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B.E.S.T. COLLEGE OF POLOMOLOK, INC.

Valencia Site, Polomolok, South Cotabato


Tel No. (083) 500-2258

BACHELOR IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

MODULE 1: SPECIAL EDUCATION

Introduction
Special Education is the design and delivery of teaching and learning strategies for individuals with
disabilities or learning difficulties who may or may not be enrolled in regular schools. Students who need special
education may include students who have hearing impairment or are deaf, students who have vision impairment or
are blind, students with physical disabilities, students with intellectual disability, students with learning difficulties,
students with behaviour disorders or emotional disturbance, and students with speech or language difficulties. Some
students have a number of disabilities and learning difficulties.

Unit 1: SPECIAL EDUCATION

The student will be able to UNIT LEARNING OUTCOMES


 Distinguish the essential nature of special education
 Discuss the historical and philosophical beliefs about disability and special educational
needs.
 Identify the different laws that governs the special education
 Understand the role of families in cohering the special educational needs of the learner

References
 https://www.masters-in-special-education.com/lists/5-important-special-education-laws/
 https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/special-services/special-education-basics/understanding-special-education
 file:///C:/Users/Hp/Downloads/2-6-139-550.pdf

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 1


“Everybody is a genius. But if you judge the fish by its ability to climb a tree
it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid. “
- ALBERT EINSTEIN -

Activity 1: Read and understand the quote above Write your insight about the given quote inside the box
provided below

All children has different talent and ability but when we will just judge a child according to our will or
according to our wants we cannot get the right result. Why you should judge a child to run fast when
he is a blind. As we all know we grow up in a school which is the test I usually paper pencil test. Those
who are intelligent in math and good in speaking in English are seem so intelligent and genius that's
what we believe before but as of now we are engaging to multiple intelligence which cater all the
needs of learners there are different assessment given to the children so That we can assess the
children in proper way just, for example we have paper pencil test but we also have a performance
test which gives opportunity to children to perform well even though they are not Good in academics.

Special Education is the design of teaching and learning strategies for individuals with disabilities or learning
difficulties. It is also about attitude, because teachers need a positive attitude to be effective special educators (that
means teachers need a positive attitude to be good teachers!). Special education is also about understanding the
different needs that students have, including the different types of disability and learning difficulties. Put simply,
whenever a teacher makes any kind of adaptation to their usual program so that they can assist a student with a
special need, that teacher is implementing special education.
Special education today is still focused on helping children with disabilities learn. But this no longer has to
mean placing kids in a special classroom all day long. In fact, federal law requires that students who receive special
education services be taught alongside their non-disabled peers as much as possible.

For example, some students with dyslexia may spend most of the day in a general education classroom.
They may spend just an hour or two in a resource room working with a specialist on reading and other skills. Other
students with dyslexia might need more support than that. And others might need to attend a different school that
specializes in teaching kids with learning disabilities.

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 2


There is no “one size fits all” approach to special education. It’s tailored to meet each student’s needs.
Special education refers to a range of services that can be provided in different ways and in different settings.

If your child qualifies for special education, he’ll receive individualized teaching and other key resources at no
cost to you. The specialists who work with your child will focus on his strengths as well as his challenges. And you’ll
be an important member of the team that decides what he needs to make progress in school.

Special Education Terminology


Advocacy groups, and others representing people with disabilities in recent years, have asked that
professionals, the media and schools discontinue the use of disability terminology that devalues people with
disabilities. People with disabilities do not wish to be known as `a Down syndrome person’ or `the handicapped’, or by
any such term. They wish to be recognized as valued members of society, that is, people, who have a disability.
People with disabilities therefore prefer terms such as: a person with a disability people with disabilities the child with
cerebral palsy Sione has a physical disability Do you have a hearing impairment? The principle to be followed is
people first, disability second (Foreman, 2000). People with disabilities do not wish to be seen as the object of a
punishment or blight, or as victims, either. Nor do they wish to be seen as continually suffering or in need of
sympathy. They don’t like terms such as `suffers from’, `afflicted with’, `physical problem’, etc. They prefer their
disability to be referred to as something that they just have. Foreman (2000, p. 21) provides a list of suggested terms:
The World Health Organization (1980) determined the following definitions, which have been generally
accepted throughout the world:

impairment - an abnormality in the way organs or systems function e.g., a medical condition, eye
disease, a heart problem
disability - the functional consequence of an impairment e.g., an intellectual disability due to
brain impairment; low vision; deafness
handicap - the social or environmental consequence of a disability e.g., a person with a
wheelchair is not handicapped when paths and buildings are wheelchair accessible

In writing and speaking about, and with, people with disabilities, whether they are young or old, it is most
important to use appropriate terminology. Firstly, it demonstrates to all that we value people with disabilities as
members of our society. Secondly, it educates those who read and hear what we say, about appropriate terminology,
and therefore gives them an opportunity too, to help develop and promote positive, inclusive and equitable values.

Who qualifies for special education?

Special education is for students with special educational needs. These may be students who have a general
difficulty with some part of their learning at school or who seem to have difficulty with all kinds of learning. They may
be students with a particular disability, such as a hearing impairment, a vision impairment, a speech impairment, a
physical impairment, or intellectual disability. They may be students with behaviour disorders, emotional problems or
a medical condition of one kind or another. Their special need might be permanent or it might be temporary; this
depends on the nature of the need and, to some extent, on what action is taken by their parents, teachers and other
community members. Any student can have a special educational need at some time or another, and any student can
develop a special need. This is why it is sometimes said that special education is for all students.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the federal law that defines and regulates special
education. The law requires public schools to provide special education services to children ages 3 to 21 who meet
certain criteria. (Children younger than 3 can get help through IDEA’s early intervention services.)

To qualify for special education services, a student must:


(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 3
 Have a documented disability that is covered by IDEA, and
 Need special education in order to access the general education curriculum
“Access” is an important term in education. Making the curriculum accessible to students with disabilities is a
lot like making buildings accessible to people in wheelchairs. If there’s a barrier to your child’s learning, such as
difficulty reading, the school needs to come up with the equivalent of a wheelchair ramp to help your child access the
reading material.

School districts have a process in place to determine which students are eligible for special education. This
process involves a comprehensive evaluation that looks at the way your child thinks. It also looks at other aspects of
his development. You or your child’s school can request an evaluation. If the district agrees to evaluate your child, the
testing will be conducted at no cost to you.

Understanding the relationship between traditional and modern beliefs about why some individuals in our
community have some forms of disability or learning difficulties assists teachers in their work with students, parents
and their school communities. It is also the case that teachers need to have positive attitudes towards students with
special needs if they are to be effective in working with these students. Trainee teachers need to develop positive
attitudes and gain a good understanding of how to go about changing attitudes from negative to positive, as teachers
have a special role to play in raising awareness and developing positive attitudes towards students with special needs
in schools and their communities.

