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KENYA INSTITUTE OF ADMINISTRATION

CHALLENGES FACING THE PUBLIC


SERVICE IN ACHIEVING MILLENNIUM
DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs):
A CASE STUDY OF PROVINCIAL
ADMINSTRATION

Authors:

Wambugu Johnson
Kalinge Josephat
Mwangai Zablon
Mulonzi Daniel
Mohamed Aisha

Submitted to Kenya Institute of Administration in partial


fulfilment of completion of Senior Management Course.

SEPTEMBER 2010
Table of Contents
Table of Contents....................................................................................................................................2
CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................................................3
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................3
1.1 Background Statement.....................................................................................................................3
1.2 The Millennium Development Goals...............................................................................................3
Table 1: Millennium Development Goals and Targets........................................................................4
1.3 Statement of the problem.................................................................................................................5
1.4 Objective of the study.......................................................................................................................5
1.5 Specific Objectives............................................................................................................................5
1.6 Research Questions...........................................................................................................................6
1.7 Significance of the study...................................................................................................................6
1.8 Limitations.........................................................................................................................................6
CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................................................7
Literature Review...................................................................................................................................7
CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................................................9
3.0 Methodology......................................................................................................................................9
3.1 Research design.................................................................................................................................9
3.2 Sampling............................................................................................................................................9
3.4 Data analysis and presentation........................................................................................................9
CHAPTER FOUR.................................................................................................................................10
4.0 Key Findings....................................................................................................................................10
4.1 Response Rate.................................................................................................................................10
Others sources: nil................................................................................................................................11
................................................................................................................................................................11
4.6: MDGs implemented by various organisation.............................................................................12
From table 3, it can be deduced that18 respondents (58%) indicated that the level of
achievement of the MDGs is below 40%. While 13 respondents (42 %) indicated the level of
achievement is between 41%-60% which is far below the expected levels......................................12
4.8: Incorporation of MDGs in the organizational work plans........................................................13
From the table above it was found that most of the organisations (87%) have incorporated
activities leading to achievement of the MDGs in their work plans.................................................13
4.9: Support by management...............................................................................................................13
4.11: Challenges encountered by Public Service Officers.................................................................14

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CHAPTER FIVE..................................................................................................................................15
5.0 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................15
CHAPTER SIX.....................................................................................................................................16
6.0 Recommendations...........................................................................................................................16
References..............................................................................................................................................17
Kenya to allocate more resources to attain MDGs – Kibaki. News - Africa News 17th September
2010........................................................................................................................................................17
Appendices.............................................................................................................................................18
Questionnaire........................................................................................................................................18

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
1.1 Background Statement

In the year 2000, the International community met and drew up actions and targets in what was
referred to as the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration committed United Nation Member states,
International organizations, and other specialized agencies to ensure basic human development for all
by 2015 through the attainment of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

These eight Millennium Development Goals were adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 heads of
State and Governments during a UN Millennium Summit. Countries pledged to halve extreme poverty,
achieve universal education, halt the spread of HIV/AIDS and reduce child and maternal mortality
rates by 2015 among other issues. (1, 2)

In Kenya, the Millennium Development Goals are closely linked with Vision 2030. Vision 2030 is the
Road map geared towards transforming Kenya into an industrialized, middle income Nation by the
year 2030. Achievement of MDGs by 2015 will put Kenya on the right track towards attainment of the
Vision 2030.

1.2 The Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to
the world's main development challenges. (1, 2)

 Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

 Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education

 Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women

 Goal 4. Reduce child mortality

 Goal 5. Improve maternal health

 Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

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 Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability

 Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development

Table 1: Millennium Development Goals and Targets


GOAL TARGETS
1. Eradicate extreme poverty Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
and hunger people whose income is less than one dollar a day

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of


people who suffer from Hunger

2. Achieve universal primary Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys


education and girls alike, will be able to complete a full
course of primary schooling

3. Promote gender equality and Eliminate gender disparity in primary and


empower women secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to
all levels of education no later than 2015

4. Reduce child mortality Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015,
the under-five mortality rate

5. Improve maternal health Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015,
the maternal mortality ratio

6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the
other diseases spread of HIV/AIDS

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the


incidence of malaria and other major diseases

7. Ensure environmental Integrate the principles of sustainable


sustainability development into country policies and
programmes and reverse the loss of environmental
resources

Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without

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sustainable access to safe drinking water

By 2020 to have achieved a significant


improvement in the lives of at least 100 million
slum dwellers

8. Develop a global partnership Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of


for development developing countries through national and
international measures in order to make debt
sustainable in the long term

In cooperation with the private sector, make


available the benefits of new technologies,
especially information and communications
Adapted from UNDP website

1.3 Statement of the problem


Despite the global countries under the umbrella of United Nations (UN) developing Millennium
Development Goals which served as a corner stone for countries to the anchor their development
strategies on. There appears to be a gap on what was expected to be achieved by 2015 and what is
actually on the ground. In Kenya year in year out the government ministries have been budgeting
giving priority to core poverty programmes that will have an impact to poverty eradication as expected
in the MDGs.

