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READING

SKILL

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Big Brother by Munshi Prem Chand
My brother was five years elder to me, but only three grades ahead. Not that his tryst with schooling
began late, it surely must been his keen devotion to learning that dissuaded him from any hasty
progress. How could the great monument of knowledge stand tall without a strong foundation? Hence
the motto of spending more than a year in each division.

My upbringing was solely his responsibility and for me, his was obviously the final word. How could I
ever think of defying him? He was so studious … always engrossed in books. I often found fancy cats,
dogs and birds drawn on few pages of his note books…. could well have been his idea of taking a
break perhaps.

Many a times he wrote a single name several times over, or scribbled few sentences that didn’t make
any sense to me. For instance, once I found the following etched in his notebook:

Special, Ameena, brothers, because, Radheshyam, Mr. Radheshyam, one hour…

At the end of this trail was the image of a man. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel
the mystery. Nor did I dare to ask him. He was in the ninth standard; I was only in the fifth
grade…how could I attempt to dissect such intricate stuff?

I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper
butterflies. Climbing up and down the stairs, riding the hostel gate like a motorcar….I had great fun,
but back in the hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.

My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?”

My answer was a meek silence, conveying the acceptance of my crime. He would then caution me in a
flurry of kind and rude words.

“Learn English in this fashion, and you had it. This is no child’s play dear. Slog for months and you
barely get to reach the shore, even scholars never take it easy.

And I ask, do you not see me toiling , poring over books, if you fail to see, that’s your fault. There are
umpteen plays, fairs, cricket matches everyday, have you ever seen me taking a break. And despite this
devotion, I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two years, you will probably spend a
lifetime. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home and play Gulli danda* to your heart’s
content. Why blow Dada’s** hard –earned money for nothing?”

I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was. He would hurt me with such choicest words. For a
second, I would be tempted to give up…why not go home... I was happy being a dullard but god save
me from this struggle…

But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.... to burn the midnight
oil, a new time table sans fun and frolics....

Get up at 6 sharp, finish breakfast… 6 to 8 English, 8 to 9 Math, 9 to 9.30 History, followed by lunch
and school. Back home at 3.30, half an hour rest, 4 to 5 Geography, 5 to 6 Grammar, stroll round the

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hostel half an hour, 6.30 to 7 English composition, followed by dinner, 8 to 9 translations, 9 to 10
Hindi, 10 to 11 revision and then retire to bed. Making a time table is one thing, sticking to it is
another. The breach began from day one. The bouncing football, the fervor of Kabbadi, and the pace of
volleyball all pulled me back to the playground. And gone were all oaths, all resolve …

The annual results were out. I stood first, he failed to clear. Now just two grades separated us. For a
second, I was tempted to confront him right away. “And whatever happened to your penance? What do
we see?”

But his crestfallen face made me think otherwise. Rage made way for compassion. But yes, now I had
a newfound confidence and the guilt was gone for good. Probably, he had guessed it.

Yet, he got his chance one day at the lunch table.

“So you feel you have conquered the world. My dear fellow, this is just the beginning. History is
replete with stories of pride getting the better of the best. Remember what happened to the might of
Ravana – the invincible demon king. What did you learn from his story? "

"Clearing an exam is one thing, knowledge is another. You were lucky this time, but it can’t happen
every time. Don’t judge me by my score, wait till you reach my grade. Algebra and Geometry will
drive you crazy and god save you from the atrocities of British history. Just try remembering emperors
by names. There have been eight Henries alone. Mention Henry the VII as VIII and you lose all marks.
And we have dozens of James and Williams, and countless Charles…where are you dear? And every
name troubles you again with I, II, III, and IV…

Had they asked me for options and I would have thrown up countless names. Why stick to the same
name again and again?

"Geometry is another torture…. write A, B, C as A, C, B and you get a big zero. I just don’t get the
point…Daal, Rice, Chapati or Rice, Daal, Chapati…is it not the same...Then why kill poor students for
the goddamed sequence? But if you want to clear exams, you better suffer this nonsense. Write an
essay on “the value of time” in not less than 400 words. What kind of a joke is that? Common sense
has it --- say what you have to in 3-4 lines and move ahead in life. But no, 400 words please. This is
nothing but anarchy.”

”So you see, my darling brother, you have a long way to go. Don’t float in the air; you will soon land
with a thud. Yes, I have flunked but I am still your elder brother and I know the world better.”

I was getting late for school, waiting for this painful discourse to end. I simply lost my appetite over
his ghastly picture of higher grades.

Somehow, I tugged along, my daily routine intact. Annual exams were round the corner again. I
cleared again, he flunked again…I had no idea how, but I had topped again. And he had miserably
failed…This time, he was in real bad shape…face devoid of color, eyes sunk deep…I felt sorry for
him. And then a wicked thought crossed my mind. One more year and we could end up in the same
grade. no no… How could my mind be so devilish? I crushed the nasty thought.

But now he was no more the same brother I knew. He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears
and generally kept off me. May be, he realized he had lost the right. This made me even more
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independent and I roamed about at will all day long.

One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites. I was one among the army of 10-12 lads
carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could. We
were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. He was probably on his
way back home from the bazaar. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely

“Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. If not anything, have
some respect for your grade. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as
magistrates, collectors, editors, leaders and scholars. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no
doubt, but where's your self-respect?”

“I can read your mind all right. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to
question you. But you are wrong. I am five years elder to you and will always remain so…This truth
will prevail and even God can’t challenge it...whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. "
"And, thanks to the kind of examiners we have these days, that's indeed possible. . ." he added with a
wry smile.

"I have loads of worldly knowledge that’s way above academic grades. Did our Amma*** and Dada
ever go to school? The government in America, constellations in space, wives of Henry the VIII, they
may not know, but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. Tomorrow, if I fall sick, you
will surely panic and send a telegram to Dada, but Dada in your place, would never react like that. He
will first try some home remedy, only if it fails, will he call for a doctor."

"Leave health issues" , he paused for effect to resume again, "those are grave matters, can we plan our
monthly budgets? Every rupee that Dada sends us, does it not vanish by the 22nd of the month? Are
we not left waiting for the next remittance? Did you know that Dada raised a family of nine in less
than half of what we blow up?"

"Look at our headmaster. He has an MA, that too from Oxford. He earns a handsome Rs. 1000 as
salary. But who runs his house? His aged mother. There goes his degree to the bin.

"So you see, do away with that false pride. You are nowhere near me.” He then raised his hand
consumed by rage

“And I will not hesitate to thrash you if need be. I know you’ll hate me for this”

I was speechless and an intense, queer feeling swept over me. I could not bear the sight of my poor
brother, shaking nervously, and losing his mind with every word he uttered. As tears trickled down my
cheeks, I only managed to say,

“No, I don’t hate you, it’s all my undoing. Every word of what you say is true. Please forgive me”
He hugged me instantly. His shaky voice was now barely audible.

“I am not against flying kites, my love. Even I am tempted, but I am helpless. If I take it easy, who will
look after you?’

Just then, we saw a kite above us, utterly helpless, cut reins hanging in shame, on its mournful journey
down. Tall that he was, my brother caught the twine and ran towards the hostel, hapless but fast. I
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followed suit, pacing after him.

To be done in reading:

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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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Vocabulary based on text


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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 5

February

February is the month when, cold-red are the noses--and so (oh help!) are the "toes-es." No one ever
sings about February: scarcely anyone speaks about It. It is indeed unspeakable. Its only benefit is that,
once every four years, it keeps people younger a day longer. If you're thirty-nine, you're thirty-nine for
an extra twenty-four hours, and at that period of life you're glad of any small mercy. It is the month
when the new-rich depart to sun themselves in their new-found sun, and the new-poor, and others who
are quite used to poverty, swear at them in secret. Oh, yes, indeed! If the Clerk of the Weather has a
left ear it must surely at this moment be as 'ot as 'ell! Nobody likes February--it is the step-child of the
months.
One simply lives through it as one lives through a necessary duty. It's a month--and that's all. Thank
Heaven! somebody once made it the shortest! By the end of January most people have had more than
enough of the English Winter even if the English Winter thinks we can ever have enough of it, and
comes back saying "Hello!" to us right into Summer, and starts ringing us up, as it were, to tell us it's
coming back again as early as October. Just as if we didn't know--just as if we ever wanted to know!
The English Summer is far more modest. Usually it's gone before we have, so to speak, washed our
hands, tidied our hair, and dressed ourselves up to meet it. But Winter in England not only comes
before it is wanted, but outstays its welcome by weeks. And of all the months it brings with it,
February, though the shortest, seems to linger longest. March may be colder, but the first day of Spring
is marked on its calendar; and we wait for it like we wait for a lover--a lover in whose embrace we
may not yet be, but who is, as it were, downstairs washing his hands, he has arrived, he is here--and so
we can endure the suspense of waiting for him with a grin. April may fill the dykes fuller than
February, whose skies are supposed to weep all day long, but generally only succeed in dribbling, but
April belongs to Spring--even though our face and hands and feet are still in Mid-Winter.
February always reminds me of the suburbs--appalling but you've got to go through them to get to
London. Were I a rich man, I would follow Spring round the World. In that way I should be able to
smile through life like those people who, in snapshots from the Riviera, seem composed principally of
wide grins and thin legs, and whose joie de vivre is usually published in English illustrated journals in
seasons when the English weather makes you feel that Life is just a Big Damn in a mackintosh. To
follow Spring round the world would be like following a mistress whose charms never palled, whose
welcome was never too warm to be sultry, whose friendship was never too cold to freeze further
promise of intimacy. What a delightful chase! and what a sweet-tempered man I should be! For, say
what you will, the weather has a lot to do with that spotless robe of white which is supposed to
envelop saints. If you can't be pure and good and generous and altogether delightful in the Spring, you
might as well write yourself off for evermore among the ignoble army of the eternally disgruntled.
And if you _can_ be all these things in weather that is typically English and typically February, then a
hat would surely hide your halo.
And this is about all the good that February does, so far as I can see. True, once in four years it also
allows old maids to propose. But the three years when they had to wait to be asked have usually taken
all their courage out of them. Besides, the married people and others who are otherwise hooked and
secure have turned even that benefit into a joke--and no woman likes to place all her heart-yearnings at
the mercy of a laugh. So that, what Leap-Year once allowed, people have turned into a jeer. But then,
that is all part and parcel of February. Somebody once tried their best to make it as attractive as

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possible, even if it could only be so once every four years. But everybody else has since done their
best to rob it of its one little bit of anaemic joy. Perhaps we ought not to blame them! Nobody ought to
be blamed in February. It is a month which brings out the very worst in everybody.

To be done in reading:

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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 9

Letters of Bhagat Singh


Letter to I.G. (Prisons), Punjab
[Prelude to a prolonged struggle in jail on the demand of a better treatment.]
Mianwali Jail
17 June, 1929
To
The Inspector-General(Jails),
Punjab Jails,
Lahore
DEAR SIR,
Despite the fact that I will be prosecuted along with other youngmen arrested in Saunders shooting
case, I have been shifted to Mianwali Jail from Delhi. The hearing of the case is to start from 26 June,
1929. I am totally unable to understand the logic behind this kind of shifting. Whatever it be, justice
demands that every under trial should be given all those facilities which help him to prepare and
contest the case. How can I appoint any lawyer while I am here? It is difficult to keep on the contact
with my father and other relatives. This place is quite isolated, the route is troublesome and it is very
far from Lahore.
I request you that you order my immediate transfer to Lahore Central Jail so that I get an opportunity
to prepare my case. I hope that it will be given the earliest consideration.
Yours truly
Bhagat Singh
Letter to B.K. Dutt
[This letter gives an idea as to what Bhagat Singh expected from those comrades who would escape
capital punishment.]
Central Jail, Lahore
November, 1930
DEAR BROTHER,
The judgement has been delivered. I am condemned to death. In these cells, besides myself, there are
many others prisoners who are waiting to be hanged. The only prayer of these people is that somehow
or other they may escape the moose. Perhaps I am the only man amongst them who is anxiously
waiting for the day when I will be fortunate enough to embrace the gallows for my ideal.
I will climb the gallows gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the revolutionaries can
sacrifice themselves for the cause.
I will condemned to death, but you are sentenced to transportation for life. You will live and, while
living, you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die for their ideals but can
face every calamity. Death should not be a means to escape the worldly difficulties. Those
revolutionaries who have by chance escaped the gallows for the ideal but also bear the worst type o
tortures in the dark dingy prison cells.
Yours
Bhagat Singh

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Bhagat Singh's last petition
To
The Punjab Governor
Sir,
With due respect we beg to bring to your kind notice the following:
That we were sentenced to death on 7th October 1930 by a British Court, L.C.C Tribunal, constituted
under the Sp. Lahore Conspiracy Case Ordinance, promulgated by the H.E. The Viceroy, the Head of
the British Government of India, and that the main charge against us was that of having waged war
against H.M. King George, the King of England.
The above-mentioned finding of the Court pre-supposed two things:
Firstly, that there exists a state of war between the British Nation and the Indian Nation and, secondly,
that we had actually participated in that war and were therefore war prisoners.
The second pre-supposition seems to be a little bit flattering, but nevertheless it is too tempting to
resist the desire of acquiescing in it.
As regards the first, we are constrained to go into some detail. Apparently there seems to be no such
war as the phrase indicates. Nevertheless, please allow us to accept the validity of the pre-supposition
taking it at its face value. But in order to be correctly understood we must explain it further. Let us
declare that the state of war does exist and shall exist so long as the Indian toiling masses and the
natural resources are being exploited by a handful of parasites. They may be purely British Capitalist
or mixed British and Indian or even purely Indian. They may be carrying on their insidious
exploitation through mixed or even on purely Indian bureaucratic apparatus. All these things make no
difference. No matter, if your Government tries and succeeds in winning over the leaders of the upper
strata of the Indian Society through petty concessions and compromises and thereby cause a temporary
demoralization in the main body of the forces. No matter, if once again the vanguard of the Indian
movement, the Revolutionary Party, finds itself deserted in the thick of the war. No matter if the
leaders to whom personally we are much indebted for the sympathy and feelings they expressed for us,
but nevertheless we cannot overlook the fact that they did become so callous as to ignore and not to
make a mention in the peace negotiation of even the homeless, friendless and penniless of female
workers who are alleged to be belonging to the vanguard and whom the leaders consider to be enemies
of their utopian non-violent cult which has already become a thing of the past; the heroines who had
ungrudgingly sacrificed or offered for sacrifice their husbands, brothers, and all that were nearest and
dearest to them, including themselves, whom your government has declared to be outlaws. No matter,
it your agents stoop so low as to fabricate baseless calumnies against their spotless characters to
damage their and their party's reputation. The war shall continue.
It may assume different shapes at different times. It may become now open, now hidden, now purely
agitational, now fierce life and death struggle. The choice of the course, whether bloody or
comparatively peaceful, which it should adopt rests with you. Choose whichever you like. But that war
shall be incessantly waged without taking into consideration the petty (illegible) and the meaningless
ethical ideologies. It shall be waged ever with new vigour, greater audacity and unflinching
determination till the Socialist Republic is established and the present social order is completely
replaced by a new social order, based on social prosperity and thus every sort of exploitation is put an
end to and the humanity is ushered into the era of genuine and permanent peace. In the very near
future the final battle shall be fought and final settlement arrived at.
The days of capitalist and imperialist exploitation are numbered. The war neither began with us nor is
it going to end with our lives. It is the inevitable consequence of the historic events and the existing
environments. Our humble sacrifices shall be only a link in the chain that has very accurately been
beautified by the unparalleled sacrifice of Mr. Das and most tragic but noblest sacrifice of Comrade
Bhagawati Charan and the glorious death of our dear warrior Azad.
As to the question of our fates, please allow us to say that when you have decided to put us to death,
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you will certainly do it. You have got the power in your hands and the power is the greatest
justification in this world. We know that the maxim "Might is right" serves as your guiding motto. The
whole of our trial was just a proof of that. We wanted to point out that according to the verdict of your
court we had waged war and were therefore war prisoners. And we claim to be treated as such, i.e., we
claim to be shot dead instead of to be hanged. It rests with you to prove that you really meant what
your court has said.
We request and hope that you will very kindly order the military department to send its detachment to
perform our execution.
Yours'
BHAGAT SINGH

To be done in reading:

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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 13

Panchatantra Story – Union is Strength

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11
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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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LECTURE - 19

Walk for Water grows longer

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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

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LECTURE – 23

A speech by Gandhi
Address at Kingsley Hall
delivered 17 October 1931, London

[AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio]

There is an indefinable mysterious power that pervades everything. I feel it, though I do not see it. It is this unseen power
which makes itself felt and yet defies all proof because it is so unlike all that I perceive through my senses. It transcends
the senses.
But it is possible to reason out the existence of god to an [unintelligible] exchange. Even in ordinary affairs we know that
people do not know who rules, or why, and how he rules. And yet they know that there is a power that certainly rules.
In my tour last year in Mysore I met many poor villagers and I found upon inquiry that they did not know who ruled
Mysore. They simple said some god ruled it. If the knowledge of these poor people was so limited about their ruler, I, who
am infinitely lesser in respect to god than they to their ruler need not be surprised if I do not realize the presence of god, the
king of kings.
Nevertheless I do feel as the poor villagers felt about Mysore, that there is orderliness in the universe. There is an
unalterable law governing everything and every being that exists or lives. It is not a blind law, for no blind law can govern
the conduct of living beings. And thanks to the marvelous researches of Sir J.C. Bose, it can now be proved that even
matter is life.
That law then which governs all life is god. Law and the lawgiver are one. I may not deny the law or the lawgiver because I
know so little about it or him, just as my denial or ignorance of the existence of an earthly power will avail me
nothing. Even so, my denial of god and his law will not liberate me from its operation. Whereas, humble and mute
acceptance of divine authority makes life’s journey easier even as the acceptance of earthly rule makes life under it easier.
I do dimly perceive that whilst everything around me is ever dying, ever guiding, there is underlying all that change a
living power that is changeless, that holds all together; that creates, dissolves, and recreates. That informing power of spirit
is god. And since nothing else that I see merely through the senses can or will persist, he alone is.
And if this power is benevolent or malevolent, I see it as purely benevolent. For, I can see that in the midst of death, life
persists. In the midst of untruth, truth persists. In the midst of darkness, light persists. Hence I gather that god is life, truth,
light. He is love. He is the supreme good. But, he is no god who merely satisfies the intellect, if he ever does. God to be
god must rule the heart and transform it. He must express himself in ever smallest act of his [goodery?]. This can only be
done through a definite realization more real than the fives senses can ever prove use.
Sense perceptions can be and often are false and deceptive however real they may appear to us. Where there is realization
outside the senses it is [imperial?], it is proved not by extreme extraneous evidence, but in the transformed conduct and
character of those who have felt the real presence of god within. Such testimony is to be found in the experiences of an
unbroken line of prophets and sages in all countries and climes. To reject this evidence is to deny oneself. This realization
is preceded by an immovable faith. He who would in his own person, test the fact of god’s presence can do so by a living
faith.
And since faith itself cannot be proved by extraneous evidence, the safest course is to believe in the moral government of
the world and therefore in the supremacy of the moral law, the law of truth and love. Exercise of faiths will be the safest
where there is the clear determination summarily to reject all that is contrary to truth and love.
I confess that I have no argument to convince through reason. Faith transcends reason. All that I can advise is not to
attempt the impossible.

