothschild, 1993; Singh, Mishra, Bendapudi, & Linville, 1994; Singh,
Rothschild, & Churchill, 1988). It is interesting to note that even though commercials occur
in blocks, there are few reports of memory as a function of the serial position during
presentation.
The specific question addressed in the present study was whether primacy and recency
would occur in memory for lists of television commercials. The procedures have several
advantages over naturalistic tests of commercial memory. The participants‟ presence during
commercial presentation could be assured, and the immediate test of recall in Experiment 1
gives some measure of the initial 160 The Journal of General Psychology availability of the
items in memory. List length and the contents of each list could be held constant as specific
commercials were moved to different positions within the lists. As with the to-be-
remembered word items that are often used in laboratory studies of memory, the
commercials were probably familiar and represented one- or two-word product names that
could be readily rehearsed. However,unlike words, commercials differ in duration,
distinctiveness, and the obvious sound and visual dimensions.
Nevertheless, the fact that the first commercials in a block of advertisements were better
recalled in a delayed test supports the results of Pieters and Bijmolt (1997) and Zhao (1997).
Going beyond those findings, the results of the present study showed that individual
commercials presented in the first positions of the lists were better recalled than were the

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same commercials presented later in the list. The primacy effect in final recall was also
robust across conditions, and was manifested in lists of both shorter and longer duration
commercials, when testing was surprising or expected, and in recall and recognition test
formats. The present experiments were not designed to differentiate among theories of serial
position, although the results were consistent with several theories.

ARTICLE NO:4
TITLE: Happy and Sad TV Programs: How They Affect Reactions to Commercials.
Authors: Goldberg, Marvin E. Gorn , Gerald J.
Source: Journal of Consumer Research; Dec87, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p387-403, 17p.

The role of mood states and their influence on the consumer have captured the interest of
consumer researchers. Gardner's recent review paper (1985) points to the potential
explanatory power of mood states in an array of marketing domains including service
encounters and point of purchase and communication Stimuli. The questions posed in this
study are as follows.
(1) Can happy or sad TV programs induce parallel moods on the part of the viewer? (2) Do
these induced moods carry over to the mood the viewer experiences while watching TV
commercials? (3) Do these moods, in turn, influence the viewer's reactions to the
commercials viewed during the program?
It is hypothesized that the mood induced by a happy or sad program will carry over and
continue to be experienced during the commercials that are viewed in the context of that
program. While mood is a relatively ephemeral phenomenon, research suggests that its
effects may be evidenced for at least 15-20 minutes (Isen et al. 1976). Being in a happy or a
sad mood while viewing a commercial should increase the accessibility of mood-congruent
thoughts and serve to maintain the viewer's mood state. Effectiveness of the Commercial(s).
The same congruency/ accessibility perspective leads to a second hypothesis. The mood
induced by the program, and continuing to be experienced during the commercial break, will
lead the viewer to evaluate the commercials as more effective when viewed in the context of
a happy program than when viewed in the context of a sad program.

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The findings obtained in this study are supportive of at least some mood-inducing effects of
TV programs on viewer responses to commercials, and more tentatively, of an interaction
between program and commercial type. Also of interest is the finding that emotional
commercials were found to generally outperform the informational commercials. Whether
these results will hold across a broader array of products, situations, and manipulations
remains to be tested.

Three possible operating mechanisms have been advanced to explain the influence of a TV-
induced positive or negative mood upon viewers' reactions to TV commercials:
(1) a priming of the mood congruent material stored in memory that is related to the
commercial (the primary perspective adopted in this study): (2) a more direct, less
cognitively mediated, transference of affect based on mere temporal association: and (3)
consistency involving viewer judgments of the appropriateness/ inappropriateness of "fit"
between program and commercial, it remains for future research to determine under what
circumstances each of these processes represent a more appropriate explanation of the
phenomenon in question.

ARTICLE NO:5
TITLE: Effects of Ad Pacing and Optimal Level of Arousal On Attitude Toward the
Ad.
Authors: Pavelchak , Mark A, Gardner, Meryl P, Broach, V. Carter
Source: Advances in Consumer Research; 1991, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p94-99, 6p, 1 chart

It was predicted that the pacing of TV advertisements would influence perceived arousal
levels, and, depending on viewer's optimal level of arousal, attitudes toward the ad. Ad
pacing did indeed influence arousal levels, but only for those with low optimal levels of
arousal. Post hoc correlational evidence suggests that low optimals, but not high optimals,
like relatively fast ads because they are emotionally arousing. Results are discussed in light
of the multiply-determined nature of attitude toward the ad, and how ad pacing, through its
effect of perceived levels of arousal, may increase our understanding of what makes
advertisements effective.

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It is well established that TV commercials can influence perceived levels of arousal in
viewers (e.g., Pavelchak 1989, Wells 1964). However, because arousal is not inherently
pleasurable, the effect of ad-induced arousal on Aad probably depends on secondary factors,
such as viewers' optimal level of arousal.
Ad Pacing and Arousal One implicit objective of this study was to provide additional
empirical evidence that ad pacing can influence perceived levels of arousal. To achieve this
objective, subjects were shown ads that varied in activity level. We realize that the ads
undoubtedly varied along many other dimensions, and that such differences may be
responsible for our results. We tried to partially address this issue by using two versions of
each type of ad. No doubt our results would have been more clear-cut if additional factors
(such as the type of product) were held constant across the ads. In reality, however, unless
time compression methodology is used, it may be impossible to vary only ad pacing. Our
results should be interpreted in this light.

The pattern of correlations in the fast ad condition among arousal change scores, Aad, and
arousal (experience) seeking scores suggests that arousal change might have mediated the
effect of experience seeking on Ad. The direction of the relationships suggest that low
experience seekers appear to like relatively fast ads more than high experience seekers, and
do so because they are emotionally arousing. High experience seekers, on the other hand, did
not Hnd the relatively fast ads emotionally arousing, and were less favorable toward them.
Thus, it seems as though ad-induced arousal can in fact influence attitude toward the ad,
although in a manner contrary to our initial expectations. In the slow ad condition, in
contrast, the arousal levels of neither high nor low optimals were influenced by the ads, and
yet the two groups differed in terms of Ad (high optimals were more favorable). This result
reminds us that Ad is multiply determined; that ad-induced arousal is only one of many
factors that contribute to such judgments.

ARTICLE NO:6
TITLE: A Feature-Based Approach to Assessing Advertisement Similarity Images

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Authors: Schweidel, David A. dschweid@wharton.upenn.edu
Bradlow, Eric T. ebradlow@wharton.upenn.edu
Williams, Patti pattiw@wharton.upenn.edu
Source: Journal of Marketing Research (JMR); May2006, Vol. 43 Issue 2, p237-243, 7p

This research presents a feature-based statistical model and subsequently explores the degree
to which similarity perceptions between two advertisements can be decomposed and
explained by a “weighted-and summed” distance measure, computed on the advertisements‟
executional elements, after controlling for familiarity and viewers‟ attitudinal responses
toward the advertisements. Furthermore, the authors obtain empirical findings in two major
areas: First, variation in similarity ratings can be explained by the advertisements‟ features, a
finding of potential importance for advertisement construction. Second, some, but not all,
executional elements that have been shown (in the literature) to drive recall and persuasion
are effective at driving perceptions of similarity. This is of practical importance because
managers want their advertisements not only to be liked and remembered but also (possibly)
to be perceived as similar (or dissimilar) to those for other products. In particular, an
understanding of which items drive which constructs (recall and persuasion, or similarity)
can contribute to a more effective overall marketing strategy.
Figure:1.4.1 The executional factors
1. Typical Humor
Indoor setting,
Humorous, Humorous
closing, Comedy or
satire, Creation of
mood as dominant2. Results of Use
Results of use
Performance or
benefits as main
message3. Beauty
Character beauty
Sexual appeal
Glamorous4. Screen Time

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themedominant9.Casual
Relaxing/
comfortable
Modern/contemporary10. Minority
Principal11. Double-
Branded Product12. Characteristics/
Image of Users13. Product
Identifiability
Number of times
brand name
mentioned14. Information
Quality information
Rational/emotional
appeal Components,
contents15. Real People
Principal characters
are real people16. Whimsy
Cute/adorable
Animal is principal
Setting unrelated to
product use17. Flow
Neutral setting
Despite the encouraging nature of our findings, there are several limitations. First, although
the methodological contribution of our work provides a framework in which advertisement
similarity can be investigated, the generalizability of the substantive findings is limited by
both the sample of respondents and the advertisements. Although we mitigate this by using
two distinct samples of respondents, our findings may depend on the variety of the
respondents and the limited set of advertisements we studied. Second, although we collected
dissimilarity ratings in pairs, other collection tasks may yield different results. Third,
although the features that Stewart and Furse (1986) identify are comprehensive, further
refinement may be needed for the domain of similarity perceptions.

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ARTICLE NO:7
TITLE:How Light TV Viewers Respond to Advertising
Authors :Peter Hammer, Trish Green and Erica Riebe, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for
Marketing Science,University of South Australia
Source: Journal of Advertising; 1981, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p37-40, 4p

There is some suggestion that while light viewers are difficult to reach, they offer additional
benefit to advertisers. This study compared light and heavier viewers of television on
established measures of advertising memory (unprompted and prompted recall, recognition),
correct branding and their advertising viewing behaviour. The research found that light
viewers were no more likely to attentively watch advertising or remember advertising
content than heavier viewers, meaning that claims of additional benefit to advertisers are
unsubstantiated.
Light TV viewers are thought to be a highly desirable audience for marketers. Not only do
they represent a large proportion of a brand‟s customers, they are thought to be comprised of
more affluent consumers groups compared to the general population. Whilst the changing
media landscape is making them more difficult to reach, there is some suggestion that these
viewers offer additional benefit to advertisers as they are said to absorb and/or pay greater
attention to advertising.
This research used an experimental methodology to investigate the differences between light
and heavier viewers using established measures of advertising memory (unprompted and
prompted recall, recognition), correct branding and attention to advertising to ascertain
whether light TV viewers are, as suggested, more attentive and likely to remember
advertising content.
The results from this study indicate that differences between light, medium and heavy
viewers of television are small and not statistically significant in terms of advertising
memory, the ability to absorb brand information and level of attentiveness. As such, it seems
that targeting light TV viewers is of limited additional benefit to advertisers, other than the
benefit gained by simply reaching a larger number of potential customers. This does not
mean that light TV viewers are not important, as they comprise a considerable portion of any
brand‟s market. However, advertisers cannot hope for, nor should expect any increased

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advertising impact within this group to compensate for a lack of opportunity to reach this
group.

