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LESSON 1: Fundamentals of Communication

In this lesson, students will be exposed to the foundational knowledge for studying oral
communication. This lesson features essential information such as the definition and nature of

Lesson Objectives:
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Understand the importance of communication in society;

2. Know the principles and processes of communication as embodied in the communication models
provided; and
3. Relate the communication models to their experiences and apply them to their own
communication processes.

Before-Reading Questions:
1. Why is communication important to you?
2. Why is communication important to society?
3. Why do you think communication skills are essential in being good citizens?

Fundamentals of Communication
Communication is a process of sharing and conveying messages or information from one
person to another within and across channels, contexts, media, and cultures. There is a wide
variety of contexts and situations in which communication can be manifested; it can be a face-
to-face interaction, a phone conversation, a group discussion, a meeting or interview, a class
recitation, and many others.

Nature of Communication
1. Communication is a process.
2. Communication occurs between two or more people (the speaker and the receiver).
3. Communication can be expresses through words (verbal), actions (nonverbal), or both at
the same time.

Elements of Communication
1. Speaker – the source of information or message
2. Message – the information, ideas, or thought conveyed by the speaker in words or
in actions
3. Encoding – the process of converting the message into words, actions, or other
forms that the speaker understands.
4. Channel – the medium or the means, such as personal or non-personal, verbal or
nonverbal, in which the encoded message is conveyed

5. Decoding – the process of interpreting the encoded message of the speaker by the
6. Receiver – the recipient of the message, or someone who decodes the message
7. Feedback – the reactions, responses, or information provided by the receiver
8. Context – the environment where communication takes place
9. Barrier – the factors that affect the flow of communication

Models of Communication
1. Shannon-Weaver Model

Known as the mother of all communication models, the Shannon-Weaver model (1949)
depicts communication as a linear or one-way process consisting of five elements: a source
(producer of message); a transmitter (encoder of message into signals); a channel (signals
adapted for transmission); a receiver (decoder of message from the signal); and a

2. Transaction Model

Unlike the Shannon-Weaver model, which is a one-way process, the transaction model is a
two-way process with the inclusion of feedback as one element.


Functions of Communication
1. Control – communication functions to control behavior.
2. Social Interaction – communication allows individuals to interact with others.
3. Motivation – communication motivates or encourages people to live better.
4. Emotional expression – communication facilitates people’s expression of their feelings
and emotions.
5. Information dissemination – communication functions to convey information.

Types of Communication
1. Intrapersonal Communication – operates within the communicator.
2. Interpersonal Communication – occurs between two or more people.
Types of Interpersonal Communication
a. Dyadic or face-to-face interaction - is a conversation between two persons which
usually occurs in an informal interaction. This interaction provides a great deal of
feedback as compared to other types of communication.
b. Small group communication – occurs when each member or participant speaks
out or is actively participating in the process to come up with a consensus. Degree
of formality may range from intimate to formal.
c. Public communication – an enlarged form of group communication that involves
a resource person addressing a specific audience. The speaker or the resource
person has a message about a certain topic which he/she has prepared beforehand
and delivers it before an audience. Feedback is limited.
d. Mass communication – has highly structured messages and able to reach a larger
number of audiences at the same time using electronic devices or print media like
newspapers and magazines.
e. Technology-mediated Communication – from electronic emails, texting, instant
messaging, social networking, tweeting, blogs and video conferencing – they all
share one thing in common.
Features of an Effective Communication
1. Completeness
Complete communication is essential to the quality of the communication process in
general. Hence, communication should include everything that the receiver needs to hear
for him/her to respond, react, or evaluate properly.
2. Conciseness
Conciseness does not mean keeping the message short, but making it direct or straight to
the point. Insignificant or redundant information should be eliminated from the
communication that will be sent to the recipient.
3. Consideration
To be effective, the speaker should always consider relevant information about his/her
receiver such as mood, background, race, preference, education, status, needs, among
others. By doing so, he/she can easily build rapport with the audience.
4. Concreteness
Effective communication happens when the message is concrete and supported by facts,
figures, and real-life examples and situations. In this case, the receiver is more connected
to the message conveyed.
5. Courtesy
The speaker shows courtesy in communication by respecting the culture, values, and
beliefs of his/her receivers. Being courteous all the time creates a positive impact on the
6. Clearness
Clearness in communication implies the use of simple and specific words to express
ideas. It is also achieved when the speaker focuses only on a single objective in his/her
speech so as not to confuse the audience.
7. Correctness
Correctness in grammar eliminates negative impact on the audience and increases the
credibility and effectiveness of the message.