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To be done in reading:

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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

18
LECTURE – 27

Evelyn Hope
Evelyn Hope by Robert Browning
Beautiful Evelyn Hope is dead!
Sit and watch by her side an hour.
That is her book-shelf, this her bed;
She plucked that piece of geranium-flower,
Beginning to die too, in the glass;
Little has yet been changed, I think:
The shutters are shut, no light may pass
Save two long rays thro' the hinge's chink.

Sixteen years old when she died!


Perhaps she had scarcely heard my name; 10
It was not her time to love; beside,
Her life had many a hope and aim,
Duties enough and little cares,
And now was quiet, now astir,
Till God's hand beckoned unawares,--
And the sweet white brow is all of her.

Is it too late then, Evelyn Hope?


What, your soul was pure and true,
The good stars met in your horoscope,
Made you of spirit, fire and dew-- 20
And just because I was thrice as old
And our paths in the world diverged so wide,

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Each was naught to each, must I be told?
We were fellow mortals, naught beside?

No, indeed! for God above


Is great to grant, as mighty to make,
And creates the love to reward the love:
I claim you still, for my own love's sake!
Delayed it may be for more lives yet,
Thro' worlds I shall traverse, not a few: 30
Much is to learn, much, to forget
Ere the time be come for taking you.

But the time will come, at last it will,


When, Evelyn Hope, what meant (I shall say)
In the lower earth in the years long still,
That body and soul so pure and gay?
Why your hair was amber, I shall divine,
And your mouth of your own geranium's red--
And what would you do with me, in fine,
In the new life come in the old one's stead. 40

I have lived (I shall say) so much since then,


Given up myself so many times,
Gained me the gains of various men,
Ransacked the ages, spoiled the climes;
Yet one thing, one, in my soul's full scope,
Either I missed or itself missed me:
And I want and find you, Evelyn Hope!
What is the issue? let us see!

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I loved you, Evelyn, all the while!
My heart seemed full as it could hold; 50
There was place and to spare for the frank young smile,
And the red young mouth, and the hair's young gold.
So hush,--I will give you this leaf to keep:
See, I shut it inside the sweet cold hand!
There, that is our secret: go to sleep!
You will wake, and remember, and understand.

Vocabulary Exercise

Q1: Give the meanings of the following words and use them in sentences.

Hinge
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Chink
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Astir
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Beckon
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Diverge
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Naught
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Traverse
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Stead
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Ransacked
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

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To be done in reading:

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For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
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Vocabulary based on text


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WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

22
LECTURE – 31
Casabianca
The boy stood on the burning deck
Whence all but he had fled;
The flame that lit the battle's wreck
Shone round him o'er the dead.
Yet beautiful and bright he stood,
As born to rule the storm;
A creature of heroic blood,
A proud, though child-like form.

The flames rolled on–he would not go


Without his Father's word;
That father, faint in death below,
His voice no longer heard.

He called aloud–'say, Father, say


If yet my task is done?'
He knew not that the chieftain lay
Unconscious of his son.

'Speak, father!' once again he cried,


'If I may yet be gone!'
And but the booming shots replied,
And fast the flames rolled on.

Upon his brow he felt their breath,


And in his waving hair,
And looked from that lone post of death
In still yet brave despair.

And shouted but once more aloud,


'My father! must I stay?'
While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud,
The wreathing fires made way.

They wrapt the ship in splendour wild,


They caught the flag on high,
And streamed above the gallant child,
Like banners in the sky.

There came a burst of thunder sound–


The boy–oh! where was he?
Ask of the winds that far around
With fragments strewed the sea!–

With mast, and helm, and pennon fair,


That well had borne their part–
But the noblest thing which perished there
Was that young faithful heart.

23
To be done in reading:

Word Antonym Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text


For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading

Vocabulary based on text


To be done in speaking
WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE SENTENCE
DICTIONARY

24
SPEAKING
SKILL

25
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE -2

Big Brother

Vocabulary exercises based on text:

1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.


Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short
story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

26
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

3. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]


Beautifully[adverb]
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________

1based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or
paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to tell the
mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________

27
SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings

1. Spellings
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

2. Antonyms
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

3. Synonym
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

4. Sentence formation
_______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
________

5. Forms (if verb)


________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________

6. Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism]


________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

7. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
______

8. Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual
vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
28
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

9. Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice)
__ __ __ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

10. In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place
Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
________

11. Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column with
the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence
of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No
word can be repeated in any column.

3-letter verbs 5-letter verbs 3-letter adjectives 5-letter adjectives

___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________


___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________

29
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

1. Summarize the story

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
__

2. Prepare a short skit on the text .


___________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________

3. What would you change if you had to rewrite the story.


___________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_____________

4. Who is your favorite character in the story and why?


____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
5. Write the names of the characters on play cards, distribute them among

30
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Students and randomly pick any two for role play.


___________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________

6. What touched you the most in the story?


___________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

Tense check based on text-

1. GD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.


____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
________________

2. Batting and Bowling

Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers)

31
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

3.The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same .
in past or vice versa
___________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________

Questions Based On Text :-

1.. Role Play- The narrator and his brother.


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

2. Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred
with the passage of time.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

32
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

3. Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________

4. Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful.


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________

5. Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

33
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 6
February

Vocabulary exercises based on text:


1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.
Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short
story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

3. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
34
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

4. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]


Beautifully[adverb]
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________
____________ ____________ ________________

Exercise based on Vocabulary - Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short
story or paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to
tell the mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________

35
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings

Spellings
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Antonyms
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Synonym
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Sentence formation
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________

Forms (if verb)


________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________

Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism]


________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.


_______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual
vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.
_______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

36
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice)
__ __ __ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place

Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column with the last
letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence of words would
be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No word can be repeated in
any column.

3-letter verbs 5-letter verbs 3-letter adjectives 5-letter adjectives

___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________


___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ ____________________ _________________

37
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Summarize the Essay


__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

What interested you the most in the essay ?


__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Tense check based on text-


GD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Batting and Bowling

Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers)

38
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________

Questions Based On Text :-

1. Why does the month of February bring out the very worst in every body? Discuss.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

2. Which is your favorite month of the year and why?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. How is February in India different from the February in England?


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

39
4. Which all celebrations come in the month of February and how do you celebrate them?

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

40
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 10, 14

Visual based (3 based on famous speeches and 3 based on current events )

Franklin Delano Roosevelt


The Great Arsenal of Democracy

My friends:
This is not a fireside chat on war. It is a talk on national security; because the nub of the whole purpose
of your President is to keep you now, and your children later, and your grandchildren much later, out
of a last-ditch war for the preservation of American independence, and all of the things that American
independence means to you and to me and to ours.
Tonight, in the presence of a world crisis, my mind goes back eight years to a night in the midst of a
domestic crisis. It was a time when the wheels of American industry were grinding to a full stop, when
the whole banking system of our country had ceased to function. I well remember that while I sat in
my study in the White House, preparing to talk with the people of the United States, I had before my
eyes the picture of all those Americans with whom I was talking. I saw the workmen in the mills, the
mines, the factories, the girl behind the counter, the small shopkeeper, the farmer doing his spring
plowing, the widows and the old men wondering about their life's savings. I tried to convey to the
great mass of American people what the banking crisis meant to them in their daily lives.
Tonight, I want to do the same thing, with the same people, in this new crisis which faces America. We
met the issue of 1933 with courage and realism. We face this new crisis, this new threat to the security
of our nation, with the same courage and realism. Never before since Jamestown and Plymouth Rock
has our American civilization been in such danger as now. For on September 27th, 1940 -- this year --
by an agreement signed in Berlin, three powerful nations, two in Europe and one in Asia, joined
themselves together in the threat that if the United States of America interfered with or blocked the
41
expansion program of these three nations -- a program aimed at world control -- they would unite in
ultimate action against the United States.
The Nazi masters of Germany have made it clear that they intend not only to dominate all life and
thought in their own country, but also to enslave the whole of Europe, and then to use the resources of
Europe to dominate the rest of the world. It was only three weeks ago that their leader stated this:
"There are two worlds that stand opposed to each other." And then in defiant reply to his opponents he
said this: "Others are correct when they say: 'With this world we cannot ever reconcile ourselves.''' I
can beat any other power in the world." So said the leader of the Nazis.
In other words, the Axis not merely admits but the Axis proclaims that there can be no ultimate peace
between their philosophy -- their philosophy of government -- and our philosophy of government. In
view of the nature of this undeniable threat, it can be asserted, properly and categorically, that the
United States has no right or reason to encourage talk of peace until the day shall come when there is a
clear intention on the part of the aggressor nations to abandon all thought of dominating or conquering
the world.
At this moment the forces of the States that are leagued against all peoples who live in freedom are
being held away from our shores. The Germans and the Italians are being blocked on the other side of
the Atlantic by the British and by the Greeks, and by thousands of soldiers and sailors who were able
to escape from subjugated countries. In Asia the Japanese are being engaged by the Chinese nation in
another great defense. In the Pacific Ocean is our fleet.
Some of our people like to believe that wars in Europe and in Asia are of no concern to us. But it is a
matter of most vital concern to us that European and Asiatic war-makers should not gain control of the
oceans which lead to this hemisphere. One hundred and seventeen years ago the Monroe Doctrine was
conceived by our government as a measure of defense in the face of a threat against this hemisphere
by an alliance in Continental Europe. Thereafter, we stood guard in the Atlantic, with the British as
neighbors. There was no treaty. There was no "unwritten agreement." And yet there was the feeling,
proven correct by history, that we as neighbors could settle any disputes in peaceful fashion. And the
fact is that during the whole of this time the Western Hemisphere has remained free from aggression
from Europe or from Asia.
Does anyone seriously believe that we need to fear attack anywhere in the Americas while a free
Britain remains our most powerful naval neighbor in the Atlantic? And does anyone seriously believe,
on the other hand, that we could rest easy if the Axis powers were our neighbors there? If Great Britain
goes down, the Axis powers will control the Continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, Austral-Asia, and the
high seas. And they will be in a position to bring enormous military and naval resources against this
hemisphere. It is no exaggeration to say that all of us in all the Americas would be living at the point
of a gun -- a gun loaded with explosive bullets, economic as well as military. We should enter upon a
new and terrible era in which the whole world, our hemisphere included, would be run by threats of
brute force. And to survive in such a world, we would have to convert ourselves permanently into a
militaristic power on the basis of war economy.

42
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Questions based on Text


Q1. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the
world war?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________
Q2. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war. Comment on this statement in
the light of the above speech.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________
Q3. Discuss the role of america in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the
present scenario.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

43
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Martin Luther King, Jr.


"I Have a Dream"

My friends:
I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration
for freedom in the history of our nation.
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the
Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions
of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak
to end the long night of their captivity.
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is
still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years
later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity.
One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds
himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.
In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote
the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a
promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes,
black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and
44
the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note,
insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has
given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are
insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this
check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.
We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now.
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the
Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and
equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro
needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to
business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted
his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation
until the bright day of justice emerges.
The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust
of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have
come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their
freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.
We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.
We cannot turn back.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you
have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest --
quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police
brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that
unearned suffering is redemptive.
Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.
And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream
deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold
these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."
I have a dream today!
And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new
meaning:
My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.
Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,
From every mountainside, let freedom ring!
And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.
And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.
Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

45
Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

But not only that:


Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every
hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's
children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join
hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:
Free at last! Free at last!
Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!
Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not
only to America but to the entire world.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

Q2. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Do you find similarity with the
dream of Mahatma Gandhi.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

46
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words.


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

47
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Mary Fisher
1992 Republican National Convention Address
Delivered 19 August 1992, Houston, TX

Less than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City, I asked the Republican Party
to lift the shroud of silence which has been draped over the issue of HIV and AIDS. I have come
tonight to bring our silence to an end. I bear a message of challenge, not self-congratulation. I
want your attention, not your applause.
I would never have asked to be HIV positive, but I believe that in all things there is a purpose; and I
stand before you and before the nation gladly. The reality of AIDS is brutally clear. Two hundred
thousand Americans are dead or dying. A million more are infected. Worldwide, forty million, sixty
million, or a hundred million infections will be counted in the coming few years. But despite science
and research, White House meetings, and congressional hearings, despite good intentions and bold
initiatives, campaign slogans, and hopeful promises, it is -- despite it all -- the epidemic which is
winning tonight.
In the context of an election year, I ask you, here in this great hall, or listening in the quiet of your
home, to recognize that AIDS virus is not a political creature. It does not care whether you are
Democrat or Republican; it does not ask whether you are black or white, male or female, gay or
straight, young or old.
Tonight, I represent an AIDS community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every
segment of American society. Though I am white and a mother, I am one with a black infant struggling
with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital. Though I am female and contracted this disease in marriage and
enjoy the warm support of my family, I am one with the lonely gay man sheltering a flickering candle
from the cold wind of his family’s rejection.
This is not a distant threat. It is a present danger. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among
women and children. Largely unknown a decade ago, AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult
Americans today. But it won’t be third for long, because unlike other diseases, this one travels.
Adolescents don’t give each other cancer or heart disease because they believe they are in love, but
HIV is different; and we have helped it along. We have killed each other with our ignorance, our
prejudice, and our silence.
Q1. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race ,
gender, country , or region but looms large.
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Q2. Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.
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Headlines
Students to see the visuals of the news headlines and speak on them
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE-18

Revision of all modules worksheets to be given for practice

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE -20
Cartoon based Stories
Resources of Tom and Jerry and other Cartoons to be taken in Pendrive / DVD

Exercise – 1

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

EXERCISE: 2

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

EXERCISE: 3

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Picture1_____________________________________________________________________
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

EXERCISE: 4

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

EXERCISE: 5

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Picture1_____________________________________________________________________
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 24
Oral presentation on idiomatic and proverbial expressions
Teacher to choose idioms / proverbs from the given resources (list already
given in lecture- 21) and assign each student one idiom / proverb to speak
upon

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE -28
Role play (based on social news , real events and stories)

Q1: Suppose you want to be a model and you are just on the verge of leaving your family to
fulfil your dreams and suddenly on the TV set the news of Viveka’s suicide is flashed and
members of your family start reacting otherwise and forbid you from going. Enact the given
situation while playing various role viz. father, mother, you, newsreader, sibling etc
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Q2: Enact a court scene depicting Kasab in dock and trying to justify himself.
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Q3: Create a scene of ‘Apki kacheri’ with any social issue.
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Q4: Enact the scene from ‘Big Brother’ while introducing 2-3 more characters(fictitious).
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 32

PPT presentations on the themes emerging from text and speeches


Students/ Teacher to choose themes from texts , movies, advertisements etc and
prepare PPTs
Teacher to provide list of themes
Students to write points only for preparation of PPTs
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 35
Oral presentation on idiomatic and proverbial expressions
Teacher to choose idioms / proverbs from the given resources (list already
given in lecture- 21) and assign each student one idiom / proverb to speak
upon

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GRAMMAR

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE-3

Commas, Full stop, Colon, Semi colon, Inverted Commas,


Interrogative and Apostrophes
PUNCTUATION

I. Practice Exercises :-

Look at the following sentences. Each sentence has at least one apostrophe missing
somewhere. Try to decide which words need an apostrophe and then write the sentence
correctly. Hint: some of the gaps have been put there just to fool you!

