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Electrical, Electronic and

Computer Engineering
ENEL4HB - High Voltage 2

Test 2
Sep 2016

Instructions
• Answer all questions, show all working and include all necessary comments (it is your rea-
soning that is being assessed, not the numerical answer)
• Time allowed = 45 minutes.
• Full marks = 45

Question 1

A 132 kV transmission tower with a height of 20m has a surge impedance of 240 Ω connected to
a shield wire of 480 Ω and an earth resistance of 100 Ω. The conductor is connected to the tower
by a 1.2 m long insulator. The transmission tower is struck by lightning with a rise time of 4.5µs
and a peak current of 40 kA. The coupling coefficient is 0.1 and the propagation velocity of the
tower is 0.8c.

• Determine the peak voltage across the insulator string and if flashover occurs. [9 Marks]

• Determine the number of insulator discs required if each has an expected flashover voltage
of 100 kV in dry weather based on U50 . [2 Marks]
• Determine the probability of flashover occurrence on a 100 km line if the ground flash density
is 8 strikes per km2 /year. [5 Marks]
• Determine the peak voltage across the insulator if the earth resistance is decreased to 30 Ω.
[4 Marks]

[Total Marks: 20]

• Determine initial voltage on tower due to current U0 = I×( Z1t + Z2s )−1 = 40k×( 240
1 2 −1
+ 480 ) =
4800kV [2]
• Determine reflected voltage on tower ρr = 100−240
100+240 = −0.41 and Ut = U0 − 0.41U0 = 2832kV
occurring after 2 × τ = 2 × hv = 0.16µs [2]

• Determine voltage across the insulator Uins = √2 × 132k + 2832k − 0.1 × 2832k = 2656kV
3
[2]
710
• Determine the breakdown voltage of the gap U50 = (400 + 4.50.75 × 1.2 = 755kV [2]
• Therefore flashover does occur[1]
• Number of discs N1 = 755/100 = 8[2]

1
1
• Probability of strikes above 30kA P = 40 = 34%[2]
1+( 31 )2.6
 
28×200.6
• Number of strikes to line Ns = 8 10 = 135strikes/100km/year[2]

• You need to think about what the values above mean and answer appropriately[1]

• Peak voltage Ut = U0 − 0.77 ∗ U0 = 1104kV and Uins = √2 × 132 + 1104k(1 − 0.1) = 1101kV ,
3
still occurs

Question 2
An overvoltage travels on an 132 kV overhead line with a propagation velocity of v = 0.8c and
steepness of S = 1500kV /µs. A metal oxide surge arrester is to be installed in front of a transformer
with a BIL of 650 kV . The distance between the arrester and transformer is 20 m.

• Determine the voltage at the transformer if the surge arrester has a residual voltage of 314 kV.
[2 Marks]
• Comment on why there is an increase in voltage across the terminals of the transformer and
whether the transformer is protected or not. [4 Marks]
• Given that there is one incoming line with a double conductor bundle and a span of 400 m,
determine the protection distance that should be used and whether the transformer is cur-
rently protected or not. [4
Marks]

Table 1: Performance factor for incoming overhead line

Line Type Factor A (kV)

Transmission lines (1φ to earth flashover)


Single conductor 4500
Double conductor bundle 7000
Four conductor bundle 11000
Six and eight conductor bundle 17000

[Total Marks: 10]

2×(d+a)×S 2×20×1500
• Uequip = Ua + v = 314 + 0.8×300 = 564kV
• Protected as voltage does not exceed BIL. Overvoltage due to travelling wave reflections
1 650
• Lp = 4500 ( 1.15 − 314) × 0.8 × 300 = 23m
• It indicates that the distance between the surge arrester and transformer must be less than
23m for the transformer to be adequately protected.

Question 3
A single phase system has a normal voltage of 25 kV phase to earth and an installed transformer is to
be protected from lightning overvoltages. The contractors have proposed the following equipment
with the specifications in the tables below. There is 1 m between the surge arrester and the
transformer and the contractor has installed separate earth electrodes for the equipment each with
20 Ω resistance. Discuss what the contractor has done wrong.
[Total Marks: 15]
Question is based on the video notes. Some of the answers could be.

