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144 Pages/Páginas

This book is one clear and easy-


to-follow guide not only for those
who love the aircraft of the First
World War. Many of the techniques
presented in this volume can also be
used in other modeling disciplines.
This is an essential resource for any
aviation modeler.
The First World War caused an advance
in unprecedented weapons: the armored
vehicle, the flamethrower, the tracer bul-
lets, the chemical weapons, the subma-
rine, the aviation... Definitely, this conflict
would change the way of understanding
the war.
It is for this reason that we wanted to
continue our collection dedicated to air-
craft modeling, Airplanes in Scale, with a
volume focused exclusively on the First
World War.
Through some of the most emblematic
airplanes of this era, several procedures
and techniques are taught by each author
thanks to many detailed photographs
with step-by-step captions. In this book
you will learn how to imitate wood, air-
craft fabric covering, WWI engines or
something very characteristic of these
airplanes, the different bracing systems.
In addition, as we close the book, we have
added two articles that show how to paint
two pilots.

www.euromodelismo.com • web@euromodelismo.com
Distribuido por:

What child has not questioned whom they love more, Dad or Mom?
Chief Editor
Perhaps whoever buys me more models was a tempting answer, the real-
Javier López de Anca
ity is that your love for both was equally strong. In the modelling world,
Original Idea and Art director we’ve been struggling with a similar dilemma for years: clean airplanes vs.
Mig Jiménez greasy and dirty airplanes. There have been many different trends over the
years, one constant is how modelers from all over the world have depicted
Editorial Management aircraft with varying degrees of wear, ilth, and deterioration within these
Carlos Cuesta pages. The core concept is to replicate the real aircraft, to make scale
versions that look as close as is possible to the reference photographs.
Editorial Coordination
We know that the degree of weathering on aircraft is a controversial subject, the debate over pristine
Iñaki Cantalapiedra
inishes versus realistic levels of grease and dirt occasionally causes heated debates in modelling circles.
Cover When you have the plane lawlessly assembled with perfectly straight panel lines and accurate riveting, you
Antonio Alonso must complete the harrowing task of adding camoulage, markings, and accumulations of leaked grease,
Layout oil, dust, and dirt to the appropriate areas. You are alone with the model to decide if you should apply a
Jorge Porto wash, use a ilter, and how to utilize pigments. All the while the plane sits in front of you in the unrealistic
and toy like state of assembled bare plastic.
Article Assistant
It is only by practicing your craft that you will master the techniques used to paint and weather aircraft to
Iain Hamilton
the degree you have chosen. Of course aircraft are not as ilthy as tanks but that doesn’t mean that they
should be clean. The aging of your car is a real time example. This not only includes the scrapes, parking
Akatsiya Photographer
José Irún lot dings, and messy kids. There are likely remains of oil, mud, dust, grime, and splashes to be found. Now
imagine how a transport plane deployed in the desert or a ighter on a primitive airstrip would accumulate
Special thanks layers of appearance altering effects.
Elizabeth Wiese Abandon your fears fellow modelers, you are not alone in waxing philosophical about the premise our
Styling Assistant magazine, weathering aircraft. Think about what the subject of your model has endured from the airstrips
Mila Gómez
it lies from, what conlicts it has served in, and maintenance record. After studying reference photos of
the inal appearance, throw yourself into the fulilling painting and weathering stages of aircraft modelling
Akatsiya
with conidence and zeal. The journey from inspiration to a dynamic and realistic inal result is easier and
Bárbara A.
quicker than you think.
Collaborators
Angel Exposito By Javier López de Anca
Julio Fuente
Jamie Haggo
Oto Drobik
Ricardo Batista
Yang Yu Pei

Translation
Marta Ramírez Gómez

The Weathering Aircraft by


AMMO of Mig Jiménez

www.theweatheringaircraft.com
info@migjimenez.com
twa@migjimenez.com
Quarterly Magazine

DL NA 251-2016
ISSN 2445-1177
November 2019
ÍNDEX

A-7H CORSAIR II P-47D “HAD IT” THUNDERBOLT


pag. 10 pag. 18

A-10 THUNDERBOLT II MIG-29 SMT


pag. 28 pag. 38

COLONIAL VIPER II BRISTOL BEAUFIGHTER TF.MK X


pag. 48 pag. 54
Grease
and Dirt

The key to knowing how, when, and where to imitate staining


and dirt on each aircraft lies in knowing how to interpret the
reference photographs. All modelers currently have a multitude
of sources at their disposal thanks to various publications and
the Internet, so there are no excuses for lazy modelling.
The presence of dirt and deterioration on aircraft has changed
throughout the history of aviation and aircraft design. During
the dawn of maned light, grease and dirt was more evident
in very speciic areas surrounding the engine. But as aircraft
designs became increasingly complex and modern, the presence
of staining became a common element on all aircraft. The
increase in hydraulic systems, the complexity of the engines, and
the extreme demands placed on an aircraft leave effects that
contribute to the unique appearance of each example. Most are
subjected to temperature extremes, excessive friction, fatigue
from high G loads, high speed, and the duress of altitude with
each contributing to grease, dirt, and discolouration becoming a
primary feature of most aircraft. In some cases, the weathering is
as characteristic as an aircraft’s silhouette.
As a modeller, you must always bear in mind that while some
weathering aspects are common to all aircraft, each subject is
unique. The general appearance depends on the length of time it
has been in service, the theatres of operation it has been deployed
to, the maintenance it has received, and whether it has served in
times of peace or war. Once you are clear as to what you intend to
do, it is essential that you know the techniques and products you
will use to apply the desired inal result. You have a wide range
of options at your disposal, but not all of them are adequate or

