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Fundamental analysis of a business involves analyzing its financial statements and health,

its management and competitive advantages, and its competitors and markets. When applied
to futures and forex, it focuses on the overall state of the economy, interest rates, production,
earnings, and management. When analyzing a stock, futures contract, or currency using
fundamental analysis there are two basic approaches one can use; bottom up analysis and top
down analysis.[1] The term is used to distinguish such analysis from other types of investment
analysis, such as quantitative analysis and technical analysis.

Fundamental analysis is performed on historical and present data, but with the goal of making
financial forecasts. There are several possible objectives:

• to conduct a company stock valuation and predict its probable price evolution,
• to make a projection on its business performance,
• to evaluate its management and make internal business decisions,
• to calculate its credit risk.

In financial markets, stock valuation is the method of calculating theoretical values of

companies and their stocks. The main use of these methods is to predict future market prices,
or more generally potential market prices, and thus to profit from price movement – stocks
that are judged undervalued (with respect to their theoretical value) are bought, while stocks
that are judged overvalued are sold, in the expectation that undervalued stocks will, on the
whole, rise in value, while overvalued stocks will, on the whole, fall.

In the view of fundamental analysis, stock valuation based on fundamentals aims to give an
estimate of their intrinsic value of the stock, based on predictions of the future cash flows and
profitability of the business. Fundamental analysis may be replaced or augmented by market
criteria – what the market will pay for the stock, without any necessary notion of intrinsic
value. These can be combined as "predictions of future cash flows/profits (fundamental)",
together with "what will the market pay for these profits?". These can be seen as "supply and
demand" sides – what underlies the supply (of stock), and what drives the (market) demand
for stock?

In the view of others, such as John Maynard Keynes, stock valuation is not a prediction but a
convention, which serves to facilitate investment and ensure that stocks are liquid, despite
being underpinned by an illiquid business and its illiquid investments, such as

When the objective of the analysis is to determine what stock to buy and at what price, there
are two basic methodologies

1. Fundamental analysis maintains that markets may misprice a security in the short run
but that the "correct" price will eventually be reached. Profits can be made by trading
the mispriced security and then waiting for the market to recognize its "mistake" and
reprice the security.
2. Technical analysis maintains that all information is reflected already in the stock
price. Trends 'are your friend' and sentiment changes predate and predict trend
changes. Investors' emotional responses to price movements lead to recognizable
price chart patterns. Technical analysis does not care what the 'value' of a stock is.
Their price predictions are only extrapolations from historical price patterns.

Investors can use any or all of these different but somewhat complementary methods for
stock picking. For example many fundamental investors use technicals for deciding entry and
exit points. Many technical investors use fundamentals to limit their universe of possible
stock to 'good' companies.

The choice of stock analysis is determined by the investor's belief in the different paradigms
for "how the stock market works". See the discussions at efficient-market hypothesis, random
walk hypothesis, capital asset pricing model, Fed model Theory of Equity Valuation, Market-
based valuation, and Behavioral finance.

Fundamental analysis includes:

1. Economic analysis
2. Industry analysis
3. Company analysis

On the basis of these three analyses the intrinsic value of the shares are determined. This is
considered as the true value of the share. If the intrinsic value is higher than the market price
it is recommended to buy the share . If it is equal to market price hold the share and if it is
less than the market price sell the shares.

[edit] Use by different portfolio styles

Investors may use fundamental analysis within different portfolio management styles.

• Buy and hold investors believe that latching onto good businesses allows the
investor's asset to grow with the business. Fundamental analysis lets them find 'good'
companies, so they lower their risk and probability of wipe-out.
• Managers may use fundamental analysis to correctly value 'good' and 'bad' companies.
Eventually 'bad' companies' stock goes up and down, creating opportunities for
• Managers may also consider the economic cycle in determining whether conditions
are 'right' to buy fundamentally suitable companies.
• Contrarian investors distinguish "in the short run, the market is a voting machine,
not a weighing machine".[2] Fundamental analysis allows you to make your own
decision on value, and ignore the market.
• Value investors restrict their attention to under-valued companies, believing that 'it's
hard to fall out of a ditch'. The value comes from fundamental analysis.
• Managers may use fundamental analysis to determine future growth rates for buying
high priced growth stocks.
• Managers may also include fundamental factors along with technical factors into
computer models (quantitative analysis).

