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8 просмотров11 страницSolar photovoltaic power forecasting using optimized modified extreme learning machine technique

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8 просмотров11 страницSolar photovoltaic power forecasting using optimized modified extreme learning machine technique

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an International Journal

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jestch

learning machine technique

Manoja Kumar Behera a,⇑, Irani Majumder b, Niranjan Nayak a

a

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SOA Deemed To Be University, Bhubaneswar 751030, India

b

Department of Electrical Engineering, SOA Deemed To Be University, Bhubaneswar 751030, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Prediction of photovoltaic power is a significant research area using different forecasting techniques mit-

Received 18 November 2017 igating the effects of the uncertainty of the photovoltaic generation. Increasingly high penetration level of

Revised 27 March 2018 photovoltaic (PV) generation arises in smart grid and microgrid concept. Solar source is irregular in nat-

Accepted 18 April 2018

ure as a result PV power is intermittent and is highly dependent on irradiance, temperature level and

Available online 8 May 2018

other atmospheric parameters. Large scale photovoltaic generation and penetration to the conventional

power system introduces the significant challenges to microgrid a smart grid energy management. It is

Keywords:

very critical to do exact forecasting of solar power/irradiance in order to secure the economic operation

PV array

Extreme learning machine

of the microgrid and smart grid. In this paper an extreme learning machine (ELM) technique is used for

Maximum power point tracking PV power forecasting of a real time model whose location is given in the Table 1. Here the model is asso-

Particle swarm optimization ciated with the incremental conductance (IC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique that is

Craziness particle swarm optimization based on proportional integral (PI) controller which is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. To train

Accelerate particle swarm optimization single layer feed-forward network (SLFN), ELM algorithm is implemented whose weights are updated by

Single layer feed-forward network different particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques and their performance are compared with exist-

ing models like back propagation (BP) forecasting model.

Ó 2018 Karabuk University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC

BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

power forecasting is essential to restructure and install large PV

The global warming and the energy crisis over the past few dec- generating station, power system stabilization, green power busi-

ades because of huge consumption of fossil fuel has highly ness, and power disturbance warning on self-governing power sys-

impacted on government economic policy, climatic conditions tem [4]. The power prediction is also essential for the supervision

and energy security issues which have motivated the development of power system utility which helps in reducing the use of reserve

and use of alternative, sustainable, and clean energy sources that capacity of generating station by making right decision to unit

would replace the present energy production [1]. The whole world commitment [5]. Thus, it plays an important role in decreasing

was forced to concentrate on the use of renewable energy the cost of electricity production and becomes helpful for the sys-

resources in order to avoid the emergency power failure, to reduce tem reliability.

the amount of CO2 emission and to have control on pollution level. Thus, it is extremely important for generation, transmission and

For this reason, there is a consistent increase in interest and devel- energy management [6]. Energy production for the next day has to

opment in the solar and wind energy [2]. But it creates a lot of be planned on the previous day and this PV power forecasting pro-

problem to equip such energy resources and for this very reason cess for the next day is a daily routine for the PV power generating

we can’t fully rely on the amount of generation of renewable station. The forecasting error affects the economic operations a lot

energy for the national power system. and also the productivity of the power system [7]. Due to different

The photovoltaic power forecasting is a key factor which is reli- atmospheric parameters like temperature, cloud quantity and dust,

able and cost effective for large scale integration of the conven- accurate PV power prediction can be a difficult task. Different fore-

casting techniques have been introduced in past few decades in the

area of PV power forecasting for PV generating station at utility

⇑ Corresponding author. scale. PV generation forecasting methods can be roughly classified

E-mail address: manoj04manoj04@gmail.com (M.K. Behera). into four methods such as hybrid approach, artificial intelligence

Peer review under responsibility of Karabuk University.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2018.04.013

2215-0986/Ó 2018 Karabuk University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438 429

(AI) approach, statistical method, and physical approach. Statistical of modified PSO techniques and ELM algorithm with the block dia-

approaches are usually based on data-driven formulation to gram of proposed model are discussed in the section-4. In

forecast solar time series by using historical measured data [8]. section-5 and 6 simulation results and conclusions are discussed

Artificial intelligent techniques like artificial neural network respectively.

(ANN) [9], back propagation are the constituents of statistical

approach [10]. Physical models predict solar irradiance and PV 2. PV model

generation which are usually based on numerical weather predic-

tion (NWP) or satellite images [11,12]. Finally the combination of The outcome of PV forecasting is solar irradiance or photo-

the above aforesaid methods leads to a new approach which is voltaic power. The properties of solar power generation like system

nothing but hybrid approaches [13]. In practice, to meet the variables, prediction horizon are highly essential for prediction of

requirements of the decision-making process, various forecasting PV power and energy management. Standardized performance

approaches are taken into account depending on different scales evaluation indices help in developing new solar energy predictors

of prediction horizons [14]. and forecasting models.

