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WILEY

PROBLEMS
MATHEMATICSFOR
IN

JEE with Summarized Concepts

VOLUME –II
WILEY
PROBLEMS
IN
MATHEMATICSFOR
VOLUME – II
JEEwith Summarized Concepts

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First Edition: 2018


ISBN: 978-81-265-7630-2
ISBN: 978-81-265-8690-5 (ebk)
www.wileyindia.com
Printed at:
Note to the Student
Wiley Mathematics Problem Book is specifically designed to meet the needs of engineering (JEE) aspirants and give an edge to
their preparation. The book offers complete coverage of the mathematics curriculum (of Class 12 syllabus) for JEE. It is enriched with
unique elements and features that help students recapitulate the concepts, build problem-solving skills and apply them to solve all
question-types asked in the engineering entrance examinations. The book is a valuable resource for both JEE (Main) and JEE (Advanced)
aspirants. The chapter flow of the book is aligned with JEE Main syllabus and its coverage in the classroom. However, topics specific to
JEE (Advanced) and advanced level questions are also covered both as solved examples and practice exercises.
We will now walk you through the target examinations and some key features of the book that enhance the learning experience.

  TARGET EXAMINATION  
Admission to Undergraduate Engineering Programs at IITs, NITs and other Center and State (participating) funded Technical
Institutions use the Joint Entrance Examination Main (JEE Main) score as eligibility/merit criteria. The JEE (Main) is also an eligibility test
for the Joint Entrance Examination Advanced [JEE (Advanced)], which is mandatory for the candidate if he/she is aspiring for admission
to the undergraduate program offered by the IITs. The JEE (Advanced) scores are used as an eligibility criteria for admission into IITs.
An effective exam strategy for success in these examinations can be based on the detailed analysis of previous years question papers
and planning your preparation accordingly. The Mathematics Question Paper of these examinations is a judicious mix of easy, moderate
and tough questions. The analysis of question distribution over the units of mathematics syllabus for these examinations is given below.

 EXAM ANALYSIS OF PAPERS


Mathematics question paper comes as an amalgamation of easy, moderate and tough questions. This section shows the unit-wise as
well as chapter-wise analysis of previous 9 years (2010-2018) JEE Main and JEE Advanced papers.

JEE Main
Year
Unit
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Algebra 14 13 13 12 12 11 12 13 12
Calculus 8 10 9 8 9 8 7 10 8
Trigonometry 2 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 3
Analytical Geometry 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 5 7

JEE Advanced
Year
Unit
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Algebra 16 17 12 14 12 6 12 10 8
Trigonometry 5 1 2 4 3 1 2 1 1
Analytical Geometry 13 8 9 10 7 3 9 7 9
Differential Calculus 2 7 6 2 11 5 7 8 12
Integral Calculus 8 7 10 7 5 4 5 7 4
Vector 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 3 2

Prelims_Volume II.indd 3 27-Jul-18 6:21:54 PM


MATHEMATICS JEE MAIN PAPERS ANALYSIS (2010-2018)

Prelims_Volume II.indd 4
AIEEE AIEEE AIEEE JEE Main JEE Main JEE Main JEE Main JEE Main JEE Main
Unit Chapter
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 (Offline) 2015 (Offline) 2016 (Offline) 2017 (Offline) 2018 (Offline)
Algebra Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1
Permutations and Combinations 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
Binomial Theorem 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sequences and Series 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2
Statistics 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Mathematical Reasoning 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Matrices and Determinants 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
Vector Algebra 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Probability 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
Calculus Sets, Relations and Functions 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
Limits, Continuity and Differentiability 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 1
Application of Derivatives 1 1 3 1 2 2 1
Integrals 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2
Application of Integrals 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Differential Equations 1 1 1 2 1 1
Trigonometry Trignometric Functions 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3
Inverse Trignometric Functions 1 1 1
Analytical Conic Sections 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 3 5
Geometry Three-Dimensional Geometry 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 2

27-Jul-18 6:21:54 PM
MATHEMATICS JEE ADVANCED PAPERS ANALYSIS (2010-2018)

Prelims_Volume II.indd 5
IIT-JEE 2010 IIT-JEE 2011 IIT-JEE 2012 JEE Advanced 2013 JEE Advanced 2014 JEE Advanced 2015 JEE Advanced 2016 JEE Advanced 2017 JEE Advanced 2018
Unit Chapter
P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U
Complex Numbers 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
Quadratic Equations 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
Permutations and
1 1 1 1
Combinations
Sequence and Series 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Binomial Theorem 1 1 1 1 1 1

Algebra
Logarithms 1 1 1
Matrices and
1 3 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Determinants
Probability 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2
Properties and
Solution of Triangles
1 1 1 1 1 1
(Heights and
Distances)
Trigonometric
2 1 1 1
Equations
Trigonometric Ratios

Trigonometry
1 1 1 1
and Identities
Inverse Trigonometric
Function (Principal 1 1 1 1 1
Values Only)
Rectangular
Coordinate System
Straight Lines and
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
Pair of Lines
Conics 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 1
Circle 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 2 1

Analytical Geometry
Three-Dimensional
1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
Geometry
Sets and Relations 2 1 1 1 1 2
Limits 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 1
Functions 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Continuity and
1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1
Differentiability

Differential Calculus
Differentiation 2

27-Jul-18 6:21:55 PM
IIT-JEE 2010 IIT-JEE 2011 IIT-JEE 2012 JEE Advanced 2013 JEE Advanced 2014 JEE Advanced 2015 JEE Advanced 2016 JEE Advanced 2017 JEE Advanced 2018
Unit Chapter
P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U P Q R S T U

Prelims_Volume II.indd 6
Application of
1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 1
Derivatives
Indefinite Integration 1
Definite Integration 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Area Under the
3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Integral Calculus
Curve
Differential Equations 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Vector Vectors 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

P: Single Correct Choice Type Q: One or More Than One Option Correct Type R: Paragraph Type
S: Matrix-Match Type     T: Reasoning Type  
U: Integer Answer Type

27-Jul-18 6:21:55 PM
FEATURES OF THE BOOK

A. Understand the Concepts 21.2 Tangent and Normal


A tangent to a point is a line which touches the curve at that point.
1. All the concepts as per the JEE curriculum
A normal to a point is the line which is perpendicular to the tan-
are explained in simple steps to develop gent at that point.
fundamental understanding of the subject. If the equation of a curve is y = f(x) and a point A(x1, y1) lies on it,
then the equation of the tangent at point A is
 dy 
y – y1 =   ( x − x1)
 dx  A
and the equation of the normal at point A is
1
y - y1 = - ( x - x1)
(dy / dx ) A

Key Point:
When the curve is given in parametric form, that is, when x =
g(t) and y = h(t), the equation of tangent at the point t = t1 is
h′(t1) 2. Important points to remember about concepts
y − h(t1) = [ x − g (t1)]
g′(t1)
highlighted as Key Points.
and the equation of normal is
g¢(t1)
y - h (t1) = - [ x - g (t1)]
h¢(t1)

B. Every Aspect of the Subject Covered


In form of formulas, figures, graphs and tables to enhance problem-solving skills.

 p p
(i) sin−1(sin θ) = θ, ∀q ∈  − , 
 2 2
(ii) cos−1(cos θ) = θ, ∀ θ ∈ [0, π]
 p p
(iii) tan−1(tan θ) = θ, ∀q ∈ − , 
 2 2
C
A B
(iv) cot−1(cos θ) = θ, ∀ θ ∈ (0, π) Table 17.1 Domain and principal ranges of all the six inverse trig-
p  onometric functions
(v) sec−1(sec θ) = θ, ∀q ∈[0 , p ] −  
2 Function Domain Principal Range
−1  p p (values of x) (values of y)
(vi) cosec (cosec θ) = θ, ∀q ∈ − ,
N r y  2 2  − {0}
L M   é p pù
y = sin−1 x [−1, 1] ê- 2 , 2 ú
ë û

y y = cos−1 x [−1, 1] [0, π]

æ p pö
y = tan−1 x (−∞, ∞) ç- , ÷
è 2 2ø
P (x1, y1)
O
Figure 21.4 ψ
ψ
x
O T M N

Figure 21.2

Features of the book.indd 3 26-Jul-18 12:06:35 PM


C. Reinforce Concepts
Illustration 21.1 Find the slope of tangent at the point that has
1. Illustrations pose a specific problem using the ordinate −3 on the curve x3 = 3y2.

concepts already presented and then work Solution: x,


we get
through the solution.
æ dy ö
3x2 = 3´ ç 2y ÷
è dx ø

dy x 2
⇒ =
dx 2 y
Now, to obtain this value, we require abscissa as well. Substituting
y = −3 in the equation of curve, we have

901

Your Turn 1
1. Find the slopes of the curve y = (x + 2)(x − 3) at the points
where it meets x−axis. Ans. −5, 5 2. Your Turn within each chapter is present to
2. Find the points on the curve y = x3 − 2x2 + x − 2 when the gra-
dient is zero.
reinforce and check the understanding of the
 1 50  students.
Ans. (1, −2) and  , − 
 3 27 
3. Find the equation of tangent and normal to the curve
x3 = y2
normal, subtangent and subnormal.
13 13 2 3
Ans. 3x − 2y − 1 = 0, 2x + 3y − 5 = 0, , , ,
3 2 3 2

Additional Solved Examples


3. Additional Solved Examples suitable for JEE 1. The number of real solutions of cos−1 x + cos−1 2x = −π is
exams are provided with in-depth solutions for (A) 0 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D)
the students to understand the logic behind
Solution:
and formula used. cos−1 x = −(π + cos−1 2x)
Range of cos−1 x ∈ [0, π]
Since cos−1 x has a range from [0, π], thus the sum of two cos−1
cannot be equal to −π a negative quantity.
Hence, the correct answer is option (A).

Features of the book.indd 4 26-Jul-18 12:06:36 PM


D. Understanding the Exam Pattern
Through Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions and Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions.

Previous Years' Solved JEE Advanced/


IIT-JEE Questions
1. Let (x, y) be such that Previous Years' Solved JEE Main/AIEEE
p
-1 -1 -1
sin (ax ) + cos ( y ) + cos (bxy ) = Questions
2
Match the statements in Column I with statements in Column II. æxö æ5ö p
1. If sin-1 ç ÷ + cosec -1 ç ÷ = , then a value of x is
5
è ø è4ø 2
Column I Column II
(A) 1 (B) 3
(A) If a = 1 and b = 0, then (x, y) (P) lies on the circle x2 + y2 = 1
(C) 4 (D) 5 [AIEEE 2007]
(B) If a = 1 and b = 1, then (x, y) (Q) lies on (x2 − 1)(y2 − 1) = 0
Solution: We have
(C) If a = 1 and b = x, y) (R) lies on y = x x 4 p x 4 x 3
sin-1 + sin-1 = Þ sin-1 = cos -1 Þ sin-1 = sin-1
(D) If a = 2 and b = 2, then (x, y) (S) lies on (4x − 1)(y − 1) = 0
2 2 5 5 2 5 5 5 5
Therefore, x = 3.
[IIT-JEE 2007]
Hence, the correct answer is option (B).

E. Practice to Complete Your Learning


Through Practice Exercise 1 (JEE Main) and Practice Exercise 2 (JEE Advanced). All questions types as per JEE Main and
Advanced covered.

Matrix Match Type Questions


Practice Exercise 1
24. Match the following:
1. The points on the curve y = 12x − x3 at which the gradient is List I List II
zero are
(A) Circular plate is expanded by the heat from (p) 2
(A) (0, 2), (2, 16) (B) (0, −2), (2, −16)
the radius 5 cm to 5.06 cm. Approximate
(C) (2, −16), (−2, 16) (D) (2, 16), (−2, −16) increase in the area is
2. The area of the triangle formed by the coordinate axes and a (B) If an edge of a cube increases by 1%, then the (q) 0.6 p
2
tangent to the curve xy = a at the point ( x1, y1) on it is percentage increase in the volume is
a2 x1 a2 y1 (r) 3
(A) (B) (C) 2a2 (D) 4a2 x2
y1 x1 (C) If the rate of decrease of y = − 2x + 5 is
2
3. The slope of tangent to the curve x = t 2 + 3t − 8, y = 2t 2 twice the rate of decrease
Comprehension Type x, then x is equal
of Questions
- 2t - 5 at the point (2, −1) is to (given that the rate of decrease is non−zero)
Paragraph for Questions 9−11: Let a(t) is a function of t such
(D) Rate da
of increase in the area of the equilateral 3 3
(A) 22 / 7 (B) 6 / 7 (C) − 6 (D) None of these
that = 2side
triangle of for all15the
cm, whenof each
values t and side (s) t = 0. Further
a = 0iswhen
dt
increasing at the rate of 0.1 cm/sec; is 4
y = m(t) x + c(t) is the tangent to the curve y = x2 − 2ax + a2 + a at the
(t) 4
Practice Exercise 2 point whose abscissa is 0. Then
9. If the rate of change
Integer distance of the vertex of y = x2 − 2ax
of theQuestions
Type
+ a2 + a from the origin with respect to t is k, then k =
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions x2 y2
(A) 2 29. Let(B) α be
2 the (C) 2between (D) +4 2 = 1 and the
2 angle in radians
1. For the curve represented parametically by the equations, 36 4
10. If the rate ofcircle x2 +ofy2c(t)
change = 12 at their
with points
respect to t,ofwhen t = k, is , If a = tan−1
the intersection.
x = 2 ln cot t + 1 and y = tan t + cot t
then k
(A) tangent at t = p/4 is parallel to x-axis k2.
(A) 16 − 2 22 3 (B) 8 2 + 2
(B) normal at t = p/4 is parallel to y-axis 2
 9 
(C) tangent at t = p/4 is parallel to the line y = x (C) 10 30.2 +Find
2 the minimum value 2 1+−2 x2)2 +  2 − x12 −
(D) 16of (x ,
 x2 
(D) tangent and normal intersect at the point (2, 1) where x1 ∈ (0 , 2 ) and x2 ∈ R+.

Features of the book.indd 5 26-Jul-18 12:06:39 PM


F. Check Your Performance and Problem-Solving Approach
Through Answer Key and Solution to practice exercises provided with explanation.

Answer Key
Practice Exercise 1
1. (D) 2. (C) 3. (B) 4. (C) 5. (A) 6. (A)
7. (B) 8. (C) 9. (C) 10. (A) 11. (B) 12. (C)
13. (A) 14. (D) 15. (C) 16. (C) 17. (C) 18. (A)
19. (A) 20. (D) 21. (D) 22. (B) 23. (D) 24. (B)
25. (C) 26. (C) 27. (B) 28. (A) 29. (D) 30. (C)
31. (B) 32. (D) 33. (A) 34. Solutions
(A) 35. (A) 36. (D)

Practice Exercise 1 or x = 2 x1

1. We have Therefore, the point on x-axis is (2 x1,0). Now, the tangent


dy meets y-axis where x = 0. Since
= 12 − 3 x 2 = 0 ⇒ x = ± 2
dx x12 y = 2a2 x1
Hence, the points are (2, 16) and (−2, −16).
2a2
we have y=
2. We have x1
a2 So, the point on the y-axis is
y=
x  2a 2 
Therefore,  0, 
 x1 
dy a2 The required area is
=− 2
dx x 1  2a 2 
(2 x1)  = 2a 2
Now, at ( x1 , y1). 2  x 
 1 

Features of the book.indd 6 26-Jul-18 12:06:39 PM


Contents
Note to the Student iii 18.14  Adjoint of a Square Matrix  741
18.15  Inverse of a Matrix  741
Chapter 17  Inverse Trigonometry 699 18.15.1  Theorem (Uniqueness of Inverse)  741
17.1 Introduction  699    18.15.2  Properties of Inverse of a Matrix  741
18.16 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices  742
17.2 Domain and Range of Inverse
Trigonometric Functions  699 18.17 Elementary Operations or Elementary Transformations
of a Matrix  742
17.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions  701
18.17.1  Equivalent Matrices   742
17.4 General Values of Inverse Circular Functions  704
18.17.2  Elementary Matrix   742
Additional Solved Examples  714 18.18 Inverse of a Matrix by Elementary Operations (Elementary
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  76 Operations on Matrix Equation)  743
18.18.1  Using Row Operation  743
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  718 18.18.2  Using Column Operation  743
Practice Exercise 1  721 18.19  Rank of a Matrix  744
Practice Exercise 2  724 18.20  Echelon Form of a Matrix  744
18.21  Homogeneous Linear Equations  744
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  724
18.21.1 Solution of Homogeneous System of Linear
Matrix Match Type Questions  724
Equations 745
Integer Type Question   725
18.22 System of Linear Non-Homogeneous Equations  745
Answer Key  725 18.22.1 Matrix Method of Solving Non-Homogeneous
Solution 725 System of Linear Equations  746
18.23  Minor of Any Element of a Matrix   746
Solved JEE 2017 Questions  734 18.24 Cofactor of Any Element of a Matrix  747
18.25  Determinant of Any Matrix   747
Chapter 18  Matrices and 18.26  Properties of Determinants  747
Determinants 735 18.27  Sum of Determinants   750
18.1  Definition of a Matrix  735 18.28  Multiplication of Determinants  750
18.2  Order of a Matrix  735 18.29  Differentiation of Determinants  752
18.3  Types of a Matrix  735 18.30  Special Determinants   752
18.4  Equality of Matrices  736   18.30.1 Symmetric Determinant  752
18.5 Addition and Subtraction of Matrices  736   18.30.2 Skew-Symmetric Determinant  753
   18.5.1  Properties of Matrix Addition  736   18.30.3 Circulant Determinants  753
18.6 Multiplication of a Matrix by a Scalar  736 18.31 Solution of System of Linear Equations  753
   18.6.1 Properties of Multiplication of a Matrix by a Scalar  736 18.31.1 Solution of System of Two Linear Equations in Two
Unknowns 753
18.7  Multiplication of Two Matrices  737
18.31.2  Solution of System of Three Linear Equations in
   18.7.1  Properties of Matrix Multiplication   738
Three Unknowns  753
18.8  Operations Regarding Matrices  738 18.31.3 Solution of System of Three Equations in Two
18.8.1  Transpose of a Matrix  738 Unknowns   754
18.8.2  Conjugate of a Matrix   739   18.31.4 Cramer’s Rule  754
18.8.3  Transpose of the Conjugate of a Matrix  739 18.31.5 System of Homogeneous Linear Equations  755
18.8.4  Trace of a Matrix   739
Additional Solved Examples  756
  18.9 Types of a Matrix on the Basis of Operations  739
18.10  Definition of a Determinant  740 Previous Years' Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  761
18.11  Evaluation of Determinants  740 Previous Years' Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  768
18.11.1  Determinants of the First Order  740
Practice Exercise 1  774
18.11.2  Determinants of the Second Order  740
18.11.3  Determinants of the Third Order   740 Practice Exercise 2  780
18.12 Minors  740 Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  780
18.13 Cofactors  741 Comprehension Type Questions  781

Prelims_Volume II.indd 7 27-Jul-18 6:21:55 PM


xii Contents

Matrix Match Type Questions  782 20.5 Derivative of Second Order y″ or y2  877
Integer Type Questions  782 20.6 Differentiation of a Function with Respect to Another
Answer Key  782 Function 878

Solutions 783 Additional Solved Examples  879

Solved JEE 2017 Questions  794 Previous Years' Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  881
Previous Years' Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  882
Chapter 19  Limit, Continuity and Practice Exercise 1  882
Differentiability 799
Practice Exercise 2  886
19.1  Limit of a Function  799
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  886
 19.2 Definition  799
Comprehension Type Questions   886
19.2.1  Informal Definition of Limit  799 Matrix Match Type Questions  887
19.2.2  Formal Definition of Limit  799 Integer Type Questions  887
19.2.3  Right Hand Limit  800
19.2.4  Left Hand Limit  800 Answer Key  888
19.3  Algebra of Limits  800 Solutions 888
19.4  Evaluation of Limits  800 Solved JEE 2017 Questions  895
19.4.1 Simplification  800
19.5  Use of Standard Limits  801
Chapter 21  Applications
19.6  Some More Standard Forms  802
of Derivatives 897
19.7  Use of Expansion  803
21.1 Geometrical Interpretation of Derivative  897
 19.8 L’Hospital’s Rule  804
21.2  Tangent and Normal  897
19.9 Sandwich Theorem (Squeeze Play Theorem)  804
21.2.1 Length of  Tangent, Normal, Subtangent and
19.10 Continuity  805 Subnormal 898
19.10.2  Geometrical Meaning of Continuity  805 21.3  Angles Between Two Curves  899
19.10.3  Continuity in an Open Interval  806
21.4  dy/dx as Rate Measures  900
19.10.4  Continuity in a Closed Interval   806
19.10.5  Properties of Continuous Functions   807 21.5  Errors and Approximations  900
19.10.6  Intermediate Value Theorem   807 21.6  Monotonicity of Function  901
19.10.7  Types of Discontinuities   807 21.6.1  Increasing Behaviour of Function  901
19.11 Differentiability  808 21.6.2  Decreasing Behaviour of Function  902
19.11.1 Differentiability in an Interval   809  21.6.3 Non-Decreasing Behaviour 902
19.11.2  Properties of Differentiability  809  21.6.4 Non-Increasing Behaviour 902
21.7 Maxima and Minima of Functions of a Single Variable  903
Additional Solved Examples  810
  21.7.1 Concept of Local Maximum and Local Minimum  904
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  814 21.8  Mean Value Theorems  906
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  819  21.8.1 Rolle’s Theorem 906
  21.8.2  Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem  907
Practice Exercise 1  830
21.9  Geometrical Problems  907
Practice Exercise 2  842
Additional Solved Examples   909
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  842
Comprehension Type Questions   843 Previous Years' Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  911
Matrix Match Type Questions  844 Previous Years' Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  918
Integer Type Questions  844
Practice Exercise 1  927
Answer Key  845
Practice Exercise 2  933
Solutions 845
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  933
Solved JEE 2017 Questions  868
Comprehension Type Questions  934
Matrix Match Type Questions  935
Chapter 20  Differentiation 873 Integer Type Questions  936
20.1 Introduction  873 Answer Key  936
20.2 Differentiation from First Principle  873
Solutions 937
20.3 Derivatives of Some of the Frequently Used Functions  874
20.4  Rules to Find Out Derivatives  874 Solved JEE 2017 Questions  964

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Contents xiii

Chapter 22  Indefinite Integration 969 Chapter 24  Area Under the Curves 1071
22.1 Primitive or Anti-Derivative of a Function  969 24.1  Curve Tracing  1071
22.2 Indefinite Integral and Indefinite Integration  969 24.2  Steps to Draw Curve   1071
22.2.1  Fundamental Properties of Integration  969 24.3 Area of Bounded Region  1072
  22.2.2  Fundamental Formulas on Integration  969 24.4  Area Enclosed Between Two Curves  1073
22.3  Methods of Integration  972
Additional Solved Examples   1076
22.3.1  Integration by Substitution  972
22.3.2  Integration by Parts  976 Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  1079
22.4  Integration by Partial Fractions  979 Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  1083
Additional Solved Examples  993 Practice Exercise 1  1089
Previous Years' Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  998 Practice Exercise 2  1092
Previous Years' Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions   1002 Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  1092
Practice exercise 1  1003 Comprehension Type Questions  1092
Matrix Match Type Questions  1093
Practice Exercise 2  1008
Integer Type Question  1094
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  1008
Answer Key  1094
Comprehension Type Questions  1009
Matrix Match Type Questions  1009 Solutions 1094
Answer Key  1010 Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1109
Solutions 1010
Chapter 25  Differential Equations 1111
Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1019
25.1 Introduction  1111
25.2  Basic Definition  1111
Chapter 23  Definite Integration 1021
25.3  Order of a Differential Equation  1111
23.1 Definition  1021
25.4  Degree of a Differential Equation  1111
23.2 Geometrical Meaning of Definite Integration  1021
25.5 Formation of a Differential Equation  1111
23.3 Definite Integration as the Limit of Sum   1022   25.5.1 Steps for Formation of Differential Equations  1112
23.4  Properties of Definite Integration   1022 25.6  Solution of a Differential Equation  1113
23.5 Properties Based on Periodic Function  1028  25.6.1 General Solution 1113
23.6  Properties Based on Inequality  1030  25.6.2 Particular Solution 1113
23.7  Newton–Leibnitz Rule   1030 25.7 Differential Equations of First-Order and First-Degree  1114
23.8  Summation of Series by Integration  1031 25.7.1 Geometrical Interpretation of the Differential
23.8.1 Method to Express the Infinite Series as Definite Equations of First-Order and First-Degree  1114
Integral   1031 25.8 Solution of First-Order and First-Degree Differential
  23.9 Reduction Formulae for Definite Integration  1032 Equations 1114
23.10  Wallis Formulae  1033   25.9 Variable Separable Type Differential Equation  1114
25.10 Equation Reducible to Variable Separable Type
Additional Solved Examples  1034
Differential Equation  1114
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  1036 25.11 Homogeneous Type Differential Equation  1115
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  1040 25.11.1 Steps for Solving Homogeneous
Differential Equation  1115
Practice Exercise 1  1048
25.12 Non-Homogeneous Type Differential Equation  1116
Practice Exercise 2  1052 25.13  Exact Differential Equation  1119
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions   1052   25.13.1 Integrating Factor  1119
Comprehension Type Questions  1052    25.13.2  Some Useful Results  1119
Matrix Match Type Questions  1053 25.14  Linear Differential Equation  1120
Integer Type Questions   1054 25.14.1  Linear Differential Equation of First Order  1120
25.14.2 Equation Reducible to Linear Differential
Answer Key  1054
Equation (Bernoulli’s Differential Equation)  1121
Solutions 1055 25.15 Solution of Differential Equation of the First Order but of
Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1067 Higher Degree  1122

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xiv Contents

25.16 Applications of Differential Equation  1124 26.14.3 Vector Normal to the Plane of Two Given Vectors   1176
25.16.1  Problem Based on Rate of Change  1124 26.14.4  Area of Parallelogram and Triangle  1176
25.16.2 Problem Based on Geometry: Some Results on 26.14.5  Moment of a Force  1177
Tangents and Normal  1125 26.14.6  Moment of a Couple   1177
Additional Solved Examples  1128 26.15  Scalar Triple Product  1178
26.15.1 Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Triple
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  1139 Product 1178
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  1143 26.15.2  Properties of Scalar Triple Product  1178
  26.15.3 Tetrahedron   1178
Practice Exercise 1  1143 26.15.4  Properties of a Tetrahedron  1179
Practice Exercise 2  1147 26.15.5  Volume of a Tetrahedron   1179
26.15.6  Reciprocal System of Vectors   1179
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions   1147
26.16  Vector Triple Product  1180
Comprehension Type Questions  1147
   26.16.1  Properties of Vector Triple Product  1180
Answer Key  1148 26.17 Scalar or Vector Product of Four Vectors  1181
Solutions 1149   26.17.1 Scalar Product  1181
  26.17.2 Vector Product  1181
Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1160
26.18  Method to Prove Collinearity  1181
26.19  Vector Equation  1182
Chapter 26  Vector Algebra 1163
26.1 Introduction  1163 Additional Solved Examples  1183
  26.1.1  Scalar and Vector Quantities  1163 Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  1185
26.2  Representation of a Vector  1163
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  1190
26.3  Types of Vectors  1163
26.4 Rectangular Resolution of Vectors (Orthogonal System of Practice Exercise 1  1197
Vectors): Resolution of a Vector in Two Dimensions  1164 Practice Exercise 2  1200
26.5 Resolution of a Vector in Three Dimensions  1164
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  1200
26.6  Properties of Vectors  1165
Comprehension Type Questions   1201
26.7  Fundamental Theorems of Vectors  1168 Integer Type Questions   1201
26.7.1 Fundamental Theorems of Vectors in Two
Dimensions 1168 Answer Key  1201
26.7.2 Fundamental Theorems of Vectors in Three Solutions 1202
Dimensions 1168
Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1211
26.8  Linear Combinations of Vectors  1168
26.8.1  Collinear and Non-Collinear Vectors   1168 Chapter 27  Three-Dimensional
26.8.2  Relation Between Two Parallel Vectors  1168
26.8.3  Test of Collinearity of Three Points   1168
Geometry 1213
26.8.4  Test of Coplanarity of Three Vectors   1168 27.1 Rectangular Coordinate System in Space  1213
26.8.5  Test of Coplanarity of Four Points   1168 27.1.1  Coordinates of a Point in Space  1213
26.9 Linearly Dependent and Independent Vectors  1168    27.1.2  Signs of Coordinates of a Point  1213
26.9.1  Linearly Independent Vectors   1168 27.2 Other Methods of Defining the Position of Any Point
   26.9.2  Linearly Dependent Vectors   1168 P in Space  1213
26.10 Position Vector of a Dividing Point (Section 27.2.1 Cylindrical Coordinates  1213
Formulae) 1169 27.2.2  Spherical Polar Coordinates  1213
26.11 Bisector of the Angle Between Two Vectors  1170 27.3  Shifting the Origin  1214
26.12  Product of Two Vectors  1171  27.4 Distance Formula  1214
26.13 Scalar or Dot Product of Two Vectors  1171    27.4.1  Distance of a Point from Coordinate Axes  1214
26.13.1 Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar Product  1171  27.5 Section Formula  1214
26.13.2  Properties of Scalar Product  1172 27.5.1 Internal Division  1214
26.13.3 Components of a Vector Along and Perpendicular to    27.5.4  Coordinates of the General Point  1214
Another Vector  1173 27.6   Triangle and Tetrahedron  1215
   26.13.4  Work Done by a Force   1173 27.6.1  Coordinates of the Centroid  1215
26.14 Vector or Cross-Product of Two Vectors  1174 27.6.2  Area of a Triangle  1215
26.14.1 Geometrical Interpretation of the Vector 27.6.4  Condition of Collinearity  1215
Product 1175 27.7  Direction Cosines of a Line  1215
26.14.2  Properties of Vector Product  1175 27.7.1  Relation Between the Direction Cosines  1216

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Contents xv

 27.8 Direction Ratios  1216 27.21  Line and Plane  1228


27.8.1 Direction Cosine and Direction Ratio of a 27.21.1 Conversion of Unsymmetrical Form of Line to
Line joining Two Given Points  1217 Symmetrical Form  1228
27.9  Projection of a Line  1218 27.21.2  Angle Between Line and Plane  1229
27.9.1 Perpendicular Distance of a Point 27.21.3  Intersection of Line and Plane   1230
from a Line  1218 27.21.4  Coplanarity of Two Lines   1230
27.10 Equation of a Straight Line in Space  1219 27.21.5  Image of a Line in Plane  1230
27.10.1 Vector Equation of a Line Passing Through 27.22 Sphere  1231
a Given Point and Parallel to a 27.22.1  Equation of Sphere in Different Forms  1231
Given Vector  1219 Additional Solved Examples  1232
27.10.2 Cartesian Equation of a Line Passing
Through a Given Point and Given Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  1235
Direction Ratios  1219 Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  1241
27.10.3 Vector Equation of a Line Passing Through
Practice Exercise 1  1247
Two Given Points  1219
27.10.4 Cartesian Equation of a Line Passing Practice Exercise 2  1249
Through Two Given Points  1219
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  1249
27.11  Angle Between Two Lines  1220 Comprehension Type Questions   1250
  27.11.1 Cartesian Form  1220 Integer Type Questions   1250
    27.11.2  Vector Form  1221
Answer Key  1251
27.12  Intersections of Two Lines  1221
27.13 Shortest Distance Between Two Non-intersecting Solutions 1251
Lines 1222 Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1260
27.13.1 Vector Form  1222
27.13.2 Cartesian Form  1223
Chapter 28  Probability 1265
27.14  Point and Line  1223
27.14.1 Foot of Perpendicular from a Given Point to 28.1 Introduction  1265
the Given Line  1223 28.2 Concept of Probability in Set Theoretic Language  1265
27.14.2 Reflection or Image of a Point in a Straight  28.2.1 Random Experiment 1265
Line 1224 28.2.2  Sample Space and Sample Points  1265
27.15  The Plane  1225  28.2.3 Trial 1265
27.16 Equation of Plane in Different Forms  1225  28.2.4 Event 1265
28.2.5  Algebra of Events  1266
27.16.1  General Equation of Plane  1225
28.2.6  Equally Likely Events  1266
27.16.2  Equation of Coordinate Planes   1225
28.2.7  Mutually Exclusive Events   1266
27.16.3  Equation of a Plane in Vector Form  1225
 28.2.8 Exhaustive Events 1266
27.16.4  Equation of Plane in Various Forms  1225
27.16.5 Equation of Plane Parallel to Coordinate 28.3 Definition of Probability with Discrete
Plane or Perpendicular to Coordinates Sample Space  1267
Axis 1225 28.4  Axiomatic Definition  1267
27.16.6 Equation of Plane Perpendicular to Coordinate 28.5  Basic Theories  1267
Plane or Parallel to Coordinates Axis  1226 28.6  Conditional Probability  1268
27.16.7 Equation of Plane Passing Through a Point and 28.7  Independent Events  1268
Having Given Direction Ratio  1226
28.8  Total Probability  1270
27.16.8 Equation of Plane Passing Through Three
Non-Collinear Points  1226 28.9 Bayes’ Theorem or Inverse Probability  1271
27.17  Point and Plane  1226 28.10 Random Variable and Probability Distribution  1272
27.17.1  Position of Two Points w.r.t the Plane  1226 28.10.1 Probability Distribution of Random Variable   1272
  27.17.2 Perpendicular Distance  1227 28.11  Binomial Distribution  1273
   27.17.3  Image of a Point About Plane Mirror  1227 28.11.1 Recurrence Formula for Binomial Distribution  1274
27.18  Angle Between Two Planes  1227 28.11.2 Mean and Variance of Binomial Distribution   1274
  27.18.1 Cartesian Form  1227 28.12  Poisson Distribution  1275
27.18.2  Vector Form   1227 28.13 Probability of Events in Experiments with
27.19  Angle Bisectors of Two Planes  1228 Countable Infinite Sample Space  1275
  27.19.1 Cartesian Form  1228 28.14  Important Information  1277
  27.19.2 Vector Form  1228
Additional Solved Examples  1278
27.20  Family of Plane  1228

