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ISSN 0536–1052. Èçâåñòèÿ âóçîâ. Ñòðîèòåëüñòâî. 2018.

¹ 4

ÓÄÊ 624.014.2

À.À. ÂÀÑÈËÜÊÈÍ, Ñ.Â. ÙÅÐÁÈÍÀ, Â.Â. ÄÅÍßÊÎÂÀ

ÀÂÒÎÌÀÒÈÇÈÐÎÂÀÍÍÛÉ ÏÎÈÑÊ
ÊÎÍÑÒÐÓÊÒÈÂÍÎÃÎ ÐÅØÅÍÈß ÑÒÐÓÊÒÓÐÍÎÉ ÏËÈÒÛ
ÏÎÊÐÛÒÈß ÌÈÍÈÌÀËÜÍÎÉ ÌÀÑÑÛ
ÌÅÒÎÄÎÌ ÐÅÃÓËÈÐÎÂÀÍÈß ÍÄÑ

Ïðåäëîæåíî ïðèìåíåíèå ìåòîäîâ óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîâåäåíèåì íåñóùèõ ñòàëüíûõ êîíñò-


ðóêöèé, à èìåííî ðåãóëèðîâàíèå íàïðÿæåííî-äåôîðìèðîâàííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ñòðóê-
òóðíîé ïëèòû. Âûáðàíû ðåãóëÿòîðû óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîâåäåíèåì, îïðåäåëåíà îáëàñòü èõ
äîïóñòèìûõ çíà÷åíèé.  êà÷åñòâå êðèòåðèÿ ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ïîëó÷åííûõ ðåøåíèé
ïðèíÿòà ìåòàëëîåìêîñòü. Ðàçðàáîòàí àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé âû÷èñëèòåëüíûé àëãî-
ðèòì, ïîçâîëÿþùèé âàðüèðîâàòü ïåðåìåííûå ïàðàìåòðû êîíñòðóêöèè. Íà îñíîâå àâ-
òîìàòèçèðîâàííîãî ñèíòåçà è àíàëèçà áîëåå 400 ïðîåêòíûõ âàðèàíòîâ îïðåäåëåíû
íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíûå çíà÷åíèÿ ðåãóëÿòîðîâ, ïîçâîëÿþùèå ïîëó÷èòü ìàêñèìàëüíî
ýêîíîìè÷íîå ïðîåêòíîå ðåøåíèå ñòàëüíîé êîíñòðóêöèè.

Ê ë þ ÷ å â û å ñ ë î â à: óïðàâëåíèå ïîâåäåíèåì êîíñòðóêöèé, ðåãóëèðîâàíèå íàïðÿ-


æåííî-äåôîðìèðîâàííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ, ïîèñê ýôôåêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ, ñòðóêòóðíûå
ïëèòû.

Òðàäèöèîííûé ìåòîä ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ ñòàëüíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé çàêëþ÷à-


åòñÿ â ïðèíÿòèè îïðåäåëåííîé ðàñ÷åòíîé ñõåìû â êà÷åñòâå èñõîäíîé è ïðî-
âåðêå åå íàäåæíîñòè ñîãëàñíî äåéñòâóþùèì íîðìàì [1]. Ýôôåêòèâíîñòü
èñõîäíûõ ïðåäïîñûëîê ïðè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèè çàâèñèò îò îïûòà, êâàëèôèêà-
öèè è òàëàíòà èíæåíåðà [2]. Äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ íàèáîëåå äåéñòâåííûõ ïðîåêòíûõ
ðåøåíèé ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ îäèí èç ìåòîäîâ óïðàâëåíèÿ ïîâåäåíèåì êîíñòðóê-
öèé – ìåòîä ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ íàïðÿæåííî-äåôîðìèðîâàííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ
(ÍÄÑ) [3]. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïîäîáíûõ ìåòîäîâ âîçìîæíî ïðè ðàññìîòðåíèè
ïðîåêòèðóåìîé êîíñòðóêöèè êàê êèáåðôèçè÷åñêîé ïðîåêòèðóåìîé ñèñòåìû
[4]. Ìåòîäû ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÍÄÑ íàõîäÿò ïðèìåíåíèå ïðè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèè
ðàçëè÷íûõ ñòðîèòåëüíûõ îáúåêòîâ. Ïåðâûå ðàáîòû â ýòîé îáëàñòè íà÷àëèñü
â 70-å ãã. XX â. [5], â íàøåé ñòðàíå èçâåñòíû èññëåäîâàíèÿ Í.Ï. Àáîâñêîãî
[3] è À.Â. Ïåðåëüìóòåðà [6].
Ðåãóëèðîâàíèå ÍÄÑ êîíñòðóêöèè îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ çà ñ÷åò óïðàâëåíèÿ
(èçìåíåíèÿ, âàðüèðîâàíèÿ) åå ïàðàìåòðàìè, êîòîðûå â äàííîì ñëó÷àå âûñòó-
ïàþò êàê ïàðàìåòðû ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ. Äëÿ âûïîëíåíèÿ ýòîé ïðîöåäóðû íåîá-
õîäèìî âûäåëèòü ïàðàìåòðû, èçìåíåíèå êîòîðûõ ìàêñèìàëüíî ïîâëèÿåò íà
öåëåâóþ ôóíêöèþ. Ðåãóëèðîâàíèå ÍÄÑ ñòðîèòåëüíîé êîíñòðóêöèè ìîæåò
äîñòèãàòüñÿ çà ñ÷åò îïòèìàëüíîãî èçìåíåíèÿ ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ìàññû [7], ñòåïå-
íè íàãðóæåíèÿ êîíñòðóêöèè [8], óðîâíÿ îïîð [9], à òàêæå ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîãî
íàïðÿæåíèÿ [10, 11].
Êàê è â òåîðèè îïòèìèçàöèè [12–14], â óïðàâëåíèè ïîâåäåíèåì êîíñòðóê-
öèé íåîáõîäèìî âûáðàòü öåëåâóþ ôóíêöèþ, â êà÷åñòâå êîòîðîé ïðèìåì

