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LECTURE – 1

Martin Luther King, Jr.


"I Have a Dream"

My friends:
I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the
history of our nation.
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.
This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames
of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled
by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island
of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the
corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a

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shameful condition.
In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent
words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every
American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed
the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on
this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has
given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the
great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the
riches of freedom and the security of justice.
We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now.
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate
discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but
a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude
awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro
is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the
bright day of justice emerges.
The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people,
for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up
with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.
We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.
We cannot turn back.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from
narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the
storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering.
Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.
Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.
And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the
American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be
self-evident, that all men are created equal."
I have a dream today!
And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:
My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.
Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,
From every mountainside, let freedom ring!
And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.
And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.
Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

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But not only that:
Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every
state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and
Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!

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To be done in reading:

Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

Vocabulary based on text To be done in speaking


WORD GUESSED MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
MEANING DICTIONARY

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LECTURE -5
Speech – 'Whisper of Aids'
Less than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City, I asked the Republican Party to lift the shroud of
silence which has been draped over the issue of HIV and AIDS. I have come tonight to bring our silence to an end. I
bear a message of challenge, not self-congratulation. I want your attention, not your applause.
I would never have asked to be HIV positive, but I believe that in all things there is a purpose; and I stand before you and
before the nation gladly. The reality of AIDS is brutally clear. Two hundred thousand Americans are dead or dying. A
million more are infected. Worldwide, forty million, sixty million, or a hundred million infections will be counted in the
coming few years. But despite science and research, White House meetings, and congressional hearings, despite good
intentions and bold initiatives, campaign slogans, and hopeful promises, it is -- despite it all -- the epidemic which is
winning tonight.
In the context of an election year, I ask you, here in this great hall, or listening in the quiet of your home, to recognize that
AIDS virus is not a political creature. It does not care whether you are Democrat or Republican; it does not ask whether you
are black or white, male or female, gay or straight, young or old.
Tonight, I represent an AIDS community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every segment of American
society. Though I am white and a mother, I am one with a black infant struggling with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital.
Though I am female and contracted this disease in marriage and enjoy the warm support of my family, I am one with the
lonely gay man sheltering a flickering candle from the cold wind of his family’s rejection.
This is not a distant threat. It is a present danger. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among women and children.
Largely unknown a decade ago, AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult Americans today. But it won’t be third for
long, because unlike other diseases, this one travels. Adolescents don’t give each other cancer or heart disease because they
believe they are in love, but HIV is different; and we have helped it along. We have killed each other with our ignorance,
our prejudice, and our silence.

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To be done in reading:

Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

Vocabulary based on text


To be done in speaking
WORD GUESSED MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
MEANING DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 12
Speech from the movie 'Independence Day'
American Rhetoric: Movie Speech
"Independence Day" (1996)

President's Address to the U.S. Fighter Pilots

The President:
Good morning. In less than an hour, aircraft from here will join others from around the world.
And you will be launching the largest aerial battle in this history of mankind.
Mankind -- that word should have new meaning for all of us today.
We can't be consumed by our petty differences anymore.
We will be united in our common interests.

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Perhaps its fate that today is the 4th of July, and you will once again be fighting for our freedom, not
from tyranny, oppression, or persecution -- but from annihilation.
We're fighting for our right to live, to exist.
And should we win the day, the 4th of July will no longer be known as an American holiday, but as the
day when the world declared in one voice:
"We will not go quietly into the night!
We will not vanish without a fight!
We're going to live on!
We're going to survive!"
Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!

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To be done in reading:

Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

Vocabulary based on text


To be done in speaking
WORD GUESSED MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
MEANING DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 19
Little girls are wiser than men
IT WAS AN EARLY EASTER. Sledging was only just over; snow still lay in the yards; and water ran
in streams down the village street.
Two little girls from different houses happened to meet in a lane between two homesteads, where the
dirty water after running through the farm-yards had formed a large puddle. One girl was very small,
the other a little bigger. Their mothers had dressed them both in new frocks. The little one wore a blue
frock the other a yellow print, and both had red kerchiefs on their heads. They had just come from
church when they met, and first they showed each other their finery, and then they began to play. Soon
the fancy took them to splash about in the water, and the smaller one was going to step into the puddle,
shoes and all, when the elder checked her:
'Don't go in so, Malásha,' said she, 'your mother will scold you. I will take off my shoes and stockings,
and you take off yours.'
They did so, and then, picking up their skirts, began walking towards each other through the puddle.
The water came up to Malásha's ankles, and she said:
'It is deep, Akoúlya, I'm afraid!'
'Come on,' replied the other. 'Don't be frightened. It won't get any deeper.'
When they got near one another, Akoúlya said:
'Mind, Malásha, don't splash. Walk carefully!'
She had hardly said this, when Malásha plumped down her foot so that the water splashed right on to
Akoúlya's frock. The frock was splashed, and so were Akoúlya's eyes and nose. When she saw the
stains on her frock, she was angry and ran after Malásha to strike her. Malásha was frightened, and
seeing that she had got herself into trouble, she scrambled out of the puddle, and prepared to run home.
Just then Akoúlya's mother happened to be passing, and seeing that her daughter's skirt was splashed,
and her sleeves dirty, she said:
'You naughty, dirty girl, what have you been doing?'
'Malásha did it on purpose,' replied the girl.
At this Akoúlya's mother seized Malásha, and struck her on the back of her neck. Malásha began to
howl so that she could be heard all down the street. Her mother came out.
'What are you beating my girl for?' said she; and began scolding her neighbour. One word led to
another and they had an angry quarrel. The men came out and a crowd collected in the street, every one
shouting and no one listening. They all went on quarrelling, till one gave another a push, and the affair
had very nearly come to blows, when Akoúlya's old grandmother, stepping in among them, tried to
calm them.
'What are you thinking of, friends? Is it right to behave so? On a day like this, too! It is a time for
rejoicing, and not for such folly as this.'
They would not listen to the old woman and nearly knocked her off her feet. And she would not have
been able to quiet the crowd, if it had not been for Akoúlya and Malásha themselves. While the women
were abusing each other, Akoúlya had wiped the mud off her frock, and gone back to the puddle. She
took a stone and began scraping away the earth in front of the puddle to make a channel through which

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the water could run out into the street. Presently Malásha joined her, and with a chip of wood helped
her dig the channel. Just as the men were beginning to fight, the water from the little girls' channel ran
streaming into the street towards the very place where the old woman was trying to pacify the men. The
girls followed it; one running each side of the little stream.
'Catch it, Malásha! Catch it!' shouted Akoúlya; while Malásha could not speak for laughing.
Highly delighted, and watching the chip float along on their stream, the little girls ran straight into the
group of men; and the old woman, seeing them, said to the men:
'Are you not ashamed of yourselves? To go fighting on account of these lassies, when they themselves
have forgotten all about it, and are playing happily together. Dear little souls! They are wiser than you!'
The men looked at the little girls, and were ashamed, and, laughing at themselves, went back each to
his own home.
'Except ye turn, and become as little children, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven.'

Instructions: The teacher to give the underlined words from the text for practice in
vocabulary activity.
To be done in reading:

Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

Vocabulary based on text To be done in speaking


WORD GUESSED MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
MEANING DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 26
'A Case for Defence'
Grahame Greene

It was the strangest murder trial I ever attended. They named it the Peckham murder in the headlines, though
Northwood Street, where the old woman was found battered to death, was not strictly speaking in Peckham. This
was not one of those cases of circumstantial evidence in which you feel the jurymen's anxiety because mistakes
have been made - like domes of silence muting the court. No, this murderer was all but found with the body: no
one present when the Crown counsel outlined his case believed that the man in the dock stood any chance at all.
He was a heavy stout man with bulging bloodshot eyes. All his muscles seemed to be in his thighs. Yes, an ugly
customer, one you wouldn't forget in a hurry - and that was an important point because the Crown proposed to
call four witnesses who hadn't forgotten him, who had seen him hurrying away from the little red villa in
Northwood Street. The clock had just struck two in the morning.
Mrs Salmon in 15 Northwood Street had been unable to sleep: she heard a door click shut and thought it was her
own gate. So she went to the window and saw Adams (that was his name) on the steps of Mrs Parker's house. He
had just come out and he was wearing gloves. He had a hammer in his hand and she saw him drop it into the
laurel bushes by the front gate. But before he moved away, he had looked up - at her window.
The fatal instinct that tells a man when he is watched exposed him in the light of a streetlamp to her gaze - his
eyes suffused with horrifying and brutal fear, like an animal's when you raise a whip. I talked afterwards to Mrs
Salmon, who naturally after the astonishing verdict went in fear herself. As I imagine did all the witnesses Henry
MacDougall, who had been driving home from Benfleet late and nearly ran Adams down at the corner of
Northwood Street. Adams was walking in the middle of the road looking dazed. And old Mr Wheeler, who lived
next door to Mrs Parker, at No. 12, and was wakened by a noise – like a chair falling - through the thin-as-paper
villa wall, and got up and looked out of the window, just as Mrs Salmon had done, saw Adams's back and, as he
turned, those bulging eyes. In Laurel Avenue he had been seen by yet another witness - his luck was badly out;
he might as well have committed the crime in broad daylight.
`I understand,' counsel said, `that the defence proposes to plead mistaken identity. Adams's wife will tell you that
he was with her at two in the morning on February 14, but after you have heard the witnesses for the Crown and
examined carefully the features of the prisoner, I do not think you will be prepared to admit the possibility of a
mistake.'
It was all over, you would have said, but the hanging.
After the formal evidence had been given by the policeman who had found the body and the surgeon who
examined it, Mrs Salmon was called. She was the ideal witness, with her slight Scotch accent and her expression
of honesty, care and kindness. The counsel for the Crown brought the story gently out. She spoke very firmly.
There was no malice in her, and no sense of importance at standing there in the Central Criminal Court with a
judge in scarlet hanging on her words and the reporters writing them down. Yes, she said, and then she had gone
downstairs and rung up the police station.
`And do you see the man here in court?'
She looked straight at the big man in the dock, who stared hard at her with his Pekingese eyes without emotion.
`Yes,' she said, `there he is.'
`You are quite certain?'
She said simply, `I couldn't be mistaken, sir.'
It was all as easy as that.
`Thank you, Mrs Salmon.'
Counsel for the defence rose to cross-examine. If you had reported as many murder trials as I have, you would
have known beforehand what line he would take. And I was right, up to a point.
`Now, Mrs Salmon, you must remember that a man's life may depend on your evidence.'
`I do remember it, sir.'
`Is your eyesight good?'
`I have never had to wear spectacles, sir.'

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`You are a woman of fifty-five?'
`Fifty-six, sir.'
`And the man you saw was on the other side of the road?'
`Yes, sir.'
`And it was two o'clock in the morning. You must have remarkable eyes, Mrs Salmon?'
`No, sir. There was moonlight, and when the man looked up, he had the lamplight on his face.'
`And you have no doubt whatever that the man you saw is the prisoner?'
I couldn't make out what he was at. He couldn't have expected any other answer than the one he got.
`None whatever, sir. It isn't a face one forgets.'
Counsel took a look round the court for a moment. Then he said, `Do you mind,
Mrs Salmon, examining again the people in court? No, not the prisoner. Stand up, please, Mr Adams,' and there
at the back of the court with thick stout body and muscular legs and a pair of bulging eyes, was the exact image
of the man in the dock. He was even dressed the same - tight blue suit and striped tie.
`Now think very carefully, Mrs Salmon. Can you still swear that the man you saw drop the hammer in Mrs
Parker's garden was the prisoner - and not this man, who is his twin brother?'
Of course she couldn't. She looked from one to the other and didn't say a word.
There the big brute sat in the dock with his legs crossed, and there he stood too at the back of the court and they
both stared at Mrs Salmon. She shook her head.
What we saw then was the end of the case. There wasn't a witness prepared to swear that it was the prisoner he'd
seen. And the brother? He had his alibi, too; he was with his wife.
And so the man was acquitted for lack of evidence. But whether - if he did the murder and not his brother - he
was punished or not, I don't know. That extraordinary day had an extraordinary end. I followed Mrs Salmon out
of court and we got wedged in the crowd who were waiting, of course, for the twins. The police tried to drive the
crowd away, but all they could do was keep the road-way clear for traffic. I learned later that they tried to get the
twins to leave by a back way, but they wouldn't. One of them - no one knew which - said, `I've been acquitted,
haven't I?' and they walked bang out of the front entrance. Then it happened. I don't know how, though I was
only six feet away. The crowd moved and somehow one of the twins got pushed on to the road right in front of a
bus. He gave a squeal like a rabbit and that was all; he was dead, his skull smashed just as Mrs Parker's had
been. Divine vengeance? I wish I knew. There was the other Adams getting on his feet from beside the body and
looking straight over at Mrs Salmon. He was crying, but whether he was the murderer or the innocent man
nobody will ever be able to tell. But if you were Mrs Salmon, could you sleep at night?

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To be done in reading:

Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

Vocabulary based on text


To be done in speaking
WORD GUESSED MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
MEANING DICTIONARY

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LECTURE - 31
Revision of all modules (Any of – Three)
'I have a Dream'
'Whisper of Aids'
'Independence Day'
'Little girls are wiser than men'
'A Case for Defence'

Instructions: The teacher to give the underlined words from the text for practice in
vocabulary activity.
To be done in reading:
Word Antonym Synonym

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Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text
For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading
Vocabulary based on text To be done in
speaking
WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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Listening
Skill

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LECTURE – 9
Hindi Films : Stereotyping Muslims ? (Clipping given in resource folder)

Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Pronunciation


Randomly

Succulently

Sanguine

Erosion

Tramps

Totting

Rendering

Thrining

Milieu

Jarring

Beetle

Aplomb

Attire

Irrational

Symbiotic

Endeavour

Inadvertently

Churn

Aspiration

Cliché

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LECTURE – 15
India Questions Dr APJ Abdul Kalam (Clipping given in resource folder)
Vocabulary for teachers to highlight in listening module

Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Pronunciation

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LECTURE -23
Euthanasia (Clipping to be shown)
Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Pronunciation
Ethical

Affliction

Judeo-Christian

Blatant

Tranquilizers

Intervenous

Termination

Dissuade

Irony

Stringent

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LECTURE – 29
Movie Clipping 'Independence Day'
Vocabulary for teachers to highlight in listening module

Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Pronunciation

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Speaking
Skill

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LECTURE – 2
Text Based Questions : -
Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to
America but to the entire world.
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Q2. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Do you find similarity with the dream of
Mahatma Gandhi.
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Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words.
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Q4. What is your dream for your self and your country
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Q5. Write words from the text that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the
column with the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an
appropriate sequence of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal,
loan, and so forth. No word can be repeated in any column.

3 letter adjectives 5 letter verbs 3 letter verbs 5 letter adjectives

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LECTURE – 6
Business Jargon -in- action
The MBA Jargon

actionable (adj.)
Capable of being acted on or completed in the near future. "Which items on our list are
actionable in the next quarter?" I recommend showering after using this one. Note: "actionable"
has a long-standing legal meaning different from the above.
at the end of the day
Based on the frequency with which they use the phrase, it would seem that members of senior
management are required by law to begin every third sentence with "at the end of the day," a
phrase similar in meaning to "when all is said and done." For instance, your favorite CEO might
say, "At the end of the day, it's our people that make the difference." Insert platitude here.
best of breed (n. and adj.)
The finest specimen or example to be found in a particular industry or market. Like Papillons
preening for the judges, companies position themselves as best-of-breed. In truth, however, few
ever make it through the qualifiers.
best practices (n.)
Another widely used term promulgated by the arch-demons of business - management
consultants - "best practices" is used to describe the "best" techniques or methods in use in a
company, field, or industry. Unfortunately, companies often confuse latest or trendiest with best,
and the best practices of one era are soon superseded by the ever-more-ludicrous fads of the
next.
bring to the table (v. phrase)
Refers to what one offers or provides, especially in negotiations. Personally, I bring a fork.
business model (n.)
An amorphous term having to do with identifying the specific ways in which a business creates
value, or simply put, how it sells stuff for more than it costs. I'll show you my business plan if
you show me yours.
buy-in (n.)
A cute way of saying "agreement" or "consent." If you hope to get anything done in today's
corporation, you'll need management buy-in.
centers of excellence
Certainly beats centers of failure. Most companies have a nice set of both.
circle back around (v.)
A very roundabout (pardon the pun) way of saying "Let's regroup later to discuss."
circle with (v.)
Like its cousin "circle back around," it means "to meet and/or discuss with." Usage example:
"Why don't you circle with Robert tomorrow to discuss the Ebbers case?" I can't help but
envision two well-dressed exec types holding hands and madly circling around to the delight of
everyone in their cubicle farm.
c-level (adj.)
Those modest, hardworking souls at the top of your org chart: CEO, COO, CFO, CIO, CPO,
CTO, Chief Dog Walker, etc.
close the loop (v. phrase)
To follow up on and/or close out an area of discussion. Closely related to "circle back around"

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and "loop in."
commoditize (v.); commoditized (adj.)
A great fear and apprehension in business is having your product or service become
"commoditized," or turned into Just Another Mediocre Piece of Junk (JAMPoJ to those in the
know), completely undifferentiated from its peers.
core competencies (n.)
Simply put, it means "what the company does best." When a company focuses on its core
competencies, it gets back to basics. I recommend leveraging these.
critical path (n.)
A sequence of events where a slip in any one activity generates a slip in the overall schedule.
Used extensively in the exciting world of project management. Not to be confused with
"criminal path," which is a sequence of events that leads to jail, a la Andy Fastow of Enron
fame.
deliverables (n.)
Denoting project output or assignments, "deliverables" are often "tasked" (see below), but
seldom completed.
dial-in (v.)
Despite the obvious reference to a telephone, this one means to "include." For example, "We
need to dial-in the materials list."
dialogue (v.)
It's true that Shakespeare used "dialogue" as a verb ("Dost Dialogue with thy shadow?"). But
I've got news for ya, buddy: You ain't no Shakespeare. Resist the temptation to use this utterly
superfluous verb as a substitute for "talk" or "speak." Usage example: “Let’s dialogue
telephonically via land line," meaning "call me at the office." Sigh.
drill-down (v.)
To get down to the details. One starts at a "high-level" and "drills down" to the boring details -
where exectutives fear to tread.
driver (n.)
If you think this one has something to do with the people who drive trucks, you're wrong (but I
still like you). It refers to the factors or agents that move something forward: "What are the key
drivers of organizational change?"
eat(ing) your own dog food (v. phrase) NEW!
When your company starts using its own products internally and suddenly realizes why the rest
of the world hates them so much.
ecosystem (n.) NEW!
Companies now longer participate in industries; they inhabit vast ecosystems comprised of
consumers, partners, innocent bystanders, and, increasingly, competitors. The idea is to be at the
center of your ecosystem, so integral to its operations that the actions of all other participants
seem to benefit you as much as them .But remember to look out for lions.
elevator story (n.)
A pitch to a corporate executive, or bored janitor, as the elevator goes from floors 1-10 and you
have a captive audience.

facetime (n.)
A foreign concept to many of us in the Internet world, "facetime"refers to time spent speaking
face to face, especially to senior management. For example, “I need to arrange some facetime
with you next week.”
feature/scope creep (n.) AWESOME!
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The temptation to add more and more features to a product release until it becomes a confused
mass of incongruous elements, twisted and evil.
functionality (n.)
Simply meaning "functions" or "features," this one has gained widespread currency.
going forward (adv.)
Meaning "in the future" or "from now on." For instance: "Going forward, we see our gross
margins increasing as our new high-margin products gain traction."
granular (adj.); granularity (n.)
Getting down to the fine details, the nitty-gritty. Busy people might stop you mid-sentence if
you get too granular. Like sand through an hourglass, these are the days of our lives.
go-live (adj. and v.)
A new product or system becomes available to the public on its "go-live" date. Presumably, the
same product or system will "go-dead" soon thereafter.
high-level (adj.)
Senior executives, far-sighted individual with godlike abilities to see the big picture, want
anything brought to their attention to be "high-level", that is, neatly summarized and dumbed
down so they can understand all the techno mumbo jumbo.
incent (v. tr.)
A transitive verb meaning "encourage" or "influence": "The program was set up to incent users
to spend more." Also the leading member of the incent-incentivize-disincent axis of evil.
leapfrog (v.)
To surpass your competition, usually by engaging in one gigantic, hopelessly ambitious leap of
faith that is almost sure to end in ruin and despair. Bring a parachute, golden or other.
loop in (v.); keep in the loop (v. phrase)
Used by loopy people who mean to say, "to keep apprised."
low-hanging fruit (n.)
The easy pickings, the obvious steps that an organization should take to improve its
performance or take advantage of new opportunities.
mission-critical (adj.)
Meaning "critical to the functioning or success of a business or project," this one is generally
used in reference in insanely expensive computer hardware that should be bulletproof, but, alas,
is not.
monetize (v.)
The noble mission of Web slingers everywhere: figuring out how to make money off each page
view, visitor (eyeballs), or anything else.

next steps (n.)