ARTICLE NO:8
TITLE: The role of celebrity in endorsing poverty reduction through international aid.
Authors: Samman, Emma Mc Auliffe, Eilish MacLachlan, Malcolm mlachlan@tcd.ie
Source: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing; May2009,
Vol. 14 Issue 2, p137-148, 12p

'Celebrity endorsement' is a strategy that is gathering increasing momentum in attempts to


develop public awareness of the plight of the poor. Understanding of public perceptions is
clearly important for international organizations seeking to make use of celebrity in
furthering their causes. This paper reports the results of a preliminary survey conducted
among 100 members of the Irish public to evaluate levels of awareness of celebrity
involvement in international development work and the public's opinions about such
involvement. The survey instrument was semi-structured with some open-ended questions.
The focus was on respondents' ability to identify celebrities associated with such work, and
to elicit their opinions on those celebrities' perceived aims, knowledge of international
development, and influence upon the respondent. It also requested opinions of the value of
celebrity involvement more generally. The results suggest that respondents are generally able
to distinguish between celebrities and their various causes. Most found their involvement to
be valuable in raising the profile of charities, though only a small number claimed to be
personally influenced by such activity.
The respondents were fairly cynical as to the motives of most celebrities, whose involvement
they felt served their own aims -- namely publicity, -- first and foremost. Most respondents
were more likely to be influenced by their perceptions of the character of the celebrity rather
than their causes. They respected celebrities they felt were genuinely committed to the
causes they espoused, but paradoxically, they felt such commitment was best demonstrated
by the celebrity keeping a low profile and not actively seeking publicity. Long-term
commitment to a given cause was also highly regarded. The results are discussed with regard
to theories of social persuasion and the dilemma's facing celebrities who get involve in

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endorsement of charity aid or campaigns. More research is necessary to substantiate and
further develop our findings.
When program and advertising overlap–for example, when the advert features a character in
a scene similar to one in the film or TV series–the advert represents a continuation of the
film or TV series, and may evoke a more positive response due to viewers‟ familiarity with
the character and the advertising story
Several research findings on media-context effects support the hypothesis that congruency
between the program and the advertisement with respect to characteristics like mood,
feelings, involvement, humor, etc. leads to greater advertising effectiveness. A theory that is
frequently cited as a possible reason for these effects is the congruency/accessibility
hypothesis (Goldberg and Gorn 1987). A subsequent stimulus that is congruent to the media
context is easier to perceive and process.
.
ARTICLE NO:9
TITLE:The Influence of Consumer Mood State on Mental Imagery Processing of
Advertisement and Brand Evaluation.
Authers:Jun R. Myers, California State Polytechnic University, USA
Sela Sar, Iowa State University, USA
Source: Journal of Advertising

Advertising appeals that encourage imagined consumption imagery are well known to be
effective marketing communication tools to enhance brand attitudes and behavioral
intentions. However, our understanding of the effectiveness of using mental imagery of
consumption is still far from clear. This research focuses on exploring the influence of
consumers‟ mood state on the generation of consumption mental imagery and product and
brand evaluations

Recently in psychology, the influence of mood state on information processing has drawn a
lot of attention. It has been shown that mood state can significantly influence how people
process incoming and self-generated information (e.g., Forgas, 1995; Schwarz, 1990).
However, little research has investigated the influence of mood state on consumers‟ use of

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mental imagery in processing marketing communication messages. Two theoretical
frameworks suggest great potential to predict how different consumer mood states can affect
the way consumers use mental imagery in processing brand information and forming brand
evaluations.

From this view, positive mood provides more resources for consumers to engage in imagery
generation, and thus facilitates the generation of mental images regarding positive
consumption experience, and reduces consumers‟ critical scrutiny and analytical examination
of the message argument.

The “hedonic contingency view” suggests that people in a negative mood state are motivated
to process information. They think that such processing can have hedonic value to their
mood state (Wegener and Petty, 1994). This view renders support for the use of positive
consumption imagery: when consumers are in a negative mood state (versus positive mood
state), they are more likely to be motivated to engage themselves in the hedonically pleasant
experience of imagining the future consumption. The motivation to change negative mood
should be higher than the motivation to keep the positive mood state.

ARTICLE NO:10
TITLE: Analysis of the Impact of Executional Factors on Advertising Performance.
Authors: Stewart, David W. Furse, David H.
Source: Journal of Advertising Research; Nov/Dec2000, Vol. 40 Issue 6, p85-88, 4p

The purpose of this study was to answer the question: "What advertising executional devices
influence the effectiveness of a television commercial?" Generally this research has arrived
at conflicting findings that have not been very useful for the typical advertising manager.
There are a number of reasons for this; all relate to particular problems with much previous
academic research. This research has often investigated small numbers of executional
factors, which occur in a small number of commercials. Typically, small convenience
samples, which are unrepresentative of typical consumers, have been employed. Frequently,
single, adhoc measures of advertising performance have been employed. Finally, much of

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the research has had the individual as the unit of analysis, not the commercial. Managers
must make decisions about commercials based on the aggregate response of a target
audience. Three years ago in the spring of 1981 the author began search for a suitable copy-
testing firm that would be the author's partner in the research the author wished to carry out.

Figure: 1.4.2 Types of executional factors, formats, and devices


1Information content2Brand/product identification3Setting4Visual and
auditory devices5Promises/appeals/propositions6Tone/atmosphere7Structure
and format8Comparisons

Figure: 1.4.2 Variables positively affecting recall


1Brand differentiating message2Information on convenience-of-use3Visual
brand sign-off4Setting directly related to product use5Memorable
rhyme/mnemonic device6Cute/adorable tone7Humorous tone8Demonstration
(product use) format9Fantasy/surreal format, Total time (sec.) product on
screen10Demonstration (results) format, Length of commercial

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Figure: 1.4.3 Individual items negatively related to persuasion

1Information on components/ingredients2Information on
nutrition/health3Male principal character4Background cast5Outdoor
setting6Number of on-screen characters7Total propositions

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CHAPTER –II
INDUSTRY PROFILE AND COMPANY
PROFILE

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CHAPTER II

INDIAN TELEVISION INDUSTRY


Indian Television has reached a supreme status of credibility and entertainment. Existing
since last four decades, Indian Television is believed to be the first mammoth step in the
domain of Indian communication. For the first 17 years, the popularity of Indian television
spread haltingly and transmission was usually in black and white format. However, Indian
television has come in the forefront in the past 20 years and the journey was long yet
interesting. The Indian television industry is presently a huge industry by itself Indian
television is one of the most sought after medium for entertaining both in the urban and the
rural areas.

In this huge industry of entertainment and information, thousands of programmes are aired in
the various channels that represent almost all the states of India. Indian television, often
known as the small screen has produced numerous celebrities of their own kind some even
attaining national fame. TV soaps, serials, reality shows are extremely popular with
housewives as well as working women. Several small screen actors have made noteworthy
careers in Indian television.

Given the increasing number of media channels that consumers are exposed to, brands will
have to advertise more frequently and across more channels to generate brand recall. As
television channels have multiplied and the content available has become more diverse in the
last decade,
Figure :2.1.1

Number of brands advertised on television


15000

10000

5000

0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

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their viewership has increased, niche channels have emerged targeting specific demographic
segments and the cost of advertising on television has reduced. While the broadcasters can
dwell on this shared optimism, they must also recognise that advertising budgets are very
sensitive to economic downturns. Advertising budgets are not only easily brought down, but
the productivity of such expenses is also challenged. Companies are increasingly demanding
their advertising agencies to link their fees to performance indicators such as sales
increments. With increasing access to state-of-the-art technologies, addressability issues are
being put to test, thereby exposing the limitations of current media research findings and
measuring the true efficacy of media.
The significant growth in the entertainment industry in the last decade of the twentieth
century was largely triggered by the coming of age of television. For most of the last fifty
years, it was a monopoly of the public sector broadcaster.
However, the nineties inspired private sector enterprise across the television value chain.
Since then, the rapid growth of the television industry has made it the most significant
component, in value terms, of the entertainment sector. With increased hours of mass
entertainment programming during prime time and better coverage of popular events, it has
seen an explosive growth in consumer mindshare. Its status as the preferred mode of
entertainment of the people is obvious from the fact that it now contributes more than 60
percent of the entertainment industry's revenues.
Figure :2.1.2

Television revenues (INR billion)


Subscription Advertisments Others

43
39 78
35 73
30 68
24 63
20
17 58 250
12 14 54 213
43 45 163
5 39 136
35 73 90 107
37 60 65

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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IMPACT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC DOWNTURN ON THE INDIAN TELEVISION
INDUSTRY:
* Overall business profitability is the most important parameter when it comes to
maintaining steady growth in advertising revenue for the broadcasters. Hence, given the
uncertainty over the extent and dimension of the current global recession and its subsequent
effect on investments and profitability in India, advertising is expected to grow at a slower
pace as compared to last year. However, the impact on the television industry has been lesser
than other media segments like print.
Figure: 2.1.3 Growth of Indian Television Industry

·· Costs are expected to head upwards as broadcasters increase spends on content and
marketing to maintain dominance. The current year is likely to be a challenging one for the
broadcasters as they adjust to deceleration in advertising revenues, tight funding environment
and rising costs of business due to growing competition.
·· The Indian television advertising market has witnessed robust double-digit growth during
2004-08. However, overall advertising and profits are expected to slow down in 2009-10
owing to the current crisis and the launch of multiple channels leading to fragmentation and
stiff competition for established players. Furthermore, the success of the IPL, T20 World
Cup as well as the General Elections have sucked out close to 20% of the advertising pie and
hence intense competition among broadcasters for the remaining pie is expected to drive
profitability drastically downwards.