Ó Âàñèëüêèí À.À., Ùåðáèíà Ñ.Â., Äåíÿêîâà Â.Â., 2018


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À.À. Âàñèëüêèí, Ñ.Â. Ùåðáèíà, Â.Â. Äåíÿêîâà

ìåòàëëîåìêîñòü – îäíî èç áàçîâûõ çíà÷åíèé â ïðîåêòå [15]. Ïîñëå âûáîðà


ðåãóëÿòîðîâ íóæíî óñòàíîâèòü îáëàñòü èõ äîïóñòèìûõ çíà÷åíèé, â ðàìêàõ
êîòîðûõ áóäåò îñóùåñòâëÿòüñÿ âàðüèðîâàíèå. Çäåñü ïîíàäîáÿòñÿ ñïåöèàëü-
íûå çíàíèÿ â îáëàñòè ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ ñòàëüíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé, ò.å. ýòó ðàáîòó
ñëåäóåò ïîðó÷èòü ýêñïåðòàì è ñïåöèàëèñòàì â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé îáëàñòè
ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ.
Ñòðîèòåëüíûå êîíñòðóêöèè õàðàêòåðèçóþòñÿ çíà÷èòåëüíûì ÷èñëîì ðå-
ãóëÿòîðîâ, äèàïàçîí âàðüèðîâàíèÿ êîòîðûõ ìîæåò áûòü âåñüìà øèðîêèì.
Ïðîöåññ ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÍÄÑ â öåëÿõ ïîëó÷åíèÿ êîíñòðóêöèè ìèíèìàëüíîé
ìàññû ïðåäñòàâëåí íà ðèñ. 1.
Âûïîëíåíèå îäíîãî öèêëà ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáû÷íîé èíæåíåðíîé çàäà÷åé ïî
ðàñ÷åòó êîíñòðóêöèè. Ïîëíûé ó÷åò ðåãóëÿòîðîâ ïðè ðó÷íîì ðàñ÷åòå òðóäî-

Ðèñ. 1. Ñòðóêòóðíàÿ ñõåìà ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ


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Àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé ïîèñê êîíñòðóêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû...

åìêàÿ çàäà÷à, çàíèìàþùàÿ î÷åíü ìíîãî âðåìåíè, ïîýòîìó èñïîëüçóåì ðàíåå


ïðåäëîæåííóþ ìåòîäèêó àâòîìàòèçàöèè ïîèñêà ïðîåêòíûõ ðåøåíèé ñòàëü-
íûõ êîíñòðóêöèé [16, 17] äëÿ ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÍÄÑ. Ïîêàæåì âîçìîæíîñòü
èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ìåòîäà ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ óñèëèé íåñóùèõ êîíñòðóêöèé äëÿ
ïîäáîðà êîíñòðóêöèè ìèíèìàëüíîé ìàññû íà ïðèìåðå ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû
ïîêðûòèÿ. Öåëü ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÍÄÑ îáúåêòà ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ – ïîëó÷åíèå
êîíñòðóêöèè ìèíèìàëüíîé ìàññû.
Ñòðóêòóðíûå ïëèòû (ñòðóêòóðû) ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé ïðîñòðàíñòâåí-
íûå ñòàòè÷åñêè íåîïðåäåëèìûå ñèñòåìû [18, 19], îáëàäàþùèå ðÿäîì ïîëî-
æèòåëüíûõ ñâîéñòâ: ìíîãîñâÿçíîñòü, óíèâåðñàëüíîñòü, àðõèòåêòóðíàÿ âû-
ðàçèòåëüíîñòü, è ïðèìåíÿåìûå â îñíîâíîì äëÿ ïåðåêðûòèÿ îäíîýòàæíûõ
àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ çäàíèé. Äîñòîèíñòâà è íåäîñòàòêè ñòðóêòóð, à òàêæå
îñîáåííîñòè èõ ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ õîðîøî èçâåñòíû [20, 21]. Ïðèíÿòûå èñ-
õîäíûå ïàðàìåòðû ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû è äèàïàçîí èõ çíà÷åíèé ïðåäñòàâëå-
íû â òàáë. 1.