The other type of statistical forecasting approach in power gen-

eration system includes time series along with regression analysis

2.1. PV generation

[15], such as linear regression model (LRM) [16,17], multiple linear

regressions model (MLRM), nonlinear regression analysis,

The predicted output of PV power is affected by many factors

autoregressive (AR) model [18,19], moving average (MA) models,

like the measurement of solar irradiance, reflectivity, estimation

autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model and no stationary

of PV cell temperatures etc [24]. The maximum power output is

time-series [20]. The statistical forecasting techniques first needs

modeled by

some mathematical relationships to identify the changes among

various factors like load, consumption time and the total output PV ¼ gAI½1 0:05ðt 25Þ ð1Þ

value of industry in electricity gross domestic product and then

only forecasting can be done by using mathematical model. It where g represents the conversion efficiency (%) of the PV array, A is

may take some longer time to complete the entire process as it the array area (m2), ‘I’ is the solar Irradiance (kW/m2), and ‘t’ is the

concentrates on calibration of mathematical model and its adjust- outside air temperature (°C). The parameters of the simulink model

ment process. under study are mentioned as maximum power Pmax = 105 W,

This paper represents the state of art of PV power forecasting voltage at maximum power Vmax = 18.46 V, current at maximum

technique developed over the past few years in comparison to power Imax = 5.74A, short circuit current Isc = 6.11A, open-circuit

the proposed forecasting technique [21,22]. The most extensively voltage Voc = 21.6 V, shunt resistance Rsh = 1000O, series resistance

used forecasting models; the extreme learning machine is applied Rs = 0.0001O, number of series cells Ns = 36, number of parallel cell

to predict the PV power for short term basis and compare its perfor- NP = 1 [25,26].

mance with existing algorithm like back propagation (BP) trained

artificial algorithm. Arbitrary selection of input weights and hidden 2.2. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

biases creates challenges like uncertain performance and over fit-

ting of extreme learning machine (ELM) which is still needed to This method can be implemented by addition of a PI controller

be solved. One of the challenges in this study is the proper selection which can improve the incremental conductance (IC) MPPT perfor-

of weights for the forecasting model [23]. The various modified par- mance by reducing the error between the actual conductance and

ticle swarm optimization (PSO) are tested to select the appropriate the incremental conductance so that the required adjustment can

values of weights of the neural network which can improve the be done and the system can be gradually updated according to

forecast errors. It is seen that the ELM optimized with accelerate necessity. Moreover, this PI controller overcomes the drawbacks

particle swarm optimization (APSO) technique performs better of perturb and observe (P&O) MPPT technique like its oscillation

than other optimization algorithms, such as classical PSO and crazi- around the MPP under fast varying atmospheric condition shown

ness particle swarm optimization (CRPSO). in Figs. 1 and 2. Whether MPPT has reached the MPP or not, it is

Rest part of the paper is arranged as follows. The section-2, determined by the increment conductance of PV module and also

explain the mathematical model of photovoltaic cell and the it determines the stopping criteria for perturbation at the operat-

incremental conductance maximum power point tracking (MPPT) ing point [27,28]. In this MPPT technique, the MPP can be derived

technique. The section-3, gives a broad idea about forecasting from the relation between dI/dV and I/V. The slope dP/dV is nega-

characteristic and different forecasting horizons. The various types tive when the maximum power point is right side of the P-V curve

120 120

100 100

80 80

PV Power (W)

PV Power (W)

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (s) Time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. Power extracted from PV module with MPPT techniques (a) P&O and (b) IC Based on PI.

430 M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438

105 105

104

PV Power (W)

104

PV Power (W)

103 103

102 102

101 101

100 100

99 99

3 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.1 3 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.1

Time (s) Time (s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. Power ripples in steady state (approximately 105 W) (a) P&O MPPT and (b) IC MPPT Based on PI.

and it is negative for right side position of MPP. The measure 4. Long term (From 1 month to years):

advantage of this MPPT is its precession to reach the MPP and its

higher efficiency to deal with the changes of environmental condi- Long term estimation can be applied for long term solar energy

tions and disturbances. The key benefit of the IC MPPT over the measurement and planning of PV plant.