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·· The growth of cable and satellite households is expected to continue in India driven by
growth in DTH and voluntary cable digitalization. However, the speed at which the industry
grows is dependent on funding being available to fund start-up losses. The slowdown is
expected to hamper this growth.
·· The Indian broadcasting sector is interestingly poised – pay TV is growing, advertising
growth is slowing down, funding is hard to come by and stiff competition is leading to rising
costs and with the potential to keep viewers glued nighton- night. However, there is a silver
lining to the recession. Viewing hours tend to increase in tough times as consumers stay at
home. They may hold off on buying a new iPod or postpone a visit to the multiplex, but
when they are home they will devote more time and attention to the television and internet.
·· Few channels have resorted to job cuts but several have imposed hiring freezes.

REGIONAL TELEVISION CHANNELS EXHIBIT GROWING POTENTIAL


The size of the six major regional markets is estimated to be about a fourth of the overall TV
advertising revenues in India. The share of advertising revenue for the regional language
channels is estimated to be far less when compared to its viewership share. The key regional
entertainment markets are Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi and Bangla, which
are demonstrating high growth rates.
·· Several national broadcasters in India made inroads into regional markets in 2008. The
most notable move was that of Star India‟s joint venture
Figure: 2.1.4 Key Players in the Regional Television Markets

with Jupiter Entertainment for a majority interest in the regional markets of Malayalam
(Asianet and Asianet Plus), Kannada (Suvarna) and Telugu (Sitara), in addition to expanding
its presence in Tamil market through Star Vijay. Earlier, STAR had signed a JV with Balaji,

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for launching a South Indian channel, but the relation soured before concrete step could be
taken in that direction. Star India also launched Star Pravah, a Marathi channel and Star
Jalsa, a Bangla channel in 2008

OUTLOOK FOR THE INDIAN TELEVISION INDUSTRY 2009-2013:

The Indian television industry is projected to grow by 11.4% over the period 2009-13 and is
projected to reach an estimated Rs. 420 billion in 2013 from the present estimate of Rs. 245
billion in 2008. No significant shift is projected within the relative shares of the television
distribution and television advertising industry over the next five years. Hence, television
distribution is projected to garner a share of 60% in 2013; on the other hand, television
advertising industry is projected to command a share of 36% in 2013 (34% in 2008). The
relative share of the television content industry is expected to remain constant at around 4%
though in respect to growth, the television content industry is expected to grow at
a CAGR of 13.8%.
Television advertising industry is expected to reach Rs. 150 billion in 2013 from the current
estimated size of Rs. 84.2 billion in 2008, which translates into a growth of 12.2% on
cumulative basis over the next five years. The television advertising industry growth is
expected to slowdown because of the economic crisis the world is going through. Inspite of
the slowdown in growth, India spurred on by domestic demand is still expected to have
among the highest growth rates in television advertising along with China.

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2.2 COMPANY PROFILE

Kairali TV is a Malayalam television channel based in Trivandrum, Kerala. People TV is


another channel owned by Kairali, that caters news and current affairs round the clock. WE
TV, a channel for the youth has started transmission on April 14th of 2007.

Today millions of Malayalees reside in the Gulf countries and to all these expatriate
Malayalee families, Kairali Channel is a very dear and intimate friend, very close to their
heart, presenting to them the nostalgia and linguistic flavour of their home land with all its
artistic and cultural values honed to perfection. Currently, Padmasree Bharath Mammootty, a
leading film actor in Malayalam, holds the post of Chairman and John Brittas is the
Managing Director and editor. Other important leaders are: Prabha Varma- Director, News
and Current Affairs, Shibu Chakravarthy- Associate Director,Programmes, N. P.
Chandrasekharan- Executive Editor , Somakumar- Executive Producer and Abraham
Mathew-Chief Correspondent. Other team members are: Manoj K Varma- Dy. News Editor;
M.Rajeev- Senior Reporter, Anand Narayanan- Senior Editor, M.S.Banesh- Senior Reporter,
Jayapal- Deputy Technical Manager.

Kairali is India's truly Peoples channel with over 2,50,000 shareholders and with a unique
and dedicated viewership of millions of viewers. More than fifty percent ie over 1,25,000 of
the Kairali shareholders are NRIs spread all over the world.

Kairali has international reach spanning from Australia to Europe and is available in the
entire GCC countries including Kuwait. Kairali is also available in UAE and Qatar through
the state owned television networks like E-Vision and QCV apart from thousands of
individual home dishes. Naturally Kairali commands a high fidelity dedicated viewership
both in India and abroad.

For the first time ever, Kairali TV was the trial blazer to turn the digital -analogue fusion
technology in to mission for the masses. Employing completely digital devices to uplink, the
channel ensures pixel-perfect picture quality. But to facilitate wider reach and universal
viewership, signals are available in Digital format.

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The Kairali Digital Transmission has a very wide foot print spanning from Australia to
Europe including North Africa and Gulf countries..

Kairali's State of the art Studio Complex with four shoot floors at Trivandrum is the largest
shooting facility in South India. Kairali also has on Online News Studio from where Live
News is directly uplinked. All the Kairali studios deploy top of the line digital equipment for
programme acquisition, production, post production, editing and compositing of
programmes.

Kairali has Live News Studio at Delhi, Kochi, Trissur, Palakkad, Kozhikkod and Kannur. the
uplink center is at Kochi. The News Bureaus all over Kerala is connected to the central News
Hub at Trivandrum. Similarly special Gulf bulletins and current affairs programmes are also
relayed to the Main News Centre at Trivandrum. The Hourly Bulletins are broadcast from
the LIVE News Studio.

Highly experienced and eminent professionals and experts in the fields of television and
visual media head and lead every facet of production and every stream of the channel's
operation.

KAIRALI- VISION AND MISSION:

Kairali Channel by its very style and content en-capsules the quintessence of the culture,
ethos and artistic aspirations of Malayalees. And not surprisingly, Kairali Channel has today
emerged as an information-rich and viewer favourite channel that would entertain, engross
and educate the Malayalee population all over the world. Kairalis vision is to create
programmes that meet international standards of creativity and production excellence. And
Kairalis mission is to rule the airwaves as the channel with the cutting edge viz the cutting
edge of News breaking, programming and technical perfection. Today Kairali TV has
emerged as the most preferred channel of Malayalees deeply entrenched in the minds of
Keralites the worldover.

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MARKETING AND ADVERTISING

Kairali is the perfect medium for marketing and advertising .Over 10 million Malayalees in
Kerala and five million more outside the State and in the Middle East tune into the satellite
signals everyday. And with its balanced blend of infotainment Kairali is bound to cut
through the clutter and become their absolute favourite.

Figure:2.2.1 Spot selling

BandsTimingRate per 10 secondsMorning Band06.00 AM to 09.00Rs. 3,000/-Noon


Band09.00 AM to 04.00 PMRs. 3,000/-Evening Band04.00 PM to 06.00 PMRs. 4,000/-Prime
Band06.00 PM to 11.00 PMRs. 8,000/-NRK Band11.00 PM to 03.00 AMRs. 5,000/-Non
Prime Band03.00 AM to 06.00 AMRs. 2,000/-

Figure:2.1.2 Spot selling

News BandTime Check (10


Sec)Spot Buy(10 Sec)SponsorshipMorning NewsRs. 1,500/-Rs. 3,000/-Rs. 25,000/- + 90 sec
FCTAfternoon NewsRs. 2,000/-Rs. 4,000/-Rs. 40,000/- + 110
sec FCTEvening NewsRs. 4,000/-Rs. 8,000/-Rs. 75,000/- + 110
sec FCTNight NewsRs. 4,000/-Rs. 8,000/-Rs. 75,000/- + 110
sec FCT

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CHAPTER -3

Methodology

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CHAPTER -3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 To identify and analyze the factors influencing the advertising


effectiveness among various age groups.
 To find out the difference in advertising effectiveness in rural and urban
areas.

3.2 HYPOTHESIS

ONE WAY ANOVA TEST:

 There is no significant difference between the factors which are influencing the
advertising effectiveness among various age groups.
 There is no significant difference that exists between age group and Ad
repetition/frequency.
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and Ad
timing/Time slot.
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and Audience
response.
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and Ad recall
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and Program
rating
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and pace of the ad
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and length of the
commercial break
 There is no significant difference that exists between the age group and executional
factors

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MANN-WHITNEY U-TEST:

HYPOTHESIS:

 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
advertising effectiveness.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
repetition/frequency.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
timing/time slot.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
recall.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
Audience response and mood.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
rating of the program.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the pace
of the ad.
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and length of
the commercial break
 There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
executional factors.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION

The data for the study was collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was
collected through structured questionnaire distributed to 150 television viewers. Convenience
sampling technique is used to collect data from the respondents. The tool used for obtaining
the primary data was questionnaire with title as “A Study on the effectiveness of advertising
through Kairali TV Channel”. It was administered to the television viewers. The major

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content of questionnaire form includes age, gender, location, occupation etc. The
questionnaire is designed with the help of the factors which identified under advertising
effectiveness namely Repetition/frequency (Wen Zhou, 2004), Ad recall (Sharma et
al.,2000), Pace of the ad (Pavelchak et al., 1991), Program rating (Goldberget al.,1987),
Timing or time slot (W. Scott et al., 2005), Audience response/ mood/ attention (Gerald
J,1992), Ad executional factors(David H et al.,2000), and Length of the commercial
break (Wen Zhou, 2004).

