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MEEN 3210 MEASUREMENT LAB

HEAT EXCHANGER
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Date:

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Abstract
The purpose of this experiment was to give a chance to the learners to familiarize themselves
with the different types of heat exchangers. Further, students were supposed to determine
experimentally, the effectiveness of shell-and-tube and flat plate type heat exchangers. The
experiment was conducted as outlined in the procedure section and the values recorded as
shown in figures 3 and 4. The experimental effectiveness for the shell-and-tube and flat plate
heat exchangers were calculated as 0.2828 and 0.3439 respectively. The flat plate type heat
exchanger was found to be more effective than the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger.

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Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................2
Nomenclature........................................................................................................................................4
Introduction...........................................................................................................................................4
Shell and Tube heat exchanger..........................................................................................................4
Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger.......................................................................................................4
Counter Flow Heat exchanger...........................................................................................................4
Crossflow Heat Exchanger.................................................................................................................5
Objectives of the Experiment................................................................................................................5
Experimental apparatus........................................................................................................................5
Theoretical Background.........................................................................................................................5
Experiment Set-up.................................................................................................................................6
Experimental Procedure........................................................................................................................6
Data and Results....................................................................................................................................7
Sample Calculation for shell-and-tube type heat exchanger.............................................................8
Sample Calculation for flat plate heat exchanger...............................................................................8
Discussion..............................................................................................................................................9
Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................10
References...........................................................................................................................................10

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Nomenclature
m=mass flow rate of the fluid
c= heat capacity of the fluid
𝜟t = change in temperature
ε= effectiveness
Q= heat flow
c= specific heat capacity

Introduction
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between object and fluid, or between two
or more fluids. They are found in almost all industrial settings such as petroleum processing,
chemical plants, refineries, power plans, refrigeration systems, food processing among others.
Many types of heat exchangers are available for different applications such as radiators for
automobiles, condensers for refrigerators and air conditioners, surface condensers for steam
power plants. There are various types of heat exchangers

Shell and Tube heat exchanger


It is the most common type of heat exchanger the oil refineries and other large chemical
processes, and is suited for high-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat
exchanger consist of shell (large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it.

Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger


A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plates to transfer heat
between two fluids. This type of exchanger has a major advantage over a conventional heat
exchanger in that the fluids are exposed to a much larger surface area because the fluids are
spread out over the plates. This facilitates the transfer of heat, and greatly increases the speed
of the temperature change.

Within the food and beverage industry, the exchangers play a role in diary production, as they
are used in milk and cream pasteurization, milk reception, and ultra-high temperature
sterilization (UHT).

Counter Flow Heat exchanger


In counter-flow heat exchange, the fluid enters the exchanger from opposite ends

Crossflow Heat Exchanger


Cross-flow heat exchangers are commonly used in gas heating or cooling.

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This lab introduces students to two types of heat exchangers: shell-and-tube type, and plate
and frame type, heat exchangers.

Objectives of the Experiment


The main objectives of the experiment was to

 To familiarize students with different types of heat exchangers


 To compare effectiveness of shell-and-tube and plate type heat exchangers

Experimental apparatus
 Shell and tube heat exchanger
 Flat plate heat exchanger

Theoretical Background
Heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the theoretical
maximum heat transfer for a given heat exchanger

Qact
ε= (1)
Qmax

Q act = mc𝜟t, Q max = ¿ (2)

Where m=mass flow rate of the fluid, c= heat capacity of the fluid, 𝜟t= t ¿-t out for hot fluid,

(mc)min is the minimum value of mass flow rate times heat capacity of the two fluid, and ,
𝜟t= t ¿, hot-t out ,cold

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Experiment Set-up

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of Heat Exchanger Set-up

Experimental Procedure
The hoses of hot and cold fluid were hooked up to the appropriate sources. The two valves on
the shell and tube heat exchangers were closed and the two valves on the flat plate heat
exchanger opened. The water sources was then turned on and flat plate’s flow rate,
temperature and pressure recorded. The two valves on the shell and tube heat exchangers
were opened and the other two on the flat plate heat exchanger closed to prevent pressure
from the building. The shell and tube’s flow rate, temperature and pressure were recorded.
The water source was then turned off. The heat transfer rate and heat exchanger for
effectiveness were computed for each flowrate and the results tabulated as shown below.

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Data and Results
Raw DataShell and Tube
Flow meter Temp Pressure Pressure Time
  (GPM) Temp in out in (psi) out (psi) (sec) Mass(lb.)
Hot 4 65.2 55.7 4.5 0 25.37 14.7
Col
d 4 26.7 42.3 6 0 25.85 14.3
               
Hot 4 65.4 59.4 9 4.6 24.05 14.15
Col
d 2 26.8 46.8 21 16 53.51 14.25
               
Hot 2 64.7 50 22.3 21.6 50.49 14.36
cold 4 26.8 39.9 10 3 25.25 14

Table 1: Raw data for Shell and Tube

Flat Plate
  Flow meter Temp Temp Pressure in Pressure Time (sec) Mass(lb.)
(GPM) in out (psi) out (psi)
Hot 3.6 64.6 52.3 7.7 1.9 26.44 14.5
Cold 3.6 24 46.2 8.5 0 26.31 13.5
               
Hot 4 63.7 54.7 7.8 1.4 24.51 13.65
Cold 2 24.1 54.2 19 1.4 50.34 14.6
               
Hot 2 59.1 43.5 21.2 20.2 49.6 13.9
cold 4 24.3 40.2 9.5 0 26.34 14.45
Table 2: Raw data for Flat plate heat exchanger