P&O MPPT is that it can calculate the direction in which it can From point of view of microgrid and smart grid energy manage-

change the operating point of the PV generator to take it closer ment also smooth operation of power system, short term and very

to the MPP. That is why under fast varying weather it will not take short term forecasting horizon are essential and useful for activi-

the wrong direction and in addition, once the MPP has been ties like operation of PV generating station, real time unit commit-

reached, the working point does not oscillate around it [29,30]. ment, storage control and electricity marketing. Therefore, most of

researchers pay attention in developing an advanced system for

3. Major characteristic of PV power forecasting short term PV power forecasting.

The selection of input variables and prediction horizon affects 3.2. Data processing

the accuracy of the developed prediction model. In general, some

significant variables are used as input of forecasting models but In our problem all inputs or attributes and the output or tar-

are not bound to the following factors [31]: get are normalized using Eq. (2), while the input weight and bias

have been obtained into the range [0, 1] so that the training

Historical data of PV generation; speed can be improved and overflowing of the calculation can

Historical explanatory variables, which are relevant to the be avoided [33].

meteorological variables, consisting of global horizontal irradi-

Xj Xmin

ance, temperature, cloud cover, humidity, wind speed, and so on. X ¼ ; 0 6 X 6 1 ð2Þ

Xmax Xmin

3.1. Forecasting horizons

where Xmax, Xmin are the maximum and minimum value of X data

sequence and X⁄ is normalized value of X.

From the practical point of view, different prediction horizons

will correspond to the specific needs of decision making activities

in the smart grid and microgrid, which are as follows [32]: 3.3. Performance estimation

1. Very short term forecasting (from a few sec to min): In this paper, different statistical indices like the root mean

square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean abso-

This kind of forecasting is useful for PV storage control and lute percentage error (MAPE) which is an index for trend recogni-

electricity marketing. Now a day in the smart grid and microgrid tion of prediction are used for performance evaluation of each soft

environment, very short term forecasting of PV power has become computing method. The calculation of the above mentioned

more important. indices are as follows [34]:

1X N

2. Short term (up to 2–3 days ahead): MAE ¼ jy tj j ð3Þ

N i¼1 j

This forecasting technique is more essential for different deci-

sion making activities involved in the electricity market and power 1X N

jyj tj j

MAPE ¼ 100% ð4Þ

system operation, comprising of economic load dispatch, unit com- N i¼1 yj

mitment, etc.

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

u N

u1 X

RMSE ¼ t

3. Medium term (up to 7 days ahead):

ðy tj Þ2 ð5Þ

N i¼1 j

Medium term forecasting would be useful for scheduling mainte-

nance of PV power generating station, conventional generating sta- where yj and tj are the measured and corresponding predicted value

tion, transformers and transmission lines. of the PV power, and N is the number of test samples. The combina-

M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438 431

tion of these statistical indices is sufficient to evaluate model 4.1.1. Learning algorithm of ELM

performance. The general solution of a linear system is represented by AX ¼ Y

where A 2 Rmn and Y 2 Rm

4. Forecasting models In a euclidian space, a SLFN with random weight and hidden

layer, is actually a linear system.

ELM classifier which is also called as optimized ELM consists of For ‘n’ arbitrary samples (Xi, Yi) where xi ¼ ½xi1 ; xi2 ; . . . xm T 2 R

two different units i.e. SLFN based ELM algorithm and various opti- and yi ¼ ½yi1 ; yi2 ; . . . ym T 2 R i.e. Xi ¼ ½xij T 2 R and

mization algorithms which are used in order to adjust the ELM Y i ¼ ½yij 2 R T

The general ELM model with ‘k’ hidden nodes with activation

of neural networks that has the capability to approximate an

function h(x) can be modeled as

existing function that relates a set of inputs to the outputs with a

minimized error [35]. X

k

bi hðwi xj þ bi Þ ¼ yj ; j ¼ 1; 2; . . . n ð6Þ

i¼1

4.1. Extreme learning machine (ELM)

where wi ¼ ½wi1 ; wi2 . . . win T , it is input weight vector randomly

ELM is an advanced technique to train the single layer feed for- chosen connected input and ‘ith’ hidden neuron, bi = weight vector

ward network (SLFN) shown in Fig. 3 where the input weights and connected ‘ith’ neuron to output neuron and bi = threshold at ‘ith’

bias are chosen arbitrarily and the output weights are computed hidden neuron.

analytically. For the hidden layer neuron different activation func- The Eq. (6), can be re-formulate in the following matrix form

tions like sigmoid and Gaussian function are used, but for the out-

Gn bn ¼ Yn ð7Þ

put neuron a linear activation function is used. ELM is a fast and

simple algorithm but performs better than the traditional neural where

networks with a smaller input data which flowchart shown in 2 3

Fig. 4 [36]. If the parameters of SLFN are randomly chosen, then hðw1 x1 þ b1 Þ hðak x1 þ bk Þ

it becomes a linear system in which output weights can be analyt- 6 .. .. 7

Gn ¼ 6

4 . .