Learning Task
Imagine that you are addressing a group of parents and teachers in an assembly on
understanding your generation known as the “Millennial Generation.”

Prepare a two-minute speech that communicates your ideas about the topic. Your speech should
highlight who the millennials are and how they are different from other generation.

Before the speech deliveries, find a partner. Evaluate each other’s speech deliveries using the
rubrics below.

Criteria VGE GE (4) SE (3) LE (2) N (1)

1. The ideas in the presentation are organized.
2. The message is expressed clearly.
3. There are sufficient supporting ideas.
4. The choice of words is appropriate for the
5. Biases are avoided.
6. Speech is free from grammatical mistakes.
7. Ideas are communicated vividly and meaningfully.
8. Nonverbal cues are appropriate.
Legend: VGE – very great extent; GE – great extent; SE- some extent; LE – little extent; N- not at all

Scoring: VGE – 33 to 40; GE – 25 to 32; SE – 17 to 24; LE – 9 to 16; N - 8

LESSON 2: Communication Ethics

In the previous lesson, you learned the fundamentals of communication. In this lesson, you will
find out that there are different guidelines in communicating in an ethical manner.

Lesson Objectives:
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Know how to communicate in an ethical manner; and

2. Apply these ethical principles to their communication process.

Before-Reading Questions:
1. What is ethics?
2. Why do you think there should be ethics in communication?
3. What problem can arise when people are not ethical in their communication?

“Ethical communication is fundamental to responsible thinking, decision-making, and the

development of relationships and communities within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and
media. Moreover, ethical communication enhances human growth and dignity by fostering
truthfulness, fairness, responsibility, personal integrity, and respect for self and others. We believe
that unethical communication threatens the quality of all communications and consequently the
wellbeing of individuals and the society in which we live.”

- US National Communication Association (NCA, 1999)

- a system of moral principles

- deals with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness
of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such

- The principle governing communication, the right and wrong aspects of it, the moral-
immoral dimensions relevant to Interpersonal communication are called the ethics of
Interpersonal communication.
- Maintaining the correct balance between the speaking and listening
- the legitimacy of fear and emotional appeal
- degree of criticism and praise
- A death or an overdose of either of the factors could result in unfavorable consequences.
- The principle of honesty on both sides should be completely applied because any amount
of insincerity from either the listener or the speaker would not be prudent.

Four Ethical Principles of Communication relevant for Students:

1. “advocate truthfulness, accuracy, honesty, and reason as essential to the integrity of
2. “freedom of expression, diversity of perspective, and tolerance of dissent to achieve the
informed and responsible decision-making fundamental to a civil society”
3. “condemn communication that degrades individuals and humanity through distortion,
intimidation, coercion, and violence, and through the expression of intolerance and
4. “accept responsibility for the short- and long-term consequences of our own
communication and expect the same of others.”

After-Reading Questions:
1. Why is it important to be ethical in communicating today?
2. Is honesty still a virtue valued today? Why or why not?
3. When you think of politicians today, would you say that they have been communicating in an
ethical manner?
4. Who comes to mind about violating the ethics of communication?
5. Why do people communicate in an unethical manner?

LESSON 3: Communication and Globalization

This lesson focuses on how cultural and global issues affect communication. You will watch videos
of speeches that will provide you with awareness of the status of communication in this globalization,
and appreciation on the impact of communication on society and the world.

Lesson Objectives:
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
1. Understand the implications of globalization on communication;
2. Explain how cultural and global issues affect communication; and
3. Appreciate the impact of communication on society and the world.