1. I ask_ed her if she_s coming to see us this weekend.

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2. Fred_s the talles_t boy in his class but he still can_t reach top shelf.

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3. You_d better hurry or we_ll be late for rehearsal_s.

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4. Apple_s are cheap this year so we_re expecting Grandma to be baking lot_s of pies.

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5. It wasn_t that he couldn_t play card_s, it_s just that he didn_t enjoy any indoor game_s.

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6. They_d once live_d in London_s West End but now they_ve moved to the country_side.

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7. Jenny doesn_t care for women_s_ clothes but prefer_s to wear a shirt and jean_s.

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8. You_re going to have an accident if you don_t put that knife down.

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65
9. There_s a chance that Graham_s match will be cancelled as the weather_s expected to get
worse.

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10. We_d like to go to the we_dding but we_re sitting an exam on that day

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II. Here is a leaflet that was pushed through my door. I've copied it out exactly as it's printed
except that I've removed the name of the company and their telephone number.
You will see that the information is perfectly understandable and as a piece of communication
it works adequately in getting over its message. However the number of mistakes does tend to
make it seem rather unprofessional. See if you can spot all the errors and then try to write an
improved version of the leaflet.

IMPORTANT NOTICE There is an estimated 35,000 tones of rubbish abandoned in our


homes, garages, sheds and yards. Last year 11480 ton ended up on our streets and ally ways.
We appreciate that a lot of people have not got the facilities to get to there local tip as a result a
free I.T. and metal collection service has been organized in conjunction with xxxxx waste
collections for your area on THURSDAY 8 APRIL we hope that this gives you enough time to
sort out anything that you would like to be taken away all you have to do is place any items
mentioned out side your gate collection will start 9 oclock we will take away any computer
equipment ie towers, printers, scanners, photocopiers, keyboards etc etc basically eny computer
equipment you want taking away . We will take away all your unwanted metal ie old cookers,
washers, dryers, car batteries, old bicycles, lawnmowers, hovers basically anything with metal
in it will be taken away for you free of charge the only exception to this is T.V’s, fridges and
fridge freezers these items are classed as hazardous waste and will be taken away by contacting
your local council the council will charge you for taking items away if you have any queries
please do no hesitate to call us on xxxxxxxxxxxxxx this service is free all we ask is that you
help us to keep your town tidy thank you for your time we hope you take advantage of this
service

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III. Provide the missing commas in the passage below (14 commas altogether):

Women's Studies is now established as an important field of study and research across the
globe. First appearing in the United States in the second half of the 1960s courses and degree
programs rapidly emerged in other Western countries and in other parts of the world. The
emergence of Women's Studies at this time was linked to the political movement and practice
of feminism. Women mainly those who were white and from the West began more vocally to
challenge the discrimination which made them unequal to men in areas such as education
employment and domestic responsibilities. Women's Studies became linked to the educational
wing of feminism in two ways. First it was pointed out that women tended to be invisible
inmost academic research and teaching where the emphasis appeared to be on important men
and men's ideas and interests. Second there was a questioning of the ways in which knowledge
was conventionally obtained with the associated criticism that the methods concepts and
theories deployed were irrelevant to and in fact helped to conceal the lives and experiences of
women. Women's Studies activists and scholars aimed to rectify the situation. This was to be
done by providing information and analyses about the lives of women so that they could be
used to initiate social changes that would end gender inequality. Linked to this was the need to
develop new ways of thinking about doing research and constructing
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IV. Put in the inverted commas wherever required:


1. I went to see that film yesterday, said Beth.
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2. Pete added The meeting about the play is next week.


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3. Don’t forget to learn your spellings said Mrs Cryer.
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4. Look out! cried the man.
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5. Be careful whispered Rob or we’ll wake the giant.
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6. am ready she said. We must go to the hospital now.
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Hello Adam called Mr Butcher peering over his front gate just in time to see the tall boy walking
past Adam smiled Hi Mr Butcher How are you Not so good Adam its hard work gardening with
my bad knees the old man added sadly Would you like some help asked Adam Well that would
be grand said Mr Butcher gratefully Lucy yelled Adam as his sister ran out of the house next door
Hi Lucy shouted back what’s happening
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Playing with speech

Read the following extract from a play. Then write it out as a story with direct speech,, using
inverted commas and the correct punctuation.
[Enter Julia. Wanders into the stable yard, and spots Brian cleaning
some riding equipment.]
JULIA: Are you busy today, Brian?
BRIAN [looks over shoulder at Julia] : I’ve got to get everything ready for the show on Saturday.
Is there something you want?
JULIA [cautiously, walks over to Brian] : Well, I’ve got to go into town later to fetch my car. It’s
been in the garage for a service.
BRIAN [straightens up and looks directly at Julia] : And you were wondering if I would give you
a lift?
JULIA: Absolutely! Would you mind?
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Punctuate the passage given below:

It was a bright cold day in april and the clocks were striking thirteen winston smith his chin
nuzzled into his breast in an effort to escape the vile wind slipped quickly through the glass doors
of victory mansions though not quickly enough to prevent a swirl of gritty dust from entering
along with him the hallway smelt of boiled cabbage and old rag mats at one end of it a coloured
poster too large for indoor display had been tacked to the wall it depicted simply an enormous face
more than a metre wide the face of a man of about forty-five with a heavy black moustache and
ruggedly handsome features winston made for the stairs it was no use trying the lift even at the
best of times it was seldom working and at present the electric current was cut off during daylight
hours it was part of the economy drive in preparation for hate week the flat was seven flights up
and winston who was thirty-nine and had a varicose ulcer above his right ankle went slowly resting
several times on the way on each landing opposite the lift-shaft the poster with the enormous face
gazed from the wall it was one of those pictures which are so contrived that the eyes follow you
about when you move BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU the caption beneath it ran

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VIII. Correct or incorrect? If incorrect, revise.

1. Should she vote for Jane Doe?

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2. The question was, Should she vote for Jane Doe?

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3. The question was whether she should vote for Jane Doe?

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4. The question was: Should she vote for Jane Doe?

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69
5. She slept?

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6. The question was, Did she sleep?

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7. The question was did she sleep?

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8. The question was: Did she sleep?

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IX. Some of the sentences given below have been wrongly punctuated. Rectify.

1. She wanted to vote for Jane Do, but Jane Doe was not running for office.

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2. She changed her mind and voted for Josie Doakes.

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3. The votes were counted and a winner was declared.

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4. The votes were counted, and a winner was declared.

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5. She intended to vote for Jane Doe, however Jane Doe was not running for office.

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6. She intended to vote for Jane Doe; however poor a candidate Jane Doe was.

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7. The wind blew; the rain fell.

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70
8. It wasn’t her fault: she was asleep.

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9. It wasn’t her fault—she was asleep.

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10. They came to the party, they drank every bit of beer they could find, they staggered out at

midnight to look for another party.

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11. They came, they drank, they left.

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12. They came, they drank.

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Punctuate the following:

1. Marys office is on the third floor.

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2. Please study the list of dos and donts.

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3. The Canadian Centre for Studies in Publishing CCSP is located at 515 West Hastings Street

Vancouver BC V6B 5K3.

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4. The song Mr Sandman is one of my all time favourites.

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5. It is not to be confused however with Neil Gaimans dark graphic The Sandman a finely crafted

series.

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6. I read fiction non-fiction poetry and literary criticism.


71
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7. I read fiction non-fiction poetry literary criticism everything.

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8. She approached her work in a thoughtful conscientious careful fashion.

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9. On February 2 2007 Ground Hog Day will be celebrated in Topeka Kansas and in Winnipeg

Manitoba among other places.

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10. That dinner is so important (to Dinah anyway) that no one should miss it.

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11. The sign said Keep Off the Grass

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12. Most of the time she slept heavily occasionally she stirred.

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13. They visited Phoenix Arizona Las Vegas Nevada and Dallas Texas

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14. She jumped a foot that gunshot was loud.

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15. The playlist included such hits as Up On the Roof and Midnight Train to Georgia.

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16. He wrote a book, Ice and Fire, Dispatches from the New World.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Pictures for Punctuation :-


1. Write sentences using appropriate punctuation to express the emotions visible in the
pictures :-
PIC 1

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PIC 2

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PIC 3

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PIC 7

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 7, 11
Words Commonly Mis - spelt

A absence abundance accessible accidentally acclaim accommodate accomplish accordion


accumulate achievement acquaintance acquire acquitted across address advertisement advice
advise affect alleged amateur analysis analyze annual apartment apparatus apparent
appearance arctic argument ascend atheist athletic attendance auxiliary
B balloon barbecue bargain basically beggar beginning belief believe beneficial benefit
biscuit boundaries business

C calendar camouflage candidate Caribbean category cemetery challenge changeable


changing characteristic chief choose chose cigarette climbed clothes clothing cloth
collectible colonel column coming commission committee commitment comparative
competent completely concede conceivable conceive condemn condescend conscience
conscientious conscious consistent continuous controlled controversial controversy
convenient correlate correspondence counselor courteous courtesy criticize criticism

D deceive defendant deferred definitely definition dependent descend describe description


desirable despair desperate develop dictionary difference dilemma dining disappearance
disappoint disastrous discipline disease dispensable dissatisfied dominant drunkenness

E easily ecstasy effect efficiency eighth either eligible eliminate embarrass emperor
encouragement enemy encouraging entirely environment equipped equivalent especially
exaggerate exceed excellence exhaust existence existent expense experience experiment
explanation extremely exuberance

F facsimile fallacious fallacy familiar fascinating feasible February fictitious fiery finally
financially fluorescent forcibly foreign forfeit formerly foresee forty fourth fuelling fulfill
fundamentally

G gauge generally genius government governor grammar grievous guarantee guardian


guerrilla guidance

H handkerchief happily harass height heinous hemorrhage heroes hesitancy hindrance


hoarse hoping humorous hygiene hypocrisy hypocrite

I ideally idiosyncrasy ignorance imaginary immediately implement incidentally incredible


independence independent indicted indispensable inevitable influential information inoculate
insurance intelligence interference interrupt introduce irrelevant irresistible island

J jealousy judicial

K knowledge

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L laboratory laid later latter legitimate leisure length license lieutenant lightning
likelihood likely loneliness loose lose losing lovely luxury

M magazine maintain maintenance manageable maneuver manufacture marriage


mathematics medicine millennium millionaire miniature minuscule minutes miscellaneous
mischievous missile misspelled mortgage mosquito mosquitoes murmur muscle mysterious

N narrative naturally necessary necessity neighbor neutron ninety ninth noticeable


nowadays nuisance

O obedience obstacle occasion occasionally occurred occurrence official omission omit


omitted opinion opponent opportunity oppression optimism optimistic orchestra ordinarily
origin outrageous overrun

P pamphlets parallel particular pavilion peaceable peculiar penetrate perceive performance


performance permanent permissible permissible permitted perseverance persistence personal
personnel perspiration physical physician piece pilgrimage pitiful planning pleasant
portray possess possession possessive potato potatoes possibility possible practically prairie
precede precedence preceding preference preferred prejudice preparation prescription
prevalent primitive principal principle privilege probably procedure proceed profession
professor prominent pronounce pronunciation propaganda psychology publicly pursue

Q quantity quarantine questionnaire quizzes

R realistically realize really recede receipt receive recognize recommend reference


referring relevant relieving religious remembrance reminiscence repetition representative
resemblance reservoir resistance restaurant rheumatism rhythm rhythmical ridiculous
roommate

S sacrilegious sacrifice safety salary satellite scary scenery schedule secede secretary
seize sense sentence separate separation sergeant several severely shepherd shining siege
similar simile simply simultaneous sincerely skiing sophomore souvenir specifically
specimen sponsor spontaneous statistics stopped strategy strength strenuous stubbornness
studying subordinate subtle succeed success succession sufficient supersede suppress
surprise surround susceptible suspicious syllable symmetrical synonymous

T tangible technical technique temperamental temperature tendency themselves theories


therefore thorough though through tomorrow tournament towards tragedy transferring tries
truly twelfth tyranny

U unanimous undoubtedly unforgettable unique unnecessary until usable usage usually


utilization
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V vacuum valuable vengeance vigilant village villain violence visible vision virtue
volume

W warrant warriors weather Wednesday weird wherever whether which wholly


withdrawal woman women worthwhile writing

Y yacht yield young

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

WORDS COMMONLY MISSPELLED


Dr. Language has provided a one-stop cure for all your spelling ills. Here are the 100 words most often misspelled
('misspell' is one of them). Each word has a mnemonic pill with it and, if you swallow it, it will help you to remember
how to spell the word.

1. acceptable - Several words made the list because of the suffix pronounced -êbl but sometimes spelled -ible,
sometimes -able. Just remember to accept any table offered to you and you will spell this word OK.
2. accidentally - It is no accident that the test for adverbs on -ly is whether they come from an adjective on -al
("accidental" in this case). If so, the -al has to be in the spelling. No publical, then publicly.
3. accommodate - Remember, this word is large enough to accommodate both a double "c" AND a double "m".
4. acquire - Try to acquire the knowledge that this word and the next began with the prefix ad- but the [d] converts
to [c] before [q].
5. acquit - See the previous discussion.
6. a lot - Two words! Hopefully, you won't have to allot a lot of time to this problem.
7. amateur - Amateurs need not be mature: this word ends on the French suffix -eur (the equivalent of English -
er).
8. apparent - A parent need not be apparent but "apparent" must pay the rent, so remember this word always has
the rent.
9. argument - Let's not argue about the loss of this verb's silent [e] before the suffix -ment.
10. atheist - Lord help you remember that this word comprises the prefix a- "not" + the "god" (also in the-ology) + -
ist "one who believes."
11. a while - How long is it exactly? A second? A minute? A day? It’s a tad vague, perhaps, but just think of “while”
as a period of time like any other, and you’ll know that “a while” is two separate words. After all, you wouldn’t
say “asecond” or “aday,” now, would you?
12. absence - The letter [e] is the only one repeated in this word. You’ll notice the absence of any other recurring
letters.
13. accelerate - One [c] makes the /k/ sound while the other [c] makes the /s/ sound. Then, you want to say the
word fast, so don’t waste time on any extra [l]s. And finally, there are two [e]s in the middle of the word, just like
in the word “speed.”
14. accomplish - Any college basketball fans out there? If so, you’ll be well aware of the accomplishments of ACC
teams, UNC, Duke and UVA.
15. accumulate - “Accumulate” wanted to accumulate a few more [c]s, but the Letter Rationing Authorities said
two was plenty.
16. acknowledge - Most verbs that start with “ac-” refer to something being gained. “Accelerate” means to gain
speed, “accomplish” means to gain status or achieve a goal, and “acknowledge” means to gain knowledge (see
“knowledge” below).
17. acquaintance - It’s time to get acquainted with the word “acquaint.” It comes from the Latin
word, accognoscere, which is a combination of ad (“to”) and cognoscere (“come to know”).
18. acquire - Again with the “ac-,” this one just means to gain, well, anything.
19. across - If you’re talking about an ancient Roman means of capital punishment, you mean “a cross,” but if you
mean “on the other side of a defined space,” then it’s just one word, across.
20. aficionado - This word comes from the Spanish verb, aficioner, which means “to become fond of.” It was
originally applied to bullfighting fans.
21. anoint - When you rub or smear something, especially oil in connection with a religious ceremony, that’s
anointing. You can remember that it only has one [n] by thinking that you might rub an ointment onto your body.

79
22. apology - “Appall” has two [p]s and two [l]s, but if you put two of each into “apology,” people will be
appalled, and you’ll need to apologize.
23. axle - An axle is a rod on which two wheels spin. An axel is a jump done by a figure skater. And Axl was the
lead singer of Guns-N-Roses.
24. accordion - The accordion is portable, so you can play it while riding in your Honda Accord.

• believe - You must believe that [i] usually comes before [e] except after [c] or when it is pronounced like "a" as
"neighbor" and "weigh" or "e" as in "their" and "heir." Also take a look at "foreign" below. (The "i-before-e"
rule has more exceptions than words it applies to.)
• bellwether - Often misspelled "bellweather." A wether is a gelded ram, chosen to lead the herd (thus his bell)
due to the greater likelihood that he will remain at all times ahead of the ewes.
• barbecue - You go out, eat some pulled pork and play some pool, but you have to get the gear from the
bartender, so behind the bar, there’ll be a cue, a rack and some balls.
• beginning - Well if it only had one [n], then the [i] would have to say its own name, and then we’d be saying
“be guy ning,” which is just silly.
• broccoli - Better than E. coli any day, even if you hate vegetables.
• business - The bus driver conducts his business all day long. Get it? Conducts? Business? Get it?