7

5 ð8Þ

ically computed through Moore Penrose generalized inverse of the

hidden layer output matrices. This modified algorithm is known as hðw1 xn þ b1 Þ hðak xn þ bk Þ nk

the extreme learning machine. The ELM techniques perform high

speed computation as compared to other traditional methods such bn ¼ ½b1 ; b2 ::::::bk ð9Þ

as gradient descent, back propagation training algorithm etc [37].

The advantages of the ELM are smallest training error, smallest At initial stage of the learning the parameters are selected

norm of weights, excellent performance and extremely fast conver- arbitrarily such that ‘G’ can remain unchanged. To train SLFN net-

gence as compared to other forecasting algorithms [38]. work based on ELM algorithm is same as to calculate a least square

solution b^ of the linear system [39]:

Gn bn ¼ Yn

Input Hidden Output ^ Yn k ¼ Min kGn ðw1 :::wm ; b1 :::bm Þb Yn k

kGn ðw1 :::wm ; b1 :::bm Þbn n

Layer Layer Layer bn

h(w,b,x) ð10Þ

According to theory of Moor Penrose generalized inverse, the

output weight bn [40]:

x 1

yi ^ ¼ GT Gn

b GTn Yn ð11Þ

n n

To improve further the ability and controllability of ELM, RELM

is proposed in which bn can be replaced by [41,42]:

1 2 1

arg Min ¼ arg Min kb k þ lke2 k ð12Þ

bn bn 2 n 2

Fig. 3. Structure of the SLFN model.

X

k

such that bi hðwi :xj þ bi Þ yj ¼ ej where j ¼ 1; 2; . . . n ð13Þ

Set hidden layer nodes i¼1

hidden layer weight and function of ELM

of ELM network

bias network

The corresponding Lagrangian function of optimization

problem

Take the training and Compute the output Compute the output

testing dataset weight matrix of SLFN matrix of hidden layer 1 2 l

2 n 2

Train the SLFN by ELM

algorithm

Test the ELM network k ¼ ½k1 ; k2 ::::::kn Lagrangian multiplier:

Equating partial derivative for k and b to zero, leads

Evaluation of model

1

performance

^ ¼ 1

b þ GTn Gn GTn Yn ð15Þ

Fig. 4. Flowchart of ELM.

n

l

432 M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438

4.1.3. Modified ELM (RFM-ELM) Substituting Eq. (24), online updating data

In real time application the forecasting model has to be modi-

biþ1 ¼ Riþ1 R01 0

iþ1 biþ1 gi Y iþ1

T

fied in two situations. 1st online training is highly essential and

ð26Þ

2nd one is, new arriving data contains fresh information which ¼ b0iþ1 þ Riþ1 gTi gi b0iþ1 Yiþ1

should be focused more while the previous data may be discarded

The output weight bi after the training samples are updated can

the data set Di ¼ fðxi ; yi Þji ¼ 1; 2; . . . ng arrives sequentially [43].

be adjusted online with the variation of training sample.

The output vector bi and the hidden matrix Gi are modified

based on regularized fixed-memory extreme learning machine

4.2. Optimization of extreme learning machine

(RFM-ELM) is expressed as

1

1 The error free parameters can be estimated by the network if

bi ¼ þ GTi Gi GTi Yi ð16Þ

l the quantity of training samples is equal to the number of hidden

neurons. The computation will become tougher for a very large

T

where Gi ¼ ½gTi gTiþ1 gTiþ2 . . . gTiþn1 data as large number of hidden neurons has to be used. Hence

the approximation of parameters is necessary so as to obtain out-

gi ¼ ½hðw1 x1 þ b1 Þ; hðw2 x2 þ b2 Þ::::::hðwk xk þ bk Þ

puts closer to the observed solution with a minimized error. So it is

only needed to find the least square solution which reduces the

Yi ¼ ½yi ; yiþ1 ; ::::yiþn1 T

error in order to train a SLFN with set input weights Wj, bias bj

When a fresh & ample of data, ðxiþn ; yiþn Þ joins in the training and a single hidden layer [44]. The ELM algorithm minimizes this

data, the hidden matrix and the output weight vector are trained error by tuning its parameters using different optimization algo-

by the following equations. rithm like PSO, CRPSO and APSO. The Fig. 5 shows the work flow

h i of optimized ELM of proposed system.

