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Jack Lambeth, a master cabinetmaker, owned and operated a shop where he sold custom-made
cabinets. At the beginning of September, he had no outstanding debts, and the following
amounts were on his books:
1. Raw-materials inventory - $2,150
2. Supplies inventory - $620
3. Work-in-process inventory - $5,650
Job Materials Labor Overheads (50% of labor)
A-3 $750 $1,100 $550
A-4 $900 $650 $325
A-5 $325 $700 $350
Total $1,975 $2,450 $1,225 $5,650

4. All other assets as of September 1, $16,890

During the month, Lambeth’s woodworking crew finished jobs A-3, A-4 and A-6, but did not
finish A5. Job A-7 was started but not finished during September. Overhead costs (pertaining
primarily t equipment and shop depreciation, cleaning supplies, and insurance) were applied to
every job at the end of the month unless the job was finished during the month, in which case
overhead was applied when the job was finished.

During September, the following direct-materials and direct-labor were incurred:

Job Direct Materials Direct Labor
A-3 $280 $750
A-4 $350 $1300
A-5 $180 $550
A-6 $375 $490
A-7 $590 $370
Total $1,775 $3,460

Other important financial factors in September were as follows:

1. Raw materials costing $1,675 were purchased during the month.
2. Supplies costing $580 were purchased, of which $490 were used and thus transferred
to the manufacturing-overhead account.
3. Total increases to the labor-general-ledger account were $5,460 (apparently, $2,000 of
indirect-labor costs were charged).
4. General and administrative expenses for the month were $3,420.
5. Collections received from customers on jobs A-3, A-4, and A-6 amounted to $6,125,
$8,600 and $1,750, respectively, for a total of $16,475.
6. At the end of the month, Lambeth Custom Cabinets had no outstanding debts.
While Lambeth was reviewing the September data, he became concerned about the
manufacturing-overhead variance (MOV). Because he never wanted to lay off an employee,
the MOV was always large in months when business was slow. (Lambeth assigned idle workers
to general clean-up and repair work, and charged their wages to indirect labor). Of course,
Lambeth realized why the MOV was so large. What he was worried about, however was Mrs.
Mrs. Carter, a neighbour, had stopped by the shop one day in early September to get a price on
some cabinets she wanted built. Lambeth’s son, Jack Jr., spoke with her. Jack Jr. was working
in the shop while on summer vacation between his first and second year of graduate business
school. He studies Mrs. Carter’s plans, and estimated the cost of building her cabinets to be
$1,625. His job-estimation sheet showed the following:
Lumber $590
Finishing materials $75
Direct-labor cost $640
Overhead $320

When Jack Jr. quoted a price of $1,900 ($1,625 cost plus $275 profit) to Mrs. Carter, she said
that she could get the same thing built by Walworth Custom Kitchens for $1,500. Furthermore,
she informed him, “I would throw the dumb economics books away before I would pay a penny
more than $1,500 for book cabinets to store them”.
Jack Jr. simply told her that his best price was $1,900. He explained all about labor, materials,
profit, overhead, and competitive capitalism. In addition, he told Mrs. Carter that Walworth
could not make money on a $1,500 price, and if Walworth was really willing to build the
shelves for $1,500, she would be stealing from Mr. Walworth!
Mrs. Carter was very angry when she left. Jack Jr. later told his father the whole story, and
laughed as he said, “Heck, we can’t build stuff that costs $1,625 and sell it at a price of $1,600,
let alone $1,500, can we?” At the time, Lambeth did not think much about the incident, but he
began to wonder whether Jack Jr. had learned anything at graduate business school. Lambeth
became especially concerned when he saw Bob Walworth, who said, “Mrs. Carter saved me
last month”. Walworth had just delivered Mrs. Carter’s new cabinets, for which she paid
$1,500. Lambeth wondered who was right: Jack Jr. or Walworth?

1. Show, in a series of ledger accounts, the transactions for September (you may use the
T-accounts of Raw materials, Work-in-process, Finished Goods, Supplies Inventory,
Manufacturing Overhead, Expense & Income Summary, Labor and All Other Assets).
2. In the greatest detail possible, prepare balance sheets as of September 1 and September
30 and an income statement (do not consider taxes).
3. Should a job which costs $1625 be sold for $1500? How could such a sale have “saved”
Mrs. Carter of Walworth Kitchen Cabinets?