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xvi Contents

Previous Years’ Solved JEE Main/AIEEE Questions  1281 Answer Key  1299
Previous Years’ Solved JEE Advanced/IIT-JEE Questions  1285 Solutions 1299
Practice Exercise 1  1292 Solved JEE 2017 Questions  1310
Practice Exercise 2  1296
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions  1296
Appendix: Chapterwise Solved
Comprehension Type Questions   1297 JEE 2018 Questions A-1
Matrix Match Type Questions  1297
Integer Type Questions   1298

Prelims_Volume II.indd 12 27-Jul-18 6:21:55 PM


17 Inverse Trigonometry

17.1 Introduction p
Similarly, even if cot æç - ö÷ = - 3 but cot -1 ( - 3 ) ≠ -
p
è 6 ø 6
The inverse of a function f : A → B exists if f is one-one onto, that is,
a bijection and is given by f (x) = y ⇒ f  -1(y) = x. because principal range of cot -1x is (0,p).
Consider the sine function with domain R and range [-1, 1]. So, cot-1 ( - 3 ) = 5p only.
Clearly this function is not a bijection and so it is not invertible. If 6
we restrict the domain of it in such a way that it becomes one–one, Note:
then it would become invertible. If we consider sine as a function See Fig. 17.1. Here, sin-1 x, cosec-1 x, tan-1 x, belong to I and IV
1. 
é p pù quadrants.
with domain ê - , ú and co-domain [-1, 1], then it is a bijection p /2
ë 2 2û
and therefore, invertible. The inverse of sine function is defined as
é p pù I
sin-1 x = q Û sinq - x , where ê - , ú and x Î [ -1,1]
ë 2 2û
Hence, sin-1 x is an angle and it denotes the smallest numerical IV
angle, whose sine is x.
-p/2
17.2 Domain and Range of Inverse Figure 17.1
Trigonometric Functions 2. See Fig. 17.2. Here, cos-1 x, sec-1 x, cot-1 x, belong to I and II
p quadrant.
We know that tan = 3
3
p
This is written in inverse trigonometry as = tan-1 3 . II I
3
0
But, tan 4p is also equal to 3
3
Does it mean, 4p = tan-1 3 ?
3
The answer is no, tan-1 3 is taken as the numerically least ­angle Figure 17.2
whose tangent is 3 . This is done to associate a single value to 3.  I quadrant is common to all the inverse functions.
tan-1 3 to safeguard the definition of a function. 4.  III quadrant is not used in inverse functions.
So, the equations tan x = y and x = tan-1 y are not identical p
5. IV quadrant is used in the clockwise direction, that is, - ≤ y ≤ 0.
because the former associates many values of x to a single value 2
of y, while the latter associates a single x to a particular value of y. The principal range of inverse trigonometric functions is the most
In the same way, the remaining five inverse trigonometric func- important thing in this lesson. All formula and problems are linked
tions are also defined. To assign a unique angle to a particular in some way or the other to that only.
value of trigonometric ratio, we introduce a term called ‘principal
range’. The principal ranges of all the inverse trigonometric func- 1. See Fig. 17.3. If sin y = x, then y = Y (1, p /2 )
tions have been fixed. For example, principal range of sin-1 x is sin-1 x, under certain condition.
 p p -1 ≤ siny ≤ 1, but sin y = x.
 - 2 , 2  , that is, we have to search for an angle in this interval only. y = sin-1x
  Hence,
X
1 p 5p 1 13p 1 -1 ≤ x ≤ 1 O
sin-1 = only, although sin = , sin = , etc. Again,
2 6 6 2 6 2
p
sin y = -1 Þ y = -
æ ö 2 (-1,-p /2)
ç -1 1 1 ÷ p
ç note that sin ¹ ÷ and    sin y = 1⇒ y = Figure 17.3
çç 2 sin 1 ÷ 2
÷
è 2ø Keeping in mind numerically smallest angles or real numbers.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 699 07-06-2018 12:26:38


700 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Hence, So,
p p Domain: x ∈ R
- £y£
2 2 Range: y ∈ (0, p )

These restrictions on the values of x and y provide us with the 5. See Fig. 17.7. If sec y = x, then
p
domain and range for the function, y = sin-1 x. y = sec-1 x
So, p y = p /2
where | x | ≥ 1 and 0 £ y £ p , y ¹
Domain: x ∈ [-1,1] 2 X
Here,
é p pù
Range: y Î ê - , ú Domain: x ∈ R - (-1,1) (1,0)
ë 2 2û y = sec−1x
ìp ü
2. See Fig. 17.4. If cos y = x, then y = cos-1 x, Range: y Î [0 , p ] - í ý
î2 þ Figure 17.7
under certain conditions.
6. See Fig. 17.8. If cosec y = x, then y
-1 ≤ cos y ≤ 1 ⇒ -1 ≤ x ≤ 1 y = cosec-1 x
p p (1,p /2)
cos y = -1 ⇒ y = p where | x | ≥ 1 and - £ y £ , y ¹ 0
cos y = 1 ⇒ y = 0 2 2
x
Y Here,
(–1, p /2) Domain: x ∈ R - (-1,1)
(−1,−p) O y = cosec−1x
é p pù
y = cos–1x Range: y Î ê - , ú - {0}
ë 2 2û Figure 17.8
X
O (1, 0)
We list below (Table 17.1) the domain and principal ranges of all
the six inverse trigonometric functions.
Table 17.1 Domain and principal ranges of all the six inverse trig-
Figure 17.4 onometric functions
Hence, 0  ≤ y ≤ p {as cos x is a decreasing function in [0, π]}.
Function Domain Principal Range
T hese restrictions on the values of x and y provide us the (values of x) (values of y)
domain and range for the function, y = cos-1 x.
So, é p pù
y = sin-1 x [-1, 1] ê- 2 , 2 ú
Domain: x ∈ [-1,1] ë û
Range: y ∈ [0, p ] y = cos-1 x [-1, 1] [0, π]
3. See Fig. 17.5. If tan y = x, then y
y = tan-1 x, under certain æ p pö
conditions. y = p /2
y = tan-1 x (-∞, ∞) ç- , ÷
è 2 2ø
tan y ∈ R ⇒ x ∈ R,
p p X é p pù
-∞ < tan y < ∞ ⇒ - < y < O y = cosec-1 x (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) ê - 2 , 2 ú - {0}
2 2 ë û
Thus,
y = -p /2 y = tan–1x p
Domain: x ∈ R; y = sec-1 x (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) [0,p ] - ìí 2 üý
æ p pö Figure 17.5 î þ
Range: y Î ç - , ÷
è 2 2ø y = cot-1 x (-∞, ∞) (0, π)

4. See Fig. 17.6. If cot y = x, then


y = cot-1 x, under certain Illustration 17.1   Evaluate the following:
y =p
conditions. æ 3ö
(A) tan-1 (-1) (B) cot-1 (-1) (C) sin-1 çç - ÷÷
cot y ∈ R ⇒ x ∈ R; è 2 ø
Solution:
-∞ < cot y < ∞ ⇒ 0 < y < p (0, p/2)
These conditions on x and y make æ -p ö
x (A) tan ç ÷ = -1
the function, cot y = x one-one y = cot x
−1 è 4 ø
and onto, so that the inverse Hence,
function exists, that is, y = cot -1 x is Figure 17.6 p ì -p ü
tan-1 ( -1) = - ísince Î range of tan-1 x ý
meaningful. 4 î 4 þ

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 700 07-06-2018 12:26:49


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 701

æ 3p ö  (v) sec-1(- x) = p - sec-1 x, ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)


(B) cot ç ÷ = -1 (vi) cosec-1(- x) = -cosec-1 x, ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)
è 4 ø
Hence, Proof (i): sin-1 (-x) = -sin-1 x, provided that -1 ≤ x ≤ 1
3p ì 3p ü As (-x) ∈ [-1, 1]
cot -1( -1) = ísince Î range of cot -1 x ý
4 î 4 þ ⇒ x∈ [-1, 1]
é p pù
Let sin-1(-x) = θ. Then q Î ê - , ú .
æ -p ö - 3 ë 2 2û
(C) sin ç ÷=     (-x) = sinθ
è 3 ø 2 ⇒ x = -sinθ
Hence, ⇒ x = sin(-θ)
æ - 3 ö -p ì -p ü ⇒ (-θ) = sin-1x
sin-1 çç ÷÷ = ísince Î range of sin-1 x ý ⇒ θ = -sin-1x
è 2 ø 3 î 3 þ
⇒ sin-1(-x) = -sin-1x, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1]
Proof (ii): cos-1 (-x) = p - cos-1 x, provided that -1 ≤ x ≤ 1
Illustration 17.2   Simplify As (-x) ∈ [-1, 1]
-1 
- 2 -1  -1 -1 -1  -1 
⇒ x∈ [-1, 1]
sin   + cos  2  - tan ( - 3 ) + cot   Let cos-1 (-x) = θ. Then q ∈ [0, p].
 2  3
       -x = cosθ
Solution: The value is ⇒ x = cos (p - θ)
-p 2p æ -p ö æ 2p ö ⇒ cos-1x = p - θ
+ -ç ÷+ç ÷ ⇒ θ = p - cos-1x
4 3 è 3 ø è 3 ø
⇒ cos-1(-x) = p - cos-1x, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1]
p 2p p 2p 17p Similarly, we can do the remaining ones from (iii) to (vi).
=- + + + =
4 3 3 3 12 Property 4
p
 (i) sin-1 x + cos -1 x = , ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1]
17.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric 2
Functions p
 (ii) tan-1 x + cot -1 x = , ∀ x ∈ R
2
Property 1
-1 -1 p
 p p (iii) sec x + cosec x = , ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)
 (i) sin-1(sin q) = q, ∀q ∈  - ,  2
 2 2
 (ii) cos-1(cos q) = q, ∀ q ∈ [0, p] Proof (i): sin-1x + cos-1x = p/2, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1]
Let sin-1x = θ. Then ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1].
 p p
(iii) tan-1(tan q) = q, ∀q ∈ - ,  where, θ ∈ [-p/2, p/2]
 2 2
-1
(iv) cot (cos q) = q, ∀ q ∈ (0, p)   - p /2 ≤ θ ≤ p /2
p  ⇒ - p /2 ≤ -θ ≤ p /2
 (v) sec-1(sec q) = q, ∀q ∈[0 , p ] -   ⇒ 0 ≤ p /2 -θ ≤ p 
2
⇒ (p/2 - θ) ∈ [0, p]
(vi) cosec-1(cosec q) = q, ∀q ∈  - p , p  - {0} Since,
 2 2
 
Property 2 sin-1x = θ
 (i) sin(sin-1 x) = x, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1] ⇒ x = sinθ
⇒ x = cos (p/2 - θ)
 (ii) cos(cos-1 x) = x, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1] ⇒ cos-1x = p/2 - θ 
(iii) tan(tan-1 x) = x, ∀ x ∈ R ⇒ θ + cos-1x = p/2
(iv) cot(cot-1 x) = x, ∀ x ∈ R Hence, sin-1x + cos-1x = p/2.
 (v) sec(sec-1 x) = x, ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) Proof (ii): tan-1x + cot-1x = π/2, ∀ x ∈ R
(vi) cosec(cosec-1 x) = x, ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) Let tan-1x = θ. Then x ∈ R.
Property 3 æ p pö
where, q Î ç - , ÷
è 2 2ø
 (i) sin-1(- x) = -sin-1 x, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1]
p p
 (ii) cos-1(- x) = p - cos-1 x, ∀ x ∈ [-1, 1]   -<q <
2 2
(iii) tan-1(- x) = -tan-1 x, ∀ x ∈ R p p
⇒ - < -q <
(iv) cot-1(- x) = p - cot-1 x, ∀ x ∈ R 2 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 701 07-06-2018 12:27:00


702 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

p æ 1ö
⇒ 0< -q < p ⇒ ç ÷ ∈ [-1, 1] - {0}
2 èxø
⇒ (p/2 - θ ) ∈ (0, p)
æ 1ö
⇒ q = cos -1 ç ÷
Since, èxø
tan-1x = θ æ 1ö
⇒ x = tanθ Hence, sec -1x = cos-1 çç ÷÷÷
è xø
⇒ x = cot (p/2 - θ)
Proof (iii): Let cot-1x = q
⇒ cot-1x = p/2 - θ where, -∞ < x < ∞ and 0 < θ < p
⇒ θ + cot-1x = p/2 Now, consider two cases,
Hence, tan-1x + cot-1x = p/2.
Case I: x>0
Proof (iii): sec-1x + cosec-1x = p/2, ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) cot-1 x = θ ⇒ θ ∈ (0, p/2)
Let sec-1x = θ. Then x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞). 1 æ 1ö
⇒x = cotθ ⇒ = tanθ ⇒ θ = tan-1 ç ÷
ìp ü x èxø
where, q Î [0 , p ] - í ý
î2 þ Hence, tan-1(1/x) = cot-1x, for all x > 0.
ìp ü Case II: x<0
⇒ q Î [0 , p ] - í ý
î2 þ ⇒ θ ∈ (p/2, p)
p é p pù p ⇒ p/2 < θ < p
⇒ - q Î ê- , ú , - q ¹ 0
2 ë 2 2û 2 ⇒ -p/2 < (θ - p) < 0
Since, ⇒ (θ - p) ∈ (-p/2, 0)
sec-1x = θ Hence, cot-1x = θ
⇒ x = sec θ ⇒ cotθ = x
1
⇒ x = cosec (p/2 - θ) ⇒ = tanθ
x
⇒ cosec-1x = p/2 - θ
1
⇒ θ + cosec-1x = p/2 ⇒ = - tan(p - θ)
x
Hence, sec-1x + cosec-1 x = p/2.
1
⇒ = tan (θ - p)
Property 5 x
æ 1ö æ 1ö
  (i) sin-1 ç ÷ = cosec -1x , " x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) ⇒ (θ - p) = tan-1 ç ÷
èxø èxø
 1 æ 1ö
 (ii) cos -1   = sec -1 x , ∀ x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) ⇒ tan-1 ç ÷ = - p + θ
 x èxø
 1   cot x , ∀ x > 0
-1
(iii) tan-1   =  æ 1ö
 x   -p + cot -1 x , ∀ x < 0 So, tan-1 ç ÷ = - p + cot-1x, when x < 0.
èxø
Proof (i): Let cosec-1x = θ. Then x = cosec θ. Hence,
é p pù 1  cot -1 x , ∀ x > 0
where, q Î ê - , ú - {0} tan-1 = 
ë 2 2û x  -p + cot -1 x , ∀ x < 0

sin θ = æ 1 ö for x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) Note:


ç ÷
èxø
Conversion of inverse trigonometric ratio in their domain
1
⇒ æç ö÷ ∈ [-1, 1] - {0}
èxø x 1- x 2
 (i) sin-1 x = cos -1 1- x 2 = tan-1 = cot -1
1- x 2 x
1
⇒ q = sin-1 æç ö÷
èxø æ 1 ö -1 æ 1 ö
= sec -1 ç ÷÷ = cosec ç ÷
æ 1ö ç 2 èxø
Hence, cosec -1x = sin-1 ç ÷ è 1- x ø
èxø
æ 1- x 2 ö 1
Proof (ii): Let sec-1x = θ. Then x = sec θ.  (ii) cos -1 x = sin-1 1- x 2 = tan-1 ç ÷ = sec -1
ç x ÷ x
ìp ü è ø
where, q Î [0 , p ] - í ý
î2 þ æ 1 ö æ x ö
æ 1ö = cosec -1 ç -1
÷÷ = cot çç ÷÷
cos θ = ç ÷ for x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) ç 2 2
è 1- x ø è 1- x ø
èxø

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 702 07-06-2018 12:27:14


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 703

-1 -1
æ x ö -1
æ 1 ö -1 æ 1 ö æ x2 x3 ö
(iii) tan x = sin çç ÷÷ = cos çç ÷÷ = cot ç ÷ Illustration 17.6   If sin-1 çç x - + - ××× ÷÷
è 1+ x
2
ø è 1+ x
2
ø èxø è 2 4 ø
-1 æ 2 ö p
4 6
æ 1+ x 2 ö x x
+ cos çç x - + - ××× ÷÷ = for 0 < | x | < 2 , then find the
= sec -1 1+ x 2 = cosec -1 ç ÷ 2 4
ç x ÷ è ø 2
è ø
value of x.
Illustration 17.3   Evaluate the following: Solution: We know that
æ 5p ö é æ 2p öù
(A)  sec-1[sec(-30°)]  (B)  sin-1 ç sin ÷   (C)  sin-1 êsin ç ÷ú p
è 3 ø ë è 3 øû sin-1 y + cos -1 y = , | y | £1
2
Solution:
Hence, according to question,
(A) sec-1[sec(-30°)] = sec-1(sec 30°) = 30°
x2 x3 x4 x6
æ 5p ö -1 æ 3ö p x- + - ××× = x 2 - + - ×××
(B)   sin-1 ç sin ÷ = sin çç - ÷÷ = - 2 4 2 4
è 3ø è 2 ø 3
p öù -1 é æ p öù p x x2 x x2
-1 é æ ⇒ = , (\ 0 < | x | < 2 ) ⇒ =
(C)   sin êsin ç p - ÷ ú = sin êsin çè 3 ÷ø ú = 3 x x 2
2 + x 2 + x2
ë è 3 øû ë û 1+ 1+
2 2
Illustration 17.4   If q = sin-1 x + cos-1 x - tan-1 x, x ≥ 0, then the ⇒ 2x + x3 = 2x2 + x3 ⇒ x = x2
smallest interval in which q lies is
Hence,
p 3p p
(A)  £ q £ (B)  0 £ q £ x - x2 = 0 ⇒ x(1 - x) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 and x = 1, but x ≠ 0.
2 4 4
So, x = 1.
p p
(C)  - p £ q £ 0 (D)  £ q £
4 4 2 2p
Illustration 17.7   If sin-1 x + sin-1 y = , then cos-1 x + cos-1 y =
3
Solution: ______.
p
q = sin-1 x + cos -1 x - tan-1 x = - tan-1 x 2p p p
2 (A)  (B)  (C)  (D)  π
We know 3 3 6
 p p Solution:
tan-1 x = A where x¨R and A ¨  - , 
 2 2 2p
sin-1 x + sin-1 y =
Hence, 3
p p -1 p p p p p 2p
≤ - tan x≤ ⇒ ≤q ≤ ⇒ - cos -1 x + - cos -1 y =
4 2 2 4 2 2 2 3
p
Illustration 17.5   Find the value of x which satisfies the equation ⇒ cos -1 x + cos -1 y =
3
é æ 1 öù
tan(cos -1 x ) = sin êcot -1 ç ÷ ú .
ë è 2 øû
Your Turn 1
æ 1ö 1
Solution: Put cot -1 ç ÷ = q . Then cot q = .
è2ø 2 -1 -1 æ 1 ö p
1. If sin x + cot ç ÷ = , then x is
Hence, è2ø 2
2 1
sinq =
5 (A) 0 (B) 
5
Put cos-1 x = f, then x = cosf. 2 3
(C)  (D)   Ans. (B)
Also 5 2
2
tanf = sinq =
5 2. The value of sin(cos-1 x) is
Therefore (A)  (1 + x2)3/2 (B)  (1 + x2)-3/2
5 (C)  (1 - x2)1/2 (D)  (1 + x2)-1/2
x = cosf =
3 Ans. (C)

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 703 07-06-2018 12:27:37


704 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

p ì -1 æ x - y ö
3. The number of real solutions of tan-1 x ( x + 1) + sin-1 x 2 + x + 1 =
2 ïtan ç ÷ , if xy > -1
p ï è 1+ xy ø
( x + 1) + sin-1 2
x + x + 1 = is ï æ x-y ö
2 (ii) tan-1 x - tan-1 y = ïíp + tan-1 ç ÷ , if x > 0 , y < 0 and xy < -1
(A)  Zero (B)  One ï è 1+ xy ø
ï æ ö
(C)  Two (D)  Infinite Ans. (C) ï-p + tan-1 ç x - y ÷ , if x < 0 , y > 0 and xy < -1
ïî è 1+ xy ø
1 -2 6
4. Evaluate cos 2cos-1 x + sin-1 x at x = .  Ans.
5 5 Note:
æ 5p ö -1 æ 5p ö é x + y + z - xyz ù
5. Find the value of cos -1 ç cos ÷ + sin ç sin ÷ . Ans. 0  (i) tan-1 x + tan-1 y + tan-1 z = tan-1 ê ú
è 3 ø è 3 ø ë1- xy - yz - zx û
-1 -1 11p é S - S + S - ××× ù
6. The equation 2 cos x + sin x = has (ii) tan-1 x1 + tan-1 x 2 + ××× + tan-1 x n = tan-1 ê 1 3 5 ú
6 ë1- S2 + S4 - S6 + ×× × û
(A) No solution (B) Only one solution where Sk denotes the sum of the products of x1, x2, …, xn taken k
(C) Two solutions (D) Three solutions Ans. (A) at a time.

Proof (i) Let tan-1 x = A and tan-1 y = B where


17.4 General Values of Inverse ææ pp pp öö
xx,, yy Î
ÎRR and
and AA,,BBÎ
Îçç-- ,, ÷÷ . Then
Circular Functions èè 22 22 øø
We know that if α is the smallest angle whose sine is x, then all tan A + tan B x + y
the angles whose sine is x can be written as np + (-1)n a, where tan( A + B ) = =
1- tan A tan B 1- xy
n = 0, 1, 2, …. Therefore, the general value of sin-1 x can be taken
as np + (-1)n a .
Case (a): When x, y > 0 and xy < 1, then
Thus, we have
-1
x 1=)nnap, -+1( ≤ n
-1x) ≤a1,;-1 ≤ x ≤ 1; x+y
a , -x1 ≤= xnsin
-1
sin-1 x = np + ( -1)nsin p≤ 1+; ( - tan( A + B ) = >0
1- xy
if
if sina = x , then if sina = x , then sin a = x , then
p pp p Therefore, tan(A + B) lies in 1st or 3rd quadrant.
p p
- ≤a ≤ - ≤ a ≤- ≤ a ≤
2 2 2 2 2 2 æ pö æ pö
x > 0 Þ A Î ç 0, ÷ , y > 0 Þ B Î ç 0, ÷
Similarly, general values of other inverse circular functions are è 2ø è 2ø
given as follows: Þ A + B Î (0, p )

cos-1 x = 2np ± a , -1 ≤ x ≤ 1; If cos a = x, 0 ≤ a ≤ p As (A+B) lies in 1st or 3rd quadrant. So,
p p æ pö
tan-1 x = np − a , x ∈ R ; If tan a = x, - <a < A + B Î ç 0, ÷
2 2 è 2ø
cot-1 x = np − a , x ∈ R ; If cot a = x, 0 ≤ a ≤ p  x+y
⇒ tan-1[tan( A + B )] = tan-1 
sec-1 x = 2np ± a , x ≥ 1 or x ≤ -1;  1- xy 
p  x+y
If sec a = x , 0 £ a £ p and ¹ A + B = tan-1 
2  1- xy 
cosec-1 x = np + (-1)n a , x ≥ 1 or x ≤ -1;  x+y
p p tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1 
If coseca = x , - £ a £ and x ¹ 0  1- xy 
2 2
Case (b): When x, y < 0 and xy < 1, then
Property 6
x+y
ì -1 æ x + y ö tan( A + B ) = <0
ïtan ç ÷ , if x > 0 , y > 0 and xy < 1 1- xy
ï è 1- xy ø
ï æ x+y ö Therefore, tan(A + B) lies in 2nd or in 4th quadrant.
ï
 (i) tan-1 x + tan-1 y = íp + tan-1 ç ÷ , if x > 0 , y > 0 and xy > 1
ï è 1- xy ø  p   p 
ï x < 0 ⇒ A ∈  - , 0  , y < 0 ⇒ B ∈  - , 0
ï-p + tan-1 æç x + y ö÷ , if x < 0 , y < 0 and xy > 1  2   2 
ïî è 1- xy ø ⇒ A + B ∈( -p , 0 )

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 704 07-06-2018 12:27:55


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 705

As (A+B) lies in 2nd or 4th quadrant. So, As (A+B) lies in 1st or 3rd quadrant. So,
æ pö
æ p ö A + B Î ç -p , - ÷
A + B Îç - , 0 ÷ è 2ø
è 2 ø
 x+y
 x+y ⇒ tan-1[tan( A + B + p )] = tan-1 
⇒ tan-1[tan( A + B )] = tan-1   1- xy 
 1- xy 
 x+y
 x+y A + B + p = tan-1 
A + B = tan-1   1- xy 
 1- xy 
 x+y
 x+y tan-1 x + tan-1 y = -p + tan-1 
tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1   1- xy 
 1- xy 
Proof (ii): L et tan-1 x = A and tan-1 y = B where
Case (c): When x > 0, y < 0
æ p pö
x , y Î R and A, B Î ç - , ÷ . Then
æ pö æ p ö è 2 2ø
x > 0 Þ A Î ç 0, ÷ , y < 0 Þ B Î ç - , 0 ÷
è 2ø è 2 ø tan A - tan B x - y
tan( A - B ) = =
æ p pö 1+ tan A tan B 1+ xy
Þ A + B Îç - , ÷
è 2 2ø Case (a): When xy > -1, then
-1 x+y-1  x-y
⇒ tan [tan( A + B )] = tan  tan( A - B ) =
 1- xy  1+ xy
 x+y æ pö æ pö
A + B = tan-1  if x > 0 , A Î ç 0 , ÷ , y > 0 Þ B Î ç 0 , ÷
 1- xy  è 2ø è 2ø
 x+y æ p pö
tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1  Þ A - B Îç - , ÷
 1- xy  è 2 2ø

Same for x < 0, y > 0. So,


 x-y
tan-1[tan( A - B )] = tan-1 
Case (d): When x, y > 0 and xy > 1, then  1+ xy 
 x-y
x+y A - B = tan-1 
tan( A + B ) =
1- xy
<0  1+ xy 
 x-y
Therefore, tan(A + B) lies in 2nd or in 4th quadrant. tan-1 x - tan-1 y = tan-1 
 1+ xy 
 p  p Same for all values of x and y with xy > -1.
x > 0 ⇒ A ∈ 0 ,  , y > 0 ⇒ B ∈ 0 , 
 2  2
Case (b): When x > 0, y < 0 and xy < -1, then
⇒ A + B ∈(0 , p ) x-y
tan( A - B ) = <0
1+ xy
As (A+B) lies in 2nd or 4th quadrant. So,
Therefore, tan(A - B) lies in 2nd or in 4th quadrant.
æp ö
A + B Îç ,p ÷ æ pö æ p ö
è2 ø x > 0 Þ A Î ç 0, ÷ , y < 0 Þ B Î ç - , 0 ÷
è 2ø è 2 ø
 x+y
⇒ tan-1 [tan( A + B - p )] = tan-1  Þ A - B Î (0, p )
 1- xy 
 x+y As (A−B) lies in 2nd or 4th quadrant. So,
A + B - p = tan-1 
 1- xy  æp ö
A - B Îç ,p ÷
è2 ø
 x+y
tan-1 x + tan-1 y = p + tan-1 
 1- xy   x-y
⇒ tan-1[tan( A - B - p )] = tan-1 
 1+ xy 
Case (e): When x, y < 0 and xy > 1, then
 x-y
A - B - p = tan-1 
x+y  1+ xy 
tan( A + B ) = <0
1- xy  x-y
tan-1 x - tan-1 y = p + tan-1 
Therefore, tan(A + B) lies in 1st or in 3rd quadrant.  1+ xy 

æ p ö æ p ö Case (c): When x < 0, y > 0 and xy < -1, then


x < 0 Þ AÎç - , 0 ÷ , y < 0 Þ B Îç - , 0 ÷
è 2 ø è 2 ø x-y
tan( A - B ) = >0
Þ A + B Î ( -p , 0 ) 1+ xy

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 705 07-06-2018 12:28:17


706 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Therefore, tan(A - B) lies in 1st or in 3rd quadrant. Hence,


 p   p æ tan 2q ö
x < 0 ⇒ A ∈  - , 0 , y > 0 ⇒ B ∈  0 ,  tan-1 ç
-1 -1
÷ + tan ( cot q ) + tan ( cot q ) = 0
3
 2   2 è 2 ø
⇒ A - B ∈( -p , 0 )
Illustration 17.9   Find the number of positive integral
As (A−B) lies in 1st or 3rd quadrant. So, y 3
æ pö solutions of the equation tan-1 x + cos -1 = sin-1 or
A - B Î ç -p , - ÷ 1+ y 2 10
è 2ø tan-1 x + cot-1 y = tan-1 3.
 x-y Solution:
⇒ tan-1[tan( A - B + p )] = tan-1 
 1+ xy  1 1
tan-1 x + tan-1 = tan-1 3 or tan-1  = tan-1 3 - tan-1 x
 x-y
-1 y y
A - B + p = tan 
 1+ xy  1 3- x 1+ 3 x
or tan-1 = tan-1 ⇒ y=
 x-y y 1+ 3 x 3- x
tan-1 x - tan-1 y = -p + tan-1 
 1+ xy  As x, y are positive integers, x = 1, 2 and corresponding y = 2, 7.