3.4 SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size for the study is 150. It was collected with the help of questionnaire among
the channel viewers.

3.5 TOOLS OF ANALYSIS

1. Percentage Analysis is done to analyze the demographic variables and the present
satisfaction level of viewers on each factors of ad effectiveness.

2. One Way ANOVA is carried out to find the significant difference that exists between age
group and the ad effectiveness factors.

3. Mann-Whitney U-test was carried out to find the difference in advertising effectiveness in
various locations like Urban and Rural.

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3.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 Television viewing patterns vary immensely across different cross sections of the
society. Therefore my sample population would probably not contain enough variety
of the audience.

 Time constrain to complete the project was also another limitation faced during the
research.

 There were some qualitative questions that needed explaining hence some
respondents needed assistance thus slowing down the process of data collection.

 Limited access to data available in archives.

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CHAPTER-4

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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CHAPTER-4

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter includes percentage analysis, Oneway ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test.
Percentage analysis is used to analyze the satisfaction level of viewers where Oneway
ANOVA is performed to find the difference that exists between age groups and the ad
effectiveness factors. The Mann-Whitney U-Test reveals the significant difference that exists
between the locality of the respondent and the ad effectiveness.

4.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS ANALYSIS AND ITS INTERPRETATION

4.1.1 Gender

The gender of the respondents is grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are
given below.

Figure 1 :Gender

Gender of the respondents


56

54

52
frequenc

50

48
y

46

44

42
Male Female
Series1 54 46

Interpretation: From the above chart, it is evident that majority 54% of the respondents are
male and 46% represents female.

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4.1.2 Locality

The locality of the respondents is grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are
given below.

figure:2: Locality

Locality of the Respondent


51.5

51

50.5

50
frequenc

49.5

49
y

48.5

48

47.5

47
Urban Rural
Series1 51.3 48.7

Interpretation:

From the above chart, it is evident that majority 51.3% of the respondents are from urban
area and 48.7% of the respondents are from rural area.

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4.1.3. Age

The age of the respondents is grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given
below.

Figure 3 : Age

Age of the Respondent


45

40

35

30
frequenc

25

20
y

15

10

0
Below 15 15-30 30-45 45-60 Above 60
Series1 2.7 40.7 38 15.3 3.3

Interpretation:

From the above chart, it is evident that majority 40.7% of the respondents falls under the age
group between 15-30, followed by the age group 30-35 with 38%, 45-60 with 15.3%.The
age group above 60 is only 3.3% and 2.7% of the respondents are the age group of below 15.

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4.1.4 Occupation:
The occupation of the respondents is grouped by using percentage analysis and the results
are given below.

Figure 4: Occupation

Occupation of the Respondents


35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Governme Private
Business Student Others
nt service
Series1 27.3 14 10 32.7 16

Interpretation:

From the above chart, it is evident that majority 32.7% of the respondents falls under student
category, followed by 27.3% respondents are government employees, 14% of the
respondents are in private service. 10% of the respondents are in business field.

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4.1.5 The number and length of commercials affect the effectiveness of advertisements.

The frequencies of the number and length of commercials affect the effectiveness of
advertisements by the respondents are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results
are given below.

Figure 5 : The number and length of commercials affect the effectiveness of


advertisements.

The number and length of commercials affect the effectiveness


of advertisements
50
45
40
35
30
Frequenc

25
20
y

15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 12.7 46 12.7 18 10.7

Interpretation :

The table reveals that majority of the respondents have agreed that number and length of the
commercials affect the effectiveness of advertisements and 18 % have disagreed to this
statement.12.7% of the respondents have strongly agreed to the given statement.

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4.1.6 I will turn of my TV or switch to another channel when commercial break occur
too frequently.

The frequencies of respondents who turn of their TV or switch to another channel when
commercial break occur too frequently are grouped by using percentage analysis and the
results are given below.

Figure 6: I will turn of my TV or switch to another channel when commercial break


occur too frequently.

I will turn of my TV or switch to another channel when break occur


too frequently
50
45
40
35
30
frequenc

25
20
y

15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 23.3 46 18 11.3 1.3

Interpretation:

It is clear from the table that most of the respondents have agreed that they will turn off TV
or switch to another channel when break occur too frequently and 23.3% have strongly
agreed to the statement.11.3% of the respondents have disagreed.

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4.1.7 Longer programming interval builds viewer interest and makes them more likely
to stay with the program.

The frequencies of longer programming interval builds viewer interest and makes them more
likely to stay with the program by the respondents are grouped by using percentage analysis
and the results are given below.

Figure 7: Longer programming interval builds viewer interest and makes them more
likely to stay with the program.

Longer programming interval builds viewer interest and makes them more
likely to stay with the program
40

35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 6.7 22 26 34.7 10.7

Interpretation:

The table shows that 34.7 % disagree to the statement that longer programming interval
builds viewer interest and makes them more likely to stay with the program and 26 % agree
to the statement.

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4.1.8 When the repetition increases, viewers produce more negative thoughts.

The frequencies of viewers produce negative thoughts, when the repetition increases by the
respondents are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 8: When the repetition increases, viewers produce more negative thoughts.

When the repetition increases,viewers produce more negative thoughts


40

35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 17.3 21.3 22.7 36.7 2

Interpretation :

The opinion can be mainly classified into disagree (36.7%) and neutral.(22.7%) to the
statement which states that when repetition increases ,there is no negative thought for
viewers.21.3% and 17.3 have strongly agree and agreed respectively.

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4.1.9 What do you think about Kairali’s any advertisement made you boring or badly
affects the progress of the program.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about whether Kairali ads badly affects the progress of
the program are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 9 :What do you think about Kairali’s any advertisement made you boring or
badly affects the progress of the program.

What do you think about Kairali's any advertisement made you boring or
badly affects the progress of the program
30

25

20
frequenc

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 14 25.3 24 26 10.7

Interpretation:

26 % of the respondents have disagreeed that the advertisemnts of kairali are boring and it
affects the progress of the program and 25.3% have agreed to the statement.

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4.1.10 The back-to-back insertion of two commercials, more viewers for the second
commercial rather than the first.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the back-to-back insertion of two commercials,
more viewers for the second commercial rather than the first are grouped by using
percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 10: The back-to-back insertion of two commercials, more viewers for the second
commercial rather than the first.

The back-to-back insertion of two commercials, more viewers for the


second commercials rather than the first
35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 22 30.7 21.3 18 8

Interpretation:

Most of the respondents have agreed that back-to-back insertion of two commercials capture
more viewers for the second commercials rather than the first and 22 % have strongly agreed
to the statement.18% of the respondents are disagreed.

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4.1.11 The bad timing of the ad get punished.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the bad timing of the ad get punished are grouped
by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 11: The bad timing of the ad get punished.

The bad timing of the ad get punished


35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 25.3 33.3 25.3 8.7 7.3

Interpretation:

Most of the respondents (33.3%) have agreed and 25.3% are having a neutral opinion to the
statement that bad timing of the ad get punished. Only a small percentage (8.7%) have
disagreed.

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4.1.12 The prime time television audiences are more attentive towards the
commercials.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the prime time television audiences are more
attentive towards the commercials are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results
are given below.

Figure 12: The prime time television audiences are more attentive towards the
commercials.

The prime time television audiences are more attentive towards the
commercials.
35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 21.3 33.3 20 23.3 2

Interpretation:

33.3% respondents agree and 23.3 % disagree to the statement which says that the prime
time television audiences are more attentive towards the commercials. And 20% have neutral
opinion.

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4.1.13 Advertisers can position their specific commercials within specific program for
greater effectiveness of the commercials.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about advertisers can position their specific
commercials within specific program for greater effectiveness of the commercials are
grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 13: Advertisers can position their specific commercials within specific program
for greater effectiveness of the commercials.

Advertisers can position their specific commercials within specific


program for greater effectiveness of the commercials
40
35
30
25
frequenc

20
15
y

10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 20.7 35.3 14.7 12 17.3

Interpretation:
The majority of the respondents (35.3) have agreed and 20.7% have strongly agreed that the
advertisers can position their specific commercials within specific program for greater
effectiveness of the commercials. And 17.3% of the respondents strongly disagreed with that
statement.

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4.1.14 It is better to redistributes commercials so that late breaks become longer
while early breaks become shorter.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about it is better to redistributes commercials so that


late breaks become longer while early breaks become shorter are grouped by using
percentage analysis and the results are given below

Figure 14: It is better to redistributes commercials so that late breaks become longer
while early breaks become shorter.

It is better to redistributes commercials so that late breaks become


longer while early breaks become shorter.
40

35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 18 37.3 17.3 18.7 8.7

Interpretation:

37.3% have agreed and 18.7% have disagree to the statement which say to redistribute
commercials so that late breaks become longer while early breaks become shorter. And
17.3% of the respondents have neutral opinion with that statement.

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4.1.15 Whether Kairali provide effective time slots for ads?

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about whether Kairali provide effective time slots for
ads are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 15: Whether Kairali provide effective time slots for ads

Whether Kairali provide effective time slots for ads


60

50

40
frequenc

30
y

20

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 9.3 48 26 13.3 3.3

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents agree that Kairali provide effective time slots for ads and 26
% are having a neutral opinion. And 13.3% of the respondents have disagreed with that
statement.3.3% strongly disagreed.

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4.1.16 Product class has a significant effect on recognition and recall measures.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Product class has a significant effect on
recognition and recall measures are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are
given below.

Figure 16: Product class has a significant effect on recognition and recall measures.

Product class has a significant effect on recognition and recall measures


40

35

30

25
frequenc

20

15
y

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 14.7 38 8 30 9.3

Interpretation:

38 % have agreed and 30 % have disagreed about the statement which states that Product
class has a significant effect on recognition and recall measures.14.7% and 9.3% have
strongly agreed ,strongly disagreed respectively.