"Next steps" are the tasks delegated to attendees at the close of a meeting. Next steps often
result in deliverables. I believe "next steps" and "action items" are synonymous. Do humanity a
favor and avoid both.
net-net (n.)
The end result, the bottom line, etc. ad infinitum, ad nauseam. "Net-net, we're still ahead."
network effects (n.)
A wonderfully prosaic term from economics describing how some products or services become
more useful as the number of users rises. Online auctions (eBay), operating systems (Windows),
and social networks (Facebook) are three oft-used examples.
offline (adv.)
"Let's discuss this offline." Euphemism frequently uttered in long office meetings meaning:
"Let's discuss this later in private because you're way off topic again, idiot."
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operationalize (v.)
A horribly polysyllabic way of saying "carry out" or (gasp) "do." Oh, the humanity!
out of pocket (adj.)
Out of touch or out of the office for a few days.
paradigm [shift] (n.)
Paradigm is an extra fancy word for "model." A paradigm shift means moving from one model
to a new one, generally in a grand, expensive, and ultimately disastrous manner. If I had a pair
of dimes for every time I've heard this one...
peel the onion (v. phrase)
To conduct a layer-by-layer analysis of a complex problem and in the process, reduce yourself
to tears.
performance management (n.)
A euphemistic way of saying to micro-manage, berate, motivate, psychologically manipulate,
threaten, and then fire someone.
proactive (adj.)
The modern-day antonym of "reactive." Rumor has it that this gem was created in the 1970s out
of the parts of lesser words.
pushback (n.)
If you have a lot of sound, logical ideas, you're bound to run into a lot of resistance in today's
surreal corporations. This resistance, often polite but always absurd, is euphemistically called
"pushback." Try not to take it personally: you're dealing with the insane.
quick win (n.)
Everyone in business is always looking for "quick wins," small steps or initiatives that will
produce immediate, positive results.
ramp up (v.); ramp-up ( n.)
To increase over time. "We intend to ramp up production in anticipation of holiday demand."
Just try not to cramp up.
reach out (v.)
To call or email. For this one, we can blame those old AT&T ads that encouraged folks to "reach
out and touch someone." Obviously, you can't actually reach out and TOUCH anyone due to
your company's stringent sexual-harrassent policy. But you can "reach out" (but, again, no
touching) to a co-worker for information, support, or to start one of those crucial conversations.
But keep any interaction to a phone call or email just to be on the safe side.
real-time (adj.)
Everyone probably has an intuitive understanding of what is meant by "real-time," but that
hasn't stopped many companies and consultants from using the term to describe a quixotic
concept whereby a company's data is always up-to-date and available to whomever needs it,
whenever they need it.
repurpose (v.)
To take a process or system designed for one task and use it for another -- usually in way
unforeseen by its creators. In the fast-moving Internet economy, repurposing has become a
viable substitute for true innovation.
roll out (v.); roll-out (n.)
Companies are constantly introducing new products and services that you don't want or need.
The elaborate process of introducing something new is a "roll-out." The verb form is used
thusly: "We rolled this piece of crap out to the curbside."

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scope (v.)
To set the scope of a product, i.e. to determine what "functionality" will be included. After
products are "scoped," they are invariably "descoped" as reality reasserts itself.
skip-level (n.)
A meeting where big-shot execs ignore the normal corporate hierarchy, jump down a level or
two, and slum it with the plebs.
socialize (v.)
To share a document or plan within an organization, in the vain hope of getting actionable
feedback from your "peers." Also, the act of taking Fido to the park to get him used to other
dogs.
solution (n.)
Companies no longer sell products or services; they sell "solutions," which are products or
services, but more expensive.
soup to nuts (adj.)
To build every aspect of something from beginning to end. An integrated approach. Oh, the
hubris of it all.
synergy (n.); synergize (v.)
The (often illusory) value gained by combining two or more companies or divisions. Also
known as "economies of scope" and "corporate merger BS."
takeaway (n.)
The essential points of a presentation, activity, etc. that the author hopes you will "take away."
Also has something to do with food in the Queen's English.
take to the next level (v. phrase)
I used to know a guy with a Level 20 Wizard. But seriously, this means to move a product,
service, or organization from its current level of dysfunction to the next level of dysfunction.
task (v. tr.)
Yet another noun turned verb, this one means "to assign." Now go task someone with some
deliverables.

30,000 feet, at
A high-level view or explanation. Please keep in mind that oxygen is in short supply at this
altitude, so you may experience lightheadedness.
touch base (v.)
A naughty sounding gem, "to touch base" is simply a request to meet again to discuss the
current status of a project or task. "Rebecca, I would like to touch base with you later to discuss
the Smith account." You gotta think this one leads to a lot of lawsuits...
value proposition (n.)
The unique set of benefits that you offer to customers to sucker them into buying your product
or service. Sometimes shortened to "value prop," as in "What's your value prop?" Word.
wet signature (n.)
I'm not sure I want to touch this one, but apparently this means a human signature, as opposed
to an electronic one.
wetware (n.)
You, me, your grandma, everyone (assuming you're a carbon-based life form). That is, a human-
based solution, as opposed to a hardware, or silicon-based, solution.
win-win
It's a win for us; it's a win for them. Everyone's happy and drinking the Kool-Aid.

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world-class (adj.)
Means you're best in class, a benchmark. If your product, service or solution ain't world-class,
you might as well close up shop and go home. Luckily, everything at your corporation is either
world-class now, or will be by next quarter. Or at least that's what management's been telling
everyone.

Corridor cruiser (Noun): A worker who spends a lot of time walking through office corridors, usually
en route from one meeting to another. The emerging Tablet PC user will be the “corridor cruiser” and
not necessarily someone in a small business.

Ego wall: (Noun) A wall on which a person has hung their degrees, certificates, and awards, as well as
photographs in which they appear with famous people.

Hot desk (Noun). A desk that is not assigned to a particular employee, but rather is available for use
and can be reserved in advance by a mobile worker whenever they are required to be in the office.

Office creeper (Noun). A person who sneaks into an office building during business hours to steal
personal items and equipment.

Occupational spam : ( Noun). Unwanted or unnecessary messages sent over a corporate e-mail system.

Nap nook (Noun). An office or room where employees can nap during working hours.

Job spill (Noun). Work or work-related tasks that carry over into personal time.

Going Forward: (Verb) Move ahead, travel on. It is a relatively new and apparently convenient way to
indicate a progression in time from the present. The term has become increasingly popular in press
releases from Internet start-ups and newly public companies. E.g. Going forward let’s use this template
to create AWAD. Going forward, please complete your status reports by Wednesday evenings.

Rollout: (Verb, Noun) It is a staged series of activities that often lead to the inauguration or the
introduction of a new program or a product. The inauguration or initial public exhibition of a new
product, service, or policy: When a company installs new equipment, the installation staging is
sometimes called a rollout. E.g. The manufacturer’s rollout of the new jet is scheduled for next month.

Toss the Idea: (Verb). To throw out or cast away something. To suggest something as a possibility. E.g:
I’ll toss an idea out to start the discussion. I can’t toss this paper out as in my belief it contains some
very strong statistical evidence that support the hypotheses.

Home Office: (Noun) Employees whose jobs do not require them to work inside an office can work
from home. A space allotted for work at home. E.g: I have a home office and work most of the time
from home. This enables me to juggle between work and family activities.

Let’s Take a Step Back: (Take a re-look, re-assess, have another look at. E.g. Before we move forward,
let’s take a step back and re-assess whether we are in the right track.

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Big Hitter
Context: I'm in awe of that Exec - he's a really Big Hitter
Meaning: Someone powerful within the confines of the company. Variant: hard hitter.

Blue Sky Thinking


Context: Let's start with a blank sheet of paper and do some blue sky thinking and see what happens
Meaning: this is similar to thinking 'out of the box' and is supposed to be a situation where you come
up with ideas taking into account no preconceptions and not dismissing ideas instantly

Brain Dump
Context: Have a brain dump and see what you come up with
Meaning: Brainstorm

Customer Centric
Context: We need to be customer centric from now on
Meaning: Since ultimately we sell to the customer, we might as well listen to what they're saying.
Similar: customer driven.

Cutting Edge
Context: This is cutting edge technology we're using
Meaning: This is the most recent version. Slightly less bugs.

End to End
Context: Let's visualise the process end-to-end
Meaning: Let's work out the whole process

E.T.A.
Context: What's the E.T.A. on this report?
Meaning: short for Expected time of arrival, ie how long will it take to get it finished.

First Mover
Context: If we launch 3G now, we'll have first mover advantage
Meaning: If we pay massive advertising costs to educate customers about this new development, we'll
hopefully have the advantage of getting lots of customers. If not, we've paid to educate people whilst
other companies with no ad costs will reap the rewards.

Go To Market
Context: We need to update our go-to-market strategy.
Meaning: Cross your fingers

Joined Up
Context: From now on this company will only engage in joined up thinking
Meaning: Looking at things from the wider point of view rather than with a narrow focus

Leading (Market)
Context: I want to develop a market leading proposition
Meaning: I want to develop something better than our competitors.

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Manage Expectations
Context: Make sure that you manage expectations so that they're not disappointed if we can't deliver
Meaning: Make sure people expect realistic outcomes from a project - e.g. not too much

On the Planet
This is the greatest product on the planet. Chiefly indicates the megalomania of the utterer or the
utterer's firm.

Out of the box


Context: It'd be great if you could think out of the box and generate some radical ideas
Meaning: Don't just come up with the same old obvious solutions, try and be creative when
brainstorming ideas.

Out of Pocket
Context: I'll be out-of-pocket for the next two days and won't finish the project.
Meaning: I'm holidaying - leave me alone.

Pro-active
Context: I think we need to be a bit pro-active here
Meaning: If you don't keep on pestering someone about this, nothing will happen

Push Back
Context: Can you just push back on that point and get him to amend his stance?
Meaning: Try to get someone to change their mind, or debate a point, by questioning someone's
opinion

State of the Art


Context: This is great - it's a state of the art solution
Meaning: Really good, the best, most modern solution

Take offline
Context: I think that's a separate issue, so can you take it offline please?
Meaning: Discuss the point further outside the meeting / at another time. Bizarrely, nothing whatsoever
to do with being online as in on the internet.

Take ownership
Context: I think it's up to you to really take ownership of the piece of work
Meaning: You need to get a grip and be responsible for the piece of work

Team Player
Context: Jonesy from accounts is a real team player
Meaning: Someone who is not just out for themselves but works well with others and has a concern for
their well-being

The Big Picture


Context: I think it's important that we remember to look at the big picture
Meaning: The overall situation, e.g. when working on a small aspect of a project it is helpful to
remember the project as a whole

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The New World
Context: Of course, in the new world things will look a little different
Meaning: The structure of a company after a re-structure or major shake-up.

Turnkey
Context: I'm striving for that illusive thing - the turnkey solution
Meaning: A solution that really opens doors - hence turn key. Funny really. From reader Ian: A turn key
solution is one that once in place and the 'key is turned' is then ready for use straight away not one that
opens doors.

Upskill
Context: During your career it's important to ensure you continue to upskill
Meaning: To improve your marketability and worth to a company by developing your skills

Exercises : -

Word Meaning Sentence

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LECTURE – 13
'Independence Day'
Q1. If humanity has safeguarded itself from various adversities what according to you has been
the most vital element in giving the humanity strength to do so?
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Q2. Your petty differences lose importance when adversity envelops you commonly. Justify.
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Q3. Summarize the theme of the speech. Compare it with another similar speech which you
might be heard.
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Q4. Prepare a speech for a occasion when you are required to motivate a group of people.
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Q5. Write words from the text that fit the description; however, you must start the next
word in the column with the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4- letter
verbs,” an appropriate sequence of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip,
prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No word can be repeated in any column.

3 letter adjectives 5 letter verbs 3 letter verbs 5 letter adjectives

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LECTURE – 16

Based on India Questions Dr APJ Abdul + Speech – APJ Abdul Kalam


I am happy to know about the Capability Exploration and Enhancement Program (CEEP) which is
being implemented jointly by the social organization Nanma and BPCL Kochin refinery which aim to
make under-privileged students realize their inner potential and train them in various life skills. I am
glad to know that more than 3,000 students benefited from the last year programme. I was studying
about the programme and its contents, I was happy to know that besides linguistic and logical skills, the
students of the programme are also being imparted value based learning. When I am in the midst of
children, I would like to talk on the topic "Knowledge makes you Great".

Giving an aim at right age

When I think of my childhood days, I am reminded of Shri Sivasubramania Iyer who taught me when I
was studying in 5th class at the age of 10. He was the great teacher in our school. All of us loved to
attend his class and hear him. One day he was teaching about bird's flight. He drew a diagram of a bird
on the blackboard depicting the wings, tail and the body structure with the head. He explained how the
birds create the lift and fly. He also explained to us how they change direction while flying. Nearly for
25 minutes he gave the lecture with various information such as lift, drag, how the birds fly in a
formation of 10, 20 or 30. At the end of the class, he wanted to know whether we understood how the
birds fly. I said I did not understand how the birds fly. When I said this, the teacher asked the other
students whether they understood or not. Many students said that they also did not understand. Our
response did not upset him, since he was a committed teacher.
Our teacher said that he would take all of us to the seashore. That evening the whole class was at the
sea shore of Rameswaram. We enjoyed the roaring sea waves knocking at the sandy hills in the
pleasant evening. Birds were flying with sweet chirping voice. He showed the sea birds in formations
of 10 to 20 numbers. We saw the marvellous formations of birds with a purpose and we were all
amazed. He showed us the birds and asked us to see carefully when the birds fly, what they looked like.
We saw the wings flapping. He asked us to look at the tail portion with the combination of flapping
wings and twisting tail. We noticed closely and found that the birds in that condition flew in the
direction they desired. Then he asked us a question, where the engine is and how it is powered. Bird is
powered by its own life and the motivation of what it wants. All these aspects were explained to us
within Fifteen minutes. We all understood the whole bird dynamics from this practical example. How
nice it was? Our teacher was a great teacher; he could give us a theoretical lesson coupled with a live
practical example available in nature. This is real teaching. I am sure many of the teachers will follow
this example.
For me, it was not merely an understanding of how a bird flies. The bird's flight entered into me and
created a special feeling. From that evening, I thought that my future study has to be with reference to
flight and flight systems. I am saying this because my teacher's teaching and the event that I witnessed
decided my future career. Then one evening after the classes, I asked the teacher, "Sir, please tell me,
how to progress further in learning all about flight." He patiently explained to me that I should
complete 8th class, and then go to high school, and then I should go to engineering college that may
lead to education on flight. If I complete all my education with excellence, I might do something
connected with flight sciences. This advice and the bird flying exercise given by my teacher, really
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gave me a goal and a mission for my life. When I went to college, I took Physics. When I went to
engineering in Madras Institute of Technology, I took Aeronautical Engineering.
Thus my life was transformed as a rocket engineer, aerospace engineer and technologist. That one
incident of my teacher teaching the lesson, showing the visual live example proved to be a turning
point in my life which eventually shaped my profession and flying my friends. Let me now discuss my
interaction with the young boy, who could not see but had a great vision for his life.
I can do it
When I was the President of India, on 28 Aug 2006, I met a group of tribal students from Lead India
2020 movement. I asked all of them one question: "What do you want to become?" Out of many
responses, one visually challenged boy studying in IX class got up. His name is Srikanth, he answered
me "I will become visually Challenged I-st President of India". I was very happy to see his vision and
ambition. Small aim is a crime. Hence, I congratulated him to realize his vision and told him to work
for realizing the vision. There after he worked hard got 90% in Xth class and 96 % in intermediate and
he set a goal to study Engineering in MIT, Boston USA. His relentless hard work not only secured seat
but he got full fee waiver from MIT, Boston. Srikanth's achievement has brought changes in many
change agents of Lead India 2020 and inspired to set high vision. Lead India 2020 training has set a
high vision for every student who undergoes the training process. Seeing this impact of Lead India
2020 training, GE volunteers have funded Mr. Srikanth for his travel to USA. Today he is pursuing his
studies at MIT, Boston. When the GE offered him a job on his completion of graduation, he told them
that he would certainly come back to GE, if I couldn’t become the President of India. What a
confidence that boy has amidst of difficulty and the challenges in his life by being visually challenged.
The whole education system should be shaped in such a way that every student must be able to say "I
can do it".
Now I would like to discuss about Mario Capecchi who become a noble laureate in spite of difficult
childhood.

Conclusion: what I will be remembered for?


Friends, finally I would like to ask you, what would you like to be remembered for? You have to evolve
yourself and shape your life. You should write it on a page. That page may be a very important page in
the book of human history. And you will be remembered for creating that one page in the history of the
nation – whether that page is the page of invention, the page of innovation or the page of discovery or
the page of creating societal change or a page of removing the poverty or the page of fighting injustice
or planning and executing mission of networking of rivers. I will be happy if you could write this page
and mail it to me (apj@abdulkalam.com).
My greetings and best wishes to all the students and teachers assembled here for success in your
educational mission.
May God bless you all.
Oath for the Youth
1. I will have a goal and work hard to achieve that goal. I realize that small aim is a crime.
2. I will work with integrity and succeed with integrity.
3. I will be a good member of my family, a good member of the society, a good member of the
nation and a good member of the world.
4. I will always try to save or better someone's life, without any discrimination of caste, creed,
language religion or state. Wherever I am, a thought will always come to my mind. That is
"What can I give?"

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5. I will always protect and enhance the dignity of every human life without any bias.
6. I will always remember the importance of time. My motto will be "Let not my winged days, be
spent in vain".
7. I will always work for clean planet Earth and clean energy.
8. As a youth of my nation, I will work and work with courage to achieve success in all my tasks
and enjoy the success of others.
9. I am as young as my faith and as old as my doubt. Hence, I will light up then, the lamp of faith
in my heart.
10. My National Flag flies in my heart and I will bring glory to my nation.

Track-Abdul Kalam

• What you will be remembered for…..


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• Whom do you remember in your life and Why?


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• Discuss-Female feticide is highly practiced among the educated families and woman education
is of no help/use.
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• Do you think ‘Simple living and high thinking’ is an outdated concept now a days?
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• To what extent is it important to be a politician in politics to run the government efficiently?


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Vocabulary exercises based on text:

1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.


Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or
paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

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3. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]


Beautifully[adverb]
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____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________

Based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or
paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to tell the
mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

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SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings

1. Spellings
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

2. Antonyms
1 2 3 4 5
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

3. Synonym
1 2 3 4 5
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

4. Sentence formation
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5. Forms (if verb)
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________

6. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.


_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________
7. Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual
vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
8. Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice)
__ __ __ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________


9. In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place
Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
____________

10. Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column with
the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence
of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No
word can be repeated in any column.