[edit] Top-down and bottom-up

Investors can use either a top-down or bottom-up approach.
• The top-down investor starts his analysis with global economics, including both
international and national economic indicators, such as GDP growth rates, inflation,
interest rates, exchange rates, productivity, and energy prices. He narrows his search
down to regional/industry analysis of total sales, price levels, the effects of competing
products, foreign competition, and entry or exit from the industry. Only then he
narrows his search to the best business in that area.
• The bottom-up investor starts with specific businesses, regardless of their

[edit] Procedures
The analysis of a business' health starts with financial statement analysis that includes ratios.
It looks at dividends paid, operating cash flow, new equity issues and capital financing. The
earnings estimates and growth rate projections published widely by Thomson Reuters and
others can be considered either 'fundamental' (they are facts) or 'technical' (they are investor
sentiment) based on your perception of their validity.

The determined growth rates (of income and cash) and risk levels (to determine the discount
rate) are used in various valuation models. The foremost is the discounted cash flow model,
which calculates the present value of the future

• dividends received by the investor, along with the eventual sale price. (Gordon model)
• earnings of the company, or
• cash flows of the company.

The amount of debt is also a major consideration in determining a company's health. It can be
quickly assessed using the debt to equity ratio and the current ratio (current assets/current

The simple model commonly used is the Price/Earnings ratio. Implicit in this model of a
perpetual annuity (Time value of money) is that the 'flip' of the P/E is the discount rate
appropriate to the risk of the business. The multiple accepted is adjusted for expected growth
(that is not built into the model).

Growth estimates are incorporated into the PEG ratio, but the math does not hold up to
analysis.[citation needed] Its validity depends on the length of time you think the growth will
continue. IGAR models can be used to impute expected changes in growth from current P/E
and historical growth rates for the stocks relative to a comparison index.

Computer modelling of stock prices has now replaced much of the subjective interpretation
of fundamental data (along with technical data) in the industry. Since about year 2000, with
the power of computers to crunch vast quantities of data, a new career has been invented. At
some funds (called Quant Funds) the manager's decisions have been replaced by proprietary
mathematical models.[3]

behind fundamental analysis is that the faster a company grows the faster the stock will
increase. The way you can determine if a company is growing is by examining their earnings
and sales. For a company to be strong there earnings and sales should both be increasing
month after month.
All fundamental investors agree that it is best to get into stocks when they are cheap and sell
them once they have gotten up to their expected value. When all or the majority of stocks on
the market are cheap based on their fundamentals it is called a fire sale.

Another important factor you should look at when examining a company’s fundamentals is
how the company is doing in regards to its industry. It is very important to pick out the
industry leader when searching for safe long term investments.

There are three different types of stocks that are good buys based on fundamental analysis.
These are income stocks, growth stocks, and value stocks.

Income stocks are stocks that do not do much but provide a steady stream of income either by
dividends, selling of covered calls, or both.

Growth stocks are stocks from a company whose earnings are expected to grow at an above
average rate. This means that the stock should also grow at a faster rate than the average

Value stocks are the long term investments that Warren Buffet believes in. These are stocks
with good earnings and dividends but the market does not notice them. The stock trades at a
value that is far below what the price should be based on the earnings of the given company.
These are strong stocks that make good long term investments because they should in theory
eventually head up. This makes it possible the Best long term strategy out there.

Combining these strategies with Drip Investing can help you to reinvest your dividends back
into the stock.