Shell and Tube


Flow meter (GPM) Temp in Temp out Time (sec) Mass(lb.) flow rate(lbs/sec) flow rate(kg/sec) Q act(J) Q max(J) ε
Hot 4 65.2 55.7 25.37 14.7 0.5794 0.2628 10441.85
Cold 4 26.7 42.3 25.85 14.3 0.5532 0.2509 89067.7 0.1172

Hot 4 65.4 59.4 24.05 14.15 0.5884 0.2669 6696.528


Cold 2 26.8 46.8 53.51 14.25 0.2663 0.1208 19499.54 0.3434

Hot 2 64.7 50 50.49 14.36 0.2844 0.1290 7930.918


cold 4 26.8 39.9 25.25 14 0.5545 0.2515 20447.74 0.3879
Average effectiveness 0.2828
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Table 3: final results of the Shell & tube

Sample Calculation for shell-and-tube type heat exchanger


The row where the flow meter reads 4 GPM and 4GPM for hot water and cold water respectively.

Specific heat capacity of water, Cv= 4182 J/kg°C

mass∈lbs 14.7
Mass flow rate of hot water = = = 0.5794lb/sec
time∈ seconds 25.37
Mass flow rate of hot water in kg/sec= 0.5794×0.4536= 0.2628 kg/sec

Q act = mc𝜟t= 0.2628×4182× (66.2-55.7) = 10441.85J

Q max = ¿= 0.2509×4182× (66.2-26.7) =89067.7J

Qact 10441.85
Effectiveness, ε= = = 0.1172
Qmax 89067.7

The results agree with those shown in the table 3 above for flow rates 4 GPM and 4GPM for hot
water and cold water respectively.

Flat Plate
Flow meter (GPM) Temp in Temp out Time (sec) Mass(lb.) flow rate(lbs/sec) flow rate(kg/sec) Q act(J) Q max(J) ε
Hot 3.6 64.6 52.3 26.44 14.5 0.5484 0.2488 12795.84
Cold 3.6 24 46.2 26.31 13.5 0.5131 0.2327 87121.03 0.1469

Hot 4 63.7 54.7 24.51 13.65 0.5569 0.2526 9507.995


Cold 2 24.1 54.2 50.34 14.6 0.2900 0.1316 21786.72 0.4364

Hot 2 59.1 43.5 49.6 13.9 0.2802 0.1271 8293.06


cold 4 24.3 40.2 26.34 14.45 0.5486 0.2488 18499.9 0.4483
Average effectiveness 0.3439
Table 4: Final results for the flat plate heat exchanger

Sample Calculation for flat plate heat exchanger


The third case where the flow meter reads 2 GPM and 4GPM for hot water and cold water
respectively.

Specific heat capacity of water, Cv= 4182 J/kg°C

mass∈lbs 14.5
Mass flow rate of hot water = = = 0.5484lb/sec
time∈ seconds 26.44
Mass flow rate of hot water in kg/sec= 0.5484×0.4536= 0.2488 kg/sec

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Q act = mc𝜟t= 0.2488×4182× (64.6-52.3)= 12795.84J

Q max = ¿= 0.2327×4182×(64.6-24) =87121.103J

Qact 12795.84
Effectiveness, ε= = = 0.1469
Qmax 87121.103

The results agree with those shown in the figure 3 above for flow rates 2 GPM and 4GPM for hot
water and cold water respectively.

Discussion
From the analysis done in excel and presented in figure 3 and 4, the average
experimental value of effectiveness the flat plate heat exchanger was found to be 0.3439
while that of the shell-and-tube was found to be 0.2828. This means that the flat plate heat
exchanger was able to transfer more heat from the hot fluid to the cold fluid. As such, we can
conclude that the flat plate heat exchanger is more effective than the shell-and-tube heat
exchanger. The high effectiveness of the flat plat heat exchanger is contributed mainly by the
high surface area that facilitates transfer of heat.

Flat plate heat exchangers are normally used in food and beverage industry,
particularly in dairy production, as they are used in milk and cream pasteurization, milk
reception, and ultra-high temperature sterilization (UHT).

Plate type heat exchanger has several advantages over conventional heat exchangers. Some of
them include;

 Fluids are exposed to a much larger surface area because the fluids are spread out
over large the plate.
 Compact in size.
 Plate type heat exchanger is maintenance simple and can be easily cleaned.
 Capacity can be increased by introducing plates in pairs of heat exchanger. 

However, flat plate have several drawbacks some of them being;

 Bonding material between plates limits operating temperature of the cooler.


 Over tightening of the clamping bolts result in increased pressure drop across the
cooler. Initial cost is high since Titanium plates are expensive and Titanium is a noble
metal
 Most parts of the cooling system are susceptible to corrosion.

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It is good to not that the effectiveness obtained from the experiment may not be the exact
value of the effectiveness of the exchangers. There are some errors which may have made
the values a bit lower than the theoretical values. This error could have been contributed by
heat loss through radiation, insensitive temperature measuring devices among others.

Conclusion
The experiment was successful. Learners were able to interact and familiarize themselves
with the two types of heat exchangers. In addition, they were able to calculate and compare
the effectiveness f of shell-and-tube and plate type heat exchangers.

References
Incropera, F. P., Lavine, A. S., Bergman, T. L., & DeWitt, D. P. (2007). Fundamentals of
heat and mass transfer. Wiley.

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