6 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


adapted to your way of working. That is why this issue highlights
various alternatives and interchangeable options.
Not all stains created by grease and dirt appear the same. For
example, interior areas housing the engines typically exhibit
traces of luids or fuel, while grease and staining usually
concentrates around moving parts such as laps, rudders, and air
brakes. The shape and surface features of a plane are equally
important as the staining is captured in a very unique way based
on the airlow speciic to each design, as well as the speed
at which it moves, and whether it is cleaned upon landing or
allowed to accumulate over time. On the other hand, dirt can
also originate from external factors such as handling by the
ground crew and the airield’s natural environment.
Finally, we must take into account some exceptions that
necessitate caution when adding dirt and weathering to a model.
There are factors that prevent you from applying excessive effects
and even on occasion may cause speciic effects to be omitted
completely. This is typically the case with exhibition planes such
as acrobatic squadrons and the famous stealth designs which
demand extreme levels of care to maintain the effectiveness of
the radar diffusing or absorbing exterior paint.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 7


8 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT
THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 9
A-7H
Corsair II
The A-7H was a version of Corsair II built for the Elliniki
Aeroporia known as the Hellenic Air Force. This variant is very
similar to those lown by the U.S. During the 70’s, several Greek
units received these ighters destined to replace the obsolete
F-84F Thunderstreak irst and later the F-104G Starighters
withdrawn from service. Although the primary role of the
Greek A-7 was ground attack, they were also tasked with
air defence as a secondary purpose and could carry a pair of
Sidewinder missiles on the launch rails located on the sides of
the fuselage.

Based on the photo reference material used for this project,


I found that these aircraft did not stand out for their general
cleanliness or pristine appearance, it is precisely this degree of
aging and dirt that inspired me to recreate the dynamic inish
on this aircraft.

Ángel Expósito

10 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


Hasegawa 1/48

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 11


1 First the wheel wells and cabin were
masked before airbrushing the lower
areas with black to establish a foundation
for an extreme level of grime.

2 Using Grey (H-311) the highlights were drawn


without losing the black as a shadow.

3 A few drops of white were added to


lighten the colour for marking the panel
lines and rivets.

4 For the upper surfaces, the shading


was carefully added without
completely covering the surfaces.

5 I began with the lightest shade using


Tan (H-310) applied without completely
covering and eliminating the previous
work.

12 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


6 To begin the chipping process, table salt
was afixed to the surface with a little
water. Once dry, the surface was painted
using the previously mixed Tan lightened
with white.

7 The salt was removed with a hard brush and the panel lines
retraced with a darker brown such as Cocoa Brown (H-17).

8 With the same colour slightly lightened with white,


the irst dirt and discolouration effects were applied
on the Tan surfaces.

9 Bluetac was used to outline the camoulage pattern


and the Green FS34102 (H-303) surfaces were
airbrushed in light coats allowing the pre-shading to
inluence the base colour.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 13


10 11

10/11 Alclad II White Aluminium (ALC-106) was airbrushed on the


laps and the windscreen framing cabin to represent exposed
bare metal.

12 Using Heavy Chipping Effects A.MIG-2011 was applied to


the aluminium surfaces before airbrushing Green FS34079 (H-
309). Water was used to activate the chipping luid creating a
worn and chipped effect revealing the bare metal below.

13 The following layer of dirt staining was


applied using a liquid mask placed selectively
over some panel lines and panels.
Once dry, I apply the same green
tone used in the previous step
lightened with white.

14 Here you can see the aircraft once


all airbrush work was complete.

15 The fuel tanks accumulated a large amount of


grease which also traps dirt. They were varnishing
in gloss to prepare them for weathering.

14 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


16 Once dry, the oil and fuel stains were drawn with
Streaking Grime A.MIG-1203.

17 After varnishing in matt, small quantities of Oilbrusher


Starship Filth A.MIG-3513, Ochre A.MIG-3515, Dark
Brown A.MIG-3512, and Black A.MIG-3500 were
placed and dragged downward to create accumulations
of dirt mixed with fuel staining.

18 In order to increase the contrast of the dirt stained Corsair,


some areas and panels were slightly lightened.

19 A unique characteristic effect on this aircraft is the grease


leaks that accumulate in the rivets under the wings, easily and
accurately replicated using PLW Blue Black A.MIG-1617.

20 I continued to accentuate the stains made with dark colours using


lightened mixes. The most effective method is to work in one
area at a time while masking adjacent panels with post-it notes
to avoid over spray.
21 The next step was to reinforce all panel lines with PLW Blue
Black. The wash was generally applied to help simulate traces
of dirt.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 15


22 On the fuselage sides, small quantities of Black Oilbrusher were
applied around the removable access panels used for regular
service by ground crew.

23 This effect was applied with small dots placed with a brush, then
blurred and blended to produce the effect of the accumulation of
dirt produced by years of maintenance.

24

25

24 References show that the greatest amount of dirt accumulates on


the lowest areas of the fuselage. The Oilbrusher colours can be
blended with a dry brush or dampened with thinner for different
effects.