Before-Reading Task:
Read the essay “Flight from Conversation” or watch the video “Connected but Alone”, and/or
“How Social Media can make a history” or “Wiring a Web for Global Good”

After reading and/or watching the abovementioned, write a reflection about what you have read
and/or watched.

Communication and Globalization

Varieties of English
The two most well-known varieties of English are those of the colonial superpowers:
British English and American English. But there are many multilingual countries around the
world in which varieties of English have developed. This may be because English was initially
“transported” to that country by English0speaking settlers – as in the United States, Canada,
Australia, and New Zealand. It could also be that English may have been brought to that country
as a language of conquest by English – speaking colonizers – as in South Africa, Hong Kong,
Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. In the latter countries, English has a role as official
language, medium of instruction, or even language of law and government. English is also
studied as a foreign language in some non-English speaking countries, such as Holland and
Yugoslavia, and in Korea and Japan. In these countries, there is less exposure to English, and it is
often learned for career progression because it is the language of international business.

As mentioned earlier, these World Englishes are equal in functionality, but not all are
equal in prestige. The idea, however, in writing, is to adhere to the Standard English of one’s
country because each variety, including those of the United States and United Kingdom, has its
own peculiar or individual features. These features include differences in spelling, punctuation,
favored words and expressions, and sometimes, grammatical constructions. The table that
follows gives an example of some of these differences for American and British English.

Philippine English, as well, has its unique and idiosyncratic usages. For example, “comfort
room” is a Philippine term for “washroom”, “toilet,” or “lavatory.” When Filipinos say, “There’s
traffic,” they mean “There’s heavy traffic.” Moreover, the word “salvage” in the Philippine context
can mean either “to save” or “to brutally murder, usually for political reasons.”

Culturally Sensitive and Bias-Free Language

Just as important as awareness of the existence of World Englishes is that of practicing
cultural sensitivity. To write in a culturally sensitive way means to be aware that cultural
differences and similarities between people exist and that these should not be assigned a
positive or negative professional writings are characterized by bias-free language. Students,
scholars, professionals, and anyone wishing to maintain harmonious communicative relations
should be careful in using words and phrases that do not discriminate against groups, whether
in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, social class, age, and disability. The essential point is to
communicate in a way that is respectful of diversity.

Here are some general principles to follow when referring to different groups or

1. Race and Ethnicity

Racism is a form of discrimination against a person or persons of a different race. In

general, it is best to avoid identifying people by race or ethnic group. Race is an emotionally
charged topic, so it is best to tread carefully with the language used and to refer to race, as
Patricia Arinto (2009) asserts in English for the Professions, “only if it is relevant to what you
have to say.” Words that reinforce stereotypes and that imply all people of a race or ethnic
group are the same should be avoided. For example, although the assessment is positive in
the sentence “Naturally, the Asian students won the math contest,” the word “naturally”
reinforces the stereotype or generalization that Asiana have superior aptitude in math.

Next, one must be attuned to the current terminology by which racial and ethnic groups
refer to themselves. This may be done by reading national newspapers and watching
television news, which typically are good indicators of current and preferred usage.
According to Kitty Locker and Donna Kienzier (2013), one should “refer to a group by the term
it prefers,” which means some research is required to find out about acceptable and
preferred terms. For example, for a long time, “Native American” has been considered the
politically correct term for the indigenous peoples of the Americas, over the label “Red
Indian.” But today, most Native American people prefer to be referred to by their specific
nation or tribe. In the Philippine context, there have been shifts in the preferences for terms
that Filipinos of Chinese ancestry use to describe their identity: from Tsino, to Chinoy, to
Filipino Chinese.

It is also important to be sensitive to religion when referring to various ethnic groups.

Assumptions should not be made that stereotype a race, nationality, or ethnic group with a

specific religion. For example, not all Arabs are Muslims, not all Indians are Buddhists, and
not all Filipino are Roman Catholics.

2. Gender and Sexual Orientation

Sexism refers to the prejudice and discrimination based on sex or gender. To be inclusive
of all people in general references, one should favor gender-neutral words and phrases over
gender-biased words.