42
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
3 letter adjectives 5 letter verbs 3 letter verbs 5 letter adjectives

1. Summarize the Essay


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Tense check based on text-


1. GD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
______________________

43
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2. Batting and Bowling

Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers)

3. The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

44
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LECTURE – 20
Foreign words
Aficionado
(uh-fish'ya-nah'doh) [Span.]: an ardent devotee. “I was surprised at what a baseball aficionado
she had become.”
angst
(angkst) [Ger.]: dread and anxiety. “Sylvia's teenage angst was nothing compared to the parental
angst experienced by the two individuals whose duty it was to raise her.”
annus mirabilis
(an'us muh-ra'buh-lis) [Lat.]: wonderful year. “Last year was the annus mirabilis for my
company.”
a priori
(ah pree-or'ee) [Lat.]: based on theory rather than observation. “The fact that their house is in
such disrepair suggests a priori that they are having financial difficulties.”

au courant
(oh' koo-rahn') [Fr.]: up-to-date. “The shoes, the hair, the clothes—every last detail of her dress,
in fact—was utterly au courant.”

beau geste
(boh zhest') [Fr.]: a fine or noble gesture, often futile. “My fellow writers supported me by
writing letters of protest to the publisher, but their beau geste could not prevent the inevitable.”

beau monde
(boh' mond') [Fr.]: high society. “Such elegant decor would impress even the beau monde.”

bête noire
(bet nwahr') [Fr.]: something or someone particularly disliked. “Talk of the good old college days
way back when had become his bête noire, and he began to avoid his school friends.”
bona fide
(boh'na fide) [Lat.]: in good faith; genuine. “For all her reticence and modesty, it was clear that
she was a bona fide expert in her field.”
bon mot
(bon moe') [Fr.]: a witty remark or comment. “One bon mot after another flew out of his mouth,
charming the audience.”
bon vivant
(bon vee-vahnt') [Fr.]: a person who lives luxuriously and enjoys good food and drink. “It's true
he's quite the bon vivant, but when he gets down to business he conducts himself like a Spartan.”
carpe diem
(kar'pay dee'um) [Lat.]: seize the day. “So what if you have an 8:00 a.m. meeting tomorrow and
various appointments? Carpe diem!”

carte blanche
(kart blonsh') [Fr.]: unrestricted power to act on one's own. “I may have carte blanche around the
office, but at home I'm a slave to my family's demands.”
casus belli
(kay'sus bel'eye) [Lat.]: an act justifying war. “The general felt that the banana republic's insolent
45
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
remarks about our national honor were enough of a casus belli to launch an attack.”
cause célèbre
(koz suh-leb'ruh) [Fr.]: a widely known controversial case or issue. “The Sacco and Vanzetti trial
became an international cause célèbre during the 1920s.”
caveat emptor
(kav'ee-ot emp'tor) [Lat.]: let the buyer beware. “Before you leap at that real estate deal, caveat
emptor!”

coup de grâce
(koo de grahss') [Fr.]: finishing blow. “After an already wildly successful day, the coup de grâce
came when she won best all-around athlete.”
deus ex machina
(day'us ex mahk'uh-nuh) [Lat.]: a contrived device to resolve a situation. “Stretching plausibility,
the movie concluded with a deus ex machina ending in which everyone was rescued at the last
minute.”
dolce vita
(dole'chay vee'tuh) [Ital.]: sweet life; the good life perceived as one of physical pleasure and self-
indulgence. “My vacation this year is going to be two uninterrupted weeks of dolce vita.
doppelgänger
(dop'pul-gang-ur) [Ger.]: a ghostly double or counterpart of a living person. “I could not shake the
sense that some shadowy doppelgänger echoed my every move.”

entre nous
(ahn'truh noo') [Fr.]: between ourselves; confidentially. “Entre nous, their marriage is on the
rocks.”

ex cathedra
(ex kuh-thee'druh) [Lat.]: with authority; used especially of those pronouncements of the pope
that are considered infallible. “I resigned myself to obeying; my father's opinions were ex
cathedra in our household.”

ex post facto
(ex' post fak'toh) [Lat.]: retroactively. “I certainly hope that the change in policy will be honored
ex post facto.”
fait accompli
(fate ah-kom-plee') [Fr.]: an accomplished fact, presumably irreversible. “There's no use
protesting—it's a fait accompli.”>

faux pas
(foh pah') [Fr.]: a social blunder. “Suddenly, she realized she had unwittingly committed yet
another faux pas.”

flagrante delicto
(fla-grahn'tee di-lik'toh) [Lat.]: in the act. “The detective realized that without hard evidence he
had no case; he would have to catch the culprit flagrante delicto.”
glasnost
(glaz'nohst) [Rus.]: open and frank discussion: initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 in the
Soviet Union. “Once the old chairman retired, the spirit of glasnost pervaded the department.”
46
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
hoi polloi
(hoy' puh-loy') [Gk.]: the common people. “Marie Antoinette recommended cake to the hoi
polloi.”
in loco parentis
(in loh'koh pa-ren'tiss) [Lat.]: in the place of a parent. “The court appointed a guardian for the
children, to serve in loco parentis.”
in medias res
(in me'-dee-as rays) [Lat.]: in the middle of a sequence of occurences. “The film begins in medias
res, with a panting, terrified man running through the night.”
in situ
(in sit'too) [Lat.]: situated in the original or natural position. “I prefer seeing statues in situ rather
than in the confines of a museum.”

in vino veritas
(in vee'no vare'i-toss) [Lat.]: in wine there is truth. “By the end of the party, several of the guests
had made a good deal of their private lives public, prompting the host to murmur to his wife, ‘in
vino veritas.’”
ipso facto
(ip'soh fak'toh) [Lat.]: by the fact itself. “An extremist, ipso facto, cannot become part of a
coalition.”

je ne sais quoi
(zheh neh say kwah') [Fr.]: I know not what; an elusive quality. “She couldn't explain it, but there
was something je ne sais quoi about him that she found devastatingly attractive.”

mano a mano
(mah'no ah mah'no) [Span.]: directly or face-to-face in a confrontation or conflict. “‘Stay out of
it,’ he admonished his friends, ‘I want to handle this guy mano a mano.’”

mea culpa
(may'uh kul'puh) [Lat.]: I am to blame. “His mea culpa was so offhand that I hardly think he
meant it.”

memento mori
(muh-men'toh more'ee) [Lat.]: a reminder that you must die. “The skull rested on the mantlepiece
as a memento mori.”
mise en scene
(mee' zahn sen) [Fr.]: the stage setting; surroundings. “The mise en scene for the sci-fi movie was
molded, futuristic furniture and blinding klieg lights.”

mot juste
(moh zhoost') [Fr.]: the exact, appropriate word. “‘Rats!’ screamed the defiant three-year-old,
immensely proud of his mot juste.”
ne plus ultra
(nee' plus ul'truh) [Lat.]: the most intense degree of a quality or state. “Pulling it from the box, he
realized he was face to face with the ne plus ultra of computers.”

nom de guerre
47
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
(nom duh gair') [Fr.]: pseudonym. “He went by his nom de guerre when frequenting trendy
nightclubs.”

nom de plume
(nom duh ploom') [Fr.]: pen name. “Deciding it was time to sit down and begin a novel, the
would-be writer spent the first several hours deciding upon a suitable nom de plume.”

nota bene
(noh'tuh ben'nee) [Ital.]: note well; take notice. “Her postcard included a reminder: nota bene, I'll
be returning on the 11 o'clock train.”

persona non grata


(per-soh'nuh non grah'tuh) [Lat.]: unacceptable or unwelcome person. “Once I was cut out of the
will, I became persona non grata among my relatives.”

prima facie
(pry'ma fay'she) [Lat.]: at first sight, clear and evident. “Although her husband implored, ‘I can
explain!’ the sight of another woman wrapped in his arms was prima facie evidence that he was a
deceitful lout.”

pro bono
(pro boh'noh) [Lat.]: done or donated without charge; free. “The lawyer's pro bono work gave
him a sense of value that his work on behalf of the corporation could not.”

quid pro quo

(kwid' pro kwoh') [Lat.]: something for something; an equal exchange. “She vowed that when she
had the means, she would return his favors quid pro quo.”

sans souci
(sahn soo-see') [Fr.]: carefree. “After serveral glasses of champagne, their mood turned distinctly
sans souci.”

savoir-faire
(sav'wahr fair') [Fr.]: the ability to say and do the correct thing. “She presided over the gathering
with impressive savoir-faire.”

schadenfreude
(shah den froy'deh) [Ger.]: pleasure at someone else's misfortunes. “Schadenfreude suffused the
classroom after the insufferably supercilious class pet was caught cheating by the teacher.”

terra incognita
(tare'uh in-kog-nee'tuh) [Lat.]: unknown territory. “When the conversation suddenly switched
from contemporary fiction to medieval Albanian playwrights, he felt himself entering terra
incognita.”

48
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
tout le monde
(too luh mond') [Fr.]: everybody; everyone of importance. “Don't miss the event; it's bound to be
attended by tout le monde.”

veni, vidi, vici


(ven'ee vee'dee vee'chee) [Lat.]: I came, I saw, I conquered. “After the takeover the business
mogul gloated, ‘veni, vidi, vici.’”

verboten
(fer-boh'ten) [Ger.]: forbidden, as by law; prohibited. “That topic, I am afraid, is verboten in this
household.”

vox populi
(voks pop'yoo-lie) [Lat.]: the voice of the people. “My sentiments echo those of the vox populi.”

49
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LECTURE - 24

Euthanasia: A physician assisted suicide

“Euthanasia” is a broad term for mercy killing—taking the life of a hopelessly ill or injured individual in order to
end his or her suffering. Mercy killing represents a serious ethical dilemma. People do not always die well. Some
afflictions cause people to suffer through extreme physical pain in their last days, and euthanasia may seem like
a compassionate way of ending this pain. Other patients may request euthanasia to avoid the weakness and loss
of mental faculties that some diseases cause, and many feel these wishes should be respected.

But euthanasia also seems to contradict one of the most basic principles of morality, which is that killing is
wrong. Viewed from a traditional Judeo-Christian point of view, euthanasia is murder and a blatant violation of
the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.” From a secular perspective, one of the principal purposes of law
is to uphold the sanctity of human life. Euthanasia is so controversial because it pits the plight of suffering, dying
individuals against religious beliefs, legal tradition, and, in the case of physician-assisted death, medical ethics.

This moral dilemma is not new. The term “euthanasia” is derived from ancient Greek, and means “good death.”
But while the debate over mercy killing has ancient origins, many observers believe that it is harder today to
achieve a good death than ever before. Advances in medicine have increased people’s health and life span, but
they have also greatly affected the dying process. For example, in the early twentieth century the majority of
Americans died at home, usually victims of pneumonia or influenza. Today most people die in the hospital, often
from degenerative diseases like cancer that may cause a painful, lingering death.

Most observers trace the modern euthanasia debate back to the court case of Karen Ann Quinlan, and her story is
a poignant example of medical technology’s ability to prolong life. In 1975, after consuming alcohol and
tranquilizers at a party, Quinlan collapsed into an irreversible coma that left her unable to breathe without a
respirator or eat without a feeding tube. Her parents asked that she should be removed from the respirator, but
her doctors objected. The New Jersey Supreme Court case that followed was the first to bring the issue of
euthanasia into the public eye. In 1976 the court allowed Quinlan’s parents to have the respirator removed.
Although Quinlan lived for another nine years (her parents did not want her feeding tube removed), the case set a
precedent for a patient’s right to refuse unwanted medical treatment.

In 1990, this right was further expanded in the case of Nancy Cruzan. Cruzan had gone into an irreversible coma
in 1983 after a severe car crash, and her parents wanted the machine that was keeping her alive removed.
However, in this case the machine consisted of intravenous feeding tubes that provided Cruzan with hydration
and nutrition. Her parents viewed the removal of the machine as the termination of unwanted treatment.
However, the state of Missouri argued that to remove the feeding tubes would be to intentionally kill Cruzan
through starvation. In a controversial vote, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the provision of artificially
delivered food and water is a treatment which patients may legally refuse, even if doing so will result in death.

The cases of Quinlan and Cruzan helped develop a social policy that recognizes that some lifesaving treatments
are not always appropriate, and permit the removal of these treatments as a form of “passive” euthanasia. But
shortly after the Cruzan case more active forms of euthanasia became the focus of public attention. One of the
persons most responsible for this is Timothy E. Quill, a physician who in 1991 described in the New England
Journal of Medicine the case of “Diane,” a long time patient of his who was suffering from acute leukemia. She
asked Quill for the means to end her life. Unable to dissuade her, he prescribed sleeping pills, telling her how
many were necessary to cure insomnia and how many were necessary to commit suicide. Four months later
Diane killed herself.

Quill’s article provoked immediate and heated discussion over the legality of physicians’ assisting in suicide.

50
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
Quill’s self proclaimed goal is to improve the care dying people receive rather than to legalize any form of
euthanasia. Nevertheless, he became a central figure in a court case that challenged the constitutionality of state
bans on assisted suicide—Quill and other right-to-die advocates essentially argued that terminally ill patients
have a constitutional right to assisted suicide. In 1997, however, the Supreme Court disagreed, ruling that states
may legislate for or against physician-assisted suicide as they see fit.

Ironically, however, the person most responsible for bringing euthanasia into the public eye is one from whom
most right-to die activists have tried to distance themselves: former pathologist Jack Kevorkian, who has
admitted helping over 130 people die since 1990. Whereas Quill is regarded as a reasoned, thoughtful
spokesman for the terminally ill, Kevorkian is seen as a renegade. Many of the people he has helped to die were
not terminally ill, and he did not know them before they requested his assistance in suicide. He holds some
bizarre opinions: In his book Prescription: Medicide, Kevorkian advocates experimentation on patients before
they die and non voluntary euthanasia for anyone whom physicians deem to have an extremely low quality of
life. Many of his views and methods have been condemned by right-to-die leaders, yet Kevorkian is the name
people most associate with euthanasia.

Prior to 1998, Kevorkian only assisted in suicides. He rigged so-called suicide machines that allowed patients to
self-administer a lethal dose of drugs. However, on November 23, 1998, 60 Minutes aired a videotape of
Kevorkian participating in a more active form of euthanasia. For the first time, he administered the fatal injection
himself, ending the life of Thomas Youk, a fifty-two year- old who suffered from Lou Gehrig’s disease. On
March 26, 1999 a Michigan jury, faced with this video tape evidence, found Kevorkian guilty of murder. The
judge in the case did not allow the defence to present testimony about Youk’s pain and suffering.

Kevorkian’s is the latest in a series of contentious euthanasia cases that have challenged and, in some cases,
changed Americans’ beliefs about death, mercy, and killing. Less than three decades ago, many people
considered the removal of a comatose patient’s respirator a shocking act of passive euthanasia. Today, the most
divisive euthanasia cases concern physician-assisted suicide and Kevorkian’s direct mercy killing. The authors in
Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints debate these increasingly complex topics in the following chapters: Is
Euthanasia Ethical? Should Voluntary Euthanasia Be Legalized? Would Legalizing Euthanasia Lead to
Involuntary Killing? Should Physicians Assist in Suicide?

No pope says in a sermon that these people should be allowed freedom from their bodies. But if somebody’s legs
are missing; somebody’s hands are missing, somebody’s heart is not working and a battery is working instead of
a heart, or somebody’s kidneys are not working and machines are doing the work of the kidneys. But what is the
purpose of these people? What will they do even if you continue to keep them going this way?

Yes, at the most they keep a few people employed. That’s all. But what kind of a creative life are they going to
have? And what joy can they have in all that is being done to them? Continual injections are being given to them.
If they are unable to sleep, sleeping pills are given to them. If they are unable to wake up, activators are forced
into their blood to wake them up. But for what reason?

The suggestion that when people have lived enough and they desire to be freed from their bodies, hospitals
should provide a convenient, pleasant death. It is absolutely sane that every hospital should have a special ward
with all facilities so that death comes peacefully.

Netherlands and Belgium have declared euthanasia legal. In India, Section 309 of the IPC says that attempted
suicide is a criminal offense, but keeps mum on euthanasia. The irony is that it is the fear of misusing the law
which is holding back experts from legalising it. It is a conflict between the humane, the ethical and the legal.

Says Ashish Thakre, a student of political science, "If euthanasia is made legal, some people will certainly try to

51
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exploit ignorant patients." The Hippocratic Oath seems to be another hold-back. "We are expected to treat a
patient to the best of our ability. We are supposed to offer hope even in the worst situation," says Dr Mandloi, an
intensivist.

There is another view from the medical community. "Legalising euthanasia is a necessity for doctors. However
the criteria should be stringent and their application should be carefully monitored. Even as of now, euthanasia is
practiced in various ways like Santara in the Jain community," points out leading cardiologist, Dr Jagdish
Hiremath.

Text based questions :-

Q1. Group Interaction / Debate on – Euthanasia should be legalised


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Q2. Can death be good ? Group Interaction / Debate


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

52
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Vocabulary exercises based on text:

1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.


Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or
paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

53
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3. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]


Beautifully[adverb]
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________

Based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or
paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to tell the
mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________

SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings

1. Spellings
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

2. Antonyms
1 2 3 4 5
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

3. Synonym
1 2 3 4 5
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

4. Sentence formation
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
54
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
5. Forms (if verb)
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________

6. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.


_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________
7. Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual
vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
8. Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice)
__ __ __ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________


9. In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place
Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
____________

10. Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column with
the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence
of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No
word can be repeated in any column.

55
Name ………………………… Reg. No…………………
3 letter adjectives 5 letter verbs 3 letter verbs 5 letter adjectives

1. Summarize the Essay


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Tense check based on text-


1. GD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
______________________

56
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2. Batting and Bowling

Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers)

3. The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

57
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LECTURE – 34
Extempore
EXTEMPORE TOPICS

1. Who would you like to go on a trip abroad with? Describe this person and say why
he/she would be a good travel companion for you.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
2. What is your favorite place to visit on weekends? Describe it and explain why it is your
favorite place to go.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
3. What is your happiest childhood memory? Describe it and give reasons to explain why
it is your happiest memory.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
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_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
4. What is your most important possession? Describe it and say why it is so important?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
5. Talk about a person who has inspired you. Describe the person and explain why you
found him/her inspirational
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
6. Talk about an important national holiday in your home country. Describe it and explain
why it is important.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
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7. What is your favorite book or movie? Describe it and say why it is your favorite.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
8. What are important considerations in choosing a job/career according to you?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
9. If you could know your future, which three things would you like to know?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________

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10. Toughest challenge faced by you.


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
11. Self help is the best help.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
12. What would you like to gift your mother from your first salary?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________

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13. Fashion among youngsters.


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
14. If you get an opportunity to change any three things from your past, what would be they
and why?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________
15. A practical joke you played on your friend.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
__________

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LECTURE – 35
Foreign words (Revision )
List of Foreign Words already given in Lecture- 20
Word Meaning Sentence

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Grammar
Skill

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LECTURE -3
Auxiliary Verbs
Practice Exercises : -
I. Complete each sentence with the correct auxiliary verb.

1. The flight _____________ delayed because of bad weather.


2. What _____________ you done?
3. I _____________ not like this song.
4. _____________ she know that you are here?
5. The lesson _____________ not started yet.
6. _____________ you drink milk?
7. Who _____________ eaten my biscuits?
8. It _____________ not matter.
9. They _____________ not want to play outside.
10. We _____________ not seen you for a long time.
11. My friend _____________ sent me some photos.
12. We ____ done it yet.
13. ____ you think they are coming tonight?
14. ____ you see them yesterday?
15. ____ you going this evening?
16. How long ____ it take you to get home?
17. What ____ you reading at the moment
18. It was horrible- I really ____ like it.
19. They ____ rung back yet.
20. ____ you learn it when you were at school?
21. ____ you enjoying your meal?
22. ____ you decided yet?
23. ____ everybody going to be there?
24. ____ they live near you?
25. I ____ had time to do it yet.

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II. Is the highlighted verb a main verb or an auxiliary verb?

1. I will have the soup


_______________________________________________________________________
2. Police are investigating the incident
_______________________________________________________________________
3. It is very peaceful here
_______________________________________________________________________
4. Where does your brother work?
_______________________________________________________________________
5. They have decided to advertise your job
_______________________________________________________________________
6. He does his homework on the way to school
_______________________________________________________________________
7. January is the first month of the year.
_______________________________________________________________________
8. I have not done this lesson.
_______________________________________________________________________
9. Two and two do make four.
_______________________________________________________________________
10. Are you out of your mind?
_______________________________________________________________________

III. Fill in the blanks with appropriate auxiliary verb:

1. I _____ see you tomorrow


2. She ____ finished lunch by the time he arrived
3. What time ___ he usually get up?
4. They ____ getting ready when she arrived.
5. I _____ use to make so many mistakes.
6. They ____ been waiting for more than three hours
7. What time _____ the plane leave?
8. She ____ have finished the work by the time you get back
9. We ______ sitting on the beach this time next week.
10. _____ you had lunch yet?
11. I ______ met him for lunch had I known he was coming.
12. Unless you hurry up, we ____ miss the bus.

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IV. Fill in each blank space with the correct auxiliary verb:

1. ________ he as mean as people say? (is/does/has)


2. ________ he know how to cook well? (is/does/has)
3. ________ you upset? (Do/are/have)
4. ________ you told her yet? (Do/are/have)
5. ________ they ever been here before? (Do/are/have)
6. ________ that a good movie? (is/does/has)
7. ________ she in love with Marco? (is/does/has)
8. ________ you stopped smoking? (Do/are/have)
9. ________ you play tennis on weekends? (Do/are/have)
10. ________ your grandmother 80 years old? (is/does/has)

V. Complete the short answers which follow the questions.


a) Does Mr Brown speak French?' 'No, ___________________.’
b) 'Would he be able to pay for all that?' 'No, ___________________.’
c) 'Will you, boys, ever get married?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
d) 'Was your mother angry with you?' 'No, ___________________.’
e) 'Peter, were you at school yesterday?' 'No, ___________________.’
f) 'Jane, are you going to buy that CD?' 'No, ___________________.’
g) 'Is there much water in the glass?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
h) 'Is bungee jumping dangerous?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
i) 'Have you ever been to Italy, John?' 'No, ___________________.’
j) 'Have they been here before?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
k) 'Does she have to go to work early?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
l) 'Does she have to go to work early?' 'No, ___________________.’
m) 'Do you like this film?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
n) 'Do you both live in Paris?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
o) 'Did she understand you?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
p) 'Could Peter read when he was four?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
q) 'Can snails fly?' 'No, ___________________.’
r) 'Are there any apples on the table?' 'Yes, ___________________.’
s) 'Are Peter and Jane married?' 'No, ___________________.’
t) 'Anna, will you ever get married.' 'No, ___________________.’

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VI. Rewrite the following sentences in the negative. Use the same tenses as in the positive
sentences:
a) I drink coffee. → ______________________
b) He is hungry. → ______________________
c) She has been busy. → ______________________
d) I wrote a letter. → ______________________
e) He speaks English. → ______________________
f) They are friendly. → ______________________
g) We will go home now. → ______________________
h) I am going to study harder. → ______________________
i) They danced a lot. → ______________________
j) Mary plays the guitar. → ______________________

VII. Make meaningful sentences using the hints given in the brackets:

1. he/live/in London (Active Voice - Simple Present) ______________________


2. what/you/do (Active Voice - will-Future) ______________________
3. I/hurt/you (Active Voice - Simple Past) ______________________
4. they/work/in a factory (Active Voice - Simple Present) ______________________
5. he/help/you (Active Voice - Present Perfect Simple) ______________________
6. you/be/busy (Active Voice - Simple Present) ______________________
7. what music/play (Passive Voice - will-Future) ______________________
8. the sailors/rescue (Passive Voice - Simple Past) ______________________
9. the tree/cut (Passive Voice - Present Perfect) ______________________
10. he/ hungry? (Passive Voice- Simple Past)

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VIII. Complete the following sentences using the modals on the list below:
can / not
must / not
should / not
ought to
have to / don't have to
has to / doesn't have to

1. If you don't describe the thief well, nobody _______________ identify him.
2. You _______________ call the doctor if your flu goes on for longer than a week.
3. You _______________ wear those red socks, they do not match your grey suit.
4. Our mother is awfully lonely now. We _______________spend more time with her.
5. Little children _______________ go to bed late.
6. You _______________ borrow people's things without asking them first.
7. You _______________ fill in an application form if you want to go to university.
8. In England, you _______________ be over eighteen if you want to have a driving licence.
9. If you have heart trouble you _______________ smoke.
10. You _______________ drive on the right in Turkey.