25 This is the result obtained by blending the colours. The process


can be repeated as many times as is necessary to achieve the
desired result.

16 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


26 Other remains of dirt that we can see in quite a few photographs of the
Greek Corsair are the remains of bird droppings on the tail. In this case I
used Oilbrusher White A.MIG-3501 to draw the vertical lines.

27 A key feature that tends to


accumulate large amounts of
grease are the landing gear bay
doors, easily replicated by simply
using Oilbrusher colours blended
according to references.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 17


P-47D “Had it ”
Thunderbolt
Tamiya 1/48

Ricardo Batista

18 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


Nicknamed the “jug” for its robust propor-
tions and construction, the Republic P-47D
Thunderbolt was one of the most impor-
tant combat aircraft ielded by the United
States during World War II. Manufactured
between 1941 and 1945, it was an aircraft
that stood out as much for escorting bomb-
ers as for ground attack in both the Paciic
and European theatres of operations. Some
12,602 units were produced, far more than
any other U.S. ighter of the war.

In Europe the P-47 was replaced as a long-


range ighter escort by the North American
P-51 Mustang, the Thunderbolt would serve
until the end of the war with 3,752 aerial
victories over the course of 746,000 missions of every type with 2,449 P-47s lost in combat. At the end of the
conlict, the 56th Fighter Group was the only Fighter Group in the 8th Air Force using this aircraft in preference
to the P-51s.

Today, its equivalent would be the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, with which it shares the moniker in
honour of the legendary durability and rugged versatility of the P-47.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 19


1 After having applied the metallic base with Alclad colours
and AMMO acrylics, the decals were placed and two thin
layers of Aqua Gloss A.MIG-8212 were airbrushed with
an approximate pressure of 1.2 bar and left to dry for 1
hour between each layer.

2 Using the Synthetic Liner Brush A.MIG-8590 and the PLW


colour Blue Black A.MIG-1617 all of the upper surfaces of
the plane received a wash focused on panel lines and rivets.
Although the focus is the recessed details, subtle surface
staining can provide interesting effects in the end.

3 When the diluent has evaporated, remove the excess with


a cotton swab using soft passes in the direction of airlow.
If necessary, you can moisten it with Enamel Odourless
Thinner A.MIG-2019 for complete removal.

4 On the blue of the roundels, I used Oilbrusher White A.MIG-3501


highly diluted and applied using the same technique.

3 4

5 The washes on the lower


surfaces were applied using the
same colours with the addition
of Deep Brown A.MIG-1618
added to the areas closest to the
wing root and the landing gear
bays to create dirt effects. With
Oilbrusher Black A.MIG-3500
diluted with thinner, I added a
feeling of depth to seems of the
moving parts.

20 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


6/7/8 To create subtle highlights and shadows on speciic panels of the aircrafts bare metal skin, I used the Oilbrusher colour Gun Metal
A.MIG-3535, Silver A.MIG-3538, and Aluminium A.MIG-3537 by depositing a small amount in the desired area and blending the
colours with a clean and dry brush.

9/10 To create dirt effects and contrasts on the anti-relective panel, I used a lat and dry brush to create tonal variation. For the highlights, Yellow
A.MIG-3502, White A.MIG-3501, and Olive Green A.MIG-3505 were used, While Black A.MIG-3500, Dark Green A.MIG-3507, and
Starship Filth A.MIG-3513 were used for the shadows.

11 12 13

11 A dynamic and realistic effect easily reproduced are heat stains on fuselage metals, as
is a characteristic of the P-47’s turbocharger. This prominent feature was irst painted
using acrylic colour Silver A.MIG-0195 to which I added diluted drops of Marine Blue
A.MIG-0123.

12 Closest to the rear lip, I added Brass A.MIG-0197 as shown.

13 I added some Red Leather A.MIG-0133 for stronger contrast, using a ilter-like
thinner, I painted the area closest to the trailing edge.

14 Finally, I added Satin Black A.MIG-0032 to the previous mixture and darkened the
trailing edge to apply a burnt appearance. Once the process was inished, the entire
plane was sealed and protected with a coat of Aqua Gloss varnish A.MIG-8212.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 21


15 16

17

15 A pattern of dirt streaking and general wear


was applied by splashing Blue Black Panel
Line Wash lightly diluted with thinner.

16/17 The colour Deep Brown A.MIG-1616 was


added to the areas closest to the wing root
and landing gear bays.

18

19

18 Another characteristic effect of this aircraft is the exhaust


location and staining patern. To represent this effect accurately,
irst a line was drawn along the length of the underside with Red
Brown (XF-64) highly diluted with lacquer thinner and sprayed at
an approximate pressure of 0.5 bar.

19 Then using Satin Black (X-18), I painted a line half the width and
slightly shorter inside of the stain leaving the previous red brown
at the edges.

20 To inish the effect, Medium Grey (XF-20) was added to the


beginning of the stain creating a burnt effect.

22 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


21 22

21 Considerable grease stains accumulate around the landing


gear, additionally dust typically adheres to the staining. To
represent this effect, I irst used Oilbrusher colour Summer
Soil A.MIG-3534. The colour was spread and diffused
using Enamel Odourless Thinner. Once the thinner had
evaporated, the effect was blended with a dry brush.