• calendar - This word has an [e] between two [a]s. The last vowel is [a].
• category - This word is not in a category with "catastrophe" even if it sounds like it: the middle letter is [e].
• cemetery - Don't let this one bury you: it ends on -ery—nary an -ary in it. You already know it starts on [c], of
course.
• changeable - The verb "change" keeps its [e] here to indicate that the [g] is soft, not hard. (That is also why
"judgement" is the correct spelling of this word, no matter what anyone says.)
• collectible - Another -ible word. You just have to remember.
• column - Silent final [e] is commonplace in English but a silent final [n] is not uncommon, especially after [m].
• camouflage - This is what we get for stealing words from French – extra letters and [g]s that make a soft /j/
sound.
• candidate - Candi has a date. She might even marry him one day. He’s handsome, intelligent, gentlemanly and
funny, and he can bench press 300 pounds – a strong candidate indeed.
• cantaloupe - Originally from Armenia, the cantaloupe gets its English name from Cantaluppi, the Italian town
where it was first grown in Europe in the late 18th century.
• carburetor - This word uses all the vowels once, except for [i]. You can save that one for when you say, “I don’t
know what in the world a carburetor does.”
• Caribbean - What? You’ve never heard of the California Rib Bean? Why, it’s only the best bean on earth. Don’t
let the name fool you, though. The CA Rib Bean can only be found on a remote island about half-way between
Cuba and the northern coast of Honduras. (*Note: There is no such thing as a CA Rib Bean, but that imaginary
island would be located in the Caribbean.)
• cartilage - Many believe that elderly people should only drive a car ‘til age 75 or so, but with plastic surgery
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and the ground-breaking technology employed by Oil of Olay, how are we truly to know a person’s age? Check
out their cartilage. Like rings inside a tree trunk, it’ll give them away every time. (*Note: This is yet another
fabrication.)
• chauvinism - Although chauvinism, as it is commonly used, has more or less become synonymous with
misogyny, its true definition is much broader. It has to do with aggressive patriotism and is named after an
extreme patriot from Napoleon’s army, Nicolas Chauvin. (*This one’s really true.)
• chili - A chili is a hot pepper, “chilly” means cold, and Chile is a long, skinny country in South America.
• chocolaty - Drop the [e] to make room for the “Mmmmmm.”
• coliseum - The giant one in Rome is the Colosseum, but anywhere else, it’s a coliseum. If you’re in one, and
you’ve forgotten your binoculars, you might look down on a basketball court and say, “I see...um...” That will
help you remember to spell it with an [i] instead of an [o] and only one [s] instead of two with a u-m at the end.
• colonel - Pronounced just like “kernel,” as in a kernel of corn, this spelling doesn’t make any sense at all. The
problem is that the word has been through so many changes, and we’re still using a pronunciation that went with
a spelling (coronel) that died 300 years ago. The origin of the word is Italian. A colonnello is a “column of
soldiers.”
• commemorate - Com is Latin for “together,” as in company, community and common.Memor is Latin for
“mindful,” so if we come together (com) to be mindful (memor) or think about something, we are
commemorating it.
• congratulations - The problem most people have with this word is that they don’t know if there’s a [t] or a [d]
in the middle. Well, just think of this: You never say to someone, “Congrads!” However, you have probably said,
“Congrats!” Go with that.
• coolly - To make an adverb out of an adjective, you add -ly. Fondly, quickly, amazingly, reassuringly, coolly.
• criticize - Embedded here is the word “critic,” and this is exactly what he does. If it were “critisize,” it would
have to be done by a critis, which does not exist.

• committed - If you are committed to correct spelling, you will remember that this word doubles its final [t]
from "commit" to "committed."

• conscience - Don't let misspelling this word weigh on your conscience: [ch] spelled "sc" is unusual but
legitimate.
• conscientious - Work on your spelling conscientiously and remember this word with [ch] spelled two different
ways: "sc" and "ti". English spelling!
• conscious - Try to be conscious of the "sc" [ch] sound and all the vowels in this word's ending and i-o-u a note
of congratulations.
• consensus - The census does not require a consensus, since they are not related.

• daiquiri - Don't make yourself another daiquiri until you learn how to spell this funny word-the name of a
Cuban village.
• definite (ly) - This word definitely sounds as though it ends only on -it, but it carries a silent "e" everywhere it
goes.
• discipline - A little discipline, spelled with the [s] and the [c] will get you to the correct spelling of this one.
• drunkenness - You would be surprised how many sober people omit one of the [n]s in this one.
• dumbbell - Even smart people forget one of the [b]s in this one. (So be careful who you call one when you
write.)

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• Dalmatian - You may be tempted to spell Dalmatian with -on at the end, but just remember that the only [o]
you need is the zero in 101.
• deceive - Remember your rhyme rules, now, kids. [I] before [e] except after [c].
• defendant - Do ants need defending? You’d think an insect that can lift such relatively heavy loads could take
care of himself, but the law is the law.
• defiant - When you change the verb “defy” to an adjective, you change the [y] to an [i] and add an ant. Maybe
that’s why ants find themselves in court so often.
• desiccate - If you actually know this word, chances are you can spell it already, but if not, just keep in mind
that in case of condensation, desiccation may be necessary.
• desperate - If you’re playing the worst game of golf of your life, and you’re desperate to catch up, it’s because
you’ve shot way over par on every hole. There is no “par” in desperate.
• deterrence - [E] is the only vowel in “deterrence,” but don’t let that deter you from putting two [r]s in it.
• development - There’s no [e] on the end of “develop,” so just add the -ment for successful word development.
• diorama - This word is spelled pretty much exactly the way it sounds. Di-o-ra-ma.
• disappear - It’s tempting to add an extra [s], but doing so will only make your spelling reliability disappear.
• disappoint - The same goes for “disappoint.” Adding an extra [s] will only disappoint your sixth grade teacher.
• dissipate - Doug is sadly squandering innumerable provisions at the eatery. He’s wasting all of his restaurant’s
food, and soon it will all have disappeared.
• difference - Once you get past the “diff,” there’s no difference in the vowels.

• embarrass (ment) - This one won't embarrass you if you remember it is large enough for a double [r] AND a
double [s].
• equipment - This word is misspelled "equiptment" 22,932 times on the web right now.
• exhilarate - Remembering that [h] when you spell this word will lift your spirits and if you remember both [a]s, it
will be exhilarating!
• exceed 0 Remember that this one is -ceed, not -cede. (To exceed all expectations, master the spellings of this word,
"precede" and "supersede" below.)
• existence - No word like this one spelled with an [a] is in existence. This word is a menage a quatre of one [i] with
three [e]s.
• experience - Don't experience the same problem many have with "existence" above in this word: -ence!
• ecstasy - In recent years, “ecstasy” has sort of taken a dirty turn. People tend to think of it more and more in
conjunction with sex and illegal amphetamines, but “ecstasy” has its roots in religious mysticism and self-
transcendence. It comes from the Greek ekstasis, which literally means “standing outside oneself.” There is nothing
X-rated or illegal about it, so leave the [x] out of ecstasy.
• especially - The main part of “especially” is the word “special.” This is especially important to remember when
you’re trying to spell “especially.” E + special + ly.
• excellent - If Microsoft has done nothing else, it has taught the world how to spell “excel.” Once you have that
down, you can imagine that the Pope is very good at fasting before Easter. He excels at Lent. Excellent.
• exercise - We say “Jazzercise,” not “Jazzcercise,” because it’s “exercise,” not “excercise.” And you can remember
that there are no [z]s in “exercise” because the middle of your workout is not the time for catching Zs.
• explanation - Take the [i] out of “explain,” and add -ation.

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F

• fiery - The silent "e" on "fire" is also cowardly: it retreats inside the word rather than face the suffix -y.
• foreign - Here is one of several words that violate the i-before-e rule. (See "believe" above.)
• Fahrenheit - This temperature scale was named after a German physicist, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit. You can
remember that the [e] comes before the [i] at the end because it’s pronounced just like the English word “height,”
in which the order is the same. Now you just have to remember to put in that crazy [h] at the beginning.
• finally - Final + ly. Any questions?
• flabbergast - When your high school sweetheart showed up at the reunion all flabby and talking about
gastrointestinal issues, you were flabbergasted.
• flotation - The [a] from “float” floats to the other side of the [t] in “flotation.”
• fourth - This is 4th (as opposed to “forth”). It’s the number four + th.
• fulfill - Look, three [l]s is plenty for one word, wouldn’t you say?

• gauge - You must learn to gauge the positioning of the [a] and [u] in this word. Remember, they are in
alphabetical order (though not the [e]).
• grateful - You should be grateful to know that keeping "great" out of "grateful" is great.
• guarantee - I guarantee you that this word is not spelled like "warranty" even though they are synonyms.
• generally - General + ly.
• genius - If you try to put an [o] in “genius,” you’ve just proven that you aren’t one.
• government - Govern, governor, governess, government – all these words are about someone being in charge.
Imagine his name is Vern, and he needs your encouragement. Go, Vern!
• grammar - Your Gramma would be very upset if you used incorrect grammar.
• gross - Spelling it any other way just makes me sick.
• guttural - Get your mind out of the gutter, and spell “guttural” with two [u]s and an [a].

• harass - This word is too small for two double letters but don't let it harass you, just keep the [r]s down to one.
• height - English reaches the height (not heighth!) of absurdity when it spells "height" and "width" so differently.
• hierarchy - The i-before-e rule works here, so what is the problem?
• humorous - Humor us and spell this word "humorous": the [r] is so weak, it needs an [o] on both sides to hold
it up.
• handkerchief - A kerchief is a piece of fabric used to cover the head, or perhaps tied around the neck (or face if
you’re robbing a bank in the Old West). A handkerchief, is a piece of fabric held in the hand for wiping things off
or blowing your nose (or dropping from a train if you’re a woman leaving her lover in the Old West).
• horrific - It’s got two [r]s just like “horrible,” but adding another [f] would just be awful. (You thought I was
going to say “horrific,” didn’t you?)

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• hypocrisy - A classic case of a [y] acting like a vowel when it’s really not. How hypocritical!

1. ignorance - Don't show your ignorance by spelling this word -ence!


2. immediate - The immediate thing to remember is that this word has a prefix, in- "not" which becomes [m]
before [m] (or [b] or [p]). "Not mediate" means direct which is why "immediately" means "directly."
3. independent - Please be independent but not in your spelling of this word. It ends on -ent.
4. indispensable - Knowing that this word ends on -able is indispensable to good writing.
5. inoculate - This one sounds like a shot in the eye. One [n] the eye is enough.
6. intelligence - Using two [l]s in this word and ending it on -ence rather than -ance are marks of . . . you guessed
it.
7. its/it's - The apostrophe marks a contraction of "it is." Something that belongs to it is "its."
8. imitate - If someone is imitating me, then when I look at them, it’s like I’m looking in a mirror. I look in a
mirror and see myself (another I). I + M + I. There’s only one mirror, just like there’s only one [m] in “imitate.”
9. inadvertent - Accidental and unintentional, both synonyms of inadvertent, share something else in common
besides meaning. They all have -ent- in them.
10. incidentally - Don’t cause an incident by misspelling “incidentally.”
11. incredible - The vowels in “incredible” alternate. [i] - [e] - [i] - [e]
12. ingenious - You may be asking, “Why does ‘genius’ not have an [o] while ‘ingenious’ does?” There are two
possible answers. Either English is crazy (which is true), or they are completely different words (also true). I
could give you a lengthy explanation, but it would all boil down to the simple fact that “ingenious” has an [o]
and “genius” doesn’t, so let’s just leave it at that.
13. irascible - Spelling Bee champions the world over may be irascible when people misspell words like
“irascible.”
14. irresistible - Although it may feel irresistible to put an [a] in this word, there aren’t any at all.

1. jewelry - Sure, sure, it is made by a jeweler but the last [e] in this case flees the scene like a jewel thief.
However, if you prefer British spelling, remember to double the [l]: "jeweller," "jewellery." (See also
pronunciation.)
2. judgment - Traditionally, the word has been spelled judgment in all forms of the English language. However,
the spelling judgement (with e added) largely replaced judgment in the United Kingdom in a non-legal context.
In the context of the law, however, judgment is preferred. This spelling change contrasts with other similar
spelling changes made in American English, which were rejected in the UK. In the US at least, judgment is still
preferred and judgement is considered incorrect by many American style guides.

• kernel (colonel) - There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim that all the vowels in this word are [e]s. So

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why is the military rank (colonel) pronounced identically? English spelling can be chaotic.
• knowledge - If you were a park ranger, you would know where the ledge is with your knowledge of the park.
• Knight – pronounced as night. The legendary men known for their chivalry, bravery, honesty and patriotism.

• leisure - Yet another violator of the i-before-e rule. You can be sure of the spelling of the last syllable but not
of the pronunciation.
• liaison - Another French word throwing us an orthographical curve: a spare [i], just in case. That's an [s], too,
that sounds like a [z].
• library - It may be as enjoyable as a berry patch but that isn't the way it is spelled. That first [r] should be
pronounced, too.
• license - Where does English get the license to use both its letters for the sound [s] in one word?
• lightning - Learning how to omit the [e] in this word should lighten the load of English orthography a little bit.
• labeled - The general rule is that when a two-syllable word ends in a single consonant, you double the final
consonant to add suffixes like -ing or -ed. However, if the first syllable is the one that is stressed when you
pronounce the word, the rule goes out the window, and you just add the suffix without doubling the final
consonant.
• led - This is the past tense of the verb “to lead.” “Lead,” pronounced the same way as “led,” is the metal. It has
nothing to do with being a leader.
• liaison - As much as the [i]s would like to have a romantic liaison, they can’t because of that blasted [a], and
furthermore, the second [i] has a son, which doesn’t allow for much time for secret get-aways.
• lieutenant - This is one of those rare words in English where you really do pronounce all the letters. The first
three vowels happen so quickly that they come out sounding like one /u/ sound, but if you slow it down, they’re
all in there.
• liquefy - I want that [e] to be an [i], but I just have to keep telling myself, it’s not about what I want. [I] already
occupies one spot; it needs to give the [e] a turn too.
• lose - “Lose” is commonly confused with “loose,” meaning not tight, but just remember that “loose” has more
room for an extra [o] (it’s not too tight), and “lose” has lost an [o], so it only has one.
• lying - All those three-letter words – tie, die, vie, lie – drop their [e]s and change their [i]s to [y]s before adding
-ing.

• maintenance - The main tenants of this word are "main" and "tenance" even though it comes from the verb
"maintain." English orthography at its most spiteful.
• maneuver - Man, the price you pay for borrowing from French is high. This one goes back to French main +
oeuvre "hand-work," a spelling better retained in the British spelling, "manoeuvre."
• medieval - The medieval orthography of English even lays traps for you: everything about the MIDdle Ages is
MEDieval or, as the British would write, mediaeval.
• memento - Why would something to remind of you of a moment be spelled "memento?" Well, it is.
• millennium - Here is another big word, large enough to hold two double consonants, double [l] and double [n].
• miniature - Since that [a] is seldom pronounced, it is seldom included in the spelling. This one is a "mini

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ature;" remember that.
• minuscule - Since something minuscule is smaller than a miniature, shouldn't they be spelled similarly? Less
than cool, or "minus cule."
• mischievous - This mischievous word holds two traps: [i] before [e] and [o] before [u]. Four of the five vowels
in English reside here.
• misspell - What is more embarrassing than to misspell the name of the problem? Just remember that it is mis +
spell and that will spell you the worry about spelling "spell."
• magically - Again, it’s just the adjective, magical plus -ly.
• marshmallow - It’s pronounced as though it’s spelled m-a-r-s-h-m-E-l-l-o-w, but if you’ve ever played Chubby
Bunny, you know that once you pop six or seven marshmallows in your mouth, there’s no way you’re saying any
vowels other than [a] and [o], and that’s all the word has.
• mischief - Let’s say the chief went around short-sheeting everyone’s beds and putting blue Kool-Aid in all the
shower heads when he was supposed to be making tribal decisions and governing. Well that wouldn’t be very
chief-like, now would it? The prefix, mis-, means badly, unsuitably or with negative force, so when you apply
that to a prankster chief, you have him doing all kinds of mischief.
• misogyny - The first part (miso) is spelled exactly the way it sounds. The second part (gyny) comes from the
Greek word for woman. It’s the same root you find in the word “gynecologist.” So, if you’re having trouble
remembering whether it’s g-I-n-y or g-Y-n-y, just think of your OB/GYN.
• missile - It has the same final three letters as “projectile,” and when one is fired, we hope it will miss.

• neighbor - The word "neighbor" breaks the i-before-e rule and invokes the silent "gh". This is fraught with error
potential. If you use British spelling, it will cost you another [u]: "neighbour."
• noticeable - The [e] is noticeably retained in this word to indicate the [c] is "soft," pronounced like [s]. Without
the [e], it would be pronounced "hard," like [k], as in "applicable."
• nauseous - “Nauseous” uses all the vowels except [i], and comes from the same Greek root we see in the word
“nautical.” If you’re seasick, you experience nausea.
• necessary - Only two [e]s and two [s]s are necessary for spelling “necessary.” Any more than that is
unnecessary.
• no one - “Nobody” is one word, but “no one” is two because if you put them together, that word would want to
be pronounced just like “noon,” and we all know it’s not.