G0Tiþ1 ¼ GTi gTiþn ð17Þ

4.3. Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

1

1

b0iþ1 ¼ þ G0T

iþ1 Giþ1 G0T

iþ1 Yiþ1 PSO technique is a well known flexible, strong stochastic itera-

l

1 tive technique which is associated with attractive features in the

1

¼ þ GTi yTiþ1 þ gTiþn giþn GTi Gi þ gTiþn yiþn ð18Þ implementation. It has an ability of fast converging to get an

l appropriate solution. Furthermore the PSO is capable enough to

take care of a large search space data and non differential objective

where Yiþ1 ¼ ½yi ; yiþ2 ; . . . yiþn T

function [45]. Eberhart et al. developed PSO algorithm to randomly

1 simulate the traveling of birds flocking or fish schooling. Velocity

1

Let

Ri ¼ þ GTi Gi and position of each particle are modified according to Eqs. (27)

l

1 ð19Þ and (28), respectively [46].

1 1

R0iþ1 ¼ þ G0T 0

iþ1 Giþ1 ¼ R1

i þ giþn giþ1

T

vkþ1 ¼ w vki þ g1 rand1 fpbesti ðkÞ si ðkÞg

l i

þ g2 rand2 fgbesti ðkÞ si ðkÞg ð27Þ

Eq. (18), can be rewritten as

Vi ¼ Vmax where Vi > Vmax

1 T where,

b0iþ1 ¼ R0iþ1 þ Giþ1 Yiþ1 ¼ p1 ¼ Vmin where V i < V min

i þ giþ1 giþ1 Hi Hi þ gTiþ1 yiþ1 ð20Þ

T

And Skþ1

i ¼ Ski þ Vkþ1

i ð28Þ

Using Sherman-Morrison matrix inversion theory for Eq. (19), Ri

is rearranged as follows The flowchart of this procedure is shown in Fig. 6. For ELM

parameters optimization the specified steps of PSO is described

Ri gTiþn giþn Ri as follows.

R0iþ1 ¼ Ri ð21Þ

1 þ giþn Ri gTiþn

Step1: Data pre-processing:- All the data of dataset are normal-

Substituting Eq. (21) in (20) we obtained ized into the range [0, 1].

b0iþ1 ¼ R0iþ1 GTi yi þ gTiþn yiþn Þ Step2: The initial velocity of each particle is randomly gener-

ð22Þ ated by assigning the swarm size, maximum no of iterations

¼ bi þ R0iþ1 gTiþn ðyiþn giþn bi Þ

and velocities.

To eliminate the previous training sample, on the model i.e. Step3: The particle’s fitness value is calculated according to the

ðxi ; yi Þ the hidden matrix and output weight vector are tuned by testing accuracy of ELM and the best position of the particle is

set with the maximal fitness in the swarm.

Giþ1 ¼ gTiþ1 gTiþ2 :::gTiþn ð23Þ

Irradiance

1 PV Power

1 Load

þ GTiþ1 Giþ1 GTiþ1 Yiþ1

Vpv

biþ1 ¼

Vdc

Array Converter

l ð24Þ

Temperature

1

¼ þ G1 g T

g ðG0T

iþ1 yi gi Yiþ1 Þ

T Raw real time

power

Voltage & PWM Maximum

ELM

where Yiþ1 ¼ ½yiþ1 ; yiþ2 ; . . . yiþn T Current Sensing Generator PV power

1 Random weights

1 and bias of ELM Optimized

Let

Riþ1 ¼ þ GTiþ1 Giþ1 we have weights and bias

l MPPT Algorithm + Duty Optimization to ELM

ð25Þ Cycle Adjustment technique

R0 gT g R0 iþ1

Riþ1 ¼ R0iþ1 þ iþ1 i 0i

1 gi b iþ1 gTi Fig. 5. Block diagram representation of proposed system.

M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438 433

Parameter of the expected promising region. So in the steps that follow the

initialization direction of velocities should be reversed to the promising region.

signðr3 Þ is used for taking care of this issue [47]. In fish schooling

and birds flocking, a fish or a bird changes its direction unexpect-

Initialize edly. To take care of this action by a craziness factor, it is modeled

population using a technique with the help of a craziness variable. To uphold

the diversity of the particles, it should have pre-defined craziness

Fitness calculation

ELM

CRPSO technique. The significance of this is, before updating this

position, the velocity of the particle is crazed by

Testing acc uracy Update the

velocities Vkþ1

i ¼ Vkþ1

i þ pðr4 Þ signðr4 Þ vcraziness

i ð31Þ

and positions where r4 is a random variable that is selected randomly within the

Update the

range of [0, 1], vcraziness

i is random variable which is uniformly

best position

selected such that. vcraziness

i 2 ½vmin

i ; vmax

i the signum function and

probability are defined as

No 1 r4 6 pcr

Termination pðr4 Þ ¼ ð32Þ

criterion 0 r4 > pcr

where pcr is probability craziness

Yes

1 r4 P 0:5

signðr4 Þ ¼ ð33Þ

Output 1 r4 < 0:5

Fig. 6. Flow chart of PSO for optimizing ELM. Reversal of birds velocity should not occur frequently for which

a small value of r3 ð< 0:05Þ should be chosen. signðr3 Þ ¼ 1 is taken

Step4: The velocity and position of each particle are updated by in reversal direction. Similarly pcr 6 0:3 is selected such that r4 will

means of Eqs. (27) and (28), for every iteration. have more probability, and finally it becomes more than pcr .In that