IX. Turn these negatives into positives.

3. Abigail Breslin is not a better actress than Dakota Fanning.

4. Jennifer Lopez did not have twin babies.

5. Miley Cyrus is not Hannah Montana.

6. Tony Hawk is not the best skateboarder in the world.

7. You are not finished with auxiliary verbs.

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LECTURE – 7
Conditionals
Practice Exercises :-

I. Identify the type of conditional:

1. If it rains, I'll take an umbrella. ___________

2. If he had spent more time studying, he would have passed the exam. ___________

3. If he bought a new car, he would buy a Ford. ___________

4. If the boys finish their homework early, they will play baseball. ___________

5. If I had a million dollars, I'd buy a big house___________

6. If she had seen him, she would have discussed the issues with him. ___________

II. Complete the dialogues given below using Conditional Type I:

Teacher/Leader: If ______________________________________________________________

Class/Group: If ________________________________________________________________.

Teacher/Leader: If he comes ______________________________________________________

Class/Group: If he comes ________________________________________________________.

Teacher/Leader: If he comes, we will _______________________________________________

Class/Group: If he comes, we will _________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: They ___________________________________________________________

Class/Group: They______________________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: They will meet us _________________________________________________

Class/Group: They will meet us ___________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: What___________________________________________________________

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Class/Group: What______________________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: What will you do __________________________________________________

Class/Group: What will you do ____________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: What will you do if she _____________________________________________

Class/Group: What will you do if she ________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: I'll_______________________________________________________________

Class/Group: I'll _________________________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: I'll say hello _______________________________________________________

Class/Group: I'll say hello _________________________________________________________

Teacher/Leader: I'll say hello if she __________________________________________________

Class/Group: I'll say hello if she _____________________________________________________

III. Some situations have been given below. These can be re-written in the form of conditional
sentences. Understand the meaning and re-write the situations in the corresponding conditional
sentences:
1. But i didn't win the lottery in the past and i am not rich now.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
2. But i didn't take french in high school and i don't have many job opportunities.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
3. But she wasn't born in the united states and she does need a visa now to work here.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
4. But she didn't sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn't going to join us tomorrow.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
5. But mark didn't get the job and mark is not going to move to shanghai.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
6. But darren wasted his christmas bonus gambling in las vegas and he won't go to mexico with us
next month.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
7. But i am not currently rich and that is why i didn't buy the ferrari yesterday.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
8. But sam doesn't speak russian and that is why he didn't translate the letter.

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sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
9. But i have to work a lot and that is why i didn't go to the party last night.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
10. But i do have a lot of vacation time and i will go on the trip next week.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
11. But cindy is not creative and the company won't send her to new york to work on the new
campaign.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
12. But dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
13. But i am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why i didn't accept that new
assignment at work.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
14. But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why i didn't plan a trip for the two of
us to napa valley.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
15. But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why i didn't suggest that we go to that
nice italian restaurant.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
16. But i am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why i am not excited.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
17. But sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.
18. But seb will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy.
sentence: ______________________________________________________________.

IV. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below following the example given with
the appropriate conditional form:

1 a. She will take care of the children for us next weekend because her business trip was canceled.
b. But, she (take, not) would not be taking care of the children for us next weekend if her business
trip (be, not) had not been canceled.

2 a. Tom is not going to come to dinner tomorrow because you insulted him yesterday.
b. But, he (come) _______________if you (insult) _______________him.

3 a. Marie is unhappy because she gave up her career when she got married.
b. But, Marie (be) _______________happy if she (give, not) _______________up her career when
she got married.

4 a. Dr. Mercer decided not to accept the research grant at Harvard because he is going to take six
months off to spend more time with his family.
b. But, Dr. Mercer (accept) _______________the research grant at Harvard if he (take,

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not) _______________six months off to spend more time with his family.

5 a. Professor Schmitz talked so much about the Maasai tribe because she is an expert on African
tribal groups.
b. But, Professor Schmitz (talk, not) _______________so much about the Maasai tribe if she (be,
not) _______________an expert on African tribal groups.

6 a. I am unemployed because I had a disagreement with my boss and I was fired.


b. But, I (be, not) _______________unemployed if I (have, not) _______________a disagreement
with my boss and I (be, not) _______________fired.

7 a. Nicole speaks Chinese fluently because she lived in China for ten years.
b. But, Nicole (speak, not) _______________Chinese fluently if she (live, not) _______________
in China for ten years.

8 a. I will not help you study for your test because you have spent the last two weeks partying and
wasting time.
b. But, I (help) _______________you study for your test if you (spend, not) _______________the
last two weeks partying and wasting time.

9 a. Eleanor and Ben are not going skiing with us this year because Eleanor just had a baby.
b. But, Eleanor and Ben (go) _______________skiing with us this year if Eleanor (have, not,
just) _______________a baby.

10 a. I am completely exhausted, so I will not go with you to the movies tonight.


b. But, if I (be, not) _______________completely exhausted, I (go) _______________with you
to the movies tonight.

11 a. She is not worried about the conference tomorrow because she is not giving a speech.
b. But, she (be) _______________worried about the conference tomorrow if she (give)
_______________a speech.

12 a. Frank is not going to the graduation ceremony because he broke his leg snowboarding last
week.
b. But, Frank (go) _______________to the graduation ceremony if he (break) ____________ his
leg snowboarding last week.

13 a. They are not releasing the prisoner next month because there was so much public opposition to
his parole.
b. But, they (release) _______________ the prisoner next month if there (be) _______________
so much opposition to his parole.

14 a. The hotels filled up months in advance because the festival is going to include jazz artists from
around the globe.
b. But, the hotels (fill) _______________up months in advance if the festival (include)
_______________jazz artists from around the globe.

15 a. We are not worried about the recent string of robberies in the neighborhood because the police
have started regularly patrolling the area.
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b. But, we (be) _______________worried about the recent string of robberies in the neighborhood
if the police (start, not) _______________regularly patrolling the area

V. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate conditional
form:

1. She loves her husband. If she (get) ___________a divorce, it would devastate her.

2. If they (tear) ___________down that old opera house, we would not have any historical
architecture left in the city.

3. If the hurricane (hit) ___________Miami, thousands of people might have lost their lives.

4. I can't stand him. If he (be) ___________ hired, I would quit.

5. I have no fire insurance. If my house (burn) ___________ down, I would have no way to buy new
furniture.

6. If he (be) ___________ found guilty, he would have gone to jail for 30 years.

7. If the airlines (cancel) ___________ the flight, I would never make it to the family reunion on time.

8. He was not wearing a motorcycle helmet. If he (crash) ___________ into that car, he would have
been killed.

9. If the government (increase) ___________ income tax, I would not be able to survive.

10. If I (lose) ___________ my job, I would use the Internet to find a new one.

VI. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate conditional
form:
1. (If / When) ___________I leave work, I usually go to the fitness center to work out.

2. She hates TV. She thinks television is a waste of time. (If / When) ___________she watches any
television at all, it is usually a documentary or a news program.

3. My friend always keeps in touch by mail. (If / When) ___________ I get a letter, I usually write
back immediately.

4. If I (have) ___________ enough money, I (go) ___________ on safari to Kenya. However, my bank
account is empty!

5. I love to travel! When I (have) ___________ enough money, I (go) ___________ abroad. I do it
almost every year.

6. I really wanted to go on safari to Kenya with my friends, but I couldn't afford to go. If I
(have) ___________ enough money, I (go) ___________ with them.

7. I'm sorry, I didn't know you were allergic to chocolate. If I (know) ___________.I (make)
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___________ you a vanilla birthday cake.

8. Stop asking me what Amanda bought you for Christmas. Even if I (know) ___________ what she
bought you, I (tell, not) ___________ you.

9. Nobody here speaks English. Too bad Gloria isn't here. If she (be) ___________with us, she
(can) ___________ act as our interpreter.

10. I am afraid I won't be able to come to your wedding next week because my company is sending me
to New York to attend a trade show. I (miss, never) ___________ your wedding if I (have)
___________ a choice in the matter.

11. If the weather is nice tomorrow, she (walk) ___________ along the river to school.

12. If you help me move tomorrow, I (treat) ___________ you to a dinner and a movie.

13. If you were to help me move tomorrow, I (treat) ___________ you to a dinner and a movie.

14. If I were in Tahiti right now, I (snorkel) ___________ along a beautiful reef. I wouldn't be stuck
here in this office with mountains of paperwork.

15. If Jerry hadn't stopped to pick up that quarter, he (cross) ___________ the street when the bus ran
the red light. He might have been killed!

16. Tina's train arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadn't decided to go to the train station early, she
(wait) ___________ there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived.

17. If I (pass) ___________ the test, I (get) ___________ an "A" in the class. Instead, I got a "C." I
really should have studied more.

18. If I (be) ___________ rich, I (buy) ___________ that new Mercedes we saw yesterday.
Unfortunately, I can't even afford a used car.

19. We (go) ___________ skiing this weekend, but there's no snow. Oh, well! We will just have to find
something else to do instead.

20. If Heather spoke Chinese, she (translate) ___________ the email for you yesterday.

VII. Fill in the blank with the verb in the correct conditional form:
1) Mr Wong says that he _____________________ to work in the factory even if he won the Mark 6
lottery. (continue)

2) You are not allowed to use the club’s facilities _____________________you are a member. (Fill in
the correct option)

3) I _____________________ you use my data on condition that you acknowledge my project in your
bibliography. (let)

4) I am sure that I ________________ the examination if I prepare well in the next few weeks.(pass)
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5) If David _____________________ his final-year project more carefully, he would have obtained a
higher grade. (revise)

6) Carrie said she will join the company _____________________ the starting salary meets her
expectations. (in case/even if/if)

7) Even _____________________ Maggie has received consistently excellent performance ratings,


she is always overlooked in the annual promotion exercise. (though/unless/if)

8) _____________________ Tom improves his attitude, his company will almost certainly fire
him. (unless/when/if)

9) If Dr Lee had interviewed a larger and more representative group of people, her
study _____________________ more reliable. (be)

10) I am prepared to extend the deadline for the assignment ___________________ you have a valid
reason. (unless/in case/if)

VIII. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate conditional
form:

1. If I (have) _______________ enough money, I (backpack) _______________ around Europe. But,


unfortunately, I am broke.

2. If I (have) _______________ enough money in my twenties, I (backpack) _______________


around Europe. But, unfortunately, I was broke.

3. She would have been here earlier if she (miss, not) _______________ the train.

4. Thank you for helping me study. If you hadn't tutored me, I (fail) _______________ the test.

5. If I exercised more, I (be) _______________ much more fit and I (have, not)_______________ so
many health problems.

6. It's too bad Frank isn't with us. If he (be) _______________ here, he (can, translate) ___________
the letter for us.

7. Stop asking me what Joe bought you for your birthday. Even if I (know) _______________ what he
bought you, I (tell, not) _______________ you.

8. My business trip to California was only two days. If the trip (be) _______________ longer, I (visit)
_______________ my friends in Los Angeles.

9. I'm sorry, I didn't know you were allergic to chocolate. If I (know) _________________ , I
(make) _______________ you a vanilla birthday cake.

10. Did you hear that Margaret won $2,000 in Las Vegas, and she used the money to buy a new
washing machine and dryer? How boring! If I (win) _______________ that much money, I
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(go) _______________ to Tahiti for a couple of weeks.

11. Sally's alarm didn't go off, and she was almost late to the interview. If she (arrive) ____________
late, she (might, not, get) _______________ the job.

12. Jane is polite and well mannered. She (say, never) _______________ anything rude or insulting.
That is just the kind of person she is.

13. Martha said that Paul called Nick a jerk at the party. I don't believe that! Paul is polite and well
mannered. He (say, never) _______________ anything rude or insulting like that.

14. Penny's baby daughter almost drank some of the furniture polish which was sitting on the coffee
table. If she (drink, actually) _______________ the polish, she (could, get) _______________ sick or
even died.

15. If I (can, go) _______________ anywhere in the world, I (go) _______________ to Egypt to see
the pyramids.

IX. Put in the correct phrases and form a conditional sentence (type I, II, III). Watch the
underlined verbs.

Example: If he had studied harder, he ________________ (to pass) his driving test.

Answer: If he had studied harder, he would have passed his driving test.

1) If we meet at 9:30, we _____________________ (to have) plenty of time.


2) Lisa would find the milk if she _____________________ (to look) in the fridge.
3) The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she _____________________ (to feed)the
animals.
4) If you spoke louder, your classmates _____________________ (to understand) you.
5) Dan _____________________ (to arrive) safe if he drove slowly.
6) You _____________________ (to have) no trouble at school if you had done your homework.
7) If you _____________________ (to swim) in this lake, you'll shiver from cold.
8) The door will unlock if you _____________________ (to press) the green button.
9) If Mel _____________________ (to ask) her teacher, he'd have answered her questions.
10) I _____________________ (to call) the office if I were you.

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X. Rewrite the following sentences as conditionals :.

1. I haven't got enough money to buy a new motorbike.


If I...___________________________________________________________.
1. We are a little bit cold; you are near the radiator dial.
If you. ___________________________________________________________.
2. We went for a walk, but it rained and we were soaked (very wet).
If it ___________________________________________________________.
3. You touched my new vase; you broke it.
If you hadn't ___________________________________________________________.
4. You are always tired; it's because you don't take any exercise.
If you ___________________________________________________________.
5. Your motorbike won't start; I suggest kicking it.
If you ___________________________________________________________.
6. My advice to you is that you ought to study more.
If I. ___________________________________________________________.

XI. Complete the following sentences:

1. Michael never buys a round of drinks


_______________________________________________________________
2. You can't be good at sports
_______________________________________________________________
3. I never get here on time
_______________________________________________________________
4. Butter melts
_______________________________________________________________
5. I never get here on time
_______________________________________________________________
6. Sammy gets angry
_______________________________________________________________
7. I'll be very pleased
_______________________________________________________________
8. You'll have to work hard
_______________________________________________________________
9. I'll see you at the cinema
_______________________________________________________________
10. I'll tell you all about it
_______________________________________________________________
11. I wouldn't be so keen on employing him
_______________________________________________________________
12. I wouldn't like it very much
_______________________________________________________________
13. I wouldn't get so angry with you
_______________________________________________________________
14. You would speak better English
_______________________________________________________________
15. You'd get more work done
_______________________________________________________________
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16. I'd have told you the news sooner
_______________________________________________________________
17. I'd have helped you
_______________________________________________________________
18. I'd have bought the bigger model
_______________________________________________________________
19. I would never have believed it was possible
_______________________________________________________________

20. I wouldn't have met up with John


_______________________________________________________________

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LECTURE – 11, 14

Note : Exercise to be divided into two lectures according to the teacher manual.

Common Errors- adjective and plurals

1. Put in the correct form of the plural.

Example: school - ________________

Answer: school – schools

1) desk - _______________
2) pencil -______________
3) bike -- _______________
4) cat -_______________
5) invitation -______________
6) watch - ______________
7) game - ______________
8) cage - ______________
9) cake - ______________
10) box -______________

II. Put in the correct form of the plural.

Example: car - _____________

Answer: car - cars

1) ox - _____________
2) roof - _____________
3) syllabus - _____________
4) party - ____________
5) deer - _____________
6) phenomenon- _____________
7) thesis - _____________
8) series - ____________
9) wife - _____________

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10) brother-in-law - _____________
11) life - _____________
12) family - _____________
13) boy - _____________
14) house - _____________
15) city - _____________
16) man - _____________
17) child - _____________
18) sandwich - _____________
19) nurse - _____________
20) shelf - _____________

III. Put in the correct form of the plural.

Example: box - ___

Answer: box - boxes

1) tomato - _____________
2) tooth - _____________
3) aircraft - _____________
4) logo - _____________
5) mouse - _____________
6) crisis - _____________
7) passer-by - _____________
8) radius - _____________
9) grown-up- _____________
10) crossroads - _____________

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PRACTICE EXERCISES :-

I. Find out the error in the sentences given below:

1. There are much people in Poland, more in India, but the most people live in China.
Error:________________________________________________________.
2. Many time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on
national defense.
Error:________________________________________________________.
3. A little rivers in Europe aren’t polluted.
Error:________________________________________________________.
4. The little people die young now than in the nineteenth century.
Error:________________________________________________________.
5. The country with the least people per square kilometre must be Australia.
Error:________________________________________________________.
6. Scientists have any hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before 2010.
Error:________________________________________________________.
7. She had fewer time to study than I did but had better results.
Error:________________________________________________________.
8. Give that dog the fewest opportunity and it will bite you.
Error:________________________________________________________.
9. How many money have you got?
Error:________________________________________________________.
10. How much cigarettes have you smoked?
Error:________________________________________________________.
11. There's not any sugar in the cupboard.
Error:________________________________________________________.
12. There weren't some people at the party.
Error:________________________________________________________.

II. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers:
(much, many, a lot of, most, a little, little, a few, few)

1. It seems to me that we haven't had __________________assignments in English


this term.
2. How __________________material can we be expected to read in one week?
3. I 've unfortunately had __________________headaches already because of stress.
4. Our yard looks awful this summer. There are too __________________weeds.
5. I didn't use __________________fertilizer last spring, and that has made a difference.
6. Also, I've paid very __________________attention to how ___________________rain we've had.
7. I'm afraid it's rained ___________________times this summer, and that is why the grass is turning brown
and dying. Farmers are very upset.
8. How ___________________good would it do if we watered the plants ourselves? .
9. ___________________advice I have ever received from so-called "experts" has been useless.
10. They said that just ___________________help could make a big difference.
11. ___________________people know as much about computers as Tomas does.

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12. It does us ___________________good when the banking system collapses.
III. Fill in the correct answers:

1. My grandparents ____ eleven children.


2. The Evans have four _____, two boys and two girls
3. Three or four ____ are sitting on chairs
4. Mrs Brown is speaking to three or four ____.
5. There ___ many people in the park
6. ____ people have only two children
7. in some countries you can have more ____.
8. These people ____ a nice house.
9. One man - two ____.
10. ____ shoes cost too much.
11. ____ there any tea in the cup?
12. One fish - two ____.

IV. Fill in the following words

(advice, chocolate, jam, lemonade, meat, milk, oil, rice, tea, tennis) and form meaningful phrases.

Example: a cube of _____

Answer: a cube of sugar

1) a piece of ______________
2) a packet of ______________
3) a bar of _________________
4) a glass of _________________
5) a cup of _______________
6) a bottle of _________________
7) a slice of _________________
8) a barrel of _________________
9) a game of _________________
10) a jar of _________________.

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VI. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. He gave me some advices
2. He gave me some advice
3. He gave me some advises
4. He gave me some advise

1. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


a. His hairs are grey
b. His hair are grey
c. His hair are grey
d. His hairs is grey

2. When making silk, each of the -------- a cocoon around itself so that it can later hatch into a moth.
1. Silkworm spin
2. Silkworm spins
3. Silkworms spin
4. Silkworms spins

3. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. He gave me a ten-rupee note
2. He gave me ten-rupee note
3. He gave me a ten-rupees note
4. He gave me ten-rupees note

4. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. The number of students are increasing
2. The numbers of student is increasing
3. The numbers of students are increasing
4. The number of students is increasing

5. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. Furniture is now-a-days made of steel.
2. Furnitures is now-a-days made of steel.
3. Furniture are now-a-days made of steel.
4. Furnitures are now-a-days made of steel

6. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. The scissor is lying on the table.
2. The scissors is lying on the table.
3. The scissor are lying on the table.
4. The scissors are lying on the table.

7. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. Can you give me some information?
2. Can you give me any informations?
3. Can you give me any information?
4. Can you give me some informations?

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8. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:

1. They have fewer books than you have.


2. They have lesser books than you have.
3. They have less books than you have.
4. They have fewer books than you have

9. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. Many a person have done this sort of thing.
2. Many a person has done this sort of thing.
3. Many persons has done this sort of thing.
4. Many person have done this sort of thing.

10. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. The jury was divided in their decision.
2. The jury were divided in its decision.
3. The jury were divided in decision-making.
4. The jury were divided in their decision.

11. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. This trousers are very good.
2. This trousers is very good.
3. These trousers are very good.
4. This trouser is very good.

12. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. I want to have three dozen note-books
2. I want to have three dozens note-books
3. I want to have three dozen of note-books
4. I want to have three dozens of note-books

13. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. He has much work to do.
2. He has much works to do.
3. He has many works to do.
4. He has many work to do.