• occasionally - Writers occasionally tire of doubling so many consonants and omit one, usually one of the [l]s.
Don't you ever do it.
• occurrence - Remember not only the occurrence of double double consonants in this word, but that the suffix is
-ence, not -ance. No reason, just the English language keeping us on our toes.
• occasion - Almost every word that starts with o + c-sound + a has two [c]s.
• occur/occurred - Words that start with o + c-sound + u change depending on which syllable is stressed. If the
[o] is stressed, it is usually only followed by one [c]. If the second syllable is stressed, there are usually two [c]s.
• octopus - “Octo” means eight, and “pus” comes from the Greek pous, which means foot.
• official - Office, officious, official – If you can remember that related words tend to have a lot of spelling
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similarities, you can remember to spell “official” with two [f]s and a [c].
• onomatopoeia - It’s like when they were trying to come up with a word for this phenomenon, someone made a
suggestion while yawning, and in the name of onomatopoeia itself, they decided to go with it.

• pastime - Since a pastime is something you do to pass the time, you would expect a double [s] here. Well, there
is only one. The second [s] was slipped through the cracks in English orthography long ago.
• perseverance - All it takes is perseverance and you, too, can be a (near-)perfect speller. The suffix is -ance for
no reason at all.
• personnel - Funny Story: The assistant Vice-President of Personnel notices that his superior, the VP himself,
upon arriving at his desk in the morning opens a small, locked box, smiles, and locks it back again. Some years
later when he advanced to that position (inheriting the key), he came to work early one morning to be assured of
privacy. Expectantly, he opened the box. In it was a single piece of paper which said: "Two Ns, one L."
• playwright - Those who play right are right-players, not playwrights. Well, since they write plays, they should
be "play-writes," wright right? Rong Wrong. Remember that a play writer in Old English was called a "play
worker" and "wright" is from an old form of "work" (wrought iron, etc.)
• possession - Possession possesses more [s]s than a snake.
• precede - What follows, succeeds, so what goes before should, what? No, no, no, you are using logic. Nothing
confuses English spelling more than common sense. "Succeed" but "precede." (Wait until you see
"supersede.")
• principal/principle - The spelling principle to remember here is that the school principal is a prince and a pal
(despite appearances)--and the same applies to anything of foremost importance, such as a principal principle. A
"principle" is a rule. (Thank you, Meghan Cope, for help on this one.)
• privilege - According to the pronunciation (not "pronounciation"!) of this word, that middle vowel could be
anything. Remember: two [i]s + two [e]s in that order.
• pronunciation - Nouns often differ from the verbs they are derived from. This is one of those. In this case, the
pronunciation is different, too, an important clue.

• publicly - Let me publicly declare the rule (again): if the adverb comes from an adjective ending on -al, you
include that ending in the adverb; if not, as here, you don't. parallel - You have to have at least two things in
order for them to be parallel, and if you’re confused as to whether the double [l] comes in the middle or at the
end of the word, just remember that inside the word “parallel” is the word “all,” and all lines or planes that have
the same distance between them continuously are parallel.
• parliament - This word comes from the Old French word meaning ‘speaking.’ You can remember that it has an
[i] in it because in the parliament, everyone says, “I have something to say.”
• particular - It starts out just like “particle,” and then after the [c], the [u] just says its name, and the -lar is
spelled exactly as it sounds.
• peninsula - Spelled exactly as it sounds. No tricks, no extra letters.
• pharaoh - This guy, on the other hand, has all kinds of tricks up his sleeve. Ph- for the /f/ sound, a superfluous
[a] stuck in there, and a silent [h] on the end. Maybe Moses should have said, “Hey Pharaoh, let all those extra
letters go.”
• physical - What did you think the [p] in P.E. was for? (Hint: It stands for Physical Education.) Not that
dodgeball is all that educational.
• piece - Don’t confuse “piece” with “peace.” Although, a piece of cake could go a long way toward bringing
about peace. Just a suggestion.
• pigeon - These foul beasts (Get it? Foul? Fowl?) have been making pigs of themselves in cities the world over

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for eons, eating any crumb or pizza slice or Thanksgiving turkey dropped in the street. Perhaps that’s why their
name starts with pig- and ends with -eon.
• pistachio - You pronounce it like it has [sh], but you spell it with [ch]. It’s a mystery, but it’s a delicious one.
• pleasant - It starts out just like “please,” as in, “I am pleased with how pleasant the weather is today.”
• plenitude - Honestly, if you put an extra [t] in, it’s not that terrible. “Plentitude” is on its way to becoming an
acceptable alternate spelling of “plenitude,” but just to be on the safe side, one [t] is plenty.
• preferable - Is it one [f] or two, one [r] or two? One of each is preferable.
• presumptuous - If you are presumptuous enough to take something before it is offered, then you owe us (u +
o + us) a replacement.
• proceed - Don’t get this word confused with “precede.” In “precede,” the [d] precedes the second [e] while in
“proceed,” you write the final [e] and then proceed on to the [d].
• propagate - If you want your plants to propagate properly, it’s best that they not be crushed by your broken
gate, but if you prop a gate up, then your plants can propagate.
• puerile - Although this word is all about childishness, it’s not talking about the purity of children, and it should
not be spelled the same way.
• pursue - The two [u]s will remind you that anyone who wants to get to you (2 u) is pursuing you.
• putrefy - A lot of bad calls by the referee can make a game rotten, so when you think of “putrefy,” just
remember that it has a “ref” in it.

• questionnaire - The French doing it to us again. Double up on the [n]s in this word and don't forget the silent
[e]. Maybe someday we will spell it the English way.

• receive/receipt - I hope you have received the message by now: [i] before [e] except after . . . .
• recommend - I would recommend you think of this word as the equivalent of commending all over again:
re+commend. That would be recommendable.
• referred - Final consonants are often doubled before suffixes (remit: remitted, remitting). However, this rule
applies only to accented syllables ending on [l] and [r], e.g. "rebelled," "referred" but "traveled," "buffered" and
not containing a diphthong, e.g. "prevailed," "coiled."
• reference - Refer to the last mentioned word and also remember to add -ence to the end for the noun.
• relevant - The relevant factor here is that the word is not "revelant," "revelent," or even "relevent." [l] before [v]
and the suffix -ant.
• restaurant - 'Ey, you! Remember, these two words when you spell "restaurant." They are in the middle of it.
• rhyme - Actually, "rime" was the correct spelling until 1650. After that, egg-heads began spelling it like
"rhythm." Why? No rhyme nor reason other than to make it look like "rhythm."
• rhythm - This one was borrowed from Greek (and conveniently never returned) so it is spelled the way we spell
words borrowed from Greek and conveniently never returned.
• raspberry - Don’t let sports drinks and bubble gum flavors confuse you with their “Rockin’ Razzberries.”
That’s fine for chemically generated flavors, but the natural fruit is a raspberry.
• receipt - Never forget the rule, “[I] before [e] except after [c].” And in this case, toss a [p] in there too.
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• refrigerator - It’s not cool to misspell “refrigerator.” When you shorten it to “fridge,” you have to add a [d] just
to follow English spelling rules, but in the full-length version, there’s no [d].
• religious - If you made a daily practice of writing “religious” 100 times, aside from being certifiably insane,
people might say that you wrote “religious” 100 times every day religiously.
• remembrance - Remember, even though it’s related to “remember,” there’s no [e] between the [b] and the [r] in
“remembrance.”
• renowned - “Renowned” is renowned for not having a [k] in it like you think it should since it’s related to the
word “know.”
• ridiculous - It’s related to the word “ridicule,” so it starts with ri-, not re-.

• schedule - If perfecting your spelling is on your schedule, remember the [sk] is spelled as in "school." (If you
use British or Canadian pronunciation, why do you pronounce this word [shedyul] but "school," [skul]? That has
always puzzled me.)
• separate - How do you separate the [e]s from the [a]s in this word? Simple: the [e]s surround the [a]s.
• sergeant - The [a] needed in both syllables of this word has been pushed to the back of the line. Remember that,
and the fact that [e] is used in both syllables, and you can write your sergeant without fear of misspelling his
rank.
• supersede - This word supersedes all others in perversity. As if we don't have enough to worry about, keeping
words on -ceed and -cede ("succeed," "precede," etc.) straight in our minds, this one has to be different from all
the rest. The good news is: this is the only English word based on this stem spelled -sede.
• sacrilegious - You may think it’s related to “religious” and that it ought to be spelled the same way, but
“religious” comes from roots meaning ‘to bind’ while “sacrilegious” has two roots, one meaning ‘sacred’ and the
other meaning ‘to steal.’ So “sacrilegious” literally has to do with stealing, violating or misusing the sacred.
• salary - Not “celery,” but “salary,” from the Latin salarium, referring to a Roman soldier’s salt allowance.
• sandal - Hopefully you’ve seen enough TV commercials for various Sandals resorts by now to remember how
to spell “sandal.”
• sandwich - It has nothing to do with witches, so there’s no [t], and we’re not confused about which one, so
there’s no extra [h]. This portable meal was named after the fourth Earl of Sandwich, who is reported to have
eaten sandwiches so he didn’t have to leave his poker games to go to the dining room.
• savvy - Who knows why it has two [v]s, but it is most definitely not savvy to leave one of them out.
• scissors - If we’d just pronounce the [c], we wouldn’t have this problem. I say we start a petition.
• seize - Argh! A miscreant! Let’s seize “seize” for breaking the “[i] before [e] except after [c]” rule and make him
walk the plank!
• sensible - Sensitive, sensitivity, desensitize and sensible all have “sensi-” in them, meaning ‘to sense’ or ‘to
feel.’
• separate - Well you know there’s an [e] at the beginning and another at the very end. Now you just have to
remember to separate them by putting two [a]s in the middle.
• septuagenarian - Referring to someone in their 70s, “age” is right there in the middle of the word.
• sheriff - You won’t get thrown into the county lock-up if you put too many [r]s or not enough [f]s in “sheriff,”
but you do owe him the respect of spelling his title correctly.
• shish kebab - “Shish” means ‘skewer,” and “kebab” (or “kabob”) means ‘roast meat,’ so you could have kebab
without the shish or vice versa.
• siege - This is what you may come under if you spell it wrong, so unless you’re ready for a hunger strike, I

89
suggest you get it right.
• similar - From the Latin similis, meaning ‘like.”
• special - From the Latin species, which literally means ‘appearance, form or beauty.’
• subpoena - In Latin, this means ‘under penalty,’ as in, “Come to court, or else.”
• success - Ready! OK! S-U-C-C-E-S-S! (clap, clap, pause, clap, clap, clap, clap) That’s the way we spell
“success!” (clap, clap, pause, clap, clap, clap, clap)
• simile - Also from the Latin similis, meaning ‘like,” a simile is a comparison using the words “like” or “as.”

• their/they're/there - They're all pronounced the same but spelled differently. Possessive is "their" and the
contraction of "they are" is "they're." Everywhere else, it is "there."
• threshold - This one can push you over the threshold. It looks like a compound "thresh + hold" but it isn't. Two
[h]s are enough.
• twelfth - Even if you omit the [f] in your pronunciation of this word (which you shouldn't do), it is retained in
the spelling.
• tyranny - If you are still resisting the tyranny of English orthography at this point, you must face the problem of
[y] inside this word, where it shouldn't be. The guy is a "tyrant" and his problem is "tyranny." (Don't forget to
double up on the [n]s, too.)
• tableau - The tricky part is obviously the ending, but just think of your beau, and then imagine a group of
figures representing the story of how you met him.
• tariff - Even though it rhymes with “sheriff” and has the same single [r] and double [f], it starts out with the
same two letters as “tax,” which is exactly what it means.
• tomorrow - “Today” literally means ‘this day,’ “tonight” means ‘this night,’ and “tomorrow” means ‘this
morrow.’ “Morrow” means ‘the following day.’
• tongue - This is a combination of the same word in three different languages – Dutch (tong), Latin (lingua) and
German (Zunge).
• too/to/two - To is a preposition meaning 'in the direction of and reaching; as far as; to the extent of.' Too is an
adverb meaning 'in addition; as well; besides; also; more than enough; superfluously; overly; to a regrettable
extent; extremely.' Two is the number 2.
• tragedy - Apparently, “tragedy” comes from two Greek words, one meaning ‘song or ode,’ and the other
(tragos) meaning ‘goat.’ Why, we don’t know, but we can all agree that writing odes to goats is pretty tragic.
• truly - Please, oh please, don’t put an [e] in “truly.”

• until - I will never stop harping on this until this word is spelled with an extra [l] for the last time!
• ukulele - Hawaiian words tend to be spelled pretty much exactly the way they sound, and their syllables
sometimes repeat themselves.
• usage - Just move the silent [e] to the end, and put an [a] and a [g] in the middle.

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V

7. vacuum - If your head is not a vacuum, remember that the silent [e] on this one married the [u] and joined
him inside the word where they are living happily ever since. Well, the evidence is suggestive but not conclusive.
Anyway, spell this word with two [u]s and not like "volume."
8. vicious - A vice, as enjoyable as it might be in the moment, can lead to vicious consequences.
9. village - What starts out as just one villa can easily turn into an entire village.

WXYZ

• weather - Whether you like the weather or not, you have to write the [a] after the [e] when you spell it.
• withhold - This is one time when two words are combined and nothing is lost. Keep both of those [h]s in the
one word.
• weird - It is weird having to repeat this rule so many times: [i] before [e] except after...? (It isn't [w]!)
• you're/your - “You’re” is the contraction form of you + are (You’re great). “Your” is a possessive adjective
(Your great-grandmother is also great).

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

abbreviate -|- no need to abbreviate this word, 2 B's everytime.

absurd -|- don't be absurd, spell this word with a U.


abundance -|- Remember, an abundance of A's when trying to think of the ending of this

word.

accidentally -|- To prevent an accident on the field, you need an ally on your team.

accompanying -|- There are 2 C's accompanying this word.

according -|- according to spelling rules, this word keeps both C's when adding an -ing
achieve -|- To achieve spelling success, you must simply remember this word follows the

"-i before -e" rule....kind of.


acknowledge -|- To acknowledge this word's spelling, you must have previous

knowledge.

acquit -|- The AC quit.

advice -|- I would advise you be careful giving out too much advice.
aggravate -|- Don't let this word aggravate you, use the first letter of each

word: A Good Girl Rarely Aggravates Visitors At The Estate


airplane -|- This one is simple. Where do planes fly? In the air. Air + Plane = airplane.

address -|- Please add your address.


affect -|- affect/effect:
Use the word RAVEN to remember when to use "affect" versus "effect".
A ffect
V erb
E ffect

N oun
affect can be a noun, and effect a verb, but they are very rarely used that way. See affect

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vs. effect

aggression -|- >>> Remember, the G's and S's are so aggressive they each get two.

alcohol -|- Drink a large cold orange juice for a cold, not alcohol.
allege -|- Don't jump off a ledge trying to spell this word, just remember you need 2 L's
and an -ege to allege something.

a lot -|- It's always 2 words, so don't allot a lot of time and energy worrying.
allot -|- It's always 1 word with 2 L's, so, again, don't allot a lot of time and energy
worrying.
amateur -|- Be mature, it isn't spelled how it sounds; use the french suffic -eurto move
past amateur status.

amend -|- Don't amend this word. It's spelled with one m every time.
apparent -|- A parent must always pay the rent and you must always remember 2 P's and
-rent when spelling apparent.

argument -|- Argue will always lose an 'e' in an argument.

arithmetic -|- A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream

average -|- Age is more than just a number in average.


absence -|- from the root word absent, in order to make absent a noun, you must drop the –
t and add -ce

accommodate -|- Remember, to accommodate this word, you'll need 2 C's, M's and O's.
babies -|- this word follows the plural rule for words ending in –y. Once baby is made
plural, you drop the –y and add –ies, babies.
bachelor -|- Unlike the word ‘batch', bachelor doesn't use the –t to create the same
effect.
balance -|- No tricks here, just remember there's an –a in the middle to balance the bal-
and the –nce.
balloon -|- Imagine the two O's in this word are balloons holding the ball away from the –

93
n.
bankruptcy -|- This word is spelled pretty much how it sounds, just don't forget the –p
before the –t.

barbarous -|- Easy easy. Barbarous repeats the –bar twice and then adds the suffix- ous.
barbecue -|- Although often spelling Bar-B-Q or even barbeque (which would sound
similar to unique), this word is spelled pretty much how it sounds with a –cue to achieve
the "kyoo" sound at the end.

bare -|- A bear without fur would be a bare bear.

becoming -|- As with most words, when adding an -ing, you drop the -e.
bicycle -|- The short version of this word may be bike with a -k, but this word is spelled
closer to it's origin: bi- meaning 2 and cycle, wheels.

biscuit -|- Breakfast Is Semi-Complete Unless I Taste biscuits.

bureau -|- Bureaus Usually Require Energy And Understanding


beautiful -|- Split it up into 2 words to remember it, b-e-a-u - tiful or try
thisbare elegant arms are usually beautiful.
because -|- Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants or If you are going to
fight, it should be for a cause.

beginning -|- Beg at the Inn


belief -|- You must truly believe to call it a belief. -- Both belief and believe follow the -i
before -e rule.

believe -|- There's always a lie in believe.


business -|- Be environmentally aware and a better speller and remember to always take
the bus to your business.
bellwether -|- Regardless of how it sounds, bellwether actually has nothing to do with the
weather, it's actually a type of Ram.
bookkeeper -|- Bookkeeper's take care of the numbers, but when it comes to spelling
always remember there are 2 O's, 2 K's, and 2 E's all in a row.