Ò à á ë è ö à 1. Çíà÷åíèå ðåãóëÿòîðîâ
Êëàññ ñòàëè Âûñîòà ïëèòû, ì Ðàçìåð ÿ÷åéêè à´à, ì

Ñ245, Ñ285, Ñ345 1,50 – 10,0, øàã 0,5 1,50 – 10,0, øàã 0,5, êðàòíî 30

Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïðîâîäèòñÿ èññëåäîâàíèå îêîëî 430 âàðèàíòîâ çíà÷åíèé


ðåãóëÿòîðîâ, íàïðàâëåííîå íà âûÿâëåíèå íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíîé êîíñòðóê-
öèè ïî êðèòåðèþ ìåòàëëîåìêîñòü.
 èññëåäîâàíèè èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ïëèòà ðåãóëÿðíîé ñòðóêòóðû ñ êâàäðàòíûì
ðàñïîëîæåíèåì ñòåðæíåé â íèæíåì è âåðõíåì ïîÿñàõ, ñîïðÿæåíèå ýëåìåíòîâ
â óçëàõ øàðíèðíîå. Ðàçìåðû ïëèòû â ïëàíå, äåéñòâóþùàÿ íàãðóçêà, òèï êðè-
ñòàëëà ïðèíÿòû â êà÷åñòâå íåèçìåíÿåìûõ ïàðàìåòðîâ. Òèï ñå÷åíèÿ – ïðî-
ôèëü ñòàëüíîé ãíóòûé çàìêíóòûé ñâàðíîé êâàäðàòíûé (ÇÃÑÏ) ïî ÃÎÑÒ
30245–2003. Òàêæå âîçìîæíî ïðèìåíåíèå êðóãëûõ, îâàëüíûõ è ïëîñêîîâàëü-
íûõ òðóá [22].
 âèäå îãðàíè÷åíèé ïðèíÿòû óñëîâèå ïðî÷íîñòè äëÿ ðàñòÿíóòûõ ñòåðæ-
íåé, óñëîâèå óñòîé÷èâîñòè äëÿ ñæàòûõ ñòåðæíåé, îãðàíè÷åíèå ïî ïðåäåëüíîé
ãèáêîñòè, ïðåäåëüíûé ïðîãèá êîíñòðóêöèè. Èññëåäîâàëè òèïîâóþ ñòðóêòóð-
íóþ ïëèòó (ðèñ. 2) ñ ðàçìåðàìè â ïëàíå 30´30 ì, èìåþùóþ îðòîãîíàëüíóþ
ñåòêó ïîÿñîâ ñ èçìåíÿåìûìè ÿ÷åéêîé è âûñîòîé. Êðèñòàëëû ñòðóêòóðíîé
ïëèòû èìåþò ôîðìó ïèðàìèäû ñ êâàäðàòíûì îñíîâàíèåì. Îïèðàíèå ñòðóê-
òóðíîé ïëèòû íà êîëîííû îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ïî íèæíåìó ïîÿñó â êàæäîì óçëå
(ðèñ. 2, â).
Êàê óêàçàíî â ðàáîòå [18], íàèáîëåå ðàöèîíàëüíîé ñõåìîé îïèðàíèÿ ñ÷è-
òàåòñÿ îïèðàíèå ïî êîíòóðó â êàæäîì óçëå èëè ñ øàãîì â òðè-÷åòûðå ÿ÷åéêè.
Äëÿ ïðîâåäåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîãî èññëåäîâàíèÿ áûëà ñîçäàíà ïðîñòðàíñòâåííàÿ
áàëî÷íî-îáîëî÷å÷íàÿ ìîäåëü â óíèâåðñàëüíîì ïðîãðàììíîì êîìïëåêñå
ANSYS Mechanical â ôîðìå ìàêðîñîâ, íàïèñàííûõ íà âíóòðåííåì ÿçûêå
ïðîãðàììèðîâàíèÿ APDL. Ñòåðæíè ìîäåëèðîâàëèñü 2-óçëîâûì áàëî÷íûì
ýëåìåíòîì BEAM188. Äëÿ ïðèëîæåíèÿ íàãðóçêè èñïîëüçîâàëèñü 4-óçëîâûå
îáîëî÷å÷íûå ýëåìåíòû SHELL181.
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À.À. Âàñèëüêèí, Ñ.Â. Ùåðáèíà, Â.Â. Äåíÿêîâà

Ðèñ. 2. Òèïîâàÿ ñòðóêòóðíàÿ ïëèòà


à – îáùèé âèä; á – ôîðìà êðèñòàëëà; â – ðàñïîëîæåíèå îïîð

Òðàäèöèîííûé ïîðÿäîê ïîäáîðà ñå÷åíèé ñòàëüíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé [23, 24]