Hence, solutions are (x, y) = (1, 2), (2, 7).
Illustration 17.8   Prove that
é æ3ö æ 3 öù
 p p Illustration 17.10   Find the value of tan êsin-1 ç ÷ + cos -1 ç ÷ ú.
è5ø è 13 ø û
-1  1  0 , if 4 < q < 2 ë
-1 -1
tan  tan 2q  + tan (cotq ) + tan (cot q ) = 
3 Solution:
2  p , iff 0 < q < p
 é æ3ö æ 3 öù æ -1 3 2ö
4 tan êsin-1 ç ÷ + cos -1 ç ÷ ú = tan ç tan + tan-1 ÷
ë è 5 ø è 13 ø û è 4 3ø
Solution:
p æ 3 2 ö
Case (a): If 0 < q <  , then cot q > 1, cot3 q > 1. ç -1 + ÷  -1  17 12   17
4 = tan ç tan 4 3 ÷ = tan  tan  ×   =
çç 3 2   12 6   6
Hence, 1- × ÷÷
è 4 3ø
ìï cot q + cot 3q üï
tan-1 (cot q ) + tan-1 (cot3 q ) = p + tan-1 í ý 1 1
4
ïî 1- cot q ïþ Illustration 17.11   Find the value of tan-1 + tan-1 .
2 3
Solution:
Taking cot q common from numerator and using,
1 1
+
(1+cot2 q ) = cosec2 q tan -1 1
+ tan -1 1
= tan 2 3 = tan-11 = p
-1
2 3 1 1 4
1- ×
- 1 ì cot q × cosec q × sin q ü
2 4

= p + tan í- 2 3
ý
î cos q - sin q
4 4
þ Property 7
-1 ì - sinq cosq ü
ìsin-1( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ),
= p + tan í 2 ý ï
î cos q - sin2 q þ ï if x , y Î [ -1,1] and x 2 + y 2 £ 1
ï
-1 ì 1 ü ï or iff xy < 0 and x 2 + y 2 > 1
= p + tan í- tan 2q ý ïï
î 2 þ
(1) sin-1 x + sin-1 y = íp - sin-1( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ),
-1 æ 1 ö ï
= p - tan ç tan 2q ÷ ï if x , y Î (0 ,1] and x 2 + y 2 > 1
è2 ø ï -1 2 2
p ï-p - sin ( x 1- y + y 1- x ),
since 2q < and tan 2q > 0 ï
2 ïî if x , y Î [ -1, 0 ) and x 2 + y 2 > 1
Hence,
ìsin-1( x 1- y 2 - y 1- x 2 ),
æ1 ö ï
tan-1 ç tan 2q ÷ + tan-1 (cot q ) + tan-1 (cot3 q ) = p
è2 ø ï if x , y Î [ -1,1] and x 2 + y 2 £ 1
ï
p p
ï or iff xy > 0 and x 2 + y 2 > 1
Case (b): If < q < , then 0 < cot q < 1, 0 < cot3 q < 1 ïï
4 2 (2) sin-1 x - sin-1 y = íp - sin-1( x 1- y 2 - y 1- x 2 ),
Therefore, ï
æ 1 ö ï if x Î (0 ,1], y Î [-1, 0 ) and x 2 + y 2 > 1
tan-1 (cot q ) + tan-1 (cot3 q ) = tan-1 ç - tan 2q ÷ ï -1 2 2
è 2 ø ï-p - sin ( x 1- y - y 1- x ),
ï
æ1 ö ïî if x Î [ -1, 0 ), y Î (0 ,1] and x 2 + y 2 > 1
= -tan-1 ç tan2q ÷ {since 2q > p and tan2q < 0}
è2 ø

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 706 07-06-2018 12:28:37


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 707

Proof (1): Let sin-1 x = A and sin-1 y = B where


sin-1 x + sin-1 y = sin-1 ( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 )
é p pù
x, y ∈ [-1,1] and A, B Î ê - , ú
ë 2 2û Proof (2): Replace y by -y in Proof (1).
A + B ∈ [-p, p] Illustration 17.12   Find the value of x which satisfies the equa-
sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + sin B cos A
1 2
2 2
tion sin-1 + sin-1 = sin-1 x .
sin( A + B ) = x 1- y + y 1- x 3 3

Case (a):  If x, y ∈ [-1, 0) and x2 + y2 > 1, then Solution:


1 2 é1 4 2 1ù é 5+4 2ù
é pö sin-1 + sin-1 = sin-1 ê 1- + 1- ú = sin-1 ê ú
A + B Î ê -p , - ÷ 3 3 êë 3 9 3 9 ûú êë 9 úû
ë 2ø
and sin(A + B) < 0 and cos (A + B) < 0 5+4 2
Therefore, x = .
9
p p
A+B < - Þ A< - -B
2 2 Illustration 17.13   Find the value of C which satisfies the equa-
Þ cos A < - sin B Þ 1- x < - y Þ x + y > 1
2 2 2
3 æ 12 ö
tion sin-1 + cos -1 ç ÷ = sin-1 C .
-1 -1 2 2 5 è 13 ø
sin [sin( A + B )] = sin [ x 1- y + y 1- x ]
Solution: Given,
sin-1{sin[ -p - ( A + B )]} = sin-1 [ x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ]
3 12
sin-1 C = sin-1 + cos-1
-p - ( A + B ) = sin-1( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ) 5 13
Hence,
( A + B ) = -p - sin-1( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ) 3 5 ìï 3 25 5 9 ïü
sin-1 C = sin-1 + sin-1 = sin-1 í 1- + 1- ý
5 13 îï 5 169 13 25 þï
sin-1 x + sin-1 y = -p - sin-1 ( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 )
æ 56 ö 56
Case (b):  If x, y ∈ (0,1] and x 2 + y 2 > 1, then = sin-1 ç ÷ Þ C =
è 65 ø 65
æp ù
A + B Îç ,p ú Property 8
è2 û
and sin(A + B) > 0 and cos (A + B) < 0 ìcos -1 ( xy - 1- x 2 × 1- y 2 ),
ï
p p ï if x , y Î [ -1,1] and x + y ³ 0
A+B > Þ A> -B (1) -1 -1
cos x + cos y = í
2 2
ï2p - cos -1 ( xy - 1- x 2 × 1- y 2 ),
Þ cos A < sin B Þ 1- x 2 < y Þ x 2 + y 2 > 1 ï
î if x , y Î [ -1,1] and x + y £ 0
sin-1 [sin( A + B )] = sin-1 [ x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ] ìcos-1 ( xy + 1- x 2 × 1- y 2 ),
ï
ï if x , y Î [ -1,1] and x £ y
sin-1 {sin[p - ( A + B )]} = sin-1 [ x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ] (2) -1 -1
cos x - cos y = í

ï- cos-1( xy + 1- x 2 × 1- y 2 ),
p - ( A + B ) = sin-1 ( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ) ï
î if x Î (0 ,1], y Î [ -1, 0 ) and x ³ y
( A + B ) = p - sin-1 ( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ) Proof (1): Let cos-1 x = A and cos-1 y = B where

x, y ∈ [-1,1] and A, B ∈ [0, p]
sin-1 x + sin-1 y = p - sin-1( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 )
⇒ A + B ∈ [0, 2p]
Case (c):  If x, y ∈ [-1,1] and x 2 + y 2 ≤ 1, then cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin B sin A
é p pù cos( A + B ) = xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2
A + B Î ê- , ú
ë 2 2û
Case (a): If x, y ∈ [-1,1] and x + y ≥ 0, then
and sin(A + B) > 0 and cos (A + B) > 0
A + B ∈ [0, p]
p p
A+B £ Þ A£ -B A+B≤p⇒A≤p-B
2 2
⇒ cos A ≥ -cos B ⇒ cos A + cos B ≥ 0 ⇒ x + y ≥ 0
Þ cos A ³ sin B Þ 1- x 2 ³ y Þ x 2 + y 2 £ 1
cos -1[cos( A + B )] = cos -1 ( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 )
sin-1 (sin( A + B )) = sin-1 ( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 )
A + B = cos -1( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 )
( A + B ) = sin-1 ( x 1- y 2 + y 1- x 2 ) cos -1 x + cos -1 y = cos -1 ( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 )

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 707 07-06-2018 12:29:12


708 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Case (b): If x, y ∈ [-1,1] and x + y ≤ 0, then x y


Illustration 17.16   If cos -1 + cos -1 = q , then
A + B ∈ [p, 2p] 2 3
A+B≥p⇒A≥p-B 9x2 - 12xy cos q + 4y2 is equal to
⇒ cos A ≤ -cos B ⇒ cos A + cos B ≤ 0 ⇒ x + y ≤ 0 (A)  36 sin2 q (B)  36 cos2 q
(C)  36 tan2 q (D)  None of these
cos -1[cos( A + B )] = cos -1 ( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 )

Solution:
cos -1{cos[2p - (A + B)]} = cos -1( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 ) x y

cos -1 + cos -1 = q
2p - ( A + B ) = cos -1 ( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 ) 2 3

x y æ x2 ö æ y2 ö
cos -1 x + cos -1 y = 2p - cos -1( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 ) Þ × - çç 1- ÷÷ çç 1- ÷÷ = cosq
2 3 4 ø 9 ø
è è
Proof (2): Replace y by -y in Proof (1).
⇒ (xy - 6 cosq )2 = (4 - x2)(9 - y2)
Illustration 17.14   If cos-1x + cos-1y +cos-1z = p, then prove that ⇒ 9x2 - 12xy cosq + 4y2 = 36(1 - cos2q) = 36sin2q
x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1.

Solution: Given,
Your Turn 2
cos-1x + cos-1y + cos-1z = p ìx 1 ü
1. If f ( x ) = cos -1 x + cos -1 í + 3 - 3 x 2 ý , then
⇒ cos-1x + cos-1y = p - cos-1z = cos-1(-z) î 2 2 þ
⇒ cos[cos-1x + cos-1y] = cos[cos-1(-z)] æ2ö p æ2ö 2 p
(A)  f ç ÷ = (B)  f ç ÷ = 2 cos -1 -
Let cos-1x = A and cos-1y = B. Then è3ø 3 è3ø 3 3
cos(A + B) = cosA cosB - sinA sinB 1 p 1 1 p
(C)  f æç ö÷ = (D)  f æç ö÷ = 2 cos -1 - Ans. (A), (D)
⇒ cos(A + B) = xy - 1- x 2
1- y 2 è3ø 3 è3ø 3 3

æxö æyö x 2 2 xy y2
⇒ (A + B) = cos-1 [ xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 ] 2. If cos -1 ç ÷ + cos -1 ç ÷ = a , then - cos a + 2 =
èaø èbø a 2
ab b
⇒ cos-1 ( xy - 1- x 2 1- y 2 ) = cos-1(-z) (A) sin2 a (B) cos2 a
2
⇒ xy - 1- x 1- y = -z 2
(C) tan2 a (D) cot2 a  Ans. (A)
⇒ (xy + z)2 = (1 - x2) (1 - y2) ⇒ x2y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1 - x2 - y2 + x2y2 3. All possible values of p and q for which
⇒ x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1 3p
cos -1 p + cos -1 1- p + cos -1 1- q = holds is
Hence, proved. 4
4 1 4 1 1 1
Illustration 17.15 If a = sin-1 + sin-1 and b = cos -1 + cos -1 , (A)  p = -1, q = (B)  q > 1, p =
5 3 5 3 2 2
then 1
(C)  0 £ p £ 1, q = (D)  None of these Ans. (C)
(A)  a < b (B)  a = b 2
(C)  a > b (D)  None of these -1 -1 p
4. The number of solutions of sin x + sin 2 x = is
Solution: 3
é4 1 1 16 ù (A)  0 (B) 1 (C)  2 (D) Infinite Ans. (B)
a = sin-1 ê 1- + 1- ú
êë 5 9 3 25 ûú æ 3ö æ 5ö
5. Obtain the value of cos -1 ç - ÷ + sin-1 ç - ÷ in terms of cos-1
è 5ø è 13 ø
é8 2 3 ù æ 8 2 +3ö æ 16 ö
= sin-1 ê + ú = sin-1 çç ÷÷ function. Ans. cos -1 ç - ÷
êë 15 15 ûú è 15 ø è 65 ø
-1 12 -1 4 -1 63
6.   sin + cos + tan =
8 2 +3 p 13 5 16
Since therefore
< 1, \ a<
15 2
(A) 0 (B)  p (C)  π (D)  2p Ans. (C)
8 2 +3 p 2 3
< 1, \a <
15 2 7. If a, b, c be positive real numbers and the value of
a(a + b + c ) b(a + b + c )
æp 4 p 1ö p q = tan-1 + tan-1 , then tanq is
b = ç - sin-1 + - sin-1 ÷ = (p - a ) > bc ca
è2 5 2 3ø 2
⇒a<b (A) 0 (B) 1 (C)  a + b + c (D)  None of these Ans. (A)

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 708 07-06-2018 12:29:39


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 709

Property 9  p p
Proof (2): Let sin-1x = A where x ∈[ -1,1] and A ∈  - ,  . Then
ì -1 2 1  2 2
ï-p - sin (2 x 1- x ), if - 1 £ x < -
ï 2 x = sin A
ï 1 1 sin 3A = 3 sin A - 4 sin3 A = 3x - 4x3
(1) 2 sin-1 x = ísin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ), if - £x£
ï 2 2 é 3p 3p ù
ï 1 where 3 AÎê - , ú
-1
ïp - sin (2 x 1- x ), if
2
< x £1 ë 2 2 û
î 2
ì 1 é 3p p ö
-1 3 Case (a): If 3 AÎ ê - , - ÷ , then
ï-p - sin (3 x - 4 x ), if - 1 £ x < - 2 ë 2 2ø
ï
ï 1 1 é 3p p ö é 1ö
(2) 3 sin-1 x = ísin-1(3 x - 4 x 3 ), if - £ x £ A Î ê- , - ÷ Þ x Î ê -1, - ÷
ï 2 2
ë 6 6ø ë 2 ø
ï -1 3 1
ïp - sin (3 x - 4 x ), if 2 < x £ 1 sin-1 (sin 3A) = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
î
⇒ sin-1 [sin(-p - 3A)] = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
é p pù ⇒ -p - 3A = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
Proof (1): Let sin-1x = A where x Î [ -1,1] and A Î ê - , ú . Then
ë 2 2û ⇒ 3A = -p - sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
x = sin A ⇒ 3sin-1 x = -p - sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
sin 2 A = 2 sin A cos A = 2 x 1- x 2 æ p 3p ù
Case (b): If 3 AÎ ç , ú , then
where 2A ∈ [-p,p] è2 2 û
 p  p p  1  æp p ù æ1 ù
Case (a): If 2 A ∈  -p , -  , then, A ∈  - , -  ⇒ x ∈  -1, -  A Î ç , ú Þ x Î ç ,1ú
 2   2 4   2 è 6 2û è2 û
 p  p p  1  sin-1 (sin 3A) = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
2 A ∈  -p , -  , then, A ∈  - , -  ⇒ x ∈  -1, - 
 2   2 4   2 ⇒ sin-1 [sin(p - 3A)] = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
⇒ p - 3A = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
sin-1 (sin 2 A) = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ) ⇒ 3A = p - sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
⇒ 3sin-1 x = p - sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
⇒ sin-1 [(sin( -p - 2 A)] = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 )
é p pù
⇒ -p - 2 A = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ) Case (c): If 3 AÎ ê - , ú , then
ë 2 2û
Þ 2 A = -p - sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 )
é p pù é 1 1ù
A Î ê- , ú Þ x Î ê- , ú
-1 -1
Þ 2 sin x = -p - sin (2 x 1- x ) 2 ë 6 6û ë 2 2û

sin-1 (sin 3A) = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
æp ù
Case (b): If 2 A Î ç , p ú , then ⇒ 3A = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
è2 û
⇒ 3sin-1 x = sin-1 (3x - 4x3)
æp p ù æ 1 ù
AÎç , ú Þ x Îç ,1ú Property 10
è 4 2û è 2 û
ìï2p - cos-1(2 x 2 - 1), if - 1 £ x < 0
sin-1 (sin 2 A) = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ) (1) 2 cos -1 x = í
-1 2
îïcos (2 x - 1), if 0 £ x £ 1
Þ sin-1 [sin(p - 2 A)] = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 )
 -1 3 1
Þ p - 2 A = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ) 2p + cos ( 4 x - 3 x ), if - 1 ≤ x < - 2

 1 1
Þ 2 A = p - sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ) (2) 3 cos -1 x = 2p - cos -1( 4 x 3 - 3 x ), if - ≤ x ≤
 2 2
Þ 2 sin-1 x = p - sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 )  -1 3 1
cos ( 4 x - 3 x ), if 2 < x ≤ 1

é p pù
Case (c): If 2 A Î ê - , ú , then Proof (1): Let cos-1 x = A where x ∈ [-1, 1] and A ∈ [0, p]. Then
ë 2 2û
é p pù é 1 1 ù x = cos A
A Î ê- , ú Þ x Î ê- , ú cos 2A = 2 cos2 A - 1 = 2x2 - 1
ë 4 4û ë 2 2û
where 2A ∈ [0, 2p]
sin-1 (sin 2 A) = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 )
Case (a): If 2 AÎ[0 , p ], then
⇒ 2 A = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 )
é pù
A Î ê0 , ú Þ x Î [0 ,1]
⇒ 2 sin-1 x = sin-1 (2 x 1- x 2 ) ë 2û

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 709 07-06-2018 12:30:06


710 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

cos-1 (cos 2A) = cos-1 (2x2 - 1) æ p pö


⇒ 2A = cos-1 (2x2 - 1) Proof (1): Let tan-1 x = A where x Î R and A Î ç - , ÷ . Then
⇒ 2cos-1 x = cos-1 (2x2 - 1) è 2 2ø
x = tan A
Case (b): If 2 AÎ(p , 2p ], then 2 tan A 2x
tan 2 A = =
æp ù 1- tan A 1- x 2
2

A Î ç , p ú Þ x Î [ -1, 0 )
è2 û where 2A ∈ (-p,p)
cos-1 [cos(2p - 2A)] = cos-1 (2x2 - 1) æ pö
Case (a): If 2 AÎ ç -p , - ÷ , then
⇒ 2p - 2A = cos-1 (2x2 - 1) è 2ø
⇒ 2A = 2p - cos-1 (2x2 - 1)
⇒ 2cos-1 x = 2p - cos-1 (2x2 - 1) æ p pö
A Î ç - , - ÷ Þ x Î ( -¥ , -1)
è 2 4ø
Proof (2): Let cos-1 x = A where x ∈ [-1, 1] and A ∈ [0, p]. Then
x = cos A æ 2x ö
cos 3A = 4 cos3 A - 3 cos A = 4x3 - 3x tan-1 (tan 2 A) = tan-1 ç ÷
è 1- x 2 ø
where 3A ∈ [0, 3p]
æ 2x ö
Þ tan-1 [tan(p + 2 A)] = tan-1 ç ÷
Case (a): If 3 AÎ[0 , p ), then è 1- x 2 ø
é pö æ1 ù æ 2x ö
A Î ê0 , ÷ Þ x Î ç ,1ú Þ p + 2 A = tan-1 ç
ë 3ø è2 û ÷
è 1- x 2 ø
cos-1 (cos 3A) = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x)
æ 2x ö
⇒ 3A = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x) Þ 2 A = -p + tan-1 ç ÷
⇒ 3cos-1 x = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x) è 1- x 2 ø

Case (b): If 3 AÎ[p , 2p ], then æ 2x ö


Þ 2 tan-1 x = -p + tan-1 ç ÷
é p 2p ù é 1 1ù è 1- x 2 ø
A Î ê , ú Þ x Î ê- , ú
ë3 3 û ë 2 2û é p pù
Case (b): If 2 AÎ ê - , ú , then
cos-1 [cos(2p - 3A)] = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x) ë 2 2û
⇒ 2p - 3A = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x)
⇒ 3A = 2p - cos-1 (4x3 - 3x) é p pù
⇒ 3cos-1 x = 2p - cos-1 (4x3 - 3x) A Î ê - , - ú Þ x Î [ -1,1]
ë 4 4û
Case (c): If 3 AÎ(2p , 3p ), then
æ 2x ö
tan-1 (tan 2 A) = tan-1 ç ÷
æ 2p ù é 1ö è 1- x 2 ø
AÎç , p ú Þ x Î ê -1, - ÷
è 3 û ë 2ø
 2x 
⇒ 2 A = tan-1 
cos-1 [cos(3A - 2p)] = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x)  1- x 2 
⇒ 3A - 2p = cos-1 (4x3 - 3x)
⇒ 3A = 2p + cos-1 (4x3 - 3x)  2x 
⇒ 2 tan-1 x = tan-1 
 1- x 2 
⇒ 3cos-1 x = 2p + cos-1 (4x3 - 3x)
Property 11
æp ö
ì -1 æ 2 x ö
Case (c): If 2 AÎ ç , p ÷ , then
ï-p + tan ç 2÷
, if x < -1 è2 ø
ï è 1- x ø
ï æ 2x ö æp p ö
(1) 2 tan-1 x = ítan-1 ç 2÷
, if - 1 £ x £ 1 A Î ç , ÷ Þ x Î (1, ¥ )
ï è 1- x ø è4 2ø
ï æ 2x ö
ïp + tan-1 ç , if x > 1 æ 2x ö
2÷ tan-1 (tan 2 A) = tan-1 ç ÷
îï è 1- x ø è 1- x 2 ø
ì -1 æ 3 x - x ö
3
1 æ 2x ö
ï-p + tan çç 2 ÷÷ , if x < - Þ tan-1 [tan( -p + 2 A)] = tan-1 ç ÷
ï è 1- 3 x ø 3 è 1- x 2 ø
ï
ï æ 3x - x3 ö 1 1 æ 2x ö
(2) 3 tan-1 x = ítan-1 çç 2 ÷
÷ , if - £x£ Þ -p + 2 A = tan-1 ç ÷
ï è 1- 3 x ø 3 3 è 1- x 2 ø
ï
ïp + tan-1 æç 3 x - x ö÷ , if x > 1
3
æ 2x ö
ï ç 1- 3 x ÷2 Þ 2 A = p + tan-1 ç ÷
î è ø 3 è 1- x 2 ø

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 710 07-06-2018 12:30:33


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 711

æ 2x ö æ 3x - x 3 ö
Þ 2 tan-1 x = p + tan-1 ç ÷ Þ -p + 3 A = tan-1 ç 2 ÷
è 1- x 2 ø è 1- 3 x ø
æ p pö æ 3x - x3 ö
Proof (2): Let tan-1 x = A where x ∈ R and A ∈ ç - , ÷ . Then Þ 3 A = p + tan-1 ç
è 2 2ø 2 ÷
x = tan A è 1- 3 x ø
3 tan A - tan3 A 3 x - x 3 æ 3x - x3 ö
tan 3 A = = 3 tan-1 x = p + tan-1 ç 2 ÷
1- 3 tan2 A 1- 3 x 2 è 1- 3 x ø
æ 3p 3p ö Illustration 17.17  Let a, b and γ are three angles given by
3 AÎ ç - , ÷
è 2 2 ø

æ 3p p ö
a = 2 tan-1 ( )
2 - 1 , b = 3 sin-1
1
2
æ 1ö æ 1ö
+ sin-1 ç - ÷ and g = cos -1 ç ÷ .
è 2ø è3ø
Case (a): If 3 AÎ ç - , - ÷ , then
è 2 2ø Then

æ p pö æ 1 ö (A)  a > b (B)  b > γ


A Î ç - , - ÷ Þ x Î ç -¥ , -
÷ (C)  a > γ (D)  None of these
è 2 6ø è 3ø
 3x - x3  Solution:
tan-1 ( tan 3 A) = tan-1  
 1- 3 x 2  a = 2 tan-1 ( )
2 - 1 = 2 tan-1 tan
p
8
 3x - x3  p p 1
⇒ tan-1  tan (p + 3 A) = tan-1   = 2× = = cos -1
 1- 3 x 2  8 4 2
æ 3x - x 3 ö p p 7p
Þ p + 3 A = tan-1 ç b = 3× - =
2 ÷ 4 6 12
è 1- 3 x ø
Therefore, b > a. Also,
æ 3x - x 3 ö 1 1
Þ 3 A = -p + tan-1 ç 2 ÷ <
è 1- 3 x ø 3 2
æ 3x - x 3 ö 1 1 p
Þ 3 tan-1 x = -p + tan-1 ç 2 ÷
Þ cos -1 > cos -1 =
è 1- 3 x ø 3 2 4
So, γ > a.
é p pù
Case (b): If 3 AÎ ê - , ú , then  1
ë 2 2û Again cos -1   belongs to the first quadrant and b is in the
 3
é p pù é 1 1 ù second quadrant.
A Î ê- , ú Þ x Î ê- , ú
ë 6 6û ë 3 3û Hence, b > γ .

 3x - x3  Illustration 17.18   The value of


tan-1 ( tan 3 A) = tan-1  
 1- 3 x 2  é æ 1 öù
sin ê2 tan-1 ç ÷ ú + cos éë tan-1 2 2 ùû =
 3x - x  3
ë è 3 øû
⇒ 3 A = tan-1 
 1- 3 x 2  16 14
(A)  (B) 
 3x - x  3 15 15
⇒ 3 tan-1 x = tan-1 
 1- 3 x 2  12 11
(C)  (D) 
15 15
æ p 3p ö
Case (c): If 3 AÎ ç , ÷ , then Solution:
è2 2 ø
é æ 1 öù
æp p ö æ 1 ö sin ê2 tan-1 ç ÷ ú + cos[tan-1(2 2 )]
AÎç , ÷ Þ x Îç ,¥÷ ë è 3 øû
è 6 2 ø è 3 ø
é 2 ù
-1  3 x
- x3  ê -1 3 ú
tan ( tan 3 A) = tan 
-1
= sin ê tan + cos[tan-1(2 2 )]

 1- 3 x 2  ê 1 úú
1-
ë 9û
 3x - x3 
⇒ tan-1  tan ( -p + 3 A) = tan-1   é 3ù
= sin ê tan-1 ú + cos[tan-1 2 2 ]
 1- 3 x 2  ë 4û

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 711 07-06-2018 12:31:01


712 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

é 3ù é 1 ù 3 1 14 2x
= sin êsin-1 ú + cos êcos -1 ú = + = sin2 A =
ë 5û ë 3 û 5 3 15 1+ x 2
æ 2x ö
Property 12 Þ sin-1[sin(p - 2 A)] = sin-1 ç ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø
 -1 
2x 
 -p - sin  1+ x 2  , if x < -1 æ 2x ö
Þ p - 2 A = sin-1 ç
 ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø
  2x 
2 tan x = sin-1 
-1
, if - 1 ≤ x ≤ 1
  1+ x 2  æ 2x ö
Þ 2 A = p - sin-1 ç ÷
 è 1+ x 2 ø
 2x 
p - sin-1  , if x > 1
  1+ x 2  æ 2x ö
Þ 2 tan-1 A = p - sin-1 ç ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø
æ p pö
Proof: Let tan-1 x = A where x Î R and A Î ç - , ÷ . Then
è 2 2ø Illustration 17.19   The solution set of the equation
x = tan A sin-1 x = 2tan-1 x is
2 tan A 2x (A)  {1, 2} (B) 
{-1, 2}
sin 2 A = =
1+ tan A 1+ x 2
2
(C) {-1,1,0} (D)  {1, 1/2, 0}
where 2A ∈ (-p,p) Solution:
æ pö 2x
Case (a): If 2 AÎ ç -p , - ÷ , then sin-1 x = 2tan-1 x ⇒ sin-1 x = sin-1
è 2ø 1+ x 2
æ p pö 2x
⇒ = x ⇒ x3 - x = 0 ⇒ x(x + 1) (x - 1) = 0 ⇒ x = {-1,1,0}
A Î ç - , - ÷ Þ x Î ( -¥ , -1) 1+ x 2
è 2 4ø
2x
Illustration 17.20   If 2 tan-1 x + sin-1 is independent of x,
2x 1+ x 2
sin2 A =
1+ x 2 then
 2x  (A)  x ∈ [1, + ∞) (B)  x ∈ [-1,1]
⇒ sin-1[sin( -p - 2 A)] = sin-1 
 1+ x 2  (C)  x ∈ (-∞, -1] (D) None of these
æ 2x ö Solution: Let x = tanq. Then
Þ -p - 2 A = sin-1 ç 2 ÷
è 1+ x ø 2x 2 tanq
sin-1 = sin-1 = sin-1(sin 2q )
æ 2x ö 1+ x 2
1+ tan2 q
Þ 2 A = -p - sin-1 ç ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø 2x
Hence, 2 tan-1 x + sin-1 = 2q + sin-1(sin 2q ).
1+ x 2
æ 2x ö
Þ 2 tan-1 A = -p - sin-1 ç ÷ p pp p
è 1+ x 2 ø If - £ 2q -£ £, then
2q £ , then
2 22 2
é p pù --11 2 x -1 2 x
Case (b): If 2 AÎ ê - , ú , then -1
2 tan x + sin x + sin
2 tan = 2q + 2q = 4 tan-1x
ë 2 2û 1+ x 2 1+ x 2
é p pù which is not independent of x
A Î ê - , ú Þ x Î [ -1,1]
ë 4 4û p p
If - ≤ p - 2q ≤ , then
2x 2 2
sin2 A =
1+ x 2 2x
2 tan-1 x + sin-1
 2x  1+ x 2
⇒ sin-1[sin(2 A)] = sin-1 
 1+ x 2  = 2q + sin-1 [sin(p - 2q )] = 2q + p - 2q = p
 2x  which is independent of x
⇒ 2 A = sin-1 
 1+ x 2  é p pù é p 3p ù
Hence, q Ï ê - , ú but q Î ê - , ú and from the principal
 2x  ë 4 4û ë 4 4 û
⇒ 2 tan-1 A = sin-1 
 1+ x 2  value of tan-1 x.
é p pù
æp ö q Î ê- , ú
Case (c): If 2 AÎ ç , p ÷ , then ë 2 2û
è2 ø
Hence,
æp p ö p p
A Î ç , ÷ Þ x Î (1, ¥ ) q Î éê , ùú
è4 2ø ë4 2û

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 712 07-06-2018 12:31:31


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 713

2x Illustration 17.21   Write in the simplest form:


Þ tan-1 x + sin-1 =p
1+ x 2
æ cos x ö p 3p
p tan-1 ç ÷ where - £ x £
Also at q = , è 1+ sin x ø 2 2
4
2x p p p Solution:
2 tan-1 x + sin-1= 2 × + sin-1 1 = + = p
1+ x 2 4 2 2 é æp ö ù
ê sin ç - x ÷ ú
ép p ù æ cos x ö è2 ø ú
Hence, the given function = p = constant if q Î ê , ú , that is, tan-1 ç ÷ = tan ê
-1
ë4 2û è 1+ sin x ø ê1+ cos æ p - x ö ú
êë ç ÷ú
x ∈ [1, + ∞). è2 øû
Property 13 é æp x ö æp x öù
ê 2 sin ç 4 - 2 ÷ cos ç 4 - 2 ÷ ú
 -1 
1- x 2  = tan ê
-1 è ø è øú
 - cos  1+ x 2  , if x ≤ 0 ê 2æp xö ú
 2 cos ç - ÷
2 tan-1 x =  êë è4 2ø úû
 - cos -1  1- x  , if x ≥ 0
2

 
 1+ x 2 
é æ p x öù p x
= tan-1 ê tan ç - ÷ ú = -
p p  ë è 4 2 øû 4 2
Proof: Let tan-1 x = A where x ∈ R and A ∈ ,  . Then
 2 2
x = tan A Illustration 17.22   Find the angle
1- tan2 A 1- x 2
cos 2 A = = æ 3p ö
1+ tan2 A 1+ x 2 (A) tan-1 ç tan ÷ (B) sin-1 sin 5 (where 5 is in radians).
è 4 ø
where 2A ∈ (-p,p)
Solution:
Case (a): If 2 A ∈( -p , 0 ), then
 3p 
 p  (A) Let tan-1  tan  = q
A ∈ - , 0 ⇒ x ∈( -∞ , 0 )  4 
 2 
 p
1- x 2 tan-1 tan  p -  = q
cos2 A =  4
1+ x 2
 p
tan-1  - tan  = q
æ 1- x 2 ö  4
Þ cos -1 éëcos ( -2 A ) ùû = cos -1 ç ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø p é æ p p öù
⇒ - tan-1 tan = q êAs tan-1 tanq = q , if q Î ç - , ÷ ú
æ 1- x ö 2 4 ë è 2 2 øû
Þ -2 A = cos -1 ç ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø p
⇒ - =q
æ 1- x 2 ö 4
Þ -2 A = - cos -1 ç ÷
è 1+ x 2 ø (B)  We know

æ 1- x 2 ö é p pù
Þ 2 tan-1 x = - cos -1 ç ÷ sin-1 sin q = q, q ∈ ê - , ú » [ -1.57,1.57] (1)
è 1+ x 2 ø ë 2 2û
Hence, sin-1 sin 5 ≠ 5 as 5 ∉ [-1.57, 1.57].
Case (b): If 2 A ∈[0 , p ], then
Therefore,
 p sin 5 = sin (p + 5 - p )
A ∈ 0 ,  ⇒ x ∈[0 , ∞ )
 2 = - sin (5 - p)
1- x 2 Since (5 - p) ∉ [-1.57, 1.57], so we again add and subtract p.
cos2 A =
1+ x 2
⇒ sin 5 = - sin (p + 5 - 2p )
æ 1- x 2 ö
Þ cos -1[cos(2 A)] = cos -1 ç ÷ = + sin (5 - 2p) [Since (5 - 2p) ∈ [- 1.57, 1.57]]
è 1+ x 2 ø
Hence,
æ 1- x 2 ö
Þ 2 A = cos -1 ç ÷ sin-1 sin 5 = sin-1 sin (5 - 2p) = 5 - 2p
è 1+ x 2 ø
Note: To solve this type of problem, the procedure is to add

æ 1- x 2 ö and subtract p till it belongs to the principal value range of
Þ 2 tan x = cos ç
-1 -1
÷
è 1+ x 2 ø respective inverse trigonometric function.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 713 07-06-2018 12:31:55


714 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Solution: We know,
Your Turn 3
p
cos -1 x = - sin-1 x
1. If 2 tan-1(cos x) = tan-1(cosec2 x), then x = 2
p Given,
(A)  (B)  π
2 p
p p cos -1x - cos -1 y =
(C)  (D)   Ans. (D) 3
6 3
p p p
1 1 1 ⇒ - sin-1 x - + sin-1 y =
2. 4 tan-1 - tan-1 + tan-1 = 2 2 3
5 70 99
p p p
(A)  (B)  sin-1 y - sin-1 x =
2 3 3
2p
p -1 -1
sin y + sin x = (1)
(C)  (D)  None of these Ans. (C) 3
4
1 1 2sin-1 y = p
3. 4 tan-1 - tan-1 is equal to
5 239 p
p sin-1 y = (2)
2
(A)  π (B)  2
⇒y=1
p p
(C)  (D)  Ans. (D) Put Eq. (2) in Eq. (1).
3 4
a3 æ1 a ö b3 æ1 bö p 2p
4. cosec2 ç tan-1 ÷ + sec2 ç tan-1 ÷ is equal to + sin-1 x =
2 è2 bø 2 è2 aø 2 3