22 After one hour, I continued to add to the effect with


small quantities of Earth A.MIG-3514 without covering it
completely. For this layer, the effect was blended dry.

23 After allowing the previous steps to dry, the colour Dark


Mud A.MIG-3508 was added using the same technique
in the same way to the areas where more earth coloured
staining accumulated per references.

24

25

26
24 The rear wheel also kicked up a considerable amount of
dust and dirt that accumulated on the bottom of the tail
and vertical stabilizer. This effect was added using the
same techniques used for the previous steps.

25 By using both Kursk Soil A.MIG-1400, and Earth


26 A.MIG-1403 combined with Streaking Grime
A.MIG-1203, I applied a combination of splashes with a
hard bristle brush and a toothpick to the areas where the
wheels projected the most dirt.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 23


27 The next step will be to make trails of dirt dragged by the slip 28 I let it dry for 15 minutes before blurring the line with a saw-shaped
stream with the Streaking Brusher Grime A.MIG-1253, Medium brush moistened with thinner. Before blurring, individual lines
Brown A.MIG-1250, and Red Brown A.MIG-1250 beginning by were reshaped and adjusted with a ine brush. At the same time, I
drawing lines of different sizes with the products built in applicator. intensiied a select few lines with watercolor pencils.

29 The staining along the fuselage was applied using the


same techniques and several products: Fuel Stains
A.MIG-1409, Winter Grime A.MIG-1255, Starship Gri-
me A.MIG-1259, Medium Brown A.MIG-1250, Cold
Dirty Grey A.MIG-1251, Grime A.MIG-1251, Grime
A.MIG-1255, Warm Dirty Grey A.MIG-1257, Streaking
Gray for US Modern Vehicles A.MIG-1207, Summer
Soil A.MIG-3534, Starship Filth A.MIG-3513, and Black
A.MIG-3500. I also combined Fuel Stains A.MIG-1409
with Black pigment A.MIG-3001 to simulate burnt oil resi-
due for the areas closest to the engine and exhaust ports.

30 By mixing the Oilbrusher colour Black A.MIG-3500 and


Dark Mud A.MIG-3508, I accentuated the dirt on the
ends of the laps using a lat brush and the dry brush
technique.

31 The smoke staining from the machine gun barrels were


made by drawing lines with Oilbrusher Black and blending
them dry.
30

31
32 The various layers and effects
may seem laborious, but the
end result is worth it.

24 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


33 34

35 36

33 I begin to work on the accumulated grease and dirt staining 34 With a brush dampened in Enamel Odourless Thinner, the
on the upper surfaces focusing on the crew passage and effect was softened and blended with a clean and dry brush. The
maintenance areas. With Oilbrusher Summer Soil, lines were excess was removed with a makeup sponge dampened in the
drawn and staining applied directly with the built-in brush. same thinner.

35 The process was repeated by again using the versatile Oilbrusher 36 To inish the effect, I mixed Oilbrusher Dark Mud and Black to
colour Earth over the previously applied staining without covering accentuate the shadows on the panel lines, rivets, and wing root.
them completely.

37 View of the inished surfaces after working with the Oilbrusher 38 For the upper surfaces of the laps, a mix of Streaking Brusher Winter
colours. The remains of dirt are very convincing. Grime was used for the red stripe, both Starship Grime and Warm
Dirty Grey for the wings and laps, with Medium Brown and Gri-
me used for the dusty areas and Red Brown in the panel lines.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 25


39 40

41 42

39 Since the leading edge of the wings had become too clean, I decided
to soil it with Starship Filth applied to the panel lines and rivets.
43

40 Although the Oilbrusher product dries quickly, wait a few minutes


for the diluent to evaporate before blending the effect with a clean
and dry brush. I cleaned the area between each row of rivets using
a makeup sponge.

41 In order to imitate the dirt produced by the engine when the


ventilation cowling laps are opened, random small quantities of
Oilbrusher Black and Dark Mud were applied and blended with
a dry brush.

42 From the cockpit area forward to the


engine cowling, dirt staining was made
by focusing on panel line joints and rivet
lines, as well as the areas used to the
cockpit. In this case, I used the colour
Oilbrusher Starship Filth to draw the
stain with and a clean dry brush to blur
the staining.

43 For the engine exhaust ports located on


the lower fuselage, soft passes with Black
pigment were used to draw straight lines
of varying length.

44 For the critically important authentic


grease stains, Fresh Engine Oil
A.MIG-1408 was mixed with Metal Slag
pigment A.MIG-3020 and slightly diluted.
The mottling was applied with a ine
brush onto the panels near the engine.

26 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


45 For the external fuel tank, the
same colours and techniques
used for the bottom of the
aircraft were used for a cohesive
inish.

46 Using a black watercolor


pencil, I imitate staining
47 Landing gear covers also accu-
on the air low cowling
mulate a noticeable amount of
laps and engine cowling
dirt. For this example, the effect
panels.
was accurately recreated with
the pigments Europe Earth
A.MIG-3004, Russian Earth
A.MIG-3014, and Metal Slag
A.MIG-3020. Soft dirt stain-
ing and dust was applied with
Oilbrusher Summer Soil. Ad-
ditional grease staining was
placed with Starship Filth and
Fresh Engine Oil per refer-
ences.