Different Beliefs

Teachers need to be aware of the range of beliefs about disabilities and other special needs that exist within
Papua New Guinea communities, because an understanding of different beliefs helps teachers to understand and
respond to the different attitudes towards students with special needs that teachers are likely to encounter from
parents, students, other communities and colleagues. Sometimes teachers also need to examine and review their
own beliefs and attitudes. There are three main influences on community beliefs about disability in contemporary
Firstly, there is the great variety of traditional beliefs from the many and varied traditional communities Secondly,
there is the Christian influence, and the many interpretations of some biblical references to disability. Finally, there is
the influence of contemporary medical research, and the new findings and views emerging from the educational and
social sciences of the international community.
Traditional beliefs Most South Pacific countries, have traditionally regarded the birth of a child with a disability
as a consequence of particular actions on the part of the parents or one of the parents, or the particular actions of
other community members. Usually, the child’s disability has been associated with the parents breaking a tradition,
upsetting local spirits by harming the land or committing an unacceptable act, or not living up to all their
responsibilities and obligations. Disability has often been regarded as the consequence of a curse, spell or other
magic being used against the parents by another community member, or even a person from another community.
Christian beliefs The Bible has been interpreted by many different groups in many different ways, so there is
no international consensus on what the Bible actually means. Some groups believe that every aspect of the Bible
should be interpreted literally, meaning that everything in it is exactly true, and should be interpreted as such. Other
groups believe that the Bible is a document that reflects the period in which it was written and therefore reflects the
knowledge and beliefs of its age, and should not be taken literally. These groups believe that it is the underlying
message of the Bible that is important should not be regarded as factual. The Bible makes many references to
disability, usually physical disability or blindness. Such disabilities are usually described in negative terms, with
people with disabilities usually seen as relatively helpless and in need of assistance and comfort. The Bible actually
makes very few references to causes of disability but some people have interpreted verses such as those in
Deuteronomy 28: …if thou wilt not

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 4


hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God…cursed shall be the fruit of thy body…as an indication that disability can
be a punishment for a parent’s misbehaviour. Other passages, however, seem to contradict this notion, e.g., the son
will not share the guilt of the father, nor will the father share the guilt of the son. The righteousness of the righteous
man will be credited to him, and the wickedness of the wicked will be charged against him (Ezekiel 18).
Contemporary beliefs Views about disability and special educational needs have changed dramatically in
recent decades. Medical research has explained many of the causes of most of the known disabilities while
educational researchers are continually finding new information about the social, educational and other non-medical
causes of apparent disabilities, learning difficulties, behavioural and emotional disorders, and so on. Much remains
unknown and it remains the case that many children are born with disabilities or develop disabilities of which the
cause is unknown, but generally speaking, new findings from medical and social science research fields are rapidly
replacing traditional views of causes and treatments of disabilities. New methods of treating and responding to special
needs are continually emerging as well, from the fields of medicine, social science and education, with a high degree
of success, and new technologies are also rapidly changing the ways in which many people with disabilities are able
to interact with the world. Technological innovations do not reach developing countries as quickly as highly
industrialized countries so not yet have access to most of these innovations but teachers and clinicians, and people
with disabilities, are able to access these technologies as they do become more affordable and more robust. For
example, there are some students and adults with disabilities using Braille devices, hearing aids, computers, modern
wheelchairs and other examples of modern technology. On the other hand, teachers are in a much better position to
take advantage of new teaching techniques that do not require expensive technology but, nevertheless, can
dramatically improve the lives of their students.
Consequences
Sometimes when a child is born with a disability, community members can be quick to identify some wrong
previously committed by parents, or others, in an effort to explain the appearance of the disability. Such beliefs can
lead to blame being cast against parents or others, ill feeling developing within and among communities and
embarrassment. This kind of situation has sometimes led to children with disabilities in PNG communities being
hidden away, denied access to regular village or community life, and denied an education. Community based
rehabilitation workers have reported that this situation has occurred, for one reason or another, in many communities,
including cities, settlements and villages.