(A) (a - b)(a2 + b2) (B) (a + b)(a2 - b2) p


sin-1 x =
(C) (a + b) (a2 + b2) (D)  None of these Ans. (D) 6
2a 1- b 2
2x 1
5. If sin-1 - cos -1 = tan-1 , then x = Þx=
1+ a 2 1+ b 2 1- x 2 2
(A)  a (B)  b 1 
a+b a-b Thus, solution set is  , 1 .
(C)  (D)  Ans. (D) 2
1- ab 1+ ab
Hence, the correct answer is option (B).
1- x 2
6. The formula cos -1 = 2 tan-1 x holds only for
1+ x 2 3. Which of the following is the solution set of the equation
(A)  x ∈ R (B) |x| ≤ 1 sin-1 x = cos-1 x + sin-1(3x - 2)?
(C)  x ∈ (-1,1] (D) 
x ∈ [0,+∞] Ans. (D)
(A)  { }
1
2
,1
1 
(B)   , 1
2 
Additional Solved Examples
1. The number of real solutions of x+cos-1 cos-1
2x = -p is
1 
(C)   , 1
3 
(D)  { }
1
3
,1

(A)  0 (B)  1 Solution: We know


(C)  2 (D)  Infinitely many
p
Solution: sin-1 x + cos -1 x =
2
cos-1 x = -(p + cos-1 2x)
p p
Range of cos-1 x ∈ [0, p] Þ = 2 cos -1 x + - cos -1(3 x - 2)
2 2
Since cos-1 x has a range from [0, p], thus the sum of two cos-1 cos-1(3x - 2) = 2 cos-1x
cannot be equal to -p a negative quantity. cos-1(3x - 2) = cos-1(2x2 - 1)
Hence, the correct answer is option (A).
3x - 2 = 2x2 - 1
2p
2. Number of pairs (x, y) satisfying sin-1 x + sin-1 y = and 2x2 - 3x + 1 = 0
3
p (2x - 1) (x - 1) = 0
is
cos -1 x - cos -1 y =
3 1
⇒x=
(A) 0 (B)  1 2
(C) 2 (D)  None of these ⇒x=1

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 714 07-06-2018 12:32:15


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 715

Thus, only at
1
2 { }
, 1 above expression has a solution 2t 2 - p t -
3p 2
8
=0

Hence, the correct answer is option (A). ⇒ 16t2 - 8pt - 3p2 = 0


æ 1ö æ 1ö æ 1ö p ⇒ (4t + p)(4t - 3p) = 0
4. If cot -1 ç ÷ + cot -1 ç ÷ + cot -1 ç ÷ = , then
èaø èbø ècø 2 -p 3p
Þt = ,t =
(A)  a + b + c = abc (B)  ab + bc + ca = 1 4 4
(C)  ab + bc + ca = abc (D)  None of these So,
-p 3p
Solution: We know, tan-1 x = , tan-1 x =
4 4
1
tan-1 a = cot -1 (a > 0 ) x = -1, x = -1
a
Thus, x = -1.
p Hence, the correct answer is option (A).
Þ tan-1 a + tan-1 b + tan-1 c =
2
p
æ a + b + c - abc ö p 7. If sin-1 6 x + sin-1 6 3 x = - , then x is equal to
-1
tan ç ÷= 2
è 1- ab - bc - ca ø 2
1
⇒ 1 - ab - bc - ca = 0 (A)  -1 (B) 
12
ab + bc + ca = 1
Hence, the correct answer is option (B). 1
(C)  - (D)  None of these
12
5. 3sin-1 x = sin-1(3x - 4x3) holds good for all
(A)  |x| ≤ 1 (B) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 Solution: See Fig. 17.9. Given,
(C) |x| ≤ 1/2 (D)  None of these p
sin-1 6 x + sin-1 6 3 x = -
Solution: We know, 2
é -p p ù -p p
sin-1( z ) Î ê , ú £ sin-1 x £
ë 2 2û 2 2
So, for Thus sum of two angles
3sin-1( x ) = sin-1(3x - 4x3) a, b can only be negative
-p p
£ sin-1 ( 3 x - 4 x 3 ) £ when both the angles
2 2 are negative but angles
-p p are negative only when
Þ £ 3 sin-1 x £ x is negative or equal
2 2
negative.
-p p Putting x = -1, we have
£ sin-1 x £
6 6
sin-1( -6) + sin-1( -6 3 ).
é 1 1ù 1
Þ x Î ê- , ú ⇒| x | ≤ Since sin-1 x has x∈[-1, 0] Figure 17.9
ë 2 2 û 2
so x = -1 cannot be a
Hence, the correct answer is option (C). solution.
5p 2 1
6. If (tan-1 x )2 + (cos -1 x )2 = , then x equals Now, putting x = - ,
8 12
(A)  -1 (B) 1 æ
éæ -1 ö ù æ 1 öö
(C) 0 (D)  None of these sin-1 êç ÷ ú + sin-1 ç 6 3 ç - ÷ ÷
12
ëè ø û ç è 12 ø ÷ø
è
Solution: We know,
p  1  3
tan-1 x + cot -1 x = = sin-1  -  + sin-1  - 
2  2  2 
So,
p p p
æp ö 5p
2 2 =- - =-
(tan x ) + ç - tan-1 x ÷ =
-1 2 6 3 2
è2 ø 8
So,
p2 5p 2 1
-1
2(tan x ) + - p tan-1 x =
2
x=-
4 8 12
Let tan-1 x = t. Then Hence, the correct answer is option (C).

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 715 07-06-2018 12:32:35


716 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

8. sin-1 x > cos-1x hold for p


æ 1 ö and tan-1(1) =
(A)  All values of x (B)  x Î ç 0 , ÷   4
è 2ø So,
 1  p p 3p
(C)  x ∈ ,1 (D)  x = 0.75 + =
 2  4 2 4

Solution: See Fig. 17.10. Hence, the correct answer is option (C).
y
p Previous Years' Solved JEE Main/AIEEE
cos x
−1
Questions
p /2
sin−1x æxö æ5ö p
1. If sin-1 ç ÷ + cosec -1 ç ÷ = , then a value of x is
è5ø è4ø 2
x
(1/ 2,0) (1, 0) (A) 1 (B) 3
(C) 4 (D) 5 [AIEEE 2007]
−p /2
Solution: We have
x 4 p x 4 x 3
sin-1 + sin-1 = Þ sin-1 = cos -1 Þ sin-1 = sin-1
Figure 17.10 5 5 2 5 5 5 5
Therefore, x = 3.
-p p
0 £ cos -1 x £ p ; £ sin-1 x £ Hence, the correct answer is option (B).
2 2
æ 5 2ö
 1  2. The value of cot ç cosec -1 + tan-1 ÷ is
Clearly, sin-1 x > cos -1 x ∀x ∈ ,1 . è 3 3ø
 2 
6 3
Hence, the correct answer is option (C). (A) (B)
  17   17
æ -1 ö æ 1ö
9. The value of tan-1 + cos -1 ç ÷ + sin-1 ç - ÷ is 4 5
è 2ø è 2ø (C) (D)  [AIEEE 2008]
  17   17
p 5p
(A) (B) 
æ 5 2ö
  4 12 Solution: Let us consider that, E = cot ç cosec -1 + tan-1 ÷ .
è 3 3ø
3p 11p
(C)  (D) 
4 12 Therefore,
é æ 3 2 öù
Solution: é -1 æ 3 ö -1 æ 2 ö ù
ê -1 ç 4 + 3 ÷ ú
E = cot ê tan ç ÷ + tan ç ÷ ú = cot ê tan ç ÷ú
-p p -p
< tan-1 x < ;
p
£ sin-1 x £ ; 0 £ cos -1 x £ p ë è4ø è 3 øû ê çç 1- 3 × 2 ÷÷ ú
2 2 2 2 êë è 4 3 ø úû
p æ 17 ö 6
tan-1(1) = (1) = cot ç tan-1 ÷ =
4 è 6 ø 17
æ 1 ö 2p Hence, the correct answer is option (A).
cos -1 ç - ÷ = (2)
è 2ø 3
3. Statement I: The equation (sin-1x)3 +(cos-1x)3 - ap 3 = 0 has a
æ 1 ö -p
-1 1
sin ç - ÷ = (3) solution for all a ³ .
è 2ø 6 32
Thus, Eqs. (1) + (2) + (3) gives p
Statement II: For any x ∈ R, sin-1 x + cos -1 x = and
2
 1  1 p 2p p
tan-1 (1) + cos -1  -  + sin-1  -  = + - æ
2
p ö 9p 2
 2  2 4 3 6 0 £ ç sin-1 x - ÷ £ .
è 4ø 16
3p + 8p - 2p 9p 3p
= = = (A)  Both statements I and II are true.
12 12 4
(B)  Both statements I and II are false.
Alternative Solution: Since (C)  Statement I is true and statement II is false.
p (D)  Statement I is false and statement II is true.
sin-1 x + cos -1 x =
2 [JEE MAIN 2014 (ONLINE SET-3)]

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 716 07-06-2018 12:32:55


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 717

Solution: é æ -p ö ù -p
Therefore, tan-1 ê tan ç ÷ú = .
(sin-1 x)3 + (cos-1 x)3 - ap 3 =0 ë è 4 øû 4
Þ (sin x + cos x )[(sin x ) - sin x cos x + (cos -1 x )2 ] = ap 3
-1 -1 -1 2 -1 -1
Hence, the correct answer is option (C).
p
Þ [(sin-1 x + cos -1 x )2 - 3 sin-1 x cos -1 x ] = a p 3p 2 æ 2x ö 1
2 5. Let tan-1 y = tan-1 x + tan-1 ç 2 ÷
, where x < . Then a
è 1 - x ø 3
2
æp ö æp ö value of y is
Þ ç ÷ - 3 sin-1 x ç - sin-1 x ÷ = 2ap 2
è2ø è2 ø 3x + x 3 3x - x 3
(A)  (B) 
p 2
1- 3 x 2 1+ 3 x 2
- 2ap 2
4 p
Þ = (sin-1 x ) - (sin-1 x )2 3x + x 3 3x - x 3
3 2 (C)  (D) 
1+ 3 x 2 1- 3 x 2
p 2 - 8ap 2 p
Þ = (sin-1 x ) - (sin-1x)2
12 2 [JEE MAIN 2015 (OFFLINE)]

p -1
2
æ p ö æ p ö p - 8ap
2 2 2
Solution: Since,
Þ (sin-1 x )2 - sin x + ç ÷ = ç ÷ -
2 è4ø è4ø 12
æ x+y ö
æ
2
p ö p 2 p 2 8 ap 2 32ap 2 - p 2
2
tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1 ç ÷ for xy < 1
Þ ç sin-1 x - ÷ = - + = è 1- xy ø
è 4 ø 16 12 12 3 48
Now,
Now æ 2x ö 2x
2
æ 1- x 2 - 1 ö 2
x ×ç 2 ÷
= = -2 ç 2 ÷
= -2 +
è 1- x ø 1- x è 1- x ø
2
p p -p p p p p 1- x 2
- £ sin-1 x £ Þ - £ sin-1 x - £ -
2 2 2 4 4 2 4 Further
1 1 1 2
-3p p p x < Þ 0 £ x 2 < Þ - < - x 2 £ 0 Þ < 1- x 2 £ 1
or £ sin-1 x - £ 3 3 3 3
4 4 4
1 3 2 2
æ p ö 9p 2
2
Þ 1£ < Þ2£ < 3 Þ 0 £ -2 + <1
Þ 0 £ ç sin-1 x - ÷ £ 1- x 2 2 1- x 2 1- x 2
è 4ø 16
æ 2x ö
Therefore, Þ x ×ç 2 ÷
Î (0 ,1)
è 1- x ø
32ap 2 - p 2 9p 2 32a - 1 9 Hence,
0£ £ Þ0£ £
48 16 48 16 æ 2x ö
1 28 æ 2x ö çx+ ÷
⇒ 0 ≤ 32a - 1 ≤ 27 ⇒ 1 £ 32a £ 28 Þ é 1 7ù -1 -1
tan ( x ) + tan ç -1
= tan ç 1 - x2 ÷
£a£ Þ aÎ ê , ú 2 ÷ 2
32 32 ë 32 8 û è 1- x ø ç 1- 2 x ÷
ç ÷
1 28 é 1 7 ù è 1- x 2 ø
1 £ 32a £ 28 Þ £a£ Þ aÎ ê , ú
32 32 ë 32 8 û
æ 3x - x3 ö
= tan-1 ç 2 ÷
= tan-1( y ) (given)
Therefore, Statement I is false and II is true. è 1- 3 x ø
Hence, the correct answer is option (D).
æ 3x - x 3 ö
æ 43p ö Þ y =ç 2 ÷
4. The principal value of tan-1 ç cot ÷ is è 1- 3 x ø
è 4 ø
Hence, the correct answer is option (D).
3p 3p
(A)  - (B) 
4 4 æ 2x ö
6. If f ( x ) = 2 tan-1 x + sin-1 ç 2 ÷
, x > 1, then f(5) is equal to
p p è 1+ x ø
(C)  - (D) 
4 4 p
(A)  (B)  π
2
[JEE MAIN 2014 (ONLINE SET-4)] æ 65 ö
Solution: (C)  4 tan−1(5) (D)  tan-1 ç ÷
è 156 ø
43p æ 44p p ö æ pö æ pö [JEE MAIN 2015 (ONLINE SET-1)]
cot = cot ç - ÷ = cot ç 11p - ÷ = cot ç p - ÷
4 è 4 4ø è 4ø è 4ø
Solution:
3p æp p ö p æ -p ö æ 2x ö
= cot = cot ç + ÷ = - tan = tan ç ÷ f ( x ) = 2 tan-1 x + sin-1 ç , x > 1, f(5) = ?
4 2 ÷
è2 4ø 4 è 4 ø è 1+ x ø

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 717 07-06-2018 12:33:23


718 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

We know that The slope of normal is −2 and the equation of normal is


ì -1 æ 2 x ö p æ pö
ï sin ç 1+ x 2 ÷ ; 1£ x £ 1 y- = -2 ç x - ÷
ï è ø 3 è 6ø
ï æ 2x ö p
2 tan-1 x = í-p - sin-1 ç 2 ÷
; x < -1 = -2 x +
ï è 1+ x ø 3
ï æ 2x ö Therefore,
ï p - sin-1 ç 2 ÷
; x >1
ïî è 1+ x ø 2p
y = -2 x +
⇒ f(x) = 2 tan−1x + (π - 2 tan−1x) ⇒ f(x) = π ∀ x > 1 ⇒ f(5) = π 3
Hence, the correct answer is option (B). 2p
2x + y =
3
æ 1+ sin x ö æ pö
7. Consider f ( x ) = tan-1 çç ÷÷ , x Î ç 0 , ÷ . A normal to x y
è 1- sin x ø è 2ø Þ + =1
p / 3 2p / 3
p æ 2p ö
y = f(x) at x = also passes through the point So, the normal passes through the point ç 0 ,
6 ÷.
è 3 ø
æp ö Hence, the correct answer is option (C).
(A)  ç , 0 ÷ (B)  (0, 0)
è4 ø

æ 2p ö
(C)  ç 0 , ÷
æp ö
(D)  ç , 0 ÷
Previous Years' Solved JEE Advanced/
è 3 ø è6 ø IIT-JEE Questions
[JEE MAIN 2016 (OFFLINE)]
1. Let (x, y) be such that
Solution: We have p
sin-1(ax ) + cos -1( y ) + cos -1(bxy ) =
æ 1+ sin x ö æ pö 2
f ( x ) = tan-1 çç ÷÷ , x Î ç 0 , ÷
è 1- sin x ø è 2ø Match the statements in Column I with statements in Column II.

 sin2 ( x / 2) + cos2 ( x / 2) + 2 sin( x / 2)cos( x / 2)  Column I Column II


f ( x ) = tan-1  
 sin ( x / 2) + cos ( x / 2) + 2 sin( x / 2)cos( x / 2) 
2 2
(A) If a = 1 and b = 0, then (x, y) (P) lies on the circle x2 + y2 = 1

æ [cos( x / 2) + sin( x / 2)]2 ö (B) If a = 1 and b = 1, then (x, y) (Q) lies on (x2 - 1)(y2 - 1) = 0
f ( x ) = tan-1 ç ÷
ç [cos( x / 2) - sin( x / 2)]2 ÷ (C) If a = 1 and b = 2, then (x, y) (R) lies on y = x
è ø
æ | cos( x / 2) + sin( x / 2)| ö (D) If a = 2 and b = 2, then (x, y) (S) lies on (4x2 - 1)(y2 - 1) = 0
æ pö
f ( x ) = tan-1 ç ÷ , x Î ç 0,, ÷
è | cos( x / 2 ) - sin( x / 2 )| ø è 2ø [IIT-JEE 2007]
é cos( x / 2) + sin( x / 2) ù Solution: If a = 1 and b = 0, then
f ( x ) = tan-1 ê ú
ë cos( x / 2) - sin( x / 2) û p p
sin-1 x + cos -1 y + =
é1+ tan( x / 2) ù 2 2
f ( x ) = tan-1 ê ú
ë 1- tan( x / 2) û Þ sin-1 x = - cos -1 y
é æ p x öù Þ sin-1 x = - sin-1 1- y 2
f ( x ) = tan-1 ê tan ç + ÷ ú
ë è 4 2 øû Þ - x = 1- y 2

p x
f (x) = + Þ x2 + y2 =1
4 2
(A) → (P)
æ p ö p x 3p + p p
fç ÷= + = = If a = 1 and b = 1, then
è 6 ø 4 12 12 3
æp x ö p
The point is ç , ÷ , Therefore, sin-1 x + cos -1 y + cos -1 xy =
2
è6 3ø
cos -1 x - cos -1 y = cos -1 xy
1
f ’(x) =
2 Þ xy + 1- y 2 1- x 2 = xy

p  1 Þ ( x 2 - 1)( y 2 - 1) = 0
⇒ f’   =
 6 2 (B) → (Q)

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 718 07-06-2018 12:33:52


é 23 æ n
öù é 23 ù
cot ê å cot -1 ç 1+ å 2k ÷ ú = cot ê å cot -1(1+ n(n + 1))ú
ëChapter
n=1 è17 |k =Inverse
1 ë n=1
ø û Trigonometry û
719
23
= cot å (tan-1(n + 1) - tan-1 n)
n=1
If a = 1 and b = 2, then = cot(tan-1 24 - tan-1 1)
sin-1 x + cos-1 y + cos-1(2xy) = -cos-1 x - cos-1 y = cos-1(2xy) é æ 23 ö ù
= cot ê tan-1 ç ÷ ú
Þ xy + 1- x 2 1- y 2 = 2 xy ë è 25 ø û
25
Þ 1- x 2 1- y 2 = xy =
23
⇒ 1 - x2 - y2 + x2 y2 = x2 y2
Hence, the correct answer is option (B).
⇒ x2 + y2 = 1
(C)→(P) 4. Match List I to List II.
If a = 2 and b = 2, we get List I List II
-1 p -1 -1
sin 2 x + cos y + cos (2 xy ) = 3.
2 P. Let y(x) = cos (3cos−1 x), x ∈ [−1, 1], x ± 1. 1
2
cos-12x - cos-1 y = cos-1(2xy)
1 ì 2 d 2 y( x ) dy ( x ) ü
2 xy + 1- 4 x 2 1- y 2 = 2 xy Then í( x - 1) 2
+x ý equals
y( x ) î dx dx þ
⇒ (4 x2 - 1)(y2 - 1) = 0
Q. Let A1, AT , …, An (n > 2) be the vertices of a regular 2. 2
(D)→(S) polygon of n sides with its centre at the origin.
Hence, the correct matches are (A)→(P); (B)→(Q); (C)→(P); 
Let ak be the position vector of the point Ak,
(D)→(S).

2. If 0 < x < 1, then 1+ x 2 {[ x cos(cot -1 x ) + sin(cot -1 x )]2 - 1}1/2 is


k = 1, 2,  , n. If å n-1
k =1 (ak ´ ak -1 ) = å n-1
(ak × ak +1 ) ,
k =1

equal to then the minimum value of n is


x R. If the normal from the point P(h, 1) on the ellipse 3. 8
(A)  (B)  x
1+ x 2 x2 x2
+ = 1 is perpendicular to the line x + y = 8,
6 3
(C)  x 1+ x 1+ x 2
2
(D)  then the value of h is
Solution: We have S. Number of positive solutions satisfying the equation 4. 9
æ 1 ö -1 æ 1 ö -1 æ 2 ö
1+ x 2 {[ x cos(cot -1 x ) + sin(cot -1 x )]2 - 1}1/2 tan-1 ç ÷ + tan ç ÷ = tan ç 2 ÷ is
è 2 x + 1 ø è 4 x + 1 ø èx ø
éæ 1 1 ö
2
ù
1+ x êç x coscos
2 -1
+ sinsin-1
÷ - 1ú
êëè 1+ x 2 1+ x 2 ø úû P Q R S
1
(A) 4 3 2 1
é 2
ù2 (B) 2 4 3 1
2 æ x2 1 ö
1+ x çê + ÷ - 1ú (C) 4 3 1 2
êëè 1+ x 2 1+ x 2 ø úû (D) 2 4 1 3

1
[JEE ADVANCED 2014]
1+ x 2 [( x 2 + 1)2 - 1]2
Solution: For (P) in List I:
= x 1+ x 2
y(x) = cos(3cos-1 x)
Hence, the correct answer is option (C).
Hence,
é 23 æ n
öù dy æ -1 ö 3 sin(cos -1 x )
3. The value of cot ê å cot -1 ç 1+ å 2k ÷ ú is = -{sin(3 cos -1 x )}3 ç ÷=
ë n=1 è k =1 ø û dx è 1- x ø
2
1- x 2
23 25 2
(A)  (B)   dy 
{ ( )}
2

25 23 =  1- x 2  = sin 3 cos -1 x
 dx 
23 24
(C)  (D)   [JEE ADVANCED 2013] æ dy ö
2

24 23 Þ (1- x 2 ) ç ÷ = 9 sin2 (3 cos -1 x )


è dx ø
Solution: We have = 9[1- cos2 (3 cos -1 x )]
é 23 æ n
öù é 23 ù = 9(1- y 2 )
cot ê å cot -1 ç 1+ å 2k ÷ ú = cot ê å cot -1(1+ n(n + 1))ú
ë n=1 è k =1 ø û ë n=1 û Now differentiating
23 2
= cot å (tan-1(n + 1) - tan-1 n) dy d 2 y æ dy ö ì dy ü
(1- x 2 )2 + ç ÷ ( -2 x ) = 9 í-2 y ý

n=1 dx dx 2 è dx ø î dx þ
= cot(tan-1 24 - tan-1 1)
é æ 23 ö ù
= cot ê tan-1 ç ÷ ú
ë è 25 ø û
25
=
Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 719
23 07-06-2018 12:34:17
720 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

d2 y dy 6x 3y
Þ (1- x 2 ) -x = -9 y - = 3 (1)
dx 2 dx cosq sinq
d2 y dy Since,
Þ ( x 2 - 1) +x = 9y
dx 2 dx
ax by
Therefore, - = a2 - b 2
cosq sinq
(P)→(4)
For (Q) in List I: Therefore, slope of this normal is
n-1 æ 6 ö æ- 3ö 6 sinq
       = çç - ÷÷ çç ÷÷ = = 2 tanq
∑ (a
k =1
k × ak +1 ) = a1 × a2 + a2 × a3 +  + an-1 × an
è cosq ø è sinq ø 3 cosq

Since (h, 1) lies on this normal,


Therefore,

6h 3l
- = 3 (2)
cosq sinq
Now this normal is ^ to x + y = 8, Hence, its slope is
an a3 -1
=1
-1
a2
a1
(See Fig. 17.13.) Therefore,
1
2 tan q = 1 ⇒ tan q =
2 2
n So,
Figure 17.11
2 1
cosq = , sinq =
2p 3 3
= (a + a +  + a )sin
2 2 2

n
So, Eq. (2) becomes
2p
= (n - 1)a2 sin
n  (1)
6h 3  3
6 ×3
 - =3⇒ h=6
(See Fig. 17.11.) Since all a1 are equal 2 1  2 
3 3
n-1
  2p
Also ∑ (a
k =1
k ⋅ ak +1 ) = ( a + a  + a )cos
2 2 2

n 6h 3  3
6 ×3
Figure 17.13
- =3⇒ h=6
2p 2 1  2 
= (n - 1)a2 cos (2) 3
n 3

From Eqs. (1) and (2), Therefore,
2p 2p h=2
sin = cos Hence,
n n
2p 2p p (R) → (2)
⇒ tan = 1⇒ = ⇒n=8
n n 4 For (S) in List I:
Therefore,
(Q) → (3) æ 1 ö -1 æ 1 ö -1 æ 2 ö
tan-1 ç ÷ + tan ç ÷ = tan ç 2 ÷
For (R) in List I: è 2 x + 1ø è 4 x + 1ø èx ø
(See Fig. 17.12.) Equation of normal at ( 6 cosq , 3 sinq ) is ì 1 1 ü
ïï 2 x + 1 + 4 x + 1 ïï
-1 -1 æ 2 ö
y Þ tan í
1 ý = tan ç 2 ÷
ï 1- ï èx ø
P(h,1) ïî (2 x + 1)( 4 x + 1) ïþ
ì 4 x + 1+ 2 x + 1 ü
x ïï ïï æ 2 ö
Þ tan í 8 2x + 6 x + 1 ý = tan-1 ç 2 ÷
2
-1

ï 8 x + 6 x + 1 - 1 ï èx ø
ïî 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 ïþ
æ 6x + 2 ö -1 2
Þ tan-1 ç 2 ÷ = tan 2
Figure 17.12 è 8x + 6x ø x

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 720 07-06-2018 12:34:36


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 721

Therefore, 3. sin-1 sin(16) is equal to


6x3 + 2x2 = 16x2 + 12x (A) 5π - 16 (B) 16 - 5π
⇒ 2x (3x2 + x - 8x - 6) = 0 (C) 6π - 16 (D)  None of these
⇒ x (3x2 - 7x - 6) = 0 4. If q = cot-1 7 + cot-1 8 + cot-1 18, then cot θ is equal to
(A)  2 (B) 3
⇒ x (3x2 - 9x + 2x - 6) = 0
(C)  4 (D)  None of these
⇒ x [3x (x - 3) + 2(x - 3)] = 0
é æ 1 öù
⇒ x (x - 3) (3x + 2) = 0 5.   cos ê2 tan-1 ç ÷ ú equals
ë è 7 øû
Therefore,
2 (A)  sin(4 cot-13) (B) 
sin(3 cot-14)
x = 0, 3, - -1
(C)  cos(3 cot 4) (D) cos(4 cot-13)
3
Hence, number of +ve solutions = 1 6. The value of tan-1{2sin[sec-1(2)]} is
Therefore, p p
(A)  (B) 
(S) → (1) 6 4
p p
Hence, the correct answer is option (A). (C)  (D) 
3 2
æ6ö æ4ö
5. If a = 3 sin-1 ç ÷ and b = 3 cos -1 ç ÷ , where the inverse
è 11 ø è9ø 7. The value of sin [sin-1( 5 / 4 ) + tan-1( 5 / 11)] is
trigonometric functions take only the principal values, then 5 4
the correct option(s) is(are) (A)  (B) 
4 11 35
(A) cos β > 0 (B)  sin β < 0
55
(C)  cos (α + β) > 0 (D) cos α < 0 (C)  (D)  None of these
8
[JEE ADVANCED 2015]
-1 -1 -1
Solution: 8. The x satisfying sin x + sin (1- x ) = cos x are
(A)  1, 0 (B) 1, -1
æ6ö æ 6 ö p
a = 3 sin-1 ç ÷ > 3 sin-1 ç ÷ = 1
è 11 ø è 12 ø 2 (C) 0, (D)  None of these
2
p 9. The equation sin-1 x = 2 sin-1 a holds true for
Þ <a <p (1)
2  (A)  -1 ≤ a ≤ 1 (B)  a ≥ 0
-1 æ 4 ö æ 1ö 1 1
b = 3 cos ç ÷ > 3 cos -1 ç ÷ = p (C)  - £a£ (D)  All real values of a
è9ø è2ø 2 2
Also
ïì 1 é æ 9p ö æ 9p ö ù ïü
 4  3p 10. The principal value of cos -1 í êcos ç 10 ÷ - sin ç ÷ ú ý is
p < 3 cos -1   < ïî 2 ë è ø è 10 ø û ïþ
 9 2
3p 3p 7p
Þp < b < (2) (A)  (B) 
2 20 20
From Eqs. (1) and (2) 7p
(C)  (D 
None of these
cos α < 0, cos β < 0, sin β < 0, 10
Also, 11. The number of positive integral solutions of the equation
3p 5p æ y ö æ 3 ö
< (a + b ) < tan-1 x + cos -1 ç ÷ = sin-1 ç ÷ is
2 2 ç 1+ y 2 ÷ è 10 ø
è ø
⇒ cos (α + β) > 0
(A) 1 (B)  2
Hence, the correct answer is option (C). (C)  0 (D)  None of these
1 1
Practice Exercise 1 12. If A = tan-1 , B = tan-1 , then
7 3
1. The value of tan(tan-11 + tan-1 2 + tan-1 3) = (A)  cos 2A = sin 2A (B)  cos 2A = sin 2B
(A) 0 (B)  tan 1 (C)  cos 2A = cos 2B (D)  cos 2A = sin 4B
1 1 -1
13. The equation 2 cos x = sin (2 x 1- x ) is valid for all values
1 2
(C)   tan (D) tan
3 6 of x satisfying
2. cos-1(cos x) = p + x, then x belongs to (A)  -1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (B) 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(A)  (0, π) (B) (π, 2π) 1 1
(C)  0 ≤ x ≤ (D)  ≤ x ≤1
(C) [0, π] (D)  None of these 2 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 721 07-06-2018 12:34:54


722 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

14. The value of the expression é -1 æ 4 ö ù


æ 2ö æ 5ö æ 10 ö 23. Value of cos ê2 cos ç ÷ ú equals
tan-1 çç -1
÷÷ + sin çç
-1
÷÷ - cos çç ÷÷ is ë è 5 øû
è 2 ø è 5 ø è 10 ø 6 7
(A)  (B) 
æ 1+ 2 ö æ 2 + 1ö 25 25
(A)  cot -1 çç ÷÷ cot -1 çç
(B)  ÷÷ 4 8
è 1- 2 ø è 2 - 1ø (C)  (D) 
25 25
æ 1+ 2 ö æ 1- 2 ö
(C)  -p + cot -1 çç ÷÷ (D)  p - cot -1 çç ÷÷ é -1 æ 15p ö ù
è 1- 2 ø è 1+ 2 ø 24. The value of cos ê tan ç tan ÷ is
ë è 4 ø úû
é æ -17p ö ù 1 1
15.   cos -1 êcos ç ÷ ú is equal to
ë è 5 øû (A)  -
(B) 
2 2
17p 3p (C)  1 (D)  None of these
(A)  - (B) 
5 5
25. Number of solutions to the equation
2p 2 tan-1(cos x) = tan-1(2cosec x) in the interval (-2π, 2π) is
(C)  (D)  None of these
5 (A)  4 (B)  3
16. If 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and q = sin-1 x + cos-1 x - tan-1 x, then (C)  7 (D)  No solution
p p 26. Number of solutions to the equation
(A)  q £ (B)  q³
2 4 æ 3ö
sin-1 x - cos -1 x = cos -1 çç ÷÷ is
p p p è 2 ø
(C)  q = (D) £q £
4   4 2 (A)  One (B)  Two
æ3ö (C)  Four (D)  None of these
17. If  tan-1 x = 2 cot -1 7 + cos -1 ç ÷ , then x =
è5ø 27. The number of real solutions of the equation
117 117 p
(A)  (B)  tan-1 x ( x + 1) + sin-1 x 2 + x + 1 = is
44 125 2
(A)  Zero (B) One
7 117
(C)  (D)  (C)  Two (D) Infinite
24 84
2n 2n

18. If tan -1 1+ x 2 - 1- x 2
= b , then x =
28. If å sin
i =1
-1
x i = np , then åx
i =1
i is
1+ x + 1- x
2 2
(A)  n (B) 2n
1- tan b n(n +1)
(A) tan β (B)  ± (C)  (D)  None of these
1+ tan b 2