Gender-biased terms Proper term

Man-made Manufactured, synthetic, artificial
Layman’s terms Ordinary terms
Chairman Chairperson
Stewardess Flight attendant
Manpower Labor

Pronouns may also be gendered-biased, for example, when the masculine “he” pronoun is
used as a genetic one for both genders. Gander-biased pronouns can be avoided by:

a. Dropping pronouns that signify gender and restating the sentence;

b. Changing to plural construction, and
c. Replacing masculine or feminine pronouns with “one” or “you”.

Gender-biased example Each student should submit his term paper by Monday.
Restatement Each student should submit a term paper by Monday.
Plural construction Each student should submit their term paper by Monday.
Use of “you” You should hand in your term paper by Monday.
Other gender-related terms may have to do with gender orientation or sexual orientation. It
is important to be sensitive to new attitudes about homosexual, transsexual, and transgender
people. For example, most gay people prefer the term “gay” to the more clinical “homosexual”
as a label. “Lesbian” is currently the term preferred by gay women. Transgender people prefer
to be referred to as being the gender they identify as, not their birth gender. Again, as a matter
of principle, one should refer to societal groups in the way that members of these groups prefer
to be referred to. Note also that terminology in this area is developing, and that not everyone

3. Social Class

Class discrimination or classism is a form of prejudice against a person or people because of

their social class. An example of language with bias against class is the American term “white
trash,” which is not only a racial slur but a classist one that refers to white people, usually from
the rural Southern United States, coming from a lower social class inside the white population.
The term is negative not just because of the words that comprise it but because of its
connotation of danger; white trash people are criminal, unpredictable, and without respect for
authority. In the United States and other cultures, there may also be a kind of classism against
those who are economically privileged. The rich are sometimes referred to by the derogatory
terms “preppie” and “yuppie,” both of which connote not just wealth but arrogance.

There are examples from Philippine culture as well, in the informal term “conyo” and “jologs,”
both derogatory terms referring to class. The term “conyo” is used to describe young people
from the upper class who speak an idiosyncratic mix of English and Tagalog, connotes vanity and
consciousness about social status. The term “jologs”, now perhaps replaced by the term
“jejemon,” as used in reference to an idiosyncratic spelling or writing style, is used to describe
persons who look poor and out of style.

Classism may also appear even in more forma terminology. A more sensitive vocabulary uses
terms that more precisely portray the actual circumstances of people within the class structure.
For example, instead of “the owning class,” one can use “the upper class” or “the privileged
class,” and instead of “the underclass,” one can say “the less privileged” or describe a condition
of “chronic poverty,” in the Philippines, “informal settlers” is now the more politically correct
term for “squatters.”

4. Age

Ageism is a form of discrimination against other people because of their age, or assuming
that older people are less physically, intellectually, or emotionally able than other age groups.
The capabilities of younger people should also not be underestimated based on their age. Again,
it is important to refer to a person’s age only when that information is pertinent to what is being
discussed. When referring to a generic group, one should also ask their subjects what wordings
they prefer: Do they wish to be called “older persons” or: senior citizens”? Do they prefer the
label “youths,” “teenagers,” or “young people”?

Lastly, according to The American Psychological Association, writers should be specific when
referring to males and females in terms of their age: females 18 years or older are women, not
girls. “Girls” refers to those in high school or younger (under 18). The same is true for “boys” and

5. Disabilities

Discrimination in this area often arises because of lack of understanding and awareness.
Therefore, first, it is important to distinguish some terms that are mistakenly understood to be
synonymous. Various guides on bias-free communication and often-confused terminology are
available online. One example is “A Guide to Bias-Free Communications” published by the
University of Wisconsin-Madison, it defines the following terms:
 “impairment” – a physiological condition
 “disability” – the consequence of an impairment which may or may not be handicapping
 “handicap” – the social implication of a disability; a condition or barrier imposed by
society, the environment or oneself
 “limp” – an impairment in which a leg or foot is damaged or stiff

Finally, when referring to people with disabilities, the focus should be on the person, not the
condition (Arinto, 2009).