ñîñòîèò èç ñòàòè÷åñêîãî ðàñ÷åòà äëÿ èäåàëèçèðîâàííîé ðàñ÷åòíîé ñõåìû
ñ îïðåäåëåíèåì óñèëèé â ýëåìåíòàõ. Ïî äåéñòâóþùèì óñèëèÿì íàõîäèòñÿ
òðåáóåìàÿ ïëîùàäü ñå÷åíèé, êîòîðàÿ çàâèñèò îò ïðî÷íîñòè ñòàëè. Çíàÿ
òðåáóåìóþ ïëîùàäü, èíæåíåð çàäàåòñÿ òèïîì ñå÷åíèÿ è ïî ñîðòàìåíòó âûáè-
ðàåò ïðîôèëü, èìåþùèé áëèæàéøåå áîëüøåå çíà÷åíèå ïëîùàäè.
Ðåãóëèðîâàíèå ÍÄÑ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû ïî ÑÏ 16.13330.2011 «Ñòàëüíûå
êîíñòðóêöèè», ðåàëèçîâàííîå â ÏÊ ANSYS, èìååò ñëåäóþùèé âèä. Íà íà-
÷àëüíîì ýòàïå ðàñ÷åòà ñîçäàåòñÿ ãåîìåòðè÷åñêàÿ ìîäåëü êîíñòðóêöèè, óñòà-
íàâëèâàþòñÿ ãðàíè÷íûå óñëîâèÿ, çàäàþòñÿ ñâîéñòâà ìàòåðèàëà. Ýëåìåíòû
êîíñòðóêöèè ñ îäèíàêîâûìè ñå÷åíèÿìè ôîðìèðóþòñÿ ïî ãðóïïàì.  èññëå-
äóåìîé çàäà÷å ñå÷åíèÿ ïîäáèðàëèñü äëÿ òðåõ ãðóïï: 1 – íèæíèé ïîÿñ ñòðóê-
òóðíîé ïëèòû, 2 – âåðõíèé ïîÿñ, 3 – ðàñêîñû. Çàäàþòñÿ âàðüèðóåìûå ïàðàìåò-
ðû ðàñ÷åòà, óêàçàííûå â òàáë. 1, è âûïîëíÿåòñÿ ðàñ÷åò ïî ñîðòàìåíòó ðàñ-
ñìàòðèâàåìûõ òèïîâ ïðîôèëåé, èíòåãðèðîâàííîìó â ðàñ÷åòíûé ìîäóëü.
Îñîáåííîñòü àëãîðèòìà ìíîãîâàðèàíòíûõ ðàñ÷åòîâ çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â òîì,
÷òî äëÿ ïåðâîãî ðàñ÷åòà ïðèíèìàåòñÿ ñå÷åíèå ñ ìèíèìàëüíîé íåñóùåé ñïî-
ñîáíîñòüþ. Äëÿ çàäàííûõ ãðóïï íàõîäÿòñÿ ìàêñèìàëüíûå óñèëèÿ, äëÿ êîòî-
ðûõ ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíî, îò ìèíèìàëüíîãî ê ìàêñèìàëüíîìó, âûïîëíÿåòñÿ öèêë
ïðîâåðêè âûáðàííûõ ïðîôèëåé, äî ïîäáîðà ìèíèìàëüíî âîçìîæíîãî ñå÷å-
íèÿ. Çàòåì íà÷àëüíûå ïðîôèëè çàìåíÿþòñÿ íà ïîäîáðàííûå. Êîãäà èçìå-
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Àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé ïîèñê êîíñòðóêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû...