(C)  ± sin2 b (D) 


± cos2 b 29. The value of sin-1{sin[2 cot + -1 ( 2 - 1)]} is
x -1 x +1 p p 3p
19. If  tan-1 + tan-1 = , then x = (A)  - (B) 
x -2 x +2 4 4 4
1 7p
(A) 3 (B)  (C)  (D)  None of these
3 4
1
(C)  ± (D)  None of these -1
2 ìï é p 1 æ a öù ép 1 æ a ö ù üï
30. The value of ítan ê + sin-1 ç ÷ ú + tan ê - sin-1 ç ÷ ú ý ,
20. Let f(x) = sec-1 x + tan-1 x. Then f(x) is real for îï ë 4 2 è b øû ë4 2 è b ø û þï
(A)  x ∈ [-1, 1] (B)  x ∈ R where 0 < a < b is
(C)  x ∈ (-∞, 0) (D) (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) b a
(A) (B) 
21. If cos-1 x - sin-1 x = 0, then x is equal to
  2a 2a
1
(A)  ± (B)  1 b 2 - a2 b 2 - a2
2 (C)  (D) 
2b 2a
1
(C)  (D) 
2 31. If 4 cos-1 x + sin-1 x = p, then x equals to
2
1 1
10 10 (A)  (B) 
22. If å cos-1 x i = 0, then
i =1
å x i is
i=1
2 2

(A) 0 (B) 10 3
(C) 1 (D) 
(C) 5 (D)  None of these 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 722 07-06-2018 12:35:26


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 723

æ sin1- 1 ö ìï é æ ïì é æ 3p ö ù ïü ö ù üï
32.  tan-1 ç ÷ equals 42. Value of sin-1 ísin êcos -1 ç cos ísin-1 êsin ç
ç ÷ ú ý ÷ ú ý equals
è cos 1 ø îï êë è ïî ë è 4 ø û ïþ ÷ø úû þï
p
(A) 0 (B)  1- 3p 5p
2 (A)  (B) 
4 4
p 1 p
(C)  - 1 (D)  - p
2 2 4 (C)  (D)  None of these
4
2x
33. If x ≥ 1, then 2 tan-1 x + sin-1 is equal to 43. tan-1(tan4) + cot-1(cot4) equals
1+ x 2
(A) 8 (B)  π - 8
(A) 4tan-1x (B)  π (C) 8 - 2π (D) 0
(C) 0 (D)  None of these
34. The inequality log2 x < sin-1(sin5) hold if p
44. If tan-1( x ) + tan-1 y + tan-1 z = and
2
(A)  x ∈ (0, 25-2p) (B)  x ∈ (25-2p, ∞)
p - 5
(x - y)2 + (y - z)2 + (z - x)2 = 0, then x 2 + y 2 + z 2 equals
(C)  x ∈ (22 , ∞) (D)  None of these
(A) 0 (B) 4
35. If a £ tan-1 x + cot -1 x + sin-1 x £ b "x Î (0 ,1), then (C)  1 (D)  None of these
p 45. The greatest of tan1, tan-11, sin1, sin-11 is
(A)  a = 0 , b = (B)  α = 0, β = π
2 (A)  tan1 (B)  tan-11
p (C) sin1 (D)  sin-1 1
(C)  a = -1, b = p (D) a = ,b =p
2 ænö p
46. If cot -1 ç ÷ > , n being a natural number, then maximum
9p 1 1 1 èp ø 6
36. If 2 sin-1 x + 3 sin-1 y + 4 sin-1 z =
then + + equals
2 2x 3y 4z value of n is
11 13 (A) 1 (B)  5
(A)  (B)  (C)  9 (D)  None of these
12 12
47. Two angles of a triangle are cot -12 and cot -13. Then the third
15 17
(C)  (D)  angle is
12 12
p 3p
(A)  (B) 
é 4 4
æ4ö æ 2 öù
37.  tan-1 êcos -1 ç ÷ + sin-1 ç ÷ ú is
ë è 5 ø è 3 øû p p
(C)  (D) 
17 17 6 3
(A)  (B) 
6 16 2p ö 2p ö
æ -1 æ
6 48. The value of cos -1 ç cos ÷ - sin ç sin ÷ is equal to
(C)  (D)  None of these è 3 ø è 3 ø
17
(A) 0 (B)  4p
38. If sin-1 x + sin-1 y + sin-1 z = p , then 3

x 1- x 2 + y 1- y 2 + z 1- z 2 equals 4p p
(C)  - 3 (D) 
3
(A)  xyz (B) 1
(C)  0 (D) 2xyz
49. If in ∆  ABC, ∠A = sin-1(x), ∠B = sin-1(y) and ∠C = sin-1(z), then
1- sin x + 1+ sin x x 1- y 2 1- z 2 + y 1- x 2 1- z 2 + z 1- x 2 1- y 2 is equal to
39. The value of cot - 1 if 0° < x < 90° is
1- sin x - 1+ sin x
(A)  xyz (B)  x + y + z
x
(A)  x (B)  1 1 1
2 (C)  + + (D)  None of these
x y z
x x
(C)  p - -
(D) 
2 2 æ x 3 ö -1 æ 2 x - k ö
50. If A = tan-1 çç ÷÷ and B = tan ç ÷ , then the value of
40. The value of + tan2(sec-1 2)
is cot2(cosec-1 3) è 2 k - x ø è k 3 ø
(A)  13 (B) 15 A - B (independent of x) is
(C) 12 (D) 11 p p
(A)  (B) 
41. The principal value of sin-1(sin10) is 2 3
(A)  10 (B) 10 - 3π p p
(C)  (D) 
(C) 3π - 10 (D)  None of these 6 8

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 723 07-06-2018 12:35:54


724 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Practice Exercise 2 (C)  -π - 2sin-1(x) for -1 £ x £ -


1
2
Single/Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions 1
(D) 2cos-1(x) for ë xÅ 1
1. If y = cot-12 + cot-18 + cot-118 + … + ∞, then tan y is 2
p p
(A)  (B) 
2 3 Matrix Match Type Questions
p
(C)  (D)  None of these 8. Match the following:
4
æ x ö æ y ö Column I Column II
2. If x, y > 0, then the range of sin-1 ç 2 ÷
+ sin-1 ç 2 ÷
is
è 1+ x ø è 1+ y ø p
 2 cos x - 3 sin x  (i)
(A) If y = cos -1   , then
(A) [0, π] (B) (-π, π]  13 14

é 2p ù æ 2p ù dy
ç 0, ú
(C)  ê0 , ú (D)  is
ë 3 û è 3 û dx

3. For 0 < θ < 2θ ; sin-1sinθ > cos-1sinθ is true when -1 é æ 46p ö ù p
(B) cos êsin ç (ii)
÷ ú is 2
ë è 7 øû
æp ö æ 3p ö
çp ,
(A)  ç , p ÷ (B)  ÷
è4 ø è 4 ø
(C) If |x| ≥ 1, a > 0 and sum of series æ1 ö
æ p 3p ö æ 3p ö x  sec -1 | x | + cosec -1 | x | 
n (iii) ç ,¥ ÷
(C)  ç , ÷ (D)  , 2p ÷ è2 ø
è4 4 ø
ç
è 4 ø ∑ 
n=1  ap


4. For which value of x, sin[cot-1(x + 1)] = cos(tan-1x) is is finite, then value of a is
1 (iv) 1
(A)  (B) 0  1
2 cosec -1 x + cos -1  
(D) Let f(x) =  x  Then
1 .
(C) 1 (D)  - cosec x
2
the greatest value is
5. T he number of integral values of k for which the equation
sin-1x + tan-1x = sin-1sinx + 2k - 1 has a real solution is 9. Match the following:
(A)  1 (B) 3 Column I Column II
(C)  2 (D) 4
æ 1ö æ 1ö æ 1ö (i) p
(A) tan-1 ç ÷ + tan-1 ç ÷ + tan-1 ç ÷ +  + ¥
è3ø è7ø è 13 ø 2
1
6. Let f(x) = and its anti-derivative
4 - 3 cos2 x + 5 sin2 x p
-1 æ 12 ö -1 æ 4 ö -1 æ 63 ö
1 (B) sin ç 13 ÷ + cos ç 5 ÷ + tan ç 16 ÷ (ii)
F(x) = tan-1[ g( x )] + c. Then è ø è ø è ø 4
3
æp ö -1 æ 4 ö -1 æ 1 ö
(A)  g(x) is equal to 3 tanx (B)  g ç 4 ÷ is equal to 3 (C) sin ç ÷ + 2 tan ç ÷ (iii) p
è ø è5ø è3ø
æp ö æp ö p
(C)  g’ ç 3 ÷ is equal to 6 (D)  g’ ç 3 ÷ is equal to 12 -1 -1
æ 41 ö
(iv)
è ø è ø (D) cot 9 + cosec çç ÷÷ 3
è 4 ø
7.  sin-1(2 x 1- x 2 ) for -1 ≤ x ≤ 1 is equal to
10. Match the following:
1
(A)  π - 2sin-1(x) for ≤ x ≤1 Column I Column II
2
é 7 - 5( x 2 + 3) ù p
1 1 (A) The maximum value of sec -1 ê ú is (i) 6
(B) 2sin-1(x) for - £x£ ë 2( x + 2) û
2

2 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 724 07-06-2018 12:36:17


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 725

Column I Column II Column I Column II


(B) The minimum value of 1 1
é 5ù é 1ù (ii) (D) If y = tan-1 æç ö÷ + tan-1 ( b ) , (0 < b < 1) and
cosec -1 ê3 x 2 + ú + sec -1 ê3 x 2 + ú (where [.] 3 è2ø
ë 4û ë 4û (iv) 2
p
denotes the greatest integer function) is 0 < y ≤ 4 , then the maximum value of b will be

(C) The number of solution of equation 2p


(iii) Integer Type Question
p 3
sin-1(| x 2 - 1|) + cos -1(| 2 x 2 - 5 |) = is
2 11. The value of 2cot (cot-13 + cot-17 + cot-113 + cot-121) is
_________.

Answer Key
Practice Exercise 1
 1. (A)  2. (D)  3. (A)  4. (B)  5. (A)
 6. (C)  7. (C)  8. (C)  9. (C) 10. (D)
11. (B) 12. (D) 13. (D) 14. (C) 15. (B)
16. (D) 17. (A) 18. (C) 19. (C) 20. (D)
21. (C) 22. (B) 23. (B) 24. (A) 25. (A)
26. (A) 27. (C) 28. (B) 29. (D) 30. (C)
31. (D) 32. (D) 33. (B) 34. (A) 35. (B)
36. (B) 37. (A) 38. (D) 39. (C) 40. (D)
41. (C) 42. (C) 43. (C) 44. (C) 45. (D)
46. (B) 47. (B) 48. (D) 49. (A) 50. (C)

Practice Exercise 2

1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (C) 4. (D)  5. (D)


6.  (A), (B), (D) 7.  (A), (B), (C) 8. (A) →(iv); (A) →(ii);
9.  10. (A) →(iii);
(B) →(i); (C)→(iii); (B) →(iii); (C)→(i); (B) →(i); (C)→(iv);
(D) →(ii) (D) →(ii) (D) →(ii)
11. 3

Solutions
Practice Exercise 1 = tan[tan-1(1) + tan-1( -1)]

ép p ù
= tan ê - ú = tan (0) = 0
æ x+y ö ë4 4û
1. Hint: tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1 ç ÷
è 1- xy ø 2. Since 0 ≤ cos-1(x) ≤ p and given
é æ 2 + 3 öù cos-1(cos x) = p + x
tan ê tan-1(1) + tan-1 ç ÷ú
ë è 1- 6 ø û is true only when x belongs to some negative angle but no
option is such.
é æ 5 öù 11p
= tan ê tan-1(1) + tan-1 ç ÷ ú 3. Since 5p < 16 < ,
ë è -5 ø û 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 725 07-06-2018 12:36:24


726 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

p p
Þ 0 < 16 - 5p < 8. Hint: cos -1 x = - sin-1 x
2 2
p p
Þ- < 5p - 16 < 0 sin-1 x + sin-1(1- x ) = - sin-1 x
2 2
Now, p
2 sin-1 x + sin-1(1- x ) =
sin-1(sin16) = sin-1[sin(5p - 16)] 2
       = 5π - 16 Clearly x = 0 satisfies equation
4. Given p p
0+ =
q = cot-1 7 + cot-18 + cot-118 2 2

55 1
= cot -1 + cot -1 18 x= also satisfies the equation
15 2
æ 11 ö p p p
ç 3 ´ 18 - 1 ÷ 2´ + =
= cot ç ÷
-1
6 6 2
çç 11 + 8 ÷÷ 1ö
è 3 ø æ
Þ ç x = 0, ÷
-1 è 2ø
= cot  (3)
⇒ cot θ = 3 9. Hint: 2 sin-1 x = sin-1(2 x 1- x 2 )
5. We have
é æ 1 öù æ 7 ö sin-1 x = sin-1(2a 1- a2 ) when
cos ê2 tan-1 ç ÷ ú = cos ç tan-1 ÷ -1 ≤ x ≤ 1
ë è 7 ø û è 24 ø
æ 24 ö 24 -1 £ 2a 1- a2 £ 1
= cos ç cos -1 ÷ =
è 25 ø 25 0 £ 4 a2 (1- a2 ) £ 1
æ 1ö 1
sin( 4 cot -1 3) = sin ç 4 tan-1 ÷ 0 £ a2 (1- a2 ) £
è 3ø 4

æ 3ö æ 24 ö 1
= sin ç 2 tan-1 ÷ = sin ç tan-1 ÷ a2 (1- a2 ) £
è 4ø è 7 ø 4

æ 24 ö 24 1
= sin ç sin-1 ÷ = Þ a2 £
25 ø 25 2
è
1 1
æ 1ö Þ- £a£+
Hence, cos ç 2 tan-1 ÷ = sin( 4 cot -1 3). 2 2
è 7ø
10. Hint: cos-1[cos(-x)] = p - x
6. See Fig. 17.14.
æ pö ïì 1 é æ p ö æ p ö ù ïü
tan-1 ç 2 sin ÷ cos -1 í êcos ç p - 10 ÷ - sin ç p - 10 ÷ ú ý
è 3ø 2 îï 2 ë è ø è ø û þï
3
æ
-1 3ö -1 é 1 æ p p öù
tan çç 2 ´ ÷ = tan ( 3 ) = cos -1 ê ç - cos - sin ÷ ú
è 2 ÷ø ë 2è 10 10 ø û
/3
p é æ 1 p 1 p öù
= 1 = cos -1 ê( -1) ç cos + sin ÷ ú
3 ë è 2 10 2 10 ø û
Figure 17.14
é æ p p p p öù
= cos -1 ê( -1) ç cos cos + sin × sin ÷ ú
ë è 4 10 4 10 ø û
7. Hint: ( 5 )2 + ( 11)2 = 4 2
é æ p p öù
See Fig. 17.15. = cos -1 ê( -1)cos ç - ÷ ú
ë è 4 10 ø û
sin [α + α] = sin 2α
= 2 sin α cos α æ 3p ö 3p 17p
= p - cos -1 ç cos ÷ = p - =
è 20 ø 20 20
5 11 55
= 2⋅ ⋅ = Figure 17.15 Hence, none of the given alternatives are correct.
4 4 8

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 726 07-06-2018 12:36:45


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 727

x+y æ 1+ 2 ö
11. Hint: tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1 = -p + cos -1 çç ÷÷
1- xy
è 1- 2 ø
æ y ö æ 3 ö
tan x + cos ç
-1 -1
÷ = sin-1 ç ÷ 15. Hint: cos (2π - q) = cos q
ç 1+ y 2 ÷ è 10 ø
è ø
é æ 17p ö ù
cos -1 êcos ç - ÷ú
Þ tan-1 x + tan-1 y = tan-1 3 ë è 5 øû
x+y
Þ tan-1 = tan-1 3   3p    3p  3p
1- xy = cos -1 cos  4p -   = cos -1  cos  =
  5    5  5

x+y
Þ =3
1- xy p
16. Hint: sin-1 x + cos -1 x =
⇒ x + y = 3 - 3xy 2
⇒ x + y + 3xy = 3 q = sin-1 x + cos-1x - tan-1x
Hence, only integral solution possible is (3, 0) and (0, 3). p
= - tan-1 x
2
1- tan2 q 2 tanq
12. Hint: cos 2q = , sin 2q = Given,
1+ tan2 q 1+ tan2 q
p p p p
0 ≤ x ≤ 1 Þ 0 £ tan-1 x £ Þ ³ - tan-1 x ³
-11 1 1 1 4 2 2 4
A = tan and B = tan-1 Þ tan A = and tan B =
 7 3 7 3 p p p p
Þ 0 £ tan-1 x £ Þ ³ - tan-1 x ³
1 4 2 2 4
1-             
1- tan2 A 49 48 24
cos 2 A = = = =
1+ tan2 A 1+ 1 50 25 a+b
17. Hint: tan-1 a + tan-1 b = tan-1
49 1- ab
1 2 1 4
2´ tan-1 x = 2 tan-1 + tan-1
2 tan B 3 6 3
sin 2B = = = 3 = = 7 3
1+ tan2 B 1+ 1 10 10 5
9 9 æ 49 - 1 ö -1 4
tan-1 x = cot -1 ç ÷ + tan
3 4 24 è 14 ø 3
sin 4 B = 2 sin 2B × cos 2B = 2 × × =
5 5 25 æ 48 ö 4
= cot -1 ç ÷ + tan-1
Hence, cos2A = sin4B. è 14 ø 3
7 4
13. Let x = cos A , x Î [ -1,1] and A Î [0 , p ] . Then 7 -1 4 -1 24
+
= tan-1
+ tan = tan 3
24 3 7 4
2 cos -1 ( cos A ) = sin-1(2 cos A 1- cos2 A ) 1- ×
24 3
⇒ 2 cos (cos A) = sin (2 cos A . sin A) = sin-1(sin2 A)
-1 -1
7 4 39
+
117
Þ 2 A = sin-1(sin 2 A) = tan 24 3 = tan 24 = tan-1
-1 -1
7 11 44
1-
Now, left hand and right hand will be equal for 18 18

é pù é pù é 1 ù 117
2 A Î [0 , 2p ] Þ 2 A Î ê0 , ú Þ A Î ê0 , ú Þ x Î ê ,1ú Þ tan-1 x = tan-1
ë 2û ë 4û ë 2 û 44

14. We have a c a+b c +d


18. Hint: If = then =
æ 2ö æ 5ö æ 10 ö b d a-b c -d
tan-1 çç -1
÷÷ + sin çç
-1
÷÷ - cos çç ÷÷
è 2 ø è 5 ø è 10 ø 1+ x 2 - 1- x 2 1+ x 2 - 1- x 2
tan-1 = b Þ tan b =
æ 1 ö -1 æ 1 ö 1+ x 2 + 1- x 2 1+ x 2 + 1- x 2
= tan-1 ç -1
÷ + tan ç ÷ - tan (3)
è 2ø è2ø 1+ tan b 1+ x 2
Þ =
æ 2+ 2 ö 1- tan b 1- x 2
= tan-1 çç -1
÷÷ - tan (3)
è 2 2 - 1 ø
Squaring both sides, we get
æ 1- 2 ö 1+ tan2 b + 2 tan b 1+ x 2
= tan-1 çç ÷÷ =
è 1+ 2 ø 1+ tan2 b - 2 tan b 1- x 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 727 07-06-2018 12:37:14


728 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Using componendo and dividendo, we get é æ p öù é æ p öù p


= cos ê - tan ç tan ÷ ú = cos ê tan-1 ç tan ÷ ú = cos
  x 2 = sin 2 b ë è 4 øû ë è 4 øû 4
Þ x = ± sin2 b 1
=
2
a+b
19. Hint: tan-1 a + tan-1 b = tan-1
1- ab 2x
25. Hint: 2 tan-1 x = tan-1
x -1 x +1 1- x 2
+
p 2tan-1(cos x) = tan-1(2cosec x)
tan-1 x - 2 x + 2 =
x -1 x +1 4 2 cos x
1- × Þ tan-1 = tan-1 2 cosec x
x -2 x +2 1- cos2 x
Hence, ⇒ tan-1 2cot x · cosec x = tan-1 2cosec x
p x2 + x - 2 + x2 - x - 2
tan = cot x · cosec x – cosec x = 0 ⇒ cosec x (cot x - 1) = 0
4 x2 - 4 - x2 +1 ⇒ cosec x = 0 which is not possible, and
2x2 - 4 cot x = 1 which has 4 solutions.
1=
-3
26. Hint: sin-1 x = cos -1 1- x 2
2x2 1
= 3
2 2 sin-1 x - cos -1 x = cos -1
2
1
x =±
2 3 ìï 3 1 üï
Þ sin-1 x = cos -1 x + cos -1 = cos -1 í x × - 1- x 2 ý
2 îï 2 2 þï
20. Hint: Value of sec x and cosec x does not lie between +1 and -1.
If φ (x) = sec-1 x, then we know that x∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞). ìï 3 x 1 üï
Þ cos -1 1- x 2 = cos -1 í - 1- x 2 ý
Also g(x) = tan-1 x, then x ∈ R. ïî 2 2 ïþ
Hence, for holding f(x) = sec-1 x + tan-1 x, we have
x ∈ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞) 3x 1
Þ 1- x 2 = - 1- x 2
p p 1 2 2
21. Hint: sin = cos =
4 4 2 3 3x
Þ 1- x 2 =
cos-1 x - sin-1 x = 0 2 2
p Squaring both sides, we have
⇒ cos -1 x - + cos -1 x = 0
2 9 3x 2 3
(1- x 2 ) = ⇒ x =±
p 4 4 2
Þ 2 cos -1 x =
2
Hence, 3
-1 p 1 Only x = satisfies the equation.
cos x = Þ x = 2
4 2
1- x 2
22. Since, cos-1 x2 has to be zero separately, only the 27. Hint: sin-1 x = cot -1
10
x
å cos
i =1
-1
xi = 0
tan-1 x (x + 1) + sin-1 x 2 + x + 1 =
p
2
That is,
p
cos-1 x1 = 0, cos-1 x2 = 0 … cos-1 x10 = 0 Þ sin-1 x 2 + x + 1 = - tan-1 x (x + 1) = cot -1 x (x + 1)
2
⇒ x1 = 1  x2 = 1 … x10 = 1
1
Adding all the terms, we get Þ sin-1 x 2 + x + 1 = sin-1
10
x + x +1
2

åx i = 10
1
i =1
Þ x2 + x +1 = Þ x 2 + x + 1= 1
23. We have x2 + x +1
é ⇒ x(x + 1) = 0, x = 0, x = -1
æ 4ö æ 16 ö ù 7
cos ç 2 cos -1 ÷ = cos êcos -1 ç 2 ´ - 1÷ ú = Both the values satisfies the equation, so there are two
è 5ø ë è 25 ø û 25
solutions.
24. Hint: tan (2mπ - θ) = -tan θ, cot(-θ) = cos θ
28. Given
ìï é æ p ö ù üï ìï é æ p ö ù üï
cos ítan-1 ê tan ç 4p - ÷ ú ý = cos ítan-1 ê - tan ç ÷ ú ý sin-1 x1 + sin-1 x2 + … + sin-1 x2n = np
îï ë è 4 ø û þï îï ë è 4 ø û þï
which is possible only if

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 728 07-06-2018 12:37:39


éæ 1 1ö ù
2
é 1 1ù
ê ç cos - sin ÷ ú ê cos 2 - sin 2 ú
Chapter -17 2
1 ê è| Inverse 2ø ú
Trigonometry -1 729
= tan = - tan ê ú
êæ 2 1 2 1öú ê cos 1 + sin 1 ú
ê ç cos - sin ÷ ú ë 2 2û
ëè 2 2 øû
p é 1ù
sin-1 x1 = sin-1 x 2 =  = sin-1 x 2 n =
2 ê 1- tan 2 ú
-1
= - tan ê ú
⇒ x1 = x2 = … = x2n = 1 ê1+ tan 1 ú
ë 2û
Therefore, x1 + x2 + … + x2n = 2n.
é p 1 ù
29. We have ê tan 4 - tan 2 ú
-1 -1 é æ p 1 öù
= - tan ê ú = - tan ê tan ç - ÷ ú
sin-1{sin[2 cot -1( 2 - 1)]} = sin-1{sin[cot-1(-1)]} p
ê1+ tan × tan ú1 ë è 4 2 øû
ë 4 2û
æ 3p ö
= sin-1 ç sin ÷ æp 1ö 1 p
è 4 ø = -ç - ÷ = -
è 4 2ø 2 4
é æ
-1 p öù p
= sin êsin ç p - ÷ ú = 2x
ë è 4 øû 4 33. Hint: 2 tan-1 x = p - sin-1 , when x ≥ 1
1+ x 2
-1
é æp ö æp öù 1 æaö With the given condition
30. We have ê tan ç + a ÷ + tan ç - a ÷ ú , where a = sin-1 ç ÷ 2x
ë è 4 ø è 4 ø û 2 èbø 2 tan-1 x = p - sin-1
1+ x 2
-1
æ 1+ tana 1- tana ö Hence,
=ç + ÷
è 1- tana 1+ tana ø 2x 2x 2x
-1 2 tan-1 x + sin-1 = p - sin-1 + sin-1 =p
é 2(1+ tan2 a ) ù 1+ x 2 1+ x 2 1+ x 2
=ê ú
ë 1- tan a û
2
34. Hint: sin-1(sin5) = sin-1[sin(-2p + 5)]
-1
æ 2 ö 2 cos 2a log2 x < sin-1(sin5)
=ç ÷ =
è cos 2a ø 2 ⇒ log2 x < sin-1[sin(-2p + 5)]
⇒ log2 x < -2p + 5 = 5 - 2p
1 a
Now, a = sin-1 ⇒ x < 25-2p
2 b
Also, x ≠ 0 is positive.
a
Þ = sin2a Therefore, required value of x belongs to x ∈(0 , 25-2p ).
b
a2 b 2 - a2 æ p öü
35. Hint: tan-1 x Î ç 0 , ÷ ï
Þ cos2a = 1- 2
= è 4øï
b b
æ p p öï
b 2 - a2 cot -1 x Î ç , ÷ ý "x Î (0 ,1)
Therefore, given expression is . è 2 4 øï
2b
æ pöï
sin-1 x Î ç 0 , ÷ ï
p è 2 ø ïþ
31. Hint: sin-1 x + cos -1 x =
2
Let tan-1 x + cot -1 x + sin-1 x = z .
p
4 cos -1 x + - cos -1 x = p p p
2 At x = 0 , z = but x ≠ 0, thus a ¹ .
2 2
p p At x = 1,
Þ 3 cos -1 x = Þ cos -1 x =
2 6 z=π⇒β=π
p 3 From option, it is clear that z ≥ 0
Þ x = cos =
6 2 α = 0, β = π

A Aö
2 -p p
æ 36. Hint: £ sin-1 p £
32. Hint: 1- sin A = ç sin - cos ÷ 2 2
è 2 2 ø
æp ö
æ sin1- 1 ö -1 æ 1- sin1 ö -1 æ 1- sin1 ö 2(sin-1 x ) + 3(sin-1 y ) + 4(sin-1 z ) = 9 × ç ÷
tan-1 ç ÷ = tan ç - ÷ = - tan ç ÷ è2ø
è cos1 ø è cos1 ø è cos1 ø
p
⇒ sin-1 x = sin-1 y = sin-1 z = -
éæ 1 1ö ù
2
é 1 1ù 2
ê ç cos - sin ÷ ú ê cos 2 - sin 2 ú
-1 ê è 2 2ø ú -1 ⇒x=y=z=1
= tan = - tan ê ú
êæ 2 1 2 1öú ê cos 1 + sin 1 ú 1 1 1 1 1 1 13
ê ç cos - sin ÷ ú ë 2 2û Þ + + = + + =
ëè 2 2 øû 2 x 3 y 4 y 2 3 4 12

é 1ù
-1
ê 1- tan 2 ú
= - tan ê ú
ê 1+ tan 1 ú
ë 2û

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 729 07-06-2018 12:38:05


730 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

a+b p
37. Hint: tan-1 a + tan-1 b = tan-1 Þ- < 3p - 10 < 0
1- ab 2
Given equation must be as follows: Now,
ì æ4ö æ 2 öü sin-1(sin10 ) = sin-1[sin(3p - 10 )]
tan-1 ícot -1 ç ÷ + sin-1 ç ÷ý
î è3ø è 3 øþ = 3p - 10

  3  2  42. We have
= tan tan-1   + tan-1   
  4   3  ìï é
æ ì é æ 3p ö ù ü ö ù üï
sin-1 ísin êcos -1 ç cos ísin-1 êsin ç ÷ ú ý ÷÷ ú ý
  3 2  ç ë è 4 ø û þ ø úû þï
îï êë è î
 -1  4 + 3    -1  17   17
= tan tan    = tan tan  6   = 6 ì é p öù ü
3 2   æ
  1- ×   = sin-1 ísin êcos -1 ç cos ÷ ú ý
  4 3   î ë è 4 øû þ

38. Given æ pö p
= sin-1 ç sin ÷ =
è 4ø 4
sin-1 x + sin-1 y + sin-1 z = p
43. Since
Let sin-1 x = a ,sin-1 y = b ,sin-1 z = y . Then 3p
p <4<
a+b+g=p 2
Now, p
0 < 4 -p <
2
x 1- x 2 + y 1- y 2 + z 1- z 2
Now,
1
= (sin 2a + sin 2 b + sin 2g ) tan-1(tan 4 ) + cot -1(cot 4 )
2
= tan-1[tan(p + 4 - p )] + cot -1[cot(p + 4 - p )]
1
= ( 4 sina sin b sin g )
2 = tan-1[tan( 4 - p )] + cot -1[cot( 4 - p )]
= 2 sin a sin b sin g =4-π+4-π
= 8 - 2π
= 2 xyz
44. Given
39. We have
p
tan-1 x + tan-1 y + tan-1 z =
1- sin x + 1+ sin x 2
cot -1
1- sin x - 1+ sin x Let tan-1 x = a , tan-1 y = b , tan-1 z = y . Then

æ x x x x ö x = tan α, y = tan β, z = tan g


ç cos 2 - sin 2 + cos 2 + sin 2 ÷ Hence,
cot ç ÷
ç cos x - sin x - cos x - sin x ÷ p
è 2 2 2 2 ø a + b +g =
2
æ -1 xö æp ö
= cot ç - cot ÷ Þ tan(a + b ) = tan ç - g ÷
è 2ø è 2 ø

x tana + tan b 1 x+y 1
=p - Þ = Þ =
2 1- tana tan b tan g 1- xy z

40. We have ⇒ xy + yz = zx = 1
Now,
tan2 ( sex -12) = cot 2 (cosec -1 3)
( x - y )2 + ( y - z )2 + ( z - x )2 = 0
é æ 3 öù é -1 æ 2 2 ö ù
= tan2 ê tan-1 çç Þ x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = xy + yz + zx = 1
÷÷ ú = cot êcot çç 1 ÷÷ ú
2

êë è 1 ø ûú êë è ø úû
45.  tan1, tan-1 1,sin1,sin-1 1
= ( 3 ) + (2 2 ) = 3 + 8 = 11
2 2
p p
tan 57°, ,sin 57°,
41. Since 4 2
7p 3.14 3 3.14
3p < 10 < 1.539 , , ,
2 4 2 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 730 07-06-2018 12:38:30