14. Choose the grammatically correct sentence:


1. The Greeks are brave peoples.
2. The Greek is brave people.
3. The Greeks are brave people.
4. The Greek are a brave people.

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VIII. Fill in the blanks with the correct option:

Few, a few, the few, little, a little, the little, less, fewer

• There were ___________ days below freezing last winter.


• I drank ____________ water than she did.
• I have ______________ than an hour to do this work.
• He worked __________ hours than I did.
• I have ___________ money than I need.
• ____________ Money I had, I gave it to the poor beggar girl.
• There is ______________ milk in that jug.
• ____________ years from now you’ll be a successful man.
• I have __________ friends.
• He speaks _______________, but whatever he speaks is worth listening to.

IX. Fill in the blanks with ‘Fewer’ or ‘less’:

1. The express line is only for shoppers with ten items or _____________.
2. There are _____________ women in my family than men.

3. Mandy dumped me, but that doesn't mean I like her any_____________
4. You should try to use _____________ energy by turning off the light when you leave the room.
5. We have_____________ students this year than last.
6. There seem to be _____________ tourists around this year.
7. Maybe he would worry _____________ if he understood the situation.
8. She has _____________ interest in gardening than he does.
9. There are _____________ buses on Sundays.
10. Doctors recommend eating _____________ salt.
11. David has _____________ ideas than everyone else.
12. I hope _____________ snow falls this year.

X. Fill in the blanks with ‘little, a little, few, a few’:

1 They live in a very small flat because they have ______________ money.
2. I really need to see him. I've got ______________questions to ask him.
3. Could we have ______________champagne, please ?
4. 'Were you surprised ?' ' ______________'
5. They've already been to Spain ______________times.
6. These plants require ______________water and it's very handy.

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7. At home, the kitchen was a pleasant place. There were always ______________flowers in a vase.
8. 'How's your father?' ' ______________better, thanks.'
9. 'Sandra is fluent in Italian, French and Spanish.' 'It's quite rare, ______________people can
speak several foreign languages.'
10. This boy isn't very popular at school. He's got very ______________friends.
11. We must be quick. We have _____________ time
12. Listen carefully. I'm going to give you ______________advice
13. Do you mind if I ask you _____________questions?
14. This town is not a very interesting place to visit, so ______________ tourists come here.
15. I don't think Jill would be a good teacher. She's got ______________ patience.
16. ' Would you like milk in your coffee?' Yes please. ______________.
17. This is a very boring place to live. There's ______________to do.
18. 'Have you ever been to Paris?'' Yes, I've been there ______________times.
19. Have ______________ crisps with your meat.
20. Have ______________ milk in your tea.
21. Do you speak Greek ? - yes but ______________.
22. And I know ______________ words in German.
23. Do you have any friends in Portsmouth ? - Yes, I have got ______________.
24. I have ______________ time tomorrow, we could go shopping.
25. You didn't go to the pub, did you ? - I'm afraid I did, but I only had ______________drinks,
honestly.

XI. Fill in the blanks with ‘some’ or ‘any’:

1. We didn't buy ____________ flowers.


2. This evening I'm going out with ____________ friends of mine.
3. 'Have you seen ____________ good films recently?' 'no I haven't been to the cinema for ages'.
4. I didn't have ____________ money, so I had to borrow some.
5. Can I have ____________ milk in my coffee,please?
6. I was too tired to do ____________ work.
7. You can cash these traveller's cheques at ____________ bank.
8. Can you give me ____________ information about places of interest in the town?
9. If there are ____________ words you don't understand, use a dictionary.
10. Can you give me ____________ sugar, please?

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XI. Fill in the blanks below taking hints from the pictures given along with:

1. ___________ meat

2. _____________ children.

3. _____________ the old city was destroyed during the war.

4. He didn't show _________ interest in what I said during our last meeting

5. Not ____________ my friends knew that I was engaged.

6. Have you got __________ homework to do tonight?

7. How __________ questions could you answer in this test?

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8. Can I have __________ water, please? I’m feeling so thirsty.

9. How __________ things do eat in a day?

10. The people are starving because they have _________ to eat.

XII. Fill in the blanks with ‘much’, ‘much of’, ‘many of’ or ‘many’:

1. There were so ______________ people at Catherine's party.


2. I was busy the whole day, I did not get a chance to talk to ______________ my friends.
3. There are lots of food in the fridge, take as ______________ as you want.
4. Bob spends ______________ his time playing Video games.
5. Can you get some coffee when you go shopping? There isn't ______________ left.
6. ______________ friends have agreed that William is the most intelligent in our team.
7. There wasn't ______________ discussion during our last meeting.
8. ______________ questions needed to be answered in this examination.
9. Are there ______________ computers in this factory?
10. ______________ remains to be done before the test can be ready for use.
11. I need ______________ time to answer all your questions.
12. Sara has ______________ friends in this web site.
13. How ______________ children have you got?
14. Wendy did the job, but without ______________ enthusiasm.
15. ______________ talented young students are moving to US.

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XIII. Find the errors in the sentences given below:

• He isn't very popular. He has little friends


Error:________________________________________________________.
• . Ann is very busy these days. She has a few free time.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Did you take some photographs when you were on holidays?
Error:________________________________________________________.
• I'm not very busy today. I haven't got many to do.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• The museum was very crowded. There were too much people.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Most of the town is modern. There are the little old buildings.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• The weather has been very dry recently. We've had a few rain.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• We didn't spend many money,
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Do you know much people?
Error:________________________________________________________.
• 10.I don't go out many.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• 11. I'm making a cake. Have you got any eggs ?
Error:________________________________________________________.
• 12. John didn't bring much sweets to the party.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• May I have many bread? .
Error:________________________________________________________.
• There are a little beautiful apple trees in his garden.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• We are too busy : we have a few time to spare.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• There are little woods over there.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Do you have any tomatoes?
Error:________________________________________________________.
• He never drinks some milk.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• There are a little pupils who still learn Latin nowadays, unfortunately.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• There's many you can do about it. What a shame!
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Could I have a few bit of cream with my strawberries, please?
Error:________________________________________________________.
• This is number 47; number 59 is less further down the street.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• A lot of people play the guitar, but fewer of them are good guitarists.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• All she needs is less help from her friends.
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Error:________________________________________________________.
• Let's take any examples and you'll understand very quickly.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• If you talked a little more, you would have many of more friends.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Very little men can make me laugh as much as my uncle.
Error:________________________________________________________.
• Ted loves the few rock'n roll from time to time.
Error:________________________________________________________.

XIV. Rectify the following sentences:

1. Those shears is mine.


Error:________________________________________________________.
2. My friend and philosopher have come.
Error:________________________________________________________.
3. A great administrator and politician are dead.
Error:________________________________________________________.
4. My binoculars has been lost.
Error:________________________________________________________.
5. Pliers is used as a gripping tool.
Error:________________________________________________________.
6. Was the council happy with the king's decision?
Error:________________________________________________________.
7. Every man and woman were present at the festival
Error:________________________________________________________.
8. Was the staff happy with the hike in salary?
Error:________________________________________________________.
9. The trousers has holes in them.
Error:________________________________________________________.
10. Tongs has to be used for picking up hot things.
Error:________________________________________________________.
11. Was the audience satisfied with Hrithik's performance?
Error:________________________________________________________.
12. Has the government got an inkling of how to remove unemployment from our country?
Error:________________________________________________________.
13. Scissors is to be handled carefully.
Error:________________________________________________________.
14. Black socks is not allowed in school.
Error:________________________________________________________.
15. Every boy and girl are ready.
Error:________________________________________________________.
16. Every man, woman and child were lost.
Error:________________________________________________________.
17. Has the media got any proof of the involvement of the underworld in the recent riots?
Error:________________________________________________________.
18. Was the public happy with the Minister?
Error:________________________________________________________.
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19. Neither Seeta nor her friends was there.
Error:________________________________________________________.
20. The Government is actively pursuing the criminals.
Error:________________________________________________________.

XV Select the correct option:

1. Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator ____ going to have to make a
decision. (is/are)
2. ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this grievance? (is/are)
3. Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted.(seem/seems)
4. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring _____ more than just a nuisance. (are/is)
5. Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time. (have/has)
6. A high percentage of the people _________ voting for the new school. (was/were)
7. He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done before he can graduate. (is/are)
8. There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday's flood. (have/has)
9. Some of the grain __________ to be contaminated. (appear/appears)
10. Three-quarters of the students __________ against the tuition hike. (is/are)
XIII. Choose the correct option:
1: The rhythm of the pounding waves _____ calming. (is/are)
2: All of the dogs in the neighborhood _____ barking. (was/were)
3: A high tax, not to mention unemployment, _____ votes. (influence/influences)
4: My friends and my mother _____ each other. (likes/like)
5: The team and the band _____ on the field. (was/were)
6: Building a good marriage and building a good log fire _____ similar in many ways. (is/are)
7: John or Doris _____ to us regularly. (writes/write)
8: Either Patty or Tom _____ asked to lead the meeting. (was/were)
9: Neither Carol nor Ted _____ excluded from the meeting. (is/are)
10: Neither the basket nor the apples _____ expensive. (was/were)
11: Neither the apples nor the basket _____ expensive. (was/were)
12: Either Maria or you _____ late for class. (was/were)
13: Either you or Maria _____ late for class. (was/were)
14: Hardest hit by the high temperatures and drought _____ the farmers. (was/were)
15: Neither of them _____ going to the show. (like/likes)
16: Each of them _____ a good seat. (has/have)
17: Everybody in the class _____ tickets. (has/have)
18: Every silver knife, fork, and spoon _____ to be counted. (has/have)
19: Each cat and each dog _____ its own toy. (has/have)
20: The committee _____ meeting today. (is/are)
21: Ten million gallons of oil _____ a lot of oil. (is/are)
22: The jury _____ today. (vote/votes)
23: The number _____ very small. (is/are)
24: A number of students _____ absent. (was/were)
25: Ten million gallons of oil _____ spilled. (was/were)
26: The majority of us _____ in favor. (is/are)
27: Statistics _____ an interesting subject. (is/are)
28: Statistics _____ often misleading. (is/are)
29: The sheep _____ when the gate is left open. (stary/strays)
30: Sheep _____ when the gate is left open. (stary/strays)
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XVI. Rectify the following:

1. The road becomes narrowest after three or four miles.


Error:________________________________________________________.
2. He's the young of his class.
Error:________________________________________________________.
3. His homework was badder than mine.
Error:________________________________________________________.
4. It's the most bad film I've ever seen
Error:________________________________________________________.
5. He's the helpfullest of all the assistants.
Error:________________________________________________________.
6. I think this shop is good than that one
Error:________________________________________________________.
7. The restaurant is expensiver than the café
Error:________________________________________________________.
8. The weather here is coldest than at home.
Error:________________________________________________________.
9. Do you think Ken is intelligent than Brian?
Error:________________________________________________________.
10. Big cars are comfortablest than small ones.
Error:________________________________________________________.
11. Mary is the taller of the four girls
Error:________________________________________________________.
12. He plays more good than everybody else in the team.
Error:________________________________________________________.
13. I will give you the big steak; I am not very hungry.
Error:________________________________________________________.
14. I like Mary and Alice, but I think Mary is the most good of the two
Error:________________________________________________________.
15. The more I study, the little I learn
Error:________________________________________________________.

XVII. Rectify the following:

1. A tribe of sailors has come for the party.


___________________________________________________________________
2. The costumer is asking for a basket of fruit.
__________________________________________________________________
3. My father brought a bundle of bananas.
__________________________________________________________________
4. A group of robbers looted the bank yesterday.
__________________________________________________________________
5. The crops were destroyed by a pack of insects
__________________________________________________________________
6. He fetched a stack of eggs from the poultry farm.
__________________________________________________________________

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7. The hunting party was attacked by a herd of lions.
__________________________________________________________________
8. I want a bundle of papers for my project.
__________________________________________________________________
9. This play will be staged by a gang of actors from Ukraine.
__________________________________________________________________
10. A company of gypsies has come to live near my house these days.
__________________________________________________________________
11. A pile of wood got wet in the rain.
_________________________________________________

**********************************************************************

Rectify the sentences given below:

1) Ladys and gentlemen. Here are the news.

________________________________________________________________
2) Where are my jeans.

________________________________________________________________
3) Further information are available in the office.

________________________________________________________________
4) The stairs is over there, Sir.

________________________________________________________________
5) The furnitures in our classroom is uncomfortable.

________________________________________________________________
6) The USA are a very nice country.

________________________________________________________________
7) Your sunglasses are on the table.

________________________________________________________________
8) Homeswork are boring.

________________________________________________________________
9) The scissors on the table are mine.

________________________________________________________________
10) Physicses are not easy.

________________________________________________________________

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Complete the table given below:

Name of the animal Male/Female


1. Bear
2. Cat
3. Cattle
4. Chicken
5. Deer
6. Dog
7. Elephant
8. Lion
9. Pig
10. Pigeon
11. Swan
12. Tiger
13. Whale
14. Wolf
15. Fox

Complete the table given below:

Female/Male
1. Fiancé
2. Witch
3. Jack
4. Mare
5. Maidservant
6. Lord
7. Lad
8. Nun
9. Daughter-in-law
10. Bee
11. Stag
12. Wife
13. King
14. Duke

15. Boy Scout

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PLURAL COMPOUND WORDS

I. Make a suitable compound word that has the meaning given along with:

1. _____beat = positive and enthusiastic


2. _____law = to make something no longer legal
3. _____estimate = think or guess that the amount of something is smaller than it really is
4. _____shore = on the land rather than at sea t
5. _____wind = in the direction in which the wind is blowing
6. _____-board = fair and unconcealed
7. _____accessible = difficult or impossible to reach or to get
8. _____genic = good-looking (on television)
9. _____byte = a unit of computer memory (equal to about 1 million bytes)
10. ____sensitive = extremely physically sensitive to particular medicines, lights etc.
11. _____balance = lose your balance and fall
12. _____atomic = smaller than (or found in) an atom
13. ___structure = a structure that is built on top of something
14. _____hold = look at or see somebody or something
15. _____carious = not safe or certain
16. ______affected = not loyal to your situation, organization, belief etc.
17. _____normal = not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm
18. _____qualify = make unfit or unsuitable, to outcast
19. _____shore = Away from shore; away from land
20. _____terrain = Being or operating under the surface of the earth

The words given below are compounds. . Explain the structure as done in the example given
below:

Classroom = Noun + Noun

1. backhand = ____________________________
2. cowboy = ____________________________
3. drawback = ____________________________
4. footnote = ____________________________
5. gateway = ____________________________
6. handmade = ____________________________
7. holdup = ____________________________
8. inhale = ____________________________
9. Bluebell = ____________________________
10. Friendship = ____________________________
11. mastermind = ____________________________
12. Heartfelt = ____________________________
13. outstanding = ____________________________
14. pushcart = ____________________________
15. staircase = ____________________________

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Combine the words given in Column A with the words given in column B to make meaningful
Compound words

A B C
Back Land
Copy Bag
Sand Stab
Wood Pipe
Mill Wind
Waste Drop

A B C
Arm Pit
Counter Attack
Fall High
Master bed
Rest mind
house

A B C
Man Class
Out Milk
Rail Line
Bread Way
Turn Sweet
Coat

Write the plurals:

• father-in-law - _____________________________
• mother-in-law - _____________________________
• brother-in-law - _____________________________
• sister-in-law - _____________________________
• attorney-general - _____________________________
• secretary-general - _____________________________
• mailman - _____________________________
• Milkwoman- _____________________________
• Court-martial- _____________________________
• Passer-by- _____________________________
• Forget-me-not- _____________________________
• Toothbrush - _____________________________
• Shoe-shop- _____________________________
• Travel-agency -_____________________________

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• Physics-teacher- _____________________________
• Runner-up- _____________________________
• Green-house- _____________________________
• Arms-merchant- _____________________________
• Merry-go-round - _____________________________
• Grown-up- _____________________________

Write down the plural form of the following:

Singular Plural
a) A school teacher
b) One assistant headmaster
c) The sergeant major
d) An assistant secretary of the state
e) A woman-doctor
f) A doctor of philosophy
g) An M.P.
h) One teaspoonful of sugar
i) One bucketful of water
j) Good-for-nothing
k) Match-box
l) Has-been

Make at least three compound words on the pattern described below. Give the possible plural
form of each compound word and also use it in a sentence of your own:
a. Noun + Noun
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
b. Adjective + Noun
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
c. Verb(-ing) + Noun
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

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d. Noun + Verb(-ing)
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
e. Verb+ Preposition
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
f. Noun + Prepositional Phrase
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
g. Preposition + Noun
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
h. Noun + adjective
1. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

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LECTURE – 18
Word formation- derivation and blending
WORD-FORMATION – Practice Exercises

I. Choose the correct prefix to build new words. The explanations help you:

1. _______________________beat = positive and enthusiastic


2. ________________________law = to make something no longer legal
3. ________________________estimate = think or guess that the amount of something is smaller
than it really is
4. ________________________shore = on the land rather than at sea t
5. _________________________wind = in the direction in which the wind is blowing
6. _________________________-board = fair and unconcealed
7. _________________________accessible = difficult or impossible to reach or to get
8. _________________________genic = good-looking (on television)
9. _________________________byte = a unit of computer memory (equal to about 1 million
bytes)
10. __________________________sensitive = extremely physically sensitive to particular
medicines, lights etc.
11. __________________________balance = lose your balance and fall
12. __________________________atomic = smaller than (or found in) an atom
13. __________________________structure = a structure that is built on top of something
14. __________________________hold = look at or see somebody or something
15. __________________________carious = not safe or certain
16. __________________________affected = not loyal to your situation, organization, belief etc
17. __________________________normal = not normal; not typical or usual or regular or
conforming to a norm
18. ___________________________qualify = make unfit or unsuitable, to outcast
19. ___________________________shore = Away from shore; away from land
20. ___________________________terrain = Being or operating under the surface of the earth

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II. Put the word in brackets into the correct form. You will have to use prefixes and/or
suffixes.

1. He was sitting __________________ in his seat on the train. (comfort)

2. There was a __________________ light coming from the window. (green)

3. He was acting in a very __________________ way. (child)

4. This word is very difficult to spell, and even worse, it's __________________. (pronounce)

5. He's lost his book again. I don't know where he has __________________ it this time. (place)

6. You shouldn't have done that! It was very __________________ of you. (think)

7. He didn't pass his exam. He was __________________ for the second time. (succeed)

8. Some of the shanty towns are dreadfully __________________ . (crowd)

9. The team that he supported were able to win the__________________ . (champion)

10. There is a very high __________________ that they will be late. (likely)

11. I couldn't find any __________________ in his theory. (weak)

12. He wants to be a __________________ when he grows up. (mathematics)

13. You need to be a highly trained __________________ to understand this report. (economy)

14. There were only a __________________ of people at the match. (hand)

15. She arrived late at work because she had__________________ . (sleep)

16. The road was too narrow, so they had to __________________ it. (wide)

17. He was accused of __________________ documents. (false)

18. They had to __________________ the lion before they could catch it. (tranquil)

19. He needed to __________________ the temperature. (regular)

20. I think that you should __________________ . It may not be the best thing to do. (consider)

21. There was a three-hour __________________ because of the strike. (stop)

22. You need a _______________of motivation, organization and revision to learn


English.(combine)

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23. I try not to go to the supermarket at 5pm because it's __________________. (practice)

24. It is very __________________ to run air-conditioning with the door open. (economy)

25. His __________________ has been expected for the last half an hour. (arrive)

26. She looked at her __________________ in the mirror. (reflect)

27. I told him my plan but he wasn't very __________________ . (receive)

28. She had no __________________ of going to see him. (intend)

29. He spent half an hour __________________ himself with the building. (familiar)

30. Failing her driving test was a great __________________ to her. (appoint)

31. He decided to study __________________ at university. (journal)

32. The film was __________________ good. (surprise)

33. There was the need for __________________ construction when the fighting stopped. (war)

34. I don't like him at all. He's so __________________ . (satisfy)

35. The company has over 500 __________________ . (employ)

36. The new manager was very efficient and __________________ . (business)

37. It really isn't mine. I think that you are __________________ . (take)

38. The rate of __________________ in Brazil has been rising steadily. (employ)

39. With the real plan, the rate of __________________ in Brazil has fallen. (inflate)

40. She looked at him __________________ , and started to cry. (happy)

41. The party was __________________ , everything went wrong. (disaster)

42. The film was so __________________ that we left before the end. (bore)

43. The film was terrible, I felt really __________________ . (bore)

44. I think that there has been a __________________ , I didn't order this. (understand)

45. The bacteria are so small that you need a __________________ to see them. (scope)

46. Have you seen that new __________________ ? He's very funny. (comedy)

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47. The event was totally __________________ . It was terrible. (organise)

48. I arrived late for work because I had __________________ . (sleep)

49. There is a small __________________ explaining the new traffic code. (book)

50. He was __________________ . He wouldn't change his mind. (compromise)

III. Choose the correct option:

1. I'm not sure what the doctor wrote - it's almost ___________ ( legible/ illegal / inlegible/
illegible)
2. If she left me, life would be ___________. (debearable/ subbearable/ unbearable/ non-
bearable)
3. If only I hadn't married so young - I was very ___________at the time. (mature/ unmature/
inmature/ immature)
4. The examiners remove marks for ___________words, don't they? (unspelt/ semi-spelt / under-
spelt / misspelt)
5. Wear what you like - we're pretty ___________in this office. (formal/ informal/ unformal/
deformal)
6. Unless you ___________ the fish first, your guests won't enjoy it. ( semi-bone/ unbone/ pre-
bone/ debone)
7. I think the Government should ___________ the post office. (denationalise/ unnationalise/
disnationalise/ innationalise)
8. I wish my ___________ and I were still on speaking tens. (ex-partner/ pre-partner/ non-partner/
departner)
9. Use this ___________ tool and you'll do an excellent job. (macropurpose/ monopurpose/
micropurpose/ multi-purpose)
10. Let's form a ___________and do something about the poor state of the common.
(subcommittee/ anti-committee/ multi-committee/ undercommittee)

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IV. For each of the following, write at least four words in which it appears:
Example: –able:

1. _______________–ity
2. _______________–s
3. un–____________
4. _______________–ing
5. _______________al
6. _________________ –er
7. _________________–ed
8. _________________ –ar
9. _________________–ous
10. _________________–y

V. The words given below are compounds. . Make the plural forms:
Classroom = Classrooms
1. Battlefield= ____________________________
2. Scarecrow = ____________________________
3. Churchyard = ____________________________
4. Buttercup = ____________________________
5. Hoodwink = ____________________________
6. Handkerchief = ____________________________
7. Inmate = ____________________________
8. Postman = ____________________________
9. Bluebell = ____________________________
10. Friendship = ____________________________
11. Doorbell = ____________________________
12. Heartfelt = ____________________________
13. Headlight = ____________________________
14. Haywire = ____________________________
15. Wheelbarrow = ____________________________

VI. Write at least three words having the prefix given in column A:

Prefix Meaning Examples


re- again or back
dis- reverses the meaning of the verb
over- too much
un- reverses the meaning of the verb
Mis- badly or wrongly
out- more or better than others
be- make or cause
co- together
de- do the opposite of

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Fore- earlier, before
inter- between
pre- before
Sub- under/below
trans- across, over
under- not enough

DERIVATION

I. Use the word at the end of each gap to form a new word with which to fill the gap. While
doing this exercise, look for clues which tell you what kind of word is missing (adjective, noun,
verb, adverb). Make sure to take into consideration forms using various prefixes and suffixes,
as well as negative forms

1. We earn our ___________(LIVE) in America today in peaceful ___________ (COMPETE) with


people all across the Earth. Profound and _________ (POWER) forces are shaking and
____________(MAKE) our world, and the urgent question of our time is whether we can make
change our friend and not our enemy. This new world has already ___________ (RICH) the
lives of millions of Americans who are able to ______________ (COMPETITION) and win in
it. But when most people are working harder for less, when others cannot work at all, when the
cost of health care devastates families and threatens to _____________ (BANK) our
enterprises, great and small, when the fear of crime robs law abiding citizens of their
__________ (FREE), and when millions of poor children cannot even imagine the lives we
are calling them to lead, we have not made change our friend.