2
Table 2: Transformer Specifications
Un Um BIL
33 kV 36 kV 165 kV

Table 3: Surge Arrester Specifications


Uc Ur In
25 kV 45 kV 10 kA

V1 V2

L L

20Ω 20Ω

Figure 1: Installed System


• Transformer is the incorrect specification / ratio. 33/ 3 = 20kV , so the ratings including
BIL are incorrect
• Surge arrester is close to the correct specification, but it will operate continuous at 25 kV (it
should be 25 * 1.05, so there is no room for error). It may still allow a number of transients
through which could damage the transformer.

• The lead between the surge arrester and transformer is large and an overvoltage may still
occur. The connection of this to the transformer is important.
• The earthing resistance is too high and this may cause and overvoltage on the line, which
may cause flashover or breakdown in the transformer.

3
Useful Formulae Average bundle gradient:
q 1
Constants Ea =
n 2π0 r
Standard temperature: t0 = 20o C
Standard pressure: P0 = 760 torr Average maximum bundle gradient:
Permittivity of free space: ε0 = 8.85×10−12 F/m h ri
Eam = Ea 1 + (n − 1)
R
Formulae Peek’s empirical expressions:

Electric field in layer k in a uniform dielectric ~ 0.24


|Epositive | = 33.7mδ(1 + √ ) [kV /cm]
with multiple layers and permittivities: δrc
V
Ek = εk εk
ε1 d 1 + ε2 d2 + ...
~ 0.308
|Enegative | = 31mδ(1 + √ ) [kV /cm]
δrc
Electric field in layer k in a coaxial system with
multiple layers and permittivities:
V ~ | = 29.8mδ(1 + 0.301
|Eacpeak √ ) [kV /cm]
Ek = h i δrc
εk εk
rk ε1 ln rr21 + ε2 ln rr32 + . . .
Relative air density:
Electric field in relation to a line charge q: P 273 + t0
δ=
~ = q 6 θ
E
P0 273 + t
2πε0 r
Voltage across cap and pin insulator string:
The equivalent bundle radius: q
C
sinh Cps n
1 Vn = V
req = nrRn−1 n
q
C
sinh Cps N

Relationship between Q and V :


Efficiency of cap and pin insulator:
[P ][Q] = [V ] V
η=
[Q] = [P ]−1 [V ] N VN

Resultant electric field: Method of determinants:


 
1 a11 a12 a a12
~R =
E [P ]−1 [V ][ 1r 6 θ + 16
θ] 0 ∆ = det = 11 = a11 a22 −a21 a12
2πε0 r0 a21 a22 a21 a22

Self potential coefficient:


 
1 2hi a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13
Pii = ln

2πε0 ri ∆ = det a21 a22 a23 = a21 a22
  a23

a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33
Mutual potential coefficient: = a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21 a32
− a31 a22 a13 − a32 a23 a11 − a33 a21 a12
1 Dij
Pij = ln
2πε0 dij
Probability of negative lightning stroke:
1
q P = I
Dij = ((xi − xj )2 + (yi + yj )2 1 + ( 31p )2.6
q
dij = ((xi − xj )2 + (yi − yj )2 Average number of strikes to line:
28h0.6 + b
 
Ns = Ng
10

4
Attractive radius:

Ra = 0.67h0.67
t I 0.74

Flashover current:
2U50
Icrit =
Z0

Shielding separation:
q
Xsp = Rs − Rp2 − (Ys − Yp )2

Reflection co-efficient:
Z2 − Z1
ρr =
Z1 + Z2

Insulator flashover volt-time curve:


 
710
U (t) = 400 + 0.75 W
t

Switching impulse stength of airgaps:


3400
U50 = k
1 + d8

Voltage at protected equipment:

2 × (d + a) × S
Uequip = Ua +
v

Protective zone:
 
N UBIL
Lp = − Ua × Lsp
A 1.15

Paschen’s eqn:
p
Vb = 6.72 pd + 24.36(pd)