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 731

1.539, 0.78, 0.866, 1.57 Practice Exercise 2


So, sin-1 1 is the greatest value.
1. y = cot-12 + cot-18 + cot-118 + … + ∞
46. Given
nth term = cot-1 2n2
ænö p ⇒ tn = cot-1(2n - 1) - cot-1(2n + 1)
cot -1 ç ÷ >
èp ø 6
æ -1 -1 -1 é (2n - 1)(2n + 1) + 1ù ö
æ nö p ç∵cot (2n - 1) - cot (2n + 1) = cot ê ÷
Þ cot ç cot -1 ÷ < cot ç ë 2n + 1- 2n + 1 úû ÷
è pø 6 ç ÷
è = cot -1 2n2 ø
n
Þ < 3 t1 = cot-11 - cot-13
p
t2 = cot-13 - cot-15
Þ n < 3 × p = 5.5 (nearly) t3 = cot-15 - cot-17
So, the maximum value of n is 5. : : :
⇒ y = cot-11 - cot-1(2n + 1)
47. We have
As n → ∞, cot-1(2n + 1) → 0, so
-1 æ 2 ´ 3 - 1 ö p p
cot-1 2 + cot-1 3 = cot ç ÷= y=
è 2+3 ø 4 4

p 3p 1+ x 2
Hence, third angle = p - = . 2. ³ 2 ( ∵ x > 0)
4 4 x
48. We have
x 1 -1 æ x ö æ pù
⇒ £ ⇒ sin ç Î 0, ú
2 ÷ ç
æ 2p ö -1 æ 2p ö 1+ x 2 2 è 1+ x ø è 6 û
cos -1 ç cos ÷ - sin ç ÷
è 3 ø è 3 ø
æ y ö æ pù
2p p p Similarly, sin-1 ç Î 0, ú .
2 ÷ ç
= - = è 1+ y ø è 2 û
3 3 3
æ 2p ö
49. Given So, range of the given expression is ç 0 , ÷.
è 3 ø
x = sin A, y = sin B, z = sin C
p
Now, 3. sin-1sinθ > - sin-1sinθ
2
sin A cos B cos C + sin B cos A cos C + sin C cos A cos B
p
⇒ sin-1sinθ >
-sin A sin B sin C = sin (A + B + C) = sin np = 0 4
Therefore, given expression = sin A sin B sin C = xyz. Therefore,
50. We have 1 p 3p
sinθ > Þ <q <
2 4 4
tan A - tan B
tan( A - B ) =
1+ tan A tan B é æ 1 öù
4. sin[cot-1(x + 1)] = sin êsin-1 ç ÷ú
x 3 2x - k êë è x + 2 x + 2 ø úû
2
-
2k - x k 3
= 1
x 3 2x - k ⇒ sin[cot-1(x + 1)] =
1+ ´
2k - x k 3 x + 2x + 2
2

3 xk - 4 kx + 2k 2 + 2 x 2 - xk é æ 1 öù 1
= cos(tan-1 x ) = cos êcos -1 ç ÷ú =
2k 2 3 - xk 3 + 2 x 2 3 - kx 3 êë è 1+ x
2
ø úû 1+ x 2

2 x + 2k - 2kx
2 2
1 1 1
= = ⇒ =
3 (2 x 2 + 2k 2 - 2kx ) 3 x 2 + 2 x + 2 1+ x 2

p 1
Hence, A - B = . ⇒x=-
6 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 731 07-06-2018 12:38:49


732 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

5. sin-1x + tan-1x - sin-1 sin x = 2k - 1 1 (n + 1) - n


Tn = tan-1 = tan-1
é 3p 3p ù 1 + n + n2 1+ (n + 1)n
The range of sin-1x + tan-1x - sin-1sinx is ê - - 1, + 1ú .
ë 4 4 û = tan-1(n + 1) - tan-1n
Then Putting n = 1, 2, 3, …, and adding, we get
3p 3p 3p 3p Sn = tan-1(n + 1) - tan-11
- - 1 £ 2k - 1 £ +1 ⇒ - £k £ +1 p p p p
4 4 8 8 S∞ = tan-1(∞) - = - =
Hence, the integral values of k are -1, 0, 1, 2. 4 2 4 4
(B) Since
1 1
6. F(x) = ò 4 - 3 cos2 x + 5 sin2 x dx = ò 9 - 8 cos2 x dx  12   12  4
sin-1   = tan-1   and cos -1 = tan-1
3
 13   5 5 4
sec2 x sec2 x 1
=ò dx = ò dx = tan-1(3 tan x ) + c
9 sec x - 8
2
1+ 9 tan2 x 3 Therefore,

æp ö æp ö 12 3 63
⇒ g(x) = 3 tanx, g ç ÷ = 3, g’ ç ÷ = 12 LHS = tan-1 + tan-1 + tan-1
4
è ø è3ø 5 4 16
12 3
-1
7. Let y = sin (2 x 1- x )
2
Since × > 1 , we have
5 4
Put x = sinθ 12 3
+
12
-1 -1 3 -1 5 4 = p - tan-1 63
é p pù tan + tan = p + tan
θ ∈ ê- , ú 5 4 12 3 16
ë 2 2û 1- ×
5 4
⇒ y = sin-1(sin2θ) So,
 12 3 63
2 sin-1 x ,  1 1  tan-1 + tan-1 + tan-1 = p
x ∈ - ,  5 4 16
  2 2
 1 2/3 3
 -1  1  (C) 2 tan-1 = tan-1 = tan-1
⇒ y = p - 2 sin x x ∈ ,1
3 1 4
  2  1-
 9
1
 -p - 2 sin-1 x -1 ≤ x ≤ -
 2 and
4 4
sin-1 = tan-1
5 3
æ 2 cos x - 3 sin x ö Therefore,
8. (A)  y = cos -1 ç ÷
è 13 ø 4 1 4 3
sin-1 + 2 tan-1 = tan-1 + tan-1
3 5 3 3 4
y = cos-1 cos (α + x) ∀ α = tan-1
2 4 4 p
= tan-1 + cot -1 =
dy 3 3 2
Therefore, =1.
dx (D) cosec-1x = cot -1 x 2 - 1
-1 æp ö p Hence,
(B) cos cos ç ÷ =
è 14 ø 14
41 41  5
n n
1 cosec-1 = cot -1 - 1 = cot -1  
¥
æ p ö ¥
æ 1 ö 4 16  4
(C) å ç ÷ = å ç ÷ = finite ⇒ a > 2
n=1 è 2ap ø n=1 è 2a ø Therefore,
æ 1ö æ 1ö 41 5
sin-1 ç ÷ + cos -1 ç ÷ cot -1 9 + cos ec -1= cot -1 9 + cot -1
(D) f(x) = èxø è x ø = p sin x 4 4
cosecx 2 1 4
+
-1 1 -1 4 -1 9 5 = tan-1 1 = p
= tan + tan = tan
 1  1  1 9 5 1 4
9. (A) tan-1   + tan-1   + tan-1   +  + ∞ 1- ⋅ 4
 3  7  13  9 5

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 732 07-06-2018 12:39:14


Chapter 17 | Inverse Trigonometry 733

æ 7 - 5( x 2 + 3) ö -1 é 1 5ù 1
10. (A)  sec -1 ç ÷ = sec ê 2 - ú (D) y = tan-1 + tan-1 b , (0 < b < 1)
è 2( x 2
+ 2 ) ø ë ( x + 2 ) 2 û 2

Since  1/ 2 + b   1 
⇒ y = tan-1  , ∵ b < 1
1 1  1- b / 2  2
£
x +2 2
2
-1  1+ 2b  p
0 < tan  ≤
 2 - b  4
1 5
- ≤ -2
x +2 2
2
 1+ 2b 
⇒0<  ≤1
2p  2 - b 
Therefore, the maximum value is sec-1(-2) = .
3 ⇒ 0 < (1 + 2b) ≤ (2 - b), (1 + 2b > 0)
p 1
(B) Minimum value = cosec-12 + sec-11 = , when ⇒ 3b ≤ 1 ⇒ b ≤
6 3
 2 1 1
⇒ bmax = 
3 x + 4  = 1 3

11.    1  cot -1  11 -1  1-1-1 11  -1  1
++tan + tan -1 1  1-1 1   -1  1  
 1+-1tan
p cot  tan-1 cot +tan
tan-1 tan tan
  + tan +tan-+1 tan
    + tan  
(C) -1 2 -1
sin x - 1 + cos 2 x - 5 =
2
  3  
37   3  7  13   7  13 21  13  21   21 

2
-1-1 x + tan -1 x + y -1-1  x + y - x+y
⇒ |x2 - 1| = |2x2 - 5| Using, tan-Using
1 , tan
x + tan Using tan--11xy+=tan
y = ,tan tan, we
 y= tan 1 ,we get , we get
1 - xy 1-get xy  1- xy 
 
⇒ x2 = 2
  1  ncot -1   1  1  31-1 1   -13 1   3
-1 1 
cot  tan-1 cot +tatan  ta+n-tan =   =
=  + tan
⇒x=± 2 (Two solutions)
  2 28    22  8   2 8   2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 733 07-06-2018 12:39:26


734 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Solved JEE 2017 Questions


JEE Main 2017 tan a + tan b
because tan(a + b ) =
1- tan a tan b
 1+ x 2 + 1 - x 2  1
1. The value of tan-1   , x < , x ≠ 0 , is equal p q
 2 2 2 ⇒ +
to  1+ x - 1 - x  4 2
p 1 p 1 Substitutingq = cos -1 x 2 , we get
(A) - cos -1( x 2 ) (B) + cos -1( x 2 )
4 2 4 2
p 1
p p + cos -1( x 2 )
(C) - cos -1( x 2 ) (D) + cos -1( x 2 ) 4 2
4 4
(ONLINE) Hence, the correct answer is option (B).

Solution: It is given that 2. A value of x satisfying the equation sin[cot−1(1 + x)] =


 1+ x 2 + 1 - x 2  cos[tan−1x] is
tan-1   1
 1+ x 2 - 1 - x 2  (A) (B) 0
  2
Substituting x2 = cos q, we get 1
(C)
–1 (D) -
2
q = cos−1(x2)
(ONLINE)
2q 2q
Using the identities 1+ cosq = 2 cos and 1- cosq = 2 sin , Solution: We have the following two cases:
we get 2 2
1 1
  From Fig. (a): sin(cot -1(1+ x )) = =
2q q  q q 2 2
 2 cos + 2 sin2   2 cos 2 + 2 sin 2 
1+ 1+ x + 2 x x + 2x + 2
tan-1  2 2  = tan-1  1
 q q  q q -1
From Fig. (b): cos(tan x ) =
2 2  2 cos - 2 sin 
 2 cos 2 - 2 sin 2   2 2 1+ x 2
 
 q q
+ sin 
cos
-1 2 2
= tan 
q q
 cos - sin  1 + (1 + x)2 1 + x2
 2 2
1 x
q
Dividing the equation by cos , we get
2
 sin(q / 2)  l b
 1+ 
tan  cos(q / 2) 
-1 1+x 1
 1- sin(q / 2 )  (a) (b)
 cos(q / 2) 
Therefore, the value of x satisfying the given equation is found as
sin(q / 2) q follows:
Now, substituting = tan , we get
cos(q / 2) 2
sin[cot -1(1+ x )] = cos[tan-1( x )]
1+ tan(q / 2) 
tan-1   = x2 + 2x + 2 = 1 + x2
1- tan(q / 2) 
p That is,
We know that tan = 1; therefore, 1
4 2 x = -1⇒ x = -
2
 p q 
tan-1  tan  +  
  4 2 Hence, the correct answer is option (A).

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 734 07-06-2018 12:39:45


18 Matrices and
Determinants

Dev Nagri College (DN)—31 players: 2 (TT), 15 (hockey),


MATRICES 3 (badminton), 5 (tennis) and 6 (basketball).
Put this information in a matrix form.
18.1  Definition of a Matrix
Solution: The above information can be put in a tabular form as
A rectangular array of symbols (which could be real or complex
follows.
numbers) along rows and columns is called a matrix.
Thus, a system of m × n symbols arranged in a rectangular for- Colleges Number of players
mation along m rows and n columns and bounded by the brackets TT Hockey Badminton Tennis Basketball
[.] is called an m by n matrix (which is written as m × n matrix).
MC (35) 5 11 5 6 8
Thus,
NAS (22) 3 13 2 4 0
 a11 a12 ............... a1n 
  DN (31) 2 15 3 5 6
a21 a22 ............... a2n 
 
A              The number 4 represents the number of players the NAS College
 
            has sent for playing tennis. The number 15 represents the number
 
am1 am2 ............. amn  of players the DN College has sent for playing hockey. Similarly,
the number 8 represents the number of players that the Meerut
is a matrix of order m × n. In a compact form, the above matrix is College has sent for playing basketball. The above can be put in a
represented by rectangular array form as follows:
A = [aij], 1 ≤ i ≤ m, 1 ≤ j ≤ n or simply [aij]m×n 5 11 5 6 8 
 
3 13 2 4 0 
The numbers a11, a12, … of this rectangular array are called the ele-  
2 15 3 5 6 
ments of the matrix. The element aij belongs to the ith row and the
jth column and is called the (i, j)th element of a matrix. This is a 3 × 5 matrix, where 3 represents the number of colleges
(number of rows) participating and 5 represents the number of
18.2  Order of a Matrix games (number of columns) being played in the meet.

If any matrix A contains ‘m’ rows and ‘n’ columns then m × n is


termed as order of matrix. 18.3  Types of a Matrix
Order is generally written as suffix of the array. The elements that appear in the rectangular array are known as
Now any matrix of order m × n will have the notation [aij]m × n. entries. Depending upon these entries, matrices are of the follow-
That is, ing types:
A = [aij ]m´n or (aij )m´n or aij 1. Row matrix: A single row matrix is called a row matrix or a row
m´n

It is obvious that 1 ≤ i ≤ m and 1 ≤ j ≤ n. vector.


For example, the matrix [a11 a12 … a1n] is a 1 × n row matrix.
Illustration 18.1   In the inter-sports meet of local colleges, the 2. Column matrix: A single column matrix is called a column
games to be played are TT, hockey, badminton, tennis and basket- matrix or a column vector.
ball. Three colleges of Meerut sent the following number of play-  a11 
 
ers. a 
 21 
Meerut College (MC)—35 players: 5 (TT), 11 (hockey), For example, the matrix   is an m × 1 column matrix.
 ... 
5 (badminton), 6 (tennis) and 8 (basketball).  ... 
 
Nanak Chand College (NAS)—22 players: 3 (TT), 13 (hockey), a 
 m 1 
2 (badminton), 4 (tennis) and none for basketball.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 735 07-06-2018 12:39:50


736 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

3. Square matrix: If m = n, i.e. if the number of rows and columns 18.4  Equality of Matrices
of a matrix are equal, say n, then it is called a square matrix of
order n. Two matrices A and B are said to be equal, written as A = B, if
4. Null (or zero) matrix: If all the elements of a matrix are equal to 1. they both are of the same order, i.e. have the same number of
zero, then it is called a null matrix and is denoted by Om×n or O. rows and columns and
5. Diagonal matrix: A square matrix in which all its non-diagonal 2. the elements in the corresponding places of the two matrices
elements are zero is called a diagonal matrix. Thus, in a diago- are the same.
nal matrix aij = 0 if i ≠ j.
The diagonal matrices of orders 2 and 3 are as follows: 18.5 Addition and Subtraction
k 0 0
of Matrices
k1 0   1 
  ,  0 k2 0 Let A = [aij] and B = [bij] be two matrices of the same order m × n.
 0 k2   
 0 0 k3  Then, their sum (or difference) A + B (or A - B) is defined as another
matrix of the same order, say C = [cij] such that any element of C is
The elements aij of a square matrix for which i = j are called the the sum (or difference) of the corresponding elements of A and B.
diagonal elements of a matrix and the diagonal along which all Therefore,
these elements lie is called the principal diagonal or the lead- C = A ± B = [aij ± bij]
ing diagonal or the diagonal of the matrix. 1 2 4 
6. Scalar matrix: A square matrix in which all the diagonal Illustration 18.2  Find A + B and A – B where A    and
0 5 3 
elements are equal and all other elements are equal to zero is 7 3 2 
B 
called a scalar matrix. 5 1 9 
That is, in a scalar matrix aij = k, for i = j and aij = 0 for i ≠ j. Thus,
k 0 0  Solution: Here, both A and B are 2 × 3 matrices. Therefore,
 
0 k 0  is a scalar matrix. 1 7 2  3 4  2  8 5 6 
  AB    
0 0 k  0  5 5  1 3  9  5 6 12 
7. Unit matrix or identity matrix: A square matrix in which all and
its diagonal elements are equal to 1 and all other elements are 1 7 2  3 4  2  6 1 2 
equal to zero is called a unit matrix or an identity matrix, denot- AB    
0  5 5  1 3  9  5 4 6 
ed by U or I.
For example, unit (or identity) matrices of orders 2 and 3 are
1 0 0  18.5.1  Properties of Matrix Addition
1 0   
  and 0 1 0  , respectively. 1.  A + B = B + A
0 1  
0 0 1 2.  A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
3.  A + O = O + A = A; here O {null matrix} will be additive identity.
8. Negative of a matrix: Let A = [aij]m×n be a matrix. Then, the
4. If A is a given matrix, then the matrix -A is the additive inverse
negative of the matrix A is defined as the matrix [-aij]m×n and
of A for A + (-A) = null matrix O.
is denoted by -A.
5. If A, B and C are three matrices of the same order, then
9. A square matrix in which all elements below leading diagonal A + B = A + C ⇒ B = C   (left cancellation law)
or all elements above leading diagonal are zero is called a tri-
and
angular matrix.
(i) Upper triangular matrix: A square matrix A = [aij] is called an B + A = C + A ⇒ B = C   (right cancellation law)
upper triangular matrix if aij = 0, for all i > j. Thus, in an upper
triangular matrix all elements below diagonals are zero. 18.6 Multiplication of a Matrix
a b c 
  by a Scalar
For example, A  0 p q  is an upper triangular matrix.
  Let A = [aij]m × n be a matrix and k a scalar. Then, the matrix obtained
0 0 r  by multiplying each element of matrix A by k is called the scalar
  (ii) Lower triangular matrix: A square matrix A = [aij] is called multiple of A and is denoted by kA.
a lower triangular matrix if aij = 0 for all i < j. Thus, in a low-
er triangular matrix, all elements above diagonal are zero. 18.6.1 Properties of Multiplication of a Matrix
1 0 0  by a Scalar
 
For example, B  2 3 0  is a lower triangular matrix. 1. If k1 and k2 are scalars and A be a matrix, then (k1 + k2)A = k1A
 
4 5 6  + k2A.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 736 07-06-2018 12:39:57


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 737

2. If k1 and k2 are scalars and A be a matrix, then k1(k2 A) = (k1k2)A.


R1  R1C1 R1C2 
3. If A and B are two matrices of the same order and k is a scalar,    
AB  R2  [C1 C2 ]12  R2C1 R2C2 
then k(A + B) = kA + kB.    
That is, the scalar multiplication of matrices distributes over the R3  R3C1 R3C2 
31 32
addition of matrices. 3.  Few important things for the multiplication
4. If A is any matrix and k be a scalar, then (-k)A = -(kA) = k(-A). (a)  Condition for product AB to exist or to be defined: If A
and B are two matrices then their product is defined or in
18.7  Multiplication of Two Matrices other words A is conformable to B for multiplication if the
number of columns of A is the same as the number of rows
Let A = [aij] be an m × p matrix and B = [bij] be a p × n matrix. in B. That is, if A is a matrix of order m × p and B is a matrix of
These matrices A and B are such that the number of columns of order p × n, the matrix AB will be of order m × n.
A are the same as the number of rows of B, each being equal to (b) Pre-multiplication and post-multiplication: When we
p. Then, the product AB (in the order it is written) will be a ma- say multiply A by B then it could mean both AB or BA where
trix C = [cij] of the type m × n. A and B are any numbers. But when A and B are matrices
Here cij will be the element of C occurring in ith row and the jth then as seen above AB and BA do not necessarily mean the
column, and it will be row by column product of ith row of A having same thing. If AB is defined for matrix multiplication, BA
p columns with the jth column of B having p rows, the elements of may not be defined. To avoid this, when we say product AB
which are it would mean the matrix A post-multiplied by B and when
ai1 ai 2 … aip and b1j we say product BA it would mean matrix A pre-multiplied
b2 j by B. In AB, A is called the pre-factor and B the post-factor.
 (c) In the case when both A and B are square matrices of the
bpj same order then also both AB and BA are defined and the
product matrix is also a matrix of the same order but still
Therefore, AB ≠ BA.
p (d)  Again we know that for two scalars a and b when ab = 0 it
cij = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + … + aipbpj = 
k 1
aik bkj
means that either a or b (or both) is zero. But for two matri-
ces A and B, AB = O, i.e. a null matrix, does not necessarily
The summation is to be performed with respect to repeated suffix k. imply that either A or B = O as shown above because nei-
This gives us the particular i-jth element of C which is of order ther A nor B is null matrix whereas AB is a null matrix.
m × n. For obtaining an element of C occurring in the second
0 0  0 0 
row and the third column, we shall put i = 2 and j = 3. Therefore, A , B   
1 0  0 1
p
c23   a2k bk 3  a21b13  a22b23    a2 pbp3 0 0 
k 1 AB   
0 0 
Since there are m rows in A, i can take values from 1 to m. Similarly, But, A ¹ 0 and B ¹ 0
there are n columns in B, j can take values from 1 to n. Thus, we
shall get all the mn elements of C. Again  1 1 1  1 2 3 
   
p Illustration 18.3   If A  3 2 1 , B  2 4 6  , then
cij   aik bkj (18.1)
     
k 1
2 1 0  1 2 3 
compute AB and BA.
This gives us the i-j th element of AB which is of order m × n having
Solution: Here, A is 3 × 3 and B is 3 × 3. Hence, both AB and BA are
m rows and n columns.
defined and each will be 3 × 3 matrix. Let
1. Elements of the jth column of AB: For obtaining elements of
the jth column, j will remain fixed for the jth column whereas i C11 C12 C13 
 
will change from 1 to m as there are m rows in AB. AB  C  C21 C22 C23 
 
Hence, giving i the values 1, 2, 3, …, m and keeping j fixed in C31 C32 C33 
Eq. (18.1) we shall get all the elements of the jth column of AB.
Therefore, the jth column of AB is where Cij means the product of the element at i th row of A with the
element at j th column of B.
p p p
For example, C23 = product of the second row of A with the third

k 1
a1k bkj ,  a2k bkj , … ,  amk bkj
k 1 k 1 column of B. That is,
3 
2. An easy way to remember: If we denote the ordered set of  
rows of A by R1, R2, R3 each having two elements and ordered [  3 2  1] 6   33  2 6  13  0
 
set of columns of B by C1, C2, each having two elements, then 3 

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738 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Similarly, we can find other elements of C. 2 3 4


We can also say that by the product of the first row of A with the  
5 1 2
three columns of B, we shall get the three elements of the first row A 
6 4 2
of C. That is,  
7 4 6  43
R1C1, R1C2, R1C3
and similarly take the second row of A and multiply with all the and
columns of B and we will get the three elements of the second row 0 0 
 
of C, i.e. R2C1, R2C2, R2C3 and elements of the third row of C will be O  0 0 
 
R3C1, R3C2, R3C3. Therefore, 0 0  32

 11 12  11 12  1 4  12 13  1 6  13 
  Then AO = O.
AB = 31 22  11 32  2 4  12 33  2 6  13 

  If A is an m×n matrix then ImA = A = AIn where Im and In are
5. 
 21 12  0 1 22  1 4  0 2 23  1 6  0 3
identity matrices of order m and n, respectively. If A is a square
0 0 0  matrix of order n and I is the identity matrix of order n, then AI =
 
 0 0 0   O (i.e. null matrix) A = IA. Thus, I is the multiplicative identity.
 
0 0 0  6. For a square matrix A, positive integral powers of A, i.e. An, can
be obtained by multiplying A by itself n times, i.e.
Similarly, BA can also be computed. A2 = A × A
Illustration 18.4 If A and B are matrices such that both AB and A3 = A × A × A = A2 × A
and so on.
A + B are defined, prove that both A and B are square matrices of
the same order. 7. Matrix polynomial: If  f(x) = a xm + a xm-1 + a xm-2 +  …
0 1 2
+ am is a polynomial in x and A is a square matrix of order n,
Solution: We know that two matrices A and B are conformable for then
addition if they are of the same order. Thus, if A be m × n then B f(A) = a0Am + a1Am-1 + a2Am-2 + … + amIn
should also be m × n as A + B is defined.
  is called matrix polynomial. For example, if f(x) = 3x2 - 2x + 5
Again since AB is also defined therefore the number of columns in
and A is a square matrix of third order then matrix polynomial is
A (i.e., n) should be equal to the number of rows in B (i.e., m). Hence,
f(A) = 3A2 - 2A + 5I3.
n = m and in that case both A and B will be the square matrices of
order equal to m = n.
18.8  Operations Regarding Matrices
Illustration 18.5 If A is any m × n matrix and both AB and BA are
defined prove that B should be an n × m matrix. 18.8.1  Transpose of a Matrix
Solution: Since A is m × n and AB is defined, therefore B should If A is a given matrix of the type m × n then the matrix obtained by
be n × p because the number of columns of A should be equal to changing the rows of A into columns and columns of A into rows
number of rows of B. is called transpose of matrix A and is denoted by A′ or AT. As there
Again B is now n × p and A is m × n. are m rows in A, therefore there will be m columns in A′ and similarly
Since BA is also defined, therefore p would be equal to m by the as there are n columns in A, there will be n rows in A′.
same argument as above. Thus if A = [aij]m×n then
Therefore, B is n × m matrix. A′ = AT = [aji]n×m
For example,
18.7.1  Properties of Matrix Multiplication
2 1 
1. 
Multiplication of matrices is distributive with respect to 2 3 7   
If A    , then A  3 0  .
addition of matrices. That is, 1 0 2   
7 2 
A(B + C) = AB + AC
2. 
Matrix multiplication is associative if conformability is assured. Properties of Transpose
That is, 1.  (A′)′ = A
A(BC) = (AB)C 2.  (KA)′ = KA′, with K being a scalar
3. 
The multiplication of matrices is not always commutative. That 3.  (A ± B)′ = A′ ± B′
is, AB is not always equal to BA (AB ≠ BA). 4.  (AB)′ = B′ A′
4. 
Multiplication of a matrix A by a null matrix conformable with 5.  (ABC)′ = C′B′A′
A will give null matrix. Consider

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 738 07-06-2018 12:40:11


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 739

18.8.2  Conjugate of a Matrix 4.  For any square matrix A,


Let A = [aij] be a given matrix. Then the matrix obtained by (a)  A + A′ is symmetric.
replacing all the elements by their conjugate complex is called the
(b)  A – A′ is skew-symmetric.
conjugate of matrix A. It is represented by A , i.e. A = [aij ] .
(c)  AA′ and A′A are symmetric matrices.
Properties of Conjugates 5.  If A is a symmetric matrix, then all positive integral powers
1.   ( A) = A of A are symmetric.
2.   ( A + B ) = A + B 6.  If A is a skew-symmetric matrix, then all positive even inte-
3.   (a A) = a A , with a  being any number gral powers of A are symmetric and all positive odd integral
powers of A are skew-symmetric.
4.   ( AB ) = A B , with A and B being conformable for
multiplication. 3.  Hermitian matrix: A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be
Hermitian if the (i, j)th element of A is equal to the conjugate
complex of the (j, i)th element of A, i.e. aij = a ji for all i and j.
18.8.3  Transpose of the Conjugate of a Matrix
4.  Skew-Hermitian matrix: A square matrix A = [aij] is said to
Transpose of the conjugate of a matrix is equal to the conjugate be skew-Hermitian if the (i, j)th element of A is equal to the
of the transpose of a matrix A, i.e. ( A )¢ = ( A¢) and is written as Aθ. negative of the conjugate complex of the (j, i)th element of A, i.e.
aij = - a ji for all i and j.
Properties of Transpose Conjugate
1.  (Aq )q = A
Hermitian and Skew-Hermitian Matrices
2.  (A + B)q = Aq+ Bq A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be Hermitian matrix if aij = a ji
3.  (kA)q= k Aq, k being any number ∀ i, j, i.e. A = Aq.
4.  (AB)q = BqAq 1.  If A is a Hermitian matrix then aii = aii ⇒ aii is real ∀ i. Thus
every diagonal element of a Hermitian matrix must be real.
2.  A Hermitian matrix over the set of real numbers is actually a
18.8.4  Trace of a Matrix real symmetric matrix. A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be
Let A be a square matrix of order n. The sum of the elements skew-Hermitian if aij = - a ji , ∀ i, j, i.e. Aq = -A.
of A lying along the principal diagonal is called the trace of A. 3.  If A is a skew-Hermitian matrix then aii = - aii ⇒ aii + aii = 0,
We shall write the trace of A as tr A. Thus, if A = [aij]n×n, then i.e. aii must be purely imaginary or zero.
n
tr A   ai  a11  a22    ann . 4.  A skew-Hermitian matrix over the set of real numbers is
i 1
actually a real skew-symmetric matrix.

Trace of a Matrix
5.  Orthogonal matrix: A square matrix A is said to be orthogonal
n if A′A = I = AA′.
tr(A) =  aii = a11 + a22 +  + ann
i 1 6.  Unitary matrix: A square matrix A is said to be unitary if AqA
= I = AAq.
7.  Idempotent matrix: A square matrix A such that A2 = A is called
18.9 Types of a Matrix on the an idempotent matrix.
Basis of Operations 8.  Nilpotent matrix: A square matrix A will be called a nilpotent
matrix if Ak = O (null matrix) where k is a positive integer. If how-
1.  Symmetric matrix: A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be ever k is the least positive integer for which Ak = O then k is the
symmetric if its (i, j)th element is the same as its (j, i)th element, index of the nilpotent matrix A.
i.e. aij = aji for all i, j.
9.  Involutory matrix: A square matrix A such that A2 = I is called
2.  Skew-symmetric matrix: A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be the involutory matrix.
skew-symmetric if the (i, j)th element of A is the negative of the
(j, i)th element of A, i.e. if aij = -aji for all i, j.
Your Turn 1
Properties of Symmetric and Skew-Symmetric Matrices
1.  If A is a symmetric matrix, then A′ = A. 1 1 1 1 3 
   
2.  If A is a skew-symmetric matrix, then A′ = –A. If A  2 0 3 and B  0 2  then AB + BA = O.
 1.   
   
3.  Diagonal elements of a skew-symmetric matrix are zero. 3 1 2  1 4 
(True/False)Ans.  False

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740 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

x  3 2 y  x  0 7  18.11  Evaluation of Determinants


If 
 2.    then x = -3, y = -2 and z = 4.
 z  1 4 a  6  3 2a 
(True/False) Ans. True 18.11.1  Determinants of the First Order
1 2 1  If A = [a11], then |A| = a11
 
 3. If A  0 1 1 , then A3 - 3A2 - A + 9I equals  .
  18.11.2  Determinants of the Second Order
 3 1 1  Ans. Zero
a1 b1
The notation consisting of 22 numbers termed as
1 2 2  a2 b2
 
 4. If 3 A  2 1 2  and A × A′ = I, then find x + y.
 elements, arranged in two rows and two columns, is called a
  determinant of second order. The elements a1 and b2 are said to
 x 2 y  Ans.  -3
lie along the principal diagonal; the elements a2 and b1 are said to lie
 5. 
For the three matrices A, B and C, along the secondary diagonal.
The value of the determinant is obtained by forming the
0 1 0  i  1 0  product of the elements along the principal diagonal and
A ,B ,C   ,
1 0  i 0  0 1 subtracting from it the product of the elements along the
secondary diagonal. Thus,
verify the following relations:
(a)  A2 = B2 = C2 = I a1 b1
= a1 b2 - a2 b1 (18.2)
(b) AB = -BA; AC = -CA; BC = -CB a2 b2

  6. Use matrix multiplication to divide Rs. 30000 in two parts such 18.11.3  Determinants of the Third Order
that the total annual interest at 9% on the first part and 11% a1 b1 c1
on the second part amounts Rs. 3060.
Ans.   First part → 12000 The notation a2 b2 c2 consisting of 32 elements, arranged
Second part → 18000 a3 b3 c3
in three rows and three columns, is called a determinant of third
0 a2 ab ac 
b 
c   order. Its value is
   
If A   c
 7.  a  and B  ab b2 bc  , show that
0 a1b2c3 + a2b3c1 + a3b1c2 - a1b3c2 - a2b1c3 - a3b2c1
   
 b  a 0  ac bc c 2 
This may be written as
AB = BA = O3×3.
a1(b2c3 - b3c2) - b1(a2c3 - a3c2) + c1(a2b3 - a3b2)
3 2 3
 
Express the matrix A  4 5 3 as the sum of a symmetric
 8.  b2 c2 a c2 a2 b2
  or a1 - b1 2 + c1
b3 c3 a3 c3 a3 b3
2 4 5
and a skew-symmetric matrix. We can therefore write
 3 3 5 / 2  0 1 1/ 2 
    a1 b1 c1

Ans.  A  3 5 7/2    1 0 1/ 2  b c2 a c2 a b2
    a2 b2 c2 = a1 2 - b1 2 + c1 2 (18.3)
5 / 2 7 / 2 5  1/ 2 1/ 2 0  b3 c3 a3 c3 a3 b3
a3 b3 c3
 9. 
Let A and B be symmetric matrices of the same order. Then,
show that Note that each term of a second-order determinant is the product
of two quantities and each term of a third-order determinant is the
(a)  AB - BA is a skew-symmetric matrix.
product of three quantities.
(b)  AB + BA is a symmetric matrix.