48 All of the effects of grease


and dirt that I represented on
the model were sealed and
protected by airbrushing a
couple of layers of Alclad’s
Klear Kote Semi-Matte. Once
dry, matt Marabou varnish was
applied to the anti-relective
panel for the correct contrast
with the adjacent bare metal.
THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 27
A-10
Thunderbolt II

Julio Fuente Díaz

28 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


The Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is an aircraft with a service
history that lends itself to working with the most extreme wear and
grime. The references used depict an aircraft from the United States
Air National Guard 82-0659, 103rd Fighter Squadron. Further reseach
allowed me to see how many A-10s are discoloured and stained
across the sides of the fuselage and the undersides. In fact, I found
one in particular in which the belly appeared to be completely black
in stark contrast with the light grey of the base colour.

Although some modelers may ind the inal result exaggerated and
call me a heretic, I have tried to be as faithful as possible to reality.
And all you have to do is search for photographs on the Internet
to see that once again, extremes in reality surpass the level of
weathering some incorrectly assume is iction.

Hobby Boss 1/48

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 29


1 I started with a foundation layer of Aluminium A.MIG-8201 to check the
seams and paint the visible engine intakes.

2 Once the previous step had dried, One Shot Oxide Primer
A.MIG-2026 was applied. Planing ahead is critical at this
stage, the areas to be chipped were airbrushed in NATO
Black (XF-69) followed by two thorough layers of Heavy
Chipping Effects A.MIG-2011.

3 The following base coat was airbrushed using Grey FS36375 (H308). The previously
applied chipping luid was activated using water to create a worn and chipped effect.

4 The second tone was added using Grey FS36320


(H307) added to the upper wings, the top of the engine
nacelles, and the front of the fuselage.

5 The versatile Heavy Chipping Effects were used to mimic the


irst layer of grease and dirt. First the panel lines to remain in
light grey were masked with 0.4mm Aizu tape as shown in the
reference photos.

6 A mixture of NATO Black and German Grey (XF-63) was airbrushed


over the area. After 5 minutes, a wet brush was passed over the surface
moving from the nose towards the tail.

30 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


7 Although it’s an interesting effect and a good base, it
still didn’t have the necessary dirt and discolouration. An
8 additional layer was added to the effect by airbrushing
Holbein’s black and sepia inks.

9 To avoid the repetition of using the same effects in the upper surfaces,
a different method was used starting by lightening the centre of each
panel by adding white to the base colour.

10 All of the panel lines and details were shaded using highly diluted
black. This mixture can also be used to apply some subtle lines that
imitate dirt remains in laps and ailerons.

11 A random mottled appearance and discolouration were applied


with the aid of photo-etched masking.

12 Amazing results were created by simply placing the mask and


airbrushing the altered colour. Light and subtle effects can be
created by distancing the mask from the surface, while moving
closer to the surface creates bolder high contrast effects

13 Here you can see the light grey mottled effect. It is important to
keep the effect subtle and in scale by working with thin layers for
maximum control.

12

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 31


14 15

14 It is possible to rectify errors by applying the base colour over


the area with the very diluted paint.

15 A homemade technique used to make other types of staining


is to use a scouring pad by opening the weave so that the
paint passes through it. In this case, a highly diluted black was
airbrush to create an irregular pattern.

16 You can play with the intensity of the paint to alter the effects,
move the template slightly and apply the colour again to blur
the edges, or insist on a speciic area to imitate accumulations
of stains.

17 It is important not to use this effect in any random


place, but rather only where it is observed in the real
photographs.

18 In addition to deining the panel lines, PLW Blue Black A.MIG-1617 and Deep
Grey A.MIG-1602 will also leave small traces of dirt when removed by blending.

19 After 15 minutes of dry time, a tissue was used to rub the surface in the
20 direction of the air low.

32 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


21 22

21 On the lower part of the fuselage


darkened by staining in previous steps,
the PLW Medium Grey A.MIG-1601
was used for contrast.

22 Another area that suffers the


continuous manipulation of the crew
is the engine nacelles and surrounding
surfaces where staining, grease, and
dirt accumulate.

23 The next step was to protect the


effects applied so far with a layer of
A.MIG-2051 applied in a few thin
layers.

24 The next step was to reproduce grease


stains on speciic areas such as the
undercarriage housings. I started by
applying Streaking Grime A.MIG-1203
directly from the bottle, followed by
Fresh Engine Oil A.MIG-1408 used to
imitate splashes by rubbing the brush
against a stick.

25 With a lat brush dampened in Enamel


Odourless Thinner A.MIG-2019,
a vertical stippling motion was used
perpendicular to the surface to blur the
stain.

26 Reference photos reveal dirt residue


between the armament pylons which I
imitated with small traces of Oilbrusher
Medium Grey A.MIG-3509 and
Starship Filth A.MIG-3513, as well
as Streakingbrusher Starship Grime
A.MIG-1259 and Warm Dirty Grey
A.MIG-1257.

27 Then I dragged the colours and blended


them with a saw brush dampened with
thinner.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 33


28 29 30

28 To make more localised grease staining and residue, toasted


Sienna earth watercolour markers from Winsor & Newton were
used.

29 The same saw brush was used to drag them, this time slightly
dampened in water.

30 I increased the diversity and colours of the staining by using other


greyish toned watercolour markers from the Koi brand.