Despite this initiative the masses of Kenyan people remain poor with even threat of famine at times.
This leaves a gap of what is desired to have been achieved or expected and what is actually happening
on the ground. The ministries are guided by strategic plans when formulating and implementing the
respective budgets it is therefore expected to have progress in achievement of MDGs. The purpose of
this study is to seek answers to how effective the ministries have been in achievement of Millennium
Development Goals.

The Government developed strategies to mainstream MDGs into ministries’ strategic plans, however,
the achievement of these goals have been impeded in some instances by corruption, poor coordination
of planning and implementation of the strategies. Lack of commitment by top management and staff
has posed a challenge to achievement of the MDGs which has been compounded by inadequate
resources both in terms of financial and human capacity. Political interference and instability as
evidenced in the post election violence of 2007/08 contributed to stalling and stagnation of the
progress of MDGs attainment.

1.4 Objective of the study


The objective of the study is to determine the challenges faced by the Public Service officers in the
achievement of MDGs by 2015.

1.5 Specific Objectives


The specific objectives will include the following
1. To determine the progress Kenya has made towards the achievement of the targets of
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

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2. To determine the role of public officers in implementation of Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) strategies.
3. To determine the challenges in achievement of MDGs

1.6 Research Questions


1. How far is Kenya in achieving MDGs?
2. What role do public officers play in achievement of MDGS?
3. What challenges do Public Officers face in the implementation of the MDGs strategies?

1.7 Significance of the study


The study will benefit the government agencies steering the role of attaining the MDGs to establish the
impediments to achievement of the MDGs. The study will also offer solutions to the factors that affect
achievement of the MDGs from the primary data gathered from the respondents. The study shall be of
impotance to other scholars pursuing further research on Millenium Development Goals.

1.8 Limitations
The study has several limitations and weaknesses because of the time allocated to carry out the study.
Due to time factor the study would be confined in the ministry officers undergoing training Kenya
institute of Administration (KIA) in Nairobi. The limitation of this study is basically the time required
to collect information from the KIA library and the websites of. In addition to the time required for
analysis of data and the limited members of group are facing due to other duties on course study. This
leaves in adequate time to fully engage in undertaking this research/study.

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CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
In September 2000, one hundred and eighty nine (189) countries, Kenya included, adopted the
Millennium Declaration, whose main objective was to define a common vision of development by
2015. With the endorsement of the Millennium Declaration, countries set themselves a limited number
of achievable goals to be reached by the year 2015. (3)

The MDGs are internationally accepted standards of measuring progress in poverty alleviation and
development; and Kenya Vision 2030 is a vehicle for accelerating the transformation of Kenya into a
rapidly industrializing, middle income nation by the year 2030. Through the achievement of MDGs by
2015, Kenya will be well on the way to attaining the Goals of Vision 2030. Hence the MDGs are an
important framework towards achieving the Kenya Vision 2030. Some of the MDGs are on the path of
being achieved and the Vision 2030 spells out the actions that will be taken to achieve the rest. The
First Medium Term Plan (MTP) of Kenya Vision 2030 has been formulated and forms the basis of the
first phase of its implementation; it is expected to contribute immensely towards achievement of the
MDGs. The MTP runs from 2008-2012. (4)

Kenya, being a signatory to the Millennium Declaration, embarked on the MDGs process in 2002.
However, the Government of Kenya had already subscribed to the World Bank's Poverty Reduction
and Growth Facility (PRGF) programme in the year 2000 and had embarked on the preparation of a
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (the PRSP) and in the year 2002 formulated its own 'Economic
Recovery Strategy' (ERS) policy document that was focusing on reviving the economy and creating
employment while also taking on board any important lessons drawn from the previous history of
policy making. (4)