3 4  2 1 2 
18.12 Minors
10.  If A   ,B  , show that (AB)T = BTAT.
The minor of a given element of a determinant is the determinant
1 1  1 3 4 
of the elements which remain after deleting the row and the
column in which the given element occurs.
DETERMINANTS The minor of a1 in Eq. (18.2) is b2 and b2 may be considered a
determinant of first order. Similarly, the minor of a2 is b1.
18.10   Definition of a Determinant For example, the minor of a1 in Eq. (18.3) is
b2 c2
and the
b3 c3
Every square matrix A can be associated to a number or an a1 c1
expression which is known as the determinant of A and is denoted minor of b2 in Eq. (18.3) is a c .
3 3
by |A| or det A.

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Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 741

18.13  Cofactors The necessary and sufficient condition for a square matrix A to
possess the inverse is that |A| ≠ 0.
In Eq. (18.3), the elements a1, b1, c1 are multiplied by 1
If A be an invertible matrix, then the inverse of A is adj A. It
-1 | A|
b2 c2 a2 c2 a2 b2 is usual to denote the inverse of A by A .
, - ,
b3 c3 a3 c3 a3 b3
18.15.1  Theorem (Uniqueness of Inverse)
These expressions are called the cofactors of the elements a1, b1, c1.
Theorem: Inverse of a square matrix if it exists is unique.
Generally, the cofactor of an element is its minor with its sign or
Proof: Let A = [aij ]n´n be a square matrix. Let inverse of A exist.
opposite sign prefixed in accordance with the following rule.
To prove: Inverse of A is unique.
For any determinant if aij is the element at the intersection of the
If possible, let B and C be two inverses of A. Then
i th row and j th column, then the cofactor of aij has positive sign or
negative sign before minor of aij according to i + j is even or odd. The AB = BA = In and AC = CA = In
determinant may be expanded along any chosen row or column. Now
The cofactors of the elements a1, b1, c1, a2, b2, c2, a3, b3, c3 will B = B ln = B( AC ) [since AC = In ]
be denoted by A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, respectively.  = (BA) C = InC = C
For example, element b3 in Eq. (18.3) lies at the intersection of
Hence B = C . This implies that the inverse of A is unique.
the third row and the second column. Since 3 + 2 = 5 is an odd
number, we have 18.15.2  Properties of Inverse of a Matrix
a c
B3 = - 1 1 1. (AB)-1 = B-1A-1 2. (A′)-1 = (A-1)′
a2 c2 3. (A-1)q  = (Aq )-1
a1 c1 0 1 2 
The cofactor B2 of the element b2 is + because element  
a3 c3 Illustration 18.7   Find the inverse of the matrix A  1 2 3 .
 
b2 lies at the intersection of the second row and the second col- 3 1 1
umn, and 2 + 2 = 4 is an even number. Solution: We find the determinant of A,
Let the determinant in Eq. (18.3) be denoted by D. When the 0 1 2
cofactors are used, the expansion of the determinant takes the A= 1 2 3
compact form: 3 1 1
D = a1A1 + b1B1 + c1C1 = a2A2 + b2B2 + c2C2 = a3A3 + b3B3 + c3C3 Expanding along R1 we get
D = a1A1 + a2A2 + a3A3 = b1B1 + b2B2 + b3B3 = c1C1 + c2C2 + c3C3 |A| = 0(2 - 3) - 1(1 - 9) + 2(1 - 6) = 8 - 10 = -2
and Since |A| ≠ 0, therefore A-1 exists.
a2A1 + b2B1 + c2C1 = 0 = a2A3 + b2B3 + c2C3, etc.
Now the cofactors of the elements of the first row of |A| are
2 3 1 3 1 2
18.14  Adjoint of a Square Matrix 1 1
,- ,
3 1 3 1
, that is, are -1, 8, -5, respectively.

Let A = [aij]n×n be any n × n matrix. The transpose B′ of the matrix The cofactors of the elements of the second row of |A| are
B = [Cij]n×n, where Cij denotes the cofactor of the element aij in the 1 2 0 2 0 1
determinant |A|, is called the adjoint of the matrix A and is denoted - , ,- , that is, are 1, -6, 3, respectively.
1 1 3 1 3 1
by the symbol adj A.
The cofactors of the elements of the third row of |A| are
a b 
Illustration 18.6  If A =   , then find adj A. 1 2 0 2 0 1
g d  ,- , , that is, are -1, 2, -1, respectively.
2 3 1 3 1 2
Solution: In |A|, the cofactor of a is d and the cofactor of b is -g.
Also the cofactor of g is -b and the cofactor of d is a. Therefore, the Therefore, adj A = the transpose of the matrix B where
matrix B formed of the cofactor of the elements of |A| is 1 8 5
 
d -g  B   1 6 3 
B=  
- b a  1 2 1
So,
d -b  1 1 1
Now, adj A = the transpose of the matrix B =  .  
 -g a  adj A  8 6 2 

 
18.15  Inverse of a Matrix Now
5 3 1

Let A be any n-rowed square matrix. Then, a matrix B, if it exists, 1


A-1 = adj A
such that AB = BA = In, is called inverse of A. | A|

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742 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

Here |A| = –2. Therefore 1 2 6 


 
1 1 1  1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2  B  2 3 8 
1     
A1    8 6 2    4 3 1  2 0 10 
2   
5 3 1  5 / 2 3 / 2 1/ 2 
  3. The elementary operation of the addition to the elements
of the i th row, the corresponding elements of the j th row
18.16 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices multiplied by a non-zero number k is denoted by Ri ® Ri + kR j .
A square matrix A is said to be non-singular or singular according Similarly, the elementary operation of the addition to the
elements of the i th column, the corresponding elements of
to |A| ≠ 0 or |A| = 0.
the j th column multiplied by a non-zero number k is denoted
by C i ® C i + kC j .
18.17 Elementary Operations or
Example: Let
Elementary Transformations 1 2 3  1 4 3 
   
of a Matrix A  2 3 4  , B  2 7 4 
   
2 0 5  2 4 5 
Any of the following operations is called an elementary
transformation (operation).
 1.  The interchange of any two rows (or columns). On applying the elementary operation C2 ® C2 + 2C1, matrix
 2. The multiplication of the elements of any row (or column) by A becomes matrix B.
a non-zero number.
18.17.1  Equivalent Matrices
 3. The addition to the elements of any row (or column), the
corresponding elements of any other row (or column) Two matrices A and B are said to be equivalent if one can be
multiplied by a non-zero number. obtained from other by applying a finite number of elementary
Any elementary transformation is called a row transformation operations on the other matrix. If A and B are equivalent matrices,
or column transformation considering as it applies to rows or we write A ~ B .
columns. Example: Let
Clearly, there will be a total of six elementary operations
1 2 3  2 3 8 
(transformations) on a matrix, three of them are due to rows    
and are called row operations whereas three of them are due A  2 3 4  and B  1 2 6 
   
to columns and are called column operations. 
2 0 5  2 0 10 
 1. The elementary operations of interchange of the i th row and
Now,
the j th row is denoted by Ri « R j and the interchange of the
i th column and the j th column is denoted by C i « C j . 1 2 3  é2 3 4 ù
 
Example: Let A  2 3 4  ~ ê 1 2 3 ú [applying R1 « R2 ]
1 2 3    ê ú
  2 0 5  êë2 0 5 úû
A  2 3 4 
  2 3 8 
2 0 5   
~ 1 2 6  = B  [applying C3 ® 2C3 ]
Applying R1 « R3 , i.e. interchanging the first row and the  
2 0 10 
third row, matrix A becomes the matrix
2 0 5  Here, A ~ B as B has been obtained from A by applying two ele-
 
B  2 3 4  mentary operations.
 
1 2 3 
18.17.2  Elementary Matrix
 2. 
The elementary operation of the multiplication of the
elements of the i th row by a non-zero number k is denoted by A matrix obtained from unit matrix by a single elementary
Ri ® kRi . operation is called an elementary matrix.
Similarly, the multiplication of the elements of the i th column Example: Let
by a non-zero number k is denoted by C i ® kC i . 1 0 
Example: Let I 
0 1
1 2 3 
  Then,
A  2 3 4 
  2 0 
2 0 5  A  [R1  2R1]
0 1
On multiplying the elements of the third column of matrix A
by 2, i.e. on applying C3 ® 2C3 , we get the new matrix is an elementary matrix.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 742 07-06-2018 12:41:13


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 743

18.18 Inverse of a Matrix by Elementary 1 0 1 2


  
1 0

Operations (Elementary ⇒ 0 1 2    1
  
0 0 A

( R3 ® R3 + 5R2 )
0 0 2   5 3 1
Operations on Matrix Equation)
1 0 1  2 1 0
Let A, B and X be three square matrices of the same order such that      1 
⇒ 0 1 2    1 0 0 A R3  R3 
     2 
X = AB (18.4) 0 0 1  5 2 3 2 1 2 
The matrix Eq. (18.4) will also be valid if we apply a row operation 1 0 0  1 2  1 2 1 2
   
on matrix X [occurring on the left-hand side of Eq. (18.4)] and the ⇒ 0 1 2    1 0 0 A (R1 ® R1 + R3 )
   
same row operation on matrix A (the first factor of product AB on 0 0 1 5 2  3 2 1 2 
the matrix on the right-hand side). 1 0 0  1 2  1 2 1 2
Thus, on the application of a sequence of row operations on    
⇒ 0 1 0    4 3 1  A (R2 ® R2 - 2R3 )
the matrix equation X = AB (these row operations are applied on X    
0 0 1 5 2  3 2 1 2 
and on the first matrix A of product AB simultaneously), the matrix
equation is still valid (we assume this fact without proof ). Hence,
1 2  1 2 1 2 
Similarly, a sequence of elementary column operations on the  
1
matrix equation X = AB can be applied simultaneously on X and A   4 3 1 
 
on the second matrix B of product AB and the equation will be 5 2 3 2 1 2 
still valid.
We also show the result using column operation. We have
In view of the above-mentioned fact, it is clear that we can find
the inverse of a matrix A, if it exists, by using either a sequence of    A = AI
elementary row operations or a sequence of elementary column 0 1 2  1 0 0
   
operations but not both simultaneously. ⇒ 1 2 3  A 0 1 0 
   
3 1 1 0 0 1
18.18.1  Using Row Operation
1 0 2  01 10 02 0 1 0 
Apply a series of row operations on A = IA till we get I = BA.      
⇒ 2 1 3  A 12
  01 03  A(C11 
 0 C20)  (C1  C2 )
Now by definition of inverse of a matrix, B = A-1 .   
1 3 1 01 03 1 0 0 1
18.18.2  Using Column Operation 1 0 01  0 0  1 0  1 0 
       
Apply a series of column operations on A = AI till we get I = BA. ⇒ 2 1 21 1 A 11 0 A 12  0 (C23 C(3C3 2C1C) 3  2C1)
       
By definition of inverse, B is inverse of A. 1 3 11 3 01 0 01  0 1 
1 0 01 00 0 1 10 1 1 
Illustration 18.8   Obtain the inverse of the matrix using eleme­      
⇒ 2 1 02 A11 0 0 A21 0 (C32  C3 (CC32) C3  C2 )
0 1 2       
  1 3 21 30 2 0 10 0 1 
ntary operations, A  1 2 3 .
  1 0 0  1 0 10  1 2 0 1 1 2 
3 1 1       1  1 
⇒ 2 1 0  2A 1 0  A1  1 0C 3  1  C 3  C 3  C 3 
Solution: We will use row operation first. We have       2  2 
1 3 1  1 03 01  1 2 0 0 1 2 
A = IA  1 0 10  0 02 121 2 1 1 2 
0 1 2  1 0 0       
    ⇒  0 1 00  1 A 01  A0 11 0 (C11  C(1C1  2CC 2 )1
 2C2 )
       
⇒  
1 2 3  0 1
 
0 A
 5 351  3 10 0 01 2 0 1 2 

3 1 1 0 0 1
1 0 10  0 012 11 21 2 1 1 2 
1 2 3 0 1       
   0 ⇒ 0 1 00  1 A 04 A 0 41 0 (1C1  C(1C1 5C3C)1  5C3 )
       
⇒ 0 1 2  = 1 0 0  A ( R1 « R2 ) 0 3 01  3 15 2 05 21 2 0 1 2 
 
3 1 1 0 0 1
 1 10 00 0  121 2  121 21 21 2 
1 2 3  0        
1 0 ⇒ 0 01 10 0AA44 3 3 1 1  (C2(C
    2 
C2 C23C33 C) 3 )
       
⇒ 0 1 2   1 0 0 A ( R3 ® R3 - 3R1) 0 00 01 1  5 25 2 323 21 21 2 
   
0 5 8  0 3 1
Hence,
1 0 1 2 1 0  1 2  1 2 1 2 
     
⇒ 0 1 2    1 0 0  A ( R1 ® R1 - 2R2 ) A1   4 3 1 
     
0 5 8   0 3 1 5 2  3 2 1 2 

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 743 07-06-2018 12:41:38


744 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

18.19  Rank of a Matrix 18.21  Homogeneous Linear Equations


A number r is said to be the rank of a matrix A if it possesses the The equations
following two properties: a11x1  a12 x 2    a1n x n  0 

1. There is at least one square submatrix of A of order r whose a21x1  a22 x 2    a2n x n  0 

 (18.5)
determinant is not equal to zero. .............................................. 
2. If the matrix A contains any square submatrix of order r + 1, 
.............................................. 
then the determinant of every square submatrix of A of order 
am1x1  am2 x 2    amn x n  0  
r + 1 should be zero.
In short, the rank of a matrix is the order of any highest order represent a system of m homogeneous equations in n unknowns
non-vanishing minor of the matrix. x1, x2, …, xn. Let
 a11 a12 ... a1n   x1  0 
18.20  Echelon Form of a Matrix 
a21 a22 ... a2n 
  
x 2 
 
0 
     
A matrix A is said to be in Echelon form if either A is null matrix or it a a32 ... a3n  x 3  0 
A   31  , X    ,O   
satisfies the following conditions:  ... ... ... ...   ...  ... 
     
1. Every non-zero row in A precedes every zero row.  ... ... .... ...   ...  ... 
     
2. The number of zeros before the first non-zero element in a row am1 am2 ... amn  mn x n  0  m1
n1
is less than the number of such zeros in the next row.
Also rank of a matrix in Echelon form is equal to the number of where A, X, O are m × n, n × 1, m × 1 matrices, respectively. Then,
non-zero rows of the matrix. obviously we can write the system of equations (18.3) in the form
of a single matrix equation
0 8 12 4 
  AX = O (18.6)
For example, A  0 0 2 5 is in its Echelon form with two The matrix A is called the coefficient matrix of the system of equa-
 
0 0 0 0  tions.
non-zero rows. Therefore rank of A = 2. 1. If | A | = 0 , the system has infinitely many solutions.
To reduce the given matrix A = [aij]m×n in Echelon form, use 2. If A ñ 0, the system has zero solution or trivial solutions.
elementary transformations to make These conclusions can also be written on the basis of the rank
method as follows:
a21, a31, …, am1 = 0
Suppose we have m equations in n unknowns. Then the
Then coefficient matrix A will be of the type m × n. Let r be the rank of
a32, a42, …, am2 = 0 the matrix A. Obviously, r cannot be greater than n (the number of
columns of the matrix A). Therefore, we have either r = n or r < n.
and so on. 1. Case I:     If r = n, the equation AX = O will have n - n, i.e. no
For example, let linearly independent solutions. In this case, the zero
 1 1 1 3  solution will be the only solution. We know that zero
 
A  3 1 2 2  vector forms a linearly dependent set.
  2.  Case II:  If r < n, we shall have n - r linearly independent
2 4 7 7 
solutions. Any linear combination of these n - r
solutions will also be a solution of AX = O. Thus, in this
Operating R2 → R2 - 3R1, R3→R3 - 2R1, we get
case the equation AX = O will have an infinite number
 1 1 1 3  of solutions.
  3.  Case III: Suppose m < n, i.e. the number of solutions is less
A  0 2 5 7  than the number of unknowns. Since r ≤ m, therefore
 
0 2 5 13 r is definitely less than n. Hence, in this case the
given system of equations must possess a non-zero
Operating R3 → R3+ R2
solution. The number of solutions of the equation AX
 1 1 1 3 = O will be infinite.
 
A  0 2 5 7  Illustration 18.9  Does the following system of equations
 
0 0 0 20 
 possess a common non-zero solution?
x + 2y + 3z = 0
which is an Echelon form with 3 non-zero rows. Therefore, rank of A 3x + 4y + 4z = 0
= 3. 7x + 10y + 12z = 0

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 744 07-06-2018 12:41:45


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 745

Solution: Determinant of coefficient matrix is |A| = -2 which is system of equations has one or more solutions, the equations are
non-zero. said to be consistent, otherwise they are said to be inconsistent.
Therefore, x = y = z = 0 is the only solution. If B ≠ 0, the system (18.7) is said to be non-homogenous.
Alternate method (Using Rank): The given system of equations adj A
-1
can be written in the form of the single matrix equation as 1.  If |A| ≠ 0 → X = A-1B , where A =
| A|
1 2 3  x  0  The given system has unique solution.
    
AX  3 4 4  y   0   O 2.  If |A| = 0, since AX = B , we have
    

7 10 12  
z  
0  (adj A) AX = (adj A)B ⇒ | A | X = (adj A)B
We shall start reducing the coefficient matrix A to triangular form ⇒ (adj A)B = 0 [since | A | = 0]
by applying only E-row transformations on it. Applying R2 → R2 -
3R1, R3 → R3 - 7R1, the given system of equations is equivalent to which is true for infinite values of X.

1 2 3  x  T herefore, for infinitely many solutions to the system we


   should have
0 2 5  y   O
   (adj A) B = 0
0 4 9  z 
Clearly for no solution we should have
Here, we find that the determinant of the matrix on the left-
hand side of this equation is not equal to zero. Therefore, the (adj A)B ñ 0
rank of this matrix is 3. So, there is no need of further applying T hese conclusions can also be written on the basis of the rank
E-row transformation on the coefficient matrix. The rank of the
method as follows: The matrix
coefficient matrix A is 3, i.e. equal to the number of unknowns.
Therefore, the given system of equations does not possess any  a11 a12 ... a1n b1 
linearly independent solution. The zero solution, i.e. x = y = z = 0 is  
a a22 ... a2n b2 
the only solution of the given system of equations. [ A B ]   21 
 ... ... ... ... ... 
 
18.21.1 Solution of Homogeneous System of am1 am2 ... amn bm 
Linear Equations
is called the augmented matrix of the given system of equations.
Let AX = O be a homogeneous system of n linear equations with n Suppose the coefficient matrix A is of the type m × n, i.e. we
unknowns. Now if A is non-singular then the system of equations have m equations in n unknowns. Write the augmented matrix
will have a unique solution, i.e. trivial solution, and if A is a singular, [A B] and reduce it to an Echelon form by applying only E-row
then the system of equations will have infinitely many solutions. transformations and comparing the ranks of the augmented
matrix [A B] and the coefficient matrix A. Then, the following
18.22 System of Linear different cases arise:
Non-Homogeneous Equations Case I:  Rank A < Rank [A B]
In this case, the equations AX = B are inconsistent, i.e. they have
Let the equations no solution.

a11x1  a12 x 2    a1n x n  b1 Case II:  Rank A = Rank [A B] = r (say).
 In this case, the equations AX = B are consistent, i.e. they possess
a21x1  a22 x 2    a2n x n  b2 
 a solution. If r < m, then in the process of reducing the matrix [A
..............................................  (18.7)
 B] to the Echelon form, (m - r) equations will then be replaced by
..............................................  an equivalent system of r equations. From these r equations, we

am1x1  am2 x 2    amn x n  bm  shall be able to express the values of some r unknowns in terms
of the remaining n - r unknowns which can be given any arbitrary
be a system of m non-homogeneous equations in n unknowns x1, chosen values.
x2, …, xn. If we write If r = n, then n - r = 0, so that no variable is to be assigned arbitrary
values and therefore in this case there will be a unique solution.
 a11 a12 ... a1n   x1   b1 
      If r < n, then n - r variables can be assigned arbitrary values.
a a22 ... a2n   x  b  So, in this case there will be an infinite number of solutions. Only
A   21  , X   2 ,B   2 
 ... ... ... ...   ...   ...  n - r + 1 solutions will be linearly independent and the rest of the
      solutions will be linear combinations of them.
am1 am2 ... amn  mn x n  bm 
n1 m1
If m < r, then r ≤ m < n. Thus, in this case n - r > 0. Therefore, when
where A, X, B are m × n, n × 1, m × 1 matrices, respectively, the the number of equations is less than the number of unknowns,
above equations can be written in the form of a single matrix the equations will always have an infinite number of solutions
equation AX = B. provided they are consistent.
Any set of values of x1, x2, …, xn which simultaneously satisfy all For a non-singular matrix A:
these equations is called a solution of the system (18.7). When the AX = B ⇒ X = A-1B

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 745 07-06-2018 12:41:57


746 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

By comparing entries on both the sides, we have a unique solution


for a given system of equations. Your Turn 2
Illustration 18.10   Show that the equations 2x + 6y + 11 = 0,  2 3 2 
 
6x + 20y - 6z + 3 = 0 and 6y - 18z + 1 = 0 are not consistent.   1.  Evaluate the determinant  1 2 3  .
 
2 1 3  Ans. -37
Solution:
2 6 0 1 4 5 
 
∆ = | A | = 6 20 -6 = 0   2. Compute the adjoint of the matrix A  3 2 6  and verify
 
0 6 -18 0 1 0 
  that A (adj A) = (adj A)A = A I.
-11 6 0
 1 3 2 
∆1 = -3 20 -6 ≠ 0  
  3. Find the inverse of matrix A  3 0 1 using elementary
-1 6 -18  
 2 1 0 
2 -11 6 transformation.
∆ 2 = 6 -3 20 ≠ 0  1 2 3
 
0 -1 6 Ans.  2 4 7 
 
2 6 -11 3 5 9 
∆ 3 = 6 20 -3 ≠ 0 1 2 3 
 
0 6 -1   4. Reduce the matrix A  4 5 6  in Echelon form and hence
 
3 4 5 
So, the system is inconsistent.
Alternate method: The given system of equations is equivalent to find its rank.
Ans. 2
the single matrix equation:
  5.  Solve the following system of equations using matrix method:
2 6 0  x  11 x + 2y + z = 7
    
AX  6 20 6  y    3   B   x + 3z = 11
    
0 6 18  z   1   2x - 3y = 1
Ans.  x = 2, y = 1, z = 3
We shall reduce the coefficient matrix A to triangular form by E-row   6.  Solve the following system of homogeneous equations:
operations on it and apply the same operations on the right-hand (i) 2x + 3y - z = 0
side, i.e. on the matrix B.      x - y - 2z = 0
Performing R2 → R2 - 3R1, we have        3x + y+ 2z = 0
(ii)  x + y - 6z = 0
2 6 3  x  11     x - y + 2z = 0
    
0 2 6  y    30    -3x + y + 2z = 0  Ans.  Only trivial solution
    
0 6 18  z   1 

Performing R3 → R3 - 3R2, we have 18.23  Minor of Any Element of a Matrix


2 6 0  x  11 a11 a12 a13
     Consider the determinant D = a21 a22 a23
0 2 6  y    30 
     a31 a32 a33
0 0 0  z  91
If we leave the row and the column passing through the element
The last equation of this system is 0x + 0y + 0z = -91. This shows
aij, then the second-order determinant thus obtained is called the
that the given system is not consistent.
minor of the element aij and we shall denote it by Mij. In this way,
we can get nine minors corresponding to the nine elements of D.
18.22.1 Matrix Method of Solving For example,
Non-Homogeneous System of Linear a12 a13
Equations Minor of element a21 = = M21
a32 a33
1. If A is a non-singular matrix, then the system of equations given a11 a13
by AX = B has a unique solution given by X = A-1B. Minor of element a32 = = M32
2. If A is a singular matrix and (adj A)D = 0, then the system of equa- a21 a23
tions given by AX = D is consistent with infinitely many solutions. a22 a23
3. If A is a singular matrix and (adj A)D ≠ 0, then the system of Minor of element a11 = = M11 and so on
a32 a33
equation given by AX = D is inconsistent.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 746 07-06-2018 12:42:11


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 747

18.24 Cofactor of Any Element of a Matrix 2.  The numbers ai, bi, ci (i =1, 2, 3) are called the elements of
the determinant.
The minor Mij multiplied by (-1)i+j is called cofactor of the element
aij. We shall denote the cofactor of an element by the Cij. With this 3. The determinant obtained by deleting the i th row and j th
notation, cofactor of aij = Cij = (-1)i+jMij. column is called the minor of element at the i th row and
the j th column. The cofactor of this element is (-1)i+j (minor).
Note that
18.25  Determinant of Any Matrix
a1 b1 c1
If matrix A = [aij] is a square matrix of order ‘n’, then D = a2 b2 c2 = a1A1 + b1B1 + c1C1
n  n 
Determinant of A =  a1k C1k    a2k C2k      a3 b3 c3
k 1  k 1  where A1, B1 and C1 are the cofactors of a1, b1 and c1,
n  n 
=  ak1C k1    ak 2C k 2      respectively.
k 1  k 1 
where Cik represents cofactor of the element of the i th row and 18.26  Properties of Determinants
the kth column of matrix A.
 1. If two rows (or columns) in a determinant are interchanged,
For 3 × 3 order matrix A;
the sign of the determinant changes. For example, by
det A (or |A|) = a11C11 + a12C12 + a13C13 a1 b1
= a21C21 + a22C22 + a23C23 interchanging the two rows of the determinant , we
a2 b2
= a31C31 + a32C32 + a33C33 a b
2 2
= a11C11 + a21C21 + a31C31 get the determinant a b .
1 1
= a12C12 + a22C22 + a32C32
But we have
= a13C13 + a23C23 + a33C33
a2 b2 a1 b1
Thus determinant of a matrix can be obtained by adding the prod- =-
a1 b1 a2 b2
ucts of elements of any row or column by their cofactors.
Note:  If elements of a row (or column) are multiplied by the  2. If the numbers in one row are added m times the numbers in
cofactors of any other row (or column), then the sum of these another row, the value of the determinant remains unaltered.
products is zero. For example, For example,
a11c21 + a12c22 + a13c23 = 0 a1 + ma2 b1 + mb2 a b
= 1 1
2 3 4 a2 b2 a2 b2
Illustration 18.11   Evaluate the determinant D = 5 - 2 1 . This rule can be extended to more number of rows for higher
1 2 3 order determinants.
Solution: We can do it in two ways.
(a)  Expanding along the second row, we have   3. 
If rows and columns are interchanged, the value of the
determinant remains unaltered. For example,
3 4 2 4 2 3
D = -5 -2 -1 a1 b1 a a
2 3 1 3 1 2 = 1 2
a2 b2 b1 b2
= - 5 (9 - 8) - 2 (6 - 4) - 1 (4 - 3)
= - 5 - 4 - 1 = - 10 Another way of saying this is that it makes no difference if
(b)  Expanding along the third column, we have we reflect the numbers of the determinant in the line of the
principal diagonal. This means that any statement that can
5 -2 2 3 2 3
D=4 -1 +3 truly be made about rows in particular results (1) and (2) can
1 2 1 2 5 -2 equally well be made about columns.

= 4 (10 + 2) - 1 (4 - 3) + 3 (- 4 - 15)  4. If all the numbers in any row are zeros, the value of the
= 48 - 1 - 57 = - 10 determinant is zero. For example,

Hence, determinant is -10. a1 b1 c1


0 0 0 = 0
Basic Concepts a3 b3 c3
1. A
 determinant of order 3 consisting of three rows and three  5. If two rows are identical, the value of the determinant is zero.
columns is written as For example,
a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2 = a1(b2c3 - c2b3 ) - b1(a2c3 - c2a3 ) + c1(a2b3 - b2a3 ) a1 b1 c1
a3 b3 c3 a2 b2 c2 = 0
a1 b1 c1

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 747 07-06-2018 12:42:26


748 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

 6. If the elements of a row are multiplied by any number m, the Therefore,
determinant is multiplied by m. For example, D = (a - b) (b - c) (c - a)
ma1 mb1 mc1 a1 b1 c1 Alternative method:
a2 b2 c2 = m a2 b2 c2 1 a a2
a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3 D = 1 b b2
  
 7. Row-column operations: The value of determinant remains 1 c c2
unchanged when any row (or column) is multiplied by a
number or any expression and then added or subtracted from Subtracting the second row from the first and then the third row
any other row (or column). That is, from the second, we have

a1 a2 a3 a1 + ma2 - na3 a2 a3 0 a - b a2 - b 2 0 1 a+b


b1 b2 b3 = b1 + mb2 - nb3 b2 b3 D= 0 b-c b2 - c 2 = (a - b) (b - c) 0 1 b + c
c1 c2 c3 c1 + mc2 - nc3 c2 c3 1 c c2 1 c c2
The above operation is written using C1 ® C1 + mC2 - nC3 Now expanding along the first column, we have
which means C1 is replaced by C1 + mC2 - nC3 .
D = (a - b) (b - c) [(b + c) - (a + b)] = (a - b) (b - c) (c - a)
  8. Determinant of a triangular matrix is the product of its diago-
nal elements. For example, Illustration 18.13   Show that
a1 b1 c1 a1 0 0 a1 0 0 b+c c b
0 b2 c2 = a2 b2 0 = 0 b2 0 = a1b2c3 D= c c+a a = 4abc
0 0 c3 a3 b3 c3 0 0 c3 b a b+a
  9. If a determinant D becomes zero on putting x = a, then we say Solution:
that (x - a) is a factor of D. For example, if
2(b + c ) 2(c + a) 2(a + b )
x 1 3
D= c c+a a by R1: R1 + R2 + R3
∆ = x2 2 9 b a a+b
3
x 3 27
then Now take 2 as a common factor and then apply R2: R2 - R1 and
D = 0 if x = 3 R3: R3 - R1
b+c c +a a+b
Hence, (x - 3) is a factor of D.
D=2 -b 0 -b
1 a a2 -c -c 0
Illustration 18.12   Show that 1 b b2 = (a - b) (b - c) (c - a).
Now apply C2: C2 - C1
2
1 c c
b+c a-b a+b
Solution: Let
D=2 -b b -b
1 a a2 -c 0 0
D = 1 b b2
Now expand through R3 to get
1 c c2
D = 2[(-c) {-ab + b2 - ab - b2}] = 4abc
If b is put equal to a, two rows are exactly alike. Therefore, D = 0
when b = a. Hence, (a - b) is a factor of D [this follows from the Illustration 18.14   Show that
factor theorem which states that for f(x), if f(a) = 0, then (x - a)
is a factor of f(x)]. 1 1 1
Similarly, (b - c) and (c - a) are factors. D= a b c 0
Again, D is of third degree in a, b and c. 2 2
a  bc b  ca c  ab 2

We already know the three linear factors are (a - b), (b - c) and


(c - a). If there is another factor, it must be a mere number. Thus Solution: Applying C1: C1 - C2 and C2 : C2 - C3 we get
1 a a2
0 0 1
1 b b2 = N (a - b) (b - c) (c - a), where N is a number
a-b b-c c
1 c c2
a2 - b2 + c ( a - b ) b2 - c 2 + a(b - c ) c 2 - ab
By equating coefficients of bc2 on both sides, we get N = 1.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 748 07-06-2018 12:42:45


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 749

0 0 1 a b+c c
= (a - b) (b - c) 1 1 c =2 b c +a a (C2 → C2 - C3)
a + b + c b + c + a c - ab 2 c a+b b

= (a - b) (b - c) [(b + c + a) - (a + b + c)] = 0 a b c
(Expanding along R1) =2 b c a
Note: If a determinant can be so transformed that two elements c a b
in a row or column are made zero, then the determinant can be
expanded in terms of that row or column. 1 a a2
1 a bc
1 a a2 1 bc b + c Illustration 18.17   Show that 1 b ca = 1 b b2 .
Illustration 18.15   Show that 1 b b2 = 1 ca c + a . 1 c ab 1 c c2
1 c c 2 1 ab a + b
Solution: Let D stand for the determinant on the left. Then
Solution: We have
a a2 abc a a2 1
1 bc b + c 1 bc a + b + c - a
1 abc
1 ca c + a = 1 ca a + b + c - b D = b b2 abc = b b2 1
abc abc
1 ab a + b 1 ab a + b + c - c c c2 abc c c2 1