2. It is simply this. That Space, as our _________________ (MATH) have it, is spoken of as
having three dimensions, which one may call ________________ (LONG), Breadth, and
____________ (THICK), and is always definable by _______________ (REFER) to
three planes, each at right angles to the others. But some philosophical people have been
asking why THREE dimensions ___________ (PARTICULAR) - why not another direction
at right angles to the other three?--and have even tried to construct a Four-Dimension
geometry. Professor Simon Newcomb was expounding this to the New York
Mathematical Society only a month or so ago. You know how on a flat surface, which has
only two dimensions, we can represent a figure of a three ____________ (DIMENSION)
solid, and _________ (SIMILAR) they think that by models of thee dimensions they
could represent one of four--if they could master the _________ (PERCEIVE) of the thing.
See?

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3. In the centre of the room, clamped to an upright easel, stood the full-length portrait of a young
man of ____________ (ORDINARY) personal beauty, and in front of it, some little
____________ (DISTANT) away, was sitting the artist himself, Basil Hallward, whose
sudden _________________ (APPEAR) some years ago caused, at the time, such public
________________ (EXCITE), and gave rise to so many strange conjectures. As the painter
looked at the _____ (GRACE) and comely form he had so _____ (SKILL) mirrored in
his art, a smile of ______ (PLEASE) passed across his face, and seemed about to linger
there. But he _____ (SUDDEN) started up, and, closing his eyes, placed his fingers upon the
lids, as though he sought to _____ (PRISON) within his brain some curious dream from
which he feared he might _____ (WAKE).

5. Pick out the derivational affix in the words given below and classify it:

1. Security ________________________ ___________________________

2. Manageable ________________________ ___________________________

3. Singular ________________________ ___________________________

4. Treacherous ________________________ ___________________________

5. Enrich ________________________ ___________________________

6. Pacify ________________________ ___________________________

7. Systematic ________________________ ___________________________

8. Unwind ________________________ ___________________________

9. Irregular ________________________ ___________________________

10. Illegal ________________________ ___________________________

11. Golden ________________________ ___________________________

12. Irritation ________________________ ___________________________

13. Development ________________________ ___________________________

14. Disgrace ________________________ ___________________________

15. Rebuilt ________________________ ___________________________

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6. Derive nouns from the words given in the brackets:

1. It looks like an apple in _____________(appear) but it tastes like a lemon !


2. They decided to make a _____________ (complain) .
3. Jane and Mary had a long _____________ (discuss) about a present for Kate's birthday.
4. After some _____________ (hesitate), they bought a lovely scarf.
5. Her _____________ (behave) is unacceptable, what a shame !
6. To my _____________ (embarrass) I found that I had forgotten my purse !
7. You know me : my _____________ (choose) will always go for a chocolate cake !
8. Kate's birthday party has been a great _____________ (succeed).
9. Please speak slowly : we can't follow your _____________ (explain)!
10. On our _____________ (arrive) at the restaurant, the waiter took our coats.

7. Complete the sentences with a word,noun or adjective, coming from the word in
brackets in order to give the sentence its correct meaning.

1. The report gave a surprising _____________(conclude).


2. People say it's total _____________ (mad) to believe they will ever find the culprit.
3. The actress rose to _____________ (star) in the 1930s.
4. Unfortunately, many cases of _____________ (racist) are reported every day.
5. They gave him the _____________ (possible) of accepting a different job.
6. She is not known for her _____________ (modest) !
7. There has been a change of _____________ (direct) in the company's ambitions.
8. His _____________ (arrive) was badly-timed.
9. She showed uncharacteristic _____________ (nervous) during the show.
10. The man they arrested has denied being a _____________ (blackmail).
11. The _____________ (disqualify) team is going to sue the race organisers.
12. The _____________ (decorate) was highly original and modern.
13. He was a reassuring and _____________ (help) doctor.
14. After _____________ (end) arguments, they finally reached a decision.
15. He's a jealous child, and he is _____________ (resent) of his baby sister.
16. They won't be coming back to England for the _____________ (foresee) future.
17. _____________ (Environment) issues are becoming increasingly important.
18. It was a _____________ (disaster) advertising campaign.
19. She stood still, completely _____________ (motion).
20. They had a very _____________ (enjoy) evening at the theatre.

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BLENDING
I. Blend the following words to make one word:
1. Smoke + Fog = ______________________
2. Transfer + Resistor= ______________________.
3. Dance + handle = ______________________
4. Motor + Hotel = ______________________
5. Camera + recorder = ______________________
6. Escalate + elevator = ______________________
7. Lithe + slimy = ______________________
8. Wireless + Fidelity = ______________________
9. Flimsy + miserable = ______________________
10. gallop + triumph= ________________________

2. The words given below have been formed as a result of blending. Can you separate it into
its constituent words:

Brunch = _____________________ + ____________________


Cheeseburger = _____________________ + ____________________
Electrocute = _____________________ + ____________________
Spork = _____________________ + ____________________
Stagflation = _____________________ + ____________________
Carjacking = _____________________ + ____________________
Mocktail = _____________________ + ____________________
Breathalyzer = _____________ + ____________________
faction = _____________ + ____________________
flare = _____________ + ____________________
glimmer = _____________ + ____________________
infotainment = _____________ + ____________________
moped = _____________ + ____________________
motorcade = _____________ + ____________________
smash = _____________ + ____________________
sportscast = _____________ + ____________________
workaholic = _____________ + ____________________
Information + Commercials = _____________ + __________
Modulator + demodulator= _____________ + ___________________
Binary + digit = ________________ + ____________________

Now-a-days, paparazzi have popularized the blending of names of celebrity couples. Can you
name any three of such blended names:
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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LECTURE – 21
Transformation- Assertive – interrogative sentence/positive –negative sentence, Exclamation of
sentences
Practice Exercises

I. Transform the sentences as directed:


1. What a beautiful flower!
Assertive: _____________________________________________________
2. It is a great victory.
Exclamatory: ___________________________________________________.
3. How kind of you to help him like that!
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..
4. It is indeed a glorious morning.
Exclamatory: ___________________________________________________..
5. How noble he is!
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..
6. What a pleasant surprise this is!
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..
7. It was an extremely delightful party.
Exclamatory: ___________________________________________________..
8. I wish I were young again.
Exclamatory: ___________________________________________________..
9. She is my friend.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
10. Has he finished his work?
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..
11. He is very intelligent.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
12. Did I ever ask you to do it?
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..
13. There is no sense in doing that.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
14. You are ordered to stop it.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
15. Please, give me a glass of water.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
16. Can their glory ever fade?
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..
17. Will you shut up or not?
Imperative: ___________________________________________________..
18. Get out of here.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
19. Speak loudly.
Interrogative: ___________________________________________________..
20. Will you, please, take me to the Director of the Institute?
Imperative: ___________________________________________________..

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21. Alas! We shall hear his voice no longer
Assertive: ___________________________________________________..

II. Transform the following sentences into assertive:


1. Shut the door. ________________________________________________________
2. Please, be quiet. _______________________________________________________
3. Have mercy upon us. ___________________________________________________
4. Follow me. ____________________________________________________________
5. How cold the night is! ___________________________________________________
6. What a shame! _________________________________________________________
7. Ah! We have lost the match.
_____________________________________________________________________
8. Well done! You have won the match.
_____________________________________________________________________
9. How pleasant is the weather today!
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Alas! The ship has sunk. __________________________________________________
11. Bravo! We have defeated the enemy.
_____________________________________________________________________
12. Oh! For a glass of water _________________________________________________
13. What a great plan you have made!
_____________________________________________________________________
14. Please, sign here. ______________________________________________________
15. Can she ever forget this moment?
_____________________________________________________________________

III. Change the following assertive sentences into exclamatory sentences:

1. It is a wonderful opportunity.
_____________________________________________________________________

2. I wish I were young again.


_____________________________________________________________________

3. It is very kind of you to help him like that.


_____________________________________________________________________

4. He is truly noble.
_____________________________________________________________________

5. This is indeed a great pleasure.


_____________________________________________________________________

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IV. Change the following assertive sentences into interrogative sentence :

6. Wisdom is better than riches.


_____________________________________________________________________

7. It is foolish to worry about what people say.


_____________________________________________________________________

8. I never asked you to do it.


_____________________________________________________________________

9. There is no sense in doing that.


_____________________________________________________________________

10. It matters little whether we win or lose.


_____________________________________________________________________

V. Change the following interrogative sentences into assertive sentences:

1. Will you stop talking?

_____________________________________________________________________

2. Will you shut the door?

_____________________________________________________________________

3. Will you, please, get me a glass of water?

_____________________________________________________________________

4. Will you get out of here or not?

_____________________________________________________________________

5. Will you turn off the tap?

_____________________________________________________________________

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VI. IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SENTENCES AND CHANGE THEM INTO OTHER
TYPES:

1. John Glenn was one of our first astronauts.


Negative:

______________________________________________________________________.
Interrogative:

______________________________________________________________________.
2. Have you ever been rude to you?
Negative:

_______________________________________________________________________.
3. Write your name on the paper.
Assertive:

_______________________________________________________________________.
Interrogative:

______________________________________________________________________.
4. Stop!
Negative Assertive:

_____________________________________________________________________.
Interrogative:

_____________________________________________________________________.
5. Put this in kitchen, please!
Interrogative:

_____________________________________________________________________.
6. Eat before you leave.
Negative:

______________________________________________________________________.
7. This caramel custard tastes good.
Negative:

______________________________________________________________________.
Interrogative:

______________________________________________________________________.
8. Isn’t your uncle an optician?

Assertive:

______________________________________________________________________.

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9. Hurrah! We have defeated the enemy.

Assertive: ______________________________________________________________________.

10. I saw a very interesting movie last night.

Exclamatory:____________________________________________________________________.

11. Isn't he a good singer?

Exclamatory: ____________________________________________________________________.

Interrogative: ____________________________________________________________________.

12. What a horrifying sight it was!

Assertive:_______________________________________________________________________

Interrogative:____________________________________________________________________

VI. Transform the following sentences into Negative:

1. He is too proud to beg.

_____________________________________________________________________

2. I was doubtful whether it was you.

_____________________________________________________________________

3. Everybody was present.

_____________________________________________________________________

4. All cheered the team.

_____________________________________________________________________

5. God will heed the cry of the humble.

_____________________________________________________________________

6. Everyone accepts that she is pretty.

_____________________________________________________________________

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7. Was he not a villain to do such a deed?

_____________________________________________________________________

8. Everyone is rich.

_____________________________________________________________________

9. He is a careful driver.

_____________________________________________________________________

10. I was so foolish to accept his proposal.

_____________________________________________________________________

VII. Transform the sentences given below into affirmative ones:

1. I cannot but love watching cricket.

____________________________________________________________________________
2. I am not as tall as Amitabh Bachchan

____________________________________________________________________________
3. Akbar was the greatest of all the Mughals.

____________________________________________________________________________
4. Everyone admits that she is a nice girl.

____________________________________________________________________________
5. He was sly than a fox.

____________________________________________________________________________
6. Only a king can afford such riches.

____________________________________________________________________________
7. The Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean in the world.

____________________________________________________________________________
8. The philosopher cared very little about his appearance.

____________________________________________________________________________
9. I always love my country.

____________________________________________________________________________
10. Whenever there is lightening, there is thunder.

____________________________________________________________________________

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11. Macbeth did more than anyone else.

____________________________________________________________________________
12. The poor man's tale touched all hearts.

____________________________________________________________________________

VIII. Transform the following interrogative sentences into affirmative ones:

1. Who cares if no one recognizes my talent?

____________________________________________________________________________
2. Why waste time in gambling?

____________________________________________________________________________
3. Do we live simply to eat?

____________________________________________________________________________
4. Was Brutus not a disloyal friend in the end?

____________________________________________________________________________
5. Can Time heal these wound?

____________________________________________________________________________
6. Who does not know the name of Ashoka the Great?

____________________________________________________________________________
7. Were we sent into the world simply to make money?

____________________________________________________________________________
8. Is there anything better than gaining honour and glory in life?

____________________________________________________________________________
9. Can you make a silk purse out of a sow's ear?

____________________________________________________________________________
10. Can these moments ever fade?

_____________________________________________________________________________

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LECTURE – 28
Phrasal Verb

I was brought up in a small town in the countryside. Growing up in the countryside offered lots of
advantages for young people. The only problem was that we often got into trouble as we made up
stories that we acted out around town. I can remember one particular adventure in particular: One day
as we were coming back from school, we came up with the brilliant idea to make out that we were
pirates looking for treasure. My best friend Tom said that he made out an enemy ship in the distance.
We all ran for cover and picked up a number of rocks to use for ammunition against the ship as we got
ready to put together our plan of action. We we were ready to set off on our attack, we slowly went
along the path until we were face to face with our enemy - the postman's truck! The postman was
dropping off a package at Mrs. Brown's house, so we got into his truck. At that point, we really didn't
have any idea about what we were going do next. The radio was playing so we turned down the volume
to discuss what we would do next. Jack was all for switching on the motor and getting away with the
stolen mail! Of course, we were just children, but the idea of actually making off with a truck was too
much for us to believe. We all broke out in nervous laughter at the thought of us driving down the road
in this stolen Postal Truck. Luckily for us, the postman came running towards us shouting, "What are
you kids up to?!". Of course, we all got out of that truck as quickly as we could and took off down the
road.
Phrasal Verbs -Make sentences with the following
to make out -
to make off with
to drop off
to set off
to get out of
to get into
to get ready
to be up to

to take off
to grow up
to make up
to set off
to turn down
to get into
to bring up
to break out

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__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
___________________

Q1. There are at least 7 other phrasal verbs in the text. Can you find them?

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

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Practice Exercises

I. Use the following verbs (believe, fill, get, look, put, switch, take, throw, turn, try) and the
prepositions (away, down, for, in, off, on, out) an form meaningful sentences.

Example: My parents are out. So I have to _________ my baby-brother.

Answer: My parents are out. So I have to look after my baby-brother.

1) Quick!________________ the bus. It's ready to leave.


2) I don't know where my book is. I have to _________________ it.
3) It's dark inside. Can you ______________ the light, please?
4) _________________ the form, please.
5) I need some new clothes. Why don't you _______________ these jeans?
6) It's warm inside. _____________ your coat.
7) This pencil is really old. You can ________________ it___________________.
8) It's so loud here. Can you _____________the radio a little.
9) The firemen were able to ______________ the fire in Church Street.
10) Does your little brother_____________________ ghosts?

II. Complete the phrasal verbs according to their meanings in brackets.

1. remove, do not wear) _______________ your shoes.


2. Somebody has to (take care of) _______________ the baby.
3. Could you (do not leave it on) _______________ the radio?
4. Where can I (see if it fits) _______________ the sweater?
5. (be quick) _______________ .
6. Why don't you (take a seat) _______________ ?
7. I will (enter) _______________ the train now.
8. Shall I (consult a dictionary) _______________ the word in a dictionary?
9. When do you (rise from bed after sleeping__________________

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III. Fill in the phrasal verbs:

a) Make sure to _____________ pick-pockets when you go to the market.


b) The boy ___________ the man and returned his wallet.
c) Mary ______________ me at the party last night and introduced herself.
d) Have you ____________ if you won the competition yet?
e) I need to ____________ from work and take a holiday.
f) She still hasn't __________ the death of her cat.
g) My daughter is a great cook, she really _____________ her mother.
h) Could you ___________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office?
i) Extension 28? I'll _______________.
j) She promised to ____________ her cigarette smoking to six a day.
k) He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ____________ a brilliant idea.
l) I'm afraid your story is not believable. It just doesn't __________________.

1. Given below are few sentences along with the preposition. Add an appropriate ion or verb to
make a phrasal verb:
a. Has the advertising agency __________ the new promotional material yet? I need it by this
afternoon. (in)
b. We need to ________ the price of the product, which is relatively high, and focus on its quality
as a selling point.(down)
c. Have you __________ any other interesting product features that we could emphasize in the
ads? (across)
d. We've decided to __________ billboards and use more double-page spreads instead.(on)
e. This poster is horrible and can't be used. The colors and images are all wrong. We will have to
__________. (do)
f. We had to reorder the printed advertisements because the printer completely forgot and
__________ the free sample coupons.(out)
g. We're going to __________ the advertising campaign if we can't get any TV or radio time.(off)
h. This commercial doesn't seem to promote the product. Can you explain to me what dancing
chickens __________ sport shoes? (with)
i. My new assistant needs to be __________ before I trust her to run an ad campaign like this
one.(in)
j. I like that magazine, but I think we should __________ advertising in it until its circulation has
increased.(off)

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2. Pick out the phrasal verbs from the list given below and complete the sentences:
• Have you _________________ if you won the competition yet?
• I need to _________________ from work and take a holiday.
• She still hasn't _________________ the death of her cat.
• My daughter is a great cook, she really _________________ her mother.
• Could you _________________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office?
• Extension 28? I'll _________________ .
• She promised to _________________ her cigarette smoking to six a day.
• He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ______________ a brilliant idea.
• I'm afraid your story is not believable. It just doesn't______________.
• Donata_______________ my cats while I was away on holiday.
• We're not ready yet, we are going to have to _______________ the meeting until next week.
• I'm _________________ Simon's address. Do you know it?
• Mary _________________ twenty minutes late for the party.
• I'm tired of waiting for Jacek. Can we _________________ our work?
• If you really want to lose weight, you need to __________eating desserts.
• Let's __________the grammar one more time before the test.
• I was __________ an old t-shirt when I __________ this photograph of my high school class.
• Look Magda, I've __________your bad behaviour long enough!
• There is just too much work to be done. We'll have to __________some new employees.
• When the father saw what had happened he __________ and shouted at his son.
• I had to __________ her offer of a job. The salary on offer was just not good enough.
• We __________at six in the morning on our drive to the coast.
• Jacek and Gosia __________last week. They just weren't happy together.
• We'd better stop soon. Otherwise, we'll __________of gas.
• I want you to __________ every bad word you've said about my brother.