94
burglar -|- If you experience a burglary at you house, just take off the -y to find the
burglar.

calm -|- Stay calm, this word is just like clam except you reverse the L and the A.

campaign -|- A rough campaign may cause pain but it isn't spelled that way. IF it helps,
split it up. Camp + Aign.
chaos -|- The only thing to remember about this word is the -ch makes a "k" sound, but the
rest is just like it sounds.
casualties -|- While there is nothing casual about the meaning of this word, the spelling is
simple, the word ‘casual' + the word ‘ties'

catalog -|-

ceiling -|- No need to be confused, this word follows the ‘-i before -e rule'.

celebrity -|- Celebs do lots of charity. The end of charity and celebrity are the same.
cellophane -|- It may sound like there's an –s and an –f in this word, but it starts with a –c
with a –ph thrown in the center.
chief -|- Your chief concern with this word, should be remembering it follows the ‘-i
before –e rule'.
children -|- The plural of child, children simply adds an –ren to show there's more than
one.

chili -|- Chili, not to be confused with chilly, is a food and is spelled with 2 I's and one l.

choose -|- Choose rhymes with lose, but it's spelled like loose.

clothes -|- Clothing Labels Often Tell Humans Exactly where to Shop.
concede -|- No tricks here, you must simply memorize the suffix of this word. Remember,
2 c's and 2 e's.
calendar -|- If you need to know the date you can check the calendar, but to spell it you
must remember there's an -e between 2 A's.
camouflage -|- Camo may keep you hidden, but you can't camouflage the -u when you
spell this word.

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cantaloupe -|- Don't let this fruit throw you for a loop, the end may sound like -lope, but
just like fruit it's spelled with a -u, cantaloupe.

caribbean -|- No matter how you say it, this word always has 1 r and 2 B's.

category -|- it isn't a catastrophe to spell category with two as, but it is pretty bad.
cemetery -|- Don't let the spelling of this word bury you, just remember cemetery has 3
E's.

changeable -|- You don't have to change a thing, just add an -able.

collectible -|- This word does not collect A's, it's an -ible word.
colonel -|- They may sound the same, but you eat a kernel of corn and you respect a
colonel in the army.

column -|- No tricks here, the N is silent, but always there.


committed -|- Be committed when spelling this word, 2 M's and 2 T's when you add the -
ed.
committee -|- A committee has many folks and the word has a lot of doubles, 2 M's, 2
T's, and 2 E's.
conscience -|- Don't let spelling this word weigh on your conscience, it's just con +
science
conscientious -|- Be a conscientious speller, remember the "sh" sound is made two ways in
this word: "sc" and "ti"

conscious -|- If you get all the vowels in the ending correct, i-o-u a congratulations.

consensus -|- Consensus doesn't take a census, so we spell them differently.


controversy -|- There shouldn't be any controversy over the spelling of this word, it's just
like it sounds contro-versy

coolly -|- If you want to spell this word coolly, don't omit an L.
commitment -|- This word is simple, just remember keep the 2 m's in commit and just add
the suffix –ment.
criticize -|- It may sound like the word ‘size' is in there, but don't be fooled. To spell this
96
word, simply add the –ize to the root word ‘critic'.

dalmatian -|- Dalmatians are covered in spots, and this word is spotted in A's.

dealt -|- The dealer dealt the cards.


debater -|- There's no debating, this word has no O's. It's the verb debate with an –r on the
end to make it a noun.

debt -|- The –b is silent like the –t in mortgage.


Decaffeinated -|- Oh the English language, making and breaking rules. This word does not
follow the –i before –e rule, so you must simply remember 2 F's followed by an –ei.

decathlon -|- the prefix deca- means 10 and that's the only –a in the word.
defendant -|- a defendant muse be defended. To remember the suffix –ant, just break the
word apart: defend + ant

descend -|-

desirable -|- Abs are desirable.

dilemma -|-

doubt -|- There's no doubt, the –b in this word is just as silent as in debt.

disease -|- Spell disease with ease.

discreet -|- The e's in this word are not discreet, the are doubled.
disastrous -|- Disastrous comes from the word disaster, and to avoid one, you drop the –e,
move the r over and add an –ous.

deceive -|- This word won't deceive you, it follows the rule"i before e except after c"

definite -|- This word definitely takes an -ite everywhere it goes.

desert -|- The desert is sandy.

desperate -|- Perhaps you will learn to spell desperate.

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dessert -|- Desserts are sweet stuff and Strawberry Shortcake.
deterrence -|- Don't like the end of this word deter you, add an -r and keep the e theme,
deterrence.

disappoint -|- Don't disappoint your proud papa.

discipline -|- With a little discipline, you will remember to add a -c after the -s.
drunkenness -|- Alcohol in excess causes drunkenness, there is an excess of of N's and S's
in this word.

dumbbell -|- Don't be a dumbbell, 1 word, 2 B's.

definitely -|- This word definitely takes an -ite everywhere it goes.


dependent -|- Spelling this word is easy, there are no A's, only E's; so keep that –ent
ending every time.
develop -|- The only tricky thing about spelling ‘develop' is remember the –o make a short
–u sound. Otherwise, it's spelled like it sounds. Break it up: de- vel- op

echoes -|- like potato and tomato, echo adds an –e when it's plural.
ecstasy -|- It may sound as though there is an –x in this word but the x sound is made by -
ecst

eighth -|- eight plus an –h.

eligible -|- I am eligible. Remember the I's in this word.

emphasize -|- Let me emphasize this, there is no F in this word.

encyclopedia -|- Break this word down to it's roots: En – Cyclo -Pedia
endurance -|- Don't just endure this word, spell it. Drop the –e in endure and add the –
ance.

enough -|- To spell enough isn't tough. Use the –ough to create the "uff" sound.

environment -|- En – viro – n- ment.

espresso -|- Espresso is especially good at waking you up.

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excitement -|- excite + ment

extremely -|- extreme + ly

embarrass -|- Every Mother's Boy Acts Rather Rudely After Soccer Sturdays

embarrass -|- She was rosy red with severe shame.

equipment -|- This word has enough equipment, so don't add a -t after the -p.

exceed -|- All you have to remember for this word is the ending: -ceed

exhilarate -|- Remembering the -h and 2 A's will exhilarate you.

existence -|- There is no word like this one in existence spelled with an -a.

experience -|- Keep you experience with this word simple, it's all E's:experience.

extraordinary -|- This word is extraordinary, it's 2 words combined: extra + ordinary

extreme -|- The only extreme thing about this word is all the E's.
especially -|- The middle of this word is special, so to make it especially, just add an –e to
the front and an –ly to the end.
exaggerate -|- This words is easiest if broken up, but remember there are 2 g's. ex-agg-er-
ate
familiar -|- Family is familiar.

feminine -|- femi- means woman. Femi + nine

finally -|- final + ly

first -|- First Is Right before Second & Third.

flexible -|- I am flexible.

forehead -|- Your neck comes before your head.

foresee -|- foresee means to see something before it happens. Fore + see
forward -|- for + ward – the vowel + -r combinations may sound the same, but one is
spelled with an –or and the other is an –ar.
99
fundamental -|- spelling is fun And mental

february -|- February is cold, brrrr.

fiery -|- The -y in this word is so Fiery, the -e hid behind the -r.

foreign -|- If the -i before -e rule were a country, this word would be foreign.

forty -|- Four can't wait to turn fourteen, be she'll never be forty.

friend -|- You wouldn't want a fiend for a friend, remember how you r.
fulfill -|- You may fill things full but you won't need as many L's to fulfill the spelling of
this word.

generally -|- general + ly

genius -|- Geniuses Eat Noodles In Unusual Spaces.

genre -|- Generally Entertainers Need Radio Exposure

genuine -|- genu + ine

gesture -|- Spell this word without jest, start it with a -g and end it with –ure.

government -|- the government governs us.

grammar -|- You only want A's in grammar.

gruesome -|- grue + some

gymnasium -|- gym – nas- ium


guidance -|- Guidance Ultimately Is Direction And Never-
ending CaringEncouragement.

gauge -|- To spell this word you must gauge the -a and the -u.

grateful -|- Who ate the L in grateful?

guarantee -|- I guarantee there are 2 A's and 2 E's, but only one -r.
Halloween -|- 2 L's, 2 E's and an O in the middle. Hall + O +Ween

100
handkerchief -|- hand + ker + chief

haphazard -|- Hal And Phil Had A Zany Afternoon Riding Dirt-bikes.
happiness -|- Although the root word is ‘happy' when you add the –ness, you drop the –y
and add an –i.

heard -|- you heard it with your ear.

height -|- h + eight (8)

herd -|- Herds of Elephants Run Daily.

hoarse -|- Hoarse needs an ‘oar' as much as a row boat.

hygiene -|- Help Your Granny In Ever Need Expressed.

hypocrite -|- Split this one up and make the I's long to help your remember: hypo - crite

hoping -|- When hope becomes hoping, drop the –e and add an –ing.
hole -|- A hole is what you dig. Don't add a –w, unless you mean all of something. The city
puts fences around the whole hole in the park.

hungrily -|- To make ‘hungry' an adverb, drop the –y and add an –ily.
handkerchief -|- The -d is silent,

but still there; this word is simple enough: hand + kerchief

harass -|- The spelling of this word shouldn't harass you, 2 A's, 2 S's, but only one -r.

hear -|- You hear with your ear.

height -|- This word reaches new heights, just remember h + 8s.

hierarchy -|- hier + arch + y -- the -i before -e rule applies here.

humorous -|- Humor us and add another -o to this word.

hypocrisy -|- Hippos are full of hypothetical hypocrisy.


heroes -|- Hulk Eats Rice On Every Saturday

101
ice cream -|- 2 words , every time.

ideally -|- ideal + ly


illegal -|- When adding the prefix –il to make a word ‘not', keep the original spelling of the
word and add an –il to the beginning. This rule includes words that begin with –l, like
illegal.

il + legal = illegal meaning not legal.

illiterate -|- same as illegal. il + literate = illiterate meaning not literate.

imaginary -|- Imagine the suffix –ary flew in a took the –e's place. Imaginary

innate -|- At the inn, we ate. -yoda reference

information -|- inform + ation or the soldiers were in formation.

insure -|- I can insure you this word is spelled with an –i.

interesting -|- interest + ing

interpretation -|- interpret + ation

irresistible -|- ir + resist + ible or I am irresistible.

ignorance -|- To make an A in spelling you must spell ignorance with an -a.

imitate -|- The -m in this word doesn't imitate immediate, there's only one.
immediate -|- Immediate may mean right now, but spelling this words will take enough
time to add an -m.

incredible -|- Be both credible and incredible, don't add an -a to the -ible in this word.

independent -|- She was an independent agent with the FBI.

indispensable -|- Being able makes you indispensable.

innocent -|- In no century is murder an innocent crime.

inoculate -|- One N is enough.

intelligence -|- Use your intelligence with this one, it's only got 2 vowels, I's and E's.
102
island -|- An island is land

itinerary -|- There is nary an -ery on our intenerary.


immediately -|- Another word that is easiest to spell if broken up, but don't forget both
M's. im-med-i-ate-ly

incidentally -|- Incidentally, you need an ally for this incident.


jealousy -|- To make the adjective ‘jealous' a noun, simply add a –y.

jewelry -|- jewel + ry


judgment -|- Remove the –e in judge and add the suffix –

ment.

jumped -|- To make jump past tense, just add –ed.


khaki -|- This is another of those words you just have to remember, the –h is silent and the
–i makes a long –e sound.
kindergarten -|- Although –garten in kindergarten sounds like garden, they are not spelled
the same.

knowledge -|- Knowledge is what you know.


kernel -|- There isn't a kernel of truth to spelling this word with any vowels other than -e.
laboratory -|- Like a lot of larger words, it helps to break this word down: labor + a +
tory

language -|- lan + guage

lasagna -|- Lasagna And Spaghetti Are GoodNourishment Also.

led -|- lead with an –a is a metal. led is a verb. Example: The map led me to the treasure.

legible -|- My handwriting is legible.


lengthwise -|- Although each word can stand alone, when used to describe something it is
one word. Lengthwise.

let's -|- Let's is a contraction for "lets us". Example: Let's go to the store.

103
lightening -|- Lightening lightens the sky.
likable -|- Another –able word. Likable is another word that requires you to drop the –e
and add the –eble.
liquefy -|- It may be tempting to put a second –i in this word, but you must remember to
liquefy liquid, you drop the –id and add an -efy

luxurious -|- To make luxury luxuios, make the –y an –i and add the suffix –ous.

laugh -|- Laugh And You Get Happy

liaise -|- You must liaise with colleagues in Italy and Ireland.

licence -|- 16 year old's with all C's shouldn't get a driver's licence.

lieutenant -|- Lie U Ten Ants

loose -|- Loops are Loose.

lose -|- Lose lost an O


leisure -|- This word is so relaxed, it's decided not to follow the –i before –e rule.
liaison -|- There's no real trick to learning this word, just memorization. Again, it might be
helpful to break it up and remember it's parts. li- ais- on

lightning -|- Lightning lightens the sky.


loneliness -|- As with most words ending in –y, in order to add the suffix –ness to lonely,
you must drop the y and add an –i.
magical -|- You don't have to be magic to spell this word, just add an –al. magic + al =
magical
magnificent -|- Consider the root word magnify when you spell magnificent. As with most
words ending in –y, to add a suffix you change the –y to –i and add the suffix. In this case,
change the –y in magnify to –i and add the suffix –cent.

maintain -|- You must maintain the –ai twice in this word.

manual -|- My Automobile Never Uses Automatic Locks.

marriage -|- Even though it occurs between two people, never forget the I in marriage.

104
mathematics -|- Usually shortened to ‘math', the complete spelling is easiest to remember
if you break it up: math – e- matics
matinee -|- Although it sounds like it should end in –nay, the –ee on the end of this words
creates the same sound.
mediocre -|- Mediocre means midlevel, not great; to spell this word use the prefix medi-
which means middle and you just have to remember the –ocre.

millennium -|- 2 L's and 2 N's and the rest is just like it sounds.

millionaire -|- million + aire


miscellaneous -|- Yet another big word to remember. This one is easiest broken up too: mis
+ cell + ane + ous It also helps to say the syllables out loud as you spell the word.

monastery -|- There is nary and –ary in monastery, only monks.

murmur -|- Don't let this word fool you, it's the same 3 letters repeated, mur + mur

marshmallow -|- However mellow a marshmallow may be, it is spelled with an a.

medieval -|- When referring to the Middle Ages, it is always spelled "medieval"

memento -|- It may remind you of a moment in time, but it's spelled memento.
mischievous -|- This mischievous words has all but one vowel and holds the -i before -e
rule and the -ou rule.
misogyny -|- If you can't remember the -y in this word, just remembergynecology, it's the
study of women.

mississippi -|- M - I - Double S - I - Double S - I - PP - I

misspell -|- Be sure not to misspell this word, 2 S's every time.
mnemonic -|-
Mnemonics Now Erase Man's Oldest Nemesis, InsufficientCerebral Storage
maintenance -|- This word can be broken up in a very memorable way: Main – Ten – Ance
If you can remember Main & Ten, it won't be so hard to remember the –ance on the end.

maneuver -|- Move And Nudge East Until Victory Everywhere Remains

105
narrative -|- The narrator gives the narrative. Drop the –tor and add the –tive.
naturally -|- Naturally means occurring in nature, however, when spelling it drop the –e to
add the suffix –ally.
negotiable -|- To negotiate the offer must be negotiable. Again, drop the –ate and add the –
able.
neighbor -|- Neighbors never seem to follow the rules and neither does the spelling of this
word. Although there's an –n and no –c, this word requires you to put the -e before the –i
nevertheless -|- Like lengthwise and nowadays, the words that make up nevertheless can
be used alone but when you use them all together, it's all one word.
night -|- Although some poets prefer the for ‘nite' the correct spelling of this word uses an
–igh to creat the long –i sound. Also, think: it's eight (8) with the –e replaced with an –n.
nowadays -|- Like lengthwise and nevertheless the 2 words and an article that make up this
word stand alone just fine, but when used all together it is one word.

naive -|- Don't be naive about this word, it's n-a-i-v-e.


necessary -|- To keep warm in the winter, it's necessary your coat have one collar
and 2 sleeves.

no one -|- No one can make this one word.

noticeable -|- The -e in this word is very noticeable.

obedience -|-

octopus -|- octo means 8, and octopus has 8 legs.


official -|- The root word is ‘office', so to add the suffix, your drop the –e and add the
suffix –ial.

often -|- Like mortgage, the –t is there but not pronounced.


oneself -|- Yet another word made up of 2 words. Same as nowadays, oneself is always
one words when used together.

opportunity -|- 2 O's and 1 U.

original -|- From the root word origin, all an –al to make it an adjective.