To use To avoid
People with mental retardation retards, mentally retarded
People with vision impairments Blind
People being treated for cancer Cancer patient
Uses a wheelchair Confined to wheelchair
Person with AIDS AIDS victim
atypical Abnormal

LESSON 4: Public Speaking

The importance of public speaking cannot be denied, Great speeches have moved nations to war
and revolution; they inspire and move people to act. What people say, and how they say it, can get them
elected in public office or create a new movement I society. For the Greeks, public speaking was political
in nature, and the spoken word was thought to be such an important skill that citizens were taught the
art of rhetoric.

Public speaking is an important life skill, yet few people master it. In fact, many people are afraid
of speaking in public. However, the significance of public speaking has only gotten stronger in
contemporary times. Public speaking platforms, such as TED Talks and YouTube, have captured and
disseminated public speech to an unprecedented scale, and what one says at the spur of the moment
can live forever on the internet. Great speeches have created hope in perilous situations, and have made
people change their minds about the world and their places in it.

According to acclaimed public speakers Dale Carnegie and Joseph Berg Esenwein (2007), “Public
speaking is public utterance, public issuance, of the man himself; therefore, the first thing both in time
and importance is that the man should be and think and feel things that are worthy of being given forth.”

Although this chapter includes a short history on public speaking, we believe that this is not
complete without reading or watching great speeches. Aside from the written speeches included, links
are also provided to access these speeches online, should they be needed. To be able to understand how
to become a good speaker, one needs to learn how to appreciate a good speech and spire to have the
kind of skills that good speakers have.

Lesson Objectives:
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

1. Understand the history of public speaking and the nature of communication;

2. Dissect a speech using the general principles of logos, pathos, and ethos; and
3. Give a short, prepared speech in public.

A Short History of Public Speaking

Before-Reading Questions:
1. Why do you think it is important to know the history of public speaking?
2. How should speeches be organized? Why do you think so?
3. Do you think public speaking is important? Why or why not?
4. Should public speakers be ethical too? Why or why not?
5. Who are the people would you consider ethical speakers? Who are the speakers you
consider unethical? Explain your answers.

There are many public speaking traditions around the world. We will discuss a few of these
traditions, from the more well-known public speaking traditions of the Greeks and Romans, and
the public speaking traditions that are found in the Philippines.

The most well-known public speaking traditions come from the West, specifically from the
Greco-Roman tradition. The Greeks studied the art of rhetoric on the island of Sicily, and it
began with a practical need. Their government had been overthrown, a new democracy was
formed, and the Greek courts were filled with clashing property claims. The Greek teacher of
rhetoric, Corax, and his student, Tisias, proceeded to help citizens when it came to speaking
persuasively in courts of law, and this led to the expansion of the teaching of rhetoric to
mainland Greece. According to Corax, a basic speech has three parts, the introduction, evidence,
and conclusion, and this simple organization of speeches has endured throughout the ages
(Morreale, 2010).

Other famous Greek teachers were Protagoras, the father of debate, who made his students
argue for and against issues of the day, to sharpen their reasoning skills and appreciate different
sides of an issue. And there was the famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle, also known as the
father of modern communication. Aristotle wrote a treatise entitled “Rhetoric,” where he
discussed the use of logos (logical argument), pathos (emotional argument), and ethos (the speaker’s
character and credibility), in the use of persuasive speaking (Morreale, 2010).

According Grenville Kleiser (2009), in Successful Methods in Public Speaking, “The Great orators
of the world did not regard eloquence as simply an endowment of nature, but applied
themselves diligently to cultivating their powers of expression.” The most famous orator in
Ancient Greece was Demosthenes. In the beginning, he had many flaws when it came to public
speaking, chief among them were his stammer and weak voice. According to Kleiser (2009),
Demosthenes practiced earnestly by “declaiming on the seashore with pebbles in his mouth,
walking up and downhill while reciting,” and that his speeches were known for their deliberation
and forethought.