Step5: The stopping criterion is checked. If the maximum num- case pðr4 Þ will be zero in most of the cases. If not so, then heavy

ber of iterations is not yet achieved, then return to step 3. unnecessary oscillations will be produced at maximum iterations

Otherwise, the next step is followed. in the convergence curve. vcraziness is chosen very small (=0.0001).

Step6: Output the best combination of (w, b) of ELM equivalent

to the maximal fitness value. 4.5. Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO)

In order to overcome the drawbacks of classical PSO, craziness The standard PSO uses both the g⁄ and the personal best Xi : Use

PSO is developed. In classical PSO the birds flocking or fish school- of the personal best is advantageous as it enhances the variety in

ing, changes their directions suddenly. the quality solutions; however some randomness is required to

simulate this multiplicity [48]. Subsequently, no forceful reason

4.4. Craziness particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) is there for using the personal best, unless high nonlinearity is seen

in the optimization problem of interest. Only use of the global best

Here a completely new velocity expression is introduced. This is the simplified version which could accelerate the convergence of

expression is associated with several arbitrary numbers and a the algorithm [49]. Thus, in the APSO, simpler formula is used to

craziness velocity. The velocity expression here is given by generate the velocity vector

n o

k Vtþ1

i ¼ Vti þ a2n þ b g Xti ð34Þ

i

n o

where, 2n is random variable from (0, 1) to replace the second term,

þ ð1 r2 Þ g2 ð1 r1 Þ gbesti ski

k

ð29Þ

a; b are acceleration constant, Vtþ1

i is velocity vector, Xti is position

where r1 ; r2 and r3 are the random parameter selected whose values of particle.

lies in between ½1; 0; signðr3 Þ is defined as The update of the position is simply

1 r3 6 0:05 Xtþ1

i ¼ Xti þ Vtþ1

i ð35Þ

signðr3 Þ ¼ ð30Þ

1 r3 > 0:05 The location can also be updated in a single step to increase the

Two random parameters r1 and r2 are selected independently. If convergence even further

both the values are large and have special and social experiences

Xtþ1

i ¼ ð1 bÞXti þ bg þ a2n ð36Þ

which are also used, then the particle will fly from the local opti-

mum. If both values are small i.e. both social and personal experi- The same order of convergence will be obtained by this easier

ences are not used at all or partially used, then the convergence version. Typically, a ¼ 0:1L 0:5L where L is measurement of the

rate of the optimization technique is reduced. To overcome this variables, while b ¼ 0:1 0:7 is enough for most of all the imple-

single random number r1 such that r1 is large and ð1 r1 Þ is small mentations. It is precious to point out that velocity does not appear

value and vice versa. However another random number r2 is intro- in Eq. (36), and dealing with initialization of velocity vectors is not

duced to control the balancing of global and local search. In case of needed. Therefore, accelerated PSO is very simple. In comparison to

birds flocking in search of foods, certain rare cases can be observed many other PSO variants, accelerated PSO uses only 2 parameters,

after there is certain change in the position of the particle accord- and the method can be understood in a simpler way. An advanced

ing to the Eq. (31) like a bird may not fly to the food source due to improvement in the APSO is done to reduce the uncertainty as the

its inertia. On the other hand the bird flies in the opposite direction iterations proceed [50]. This means that a monotonically decreas-

434 M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438

Ir=1000W/m2 MPP

ð0 < c < 1Þ; where a0 ¼ 0:5 1 is the initial value of the arbitrari- 100 Ir=800W/m2

ness parameter. Here t is the number of iterations or time steps. Ir=600W/m2

Power(Watt)

Ir=400W/m2

0 < c < 1 is a control parameter. For example, in our implementa- 80

tion, we will use a ¼ 0:7t ; wheret 2 ½0; tmax ; and tmax is the maxi- 60

mum of iterations. 40

20

5. Simulation results

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

In this work firstly BP-ANN forecasting technique is compared Voltage(Volt)

with improved ELM result which shows that improved ELM fore-

Fig. 7a. P-V characteristics of PV module for different irradiance and keeping

casting technique performs better than BP-ANN forecasting tech- temperature constant at 25 °C.