31 Different patterns can be drawn by pointing or blurring the stains


made with the marker back towards the wings trailing edge.

32 Working with Oilbrusher colours, Streakingbrushers, and


markers make it possible to increase the variety of effects and
avoid the monotony of any one application method.

33 The use felt-tip pens was also effective on the upper area to
intensify select panel lines. This product can be dragged using a
dry brush, which leaves a few subtly visible traces.

34 Once I was satisied with all combined layers of staining, I


varnished the entire aircraft in mate before removing the masking.

33

34

34 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


35 Tonal variation was added across the upper surfaces using small amounts of Oilbrusher
colours White A.MIG-3501, Dark Brown A.MIG-3512, Light Flesh A.MIG-3519, Dusty
Earth A.MIG-3523, and Streaking Brusher colour Grime A.MIG-1253.

36 The colours were dragged and blended again using the saw-shaped brush by always
following the direction of the air low for a realistic result.

37 Here you can see the inal result of each layer of effects combined for the inal result.
Differing types of effects were added to each area of the aircraft to provide realistic
variation. Any tide marks or remnants of thinner can easily be blended into the inish
using a coat of matt varnish.

36

37

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 35


36 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT
MiG-29
SMT Oto Drobik

38 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


GWH 1/48

The MiG-29 is an aircraft often seen with large amounts of wear and grime, including loss of
hydraulic luids and grease. The effects are especially signiicant on the lower surfaces. For this
example, I chose the SMT version, which is not very well known but stands out for having very
worn and dirty examples.

Although the Great Wall Hobby model is generally a good example, I decided to add the Aires
resin seat and some Eduard photo-etch detail. This is the irst model on which I have used the
Oilbrushers so intensely, and I am pleased with the ease of use and inal results. Here you can see
the process and the cumulative result of the effects applied in layers.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 39


1 The MiG-29 is an aircraft often seen full of stains and obvious signs of
use. That’s why I decided to start imitating this from the airbrush painting
phase. To have a good base, I primed the model with Mr. Finishing Surfacer
1500 Black.

2 The painting began with the lighter fuselage staining using


a mixture of Off White (C69) and Light Gray FS36495
(C338) in equal parts. The colour was applied irregularly to
simulate discolouration from the beginning.

3 After masking, I prepared another mixture this time using Grey FS36375
(C308) and Light Grey FS36495.

4 After reviewing the available documentation, I found that


this surface appeared rather discoloured which was imitated
by applying a small cloud pattern.

5 The darkest grey was obtained by mixing 80% Dark Sea


Grey (C331) and 20% Light Grey FS36495 (C338).

6 This is the result after removing the masks.

40 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


7 In some photographs the upper part of the
fuselage and the centre of the wings are
very dirty as well as discoloured. This effect
was created by pushing the highlights
even more.

8 Before applying the decals and applying


the dirt using speciic products, I varnished
all surfaces with Mr.Paint Super Clear
(MRP-48).

9 All panel lines were emphasized


with Blue Grey A.MIG-1613
enamel, while also adding some
dirt to the base paint.

The MiG-29 is an ideal subject for using Oilbrushers. I deposited


10
small dots of colour to the central upper fuselage with Starship
Filth A.MIG-3513 and White A.MIG-3501, the later more
heavily concentrated on the raised spine.

With an old brush slightly dampened with thinner, the Oilbrusher


11 colours were blended by moving the brush perpendicular to the surface.

The effect was dragged downward on vertical surfaces from the


12
highest points with a lat brush.

11

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 41


The joint between the fuselage and the
13
13 horizontal surfaces was darkened as this
is an area where a lot of dirt accumulated.
I reached again for the Starship Filth and
blended the colour leaving the largest
accumulation in the joint.

To increase the contrast, I repeated the


14
process using Oilbrusher White on the
top of the spine, this time leaving small
clouds of lighter discolouration.

Before the Oilbrusher has time to dry, I


14 15 15 spread the product without removing it
using a cotton swab.

I repeated the same process on the


16
area surrounding the cockpit. By
studying reference photos, I could see
that the discoloration in this area was
more evident, so I worked mainly with
Oilbrusher White.

I also used the Starship Filth colour


17
to highlight the actuators on moving
16 17 surfaces, where it is common to see
accumulations of grease residue.

The bottom of the vertical stabilizer


18 is another area that accumulates
noticeable amounts of dirt. In this case,
I dragged the Oilbrusher from top to
bottom with a lat brush.

The result must be subtle, especially


19
when working on light colours.

18

42 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


Work continued with the same tone, creating the accumulation Be sure to not overlook the inner surface of both sides.
20 21
of dirt within the joint with the fuselage by following the same
steps previously shown.

References show that this area is quite dirty, so I insisted on By following the panel lines and the hinges, I gradually blurred the
22 working with the Oilbrushers by depositing small points of the
23
effects with a brush slightly dampened in thinner while trying to
product. remove the least amount possible from the seams.

24 25

Continué con el mismo tono trabajando la acumulación de


suciedad en el encastre de la deriva con el fuselaje, siempre
siguiendo los mismos pasos.

No debemos olvidar la cara interna de ambas derivas.

Using the same stained brush used for the previous effect, I worked the
24 fuselage between both engines.

As can be seen in this photograph, I was looking for a rather exaggerated


25 effect. Once this area was inished, I refocused on the wings using both the
previous colour and white.