On the other hand, the most famous Roman orator was Cicero, whose eloquence was
described as a “resistless torrent” (Kleiser, 2009). Cicero was a statesman who argued that the
teaching of rhetoric should be considered an art form, and that this could be useful in “all
practical and public affairs.” Cicero believed that to prepare a speech, one should first think of
one’s listeners and their interests, and to use certain strategies, such as using humor, questions,
etc., to engage the audience (Morreale, 2010).

The Roman lawyer and educator Quintilian, also forwarded the idea that public speakers
should be ethical. According to Morreale (2010), the ideal speaker was “a good man speaking
well…a good speaker is ethical and of high character, and speaking well meant being well-
informed and presenting the speech effectively.”

It is interesting to note that during these times, women were not allowed to speak publicly in
these countries, and that for a long time, this was true for women in other areas of the world.
However, during pre-colonial times, the Philippines was one of the few places that allowed
women to speak in public for the purposes of presiding over religious rituals. These women
were known as the babaylan, priestesses of the community, and along with the warriors of the
community, the mandirigma, they were the leaders of pre-colonial Philippines (Mallari, 2013).
Although most of the babaylan were women, babaylan priests also existed, wearing feminine
clothing and adopting a feminized role in the Philippine society.

The Philippines has its own tradition of public speaking. It is called different words in
different regions in the Philippines. According to Montemayor (n.d.), among the Tagalogs, the
Karagatan is said to be a game wherein young men and women duel with each other using
words when it comes to talking about love, while the “Huwego de Prenda… is a game used to
entertain guests and bereaved family during wakes.” During the American period, the more
widely known Balagtasan was also staged to honor Francisco Balagtas, a well-known Filipino
poet. The Balagtasan is “like an ordinary debate, except that one has to reason and argue in
verse. Two master poets are assigned to defend the pros and cons of an issues, and a board of
judges sits to determine the winner.” At first, this whole enterprise was scripted and staged, but
thereafter, they were made in a more impromptu manner.

When the Americans brought public education in the Philippines, they also brought their
public speaking traditions along with them. The Americans wanted to distinguish themselves
from the Spanish colonizers by emphasizing public education, and did so on a massive scale.
They did this using the medium of the English language, which has its own peculiarities and
forms, foremost among them is the dictum to be straightforward. It is anchored on the public
speaking tradition on Western Civilization, which is based on the Greek and the Romans

In this manner, the Filipino public speaking tradition brings with it the flamboyant, poetic
manner that flourished under Spanish colonization, and the simpler, methodical public speaking
traditions of the West.

After-Reading Questions:
1. According to Corax, what are the three parts of a speech?
2. According to Aristotle, what components make a speech persuasive? Explain these in your own
3. Why does Cicero believe you should use strategies to engage the audience? Do you agree? Why or
why not?
4. What is Balagtasan? Why is it the most well-known Filipino public speaking tradition?
5. What do you think is the most important component that makes a speech persuasive? Why do you
say so?
6. What surprised you the most when you read the history? Why were you surprised?
7. What is the difference between Western and Filipino public speaking traditions?
8. Who do you consider a good speaker? Explain why you think so.
9. How do public speakers affect society? Give concrete examples.
10. What are your thoughts and feelings about public speaking?

Sample Speech of Public Speaking

“The Filipino is Worth Dying For”

Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr.

I have spent almost eight long and lonely years in military confinement. The problem of
Martial Rule and its injustices have nagged me all these years.

During those eight years, I learned true meaning of humiliation, of courage, of hunger,
and endless anxiety. Rather than bitter, I have learned to accept my suffering as cleansing
process and a rare opportunity to rally grapple with the problems of the Filipino.

I have asked myself many times: Is the Filipino worth suffering, or even dying, for? Is he
not a coward who would really yield to any colonizer, be he foreign or home-grown? Is a Filipino
more comfortable under an authoritarian leader because he does not want to be burdened with
the freedom of choice? Is he unprepared or, worse, ill-suited for presidential or parliamentary

I have carefully weighed the virtues and faults of the Filipino and I have come to the
conclusion that he is worth dying for because he is the nation’s greatest untapped resource.