Attitude
Attitudes are, to a large extent, a reflection of a person’s fundamental beliefs. To understand and appreciate
a person’s attitudes (and even one’s own attitudes) a teacher often needs to understand or identify that person’s
beliefs. Special education, to a large extent, is all about attitudes and attitudinal change. Many authors, and many
practitioners, say that the single most important factor that determines whether or not inclusive education works for
students, is attitude. Usually, this means the attitude of the teacher, but the attitudes of parents, students, principals
and colleague teachers are also very important and can `make or break’ inclusive education. Sometimes, in order to
bring about a successful model of inclusive education, teachers need to change the attitudes of others or change their
own attitudes. This can involve changing or modifying others’ beliefs or one’s own beliefs In most highly developed
countries, much of the debate in special education is about segregated models of special education (i.e., special
schools and special classes) versus integrated or inclusive special education. The attitudes of teachers, parents,
students, principals and so on, are a most important factor in this debate and often influence the effectiveness of the
various approaches. In Papua New Guinea, transport and communication factors, costs, attention to the international
directions of special education and a fundamental philosophy supporting equity of education for all within the
administration of the national Department of Education, have resulted in inclusive education becoming the preferred
(and probably the only practical) model of special education nationally. Consequently, the issue in Papua New Guinea
communities is not whether a child with a disability should attend a special school or class, or a regular school, but,
rather, whether the child can go to school at all, and for how long the child should attend school (i.e., should the child
proceed to upper primary,

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 5


secondary, and so on). At the school, the issue is should this child be at school and how can this child be managed at
school.
Changing attitudes isn’t always easy, although many teachers have changed attitudes simply by
demonstrating new or better practices. Teachers, parents and students are usually very impressed when they
observe effective practices. Practicing what you preach can be the most effective strategy of all for changing
attitudes. This often works to change teachers’ own attitudes! Teachers who actually try out inclusive special
education strategies often find that the strategies actually work, and this experience changes their whole view of what
can be done and what can be achieved. In fact, research has shown that teachers who are more involved with
inclusive special education have more positive attitudes towards it than teachers who have not been involved in
inclusive education and that teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion and students with special needs improve with
support and experience (Foreman, 2001).
Attitude can be thought of as having three components:

• Perceptions The way people see things; the information they have about something;
beliefs; facts; assumptions; interpretations; experiences; understanding
• Emotions The way people feel about something; commitment; subjectivity
• Actions The way that people act, based on their perceptions and emotions; what
people do according to their attitude

Each component of attitude affects the other components. A person’s perceptions affect their emotions (the
way they feel), and their feelings influence the actions they take. When a person takes action, they then usually
change their perceptions, and so on. For example, a person may perceive that working with a student with a disability
is going to be difficult and unpleasant. They then have seennegative emotions about doing it, but might go ahead with
it anyway due to their feeling of responsibility. If they then find that they can manage the student and feel more
positively about the experience, then they are likely to feel more positively about taking further action, and so on. In
this way, each component of attitude influences each other component.
Changing perceptions is probably the most important strategy in changing attitudes about disabilities and
other special needs. Informing people about actual causes of disability, demonstrating what can be achieved,
demonstrating and explaining the benefits of inclusive special education, and so on, can make a huge difference to
people’s attitudes. Changing perceptions works best when the explanation or demonstration uses terms that the
person understands, and when the benefits described or demonstrated are ones that are valued by the person.

Perception

Action Emotion

Figure 1. A Cycle of ATTITUDE


CHANGE

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 6


Emotions about students with special needs vary greatly. Some teachers feel uncomfortable working with
students with disabilities, while some have very positive emotions. Some teachers, and parents, have very caring
emotions but are over-protective and can actually limit the achievements and opportunities of students with special
needs by not exposing them to the hazards and risks of normal life. Changing a person’s feelings usually involves
changing the person’s perceptions but exposing the person to the feelings of others encourages the person to have
empathy, that is, they can begin to see how others feel, and can see themselves in their shoes. For example, when a
teacher or parent sees the positive feelings of a child with a disability succeeding at school, playing with other
children, and so on, they begin to appreciate how important it is for that child to have those opportunities.
Actions are the most important component of attitude because it is actions that make the difference and it is
through actions that perceptions are changed. As mentioned above, people can change their own perceptions and
emotions by trying things out, and changing the attitudes of others can be achieved very quickly by demonstration, or
by walking the talk (actually doing what you say should be done).

5 IMPORTANT SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW

Special education programs became obligatory in 1975 to prevent discrimination by public educational
institutions against individuals with disabilities. The National Center for Education Statistics reported that, as of 2013,
approximately 13 percent of all students in public schools were receiving special education services.