1 bc a + b + c 1 bc a a 1 a2 1 a a2
= 1 ca a + b + c - 1 ca b = - b 1 b2 = 1 b b2
1 ab a + b + c 1 ab c c 1 c2 1 c c2
1 bc 1 bc 1 a
= (a + b + c) 1 ca 1 + ca 1 b
Additional Properties of Determinants:
1 ab 1 ab 1 c
 1. The determinant remains unaltered if its rows are changed
bc 1 a into columns and the columns into rows.
= ca 1 b , since the first determinant vanishes  2. If all the elements of a row (or column) are zero, then the
ab 1 c determinant is zero.
abc a a2 1 a a2  3. If the elements of a row (column) are proportional (or
1 2 abc 2 identical) to the elements of any other row (column), then
= abc b b = 1 b b
abc abc the determinant is zero.
2
abc c c 1 c c2
 4. The interchange of any two rows (columns) of the
determinant changes its sign.
Illustration 18.16   Without expanding the determinants, prove
 5. If all the elements of a row (column) of a determinant are
a+b b+c c +a a b c multiplied by a non-zero constant, then the determinant
that b+c c +a a+b = 2 b c a . gets multiplied by the same constant.
c +a a+b b+c c a b  6. A determinant remains unaltered under a column (Ci)
operation of the form Ci + a Cj + b Ck (j, k ≠ i) or a row (Ri)
Solution: The determinant on the left is equal to
operation of the form Ri + a Rj + b Rk (j, k ≠ i).
a+b b+c c +a  7. If each element in any row (column) is the sum of r terms,
b+c c +a a+b (C1 → C1 + C2 + C3) then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of r
c +a a+b b+c determinants.
  8. If the determinant D = f(x) and f(a) = 0, then (x - a) is a
2 (a + b + c ) b + c c + a
factor of the determinant. In other words, if two rows (or
 = 2 (a + b + c ) c + a a + b
two columns) become proportional (identical) for x = a,
2 (a + b + c ) a + b b + c then (x - a) is a factor of determinant. In general, if r rows
a+b+c b+c c +a become identical for x = a, then (x - a)r-1 is a factor of the
=2 a+b+c c +a a+b (C1 → C1 - C2) determinant.
a+b+c a+b b+c 9. If in a determinant (of order 3 or more) the elements in all
the rows (columns) are in AP with same or different common
a b+c c +a difference, the value of the determinant is zero.
=2 b c +a a+b (C3 → C3 - C1) 10. The determinant value of an odd-order skew-symmetric
c a+b b+c determinant is always zero.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 749 07-06-2018 12:42:59


750 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

18.27  Sum of Determinants Now,


n 2n  1
a1 b1 c1 d1 b1 c1  2 k  1  1  2  22    2 n  1 
k 1 2 1
 2n  1
Let D1 = a2 b2 c2 and D = d 2 b2 c2 be two
2 (sum of n terms of a GP)
a3 b3 c3 d3 b3 c3 n 2(3n  1)
third-order determinants in which the corresponding second and  2 (3k  1)  2 { 1  3  32    3n  1}
k 1

3 1
 3n  1
third columns are identical. Then
and
a1 + d1 b1 c1 n
D1 + D 2 = a2 + d2 b2 c2  3( 4 k  1) 
k 1
4n  1
a3 + d3 b3 c3 Hence,
This fact is evident if we expand all the three determinants in terms 2n  1 x 2n  1
n
of column 1 and compare the results. 
k 1
Ak  3n  1 y 3n  1 = 0 (since C1 = C3)
p1 q1 r1 4n  1 z 4n  1
Similarly, if ∆ 3 = a2 b2 c2 , then
n
a3 b3 c3 2r + 1 Cr 1
2 n
Illustration 18.19   If f (r ) = n + 2n + 1 2 n +1 ,
a1  p1 b1  q1 c1  r1
2 2 2 2
cos (n ) cos n cos (n + 1)
∆1  ∆ 3  a2 b2 c2
n
a3 b3 c3 0 ≤ r ≤ n, then prove that  f (r ) 
r 0
0.
Here, we note that the corresponding second and third rows are
Solution: Since R2 and R3 are constants (independent of the vari-
identical.
able r), we have
Similarly, the determinant
n n n
d1 + e1 + f1 d2 + e2 + f2 d3 + e3 + f3
 (2r  1) r 0 n
Cr 1
b1 b2 b3 n
r0 r0

c1 c2 c3  f (r ) 
r 0
n2  2n  1 2n n 1
2 2 2
can be decomposed into the sum of three determinants cos (n ) cos n cos2 (n  1)
d1 d2 d3 e1 e2 e3 f1 f2 f3
b1 b2 b3 + b1 b2 b3 + b1 b2 b3 Now,
n
c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3  (2r  1)  1  3   (2n  1)  (n  1)2
r 0
It may be observed that the determinant
n
a1 + b1 c1 + d1 e1 + f1 
r 0
n
C r  nC 0  nC1    nC n  2n
a2 + b2 c 2 + d2 e2 + f2
n
a3 + b3 c 3 + d3 e3 + f3
 1
r 0
1 + 1 +  (n + 1) times = n + 1
can be expressed as sum of 2 × 2 × 2 = 8 determinants.
Hence
2k - 1 x 2n - 1
n (n  1)2 2n n 1
Illustration 18.18   If Ak = 2 (3k - 1) y 3n - 1 , prove that å Akn = 0.
2n - 1 3 ( 4 k - 1) z 4n - 1
k =1 
r0
f (r )  (n  1) 2
2 n
n 1  0 (since R1  R2 )
2 2 2 2
n cos (n ) cos n cos (n  1)
3n - 1 , prove that å Ak = 0.
k =1
4n - 1
18.28  Multiplication of Determinants
Solution: Observe that all the determinants A1, A2 ,… , An have Two determinants of the same order, i.e. each consisting of the
identical second and third columns. Hence, same number of rows and equal number of columns, can be
n multiplied to give a determinant of the same order. Thus, if A is
 2k  1 x 2n  1 a 2 × 2 determinant and B is another 2 × 2 determinant, A × B =
k 1 C is also 2 × 2 determinant. The multiplication is performed by a
n n method of working the row of A on the columns of B.

k 1
Ak   2 (3k  1)
k 1
y 3n  1 The method is as follows: If
n a1 a2 a a2
A= ;B= 1

k 1
3 ( 4 k  1) z 4n  1 b1 b2 b1 b 2

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 750 07-06-2018 12:43:23


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 751

a1a1 + a2 b1 a1a 2 + a2 b2 Minor of x is yz - x 2 of y is y 2 - zx , of z is xy - z 2 .


then AB =
b1a1 + b2 b1 b1a 2 + b2 b2 The left-hand side determinant in the problem is therefore
To cite a numerical example for a 3 × 3 determinant, we have X -Y Z
1 3 4 2 1 2 -Y Z -X
2 -1 6 ´ 0 1 3 Z -X Y
3 0 2 1 2 4 where the capital letters denote the minor of the corresponding
1´ 2 + 3 ´ 0 + 4 ´ 1 1´ 1 + 3 ´ 1 + 4 ´ 2 1´ 2 + 3 ´ 3 + 4 ´ 4 small letters. Therefore,
= 2 ´ 2 + ( -1) ´ 0 + 6 ´ 1 2 ´ 1 + ( -1) ´ 1 + 6 ´ 2 2 ´ 2 + ( -1) ´ 3 + 6 ´ 4 X -Y Z x y z x y z
3 ´ 2 + 0 ´ 0 + 2 ´1 3 ´ 1+ 0 ´ 1+ 2 ´ 2 3´2 + 0´3 + 2´ 4 LHS = -Y Z - X = y z x y z x
6 12 27 Z -X Y z x y z x y
= 10 13 25 2
x +y +z 2 2
xy + yz + zx xz + xy + yz
8 7 14 2 2 2
= xy + yz + zx x +y +z xy + yz + zx
(The first row is obtained by working the first row elements 1, 3, 4, xy + yz + zx xy + yz + zx x2 + y2 + z2
       
respectively, on 2, 0, 1 the first column; then on 1, 1, 2 the second
column; then on 2, 3, 4 the third column. Likewise for the second r2 u2 u2
and the third rows.)
      = u2 r2 u2 in the notation of the problem
Verification: u2 u2 r2
1 3 4 1 3 4
 (R2  2R1)
A  2 1 6  0 7 2 Illustration 18.21   For all values of A, B, C and P, Q, R, show that
3 0 2 0 9 10  (R5  3R1)
 70  18  52 cos ( A - P ) cos ( A - Q ) cos ( A + R )
2 1 2 0 3 6 cos (B - P ) cos (B - Q ) cos (B - R ) = 0
B  0 1 3  0 1 3  (R1  2R3 ) cos (C - P ) cos (C - Q ) cos (C - R )
1 2 4 1 2 4 Solution: The given determinant is the product of
 9 6  3
cos A sin A 0 cos P cos Q cos R
6 12 27 2 4 9 2 4 9 D1 = cos B sin B 0 and D 2 = sin P sin Q sin R
C  10 13 25  10 13 25  3 0 2 2  R2  (R1  R3 ) cos C sin C 0 0 0 0
8 7 14 8 7 14 8 7 14
and ∆1 = ∆2 = 0 and hence ∆1. ∆2 = 0.
2 4 5
Alternately
= 3 0 2 0 = 6(14 - 40 ) = - 156
cos ( A - P ) cos ( A - Q ) cos ( A - R )
8 7 7
cos (B - P ) cos (B - Q ) cos (B - R )
Therefore, AB = - 156 = C cos (C - P ) cos (C - Q ) cos (C - R )
Multiplication can also be performed row by row, column by
row or column by column. cos A cos ( A - Q ) cos ( A - R )
= cos P cos B cos (B - Q ) cos (B - R )
Illustration 18.20   Show that
cos C cos (C - Q ) cos (C - R )
yz - x 2 zx - y 2 xy - z 2 r2 u2 u2 sin A cos ( A - Q ) cos ( A - R )
zx - y 2 xy - z 2 yz - x 2 = u2 r2 u2 + sin P sin B cos (B - Q ) cos (B - R )
xy - z 2 yz - x 2 zx - y 2 u2 u2 r2 . sin C cos (C - Q ) cos (C - R )

= (cos P ) A1 + (sin P ) B1

where r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 and u2 = yz + zx + xy .
where
Solution: Consider the determinant cos A sin A sin Q sin A sin R
A1 = cos B sin B sin Q sin B sin R
x y z
cos C sin C sin Q sin C sin R
∆= y z x
z x y (using C2  C2  (cos Q ) C1, C3  C3  (cos R ) C1)

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 751 07-06-2018 12:43:43


752 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

So cos A sin A sin A Illustration 18.22  If a is a repeated root of a quadratic equation
A1 = sin Q sin R cos B sin C sin B = 0 f(x) = 0 and A(x), B(x) and C(x) are polynomials of degrees 3, 4 and 5,
cos C sin C sin C respectively, then show that
 (second and third columns are identical) A( x ) B( x ) C ( x )
Similarly, it may be proved that B1 = 0. A(a ) B(a ) C (a )
A¢(a ) B ¢(a ) C ¢(a )
Product of Two Determinants
is divisible by f(x), where the prime symbol denotes the derivatives.
a1 b1 c1 a 1 b1 g 1
a2 b2 c2 a 2 b2 g 2 Solution: Let
a3 b3 c3 a 3 b3 g 3 A( x ) B( x ) C ( x )

g(x) = A(a ) B(a ) C (a )
a1a 1 + b1b1 + c1g 1 a1a 2 + b1b 2 + c1g 2 a1a 3 + b1b 3 + c1g 3
A¢(a ) B ¢(a ) C ¢(a )
= a2a 1 + b2 b1 + c2g 1 a2a 2 + b2 b 2 + c2g 2 a2a 3 + b2 b 3 + c2g 3
a3a 1 + b3 b1 + c3g 1 a3a 2 + b3 b 2 + c3g 2 a3a 3 + b3 b 3 + c3g 3 Then
A¢( x ) B ¢( x ) C ¢( x )
Here, we have multiplied rows by rows. We can also multiply
g′(x) = A(a ) B(a ) C (a )
rows by columns or columns by rows, or columns by columns.
Note: If D = |aij| is a determinant of order n, then the value of A¢(a ) B ¢(a ) C ¢(a )
the determinant |Aij|, where Aij is the cofactor of aij, is Dn-1. This
Now
is known as power cofactor formula.
A(a ) B(a ) C (a )
g(a) = A(a ) B(a ) C (a )
18.29  Differentiation of Determinants
A¢(a ) B ¢(a ) C ¢(a )
Following is the differentiation of a determinant whose elements
are functions of a variable x. Let Since two rows are identical, we have g(a ) = 0
f ( x ) g( x ) A′(a ) B ′(a ) C ′(a )
F( x ) =
h( x ) u( x ) g′(a ) = A(a ) B(a ) C (a )
A′(a ) B ′(a ) C ′(a )
Then
F(x) = f(x) × u(x) - g(x) × h(x) Since two rows are identical, we have g′(a ) = 0.
and Since g(a) = 0 and also g′(a) = 0, a is a repeated root of g(x) = 0
d Therefore,
F′(x) = F(x)
dx g(x) = (x - a)2h(x)(18.8)
= {f(x) × u′(x) + u(x) × f ′(x)} - {g(x) × h′(x) + h(x) g′(x)} Since a is a repeated root of f(x) = 0, we have
f ¢( x ) g¢( x ) f ( x ) g( x ) f(x) = N(x - a)2(18.9)
= +
h( x ) u( x ) h¢( x ) u¢( x ) where N is some number. From Eqs. (18.8) and (18.9), we find that
g(x), i.e. the given determinant is divisible by f(x).
Thus, F′(x) is the sum of two determinants of which the first
one is obtained by differentiating the elements of the first row
alone and retaining the second row without any change and Differentiation of a Determinant
the second one is obtained by differentiating the elements of a (x) ab1( x ) b1( x )
the second row. Let ∆ ( x ) Let1 ∆ ( x )  . Then . Then
a2 ( x ) ab2 ( x ) b2 ( x )
Similarly, if
a1 ’( x ) ab ’( x ) a1b( 1x’() x ) ab1( x ) b1( x )
f1( x ) g1( x ) h1( x ) ∆ ’( x )  ∆ ’( x )  1  
a2 ( x ) ab2 ( x ) a2b’(2 (xx) ) ab2 ’( x ) b2 ’( x )
F(x) = f2 ( x ) g2 ( x ) h2 ( x )
f3 ( x ) g3 ( x ) h3 ( x ) where the prime symbol denotes the derivative with respect to x.
then
f1¢( x ) g1¢( x ) h1¢( x ) f1( x ) g1( x ) h1( x ) 18.30  Special Determinants
f
F′(x) = 2 ( x ) g2 ( x ) h2 ( x ) + f2¢( x ) g2¢ ( x ) h2¢ ( x )
f3 ( x ) g3 ( x ) h3 ( x ) f3 ( x ) g3 ( x ) h3 ( x ) 18.30.1  Symmetric Determinant
f1( x ) g1( x ) h1( x ) If the elements of a determinant are such that aij = aji (where aij is
+ f2 ( x ) g2 ( x ) h2 ( x ) the element of i th row and j th column), then the determinant is said
f3¢( x ) g3¢ ( x ) h3¢ ( x ) to be a symmetric determinant. The elements situated at equal

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 752 07-06-2018 12:43:57


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 753

distances from the diagonal are equal both in magnitude and sign. Solving the system we get
For example, c1 b1
a h g c1 b2 - c2b1 c2 b2
x = = ;
h b f = abc + 2fgh - af 2 - bg2 - ch2 a1b2 - a2b1 a1 b1
g f c a2 b2
a1 c1
18.30.2  Skew-Symmetric Determinant a c - a2c1 a c
y = 12 = 2 2
If aij = -aji (where aij is the element of i th row and j th column), then a1b2 - a2b1 a1 b1
the determinant is said to be a skew-symmetric determinant, a2 b2
which means that all the diagonal elements are zero and the
Note: The given equations are consistent and independent if and
elements situated at equal distances from the diagonal are equal
a b
in magnitude but opposite in sign. The value of a skew-symmetric only if 1 1 ≠ 0.
a2 b2
determinant of odd order is zero. For example,
 0 3 5  Illustration 18.24   Solve the system 4x + y = 13, 3x - 2y = 7 using
 
A   3 0 4 determinants.
  Solution: The solution requires the values of three determinants.
5 4 0 
The denominator D is formed by writing the coefficients of x and
A 0
y in order
4 1
18.30.3  Circulant Determinants D= = - 8 - 3 = - 11
3 -2
In these determinants, the elements of the rows (or columns) are in D1, the numerator of x, is formed by replacing the coefficients of x
cyclic arrangement. For example,
by the constant terms
a b c 13 1
D1 = = - 26 - 7 = - 33
b c a = -(a3 + b3 + c 3 - 3abc ) 7 -2
c a b D2, the numerator of y, is formed by replacing the coefficients of y
1 by the constant terms
= - (a + b + c ) × {(a - b )2 + (b - c )2 + (c - a)2 }
2 4 13
D2 = = 28 - 39 = - 11
3 7
a b c
Then
Illustration 18.23   Evaluate the determinant D = b c a D1 - 33
x= = = 3
c a b D - 11
and show that it is negative for all positive values of a, b and c. ∆ 2 - 11
and y= = =1
Solution: Expanding along the first row, we have ∆ - 11
c a b a b c 18.31.2  Solution of System of Three Linear
D=a -b +c Equations in Three Unknowns
a b c b c a
Consider the system of three linear equations in three unknowns:
D = a(bc - a2) - b(b2 - ca) + c(ab - c2) = 3abc - a3 - b3 - c3
a1x + b1y + c1z = d1
  = - (a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc) = - (a + b + c) {a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ca}
a2x + b2y + c2z = d2
(a + b + c )
 = - {(a - b )2 + (b - c )2 + (c - a)2 } a3x + b3y + c3z = d3
2
Consider
is negative if a, b and c are positive.
a1 b1 c1 d1 b1 c1
D = a2 b2 c2 , D1 = d2 b2 c2
18.31 Solution of System of Linear a3 b3 c3 d3 b3 c3
Equations a1 d1 c1 a1 b1 d1
D 2 = a2 d2 c2 , D2 = a2 b2 d2
18.31.1 Solution of System of Two Linear a3 d3 c3 a3 b3 d3
Equations in Two Unknowns
 1. If ∆ ≠ 0, system has unique solution given by
Consider the system of two linear equations in two unknowns:
D1 D D
a1x + b1y = c1 x= ,y= 2,z= 3
a2x + b2y = c2 D D D

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754 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

That is, system is consistent with independent solution. Let Dj be the determinant obtained from D after replacing the j th
  2. If ∆ = 0 and ∆1 = ∆2 = ∆3 = 0 then system has infinite many solu- b1
tions. That is, system is consistent with dependent solution. .
 3. If ∆ = 0 and any of ∆1, ∆2, ∆3 are non-zero then the system has
column by . .
no solution. That is, system is inconsistent.
.
18.31.3 Solution of System of Three Equations bn
in Two Unknowns Then, if D ≠ 0, we have
The following system of equations D1 D D
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ; a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 ; a3 x + b3 y + c3 = 0 x1 = , x2 = 2 , … , xn = n
D D D
is consistent if
When D = 0, we have the following cases:
a1 b1 c1 Case 1:  If D = 0 and the other determinants D1 = D2 = … = Dn
a2 b2 c2 = 0 = 0, then system of equation has infinitely many solutions if all
a3 b3 c3 cofactors of D1, D2, …, Dn and D are zero. If any one cofactor of D1,
D2, D3,…, Dn is non-zero then system has no solution.
Illustration 18.25  Find those values of c for which the Example: x + 3 y + 2 z = 1; 2 x + 6 y + 4 z = 5; 3 x + 9 y + 6 z = 9
equations 2 x + 3 y = 3; (c + 2) x + (c + 4 ) y = (c + 6 ) and (c + 2)2 x + (c +Here,
4 )2 y D=x(c=+D6y)2= Dz = D = 0 yet system has no solution whereas
2 2 2
(c + 2) x + (c + 4 ) y = (c + 6 ) are consistent. Also solve the equations for x + 3 y + 2 z = 1 ; 2 x + 6 y + 4 z = 2; 3 x + 9 y + 6 z = 3
those values of c. has infinitely many solutions.
Solution: The condition for consistency is Case 2: If D = 0 but any one of the D1, D2, …, Dn is not equal to zero
then the system has no solution, hence is inconsistent.
2 3 3
 c 2 c 4 c 6  0 Cramer’s Rule
If
(c  2)2 (c  4 )2 (c  6 )2
a1 b1 c1
-1 3 0 ∆ = a2 b2 c2 ≠ 0
⇒ -2 c+4 2 = 0 (C1 → C1 - C2) a3 b3 c3
-2(2c + 6 ) (c + 4 )2 2(2c + 10 ) then solution of linear equations a1x + b1y + c1z = d1, a2 x + b2 y
2
 ( 1){(c  4 )(2c  10 )  (c  4 ) }  3{ 2(2c  10 )  2(2c  6 )}  0 + c2 z = d2 and a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3 is given by {where (d1, d2 , d3 )
≠ (0 , 0 , 0 )}
 c 2  8c  16  2c 2  18c  40  12c  60  12c  36  0
∆x ∆y ∆
⇒ - c2 -10 c = 0 ⇒ c = 0 or c = -10 x= , y= , z= z
∆ ∆ ∆
For c = 0, the three equations are
where
2x + 2y = 3; 2x + 4y = 6; 4x + 16y = 36
d1 b1 c1 a1 d1 c1
and the solution is x = -3; y = 3. For c = -10, the equations are
∆ x = d2 b2 c2 , ∆ y = a2 d2 c2 ,
2x + 3y = 3
-8 x - 6 y = -4 Þ 4 x + 3 y = 2 d3 b3 c3 a3 d3 c3
64 x - 36 y = 16 Þ 16 x + 9 y = 4 a1 b1 d1
1 4 ∆ z = a2 b2 d2
and the corresponding solution is x   ; y  .
2 3 a3 b3 d3
18.31.4  Cramer’s Rule 1. If any of Dx, Dy, Dz ∈ R and D ≠ 0, the system of equation
Consider the system of n linear equations in n unknowns given by will have unique solution and is said to be consistent
a11x1 + a12 x 2 +  + a1n x n = b1 independent.
2. If Dx = Dy = Dz = 0 and D is also zero, then the system of
a21x1 + a22 x 2 +  + a2n x n = b2 equation will have infinitely many solutions and is said to
……………………………… be consistent dependent.
……………………………… 3. If Dx, Dy, Dz are non-zero and D is zero, then the system of
a x + a x +  + ann x n = bn equations will have no solution and is said to be inconsistent.
n1 1 n2 2
Let
a11 a12 … a1n Illustration 18.26   Solve the following system using determi-
a21 a22 … a2n nants:
D= x + 4y + 4z = 7
: :
3x + 2y + 2z = 6
an1 an2 … ann
9x + 6y + 2z = 14

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 754 07-06-2018 12:44:38


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 755

Solution: The solution requires the values of four determinants: Solution: The condition for the existence of non-trivial solution
The denominator (trivial solution is x = y = z = 0) is
1 4 4 l sin a cos a
D = 3 2 2 = 40 1 cos a sin a =0
9 6 2 -1 sin a - cos a

D1, the numerator of x is 0 sin a ( l  1) cos a (1  l )


7 4 4  0 cos a  sin a sin a  cos a = 0
D1 = 6 2 2 = 40 1 sin a  cos a
14 6 2  ( l 1) sin a (sin a  cos a )  (1 l ) cos a (cos a  sin a )  0
 l (sin2 a  cos2 a )  sin2 a  cos2 a  2 sin a cos a  0
D2, the numerator of y is
 p
 l  sin 2a  cos 2a = 2 sin  2a + 
1 7 4  4
D2 = 3 6 2 = 20 l
 1  1⇒- 2 ≤ l ≤ 2
9 14 2 2
For l = 1,
D3, the numerator of z is
 p 1 p
sin  2a +  = = sin
1 4 7  4 2 4
D3 = 3 2 6 = 40 p p
since, 2a + =
9 6 14 4 4
Then General solution:
p p
D1 40 2a + = np + ( -1)n
x = = =1 4 4
D 40 p p
D 20 1 2a = np + ( -1)n -
y = 2 = = 4 4
D 40 2
If n is even, 2a = np
D 40 p
z = 3 = =1 If n is odd, 2a = np - .
D 40 2

18.31.5 System of Homogeneous Linear Your Turn 3


Equations  1. Evaluate the determinant
Existence of non-trivial solution: If the three equations (homo- 265 240 219
geneous) 240 225 198
a1x + b1y + c1z = 0 219 198 181
   Ans.  Zero
a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = 0
and    a3x + b3y + c3z = 0 x 3 6 2 x 7 4 5 x
 2. 
If 3 6 x = x 7 2 = 5 x 3 = 0 then what is the
are considered then there always exists a solution, i.e. x = y = z = 0.
6 x 3 7 2 x x 4 5
This is called trivial solution.
If the three equations are to have a solution other than value of x? Ans.  x = -9
x = 0 = y = z, such a solution is known as non-trivial solution. The my + nz mq + nr mb + nc
condition required for the existence of such a solution is
If D = kz - mx
 3.  kr - mp kc - ma and D is the product of
a1 b1 c1 nx + ky np + kq na + kb
a2 b2 c2 = 0 x y z
a3 b3 c3 two determinants one of which is p q r , then find the
a b c
other one. Also show that D = 0.
Illustration 18.27  Let l and a be real. Find the set of all values
0 m n
of l for which the system of linear equations
Ans.  - m 0 k
lx + (sin a ) y + (cos a ) z = 0
n k 0
x + (cos a ) y + (sin a ) z = 0
If the equations x = ay + z, y = az + x and z = ax + y are
 4. 
- x + (sin a ) y - (cos a ) z = 0
consistent having non-trivial solution, then prove that
has a non-trivial solution. For l = 1, find all the values of a. a3 + 3a = 0.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 755 07-06-2018 12:44:58


756 Mathematics Problem Book for JEE

and therefore cik = 0.


x2 - x x3 x 4 -1
Thus, cik = 0 whenever i > k.
If f ( x ) = 2 x - 1 3 x 2
 5.  4 x 3 , then find the coefficient of x
Hence, the matrix AB is also a triangular matrix.
2 6x 12 x 2 1 2 2 
 
in f(x). Ans.  6  3. If A = 2 1 2  , show that A2 - 4A - 5I = 0, where I and 0 are
 
2 2 1
Additional Solved Examples the unit matrix and the null matrix of order 3, respectively. Use
this result to find A-1.
0 2b g  Solution: Given
 -g  is
 1. Determine the values of a, b, g when a b 1 2 2 
 
orthogonal. a -b g  A = 2 1 2 
 
2 2 1
Solution: Let Therefore,
0 2b g  0 a a  1 2 2 
  
1 2 2
A = a b -g  ⇒ A′ = 2 b b - b  A = A⋅A = 2 1 2  × 2 1
2  
   2
a -b g   g -g g   
2 2 1 2 2 1
Given A is orthogonal. Then AA′ = I. Hence 1 4  4 2  2  4 2  4  2  9 8 8 
 
0 2b g  0 a a  é 1 0 0ù = 2  2  4 4  1 4 4  2  2  = 8 9 8 
 
a b -g 2 b b - b  = ê0 1 0 ú 2  4  2 4  2  2 4  4  1 8 8 9 
   ê ú
a -b g   g -g g  ê0 0 1ú So,
ë û
9 8 8  1 0 0
 4b 2 +g 2 1 2 2  
2b 2 - g 2 -2 b 2 + g 2  é 1 0 0ù    
 2 2
 ê0 1 0 ú
A2 - 4A - 5I = 8 9 8  - 4 2
  1 2  - 5 0 1 0

⇒  2b - g a 2 + b 2 +g 2 a 2 - b 2 -g 2  =   0 0 1
  ê ú 8 8 9  2 2 1
2
 -2 b + g
2
a 2 - b 2 - g 2 a 2 + b 2 + g 2  êë0 0 1úû
9 8 8  4 8 8 5 0 0
     
Equating the corresponding elements, we have = 8 9 8  - 4 8 4 8  - 5 0 5 0
     
4b 2 + g 2 = 1 (1) 8 8 9  8 8 4  0 0 5 
2b 2 - g 2 = 0  (2) 9  4  5 8  8  0 8  8  0  0 0 0 
a 2 + b 2 + g 2 = 1 (3)    
= 8  8  0 9  4  5 8  8  0  = 0 0 0 
   
From Eqs. (1) and (2), we get 8  8  0 8  8  0 9  4  5 0 0 0 
1 Therefore,
6b 2 = 1 ⇒ b 2 =
6 A2 - 4A - 5I = 0 ⇒ 5I = A2 - 4A
So, By multiplying by A-1, we get
1
g =2 5A-1 = A - 4I
3
From Eq. (3), 1 2 2  4 0 0 
1 1 1    
= 2 1 2  - 0 4 0 
a2 = 1 - b2 - g 2 = 1 - - =    
6 3 2 2 2 1 0 0 4 
Hence,
1 1 1 1 4 2  0 2  0  3 2 2
a=± , b=± and g = ±    
2 6 3 = 2  0 1 4 2  0  =  2 3 2 
   
2  0 2  0 1 4   2 2 3
 2. Show that the product of two triangular matrices is itself
triangular. Therefore,
Solution: Let A = [aij]n×n and B = [bjk]n×n be two triangular matrices.
3 2 2  3 / 5 2/5 2/5 
Then aij = 0 when i > j. Also 1    
A-1 =   = 2/5 3 / 5 2 / 5 
bjk = 0 when j > k 5  2 3 2   
 2 2 3  2 / 5 2 / 5 3 / 5
n
Let AB = [cik]n×n. Then, cik = 
j 1
aij b jk .  4.  Find a square matrix A of order 2 × 2 such that A2 = I2.
Suppose that i > k: a b 
Solution: Let A =   be the required matrix. Then, A2 = I. So
(1) If j < i, then aij = 0 and therefore cik = 0. c d 
(2) If i < j, then j > k because i > k. In this case, bjk = 0.

Mathematical Problem Book for JEE.indb 756 07-06-2018 12:45:19


Chapter 18 | Matrices and Determinants 757

a b  a b  1 0  1
    =   ⇒S= (A - Aq ) = Q
c d  c d  0 1 2i

a2  bc ab  bd  Hence, expression (1) for A is unique.


1 0 
  =    6. Discuss for all values of l, the system of equations x + y + 4z
2 0 1
ac  cd cb  d  = 6, x + 2y -2z = 6, xl + y + z = 6 with regards to existence and
Comparing respective entries we get nature of solutions.
a2 + bc = 1  (1) Solution: The matrix form of the given system is
b + bd = 0 (2)
ac + cd = 0 (3)  1 1 4   x  6 
cb + d2 = 1 (4)  1 2 -2  y  = 6 
     
These must hold simultaneously.  l 1 1   z  6 
If a + d = 0, the above four equations hold simultaneously if
d = -a and a2 + bc = 1. The given system of equations will have a unique solution iff the
a b  coefficient matrix is non-singular. Using R2 → R2 - R1, R3 → R3 - lR1,
Hence, one possible square root of I is A = g -a  where a, b, we get
 
g are the three numbers related by the condition a 2 + bg = 1. 1 1 4  x  6 
0 1 - 6   y  =  0  (1)
If a + d ≠ 0, then the above four equations hold simultaneously if 
b = 0, c = 0, a = 1, d = 1 or if b = 0, c = 0, a = -1, d = -1. 0 1- l 1- 4 l   z  6 - 6 l 
1 0  1 0 
Hence,  ,   , i.e. ±I are the values of A. Therefore, the coefficient matrix will be non-singular iff
0 1  0 1
7
  5. Show that every square matrix A can be uniquely expressed as 1 - 4l + 6 - 6l ≠ 0 ⇒ l ≠
10
P + iQ, where P and Q are Hermitian matrices. 7
Thus, the given system will have a unique solution if l ≠ .
Solution: Let 10
1 1 q 7
P = (A + Aq ) and Q = ( A - A ) In case l = , Eq. (1) becomes
2 2i 10
Then 1 1 4  x   6 
A = P + iQ  (1)      
0 1 6  y    0 
Now      
0 3 / 10 18 / 10  z  18 / 10 
q
1 q  1
Pq =  ( A + A ) = ( A + Aq )q 3
 2  2 Using R3 → R3 - R gives
10 2
1 1 1
= {Aq + (Aq )q } = (Aq + A) = (A + Aq ) = P 1 1 4  x   6 
2 2 2      
0 1 6  y    0 
Therefore, P is a Hermitian matrix.      
Also 0 0 0  z  18 / 10 
q
1 q   1 1 This shows that the equations are not consistent in this case.
Qq =  ( A - A ) =   ( A - Aq )q = - {Aq - (Aq )q }
 2i  2i
  2i
 7. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers with abc = 1.
1 q 1
= - (A - A) = (A - Aq ) = Q a b c 
2i 2i  
Let A = b c a  . If ATA = I where AT is the transpose of A and
Therefore, Q is also a Hermitian matrix.  