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Generic Name: Albuterol

Brand Name: Salbutamol, Proventil, Ventolin, Accuneb, airet, Novo-Salbutamol,


Proventil HFA, Gen-salbutamol, Ventodisk, Ventolin HFA, Volmax, VoSpira ER
Classification: Bronchodilator (therapeutic); adrenergics (pharmacologic)
Indications
1. To control and prevent reversible airway obstruction caused by asthma or
chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)
2. Quick relief for bronchospasm
3. For the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm
4. Long-term control agent for patients with chronic or persistent
bronchospasm
Mechanism of Action
It relieves nasal congestion and reversible bronchospasm by relaxing the smooth
muscles of the bronchioles. The relief from nasal congestion and bronchospasm
is made possible by the following mechanism that takes place when Salbutamol
is administered.
1. First, it binds to the beta2-adrenergic receptors in the airway of the smooth
muscle which then leads to the activation of the adenyl cyclase and increased
levels of cyclic- 3’5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
2. When cAMP increases, kinases are activated.
3. Kinases inhibit the phosphorylation of myosin and decrease intracellular
calcium.
4. Decreased in intracellular calcium will result to the relaxation of the
smooth muscle airways.
Contraindications
1. Hypersensitivity to adrenergic amines
2. Hypersensitivity to fluorocarbons

Route and Dosage


PO (Adults and Children more than 12 years): 2-4 mg 3-4 times a day or 4-8 mg
of extended dose tablets twice a day.
PO (Geriatric Patients): initial dose should not exceed 2 mg 3-4 times a day and
may be increased carefully up to 32 mg/day
PO (Children 6-12 years old): 2 mg 3-4 times a day or 4 mg as extended-release
tablets twice a day; may be carefully increased as needed but not to exceed 24
mg/day
PO (Children 2-6 years old): 0.1 mg/kg 3 times a day
Inhalation (Adults and children more than 4 years of age): 2 inhalations every 4-6
hours
Inhalation (Children 2-12 years old): 0.1-0.15 mg/kg/dose 3-4 times a day

Nursing Interventions
1. Assess lung sounds, PR and BP before drug administration and during
peak of medication.
2. Observe fore paradoxical spasm and withhold medication and notify
physician if condition occurs.
3. Administer PO medications with meals to minimize gastric irritation.
4. Extended-release tablet should be swallowed-whole. It should not be
crushed or chewed.
5. If administering medication through inhalation, allow at least 1 minute
between inhalation of aerosol medication.
6. Advise the patient to rinse mouth with water after each inhalation to
minimize dry mouth.
7. Inform the patient that Albuterol may cause an unusual or bad taste.
Gillemae A. Enero
BSN-II

“BRONCHOPNEUMONIA”

What is Pneumonia? / Pneumonia Definition:-


Pneumonia is an infection and contagious disease caused
by viruses, bacteria, and fungi which affects the human lungs, the air sacs in the
lungs to fill with fluid, making it hard for you to breathe, and causes you to cough
up phlegm.
Pneumonia can occur in patients of all age groups, but young children and
older people are especially at risk.

Pneumonia Types:
There are few types of Pneumonia like, Bacterial pneumonia; Legionnaires'
disease; acute lobar pneumonia; Bronchopneumonia.
♦Bronchopneumonia - is a severe type of pneumonia that is characterized by
multiple areas of isolated and acute consolidation that affects one or more
pulmonary lobes. This condition is similar to ordinary pneumonia, except that this
is a more severe variety whose treatment requires special attention than its
ordinary counterpart.

Treatment:
The best bronchopneumonia treatment is to get some rest. This is to
provide relief to the body and prevent it from getting fatigued, which is one of the
common symptoms of the disease. On the other hand, one may prepare a home
remedy by mixing lemon juice and honey to help soothe the throat and help the
body expel the mucus that has concentrated in the lungs.

Symptoms:
(1) Fever, which may be less common in older adults.
Fever: Any body temperature that goes above 37°C or 98.6°F is
considered fever already. In bronchopneumonia, fever may be a symptom for
having the disease especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as
colds, coughing, and difficulty in breathing.

(2) Fast heartbeat, Feeling very tired or feeling very weak.

(3) Loss of appetite may occur in case of pneumonia.


(5) Vague pain under and around the breast bone may occur, but the severe
chest pain associated with typical bacterial pneumonia is uncommon.
Chest pain: Any form of chest pain should be a cause for concern for
those affected by bronchopneumonia. Chest pain is frequent and associated with
excessive coughing and difficulty in breathing.
A person with bronchopneumonia easily becomes fatigued and experiences
difficulty in breathing especially after doing some strenuous exercise or after
playing

(6) Patients may experience a severe hacking cough, but it usually does not
produce sputum.

(7) Cough, often producing mucus from the lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green
or tinged with blood.
Cough: Coughing is a natural reaction of the body to the presence of
certain elements that may irritate the throat. Moreover, coughing is very
important to keep the throat and airway clean and clear, thus making breathing
easy. However, if coughing becomes persistent and especially if it is
accompanied by mucus, then it is a sign of something more serious than ordinary
coughing. A person with bronchopneumonia experiences frequent and excessive
coughing, sometimes accompanied by mucus.

(8) Wheezing, difficulty breathing, sometimes nausea, vomiting and muscles


aches occur.
A person with bronchopneumonia not only experiences difficulty in
breathing but also feels that there is also the sensation of not getting enough air.
As a result, the person gasps for air frequently.

(9) Mental confusion, coughing up sputum containing pus or blood.

Nursing Action:

INDEPENDENT:

♦positioning of the patient with head on mid line, with slight flexion
rationale: to provide patent, unobstructed airway , maximum lung excursion
♦auscultating patient’s chest
Rationale: monitor for the presence of abnormal breath sounds
♦rovide chest and back clapping with vibration
rationale: chest physiotherapy facilitates the loosening of secretions
♦considering that the patient is an infant, and has developed a strong stranger
anxiety
as manifested by “white coat syndrome” , it is a nursing action to play with the
patient.
rationale: to establish rapport, and gain the patients trust

DEPENDENT:

♦administer due medications as ordered by the physician, bronchodilators, anti


pyretic and antibiotics
rationale: bronchodilators decrease airway resistance, secondary to
bronchoconstriction,
antipyretic alleviate fever, antibiotics fight infection
♦placing patient on TPN prn
rationale: to compensate for fluid and nutritional losses during vomiting

COLLABORATIVE:

♦assist respiratory therapist in performing nebulization of the patient


rationale: nebulization is a favourable route of administering bronchodilators
and aid in expectorating secretions, hence patient’s breathing