1. Education For All Handicapped Children Act


Passed by Congress in 1975, this was the first special education law directed at students with physical and mental
disabilities. The law stated that public schools must provide children with special needs with the same opportunities for
education as other children. It also required any public school that received federal funds to provide one free meal a day for
these children.

The mission of this act was to:

 Make special education services accessible to children who require them;


 Maintain fair and appropriate services for disabled students;
 Institute systematic evaluation requirements for special education; and
 Endow federal resources to public schools for the education of disabled student

2. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act


The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, was created in 1990 and is a modification of the Education for
All Handicapped Children Act. This law ensures that special needs students receive appropriate free public education in the
least restrictive environment necessary to meet those students’ needs. It helps students receive the extra assistance they need
but allows them to participate in the same activities as children without special needs whenever possible.

3. No Child Left Behind


In 2001, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, commonly known as the No Child Left Behind Act, called for
schools to be accountable for academic performance of all students, whether or not they had disabilities. The act requires
schools in every state to develop routine assessments of students’ academic skills. While it does not stipulate that these
assessments meet a national standard, the law does oblige each state to come up with its own criteria for evaluation. No Child
Left Behind provides incentives for schools to demonstrate progress in students with special needs. It also allows for students to
seek alternative options if schools are not meeting their academic, social or emotional needs.

4. Individualized Education Programs


The IDEA maintains that parents and teachers of children who qualify for special education must develop an
Individualized Education Program, or IEP, that helps establish specific education for a child’s explicit needs. This requires

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 7


caregivers to meet initially to determine a child’s eligibility for an IEP and to come together annually to develop and assess the
educational plan.

The student’s educational strategy must be designated in writing and should include an evaluation and description of
the current academic status, measurable goals and objectives, designation of an instructional setting and placement within that
setting and transition services for children aged 16 or older. An IEP gives parents the right to dispute any issues with the school
district through a neutral third party.

5. Students with Disabilities and Postsecondary School


The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 forbid discrimination in schools based on
disability. This applies to colleges and universities as well as elementary, middle and high schools. Many students with special
needs go on to study at the postsecondary level, but the laws are slightly different for postsecondary schools. The law does not
require postsecondary schools to provide a free appropriate public education to students, but it does oblige schools to offer
suitable academic adjustments and accessible housing to students with disabilities.

Whether you’re a student with disabilities or you’re looking to teach children with disabilities, it’s important to know
special education laws. These laws preserve the rights of students and their families and help integrate students with special
needs into society without segregating them. Although the laws differ slightly from state to state, the acts passed by Congress
help to standardize the treatment of students with special needs across the country.

Role of Family in Inclusive Education

Parental involvement and community participation in the total scheme of inclusive education is
important. The involvement of families and local communities is essential in achieving quality education
for all. Most of the parents want their children to be welcomed into the real world and be given respect
and resources which they need and deserve as is given to non-disabled children. Families and community
groups can take an active role in promoting inclusive education by helping and cooperating the school
authorities in making or providing necessary arrangements and accommodations for the education of
special peers. When families get involved in their children’s education, the students achieve more, stay
in school longer and engage in school more completely (Henderson and Mapp, 2002) The participation of
family members could be a mother, a father or both, grandparents, guardian or an older sibling in all
spheres of child’s life plays a vital role in shaping and determine his personality. Parents involvement in
inclusive education programme builds positive relationships, encourages new behaviours, and increase
self-satisfaction and optimism among themselves, their children and teachers. Such involvement of
family is the key component which leads to student’s and school’s success. The main goal of parents is to
see whether the child with special needs benefits from school experience or not. Children with lifelong,
disabilities need educational opportunities that are appropriate for their age and abilities. Parents and
teachers working together are the very best support for such special children. Jointly, they can ensure
children acquire as many necessary skills and abilities to be successful in life are possible. Parents know
their children best. They know their likes and dislikes, strengths and weakness, needs and desires,
abilities, capacities, capabilities and challenges. This information shared with teachers is invaluable while
developing an educational plan for the child. As a parent it is important that one is fully involved in all
the aspects of decision making that goes on during child’s education. In some cases where the children
are identified very early in their lives by family members, it becomes the responsibility of the parents or
family to inform the school authorities for their child’s special needs. Parents should bear major force in
helping children overcome adversity. Parents should bear following points in mind to be among the
facilitators of inclusive education:

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 8


 Timely identification of disability of the child.
 Parents should not get disturbed by the responsibilities of looking after them.

 Parents should understand the meaning of “Inclusion”.


 Parents are responsible to generate income and provide financial support for child’s living
costs and related payments.
 Parents have affectionate responsibility to show and share love, care, emotional feelings and
companionship with their children. Parents should not adopt over-protection approach towards
the child.
 Parents ensures for providing congenial environment to them at home.
 The educational and vocational responsibility to assist and support schooling, career selection
and preparation.
 Parents should accept the limitations of their child.
 Parents may not feel shy in developing relationship with teachers and other related
professionals.
 Preparing their children for meeting the societal expectations of their prospective roles.
 Parents should determine the strengths and needs of their ward
 Parents should spend quality time with them.
 Parents should involve in the academic development of their children.
 Parents should help them in inculcating positive attitudes towards learning.
 Parents should try to provide stress free environment at home.
 Parents should posse certain basic qualities that have a positive influence on their ward’s
ability to learn and to adjust in school programme.
 Parents should help their children for inculcating positive attitudes towards learning.
 Parents need to enjoy and be excited about what their children are learning day by day.
 Parents need to be involved their understanding of school’s philosophy.
 Parents should frequently contact with class teachers, resource teachers and therapists to
know exactly what is going on in the classrooms and in therapy sessions.
 Parents should discuss with the teacher what needs to be changed in order to improve their
child’s learning in problematic area.
 Parents should share specific information such as medical reports, child’s early development,
recent behavioral changes and observations noticed at home with professional.
 Parents need to have positive and attitude towards thinking, learning and challenges.
 Parents should work in collaboration with teachers, therapists, clinicians and school
authorities.
 Parents should play an integral role in assisting their child’s learning.
 Parents should help their children understand diversities, to respect the different points of
view they will come across and to develop a sense of responsibility towards their family values.
 Parents should not be obsessively close to their child.
 Fostering feelings of self-esteem in the child.
 Parents should maintain ongoing communication with child’s teachers or specialists.
 Parents should not listen to anyone saying derogatory about the child.
 Parents should not be apologetic for the child, nor be ashamed of him.
 Parents should promote self-discipline in their ward.
(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 9
 Parents should attend meetings, conferences and other training programmers along with the
child if possible.
 Parents should take an active role in their child’s individual education Plan (IEP)

 Parent needs to avoid the comparison of the performance special child with other siblings.
 Parents should help children to develop a feeling of responsibility and sense of making a
contribution to the family and world.
 Parents should provide opportunities for their child to make choices and decisions and
promote self-discipline.
 Parents should help children to deal effectively with mistakes and failures.

Activity 2. Answer the following comprehensively

1. What are your own traditional beliefs about people with disabilities?
I believe before that children born with Disabilities are being curse by someone or the parents used
pills or" nag pahilot".
2. What are the community’s consensus traditional beliefs about people with disabilities? Elaborate.

Traditional beliefs Most South Pacific countries, have traditionally regarded the birth of a child with a disability as a
consequence of particular actions on the part of the parents or one of the parents, or the particular actions of other
community members. Usually, the child’s disability has been associated with the parents breaking a tradition,
upsetting local spirits by harming the land or committing an unacceptable act, or not living up to all their
responsibilities and obligations. Disability has often been regarded as the consequence of a curse, spell or other
magic being used against the parents by another community member, or even a person from another community.