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4.1.17 Shorter TV commercials are recalled equally as well as longer ones.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about shorter TV commercials are recalled equally as
well as longer ones are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure17: Shorter TV commercials are recalled equally as well as longer ones.

Shorter TV commercials are recalled equally as well as longer


ones
70

60

50

40
f

30

20

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 7.3 25.3 3.3 58 6

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents have disagreed that the Shorter TV commercials are recalled
equally as well as longer ones and 25.3 have agreed. And 7.3% have strongly agreed by the
statement.

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4.1.18 The more involved the person is with the program, greater the recall for the
commercial.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the more involved the person is with the
program, greater the recall for the commercial are grouped by using percentage analysis and
the results are given below.

Figure 18: The more involved the person is with the program, greater the recall for the
commercial.

The more involved the person is with the program,greater the recall for the
commercials
40

35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 18.7 33.3 5.3 36.7 6

Interpretation:

Most of the respondents have disagreed(36.7) to the statement that more involved the person
with the program, greater the recall for the commercials.33.3% of the respondent have
agreed with that statement.18.7% respondents have strongly agreed

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4.1.19 The consumers recalled brands based on positive product experience regardless
of advertising.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the consumers recalled brands based on positive
product experience regardless of advertising are grouped by using percentage analysis and
the results are given below.

Figure 19: The consumers recalled brands based on positive product experience
regardless of advertising.

The consumers recalled brands based on positive product experience


regardless of advertising.
50
45
40
35
30
25
fre
q

20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 18.7 44 12 22.7 2.7

Interpretation:

44 % of the respondents have agreed that the consumers recalled brands based on positive
product experience regardless of advertising and 22.7 % have disagreed.18.7% of the
respondents strongly agreed to the statement.

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4.1.20 A well defined relationship between the ad repetition and ad recall.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about a well defined relationship between the ad
repetition and ad recall are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given
below.

Figure 20: A well defined relationship between the ad repetition and ad recall.

A well defined relationship between the ad repetition and ad recall


60

50

40

30
fre
q

20

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 20.7 56.7 10 5.3 7.3

Interpretation:

Most of the respondents have agreed(56.7), and 20.7% have strongly agreed to the statement
that there exist a well defined relationship between the ad repetition and ad recall.7.3% of the
respondents strongly disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.21 A well defined relationship between the ad repetition and ad recall.

(In the case of informative ads).

The frequencies of respondent‟s‟s opinion about viewers cannot process more than a limited
amount of information in a short amount of time are grouped by using percentage analysis
and the results are given below.

Figure 21: A well defined relationship between the ad repetition and ad recall.

Viewers cannot process more than a limited amount of information in a


short amount of time
35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 32.7 32.7 9.3 20 5.3

Interpretation:

Most of the respondents (32.7%) have agreed that viewers cannot process more than a
limited amount of information in a short amount of time.And 20% of the respondents have
disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.22 It is more effective when the celebrity of the ad and the program celebrity
overlap.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about it is more effective when the celebrity of the ad
and the program celebrity overlap are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results
are given below.

Figure 22: It is more effective when the celebrity of the ad and the program celebrity
overlap.

It is more effective when the celebrity of the ad and the program celebrity
overlap.
30

25

20

15
fre
q

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 16 26.7 16.7 20.7 20

Interpretation:

Majority of the respondents (26.7%) have agreed that ads are more effective when the
celebrity of the ad and the program celebrity overlap and 16% strongly agreed.20.7% of the
respondents have disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.23 Feelings, involvement, humor, etc. leads to greater advertising effectiveness

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about feelings, involvement, humor, etc. leads to
greater advertising effectiveness are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are
given below.

Figure 23: Feelings, involvement, humor, etc. leads to greater advertising effectiveness

Feelings,involvement,humor, etc. leads to greater advertising effectiveness


40

35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 38 36 10 8 8

Interpretation:

The table reveals that most o the respondents strongly agree(38%) that Feelings,
involvement,humor, etc. leads to greater advertising effectiveness, 36% strongly agreed. And
8% of the respondents have disagreed and strongly disagreed to that statement.

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4.1.24 Light TV viewers are generally more attentive during the commercial breaks

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about light TV viewers are generally more attentive
during the commercial breaks are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are
given below.

Figure:24: Light TV viewers are generally more attentive during the commercial
breaks

Light tv viewers are generally more attentive during the commercials


breaks
35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 14 23.3 20.7 32 10

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents disagree(32%) to the statement that light TV viewers are
generally more attentive during the commercials breaks and 23.3% agree to the statement.
And 20.7% have neutral opinion about the statement.

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4.1.25 Mood state can significantly influence how people process incoming and self-
generated information from commercials.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about mood state can significantly influence how
people process incoming and self-generated information from commercials are grouped by
using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 25: Mood state can significantly influence how people process incoming and self-
generated information from commercials.

Mood state can significantly influence how people process incoming and
self generated information from commercials.
35

30

25

20
fre

15
q

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Valid
Series1 15.3 30 22 19.3 13.3

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents (30.0%) agreed ,15.3% have strongly agreed that mood state
can significantly influence how people process incoming and self generated information
from commercials. And 19.3% of the respondents have disagreed with the statement.

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4.1.26 The viewers’ loyalty to a program will effects the more likely to have positive
attitudes toward advertising.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the viewers‟ loyalty to a program will effects the
more likely to have positive attitudes toward advertising are grouped by using percentage analysis
and the results are given below.

Figure 26: The viewers’ loyalty to a program will effects the more likely to have
positive
attitudes toward advertising.

40
35

30

25
fre

20
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 19.3 34 15.3 20 11.3

Interpretation:

The table shows that majority of the respondents agree(34%),19.3% hve strongly agreed that
viewers loyalty to a program will create appositive attitude towards advertising and 20%
have disagreed. And 15.3% have neutral opinion.

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4.1.27 Program’s past performance affects the advertisement effectiveness.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about program‟s past performance affects the
advertisement effectiveness are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are
given below.

Figure 27: Program’s past performance affects the advertisement effectiveness.

Program’s past performance affects the advertisement effectiveness


50
45
40
35
30
25
fre
q

20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 14 43.3 14.7 12.7 15.3

Interpretation:

The table shows that 43.3 of the respondents agree that programs past performance affect the
advertisement effectiveness and 15.3% have strongly disagreed. And 14.7% have neutral
opinion about that statement.

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4.1.28 The commercials appearing in the higher rated program were recalled better by
viewers than were commercials in lower rated program.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the commercials appearing in the higher rated
program were recalled better by viewers than were commercials in lower rated program are
grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

F ig u re 28: The commercials appearing in the higher rated program were recalled better
by viewers than were commercials in lower rated program.

The commercials appearing in the higher rated program were recalled


better by viewers than were commercials in lower rated program.
40
35
30
25
20
fre
q

15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 17.3 36.7 16 22 8

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents (36.7%) have agreed that the commercials appearing in the
higher rated program were recalled better by viewers than were commercials in lower rated
program and 22 % have disagreed to the statement.

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4.1.29 The viewers’ loyalty towards Kairali TV affects the program ratings.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the loyalty towards Kairali TV affects the
program ratings are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

F ig u re 2 9 :The viewers’ loyalty towards Kairali TV affects the program ratings

The viewers' loyalty towards Kairali TV affects the program ratings


35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 18 31.3 20 22 8.7

Interpretation:

The table shows that majority of the respondents agree(31.3%),18% have strngly agree that
the viewers' loyalty towards Kairali TV affects the program ratings and 22% disagree to the
statement.And 20% have neutral opinion about that statemaent.

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4.1.30 The congruence between the type of a television program and an advertisement
influences the effectiveness of the commercial’s impact on memory.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the congruence between the type of a television
program and an advertisement influences the effectiveness of the commercial‟s impact on
memory are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

F igure 30: The congruence between the type of a television program and an advertisement
influences the effectiveness of the commercial’s impact on memory.

The congruence between the type of a television program and an


advertisement influences the effectiveness of the commercial's impact on
memory.
35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 30.7 28.7 17.3 18.7 4.7

Interpretation:

30.7% of the respondents strongly agree and 28.7% agree that the congruence between the
type of a television program and an advertisement influences the effectiveness of the
commercial's impact on memory.18.7% disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.31 "Fast" ads tend to increase levels of perceived arousal, than "slow" ads.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about "Fast" ads tend to increase levels of perceived
arousal, than "slow" ads are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given
below.

F igure 31: "Fast" ads tend to increase levels of perceived arousal, than "slow" ads.

"fast" ads tend to increase levels of perceived arousal,than "slow" ads.


40
35
30
25
20
fre
q

15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 24.7 34.7 10.7 17.3 12.7

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents agree and 24.7% strongly agree that fast" ads tend to
increase levels of perceived arousal than "slow" ads. And 17.3% of the respondent have
disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.32 The fast ads are more informative and attractive.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the fast ads are more informative and attractive
are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 32: The fast ads are more informative and attractive

The fast ads are more informative and attractive.


30

25

20

15
fre
q

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 17.3 16.7 24 25.3 16.7

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 25.3% of the respondents disagreed,16.7% have strongly disagreed
that the fast ads are more informative and attractive. And 17.3% of the respondents have
strongly agreed,16.7% have disagreed with that statement.

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4.1. 33 The fast ads attract more youngsters and children.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about fast ads attract more youngsters and children are
grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

F igure 33: The fast ads attract more youngsters and children

The fast ads attract more youngsters and children.


40

35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 16 12 23.3 37.3 11.3

Interpretation:

37.3 % of the respondents have disagreed,11.3% have strongly disagreed that the fast ads
attract more youngsters and children and 23.3 % are having neutral opinion. And 16% of the
respondents were strongly agreed to that statement.

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4.1.34 Longer commercials drive more viewers away from the program.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about longer commercials drive more viewers away
from the program are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 34: Longer commercials drive more viewers away from the program.