nique. To overcome the disadvantages of improved ELM

technique, three methods like PSO-ELM technique, CRPSO-ELM 8

MPP Ir=1000W/m2

technique and the APSO-ELM technique have been studied to per-

Ir=800W/m2

form the short term PV power forecasting process as compared to 6 Ir=600W/m2

Current(Amp)

improved ELM technique. PV power predictions were evaluated in Ir=400W/m2

a case study for an PV ongird generating station installed in roof 4

top of E block of SOA deemed to be university, Bhubaneswar in

Odisha. The measured data were available with 15 min resolution

2

for better study. It is normalized into 30 min and 60 min data for

validation of the process. In this study, we have used 4/5th of the

0

sample datasets which are used as training data and remaining 0 5 10 15 20 25

1/5th data are taken as testing data set. The network is trained Voltage(Volt)

and simulated using MATLAB 10.0. Technical specifications of the

Fig. 7b. I-V characteristics of PV module for different irradiance and keeping

PV module and a detail description of the plants are reported in

temperature constant at 25 °C.

Table 1. Here forecasting of PV power is performed using improve

ELM, PSO-ELM, APSO-ELM and CRPSO-ELM and their results are

compared. 120

Temperature=25 C MPP

Three sets of datas has been taken into consideration for valida- 100 Temperature=30 C

tion purpose. The simulation result is shown below: Temperature=35 C

Power(Watt)

A set of real time PV power data is taken into account to check 80 Temperature=40 C

ent interval with IC MPPT techniques. The P-V and I-V characteris-

40

tics are shown in Figs. 7(a), 8(a) and Figs. 7(b), 8(b) respectively.

The P-V and I-V characteristics changes according to change in irra- 20

diance and temperature. The information about change in maxi- 0

mum power point and the importance of maximum power point 0 5 10 15 20 25

tracking with high accuracy and efficiency can be obtained from Voltage(Volt)

the PV characteristic curves.

Fig. 8a. P-V characteristics of PV module for different temperature and keeping

Case-1 irradiance constant at 1000 W/m2.

In this study both ELM and BP trained ANN are trained by input

training data and testing data are kept to evaluate the performance

of both the techniques by using three error indices for 3 different 8

MPP

time interval of data. The forecasting result has been depicted as

follow. 6

Current(Amp)

Table 1

4

Specification of PV system and module.

Temperature=25 C

System

2 Temperature=30 C

o

Latitude 20 25 Temperature=35 C

Longitude 85o80 Temperature=40 C

Area of SPV plant 106.25 m2 0

0 5 10 15 20 25

Nominal PV Power 11.2 kW

No. of Modules 40 Voltage(Volt)

No. of Modules in series 20

No. of Modules in parallel 2 Fig. 8b. I-V characteristics of PV module for different temperature and keeping

Module irradiance constant at 1000 W/m2.

Area with frame 1.256 m2

5.1. Forecasting performance of ELM model compared with BP-ANN

Thickness 40 mm

Maximum power rating 280 W

technique

Rated current 8A

Rated voltage 35 V The forecasting result shown in Fig. 9(a), (b) and (c) that ELM

Shot Circuit Current 8.68 A forecasting output curve is more fitted over actual PV power curve

Open circuit voltage 43 V

than traditional algorithm (BP-ANN) for 3 different intervals of

*At standard test condition (STC). time data which indicates ELM forecasting model performs better

M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438 435

0.8

Actual BP-ANN ELM Line BP-ANN ELM

0.6

0.6

PV Power (p.u)

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Time sample (15 min)

Actual PV power (p.u)

(a)

(a)

Actual BP-ANN ELM 0.8

Line BP-ANN ELM

0.8

0.6

0.6

PV Power (p.u)

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Time sample (30 min)

Actual PV power (p.u)

(b)

1

(b)

Actual BP-ANN ELM

Line BP-ANN ELM

0.8

0.8

Forecasted PV power (p.u)

0.6

PV Power (p.u)

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Time sample (60 min)

(c) Actual PV power (p.u)

(c)

Fig. 9. Forecasted vs actual PV power for 6 days with different time interval data (a)

15 min, (b) 30 min and (c) 60 min using BP-ANN and ELM. Fig. 10. Correlation plot for different time interval data (a) 15 min, (b) 30 min and

(c) 60 min.

its ability to predict the future value more accurately.

Table 2

Prediction result for ELM compared with BP-ANN.