I have heard this beliefs before when im still I believe to them and I thought it is true but as I grow up and read some
books, watching you tube and other social media it made me realize it is not true.

3. Do you think we should hang on to traditional beliefs or views? Why?


We should not hung to the traditional belief or views because it is not true that parents
who have special child did something wrong while they are pregnant it's not their fault
why the child become special, we can somehow blame the genes but mostly not, so
instead of judge the parents we need to support them and help them accept and
understand what is happening to the child. We need to encourage them to accept as early
as possible so that intervention will be given to a child and it will be a big help for both the
parents and the child.

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 10


4. How relevant are these traditional beliefs in relation to modern views about causes of disabilities?
Explain further.

Traditional belief somehow relevant to modern view because it gives them idea, as modernization is happening now traditional
belief was gradually changed because medical reason was found out by the doctors on what are the causes of disabilities
however mostly are still unknown for them but at least they have some ideas and trying look for a solution or medication to at
least help lessened The burden of the parents on what is happening to their children with special needs.

5. What are the essential nature of special education? Cite examples and explain’

Special Education is the design of teaching and learning strategies for individuals with disabilities or learning
difficulties.
Children with special need is lucky now for we have different law pertaining to them like
Education or All Handicapped Children Act. It created a sped Center which catered kids with special needs thus it gives
opportunity to the children which special means to be in school and giving a chance to participate as a normal child in school
activities but of course with some restriction and special treatment.

Test 1. Identify the different laws that govern in each sentence being inferred. Write your answer on the
space provided after the sentence of each number.

1. Wherein schools are accountable in the academic performances of all student, whether they have or not
the disabilities. No child left behind act
2. The law stated that public schools must provide for children with special needs equal academic
opportunities as of the other learners. Education For All Handicapped Children Act_
3. Preserving the rights of the learners and parents that they will not be segregated in regards to their special
needs but help them be integrated in the society. Individualize education program
4. Their mission is to give services to learners with special needs with fairness and appropriateness.
Education For All Handicapped Children Act_
5. State provide incentives for schools to demonstrate development in students with learning disabilities. No
child left behind act.
6. A law ensuring that students wih special needs shall be provided by the state with free education. Education
For All Handicapped Children Act_

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 11


7. The state shall institute a systematic evaluation for the education.Education For All Handicapped Children
Act_
8. Although extra revenues are given to students with disabilities, they still need to participate in every activity
given the same to those children without special needs. Individual with Disabilities Education Act,or idea
9. The law that forbids the discrimination towards involvement of learners in the tertiary level and shall be
given equal opportunities. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
10. The act that require the school of every state to give assessment which will help in the development fo
the special learners in the academic aspect. No child Left Behind

TEST 2. ILLUSTRATION. Illustrate the cycle of attitude change and cite what particular attitude you want to
change and how are you going to do it.

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 12


Research and watch the movie “EVERY CHILD IS SPECIAL” -
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9sg2eoR7aw.
"Every Writeinaoursummary
Child Is Special" the title alone gives a beautiful meaning. All of us is special own way. Uponof watching
the movie
the movie and
it made me your
realize thatreflection
we need to know the child first before we will going to judge a child.

It is not true if the child cannot read or solve a math problem we will immediately label her/him as idiots, or knows
nothing. He or she maybe suffering from learning disability which we can correct if we will help them, as a future
teacher it will be a guide for me to always look for the red flag. If the child cannot read simple word expected for
her/his age we need to look for the possible reason why, she/he maybe suffering from dsylexia so we need to look for
some intervention like sending them to expert or give those intervention suited for them.

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 13


Let just always think that all children should have the opportunity to learn, to express their self, to be heared, to be
guided and sheltered so that ever thought they have special need we can give special care for them.

(EDUC 114 – FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL & INCLUSIVE EDUCATION) 14