The Kenyan Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 has been
coordinating mainstreaming of MDGs into national policy, planning and budgeting since the year
2002. The Government directed that MDGs be provided for in the specific budgets of ministries,
departments and sectors and adequate funds are allocated to them for implementation. Some Key
activities that were undertaken by the Government include; carrying out MDGs needs assessment in
the country, publication of the 2005 Needs Assessment and Costing Report, publication of the 2003,
2005, 2007 and 2010 MDGs Status Reports, the sensitization of Members of Parliament who have
been very active in spearheading campaigns on the implementation of the MDGs and sensitization
workshops for policy makers and local authorities amongst others. (3)

The decision by the Government to increase funding towards MDGs-related programmes has seen
funding for the health, education, agriculture and infrastructure sectors increase. Some of the notable
gains made towards achievement of MDGs in the country include; increased access to primary
education where the enrolment increased from 5.9 million in 2002 to 8.6 million in 2008; increased
retention rate from 62.8 per cent in 2002 to 81 percent in 2007; the number of children sleeping under
insecticide treated net increased from 4.6% in 2003 to 46% in 2008 as a result of free distribution of
mosquito nets by the government targeting children and pregnant women; there has been door to door
spraying of mosquitoes. (5, 6)

Furthermore, the government exempted patients with TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS from payment under
the policy on cost sharing; the university entrance cut off points for girls has been put at one point
lower than that of boys and as part of the affirmative action to address the gender gap, the government
is implementing a policy where at least 30% of all government appointments to go to women. (6)
Despite these several achievements, it is clear that a large number of African and South-Asian
countries may be unable to attain the MDG's targets set by 2015; especially in relation to elimination
of extreme poverty with issues of child mortality and maternal health remaining as matters of great
concern. (5)
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The implementation of the MDGs has been faced with a number of challenges including global
financial and economic crises, the negative impact of the post election violence, prolonged drought in
the last several years, inadequate financial resources to fund MDG sectors, cultural practices that
hinder achievement of gender equality in education and employment, regional disparities in the
attainment of the MDGs, conflict arising from volatile borders, climate change, slow technology
transfer especially in food production from developed countries to developing countries and inability
of developed countries to avail 0.7% of Gross National Income in financial resources for MDGs to
developing countries as agreed in the Millennium Declaration. (6)

Corruption and breakdowns in governance have also been cited as major reasons why many countries
are struggling to reach the Millennium Development Goals. Transparency International (TI) has been
urging Governments, donors and non-governmental organisations to adopt anti-corruption measures in
their action plans to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. (7)

Despite the difficulties and challenges, Kenya is in a unique and promising position following the
recent introduction of a new Constitution that should provide guidance for good Governance. The
Government of Kenya has already shown increased commitment and support to the implementation of
MDGs. The President announced that the Government will allocate more resources to fund
programmes that directly uplift the living standards of the people and accelerate the attainment of
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Government has also proposed channelling 15 per cent
of its budget to the counties, thus acting as a major boost towards the attainment of the goals. (5)

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CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology
3.1 Research design

This study is a Quantitative survey that collected data through administration of a questionnaire.
The use of a quantitative design was picked due to measurable variables.

3.2 Sampling

The study will use the Advanced Public Administration Course (APA) participants as its target
population (N = 60). From this target population, a sample size of 30 respondents was identified using
purposive method of sampling for convenience (n = 31). This target group was identified due to the
role they play in their organisations in the implementation and achievement of MDGs as senior
managers.

3.3 Validation of data collection Instrument

The questionnaire was piloted to the Senior Management Class participants and Course Coordinator
who critiqued and gave input on the relevance, validity and responsiveness of the instrument. After the
instrument was adjusted, it was then administered to the respondents.

3.4 Data collection

Primary data was required to address the research questions. A questionnaire was developed as the
data collection instrument and was administered to the respondents. The respondents were given time
to respond to all the questions and handed back the questionnaires to the researchers for analysis.

3.4 Data analysis and presentation

The primary data collected from the respondents was tallied to get the frequencies and analysed using
the measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median etc).

The findings and results from the analysis were then presented in form of tables, graphs and charts
using MS Excel for ease of interpretation.

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CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Key Findings
4.1 Response Rate

A total of 31 questionnaires were administered and all were returned hence the rate of response was
100%

4.2: Level of Management

The respondents were categorised into three levels of management as shown on figure 1 below
• Lower level of management Job group K and below were 4%
• Middle level management job group L were 77%
• Top level management job group M and above were 19 %

Figure 1: levels of management

From the figure 1above most of the respondents were in middle level managers.