íÿþòñÿ ñå÷åíèÿ êîíñòðóêöèé, èçìåíÿåòñÿ ìàòðèöà æåñòêîñòè îñíîâíîé


ñõåìû è êàê ñëåäñòâèå èçìåíÿþòñÿ óñèëèÿ â ýëåìåíòàõ. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî,
íóæåí ïåðåñ÷åò çàäà÷è ñ íîâûìè æåñòêîñòÿìè. Äàëåå îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ïðî-
âåðêà íåñóùåé ñïîñîáíîñòè ïðèíÿòûõ ñå÷åíèé è åñëè îíà íå âûïîëíÿåòñÿ,
òî ïðîèñõîäèò ïåðåõîä íà ñëåäóþùåå ñå÷åíèå. Ýòà ïðîöåäóðà ïîâòîðÿåòñÿ
äî âûïîëíåíèÿ óñëîâèé ïðî÷íîñòè èëè óñòîé÷èâîñòè. Ðàçðàáîòàííûé àëãî-
ðèòì àâòîìàòè÷åñêè ïåðåñ÷èòûâàåò óñèëèÿ è ïîäáèðàåò ñå÷åíèÿ, ïîêà ïî-
äîáðàííûå ïðîôèëè ïðåäûäóùåé èòåðàöèè íå ñîâïàäóò ñ ïîäîáðàííûìè
ïðîôèëÿìè òåêóùåé. Îáû÷íî õâàòàåò 2–4 ïåðåñ÷åòîâ.
 óñòàíîâëåííîì ïîðÿäêå àâòîìàòè÷åñêè ìåíÿåòñÿ çíà÷åíèå ïåðâîãî
ðåãóëÿòîðà – óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ âûñîòà ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû íà îäèí øàã, è àëãîðèòì
ïîäáîðà ñå÷åíèé ïîâòîðÿåòñÿ. Ïðè èçìåíåíèè âûñîòû ñòðóêòóðû àâòîìàòè÷åñêè
ïðîèñõîäèò ïîñòðîåíèå êîíå÷íî-ýëåìåíòíîé ìîäåëè ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû ñ íî-
âûìè êîîðäèíàòàìè óçëîâ, ïðè ýòîì îãðàíè÷åíèÿ îñòàþòñÿ íåèçìåííûìè. Ïîñëå
âûïîëíåíèÿ öèêëà äî hmax êëàññ ñòàëè çàìåíÿåòñÿ íà ñëåäóþùèé, óêàçàííûé â
òàáë. 1, è ñíîâà ñëåäóþò öèêëû ðàñ÷åòîâ äëÿ âñåõ çàäàííûõ âûñîò ñòðóêòóðû è
çàäàííûõ êëàññîâ ñòàëè. Òðåòüèì àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííî èçìåíÿåìûì ïàðàìåòðîì
ÿâëÿåòñÿ äëèíà ïàíåëè à. Ïîäîáðàííûå ïðîôèëè, âû÷èñëåííûé âåñ êîíñòðóê-
öèè è äðóãèå çíà÷åíèÿ, íåîáõîäèìûå äëÿ àíàëèçà, çàïèñûâàþòñÿ â òåêñòîâûé
ôàéë, ïî êîòîðûì ñòðîÿòñÿ ãðàôèêè.
Íà ðèñ. 3 ïîêàçàíû çàêîíû èçìåíåíèé öåëåâîé ôóíêöèè – ìåòàëëîåì-
êîñòü – îò èçìåíåíèÿ ðåãóëÿòîðîâ h è a ñîãëàñíî çíà÷åíèÿì, ïðèâåäåííûì
â òàáë. 1, äëÿ òèïà ñå÷åíèÿ ÇÃÑÏ è ðàçëè÷íûõ êëàññîâ ñòàëè. Àíàëèçèðóÿ
ãðàôèê, ìîæíî ñäåëàòü âûâîä, ÷òî ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè à ñíèæàåòñÿ
ìàññà êîíñòðóêöèè.
 ñëó÷àå, åñëè ìîíòàæ êîíñòðóêöèè áóäåò âûïîëíÿòüñÿ ïîýëåìåíòíîé ñáîð-
êîé, êîãäà ýëåìåíòû ñòðóêòóðû ïðèâîçÿòñÿ íà ñòðîèòåëüíóþ ïëîùàäêó ðîññû-
ïüþ è ñîáèðàþòñÿ íà ìåñòå, âûñîòà ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû ìîæåò áûòü 10 ì, äëèíà
ðàñêîñîâ äîñòèãàåò ïðåäåëüíîé äëèíû ôàñîííîãî ïðîêàòà 12 ì. Äàëüíåéøåå óâå-
ëè÷åíèå ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè èëè âûñîòû ñòðóêòóðû òðåáóåò óêðóïíèòåëüíûõ ñòûêîâ
ïî äëèíå ýëåìåíòà ñòðóêòóðû è íåöåëåñîîáðàçíî. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî íà ïðàêòèêå âû-
ñîòà ñòðóêòóðû â 10 ì òàêæå íåîáîñíîâàííî çàâûøåíà, ïîñêîëüêó ðåçêî óâåëè-
÷èâàåò ñòðîèòåëüíûé îáúåì çäàíèÿ, âûçûâàÿ ïîâûøåííûé ðàñõîä ýíåðãîðåñóð-
ñîâ íà âåíòèëèðîâàíèå è êîíäèöèîíèðîâàíèå â ëåòíèé ïåðèîä è íà îòîïëåíèå â
çèìíèé. Ïîýòîìó äëÿ äàëüíåéøèõ ðàñ÷åòîâ îãðàíè÷èì ìàêñèìàëüíóþ âûñîòó
ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû òðàíñïîðòíûì ãàáàðèòîì – 3,8 ì.
Íàáëþäàåìûå íà ðèñ. 3 ðåçêèå ñêà÷êè ìàññû êîíñòðóêöèè âûçâàíû
øàãîì ïðîêàòà. Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû èçáåæàòü òàêèõ ñêà÷êîâ, áûë èçìåíåí àëãî-
ðèòì ïîäáîðà ñå÷åíèé.
Ïðè ðàçðàáîòêå àëãîðèòìà ïåðåáîðà ñå÷åíèé âàæíûì âîïðîñîì ÿâëÿåòñÿ
ïðèíöèï âîçðàñòàíèÿ ñîðòàìåíòà – çà ñ÷åò ðîñòà êàêîãî ïàðàìåòðà èçìåíÿåò-
ñÿ ñîðòàìåíò: ïëîùàäè ïîïåðå÷íîãî ñå÷åíèÿ, ðàäèóñà èíåðöèè, ìîìåíòà
èíåðöèè.  ïåðâîì âàðèàíòå àëãîðèòìà ïåðåáîð ñå÷åíèé ñîðòàìåíòà èäåò
â íàïðàâëåíèè óâåëè÷åíèÿ ìîìåíòà èíåðöèè, ïîñêîëüêó ïðè îïðåäåëåíèè
óñòîé÷èâîñòè ñæàòûõ ýëåìåíòîâ ðàäèóñ èíåðöèè ÿâëÿåòñÿ âàæíûì ïàðàìåò-
ðîì.  èçìåíåííîì âàðèàíòå ïåðåáîð ñå÷åíèé ñîðòàìåíòà ïðîèñõîäèò çà ñ÷åò
ïëîùàäè ïîïåðå÷íîãî ñå÷åíèÿ. Ïðèìåíåíèå ýòîãî àëãîðèòìà äàåò ëó÷øèé
ðåçóëüòàò è áîëåå ïëàâíîå èçìåíåíèå ãðàôèêà ìàññû êîíñòðóêöèè ïî âûñîòå.
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À.À. Âàñèëüêèí, Ñ.Â. Ùåðáèíà, Â.Â. Äåíÿêîâà