106
overrun -|- Don't run over the spelling of this word, combine the words over and run and
make it one word, overrun.

occasion -|- There is no need for an Ass in Occasion.

occur -|- The C's in this word are the only letters that occurs twice.

omission -|- The book has many serious and significant omissions.
outrageous -|- Spelling this word any different would be outrageous. Keep the outrage and
add an -ous.

pamphlet -|- This is another word where the –ph stands in for the –f.

parallel -|- Remember the 2 L's in the middle are parallel.

paralyze -|- para + lyze ; remember the y takes the place of an –i here because it can.

parliament -|- It sounds like parala-, but there's an –i in there to keep those A's in check.
patience -|- You don't need patience to spell this word, just remember the –t makes a ‘sh'
sound and it follows the ‘i before e' rule.
penitentiary -|- Sorry, no tricks here. Break it up and sound it out carefully. Peni + tenti +
ary Say it out loud so the penti- and tenti- rhyme.

personnel -|- Personal relationship with personnel are strictly prohibited.


phenomenon -|- This words isn't phenomenal, just remember the ph- replaces the f- and
sound it out.

pneumonia -|- Like the k in knife, the p in this word is silent.


prejudice -|- Think of the meaning of this word when trying to spell it. A prejudice is a pre
judgment, so remove the –gment and add the –ice.
pastime -|- You may use your pastime to pass the time, but there is still on one -s in this
word.

people -|- People Eat Oranges People Like Eating

perceive -|- You can't perceive it any other way, this word follows the -i before -e rule.

107
piece -|- A Piece of Pie

playwright -|- A playwright may write plays, but he spells it with a -gh.

possession -|- Possession possesses more S's than a snake.

potassium -|- Remember one tea, two sugars.


potato -|- Just like with tomato, this word only has an -e when you make it plural,
potatoes.

practice -|- Practice spelling this word with a -c.

presence -|- The presence of E's in "presence" is apparent.

principal -|- Your principal is your pal.

psychology -|- Please Say You Can Help Old Ladies Organize Great Yardsales
probably -|- The root of this word is probable, in order to make it an adverb, simply drop
the –e and add a –y.
proceed -|- Proceed as normal with this word, make sure you get both E's in between the –
c ad the –d.
professor -|- Focus on the root of this word, profess. Once someone professes something
he becomes a professor.
pronunciation -|- Yet another of those big words, again, break it up. pro- noun- ci-ation,
You must mainly remember the –ci makes the "see" sound.

pursue -|- People Usually Read Stories

quarantine -|- The letter q will always be followed by a u to create the "kwa" sound.
quantity -|- Spelled exactly like it sounds with a qu- to start it off. Beak it up and sound it
out: quan – ti- ty

quite -|- It's quite similar to quiet, except the –e and –t switch places.

queue -|- queue mean to be in line, so just remember there are 2 -ue's in line behind q.
quiet -|- E.T. was quiet

108
questionnaire -|- There's no question about it, there's an ‘air' in this word. Combine them
in two parts: question + naire
raze -|- You can both raise and raze the roof, but if you raze it, you'll be sad when it rains.
Raze or "to destroy" is always spelled with a z.
receipt -|- Like pneumonia, the –p in receipt is silent, but necessary. And don't worry, this
word follows the ‘-i before –e' rule
reign -|- Excessive rain will reign terror on crops. Reign also reigns terror on the –i before
–e rule, sorry, you just have to remember.
relieve -|- You'll be relieved to know, this word follows the –i before –e except after –c'
rule.
renaissance -|- It may be easier to remember the history of the renaissance than to spell it.
This is another of those big words you just have to memorize. Try breaking it up : ren – ais
- sance

rescind -|- You resend a letter, but you rescind an invitation.


reservoir -|- Think of this word from it's origin, reserve; drop the –e and add the French
suffix –voir.
ridiculous -|- This is another word that is easier to spell if you remember it's root, ridicule;
again drop the –e and add the suffix –ous.
roommate -|- Spelling roommate is a lot easier than having one. Just combine room + mate
and keep both m's.
reference -|- Refer to the -e's in this word when trying to remember whether to put an -
ance or an -ence at the end of the word.

relevant -|- It's relevant to remember there are 2 e's followed by an -a in relevant.

rhythm -|- Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move

really -|- Another easy adverb. Just add an –ly.

referred -|- refer – red


repetition -|- There's definitely some repetition in this word. The e's, t's, and i's repeat, but
are separated by one letter each.

109
restaurant -|- rest – aur – ant – keep in mind, the "aur" makes an "er" sound.

secretary -|- Your secretary will keep your secret!

separate -|- If you split this word up you will separate the -sep and the -e with a rat.
supersede -|- This word supersedes other words, it's the only word in the english language
to use -sede

sandal -|- Sandals are perfect for the sand.


sandwich -|- No tricks here, make a sandwich out of the words sand + wich which isn't
actually a word.

savvy -|- Savvy is so savvy it needs to V's.

scissors -|- 3 S's in this word with a c tagging along.


siege / seize -|- although they sound almost exactly the same with different consonants,
there's no trick to remember that one, siege, follows the –i before –e rule and one, seize,
does not.

shepherd -|- This word is easy, just remember a shepherd leads a herd.

sheriff -|- 1 r, 2 f's and an –e making that –a sound.

sincerely -|- To make sincere an adverb, simply add the –ly.

subtly -|- Like with debt, the –b in subtly is silent.


sacrilegious -|- Although it may sound as though religion is in this word, it's not. When
spelling sacrilegious, invert the –e and –i from religion, drop the –n and add an –ous.

schedule -|- School Causes Headaches. Education Delivers Unnecessary Lulls In Excitement

sergeant -|- Break it up: serge – ant

similar -|- Sometimes I Might Imagine Lurking And Roaming


surprise -|- Your surprise won't be worth much if you forget there are 2 r's in this word and
not a single z.

110
heir -|- The inheritance is theirs because they are the heirs.

tomato -|- Like potato, this word only uses an -e when you make it plural: tomatoes.

tomorrow -|- Tomorrow i will go with Tom or Row.

tyranny -|- Only adding an -n can show the tyranny of a tyrant.


tangible -|- The beginning of this word is just like tangerine, so keep the tang- and add an
–ible.
technique -|- The –nique in technique makes the "neek" sound. Just remember there's a q,
so there'll always be a -u and end it with an –e.
theories -|- Rooted in theory, drop the –y and add the –ies. If the –eo combo is throwing
you off, just think of the word theorize, you can actually hear the ‘o' in it.

threw/through -|- He threw the ball through the window.


tongue -|- This word seems all of out sorts. The ‘o' make a short ‘u' sound, and the –u
doesn't make a sound and need an –e to hold it up.
triathlon -|- Triathlon is spelled like decathlon except instead of 10 events there are only 3,
hence the tri- prefix.
twelfth -|- In this word, the F kicked out the V. Example: After eleven come twelve and
after eleventh place is twelfth place.

there -|- This one is simple it's here with a –t in the front.
tragedy -|- Don't let spelling this word turn your day into a tragedy, just remember the root
word, tragic. Simply drop the –ic ending and add the –edy, to make it noun.

truly -|- Another easy adverb. Just remember it's true, you can truly leave the –e out.

unfortunately -|- It is unfortunate if you get rid of the -e in this word when you add the -
ly.

ukulele -|- Ukuleles Keep Us Lively, Enthralled Listeners Entertained.


unanimous -|- This is another word that helps to learn the origin. Un means one
and animus means mind & heart. One mind & heart. Keep the un- and the anim- and add
the –ous.
111
usage -|- Your electric bill shows the usage of your wattage.
undoubtedly -|- This word is spelled how it sounds except for that pesky silent –b. So,
remember the –b and add an ed before you make it an adverb.

until -|- Until Now TV Inspired Lives

usually -|- It's adverbs as usual, just add an –ly.

vacuum -|- There's no trick, instead of the -ume that creates the same sound in volume,
there are 2 U's in between the -c and the -m.
valleys -|- Because this word ends in an –ey, you cannot drop the –y, so you simply add an
–s to make it plural.

valuable -|- It would be valuable to remember there's no e.


vilify -|- You may be tempted to keep the double l from villain to spell vilify, don't; one is
just enough.

vicious -|- When spelling this word remember the –cious creates the "sh" sound.
arfare -|- like lengthwise, even though the two words that make up ‘warfare' can stand
alone, when used together they are one word.

waste -|- waster is taste with a ‘w'.

we're -|- We're is the contraction for "we are".


weather/ whether -|- Weather is the temperature and atmosphere out side. Whether is a
conjunction that introduces alternative or possibilities. Example: The weather man tells
whether to expect rain or shine.

Wednesday -|- BREAK IT UP! Say it out loud. wed – nes – day.
weird -|- What's weird about spelling this word is the -e before the -i even though there's
no -c. Weird!
willful -|- Don't be willful when spelling this word, give up the urge to add that second –l
to the end.

writing -|- Since write ends with an –e, you have to drop it to add the –ing.

112
xylophone -|- No tricks here, spelling this word is as difficult as mastering the instrument.
Keep in mind the –xy make a "z" sound. Again, break it up: xy-lo-phone.
yacht -|- It's spelling is as fancy as it's meaning. Try this: Yachts Are Costly
&Huge Travelers.
you're/your -|- You're is a contraction for "you are". Your shows ownership. Example:
You're going to have so much fun on your new boat.
zoology -|- If you're smart enough to study it, you should be smart enough to spell it.
Combine the suffix –logy which means a body of knowledge and zoo-: zoology

113
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Words over mis-spelt List No.

PRACTICE EXERCISES: -

1. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Boundary
2. Exhibit
3. Depresion
4. Demonstration

________________________________________________________________________

2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Transmit
2. Attribute
3. Constitute
4. Investegate

________________________________________________________________________

3. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Seperation
2. Desertion
3. Dissertation
4. Sincerely
_____________________________________________________________________

4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Period
2. Saggest
3. Famous
4. Reference
_____________________________________________________________________

5. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Intellectual
2. Opportinity
3. Efficiency
4. Responsibility
________________________________________________________________________

6. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Embarassment
2. Commitment
3. Harassment
4. Predicament
_____________________________________________________________________

114
7. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Besiege
2. Grieve
3. Recieve
4. Deceive

_______________________________________________________________________

8. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Lineage
2. Ceremony
3. Mileage
4. Previlege

_______________________________________________________________________

9. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Ceremony
2. Mutiny
3. Matrimony
4. Tyrany

___________________________________________________________________

10. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Benefecient
2. Magnificent
3. Ancient
4. Adolescent

_______________________________________________________________________

11. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. compression
2. Oppression
3. Supression
4. Depression

_______________________________________________________________________

12. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Begining
2. Besiege
3. Borne
4. Barrister

_______________________________________________________________________

115
13. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:
1. Embarrassment
2. Merriment
3. Judgement
4. Statement

_______________________________________________________________________

14. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt:


1. Erosion
2. Ocassion
3. Ovation
4. Evasion

_______________________________________________________________________

15. Choose the correct option


1. Impass
2. Compass
3. Trespass
4. Mistress

_____________________________________________________________________
16. Choose the correct option:
1. Intemperation
2. Determination
3. Sedimentation
4. Complementation

_____________________________________________________________________

17. Write the missing words into the gaps. The word in (brackets) tells you how many
letters are missing (number of underscores).

Example: There are seven _________ (cla_ _rooms) upstairs.

Answer: There are seven classrooms upstairs.

¾ Do you like going to____________________(b_ _ _ _day) parties?


¾ My grandmother had three sons and four_____________________(d_ _ _ _ters).
¾ He _____________________ (apolo_ _ _ed) for being late.
¾ Tracy works in the computer _____________________ (b_ _ _ _ess).
¾ I _____________________ (u_ _ _lly) get up at 6 o'clock.
¾ Look! The _____________________ (t_ _ _ _er) is writing on the board.
¾ Be careful! Skydiving is a _____________________ (dan_ _ _ _ _s) hobby.
¾ William the _____________________ (C_ _ _ _ _ _ _r) won the battle of Hastings.
¾ _____________________ (A_ _ _ _bly) starts at 8 o'clock every morning.
¾ My friend found an _____________________ (a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ship) as a car mechanic.
116
18. Some of the words in parentheses require the addition of the letter e; others are
correct as they stand.

1. Gus is (tru-ly) sorry for keeping you awake last night.

_____________________________________________________________________
2. We were criticized (sever-ly) by the sewing circle.

____________________________________________________________________
3. The shed was (complet-ly) demolished.

_____________________________________________________________________
4. Merdine was (sincer-ly) grateful for the reprieve.

_____________________________________________________________________
5. The Simpsons are (argu-ing) again.

____________________________________________________________________
6. They (argu-d) last night for hours.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. When is Mr. Wolfe (com-ing) home.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. Maya is (writ-ing) her autobiography.

_____________________________________________________________________
9. Mr. White is (judg-ing) the essay contest.

_____________________________________________________________________
10. Be (car-ful) when you light the furnace.

_____________________________________________________________________

Some of the words require the addition of ie; others require ei.

1. Paint the (c--ling) before you paint the walls.

_____________________________________________________________________
2. Gus has been (rec--ving) threatening e-mails.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. A (w--rd) noise came out of the attic.

_____________________________________________________________________
4. I paid almost five dollars for that (p--ce) of pie.

_____________________________________________________________________

117
5. I don't (bel--ve) in coincidence.

_____________________________________________________________________
6. The guests brought (th--r) children to the wedding.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. (N--ther) of us can help you today.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. The (n--ghbors) complained about our parents.

_____________________________________________________________________
9. Linda (w--ghs) less than her collie.

_____________________________________________________________________
10. We waited for the (fr--ght) train to pass.

_____________________________________________________________________

Some of the words require the addition of i; others require y.

1. Have you (tr-ed) the dessert yet?

_____________________________________________________________________

2. The baby (cr-ed) throughout the church service.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. We compared two (theor-es) of evolution.

_____________________________________________________________________
4. Peggy felt (betra-ed) by her manager.

_____________________________________________________________________
5. You should be (stud-ing) for Friday's exam.

_____________________________________________________________________
6. (Lonel-ness) was never a problem for Henry.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. She (fl-es) on broken wings.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. I have always (rel-ed) on my friends.

_____________________________________________________________________

118
9. Please give Mr. Flannery my (apolog-es).

_____________________________________________________________________
10. It was a (pit-ful) sight.

_____________________________________________________________________

Complete each word with the letter a, e, or i.

1. I borrowed these flowers from the (cemet-ry).

_____________________________________________________________________
2. My parakeet eats huge (quant-ties) of bird seed.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. The tax cuts will (ben-fit) the wealthy.

____________________________________________________________________
4. It was a (priv-lege) to meet you.

_____________________________________________________________________
5. He has a remarkably (unpleas-nt) disposition.

_____________________________________________________________________
6. We placed the puppies in (sep-rate) rooms.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. Henry is an (independ-nt) thinker.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. I found an (excell-nt) excuse to resign from the committee.

_____________________________________________________________________
9. She chose items from different (cat-gories).

_____________________________________________________________________
10. Professor Legree made another (irrelev-nt) remark

_____________________________________________________________________

119
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Some of these words require the doubling of a consonant; others are correct as they stand.

1. The sun was (shin-ing) down like honey.

_____________________________________________________________________
2. The experiment was (control-ed) by a madman.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. The region is slowly (begin-ing) to recover.

_____________________________________________________________________
4. Doug (pour-ed) sugar over Yoddy's oatmeal.

_____________________________________________________________________
5. She keeps (forget-ing) to call me.

_____________________________________________________________________
6. Gus (admit-ed) his mistake.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. They were (sweat-ing) in the classroom.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. That idea never (occur-ed) to me.

_____________________________________________________________________
9. The bunny went (hop-ing) down to the abattoir.

_____________________________________________________________________
10. His doctor (refer-ed) him to a dimple specialist.

_____________________________________________________________________

Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters; others are correct as they
stand.

1. Marriage comes without a (g-arantee).

_____________________________________________________________________
2. Caley (su-prised) me.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. You are (prob-ly) going to be late.

_____________________________________________________________________
4. Does she (reali-e) that her socks don't match?

120
_____________________________________________________________________
5. (D-scribe) the man who hit you.

_____________________________________________________________________
6. We waited (until-) the mortician arrived.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. Merdine (recom-ended) a psychiatrist.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. Take two (asp-rin) and go to bed.

_____________________________________________________________________
9. She supports a strong (ath-letic) program.

_____________________________________________________________________
10. The (tem-rature) reached 109 degrees in Yuma.

_____________________________________________________________________

Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters; others are correct as they
stand.

1. She (a-quired) a good tan and a new boyfriend.

_____________________________________________________________________
2. Gus is (basic-ly) lazy.

_____________________________________________________________________
3. We must work together to improve the (envir-ment).

_____________________________________________________________________
4. I wish Hansel would just (dis-pear).

_____________________________________________________________________
5. Mr. Summers should attend to his (bus-ness).

_____________________________________________________________________
6. Alice Walker wrote an essay (sim-lar) to yours.

_____________________________________________________________________
7. The Red Sox have (fin-ly) won a ball game.

_____________________________________________________________________
8. I was (dis-appointed) by the cranberries in dill sauce.

_____________________________________________________________________

121
9. Doc Brown was working in his (lab-ratory).