4.2 Respondents by gender

The respondents were categorised by gender and they were 6% females and 94% males.

Figure 2: Respondents by gender

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4.3 Awareness of MDGs

All the respondents (100%) were aware of the MDGs

4.4 Source of information on MDGs

Most of the respondent indicated that they were aware of the MDGs through various sources which
included the following as per the percentage scores.
• Seminar/workshop: score 23%
• Media: score 31%
• Government circulars: score 27%
• Training: score 19%
Others sources: nil

Figure 3: source of MDGs awareness

4.5 Sensitisation on MDGs

The respondent indicated that most of them had been sensitised on MDGs (65%) as represented in the
figure 4 below.

Figure 4: Sensitisation on MDGs

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4.6: MDGs implemented by various organisation

The respondents indicated that various organisations are implementing activities leading to achieving
the 8 MDGs in their areas of operations.

Goal score %
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and 24 77
hunger
Goal 2. Achieve universal primary 21 68
education
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and 27 87
empower women
Goal 4. Reduce child mortality 8 26
Goal 5. Improve maternal health 7 23
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and 24 77
other diseases
Goal 7. Ensure environmental 24 77
sustainability
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for 17 55
development
Table 2: Implementation of MDGs by various organisations

From the table above, it was found that various organisations are implementing all the MDGs but the
highest percentage of implementation was on Promotion of gender equality and empowerment of
women.

4.7 MDGs achievement

Category score %
0 – 20% 5 16
21 – 40% 13 42
41 – 60% 13 42
61 – 80% Nil
81 – 100% Nil

Table 3: MDGs achievement

From table 3, it can be deduced that18 respondents (58%) indicated that the level of achievement of
the MDGs is below 40%. While 13 respondents (42 %) indicated the level of achievement is
between 41%-60% which is far below the expected levels.

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4.8: Incorporation of MDGs in the organizational work plans

Scores %
Reflected in work plans 27 87
Not reflected in work plans 4 13
Total 31 100
Table 4: Incorporation of MDGs in the organizational work plans

From the table above it was found that most of the organisations (87%) have incorporated activities
leading to achievement of the MDGs in their work plans.

4.9: Support by management

Figure 5: Support by management

Majority of the respondents (90%) indicated that the Management was supporting the activities
leading to achievement of the MDGs.

4.10: MDGs support by staff

Figure 6: MDGs Support by staff

From the figure 9 above it was found that majority of the staff (68%) were not supporting the activities
leading to achievement of the MDGs while only 32 % were supportive.

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4.11: Challenges encountered by Public Service Officers

Challenges Score %
Bureaucracy 19 61

Lack of adequate financial resources 29 94

Capacity building 27 87
Human resources 14 45
Donor conditionality 11 35
Political interference 15 48

Corruption 23 74

Poor Coordination 16 52

Others ( Tribalism, Nepotism, Poor 4 13


remuneration, Cultural and Traditional
practices
Table 5: Challenges encountered by Public Service Officers

From the table above, it was found that there were challenges impending achievement of MDGs. Lack
of adequate financial resources, capacity building and corruption being the leading challenges.

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CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion
From the study conducted we can draw several conclusions on the implementation and achievements
of MDGs. It was evident from the finding that the Government has commitment to the implementation
of the MDGs. However, despite an 87% of the respondents reflecting that the MDGs are reflected in
their organisations’ work plans, all of them felt that the achievement of the goals was less than 60%.

The findings of the study indicated that the best implemented goal was on promotion of gender
equality and women empowerment (87%). This tremendous achievement may be related to the
Government’s affirmative action on 30% inclusion of women in public and social appointments.
The worst implemented goals were on decrease in child mortality (26%) and improvement of maternal
health (23%). These goals are difficult to address since they are complex and multifaceted in nature
and involve interplay of socio - cultural and economic factors.

Most of the respondents sourced their information on MDGs from the media and Government
circulars (58%) as compared a meagre 16% from training. 35% of the respondents felt that they were
not sensitised on MDGS in their institutions and this can be reflected by lack of staff support in
implementation of MDGs (32%).

Several challenges were tested and greatest challenges perceived by the respondents include:
• Inadequate financial resources (94%)
• Capacity building (87%)
• Corruption (74%)
• Bureaucracy (60%)
• Poor coordination by the implementing agencies (52%)
These challenges can provide areas of high impact interventions.