It was necessary to create variation amongst the different areas


26 of the fuselage. You can see the difference between the vertical
stabilizers which tend to accumulate a lot of grease and dirt, and
the wings which are discoloured but generally cleaner.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 43


27

28
29
To create a sheen and mimic fresh grease, I applied Fresh
27
Engine Oil A.MIG-1408 to the actuators of the moving
28 parts.

When the upper surfaces were inished, work proceeded


29 on the lower zones. In this case I used the same technique
with only Starship Filth.

I spread the Oilbrusher with a soft, lat brush in the


30 direction of the air low, depositing a trail of dirt.

30

Larger accumulations can be added around the lap


31
actuators.

I drew the remains of hydraulic luid staining on the


32 hinges and actuators of the laps. It is necessary to
maintain the correct scale with all effects.

31

32

44 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


33 34

35 36

Another place where this type of staining tends to


37 33 accumulate in smaller quantities on this aircraft is the
lower surface of the laps.

To replicate this aspect, the surface was rubbed in the


34
direction of airlow with a cotton swab dampened with
thinner.

The area behind the undercarriage wells is often


35
incredibly dirty on the MiG-29. I started by tapping the
Oilbrusher Starship Filth on the surface.

This time I replaced the brush with


38 36 the cotton swab to blend the dots
of Oilbrusher colour. This method
effectively leaves more product on
the surface for a stronger effect.

Obviously, this effect must be added


37 to both sides.

For the next layer of effects, I


38 switched to the airbrush for a
particularly dirty area of the Fulcrum.
I applied ilter thin and ine strokes
using very diluted black.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 45


As is logical, the surface between both engines also As with previous steps, I blended the Oilbrusher using a
39 40
accumulates a large amount of staining which was cotton swab by moving in the direction of the air low.
accurately recreated with Oilbrusher.

41 42

Of all the lower surfaces, the dirtiest is typically


41
the fairing that covers each of the two
turbines. Recreating this heavy weathering
42 began with Oilbrusher Black which was
blended by moving in the direction of the slip
stream towards the trailing edge.

To enhance the appearance of these surfaces, I


43
traced along the panel lines using a watercolour
pencil by drawing small strokes.

Here you can see the combined appearance


44
of the layers applied so far. It is important to
recognize how the weathering work evolves to
achieve balanced effects.

46 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


45 46

Speciic panels of the MiG-29 tend to exhibit more


45
exaggerated grease stains produced by the drainage. The
panels of both engine nacelles are one such example, Fresh
Engine Oil perfectly imitates this when applied directly with
the cotton swab.

It is typically necessary to intensify the effect at the source of


46
the stain, for this task I added subtle touches with Starship
Filth which was then blended by moving in the direction of
47
the airlow.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 47


Colonial
ViperII

The twelve human tribes left Kobol millennia ago, settling on different planets of the Cyrannus galaxy. These were good
times, when civilization prospered to previously unimaginable heights. But its growth attracted the attention of the Cylon
empire, an imperialist and expansive race of robots that endlessly travelled through space moving from one conquest to the
next. An unforeseen nuclear attack destroyed the twelve colonies of Kobol, only those humans that managed to take off
during the attack or who were in space at the time managed to survive. Humanity had been reduced to an itinerant leet,
wandering through the universe protected by the Battlestar Galactica under the directive of Commander Adama, and the
famous colonial Vipers.

48 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


Yang Yu Pei

Revell 1/32

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 49


1 Before the painting began, an electric drill was used to simulate
impact damage.

2 Shading will help to imitate dirt on


the fuselage, but you must also
use different colours randomly.
In this case Warhead Metallic
Blue A.MIG-0196, Grey Blue
A.MIG-0210, Warm Sand Yellow
A.MIG-0061, and Matt Black
A.MIG-0046 were used.

3 Without eliminating the previous


effects, a semi-transparent coat
of Satin White A.MIG-0047 was
airbrushed in thin transparent layers.

4 To increase the accumulations


of dirt on select speciic areas,
very diluted Gray A.MIG-0059
was carefully applied.

5 The red striped markings were masked


off and a couple of layers of Heavy
Chipping Effects A.MIG-2011 was
applied.

50 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


6 To represent the bleached paint, the stripe was only
partially covered with Red A.MIG-0049. To represent
dirt, some areas were shaded with Crystal Black Blue
transparent acrylic A.MIG-0099.

7 A touch of Yellow A.MIG-0048 was added to the red


for highlighting the stripes.

8 The area was then moistened with water to activate the Chipping Fluid
below, an old brush and the tips of some tweezers were then used to draw
scratches and chips on the red strip.

9 After placing the decals, the PLW Deep Brown A.MIG-1618 and Dark
Sea Blue A.MIG-1603 served to highlight all the panels and create subtle
dirt effects.

10 For all of the remaining white surfaces, paint chips were added with a ine
tipped brush and the colour Chipping A.MIG-0044.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 51


11 The staining is not only due to
the accumulation of dirt, the
impacts received in combat
also offer the opportunity to
add dynamic effects. I began
by drawing a soft shadow with
the Chipping colour subtly
applied with an airbrush,
followed by a few light brush
strokes using AMMO’s acrylic
METAL colour range.

12 The effect was accentu-


ated with a very diluted
Matt Black. Care was
taken to avoid fowling the
surrounding areas and to
keep the effects realistic
by keeping them in scale.