Longer commercials drive more viewers away from the program.


45
40
35
30
25
fre

20
q

15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 14.7 39.3 16 21.3 8.7

Interpretation:

The table reveals that most of the respondents agree(39.9%),14.7% have strongly agreed that
longer commercials drive more viewers away from the program and 21.3 % have disagreed.
And 16% off the respondents have neutral opinion.

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4.1.35 The length of the commercial breaks will break the program progress.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about the length of the commercial breaks will break
the program progress are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given
below.

F ig u re 35: The length of the commercial breaks will break the program progress.

The length of the commercial breaks will break the program progress.
40

35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 12.7 34.7 13.3 18 21.3

Interpretation:

34.7% of the respondents have agreed,12.7% have strongly agreed that the length of the
commercial breaks will break the program progress and 21.3 % have strongly disagreed.
And 18% of the respondents have disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.36 Many small intervals over the broadcasting period may decrease the number of
viewers of the commercials as well as the program.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about many small intervals over the broadcasting
period may decrease the number of viewers of the commercials as well as the program are
grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

F igu re 36 : Many small intervals over the broadcasting period may decrease the number
of viewers of the commercials as well as the program.

Many small interval over the broadcasting period may decrease the
number of viewers spend time to watch it.
40
35
30
25
20
fre
q

15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 12 36.7 15.3 22.7 13.3

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents have agreed(36.7%),12% have strongly agreed that many
small interval over the broadcasting period may decrease the number of viewers spend time
to watch it. And 22.7% of the respondents have disagreed with that statement.

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4.1.37 If the commercial break is just before the end of the program, the viewers spend
time to watch it.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about if the commercial break is just before the end of
the program, the viewers spend time to watch it are grouped by using percentage analysis
and the results are given below.

F igu re 37: If the commercial break is just before the end of the program, the viewers
spend time to watch it.

If the commercial break is just before the end of the program, the viewers
spend time to watch it.
40

35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 14.7 32.7 13.3 34.7 4.7

Interpretation:

The opinion of the respondents can be mainly classified into diasgree (34.7%) and
agree(32.7%).14.7% of the respondents strongly agreed to that statement.

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4.1.38 Kairali offers efficient time management for the ad placement.

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Kairali offers efficient time management for the
ad placement are grouped by using percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 38: Kairali offers efficient time management for the ad placement.

Kairali offers efficient time management for the ad placement.


50
45
40
35
30
25
fre
q

20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 12.7 43.3 27.3 10.7 6

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents agree(43.3%) that Kairali offers efficient time management
for the ad placement. And 27.3% of the respondents have neutral opinion about that
statement.

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4.1.39 Executional factor- Screen Time (Time of product is on screen).

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Screen Time are grouped by using percentage
analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 39: Executional factor- Screen Time (Time of product is on screen).

Screen time
45

40

35

30

25
fre

20
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1 20 42 13.3 12.7 12

Interpretation:

42 % of the respondents agree that the executional factor like "screen time"(Time of product
is on the screen) play a major role in advertising

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4.1.40 Product Identifiability (Number of times brand name mentioned).

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Product Identifiability are grouped by using
percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 40: Product Identifiability (Number of times brand name mentioned).

The executional factor "product identifiability" (Number of times brand


name mentioned) affects the ad effectiveness.
30

25

20

15
fre
q

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 21.3 27.3 20 22.7 8.7

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents agree and 22.7% of the respondents disagree that the
executional factor, product identifiability affects the ad effectiveness.

KARUNYA SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT


4.1. 41 Informative (contents, or ingredients, Quality of information).

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Informative are grouped by using percentage
analysis and the results are given below.
Figure 41: Informative (contents, or ingredients, Quality of information).

The executional factor "informative" (contents, ingredients and quality of


information) affects the ad effectiveness.
35

30

25

20
fre
q

15

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 26 32 22 16 4

Interpretation :

The majority of the respondents (32%) agreed that the executional factor "informative"
(contents, ingredients and quality of information) affects the ad effectiveness.

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4.1. 42 Real People (Principal characters are real people).

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Real People are grouped by using percentage
analysis and the results are given below

Figure 42: Real People (Principal characters are real people).

The executional factor like "real people"(principle characters are real


people) play a major role in advertising.
25

20

15
fre
q

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 16 22.7 18.7 20 22.7

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 22.7% agree and 22.7% strongly disagree to the statement that the
executional factors like "real people play a major role in advertising.

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4.1. 43 Female Achievements (Achievement appeal like FMCG).

The frequencies of viewer‟s opinion about Female Achievements are grouped by using
percentage analysis and the results are given below.

Figure 43: Female Achievements (Achievement appeal like FMCG).

The executional factor like "female achievement"(achievement appeal like


FMCG) play a major role in advertising.
35

30

25

20
fre

15
q

10

0
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree
Agree Disagree
Series1
Series2 20.7 28.7 11.3 33.3 6

Interpretation:

The majority of the respondents (33.3%) disagree and 28.7% agree to the statement that the
executional factor like "female achievement play a major role in advertising.

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4.2 MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION

The mean value for the factors of advertising effectiveness is found and the result are
interpreted below.

Figure 4.2.1 : Mean and S.D


FACTORMEANSTANDARD
DEVIATIONAd repetition/frequency2.780.66Ad timing/Time
slot2.560.51Audience response,
Viewer's mood and

attention2.670.70Program rating2.640.68Pace of the

ad2.940.93Length of the commercial

break2.790.80Executional factors2.700.90Ad
recall2.720.60

It is observed from table that Pace of the ad (Mean=2.94) has the highest mean which is
considered to be an important item under advertising effectiveness. Followed by Length of
the commercial break have mean 2.70. It is observed from table that ad timing (S.D=0.51)
has the lowest SD which is considered to be an important item under advertising
effectiveness. Followed by Ad recall have SD 0.60.

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RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

The reliability analysis is conducted with each factors of advertising effectiveness. And to
check whether the factors are reliable or not. The factors are, repetition and frequency,
Timing or time slot,Ad recall, Audience response/ mood/ attention, length of the commercial
break, program rating, pace of the ad, ad executional factors etc. The repetition/frequency
have .52 reliability, Ad recall with reliability 0.51 both are near to 6, pace of the ad have
0.75, program rating 0.69, ad executional factors with reliability 0.78, Timing or time slot
with0.62, Audience response/ mood/ attention with reliablity value 0.72.

Figure:4.2.2 Reliability analysis


Sl.No.FactorCronbach’s Alpha value1Repetition and frequency.522Audience
response/mood/attention.723Ad recall.514Program rating.695Pace of the
ad.756Timing or time slot.627Length of the commercial break.738Ad
executional factors.78

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4.4 ONEWAY ANOVA ANALYSIS AND ITS INTERPRETATION

Oneway ANOVA analysis were carried out to find the significant difference that exist
between age group and Advertisement effectiveness factors. The analyses were done and the
results with interpretations are given below.
Advertisement effectiveness:

The Advertisement effectiveness consist of Ad repetition/frequency, Ad timing/Time slot,


Audience response, Viewer's mood and attention, Program rating, Pace of the ad, Length of
the commercial break, Executional factors and Ad recall . These factors were considered as
the dependent list and age group were considered as a factor while performing Oneway
ANOVA.

4.4.1. Ad repetition/frequency

The statements under Ad repetition/frequency was analyzed with the help of Oneway
ANOVA and the significant value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference that exists between age group and
Ad repetition/frequency.

Alternate hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and Ad repetition/frequency.

Figure: 4.4.1.1 Ad repetition/frequency mean

ANOVA

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total.261
.438.596.666

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Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .666 which
is greater than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is no significant
difference that exists between age group and Ad repetition/frequency.

4.4.2 Ad timing/Time slot


The statements under Ad timing/Time slot was analyzed with the help of ANOVA and the
significant value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and Ad timing/Time slot.
Alternate hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and Ad timing/Time slot.

Figure 4.4.2.1 Ad timing/Time slot mean

ANOVA

Mean SquaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total.151
.266.566.688

Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .688 which
is greater than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is no significant
difference that exists between age group and Ad timing/Time slot.

4.4.3 Audience response

The statements under Audience response was analyzed with the help of ANOVA and the
significant value is given in the below table.

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Null hypothesis (H0):. There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and Audience response.

Alternate hypothesis (H1):. There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and Audience response.

Figure 4.4.3.1. Audience response mean

ANOVA

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total.529
.4281.805.366

Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= 0.366
which is greater than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is no
significant difference that exists between age group and Audience response.

4.4.4 Ad recall
The statements under Ad recall was analyzed with the help of ANOVA and the significant
value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0):. There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and Ad recall
Alternate hypothesis (H1):. There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and Ad recall

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Figure 4.4.4.1 Ad recall mean

ANOVA

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total.851
.3442.476.047

Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .047 which
is lesser than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is rejected. Hence there is a significant
difference that exists between age group and Ad recall.

4.4.5 Program rating


The statements under Program rating was analyzed with the help of ANOVA and the
significant value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0):. There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and Program rating
Alternate hypothesis (H1):. There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and Program rating

Figure 4.4.5.1 Program rating

ANOVA

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total1.131
.4482.521.044

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Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .044 which
is lesser than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is rejected. Hence there is a significant
difference that exists between age group and Program rating.

4.4.6 pace of the ad


The statements under pace of the ad was analyzed with the help of ANOVA and the
significant value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0):. There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and pace of the ad
Alternate hypothesis (H1):. There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and pace of the ad

Figuer 4.4.6.1 Pace of the ad

ANOVA

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total.293
.882.332.856

Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .856 which
is greater than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is no significant
difference that exists between age group and pace of the ad.

4.4.7 Length of the commercial break


The statements under length of the commercial break was analyzed with the help of ANOVA
and the significant value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0):. There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and length of the commercial break

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Alternate hypothesis (H1):. There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and length of the commercial break

Figure 4.4.7.1 Length of the commercial break

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total1.515
.6162.460.048

Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .048 which
is lesser than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is rejected. Hence there is a significant
difference that exists between age group and of the length of the commercial break.