5.2. Correlation plot of ELM model compared with BP-ANN technique

Time duration ELM BP-ANN

Apparently, the forecasting results of ELM forecasting technique RMSE MAPE (%) MAE RMSE MAPE (%) MAE

performs well with three interval of data and come closer to the 15 min 0.0362 2.9417 0.0294 0.0472 3.62 0.0363

original data series over BP-ANN prediction technique. This can 30 min 0.0510 4.0484 0.0405 0.0607 4.8859 0.0489

60 min 0.0698 5.1780 0.0518 0.0705 5.8977 0.0590

be studied in the correlation plot of forecasted PV power vs actual

PV power, which is demonstrated in Fig. 10(a), (b) and (c) and there Note: The bold value represents the minimum forecasting error among different

error indices have been given in Table 2. Particularly the dashed forecasting model.

straight line shown in the correlation plot specifies that the fore-

casted PV power is identical/equal to the actual PV power; that

is, the farther the points are from the dashed line, it will introduce to enhance its performance we impose different optimization tech-

a huge prediction error into the forecasting model. For ELM fore- niques here to optimize its bias and weight. In this study PSO-ELM,

casting model most points are found nearer to the dashed line CRPSO-ELM and APSO-ELM model forecasting performance was

for all three time interval of data, especially for the 15 min data. compared with ELM for 3 different time interval data the forecast-

This shows that the ELM forecasting model performs well to ing result was depicted follow.

address short term PV power forecasting over traditional forecast-

ing technique (BP-ANN). 5.3. Comparison of forecasting performance optimize ELM with simple

Case-2 ELM

ELM randomly assigns bias and weight, but some demerits of

ELM are in-proper choosing of bias and weight because sometimes The forecasting result shown in Fig. 11(a), (b) and (c) depicts

it converges to local optima also and to avoid these problems and that APSO-ELM forecasting technique outperform than other 3

436 M.K. Behera et al. / Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 21 (2018) 428–438

ELM PSO-ELM CRPSO-ELM APSO-ELM

0.8

5

0.6

PV Power (p.u)

%Error

0.4 0

0.2

-5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

-10

Time sample (15 min) 0 50 100 150 200 250

(a) Time sample (15 min)

1

Actual ELM PSO-ELM CRPSO-ELM APSO-ELM (a)

15

ELM PSO-ELM CRPSO-ELM APSO-ELM

0.8

10

PV Power (p.u)

0.6

5

% Error

0.4 0

0.2 -5

0 -10

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Time sample (30 min)

-15

(b) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

1 Time sample (30 min)

Actual ELM PSO-ELM CRPSO-ELM APSO-ELM

(b)

0.8 ELM PSO-ELM CRPSO-ELM APSO-ELM

20

PV Power (p.u)

0.6

10

0.4

% Error

0

0.2

0 -10

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Time sample (60 min)

(c) -20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Time sample (60 min)

Fig. 11. Forecasted vs actual PV power for 6 days with different time interval data

(a) 15 min, (b) 30 min and (c) 60 min using ELM, PSO-ELM, CRPSO-ELM and APSO-

(c)

ELM.

Fig. 12. Error curves of different PSO optimized ELM with different time interval

data (a) 15 min, (b) 30 min and (c) 60 min.

ent time interval of PV data. Table 3

Comparative forecasting result for optimized ELM compared with ELM.

5.4. Forecasting error curves Forecasting technique Time duration MAPE (%) MAE RMSE

ELM 15 min 2.9417 0.0294 0.0362

The error curve for a short term forecasting of the PV power 30 min 4.0484 0.0405 0.0510

60 min 5.1780 0.0518 0.0698

model using ELM technique based on different particle swarm

PSO-ELM 15 min 2.7736 0.0277 0.0360

optimization technique are shown in the Fig. 12. It is observed that 30 min 3.8339 0.0383 0.0450

the APSO based extreme learning machine forecasting output 60 min 4.7278 0.0473 0.0572

curve fluctuates less over zero error axis than other 3 forecasting CRPSO-ELM 15 min 2.2207 0.0222 0.0295

30 min 3.4669 0.0347 0.0435

technique (ELM, PSO-ELM and CRPSO-ELM) for 3 different time

60 min 4.4723 0.0447 0.0541

interval data. APSO-ELM 15 min 1.4440 0.0144 0.0178

The Fig. 11 show the forecasted PV power for 6 days ahead. The 30 min 3.0622 0.0306 0.0365

estimated errors which are generated from this prediction for IC- 60 min 4.1889 0.0419 0.0534

MPPT with different optimized ELMs are shown in Table 3. From Note: The bold value represents the minimum forecasting error among different

Table 3, it is depicted that the APSO optimization technique with forecasting model.

the ELM forecasting model has better forecasting performance

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nique from 15 min data to 60 min data is 2.94%, 4.04% and 5.17%, The MAPE of CRPSO-ELM with IC MPPT model from 15 min data to

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