He is not a coward. He values life and he tends to give his leader the maximum benefit of
the doubt. Given a good leader, because he is a good follower, the Filipino can attain great

It would seem that he is more comfortable in being told to do than to think for himself.
But this is only a superficial impression because deep down in his being, he loves freedom but
puts the highest premium on human life and human dignity. Hence, he would try to adopt till his
patience runs out.

Is the Filipino prepared for democracy? Definitely. Even before the arrival of the Spanish
Conquistador, he had already practiced participatory democracy in his barangay. He values his
freedom but because he values human life more, he will not easily take up arms and would
rather wait till his patience runs out.

Yes, I have gained valuable insights in prison, and like an average Filipino, I would like to
tell Mr. Marcos this:

I can forgive you for what you have done to me over the last eight years because this I can
do, but I can never forgive you for depriving our people of their freedom because it is not mine
to forgive.

I have waited patiently for you to restore the democracy you took away from us on that
night of September 23, 1972. Like the average Filipino, please do not mistake my patience for
docility, my conciliatory demeanor for cowardice and lack of will.

I have chosen to suffer long years of solitary confinement rather than urge my followers
to put our country to the torch because, like the average Filipino, I put the highest value on
human life. And I dread the weeping of mothers whose sons will surely be sacrificed at the altar
of revolution. But please do not misinterpret this conduct for timidity and subservience.

I have forced death a couple of times in prison. 1975, I went on a hunger strike for forty
days and forty nights and I was near death when your jailers rushed me to the Veterans

I forced death in your detention camp when your army doctors diagnosed my heart
ailment as mere muscle spasm, only to be told by doctors in the United States that I could have
died from the heart attacks while I was languishing in your jail.

Mr. Marcos: Please believe me when I tell you that, like the average Filipino, I will again
willingly face death in a freedom struggle if you will not heed the voice of conscience and
You were a soldier once, and you have repeatedly said many times, it is an honor to die
for one’s country and for one’s freedom.

I hope you will now believe in what you preach and pray that you shall at last desist from
further trying the patience and resolve of your countrymen.

Mr. Marcos: Give us back our freedom or suffer the consequences of your arrogance.

Other speeches to read and study:

 “Bataan Has Fallen” by Salvador P. Lopez
 “Speech to the Troops at Tilbury” by Queen Elizabeth I
 “Second Inaugural Address” by Abraham Lincoln

Learning Task:
1. Start planning your speech, with the topic grounded in modern day politics and current
events, entitled “Is the Filipino Still Worth Dying for?”

2. Answer the following questions in your notebook:

a. What is the purpose of your speech?

b. What is the overall effect you want to achieve?

c. What do you think would make a good introduction, evidence, and conclusion?

d. What logic or reasoning do you have when it comes to answering the question?

e. What emotional appeal do you want to create when it comes to your speech?

f. What is it about you, your religion, or your social or familial background that can be
used when it comes to giving you greater ethos, or credibility, when it comes to
your speech?

3. Write your speech answering the question, “Is the Filipino Still Worth Dying for?” Review
and complete your speech. Ensure you have a copy of reference and annotation, as may
be needed.
4. Make sure that all the preparations made in this lesson are incorporated in the speech,
such as an introduction, evidence, and conclusion; the use of logos, pathos, and ethos; the
use of wisely chosen words; and adequate evidence to prove your point.
5. When read aloud, the speech should last for 6 to 8 minutes.
6. For each paragraph, place the key words or phrases in one index card that should help
you remember what you wrote.
7. Remember the lessons from Chapter 1 and adjust your speech according to the following:
 The audience and their field of experience
 The kind of language to use according to your audience
 The message and the feedback coming from the audience
8. Be conscious of your voice. Ensure that it is loud enough to the whole room.
9. Be conscious of your posture. Do not slouch or look at the floor.
10.Be conscious of your hand gesture. Strive for a happy balance of meaningful hand
gestures and poise.
11.Be conscious of your body language. Avoid crossing your arms too much or inching
toward the back of the room. Try to be more open with your gestures.
12. Be conscious of your eye contact. Try to make eye contact with at least three people you
feel comfortable with in different parts of the room.