4.4.8 Executional factors


The statements under executional factors was analyzed with the help of ANOVA and the
significant value is given in the below table.

Null hypothesis (H0):. There is no significant difference that exists between the age group
and executional factors
Alternate hypothesis (H1):. There is a significant difference that exists between the age
group and executional factors

Figure 4.4.8.1 Executional factors


ANOVA

Mean squaresF valueSigBetween groups


Within groups
Total.304
.817.372.828

Interpretation:

ANOVA test was conducted and p value was observed. The result shows that p= .828 which
is greater than 0.05. Therefore null hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is no significant
difference that exists between age group and executional factors.

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4.5.1 Mann-Whitney U-test

MANN-WHITNEY U-TEST ANALYSIS AND ITS INTERPRETATION


Mann-Whitney U-Test analysis were carried out to find the significant difference that exist
between locality difference and Advertisement effectiveness factors. The analyses were done
and the results with interpretations are given below.

Advertisement effectiveness:

The Advertisement effectiveness consist of Ad repetition/frequency, Ad timing/Time slot,


Audience response, Viewer's mood and attention, Program rating, Pace of the ad, Length of
the commercial break, Executional factors and Ad recall . These factors were considered as
the dependent list and locality were considered as a factor while performing Mann-Whitney
U-Test.

HYPOTHESIS:
Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
advertising effectiveness.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
advertising effectiveness.

Factor No-1 : Ad Repetition and Frequency :

The statements under repetition and frequency were analysed with the help of Mann-
Whitney U-test and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.1 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- repetition and frequency

R anks
L o c a lity o fNMth ee a n R aSnukm o f R aRnek ps e t it io n / f r e q u e n c y U rb a n R e s p o n d e n t
m ean R u ra l
T o ta l7 7
73
1 5 0 7 8 .1 0
Test Statisticsa

Repetition/fre
quency meanMann-Whitney U
Wilcoxon W
Z
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)2610.000
5311.000
-.761 Variable: Locality of the Respondent
a. Grouping

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
repetition/frequency.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
repetition/frequency

INTERPRETATION:

Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.447 which is greater than 0.05. Therefore H0 is accepted. Hence
there is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
repetition/frequency.

Factor No-2 : Ad timing/Time slot :

The statements under Ad timing/Time slot were analyzed with the help of Mann-Whitney U-
test and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.2 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- Ad timing/Time slot
R anks
L o ca lity of th
NeM ean R ank
S u m o f R a nTksim in g /T im e s lo t m e a n U rb a n R e s p o n d e n t
R ural
Total77
73
15078.01

Test Statisticsa

Timing/Time
slot meanMann-Whitney U
Wilcoxon W
Z
A sym p . S ig . (2 -ta ile
2617.000
d)
5318.000
-.732 Variable: Locality of the Respondent
a. Grouping

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
timing/time slot.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
timing/time slot.

INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.464 which is greater than 0.05. Therefore H0 is accepted. Hence
there is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
timing/time slot.

Factor No-3 : Ad recall :


The statements under Ad recall were analyzed with the help of Mann-Whitney U-test and
results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.3 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- Ad recall

Ranks

L o c a lity o f NthMe e a n R aSn ku m o f R a nAkds re c a ll m e a n U rb a n R e s p o n d e n t


R u ra l
T o ta l7 7
73
1 5 0 8 3 .0 2

Test Statistics
a

Ad recall
meanMann-W hitney U
W ilcoxon W
Z
A sym p . S ig . (2 -ta 2231.500
ile d )
4932.500
a.-2.205
Grouping Variable: Locality of the Respondent

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
recall.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad
recall
.
INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.027 which is less than 0.05. Therefore H0 is rejected. Hence there
is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the ad recall.

Factor No-4: Audience response and mood:

The statements under Audience response and mood were analyzed with the help of Mann-
Whitney U-test and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.4 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- Audience response and mood

R anks

L o c a lity o f NthMe e a n R aSn ku m o f R a nAkusd ie n c e U rb a n R e s p o n d e n t


re sp o n se ,V ie w e r's m o o dR u ra l
a n d a tte n tio n m e a n
T o ta l7 7
73

Test Statistics
a

Audience
response,Vi
ewer's mood
a n d a tte n tio n
meanMann-W hitney U
Wilcoxon W
Z
A sym p . S ig . (2 -ta 2139.500
ile d )
5142.500
-2.550 Variable: Locality of the Respondent
a. Grouping

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
Audience response and mood.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
Audience response and mood

INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.011 which is less than 0.05. Therefore H0 is rejected. Hence there
is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the Audience response
and mood.
Factor No-5: Program rating :
The statements under Program rating were analyzed with the help of Mann-Whitney U-test
and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.5 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- Program rating

Ranks
L o c a lity o fNMth e a n R Sa nu km o f R Pa rnokgsr a m r a t in g m e a n U r b a n R e s p o n d e n t
R u ra l
T o ta l7 7
73
1 5 06 8 .1 2

Test Statistics
a

Program
rating m eanM ann-W hitney U
W ilcoxon W
Z
A s y m p . S ig . (2 -ta2242.000
ile d )
5245.000
a. G-2.148
rouping Variable: Locality of the Respondent

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the rating
of the program.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the rating
of the Program.

INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.032 which is less than 0.05. Therefore H0 is rejected. Hence there
is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the rating of the
program.

Factor No-6 : Pace of the ad:


The statements under pace of the ad were analyzed with the help of Mann-Whitney U-test
and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.6 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- pace of the ad

Ranks

L o c a lity o f N
thM
e e a n R aSn uk m o f R a nPkasc e o f th e a d m e a n U rb a n R e s p o n d e n t
R u ra l
T o ta l7 7
73
1 5 0 7 0 .7 8

Test Statistics
a

Pace of the
ad m eanM ann-W hitney U
W ilcoxon W
Z
A s y m p . S ig . (2 -ta2447.000
ile d )
5450.000
a. G-1.380
rouping Variable: Locality of the Respondent

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the pace
of the ad.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the pace of
the ad.

INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.168 which is greater than 0.05. Therefore H0 is accepted. Hence
there is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the pace of the
ad.

Factor No-7 :Length of the commercial break :


The statements under length of the commercial break were analyzed with the help of Mann-
Whitney U-test and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.7 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- length of the commercial break

Ranks

L o c a lity o fNM
th ee a n R aSn uk m o f R aLneknsg th o f th e U rb a n R e s p o n d e n t
c o m m e rc ia l b re a k m e a nR u ra l
T o ta l7 7
73
1 5 0 7 8 .0 7

T e s t S ta tis tic
a s

L e n g th o f th e
c o m m e r c ia l
b r e a k m eMaann n -W h itn e y U
W ilc o x o n W
Z
A s y m p . S ig . ( 22-6t a1 ile
2 .5d 0) 0
5 3 1 3 .5 0 0
-.7u4p7in g V a ria b le : L o c a lity o f th e R e s p o n d e n t
a . G ro

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and length of
the commercial break .
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the length
of the commercial break.
INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.455 which is greater than 0.05. Therefore H0 is accepted. Hence
there is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the length of the
commercial break.
Factor No:8 –Executional factors/ad format:
The statements under executional factors were analyzed with the help of Mann-Whitney
Utest and results are given below.

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Figure 4.5.8 Mann- Whitney U Test Result- executional factors

R anks
L o c a lity o fNM
th ee a n R a nS ku m o f R aEn xk es c u tio n a l fa c to r s m e a n U r b a n R e s p o n d e n t
R u ral
T o ta l7 7
73
15 0 7 2 .76

Test Statistics
a

Executional
factors m eanM ann-W hitney U
Wilcoxon W
Z
Asym p. Sig. (2-tailed)
2599.500
5602.500
-.798 Variable: Locality of the Respondent
a. Grouping

Ho :- There is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
executional factors.
H1 :- There is a significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the
executional factors.
INTERPRETATION:
Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted and significant value was obtained. The results shows
that significant value is 0.42 which is greater than 0.05.Therefore H0 is accepted. Hence
there is no significant difference between the locality of the respondent and the executional
factors of the ad.

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CHAPTER V

Findings, Suggestions & Conclusion

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CHAPTER V

FINDINGS
With the help of ANOVA tests ,it is found that some of the factors like Ad recall,
program rating, and length of the commercial break has a well defined relationship
with the advertising effectiveness in different age group. And also found that the
factors repetition, ad timing, audience response and mood, pace of the ad,
executional factors have no direct relationship with the effectiveness.
With the help of Mann-Whitney U-test, it is clear that the factors like Ad recall,
Audience response/mood, and rating of the program have directly affects the
effectiveness of Tv advertisements.
With the help of the study, it is found that the number and length of commercials
affect the effectiveness of advertisements. Some of the ads shown in periodically,
those ads create an attraction towards it.
Television viewers are more likely to switch channels or avoid ads during
commercial breaks placed at the beginning or the end of a program than in the
middle. This is because viewers can predict more effectively when a program will
begin or end and thus when to switch channels to avoid commercials or when to
come back from channel surfing not to miss any part of the program.
The study reveals that, the viewers turn of their TV or switch to another channel
when break occur too frequently,so they suggest ,it is better to redistributes
commercials so that late breaks become longer while early breaks become shorter.
The bad timing of the ads get punished. So that advertisers should position their
specific commercials within specific program for greater effectiveness of the
commercials. The congruence between the type of a television program and an
advertisement influences the effectiveness of the commercial's impact on memory.
The viewers cannot process more than a limited amount of information in a short
amount of time.
It is more effective when the celebrity of the ad and the program celebrity overlap.

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The "fast" ads tend to increase levels of perceived arousal, than "slow" ads. The fast
ads are attracts more viewers than slow ads. And the executional factor like screen
time, product identifiability ,informative are play a major role in advertising.