Find out, get on with, hold on, get away, blow up, make up, run out, tell off, break up, give up, take up,
take after, turn down, put off, cut down, set off, take back, take on, put up with, go over, look after,
come up with, add up, put through, look for, get over, turn up, come across

i. Complete each gap with a suitable word:

"I'm afraid I haven't got enough copies of this exercise. I tried to have more run
________________ but the photocopier had broken________________ and the
repairman didn't turn _____________________ when he was supposed to. He did
ring_________________ to say he'd been held ________________ unexpectedly, but that's
the second time that company has let us _______________ recently. Well, there's nothing
else for it: you're just going to have to look ____________ with your neighbour. While
you're doing that, I'll just ___________________ the test you did last week. Some of you
slipped _________________ in a few places, but, on the whole, the results were good. If
you carry _____________________ as you've been doing, you should do fine!"

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LECTURE – 30

Business Vocabulary
You write to How to begin the letter How to end the letter
an unknown firm/person (BE) Dear Sir/Madam (BE) (AE) Yours faithfully (BE)
(AE) Dear Sir or Madam (BE) (AE) Yours truly (AE)
To whom it may concern (AE) Truly yours (AE)
a woman whose name you don't Dear Madam (BE) (AE) Yours faithfully (BE)
know Yours truly (AE)
Truly yours (AE)
a man whose name you don't Dear Sir (BE) (AE) Yours faithfully (BE)
know Yours truly (AE)
Yours faithfully (BE) Yours truly
(AE) Truly yours (AE)
a person whose name you know Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Fisher (BE) Yours sincerely (BE)
(AE) Very truly yours (AE)
Sincerely (yours) (AE)
a person you know personally Dear Ann/John (BE) (AE) (With) Best wishes (BE) (AE)

Yours (BE)
Love (BE)
All the best (AE)
Kindest/Best regards (AE)

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The MBA Jargon

actionable (adj.)
Capable of being acted on or completed in the near future. "Which items on our list are
actionable in the next quarter?" I recommend showering after using this one. Note: "actionable"
has a long-standing legal meaning different from the above.
at the end of the day
Based on the frequency with which they use the phrase, it would seem that members of senior
management are required by law to begin every third sentence with "at the end of the day," a
phrase similar in meaning to "when all is said and done." For instance, your favorite CEO might
say, "At the end of the day, it's our people that make the difference." Insert platitude here.
best of breed (n. and adj.)
The finest specimen or example to be found in a particular industry or market. Like Papillons
preening for the judges, companies position themselves as best-of-breed. In truth, however, few
ever make it through the qualifiers.
best practices (n.)
Another widely used term promulgated by the arch-demons of business - management
consultants - "best practices" is used to describe the "best" techniques or methods in use in a
company, field, or industry. Unfortunately, companies often confuse latest or trendiest with best,
and the best practices of one era are soon superseded by the ever-more-ludicrous fads of the
next.
bring to the table (v. phrase)
Refers to what one offers or provides, especially in negotiations. Personally, I bring a fork.
business model (n.)
An amorphous term having to do with identifying the specific ways in which a business creates
value, or simply put, how it sells stuff for more than it costs. I'll show you my business plan if
you show me yours.
buy-in (n.)
A cute way of saying "agreement" or "consent." If you hope to get anything done in today's
corporation, you'll need management buy-in.
centers of excellence
Certainly beats centers of failure. Most companies have a nice set of both.
circle back around (v.)
A very roundabout (pardon the pun) way of saying "Let's regroup later to discuss."
circle with (v.)
Like its cousin "circle back around," it means "to meet and/or discuss with." Usage example:
"Why don't you circle with Robert tomorrow to discuss the Ebbers case?" I can't help but
envision two well-dressed exec types holding hands and madly circling around to the delight of
everyone in their cubicle farm.
c-level (adj.)
Those modest, hardworking souls at the top of your org chart: CEO, COO, CFO, CIO, CPO,
CTO, Chief Dog Walker, etc.
close the loop (v. phrase)
To follow up on and/or close out an area of discussion. Closely related to "circle back around"
and "loop in."
commoditize (v.); commoditized (adj.)
A great fear and apprehension in business is having your product or service become
"commoditized," or turned into Just Another Mediocre Piece of Junk (JAMPoJ to those in the
know), completely undifferentiated from its peers.
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core competencies (n.)
Simply put, it means "what the company does best." When a company focuses on its core
competencies, it gets back to basics. I recommend leveraging these.
critical path (n.)
A sequence of events where a slip in any one activity generates a slip in the overall schedule.
Used extensively in the exciting world of project management. Not to be confused with
"criminal path," which is a sequence of events that leads to jail, a la Andy Fastow of Enron
fame.
deliverables (n.)
Denoting project output or assignments, "deliverables" are often "tasked" (see below), but
seldom completed.
dial-in (v.)
Despite the obvious reference to a telephone, this one means to "include." For example, "We
need to dial-in the materials list."
dialogue (v.)
It's true that Shakespeare used "dialogue" as a verb ("Dost Dialogue with thy shadow?"). But
I've got news for ya, buddy: You ain't no Shakespeare. Resist the temptation to use this utterly
superfluous verb as a substitute for "talk" or "speak." Usage example: “Let’s dialogue
telephonically via land line," meaning "call me at the office." Sigh.
drill-down (v.)
To get down to the details. One starts at a "high-level" and "drills down" to the boring details -
where exectutives fear to tread.
driver (n.)
If you think this one has something to do with the people who drive trucks, you're wrong (but I
still like you). It refers to the factors or agents that move something forward: "What are the key
drivers of organizational change?"
eat(ing) your own dog food (v. phrase) NEW!
When your company starts using its own products internally and suddenly realizes why the rest
of the world hates them so much.
ecosystem (n.) NEW!
Companies now longer participate in industries; they inhabit vast ecosystems comprised of
consumers, partners, innocent bystanders, and, increasingly, competitors. The idea is to be at the
center of your ecosystem, so integral to its operations that the actions of all other participants
seem to benefit you as much as them .But remember to look out for lions.
elevator story (n.)
A pitch to a corporate executive, or bored janitor, as the elevator goes from floors 1-10 and you
have a captive audience.

facetime (n.)
A foreign concept to many of us in the Internet world, "facetime"refers to time spent speaking
face to face, especially to senior management. For example, “I need to arrange some facetime
with you next week.”
feature/scope creep (n.) AWESOME!
The temptation to add more and more features to a product release until it becomes a confused
mass of incongruous elements, twisted and evil.
functionality (n.)
Simply meaning "functions" or "features," this one has gained widespread currency.
going forward (adv.)
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Meaning "in the future" or "from now on." For instance: "Going forward, we see our gross
margins increasing as our new high-margin products gain traction."
granular (adj.); granularity (n.)
Getting down to the fine details, the nitty-gritty. Busy people might stop you mid-sentence if
you get too granular. Like sand through an hourglass, these are the days of our lives.
go-live (adj. and v.)
A new product or system becomes available to the public on its "go-live" date. Presumably, the
same product or system will "go-dead" soon thereafter.
high-level (adj.)
Senior executives, far-sighted individual with godlike abilities to see the big picture, want
anything brought to their attention to be "high-level", that is, neatly summarized and dumbed
down so they can understand all the techno mumbo jumbo.
incent (v. tr.)
A transitive verb meaning "encourage" or "influence": "The program was set up to incent users
to spend more." Also the leading member of the incent-incentivize-disincent axis of evil.
leapfrog (v.)
To surpass your competition, usually by engaging in one gigantic, hopelessly ambitious leap of
faith that is almost sure to end in ruin and despair. Bring a parachute, golden or other.
loop in (v.); keep in the loop (v. phrase)
Used by loopy people who mean to say, "to keep apprised."
low-hanging fruit (n.)
The easy pickings, the obvious steps that an organization should take to improve its
performance or take advantage of new opportunities.
mission-critical (adj.)
Meaning "critical to the functioning or success of a business or project," this one is generally
used in reference in insanely expensive computer hardware that should be bulletproof, but, alas,
is not.

monetize (v.)
The noble mission of Web slingers everywhere: figuring out how to make money off each page
view, visitor (eyeballs), or anything else.
next steps (n.)
"Next steps" are the tasks delegated to attendees at the close of a meeting. Next steps often
result in deliverables. I believe "next steps" and "action items" are synonymous. Do humanity a
favor and avoid both.
net-net (n.)
The end result, the bottom line, etc. ad infinitum, ad nauseam. "Net-net, we're still ahead."
network effects (n.)
A wonderfully prosaic term from economics describing how some products or services become
more useful as the number of users rises. Online auctions (eBay), operating systems (Windows),
and social networks (Facebook) are three oft-used examples.
offline (adv.)
"Let's discuss this offline." Euphemism frequently uttered in long office meetings meaning:
"Let's discuss this later in private because you're way off topic again, idiot."
operationalize (v.)
A horribly polysyllabic way of saying "carry out" or (gasp) "do." Oh, the humanity!
out of pocket (adj.)
Out of touch or out of the office for a few days.
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paradigm [shift] (n.)
Paradigm is an extra fancy word for "model." A paradigm shift means moving from one model
to a new one, generally in a grand, expensive, and ultimately disastrous manner. If I had a pair
of dimes for every time I've heard this one...
peel the onion (v. phrase)
To conduct a layer-by-layer analysis of a complex problem and in the process, reduce yourself
to tears.
performance management (n.)
A euphemistic way of saying to micro-manage, berate, motivate, psychologically manipulate,
threaten, and then fire someone.
proactive (adj.)
The modern-day antonym of "reactive." Rumor has it that this gem was created in the 1970s out
of the parts of lesser words.
pushback (n.)
If you have a lot of sound, logical ideas, you're bound to run into a lot of resistance in today's
surreal corporations. This resistance, often polite but always absurd, is euphemistically called
"pushback." Try not to take it personally: you're dealing with the insane.
quick win (n.)
Everyone in business is always looking for "quick wins," small steps or initiatives that will
produce immediate, positive results.

ramp up (v.); ramp-up ( n.)


To increase over time. "We intend to ramp up production in anticipation of holiday demand."
Just try not to cramp up.
reach out (v.)
To call or email. For this one, we can blame those old AT&T ads that encouraged folks to "reach
out and touch someone." Obviously, you can't actually reach out and TOUCH anyone due to
your company's stringent sexual-harrassent policy. But you can "reach out" (but, again, no
touching) to a co-worker for information, support, or to start one of those crucial conversations.
But keep any interaction to a phone call or email just to be on the safe side.
real-time (adj.)
Everyone probably has an intuitive understanding of what is meant by "real-time," but that
hasn't stopped many companies and consultants from using the term to describe a quixotic
concept whereby a company's data is always up-to-date and available to whomever needs it,
whenever they need it.
repurpose (v.)
To take a process or system designed for one task and use it for another -- usually in way
unforeseen by its creators. In the fast-moving Internet economy, repurposing has become a
viable substitute for true innovation.
roll out (v.); roll-out (n.)
Companies are constantly introducing new products and services that you don't want or need.
The elaborate process of introducing something new is a "roll-out." The verb form is used
thusly: "We rolled this piece of crap out to the curbside."
scope (v.)
To set the scope of a product, i.e. to determine what "functionality" will be included. After
products are "scoped," they are invariably "descoped" as reality reasserts itself.
skip-level (n.)
A meeting where big-shot execs ignore the normal corporate hierarchy, jump down a level or
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two, and slum it with the plebs.
socialize (v.)
To share a document or plan within an organization, in the vain hope of getting actionable
feedback from your "peers." Also, the act of taking Fido to the park to get him used to other
dogs.
solution (n.)
Companies no longer sell products or services; they sell "solutions," which are products or
services, but more expensive.
soup to nuts (adj.)
To build every aspect of something from beginning to end. An integrated approach. Oh, the
hubris of it all.
synergy (n.); synergize (v.)
The (often illusory) value gained by combining two or more companies or divisions. Also
known as "economies of scope" and "corporate merger BS."
takeaway (n.)
The essential points of a presentation, activity, etc. that the author hopes you will "take away."
Also has something to do with food in the Queen's English.
take to the next level (v. phrase)
I used to know a guy with a Level 20 Wizard. But seriously, this means to move a product,
service, or organization from its current level of dysfunction to the next level of dysfunction.
task (v. tr.)
Yet another noun turned verb, this one means "to assign." Now go task someone with some
deliverables.

30,000 feet, at
A high-level view or explanation. Please keep in mind that oxygen is in short supply at this
altitude, so you may experience lightheadedness.
touch base (v.)
A naughty sounding gem, "to touch base" is simply a request to meet again to discuss the
current status of a project or task. "Rebecca, I would like to touch base with you later to discuss
the Smith account." You gotta think this one leads to a lot of lawsuits...
value proposition (n.)
The unique set of benefits that you offer to customers to sucker them into buying your product
or service. Sometimes shortened to "value prop," as in "What's your value prop?" Word.
wet signature (n.)
I'm not sure I want to touch this one, but apparently this means a human signature, as opposed
to an electronic one.
wetware (n.)
You, me, your grandma, everyone (assuming you're a carbon-based life form). That is, a human-
based solution, as opposed to a hardware, or silicon-based, solution.
win-win
It's a win for us; it's a win for them. Everyone's happy and drinking the Kool-Aid.
world-class (adj.)
Means you're best in class, a benchmark. If your product, service or solution ain't world-class,
you might as well close up shop and go home. Luckily, everything at your corporation is either
world-class now, or will be by next quarter. Or at least that's what management's been telling
everyone.

Corridor cruiser (Noun): A worker who spends a lot of time walking through office corridors, usually
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en route from one meeting to another. The emerging Tablet PC user will be the “corridor cruiser” and
not necessarily someone in a small business.

Ego wall: (Noun) A wall on which a person has hung their degrees, certificates, and awards, as well as
photographs in which they appear with famous people.

Hot desk (Noun). A desk that is not assigned to a particular employee, but rather is available for use
and can be reserved in advance by a mobile worker whenever they are required to be in the office.

Office creeper (Noun). A person who sneaks into an office building during business hours to steal
personal items and equipment.

Occupational spam : ( Noun). Unwanted or unnecessary messages sent over a corporate e-mail system.

Nap nook (Noun). An office or room where employees can nap during working hours.

Job spill (Noun). Work or work-related tasks that carry over into personal time.

Going Forward: (Verb) Move ahead, travel on. It is a relatively new and apparently convenient way to
indicate a progression in time from the present. The term has become increasingly popular in press
releases from Internet start-ups and newly public companies. E.g. Going forward let’s use this template
to create AWAD. Going forward, please complete your status reports by Wednesday evenings.

Rollout: (Verb, Noun) It is a staged series of activities that often lead to the inauguration or the
introduction of a new program or a product. The inauguration or initial public exhibition of a new
product, service, or policy: When a company installs new equipment, the installation staging is
sometimes called a rollout. E.g. The manufacturer’s rollout of the new jet is scheduled for next month.

Toss the Idea: (Verb). To throw out or cast away something. To suggest something as a possibility. E.g:
I’ll toss an idea out to start the discussion. I can’t toss this paper out as in my belief it contains some
very strong statistical evidence that support the hypotheses.

Home Office: (Noun) Employees whose jobs do not require them to work inside an office can work
from home. A space allotted for work at home. E.g: I have a home office and work most of the time
from home. This enables me to juggle between work and family activities.

Let’s Take a Step Back: (Take a re-look, re-assess, have another look at. E.g. Before we move forward,
let’s take a step back and re-assess whether we are in the right track.

Big Hitter
Context: I'm in awe of that Exec - he's a really Big Hitter
Meaning: Someone powerful within the confines of the company. Variant: hard hitter.

Blue Sky Thinking


Context: Let's start with a blank sheet of paper and do some blue sky thinking and see what happens
Meaning: this is similar to thinking 'out of the box' and is supposed to be a situation where you come
up with ideas taking into account no preconceptions and not dismissing ideas instantly

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Brain Dump
Context: Have a brain dump and see what you come up with
Meaning: Brainstorm

Customer Centric
Context: We need to be customer centric from now on
Meaning: Since ultimately we sell to the customer, we might as well listen to what they're saying.
Similar: customer driven.

Cutting Edge
Context: This is cutting edge technology we're using
Meaning: This is the most recent version. Slightly less bugs.

End to End
Context: Let's visualise the process end-to-end
Meaning: Let's work out the whole process

E.T.A.
Context: What's the E.T.A. on this report?
Meaning: short for Expected time of arrival, ie how long will it take to get it finished.

First Mover
Context: If we launch 3G now, we'll have first mover advantage
Meaning: If we pay massive advertising costs to educate customers about this new development, we'll
hopefully have the advantage of getting lots of customers. If not, we've paid to educate people whilst
other companies with no ad costs will reap the rewards.

Go To Market
Context: We need to update our go-to-market strategy.
Meaning: Cross your fingers

Joined Up
Context: From now on this company will only engage in joined up thinking
Meaning: Looking at things from the wider point of view rather than with a narrow focus

Leading (Market)
Context: I want to develop a market leading proposition
Meaning: I want to develop something better than our competitors.

Manage Expectations
Context: Make sure that you manage expectations so that they're not disappointed if we can't deliver
Meaning: Make sure people expect realistic outcomes from a project - e.g. not too much

On the Planet
This is the greatest product on the planet. Chiefly indicates the megalomania of the utterer or the
utterer's firm.

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Out of the box
Context: It'd be great if you could think out of the box and generate some radical ideas
Meaning: Don't just come up with the same old obvious solutions, try and be creative when
brainstorming ideas.

Out of Pocket
Context: I'll be out-of-pocket for the next two days and won't finish the project.
Meaning: I'm holidaying - leave me alone.

Pro-active
Context: I think we need to be a bit pro-active here
Meaning: If you don't keep on pestering someone about this, nothing will happen

Push Back
Context: Can you just push back on that point and get him to amend his stance?
Meaning: Try to get someone to change their mind, or debate a point, by questioning someone's
opinion

State of the Art


Context: This is great - it's a state of the art solution
Meaning: Really good, the best, most modern solution

Take offline
Context: I think that's a separate issue, so can you take it offline please?
Meaning: Discuss the point further outside the meeting / at another time. Bizarrely, nothing whatsoever
to do with being online as in on the internet.

Take ownership
Context: I think it's up to you to really take ownership of the piece of work
Meaning: You need to get a grip and be responsible for the piece of work

Team Player
Context: Jonesy from accounts is a real team player
Meaning: Someone who is not just out for themselves but works well with others and has a concern for
their well-being

The Big Picture


Context: I think it's important that we remember to look at the big picture
Meaning: The overall situation, e.g. when working on a small aspect of a project it is helpful to
remember the project as a whole

The New World


Context: Of course, in the new world things will look a little different
Meaning: The structure of a company after a re-structure or major shake-up.

Turnkey
Context: I'm striving for that illusive thing - the turnkey solution
Meaning: A solution that really opens doors - hence turn key. Funny really. From reader Ian: A turn key
solution is one that once in place and the 'key is turned' is then ready for use straight away not one that
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opens doors.