Ðèñ. 3. Èçìåíåíèå âåñà ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû äî âûñîòû h = 10 ì, à = 10 ì


à – â äèàïàçîíå 10–450 ò; á – â äèàïàçîíå 20–90 ò

Òàê, âûáîð ìåæäó ñå÷åíèåì 50´50´6 èëè 60´60´2,5 ïî ïåðâîìó ïîäõîäÿùå-


ìó ìîìåíòó èíåðöèè, ïðè ìîìåíòàõ èíåðöèè I = 29,36 ñì4 è I = 30,33 ñì4
è ïëîùàäè ïîïåðå÷íûõ ñå÷åíèé A = 9,63 ñì2 è À = 5,59 ñì2 ñîîòâåòñòâåííî
äàåò ïåðåðàñõîä ñòàëè äî 40 %.
Ýôôåêò îò ïðèìåíåíèÿ ìîäèôèöèðîâàííîãî àëãîðèòìà ïîêàçàí íà ðèñ. 4.
Âèäíà çàìåòíàÿ ðàçíèöà ïî ìîäóëþ (ýêîíîìèÿ ñòàëè äî 15 %) è â ïîâåäåíèè
ãðàôèêà – ò.å. ñêà÷êîâ ìàññû êîíñòðóêöèè, êîòîðóþ ïîäáèðàåò ïðîãðàììà
èç-çà äèñêðåòíîñòè ñîðòàìåíòà ìåòàëëà.
Îêîí÷àòåëüíûå ãðàôèêè èçìåíåíèÿ ìàññû ñ ìîäèôèöèðîâàííûì àëãîðèò-
ìîì ïðåäñòàâëåíû íà ðèñ. 4. Êàæäàÿ òî÷êà íà ãðàôèêå îçíà÷àåò ïîëíîñòüþ ðàñ-
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Àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé ïîèñê êîíñòðóêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû...

Ðèñ. 4. Èçìåíåíèå âåñà ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû äî âûñîòû ïðè èñõîäíîì ïîäáîðå ñå÷åíèÿ
è ïðè èçìåíåííîì âàðèàíòå ïåðåáîðà

ñ÷èòàííóþ êîíñòðóêöèþ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû ñ ïàðàìåòðàìè, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùè-


ìè ýòîé òî÷êå – êëàññîì ñòàëè, âûñîòîé ïëèòû è ðàçìåðîì ÿ÷åéêè.
Ïðè óâåëè÷åíèè ðàññòîÿíèÿ ìåæäó óçëàìè âåðõíåãî ïîÿñà – îñíîâà-
íèÿ ïèðàìèäû (äëèíà ïàíåëè) à óñèëèÿ â ýëåìåíòàõ ïëèòû è ìàññà êîí-
ñòðóêöèè âñå âðåìÿ ñíèæàþòñÿ, ò.å. ÷åì áîëüøå à, òåì íèæå ìåòàëëîåìêîñòü
(ðèñ. 5). Âèäèìî, ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ äëèíà ïàíåëè äîëæíà îãðàíè÷èâàòüñÿ
êîíñòðóêòèâíûì îáðàçîì, íàïðèìåð, ìàêñèìàëüíûì ïðîëåòîì ïðîôíàñòè-
ëà, óêëàäûâàåìîãî íà âåðõíèé ïîÿñ ñòðóêòóðû. Åñëè æå ïðèíÿòü âàðèàíò
îïèðàíèÿ ïîêðûòèÿ ïî ïðîãîíàì, òî çäåñü â ðàñ÷åò íåîáõîäèìî âíåñòè ïîä-
áîð ñå÷åíèÿ ïðîãîíà, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, âåñ íåñóùèõ êîíñòðóêöèé ñîîðóæå-
íèÿ áóäåò ñêëàäûâàòüñÿ èç òðåõ ñëàãàåìûõ – ñòðóêòóðíàÿ ïëèòà, êîëîííà
è ïðîãîí.
Êðîìå òîãî, ïðè ìàëîé à óâåëè÷èâà- Ò à á ë è ö à 2. Êîëè÷åñòâî óçëîâ
åòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâî óçëîâ ïî íåëèíåéíîìó ñòðóêòóðû ïðè ðàçëè÷íûõ à
çàêîíó (òàáë. 2, ðèñ. 6). À åñëè äî- à, ì
Êîë-âî óçëîâ, Ìàññà âñåãî,
øò. êã
ïîëíèòåëüíî ó÷åñòü òðóäîåìêîñòü èç-
ãîòîâëåíèÿ êîíñòðóêöèè, òî ýôôåêòèâ- 1,5 841 9192
íîñòü äëèííûõ ïàíåëåé åùå áîëüøå âîç- 2 481 5257
ðàñòåò, ÷òî ìîæåò ÿâëÿòüñÿ îáúåêòîì
2,5 313 3421
äàëüíåéøåãî èññëåäîâàíèÿ.
Çàêëþ÷åíèå. Ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì ðàçìå- 3 221 2416
ðà ÿ÷åéêè ìàññà êîíñòðóêöèè ñíèæàåò- 5 85 929
ñÿ. Äëÿ êëàññà ñòàëè Ñ245 ìèíèìàëüíàÿ 6 61 667
ìàññà ñòðóêòóðû ñ ÿ÷åéêîé 1,5 ì áîëüøå
ìèíèìàëüíîé ìàññû ñòðóêòóðû ñ ÿ÷åé- 7,5 41 448
êîé 10 ì íà 48 %, äëÿ Ñ285 – íà 47, 10 25 273
äëÿ Ñ345 – íà 40 %. Ïðè óâåëè÷åíèè Ï ð è ì å ÷ à í è å. Ìàññà óçëà «Ìàðõè»
ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè êîëè÷åñòâî óçëîâ óìåíü- 10,93 êã.
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Ðèñ. 5. Èçìåíåíèå âåñà ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû äî âûñîòû h = 3,8 ì äëÿ òðåõ êëàññîâ ñòàëè
ñ ðàçëè÷íûìè çíà÷åíèÿìè ðåãóëÿòîðîâ
à – ñòàëü Ñ245; á – ñòàëü Ñ285; â – ñòàëü Ñ345
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Àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé ïîèñê êîíñòðóêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû...