SUGGESTIONS

Television has always been a very powerful medium of communication and it stands till
today in spite of challenges from the internet. But because of the multi-utility of the internet
people are spending more and more time on the internet and moving away from the
television. Therefore according to me the faster IPtv technology is made available in large
scale the better it is for survival of television advertising.
The ad should be simple and less informative. Hence that the viewers cannot process a large
amount of information in a short time.Otherwise the audience would not consider these types
of ads.

The ads should be placed while the length of the end commercials should be more and
beginning ads should be less.Otherwise it would be badly affects the program.

Integration of cellular service with television programming would help to maintain touch
with audience and help in personalised brand communication. E.g.: sending reminders of
programs via SMS.

Use of long tail theory of advertising by targeting more than just one market segment can be
done. This can be done by differently positioned advertisements of same product according
to genre of program being advertised in. The number of ad repeats must be cut down to
channel that saved money into the extra variety of commercials being made.

Great care should be taken to make sure that the in-content advertising stays within un-
irritable limits. Some channels have started overdoing the "L-bands" so much so that the
broadcasted content gets hidden sometimes. This would turn away audiences.

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According to me there is tremendous scope of having a news website of star news. The
content of the webpage would already be there with star news it only needs to be converted
into html for the internet. So no additional spend required for the web page. Secondly if it
can follow Google‟s model of sponsored links then that would open a completely new
avenue for advertising revenue to flow in. Very topical and related ads can be provided with
the news search that one does on the page. This would help the advertiser address his target
market directly without having to mass-broadcast his advertisement. The advertisers might
even be ready to pay premium rates for such precise advertising. For example: if someone
searches for the news of petrol price hike then the sponsored links could be advertisements
of CNG kit suppliers.
The ads should be placed in between the program more carefully, it should not create any
interruption for progress of the program. So that carefully arrange the length of the break,
number of the ads in one break, and avoid more repetition of the ads in one interval.

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CONCLUSION

The present study empirically examines advertising efficiency, an issue critical to advertising
media planning practices. Specifically, this study makes some contribution to the literature
on television viewing in general and advertising exposure/delivery in particular, by
quantifying the size of the gap between program and ad deliveries and offering an approach
to sizing efficiency of television advertising.

The TV advertisement is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising


format, and this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime
during popular TV events. In general, advertisers covet the 18-49 age demographic; older
viewers are of almost no interest to most advertisers. The number of viewers within the
target demographic is more important to ad revenues than total viewers. Also TV advertisers
may also target certain audiences of the population such as certain races, income level, and
gender. In recent years, shows that tend to target young women tend to be more profitable for
advertisements than shows targeted to younger men, this is due to the fact that younger men
are watching TV less than their female counterparts. Entire industries exist that focus solely
on the task of keeping the viewing audience interested enough to sit through advertisements.
With the help of this study, it is found certain important factors which have direct influence
in advertising effectiveness. The proper utilization of these factors TV advertisements can be
made more effective.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Philip Kotler, “MARKETING MANAGEMENT”, published by Prentice-Hall of


India Private Ltd , 2003, 11th Edition.

 C.R Kothari,” RESEARCH METHODOLOGY-METHODS AND TECHNIQES”,


published by Wishwa Prakashan Private Ltd, 2002, 2nd Edition.

JOURNALS

 Wen Zhou (wenzhou@ust.hk)( Sep2004), The Choice of Commercial Breaks in


Television Programs: The Number, Length and Timing,Journal of Industrial
Economics;, Vol. 52 Issue 3, p315-326, 12p.
 Sharma, Andrew(Oct2000), Recall of Television Commercials as a Function of
Viewing Context: The Impact of Program-Commercial Congruity on Commercial
Messages, Journal of General Psychology;, Vol. 127 Issue 4, p383, 14p
 Goldberg,Marvin E.Gorn, Gerald J.( Dec87) , Happy and Sad TV Programs: How
They Affect Reactions to Commercials, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14 Issue
3, p387-403, 17p
 Pavelchak, Mark A,Gardner, Meryl P,Broach, V. Carter (1991), Effects of Ad Pacing
and Optimal Level of Arousal On Attitude Toward the Ad., Advances in Consumer
Research;, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p94-99, 6p, 1 chart
 Peter Hammer, Trish Green and Erica Riebe, Ehrenberg(1981)-Bass Institute for
Marketing Science,University of South Australia , How Light TV Viewers Respond
to Advertising, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p37-40, 4p
 Samman, Emma Mc Auliffe, Eilish MacLachlan, Malcolm mlachlan@tcd.(
May2009) The role of celebrity in endorsing poverty reduction through international
aid., International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol. 14 Issue
2, p137-148, 12p
 Jun R. Myers, California State Polytechnic University, USA,Sela Sar, Iowa State
University, Ad evaluation ,Journal of Advertising

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 Krugman, D. M., Cameron, G, T., & White, C. M. (1995). Visual attention to
programming and commercials: The use of in-home observations. Journal of
Advertising Spring, 24, 1-12.

 Lee, K., & Park, W. (1999). A study on differences in advertising exposure effect:
Compared commercials put before a program with after. Korean Journal of
Advertising, 10, 7-34.

WEBSITES

http://www.ebscohost.com

http://www.trai.gov.in

http://www.articlesbase.com

http://www.kairalitv.com

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QUESTIONNAIRE

I am RAJEEV JOSEPH student of Karunya School of Management, Coimbatore doing


a project on “A study on the effectiveness of advertising through Kairali Tv channel”
and this questionnaire is a part of the project and the information collected through this
questionnaire would be used only for academic purposes and strictly confidential.

PERSONNAL INFORMATION

1. Name:

2. Gender:

(a) Male (a) Female

3. Locality:

(a) Urban (b) Rural

4. Age:

(a) Below 15 (b) 15-30

(c) 30-45 (d) 45-60

(e) Above 60

5. Occupation:

(a) Government (b) Private Service

(c) Business (d) Student

(e) Others

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Q.No:1
Factor No:1 - Repetition / FrequencySl.
NoSTATEMENTSStrongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree1.1The number and length of
commercials affect the effectiveness
of advertisements.1.2I will turn of my TV or switch to
another channel when commercial
break occur too frequently.1.3Longer programming interval builds
viewer interest and makes them more
likely to stay with the program (it
will provide high rating).1.4When the repetition increases,
viewers produce more negative
thoughts.1.5What do you think about Kairali‟s
any advertisement made you boring
or badly affects the progress of the
program?

Q.No:2
Factor No:2 - Timing(prime time) / Time slotSl.
No.STATEMENTSStron
gly
AgreeAgreeNeut
ralDisa
greeStrong
ly
Disagr
ee2.1The back-to-back insertion of two commercials,
more viewers for the second commercial rather
than the first.2.2The bad timing of the ad get punished (which
will not be persuade the mind of the viewers).2.3The prime time television audiences are more
attentive towards the commercials.2.4Advertisers can position their specific
commercials within specific program for
greater effectiveness of the commercials.2.5It is better to redistributes commercials so that
late breaks become longer while early breaks
become shorter.2.6Whether Kairali provide effective time slots for
ads?

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Q.No:3
Factor No:3 - Ad recallSl.
No.STATEMENTSStrongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree3.1Product class has a significant effect
on recognition and recall measures.3.2Shorter TV commercials are recalled
equally as well as longer ones.3.3The more involved the person is with
the program, greater the recall for the
commercial.3.4The consumers recalled brands based
on positive product experience
regardless of advertising.3.5A well defined relationship between
the ad repetition and ad recall.

Q.No:4
Factor No:4 - Audience response ,Viewer’s mood and involvementSl.
No.STATEMENTSStrongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree4.1Viewers cannot process more than a
limited amount of information in a
short amount of time. (In the case of
informative ads).4.2It is more effective when the celebrity
of the ad and the program celebrity
overlap.4.3Feelings, involvement, humor, etc.
leads to greater advertising
effectiveness4.4Light TV viewers are generally more
attentive during the commercial breaks
(Light media users are those who
consumed 15 hours per week).4.5Mood state can significantly influence
how people process incoming and
self-generated information from
commercials.

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Q.No:5
Factor No:5 -Program RatingSl.
No.STATEMENTSStrongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree5.1The viewers‟ loyalty to a program will
effects the more likely to have positive
attitudes toward advertising.5.2Program‟s past performance affects
the advertisement effectiveness.5.3The commercials appearing in the
higher rated program were recalled
better by viewers than were
commercials in lower rated program..5.4The viewers‟ loyalty towards Kairali
TV affects the program ratings.5.5The congruence between the type of a
television program and an
advertisement influences the
effectiveness of the commercial‟s
impact on memory.

Q.No:6
Factor No:6 - Pace of the ad (slow/fast)Sl.
No.STATEMENTSStrongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree6.1"Fast" ads tend to increaselevels of
perceived arousal, than "slow" ads.6.2The fast ads are more informative and
attractive.6.3The fast ads attract more youngsters
and children.

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Q.No:7
Factor No:7 - Length of commercial breaksSl.
No.STATEMENTSStrongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree7.1Longer commercials drive more
viewers away from the program.7.2The length of the commercial breaks
will break the program progress.7.3Many small intervals over the
broadcasting period may decrease the
number of viewers of the commercials
as well as the program.7.4If the commercial break is just before
the end of the program, the viewers
spend time to watch it.7.5Kairali offers efficient time
management for the ad placement.

Q.No:8
Factor No:8 - Executional factors, ad formatSl. NoThe following executional factors
play a major role in advertising.Strongly
AgreeAgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
Disagree8.1Screen Time (Time of product is on
screen).8.2Product Identifiability (Number of
times brand name mentioned).8.3Informative (contents, or ingredients,
Quality of information).8.4Real People (Principal characters are
real people).8.5Female Achievements (Achievement
appeal like FMCG).

Q.No:9
ANY SUGGESTIONS:
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