Upskill
Context: During your career it's important to ensure you continue to upskill
Meaning: To improve your marketability and worth to a company by developing your skills

Exercises

Word Meaning Sentence

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LECTURE 33
TEXT BASED VOCABULARY
I. MARTIN LUTHER KING – I HAVE A DREAM
I. Provide the homophones of the following words and use both the words in sentences of your own:
some-
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
wrote
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
heir
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
check
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
would
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
right
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
plane
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
soul
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
cell
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
hew
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

II. Provide the homonyms of the words given below and use both the words in sentences of your own:
light
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
cash
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
note
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
fall
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
bank
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

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lift
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
deed
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
back
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
march
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
right
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
cell
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
ring
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

II. MARY FISHER- A WHISPER OF AIDS

I,.Provide the homophones of the following words and use both the words in sentences of your own:

1. accept ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. heal ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. quiet ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
4. hear ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
5. heard ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

II. Provide the homonyms of the words given below and use both the words in sentences of your own:

1. Bear ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

2. present ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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3. mine ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

4. May ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

5. Act ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

6. sound ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

7. Race ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

8. Stand ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

9. Over ______________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

III. LITTLE GIRLS ARE WISER THAN MEN


I. Provide the homonyms of the words given below, and use both the words in sentences of your
own:
1. over ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2. print ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3. head ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
4. play ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
5. Step ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
6. foot ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

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7. Blow ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
8. Channel ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

II. Provide the homophones of the words given below, and use both the words in sentences of your
own:
1. Meet ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2. blue ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3. Right ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
4. quiet ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
5. except ______________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

IV. THE CASE FOR THE DEFENCE

I. Provide the homophones of the following words and use both the words in sentences of your own:

1. Counsel __________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. gate _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. raise _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. ideal _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. blue _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

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II. Provide the homonyms of the words given below and use both the words in sentences of your own:

1. case _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
2. court _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
3. Saw _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
4. drop _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
5. light _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
6. Rose _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
7. suit _________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

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LECTURE – 36
MARTIN LUTHER KING – I HAVE A DREAM
I. The words given below have been formed as a result of derivation. Pick out the prefix/suffix and
describe the transformation the first one has been done for you:
Example:
Smuggler = -r (Suffix) Verb into Noun
Prefix/Suffix Transformation
1. greatest ________________________ ________________________________
2. American ________________________ ________________________________
3. symbolic ________________________ ________________________________
4. momentous ________________________ ________________________________
5. injustice ________________________ ________________________________
6. captivity ________________________ ________________________________
7. segregation ________________________ ________________________________
8. dramatize ________________________ ________________________________
9. shameful ________________________ ________________________________
10. unalienable ________________________ ________________________________
11. insufficient ________________________ ________________________________
12. gradualism ________________________ ________________________________
13. brotherhood ______________________ ________________________________
14. discontent ________________________ ________________________________
15. creative ________________________ ________________________________
16. degenerate ________________________ ________________________________
17. engulfed ________________________ ________________________________
18. militancy ________________________ ________________________________
19. happiness ________________________ ________________________________
20. independence ______________________ ________________________________

II. The following words are compound words. Analyze the structure of the these words:
1. Daybreak = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
2. Bankrupt = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =___________________
3. sunlit = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = _____________________
4. quicksand = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =__________________
5. overlook = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =___________________
6. whirlwind = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =___________________
7. citizenship = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =__________________
8. highway = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =___________________
9. mountainside = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =________________
10. hilltop = ____________ + __________ Possible plural =_____________________

III. Do as directed:

1. I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in
the history of our nation.
Interrogative:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Exclamatory:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________

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2. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free.
(Tell whether the highlighted word is an auxiliary verb or the main verb) ____________
3 And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. (transform into interrogative sentence)
_________________________________________________________________________
4. America has given the Negro people a bad check. (Transform into negative sentence)
________________________________________________________________________
5.We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. (Transform into interrogative
sentence)
________________________________________________________________________
6. We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality.
(Transform into interrogative sentence)
_________________________________________________________________________
7. I ___________ not unmindful that some of you ______________ come here out of great trials and
tribulations. (fill in the blanks with auxiliary verbs)
8. Any of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. (Rectify the sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
9. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. (Transform into assertive sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
10. Justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream. (Transform into exclamatory
sentence)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

A WHISPER OF AIDS
I. The words given below have been formed as a result of derivation. Pick out the prefix/suffix and
describe the transformation the first one has been done for you:
Example:
Smuggler = -r (Suffix) Verb into Noun
Prefix/Suffix Transformation
gladly ___________________________ ____________________________________
Reality ___________________________ ____________________________________
congressional ________________________ ____________________________________
unknown ___________________________ ____________________________________
Meanness ___________________________ ____________________________________
Compassionate ___________________________ ________________________________
Memorable ___________________________ ____________________________________
Affection ___________________________ ____________________________________
Unheralded ___________________________ ____________________________________
Unionist ___________________________ ____________________________________
inevitably ___________________________ ____________________________________
prayer ___________________________ ____________________________________

II. The following words are compound words. Analyze the structure of the these words:

Outcast = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________


Bedside = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
Leadership = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
Policymaker = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
Lifetime = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
pathway = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________

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III. Do as directed:
1. Least than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City, I asked the Republican

Party to lift the shroud of silence. (Rectify the sentence)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

I would never have asked to be HIV positive, (Transform into interrogative sentence)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

The rate of infection is increasing faster among women and children. (Rectify the sentence)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

My family has been a rock of support. (write whether the highlighted word is an auxiliary verb or the main verb)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

I am blessed, richly and deeply blessed, to have such a family. (Transform into exclamatory sentence)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

Anyday our children will be grown. (Rectify the following)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

I want my children to know that their mother was not a victim. (Transform into interrogative sentence)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

With the President’s leadership, many good has been done. (Rectify the sentence)

______________________________________________________________________________________________

A million _______________ are infected. (Fill in the blank with much/many/more)

It _________________ care whether you are Democrat or Republican. (Fill in the blank with auxiliary verb + not)

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CASE FOR THE DEFENCE
I. Do as directed:
1. It was the stranger murder trial I ever attended. (Rectify the error)

____________________________________________________________________________
2. This was not one of those cases of circumstantial evidence in which you feel the jurymen's anxiety
because mistakes have been made. (Transform into interrogative sentence)

____________________________________________________________________________
3. He was a heaviest stout man with bulging bloodshot eyes. ( Rectify the error)

____________________________________________________________________________
4. `I understand,' counsel said, `that the defence proposes to plead mistaken identity. (Rectify the error)

____________________________________________________________________________
5. She spoke very firmly. (Transform into exclamatory sentence)

____________________________________________________________________________
6. You are quite certain?' (Transform into negative sentence)

____________________________________________________________________________
7. He was a heavier stout man with bulging bloodshot eyes. (Rectify the error)

____________________________________________________________________________
8. If you were Mrs Salmon, could you sleep at night? (Transform into assertive sentence)

____________________________________________________________________________
9. And so the man __________ acquitted for lack of evidence. (Fill in the auxiliary)

10. It isn't a face one forgets.(Transform into affirmative sentence)

____________________________________________________________________________

II. The words given below have been formed as a result of derivation. Pick out the
prefix/suffix and describe the transformation the first one has been done for you:
Example:
Smuggler = -r (Suffix) Verb into Noun

Prefix/Suffix Transformation
1. strictly _________________________________ ___________________________________
2. murderer _________________________________ ___________________________________
3. unable _________________________________ ___________________________________
4. horrifying _________________________________ ___________________________________
5. brutal _________________________________ ___________________________________
6. mistaken _________________________________ ___________________________________
7. kindness _________________________________ ___________________________________
8. emotion _________________________________ ___________________________________
9. evidence _________________________________ ___________________________________
10. muscular _______________________________ ___________________________________
11. extraordinary _________________________________ _______________________________
12. prisoner _________________________________ ___________________________________
13. honesty _________________________________ ___________________________________
14. remarkable ______________________________ ___________________________________
15. importance ______________________________ ___________________________________

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The following words are compound words. Analyze the structure of the these words:

1. headline = ______________ + ____________: Possible plural = ____________________


2. Juryman = ______________ + ____________: Possible plural = ____________________
3. Street-lamp = ______________ + ____________: Possible plural = ___________________
4. down-stairs = _____________ + ____________: Possible plural = ___________________
5. roadway = ______________ + ____________: Possible plural = ____________________

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THE INDEPENDENCE DAY

Do as directed:

1. In little than an hour, aircraft from here will join others from around the world.(Rectify the
sentence)
_____________________________________________________________
2. Aircraft : Plural ________________
3. Mankind = _____ +_____ (Analyze the structure)
4. We can't be consumed by our petty differences anymore. (Transform into interrogative
sentence)
_____________________________________________________________
5. We will be united in our common interests. (Transform into negative sentence)
_____________________________________________________________
6. Explain the derivation in the following:
a. freedom _________________________________________________
b. persecution _________________________________________________
c. oppression _________________________________________________
d. aerial _________________________________________________
7. And you will be launching the large aerial battle in this history of mankind. (Rectify the
sentence)
_____________________________________________________________
8. We're going to live on! (Transform into interrogative sentence)
_____________________________________________________________

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LITTLE GIRLS ARE WISER THAN MEN


I. Do as directed:

It was an early easter. Transform into interrogative sentence)


_____________________________________________________________________
It is a time for rejoicing, and not for such folly as this. (Transform into interrogative
sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
Is it right to behave so? (Transform into assertive sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
One girl was very smaller, the other a little big. (Rectify the error)
_____________________________________________________________________
Ashamed/of/yourself/ not? (Make a meaningful sentence using auxiliary verbs)
_____________________________________________________________________
Dear little souls! They are wisest than you! (Rectify the sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
Akoúlya, I'm afraid!' (Transform into assertive sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
They ______________ listen to the old woman and nearly knocked her off her feet.
Walk carefully. (Transform into Negative sentence)
_____________________________________________________________________
Their mothers had dressed them both in newer frocks. (Rectify the error)
_____________________________________________________________________

II The words given below have been formed as a result of derivation. Pick out the
prefix/suffix and describe the transformation the first one has been done for you:
Example:
Smuggler = -r (Suffix) Verb into Noun
Prefix/Suffix Transformation
1. Bigger ___________________________ ________________________________
2. Finery ___________________________ ________________________________
3. Frightened ______________________ ______________________________
4. Carefully _________________________ ________________________________
5. dirty ____________________________ ________________________________
6. playing __________________________ ________________________________

III. The following words are compound words. Analyze the structure of the these words:
Homestead = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
Farmyard = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________
Grandmother = ____________ + _________ Possible plural = __________________
themselves = ____________ + __________ Possible plural = __________________

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Writing Skill

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LECTURE – 4
Text Based Questions
Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to
America but to the entire world.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___
Q2. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Do you find similarity with the
dream of Mahatma Gandhi.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___
Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___
Q4. What is your dream for your self and your country
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___

Q5. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________

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Q6. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]


Beautifully[adverb]
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________
____________ ____________ __________ ____________

Q7. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

Q8. Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for
practice) __ __ __ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Q 9. In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place


Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________
Q10. Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column
with the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate
sequence of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so
forth. No word can be repeated in any column.

3-letter adjectives 5-letter verbs 3-letter verbs 5-letter


adjectives

_____________________ ___________________ ________________


_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
______________

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LECTURE – 8
Whisper of Aids' – Mary Fisher
Q1. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race,
gender, country , or region but looms large.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Q2. Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

Vocabulary exercises based on text:

1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.


Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a
short story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

________ _____________ ____________ ___________


________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________
________ _____________ ____________ ___________

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2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________
_____________ ____________ ___________

3. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]


Beautifully[adverb]
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

4.. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

6. Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for
practice) __ __ __ __ __
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

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8. Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column
with the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate
sequence of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and
so forth. No word can be repeated in any column.

3-letter adjectives 5-letter verbs 3-letter verbs 5-letter


adjectives

_____________________ ___________________ ________________


_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________
_____________________ ___________________ ________________ ______________

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LECTURE - 10
Bollywood and Muslim Protagonits (Hindi films : Stereotyping Muslims ? )

By Syed Ali Mujtaba

Bollywood mirrors India, so goes the saying. If anyone wants to see the real face of India, all one
has to do is to randomly pick up few flicks of a decade and see the changes taking place in India
over a period of time. In this context the representation of Muslims is something interesting to
focus at as this succulently portray the changing face of the community since independence of
the country.

Muslim characters in the Bollywood movies have witnessed a sanguine change over the time
scale. From being Badshas, Nawabs and aristocrats they are reduced to tramps and gun totting
Jehadis on the Hindi screen now. The gradual but systematic erosion of the Muslim characters in
the Bollywood films silently tells the story how Muslims have fallen places in the Indian society.
Ironically some of the shining names of the community today are related with the Indian
entertainment industry.

The movies in fifties and sixties portrayed Muslim characters mostly as Kings, Nawabs or
Feudal lords. Films like Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal, Anarkali, Mughal-e- Azam, Mere
Mehboob, Bahu Begam, Chadvin Ka Chand were all mainstream movies. With refined language
and soul rendering music, these movies depicted the rich cultural tradition of the Indian Muslims.
Such movies scaled the charts of popularity with Muslims as central character testifying that the
entire nation accepted them as an integral part of the Indian society. The key note was that
Muslims were a thriving community in India.

However, as we move to the seventies, a distinct change in the characterization of the Muslims
started emerging in the Bollywood films. The characters though for some time continued to
remain aristocratic were pushed towards hedonist pursuits. The indolent Nawabs, chewing betel
nuts and splurging their money on the natuch girls characterized Bollywood Muslims. Mere
Huzoor, Pakeezah, Umaro Jaan are few movies for illustration.

In the mainstream cinema, two movies stand out in the seventies. They are Nikah and Bazzar. A
Muslim social melodrama, Nikah was rich in content but negative in message that Muslims male
divorce at will pronouncing the word "talaq" three times, leaving their spouses in a helpless
situation. Baazar on the other hand highlighted the real life story, how poverty stricken Muslim
parents in Hyderabad married off their under aged daughters to the old Arabs. Both these movies
had high dose of Muslim social milieu but subtly attempted to "differentiate" Muslims in the
Indian society.

The important development in the seventies was that Muslim characters were being pushed to the
margin in the three-hour time slot, claiming just fifteen minutes of fame on the silver screen.
Zohora Bai in Muqaddar Ka Sikander and Rahim Chacha in Sholay are classical examples.

During this genre, Muslim men were shown wearing Aligarh cut Sherwani, chewing betel nut

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and reciting Iqbal or Ghalib's poetry at the drop of their cap. The women would either dress in
Burqa (veil) or wear heavy Lehngas and Ghagras with jarring makeup on their faces. The old
ladies or Ammi jans were either seen offering prayers or chewing beetle nut with much aplomb.
The moment such caricatures appeared on the screen, the audiences knew that it’s time for a
Qawwali, Mujra or Ghazal. Muslim culture became a synonym with Qawwalis and Mujras.

Another interesting development in the late seventies and eighties was the portrayal of Mumbai's
underworld characters mostly Muslims in Bollywood films. Although, they did not bear Muslim
names on screen, the spectators knew who the protagonist was in the real life. The Muslim
characters since then also started becoming negative in Bollywood movies. Smugglers wearing
Arab robes puffing cigars, carrying briefcases have became a common sight since in the eighties.
This trend became more direct late eighties and nineties. Movies like Ghulam-e -Mustafa and
Angar could be cited as examples.

If Bollywood was to be believed normal Muslims were becoming extinct in India. With a cap
here and rosary there, Muslims at best could be accommodated for tokenism in Bollywood films.
No wonder they were shown offering prayers or singing Qawallis at religious tombs where hero
or heroine would come with their wish list.

Parallel to all this there was also some halfhearted attempts made to address the issue of Hindu-
Muslim communal divide through Bollywood films. The sixties song 'Tu Hindu banega na
Musalman Banega, Insan ki Aulad hai Insan Banega' was powerful narrative for such a theme.
Several movies that preached communal harmony like Iman Dharam and Krantiveer were spread
over the decades.

The movie Bombay in 1995 redefined the contours of the characterization of the Muslims in
Bollywood films. Set in the backdrop of 1993 Mumbai bomb blast, this movie had a strong
message for communal harmony even as it showed the protagonist a Muslim girl, eloping with a
Hindu boy. This was a watershed of sorts as it also depicted the changing face of the Indian
society.

Bollywood since the eighties also heralded a whole arsenal of unexamined prepositions about
Muslims and their religion. Islam means Jihad, Muslim means terrorists. Roja was the film of the
eighties that depicted the ideological conflict between the nationalist victim and the jehadi
terrorist. It opened the floodgate for a number of flicks much louder in such tone and tenor.
Sarfarosh, Maa Tujhe Salam, Pukar, Gadar, Fiza, Mission Kashmir, Border, LOC and the latest
Faana all form part of the long list of such Bollywood potpourris.

With the political agenda coloring Bolywood, the portrayal of the Muslims characters too
metamorphosed since the nineties. There developed a symbiotic relationship between Kashmir-
Pakistan and Muslims. The villain was shown mouthing slogans against India, fighting for the
cause of Kashmir. All the henchmen were gun totting bearded guys, wearing salwar-kamiz with a
scarf over their shoulders. They were shown with blood shot eyes bursting at the seams with
irrational anger. In contrast, the "boss" would be dressed in typical priest attire, a skullcap and a
rosary in hand. He would first mouth some Arabic words and then demonstrate his senseless itch
to destroy India. In an unflinching commitment to Jehad, he would soberly deliver the punch

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line; "Jehad Zaroori hai."

Initially the Muslim character played a secondary role. He used to sacrifice for the Hindi hero.
They gave the lesson of humanity and religious tolerance. Mani Ratnam’s Roza, actually,
brought a significant change in the traditional role of the Muslim hero and Muslim characters
began to be depicted as terrorists. It was Khalid Mohammed’s Fiza which presented the conflict
of Muslim youth in an appropriate context. Even in the rest of the movies written by Khalid
Mohammed viz. Mammo, Sardaari Begum and Zubaida, Muslim characters seemed realistic.

Here Chak de India and Dhokha cannot be left without consideration. For the first time, the
Muslim protagonists seem to be asserting themselves. Kabir of Chak de India makes the Indian
Women Hockey team awinner to prove himself. Zaid of Dhokha asserts himself by trying to
prove that he has no connections with Zihadis. He wants to be a part of the Mumbai investigation
bureau. Infact, Kabir Khan and Zahid Ahmad have been represented as modern Muslims.

In short, we can say, if Bollywood movies are to be believed, all Muslims are anti national and
their faith is an extremist ideology. Bollywood might be coming good in reaching out to the
world but when it comes to creating Muslims on screen its close to a dangerous time warp.
Cinematic subtleties, community's sensitivity and societal realism are all thrown overboard.

According to Bollywood movies that are currently made, the Indian Muslim doesn't go to office,
they don't smile and their career graph does not follow the usual arch of human endeavor. Such
factious images of Muslims inadvertently have started sounding real in the contemporary life.
Before such blinkered vision could sink into the people's mindset, this dangerous development
needs to be checked. More movies should be made with Muslim characters represented
positively. This would not only instil confidence in the Muslim community but also take the
entire nation on the path of peace and harmony.

If Hindi cinema means wholesome entertainment, it has to break away from its clichéd
presentations of Muslims on screen. Indian Muslims are normal human beings. They attend
office, listen to music, drink coffee, read newspapers, laugh and cut jokes. They are reasoning,
thinking, achieving and even failing human beings. They are as much a part of the mainstream
Indian society as anyone else. Their religious identity is only a part of their consciousness that
others come across only by their names. Their aspirations are the same as any average Indian.

However Bollywood seems to have limitations on churning out a few slick films with Muslim as
its central characters that has all the trappings of a blockbuster. The reasoning is even though
Muslim identity remains paramount in Indian cinema, no one likes to disturb the apple cart of set
formulas that Bollywood mindlessly follows while making movies. The political and social
context of the country too makes such an idea a risky proposition to sell.

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Questions based upon text and listening module :-

Q1: Write about the depiction of the Muslim characters in the recent movie you have watched in
about 120-150 words.

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

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Q2: After reading the article, do you feel that the portrayal of Muslim characters so far in
Bollywood cinema is justified?

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

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LECTURE – 17
Creative writing (based on themes of the movies / speeches )
Q1: Choose any one topic out of the following :
1. Write a paragraph on the following:

Dreams
Or
Independence
Or
Death
Or
A Street quarrel
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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2. Write a story beginning with the following sentence:


Once in my dream I saw that I was ……………………………………..

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3. Write an article on the role of Muslim hero in ‘New York’ or ‘My Name is Khan’ or
‘Shoot on Sight’

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Q4. If humanity has safeguarded itself from various adversities what according to
you has been the most vital element in giving the humanity strength to do so?

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Q5. Your petty differences lose importance when adversity envelops you
commonly. Justify.

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Q6. Summarize the theme of the speech (Independence Day / I had a Dream).
Compare it with another similar speech which you might be heard.

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Q7. Prepare a speech for a occasion when you are required to motivate a group of
people.

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Q8. Write words from the text that fit the description; however, you must start the
next word in the column with the last letter of the previous word. For example,
for “4- letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence of words would be grow, want, take,
etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No word can be repeated in
any column.
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LECTURE – 22, 27
Teacher to divide resources and exercises between two lectures
MEMO : -

Exercise

Instructions:
Match the items in the boxes on the left with the items on the right:
1. Drag the item you want to move to the correct table cell where you want the item to go.
The words will swap position.
2. If an item is in the right position, it will have a green background and a tick.
3. When all the table cells are green and have ticks, you have finished.

0
Score: / 1010

Items to
matchItems Move items into this column Items to moveItems to move
to match

a) I attach the doctor's note.

b) Thank you.

c) From: K.K. Wong, Sales

d) To: Julia Wong, Human Resources

e) Date: 1 January 2006

f) Please confirm that the cost of the


medicine is covered by the company
health scheme.

g) I was sick yesterday, and therefore I


couldn't come to work.

h) In order to receive sick pay, I need to


send in my doctor's note.

i) Subject: Sick leave certificate

j) Message:

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NOTICE :-

Practice Exercise
Exercise on notice writing sample

1. You are Amy Klan, the school Prefect. Put up a notice on the school bulletin board,
requesting the students to collect money for the Prime Minister's Relief Fund. Provide all
necessary details.(50 words)
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2. As part of the Blood Donation Camp in your area ,your school has been asked to
participate.

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Sample Notice writing

Put up a notice on the school bulletin board, asking the Group Captains and the Vice-captains to
meet at the auditorium to discuss about the Athletic Meet of the year with the Principal and the
Vice-Principal. You are George Page ,the School Prefect.(50 words) Sample ..

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Write a notice for the school notice board informing students about school inspection to be held
on June 1 st 2004 by the District Education Officer. The notice should be less than 30 words
asking for punctuality, cleanliness and discipline. 28.1.2..
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You are the secretary of the Staff Association of NGP Public School. You are planning a trip to
Brindavan Gardens, Mysore for the teachers. Write a notice giving details of the trip. Add any
other relevant information. Word limit is 35. 29.1.2004 STAFF PICNIC A picnic to Brinda..
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LECTURE – 25
Euthanasia
EXERCISE for Writing on Euthanasia
Q1: Suppose you are a doctor and a patient of yours is suffering severely for a long time. How
will you help him to relieve his pain?
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Q2: What can be the negative repercussions if Euthanasia is legalized?

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Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:

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Vocabulary based on text To be done in


speaking
WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 32
Revision

All Speeches / Essay / Stories

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