Ðèñ. 6. Çàâèñèìîñòü êîëè÷åñòâà óçëîâ îò ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè

øàåòñÿ (ïðè çàäàííîì íåèçìåíÿåìîì ïðîëåòå). Ñ ó÷åòîì ìàññû óçëîâ äëÿ


ñòàëè Ñ245 ìèíèìàëüíàÿ ìàññà ñòðóêòóðû ñ ÿ÷åéêîé 1,5 ì áîëüøå ìèíèìàëü-
íîé ìàññû ñòðóêòóðû ñ ÿ÷åéêîé 10 ì íà 56 %, äëÿ êëàññà ñòàëè Ñ285 – íà 55,
äëÿ Ñ345 – íà 51 %.
Ïî ãðàôèêàì çàâèñèìîñòè ìàññû îò ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè è âûñîòû ñòðóêòóðû
(ñì. ðèñ. 5) äëÿ êàæäîãî ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè ìîæíî îïðåäåëèòü äèàïàçîí âûñîò
ñòðóêòóðû, ïðè êîòîðîì åå ìàññà áóäåò íàèìåíüøåé, à èçìåíåíèå ìàññû
â ïðåäåëàõ ýòîãî äèàïàçîíà áóäåò íåçíà÷èòåëüíûì. Íàïðèìåð, äëÿ ñòàëè
Ñ245 è ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè 1,5 ì òàêèì äèàïàçîíîì áóäåò îáëàñòü âûñîò îò 1,7 äî
2,7 ì (ðàçíèöà ìèíèìàëüíîé è ìàêñèìàëüíîé ìàññû â äàííîì äèàïàçîíå 5 %).
Ïðè ýòîì íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíàÿ âûñîòà ïî êðèòåðèþ «ìåòàëëîåìêîñòü» –
2,1 ì. Îäíàêî äëÿ óìåíüøåíèÿ ñòðîèòåëüíîãî îáúåìà ìîæíî ïðèíÿòü âûñîòó
1,7 ì áåç çíà÷èòåëüíîãî óâåëè÷åíèÿ ìàññû ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû.
 ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ìîæíî çàìåòèòü, ÷òî ñ óâåëè÷åíèåì ðàçìåðà ÿ÷åéêè ðàç-
íèöà ìåæäó íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíîé ïî ìåòàëëîåìêîñòè âûñîòîé è âûñîòîé,
ïðèíèìàåìîé èç ñîîáðàæåíèé óìåíüøåíèÿ ñòðîèòåëüíîãî îáúåìà, âîçðàñòà-
åò è ìîæåò äîñòèãàòü çíà÷åíèÿ 1 ì, ïðè òîì ÷òî âåñ ñòðóêòóðû óâåëè÷èòñÿ íå
áîëåå ÷åì íà 5 %. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èñõîäÿ èç ïðåäúÿâëÿåìûõ ê ïðîåêòèðóåìîé
ñòðóêòóðå òðåáîâàíèé, òàêèõ êàê ñíèæåíèå âåñà êîíñòðóêöèè, óìåíüøåíèå
ñòðîèòåëüíîãî îáúåìà èëè èç àðõèòåêòóðíûõ òðåáîâàíèé ê ðàçìåðàì ÿ÷åéêè
èëè âûñîòå ñòðóêòóðû, ìîæíî ïîäîáðàòü íàèáîëåå ýôôåêòèâíûé âàðèàíò
ïðè ïîìîùè ïîëó÷åííûõ çàâèñèìîñòåé èëè ïðåäëîæåííîé ìåòîäèêè.
Ïðåäñòàâëåííûå ðåçóëüòàòû ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò î øèðîêèõ âîçìîæíîñòÿõ
ìåòîäà ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÍÄÑ ïðè ïîëó÷åíèè ýôôåêòèâíûõ ïðîåêòíûõ ðåøå-
íèé ñòàëüíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé íà ýòàïå ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ. Ñèíòåç è ñðàâíåíèå
çíà÷èòåëüíîãî ÷èñëà âàðèàíòîâ ïðîåêòíûõ ðåøåíèé ïîçâîëÿþò ïîëó÷èòü
íàèáîëåå ýêîíîìè÷íîå ðåøåíèå.
Âîçìîæíîñòü ó÷åòà ïðè ðåãóëèðîâàíèè ÍÄÑ âñåõ ïàðàìåòðîâ êîíñòðóê-
öèè âûçûâàåò ñîìíåíèÿ, îäíàêî ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ñî âðåìåíåì êîëè-
÷åñòâî ó÷èòûâàåìûõ ïàðàìåòðîâ â êàæäîì òèïå ñòàëüíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé áóäåò
âîçðàñòàòü. Ïîèñê ñóùåñòâåííûõ ïàðàìåòðîâ, èõ âûäåëåíèå è ó÷åò â ïðîöåññå
ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÍÄÑ ìîæåò ÿâëÿòüñÿ ïðåäìåòîì äàëüíåéøåãî èññëåäîâàíèÿ â
ýòîé îáëàñòè, îñîáåííî ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå øèðîêóþ íîìåíêëàòóðó
ñòàëüíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé – îäíîýòàæíûå è ìíîãîýòàæíûå çäàíèÿ, îãðîìíûé
ñïåêòð áîëüøåïðîëåòíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé, âûñîòíûå ñîîðóæåíèÿ, ëèñòîâûå
êîíñòðóêöèè.
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À.À. Âàñèëüêèí, Ñ.Â. Ùåðáèíà, Â.Â. Äåíÿêîâà