13
13 An altogether different type of staining is produced by extreme
heat from the engines. The foundation for the patina of burnt
metals was applied using Old Brass A.MIG-0190.

14 Various translucent layers of metallic blue can be used


to alter the base colour such as Bluish Titanium and
Warhead Metallic Blue.

15 However, the dirt inside the engines usually takes on


a yellowish grey tone that was accurately depicted by
mixing Warm Sand Yellow and Grey highly diluted.
14
16 The most dynamic and high contrast staining is the carbon
deposits on the exhaust, accurately imitated by airbrushing
Matt Black on the trailing edge with a soft transition.

15

16

52 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 53
Bristol Bea
Be
TF.Mk X

The Royal Air Force in the Second World War had an


important strategic maritime attack role hunting Axis
shipping in the North Sea and running the gauntlet between
Denmark, Germany and Sweden. With the Royal Navy focussing
on the North Atlantic and Arctic convoys, it fell to the Beauighters of
Coastal Command to carry out these shipping strikes. Formed in Wings
of 3-4 squadrons these aeroplanes constantly attacked shipping taking a
heavy toll of the merchant vessels. However, knowing the importance of the cargo
the Germans invested heavily in defending them with anti-aircraft guns both on the
merchant vessels themselves and dedicated lak ships and E-Boats escorting them in
convoys. This made the Beauighters’ job extremely hazardous and at times the loss
rates ran close to the Bomber Command heavies!

This model depicts an aircraft which has received lak damage but has managed to return
back to base. The damage has punctured the airframe both near the tail and near an
engine puncturing the oil tank leading to a heavy leak and subsequent engine shut down.

54 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


aufighter
eaufighter

Jamie Haggo

Tamiya 1/48

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 55


1 Now for the messy job, thinning the plastic to scale thickness 2 Holding the parts up to the light we can assess how thin the
ready for the battle damage. plastic needs to be.

3 A new scalpel is used to very carefully make the jagged holes. 4 The fabric primer colour is now sprayed as it will be too dificult
Keep them away from panel lines and make sure they are ran- to do later.
dom. Also don’t do too much, remember this aeroplane made
it home!

5 Finally the airframe was ready for paint,


note the iller required.

6 The original EDSG was then applied. These airframes


were kept outside and canvas covers protected the
cockpit and engines and the effect is very noticeable in
photographs.

56 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


7 A gloss coat was applied, preparing the surface for
the decals.

8 It is important that the decals snuggle down into


all that ine surface detail so multiple coats of the
AMMO of Mig decal setting solutions were used.

10
9

9 A sludge wash mixed from thinned oils and AMMO of Mig


Oilbrushers tones were used on the underside. It is important
that the contrast is not too high.
10 Note how the sludge wash highlights the rivets after the excess
is polished away with a cloth, this would be very dificult to do
with a pin wash.
11 Here is the wash being removed, a gloss coat is essential.

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 57


12 The same technique is used on the upper
surfaces.

13 Again, note how the surface detail has been


highlighted with the wash.

14

15

14 A small ine brush was used around the exposed metal areas of the
damage, obviously this was not done on the fabric.

15 Oils are used for a general grimy patina and to create false shadows. Note
how complimentary the oil tones are and how they are placed.

16 The dots were then blended with a moist brush.

17 You can see how effective the technique is, in this photo the left wing is
inished the right wing is clean.

16 17

58 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


18 The underside looked too bright therefore a ilter was applied
to tone it down a bit.

19 Here is the inal effect, lovely and grimy.

20 In order to minimise drag, the pilot had to shut down the failing engine.
The propeller blades have been carefully sawn off at the blade root and
pinned.

21 The effect is necessarily quite heavy in parts.

22 AMMO of Mig’s new Streaking Brushers are a good way to cre-


ate subtle grime streaking. It was painted on using the applicator.

23 The product was then blended using a brush and a small


amount of thinner.

22 23

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 59


24 25

24 For the base of the oil staining a mix of black oil paint, black
pigment and AMMO of Mig Oil Effects were painted on using
a ine brush. This mix needs to be quite strong hence the
pigment.

25 This was also blended with a moist, lat brush.

26 Next, neat AMMO of Mig Fresh Engine Oil was painted on


coming out of the damage where the oil tanks would be.

27 This was also blended.

28 A special brush was used to concentrate the product making


the edges sharper.

29 Now the inal stage. Even more of the Fresh Engine Oil was
applied towards the back end as if the leak has spread along
30
the panel lines then lowed backwards.

60 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


11

27 28

29 30

THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT / 61


IN THE NEXT ISSUE...
By Javier López de Anca

RARITIES
Prepare to enter into the realm of the strange and the exotic. No, we are not going to teach you how to read a person’s aura or
open your chakras. Rather, we have aircraft with strange patterns in mind with little-known markings, some of which you didn’t
even know existed. We have thought of those of you seeking new challenges, as well as those with a stash of their favourite
subjects yet are not motivated by the often repeated and monotonous colour schemes. In the inspiration charged pages of The
Weathering Aircraft, our collaborators show you how they have used obscure and rarely seen inishes to demonstrate the most
effective techniques used to inish these attractive and rare aircrafts.

62 / THE WEATHERING AIRCRAFT / GREASE AND DIRT


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