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CHAPTER SIX
6.0 Recommendations
Having identified several gaps and potential areas of interventions towards improvement of
implementation and achievement of MDGs, the following recommendations were proposed:
• There is need to allocate more financial resources towards implementation of the MDGs
• There should be deliberate move to create awareness and training of staff in public institutions
on MDGs
• There should be collaboration between implementing agencies to facilitate better coordination
of MDGs implementation e.g. a centralised data base on MDGs related funding, deployment of
MDG desk officers
• Sensitization of public service officer and politicians to own the implementation at all levels to
improve political goodwill
• Involve communities in planning and implementation of projects that will impact on poverty
reduction

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References
1. Kaufmann; Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will not be met unless governance
improves. May 14, 2010 11

2. About MDGs; what are the Millennium Development Goals? UNDP 14

3. MDGs status report for Kenya; 2005. Government of Kenya 2

4. Coordinating and accelerating MDGs in Kenya’s development process; Transition Period


for the completion of the project: Mainstreaming MDGs in Kenya’s Development Process
(2005 – 2008), Jan-Dec, 2009. Government of Kenya 1

Kenya to allocate more resources to attain MDGs – Kibaki. News - Africa News 17TH September
2010

5. Remarks by Dr. Edward Sambili, Permanent Secretary Ministry of state for planning,
national development, and vision 2030 during the MDGs stakeholders retreat on February
8th 2010, at Ole Sereni hotel, Nairobi 12

6. Megan Rowling; Corruption hampers progress on Millennium Development Goals – report.


17 Sep 2010

7. Timothy J. Downs, D.Env and Heidi J. Larson, PhD; Achieving Millennium Development
Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond. Published
online 2007 March 30. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2007.02.008. 3

8. Paul Juma, Nation Media; Kenya lags in MDG goal- report


Tuesday, September 14 2010 at 14:25 6

9. World federation of United Nations associations; “Achieving the MDGS in the Least
Developed Countries: Challenges and Choices” 9

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Appendices
Questionnaire

CHALLENGES FACING THE PUBLIC SERVICE OFFICERS IN THE


ACHIEVEMENT OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS.

This survey is conducted as part fulfilment of the Senior Management Course at the Kenya Institute of
Administration (KIA). The aim of the study is to investigate the challenges faced by Public Officers in
the implementation and achievement of Millennium Development Goals. You are therefore kindly
requested to fill this questionnaire to facilitate the study of the subject.
The information obtained will be used strictly for academic purposes and will be treated with utmost
confidentiality.

A. General
Date …………………………………………………………...
Name (optional)………………………………………………..
Gender Male ………………………Female………………....
Position/rank…………………………………………………...
Institution……………………………………………………....
Job group……………………………………………………….

B. Please tick in the box where appropriate


1. At what level of management are you serving?
Lower level [ ] Middle level [ ] Top level [ ]

2. Are you aware of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?


Yes [ ] No [ ]

3. If you answered ‘yes’ in 2 above, how did you become aware of the MDGs? (You can tick more
than one box)

(a) Seminar/workshop []
(b) Media []
(c) Government circulars []
(d) Training []
(e) Others specify []

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………………...............................
………………...............................

4. Have you ever been sensitized /trained on MDGs


Yes [ ] No [ ]

5. There are 8 MDGs, which ones are being implemented by your organization? (You can tick more
than one)
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger []
Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education []
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women []
Goal 4. Reduce child mortality []
Goal 5. Improve maternal health []
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases []
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability []
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development []

6. In your view what is the status of achievement of MDGs in your organization?


a. 0 - 20 % []
b. 21 - 40 % []
c. 41 - 60 % []
d. 61 - 80 % []
e. 81 - 100 % []

7. Do you think the MDGs are reflected in your Organisational work plan?
Yes [ ] No [ ]

8. In your opinion, does the management support implementation of MDGs in your organisation?
Yes [ ] No [ ]

9. In your opinion, do other employees in your organisation show commitment towards achieving
MDGs?
Yes [ ] No [ ]

10. What challenges do public officers encounter in the implementation of the MDGs strategies?

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a. Bureaucracy []
b. Lack of adequate financial resources []
c. Capacity building []
d. Human resources []
e. Donor conditionality []
f. Political interference
g. Corruption []
h. Poor Coordination []
i. Others ……………………………………
…………………………………...

11. Suggest possible solutions that can improve or counter the above challenges

a. ………………………………………………….
b. ………………………………………………….
c. ……………………………………………………
d. ……………………………………………………
e. ……………………………………………………

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