ÁÈÁËÈÎÃÐÀÔÈ×ÅÑÊÈÉ ÑÏÈÑÎÊ

1. Ò ó ñ í è í À.Ð. Àâòîìàòèçàöèÿ ðàñ÷åòîâ íåñóùåé ñïîñîáíîñòè ýëåìåíòîâ ñòàëü-


íûõ êîíñòðóêöèé // Ñòðîèòåëüíûå ìàòåðèàëû, îáîðóäîâàíèå, òåõíîëîãèè
XXI âåêà. 2012. ¹ 2. Ñ. 31–33.
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Àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé ïîèñê êîíñòðóêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû...

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Âàñèëüêèí Àíäðåé Àëåêñàíäðîâè÷, êàíä. òåõí. íàóê, äîö.


Íàöèîíàëüíûé èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèé Ìîñêîâñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ñòðîèòåëüíûé
óíèâåðñèòåò
Ùåðáèíà Ñåðãåé Âèêòîðîâè÷, çàâ. ñåêòîðîì ðàñ÷åòíûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ÍÎÖ ÊÌ,
ã. Ìîñêâà
Äåíÿêîâà Âèêòîðèÿ Âèêòîðîâíà, ñòóä.
Íàöèîíàëüíûé èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèé Ìîñêîâñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ñòðîèòåëüíûé
óíèâåðñèòåò
Ïîëó÷åíî ïîñëå äîðàáîòêè 16.03.18

Vasilkin Andrey Aleksandrovich, PhD, Ass. Professor


Moscow State (National Research) University of Civil Engineering, Russia
Scherbina Sergey Viktorovich, Head of laboratory of Numerical Modeling, Moscow,
Russia
Denyakova Victoria Viktorovna, Student
Moscow State (National Research) University of Civil Engineering, Russia

AUTOMATED SEARCH FOR THE CONSTRUCTION


OF A STRUCTURAL PLATE OF MINIMUM MASS
BY THE METHOD OF REGULATION OF FORCES

The article suggests the application of methods for controlling the behavior of load-bearing
steel structures, namely the regulation of the stress-strain state of the structural plate. The
behavior control regulators are selected, the range of their admissible values is defined.
The metal consumption is taken as a criterion for the effectiveness of the solutions
obtained. An automated computational algorithm is developed that allows varying the
variable parameters of a design. On the basis of automated synthesis and analysis of more
than 400 design variants, the most effective values of regulators are determined, which
allow obtaining the most economical design solution of the steel structure.
K e y w o r d s: control of structural behavior, stress regulation, effective solution search,
structural plates.
29
À.À. Âàñèëüêèí, Ñ.Â. Ùåðáèíà, Â.Â. Äåíÿêîâà

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Àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííûé ïîèñê êîíñòðóêòèâíîãî ðåøåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðíîé ïëèòû...

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