_____________________________________________________________________
10. Baron Leibniz works for the (gover-ment).

_____________________________________________________________________

Spelling it Right

Print the crossword and answer the clues

1
2 3

7 8

122
10

Each word in this crossword obeys the


rule about ie and ei: When you're saying
-ee- it's i before e except after c.

Across Down

• If you're indoors you'll see this 1. Ronny -------- his mother by lying to
when you look upwards her about where he'd been

• People who are --------- have a very 2. Washing your hands is an important
high opinion of themselves part of personal -------

• Getting 9 out of 10 spellings right 3. This relation is the daughter of your


was quite an -----------for Sally as sister or brother
they were quite difficult words
6. Knights of old carried this to
• You expect to ------- greetings cards defend themselves
on your birthday

8. Someone who steals your


• Asprin will often give you some --- belongings
--- from a headache

Is it i before e, or e before i?

Here are some words which obey the "i before e" rule.
Circle or use a highlight pen to show where these words are in the wordsearch grid.

chief brief believe relieved niece field piece diesel achieve priest siege hygiene
receive receipt perceive deceive deceit ceiling

123
p e r c e i v e a m a h

r c e i b i h c c b c y

i h c s i e g e h e h g

e i e i f c h i i l i i

s e i s d y z l e i e e

t f p r e c e i v e v n

b e t i c h s n e v e e

n d e c e i t g n e p k

i p b r i e f f i e l d

e r e a v f d i e s e l

c o n c e i t e d a c o

e n t e r e l i e v e d

The teacher spoke this poem in the class and the students noted it down in their notebooks.
Back home when Sharon’s mother asked her to bring her notebook for homework, this is what
she found. Can you help the mother?

(Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings and different spellings.
There are lots of examples in the English language.
Here are a few:
piece/peace, flower/flour, beech/beach, rode/road, rain/rein/reign.)
Ode to My Spell Checker (author unknown)
Eye have a spelling checker, it came with my pea sea
It plainly marks four my revue miss steaks eye kin knot sea.
Eye strike a quay and type a word and weight for it to say
Weather eye yam wrong oar write, it shows me strait a weigh.
As soon as a mist ache is maid it nose bee fore two long

124
And eye can put the error rite its rare lea ever wrong.
Eye have run this poem threw it I'm shore your pleased to no
Its letter perfect awl the way, my checker told me sew.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
__________________________

Exercises based on Text :-

EVELYN HOPE

5. Complete the following. Do write the correct the spellings given below:
Beauty + Full = _________________
Plural of Book-shelf =_________________
Plucked – ed + ing = ______________
Begin + ing = _________________
Scarce + ly = ___________________
Plural of duty = ______________
Diverge + ed =__________________
Plural of itself = __________________
Miss + ed = ________________
Spoil + ing = ____________________

Pick out the phrasal verbs used in the poem. Write the meaning and make sentences.
LETTERS OF BHAGAT SINGH
The following words taken from the text have been misspelled. Rectify these:
¾ Prilude ______________________
¾ Condenemd ______________________
¾ Torturres ______________________
¾ Revolutoinaris ______________________
¾ Acqueiscing ______________________
¾ Ungredgingly ______________________
¾ Unparalelled ______________________
¾ Exploitasion ______________________
¾ Anksiously ______________________
¾ Neverteless ______________________

125
Find the word. Each alphabet should be used in the word and no alphabet can be repeated
more than two times:

¾ U S N T O P I ______________________
¾ R C B I A T U E ______________________
¾ E S O M C P I R ______________________
¾ O G N T I A E ______________________
¾ A G V R D N U ______________________
¾ A Z L M O D T I E R N ______________________
¾ E M T N S L ______________________
¾ S I E L D O G ______________________
¾ N A D T H M E C ______________________
¾ U G E N I ______________________
¾ Pi

The following words from the text have been misspelled. Correct the following:

¾ Repeserented
¾ Comunity
¾ Postiivly
¾ propsositon
¾ sensitivety
¾ considiration
¾ potpuris
¾ acomodated
¾ audeinces
¾ culturel
¾ protrayed
¾ rendeing
¾ popularty
¾ entertinment
¾ caricutures

126
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 15

Phrasal Verbs:-

I was brought up in a small town in the countryside. Growing up in the countryside offered lots of
advantages for young people. The only problem was that we often got into trouble as we made up
stories that we acted out around town. I can remember one particular adventure in particular: One day
as we were coming back from school, we came up with the brilliant idea to make out that we were
pirates looking for treasure. My best friend Tom said that he made out an enemy ship in the distance.
We all ran for cover and picked up a number of rocks to use for ammunition against the ship as we
got ready to put together our plan of action. We we were ready to set off on our attack, we slowly
went along the path until we were face to face with our enemy - the postman's truck! The postman
was dropping off a package at Mrs. Brown's house, so we got into his truck. At that point, we really
didn't have any idea about what we were going do next. The radio was playing so we turned down the
volume to discuss what we would do next. Jack was all for switching on the motor and getting away
with the stolen mail! Of course, we were just children, but the idea of actually making off with a truck
was too much for us to believe. We all broke out in nervous laughter at the thought of us driving
down the road in this stolen Postal Truck. Luckily for us, the postman came running towards us
shouting, "What are you kids up to?!". Of course, we all got out of that truck as quickly as we could
and took off down the road.
Phrasal Verbs -Make sentences with the following

• to make out -
• to make off with
• to drop off
• to set off
• to get out of
• to get into
• to get ready
• to be up to

• to take off
• to grow up
• to make up
• to set off
• to turn down
• to get into
• to bring up
• to break out

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__________________________________

Q1. There are at least 7 other phrasal verbs in the text. Can you find them?

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__________________________

Exercises based on text :-


THE BIG BROTHER
Pick out the phrasal verbs from the following sentences, give their meanings and use them in
sentences of your own:

I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the mystery.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_.

I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper
butterflies.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_.

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I had great fun, but back in the hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was.
_________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________ .
But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
Get up at 6 sharp, finish breakfast… 6 to 8 English, 8 to 9 Math, 9 to 9.30 History, followed by lunch
and school.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
6.30 to 7 English composition, followed by dinner, 8 to 9 translations, 9 to 10 Hindi, 10 to 11 revision
and then retire to bed.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
Making a time table is one thing, sticking to it is another.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
The bouncing football, the fervor of Kabbadi, and the pace of volleyball all pulled me back to the
playground.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .

Don’t float in the air; you will soon land with a thud.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
Somehow, I tugged along, my daily routine intact.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
This time, he was in real bad shape…face devoid of color, eyes sunk deep…I felt sorry for him.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears and generally kept off me.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites.
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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it...whether you get into my grade or even move
ahead. "
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
"Look at our headmaster.”
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .
"So you see, do away with that false pride.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_______ .

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

FEBRUARY

Pick out the phrasal verbs from the following sentences, give their meanings and use them in
sentences of your own:
• It is the month when the new-rich depart to sun themselves in their new-found sun, and the
new-poor, and others who are quite used to poverty, swear at them in secret.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• One simply lives through it as one lives through a necessary duty.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• Winter thinks we can ever have enough of it, and comes back saying "Hello!" to us right into
Summer.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• February always reminds me of the suburbs--appalling but you've got to go through them to
get to London.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• If you can't be pure and good and generous and altogether delightful in the Spring, you might
as well write yourself off for evermore among the ignoble army of the eternally disgruntled.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• But the three years when they had to wait to be asked have usually taken all their courage out
of them.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• But everybody else has since done their best to rob it of its one little bit of anaemic joy.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .
• It is a month which brings out the very worst in everybody.
• ___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________ .

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Practice Exercises : -

I. Use the following verbs (believe, fill, get, look, put, switch, take, throw, turn, try) and the
prepositions (away, down, for, in, off, on, out) an form meaningful sentences.

Example: My parents are out. So I have to _________ my baby-brother.

Answer: My parents are out. So I have to look after my baby-brother.


1) Quick!________________ the bus. It's ready to leave.
2) I don't know where my book is. I have to _________________ it.
3) It's dark inside. Can you ______________ the light, please?
4) _________________ the form, please.
5) I need some new clothes. Why don't you _______________ these jeans?
6) It's warm inside. _____________ your coat.
7) This pencil is really old. You can ________________ it___________________.
8) It's so loud here. Can you _____________the radio a little.
9) The firemen were able to ______________ the fire in Church Street.
10) Does your little brother_____________________ ghosts?

II. Complete the phrasal verbs according to their meanings in brackets.

1.. (remove, do not wear) _______________ your shoes.


2.. Somebody has to (take care of) _______________ the baby.
3.. Could you (do not leave it on) _______________ the radio?
4.. Where can I (see if it fits) _______________ the sweater?
5.. (be quick) _______________ .
6.. Why don't you (take a seat) _______________ ?
7.. I will (enter) _______________ the train now.
8.. Shall I (consult a dictionary) _______________ the word in a dictionary?
9.. When do you (rise from bed after sleeping) _______________ in the mornings?

III. Fill in the phrasal verbs:

¾ Make sure to _____________ pick-pockets when you go to the market.


¾ The boy ___________ the man and returned his wallet.
¾ Mary ______________ me at the party last night and introduced herself.
¾ Have you ____________ if you won the competition yet?
¾ I need to ____________ from work and take a holiday.
¾ She still hasn't __________ the death of her cat.
¾ My daughter is a great cook, she really _____________ her mother.
¾ Could you ___________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office?
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¾ Extension 28? I'll _______________.
¾ She promised to ____________ her cigarette smoking to six a day.
¾ He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ____________ a brilliant idea.
¾ I'm afraid your story is not believable. It just doesn't __________________.

Given below are few sentences along with the preposition. Add an appropriate ion or verb to
make a phrasal verb:
1. Has the advertising agency __________ the new promotional material yet? I need it by this
afternoon. (in)
2. We need to ________ the price of the product, which is relatively high, and focus on its quality
as a selling point.(down)
3. Have you __________ any other interesting product features that we could emphasize in the ads?
(across)
4. We've decided to __________ billboards and use more double-page spreads instead.(on)
5. This poster is horrible and can't be used. The colors and images are all wrong. We will have to
__________. (do)
6. We had to reorder the printed advertisements because the printer completely forgot and
__________ the free sample coupons.(out)
7. We're going to __________ the advertising campaign if we can't get any TV or radio time.(off)
8. This commercial doesn't seem to promote the product. Can you explain to me what dancing
chickens __________ sport shoes? (with)
9. My new assistant needs to be __________ before I trust her to run an ad campaign like this
one.(in)
10. I like that magazine, but I think we should __________ advertising in it until its circulation has
increased.(off)

Pick out the phrasal verbs from the list given below and complete the sentences:

1. Have you _________________ if you won the competition yet?


2. I need to _________________ from work and take a holiday.
3. She still hasn't _________________ the death of her cat.
4. My daughter is a great cook, she really _________________ her mother.
5. Could you _________________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office?
6. Extension 28? I'll _________________ .
7. She promised to _________________ her cigarette smoking to six a day.
8. He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ______________ a brilliant idea.
9. I'm afraid your story is not believable. It just doesn't______________.
10. Donata_______________ my cats while I was away on holiday.
11. We're not ready yet, we are going to have to _______________ the meeting until next week.
12. I'm _________________ Simon's address. Do you know it?
13. Mary _________________ twenty minutes late for the party.
14. I'm tired of waiting for Jacek. Can we _________________ our work?
15. If you really want to lose weight, you need to __________eating desserts.
16. Let's __________the grammar one more time before the test.
17. I was __________ an old t-shirt when I __________ this photograph of my high school class.

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18. Look Magda, I've __________your bad behaviour long enough!
19. There is just too much work to be done. We'll have to __________some new employees.
20. When the father saw what had happened he __________ and shouted at his son.
21. I had to __________ her offer of a job. The salary on offer was just not good enough.
22. We __________at six in the morning on our drive to the coast.
23. Jacek and Gosia __________last week. They just weren't happy together.
24. We'd better stop soon. Otherwise, we'll __________of gas.
25. I want you to __________ every bad word you've said about my brother.

Find out, get on with, hold on, get away, blow up, make up, run out, tell off, break up, give up, take
up, take after, turn down, put off, cut down, set off, take back, take on, put up with, go over, look
after, come up with, add up, put through, look for, get over, turn up, come across

1. Complete each gap with a suitable word:

"I'm afraid I haven't got enough copies of this exercise. I tried to have more run ________________
but the photocopier had broken________________ and the repairman didn't turn
_____________________ when he was supposed to. He did ring_________________ to say he'd
been held ________________ unexpectedly, but that's the second time that company has let us
_______________ recently. Well, there's nothing else for it: you're just going to have to look
____________ with your neighbour. While you're doing that, I'll just ___________________ the test
you did last week. Some of you slipped _________________ in a few places, but, on the whole, the
results were good. If you carry _____________________ as you've been doing, you should do fine!"

Exercise based on Text :-


BOLLYWOOD AND THE MUSLIM MOVIES

Write the meanings of the phrasal verbs and use these in sentences of your own:
o Pick up
o Focus at
o Reduced to
o Fallen in
o Move to
o Pushed towards
o Stand out
o Married off
o Make up
o Spread over
o Set in
o Eloping with
o Dressed in
o Bursting at
o Brought in
o Made with
o Break away
o Churning out

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 17

Phrasal verb + Revision

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____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Lecture -21

Idioms / Proverbs

1. Khatte angoor - Sour grapes (also, literally)


2. Bandar kya jaane adrak ka swad - Casting pearls before swine
3. Dal mein kaala - More to it than meets the eye
4. Naach na jaane, aagan tedha – A poor worker blames his tools
5. Door ke dhol suhavane lagte hain – The grass seems greener on the other side
6. Aage kuan peeche khaee – Between the devil and the deep sea
7. Garajne wale badal baraste nahin hain – Barking dogs seldom bite
8. Ab pachatae kya jab chidiya chug gayi khet – No use crying over spilt milk
9. Anth bhala to sab bhala – All’s well that ends well (almost, literal)
10. Taali ek haath se nahin bajti – It takes two to quarrel
11. Jahan chaah wahaan raha – Where there’s a will, there’s a way
12. Doodh ka jala chaas bhi phook-phook kar peeta hai – Once bitten twice shy
13. Jaisa desh, vaisa bhes – In Rome do as the Romans do
14. Ek myaan mein do talawaren nahi samaati – No man can serve two masters
15. Khotta chana baje ghana - Empty vessels make more noise
16. Aanko ka tara-Apple of one’s eye.
17. kabhi nahin se der bhali-better late than never
18. Jaisa karoge waisa bharoge- As you sow, so shall you reap.
19. Jalti par tail dalna- Add fuel to the fire.
20. Khayali pulao banana-To build the castle in the air

Activity

1. Pick 2-3 idioms and build a short story or a paragraph on it.


2. Quiz based on idioms.
3. Match idioms with the pictures[ to be given by the teacher].
Relate the above given idioms with the movie names for example-Ladla- Apple of one’s eye.

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Proverb Explanation / Meaning

When you are away from someone you love, you love them even
A Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
more.
Accidents will happen. Some unfortunate events must be accepted as inevitable.
What a person actually does is more important that what they say
Actions speak louder than words.
they will do.
Advice is cheap. It doesn't cost anything to offer advice.
When a problem is serious, people often do not follow the advice
Advice is least heeded when most needed.
given.
Advisers run no risks. It's easier to give advice than to act.
All cats are grey in the dark. People are undistinguished until they have made a name.
All good things come to those who wait. Patience brings rewards.
All that glitters is not gold. Appearances can be deceptive.
All days are short to Industry and long to
Time goes by slowly when you have nothing to do.
Idleness.
All is fair in love and war Things that are done in love or war can often be excused.
All's well that ends well There is a solution to everything even though there are doubts.
All that glitters is not gold. What look good on the outside may not be so in reality.
All things grow with time - except grief. As time goes by, grief subsides little by little.
With practice things become easier.
All things are difficult before they are easy.
Everybody needs a certain amount of relaxation. It is not good to
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. work all
the time.
Eating an apple every day can help to keep you healthy.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away.* Other interpretation : A small preventive treatment wards off
serious problems.
When one's financial situation deteriorates, friends tend to
An empty purse frightens away friends.
disappear.
An Englishman's home is a place where he feels safe, enjoys
An Englishman's home is his castle. privacy
and can do as he wishes.
An idle brain is the devil's workshop. When you work you avoid temptation.
An onion a day keeps everyone away.* *A humoristic version of "an apple a day..."
It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of
damage or
cure.
cure the disease later.
Anger is the one thing made better by delay. When you are angry, it is best not to speak or act immediately.
Any time means no time. If the date of an event remains vague, it will never happen.
Something bad or unpleasant today may bring good things in the
April showers bring May flowers.
future.

A bad tree does not yield good apples. A bad parent does not raise good children.
Blaming the tools for bad workmanship is an excuse for lack of
A bad workman blames his tools.
skill.
It's better to keep what you have than to risk losing it by searching
A bird in hand is worth two in a bush.
for something better.
A broken friendship may be soldered but Friendships can be rebuilt after a dispute but will never be as
will never be sound. strong as before.
A burden of one's own choice is not felt. Something difficult seems easier when it is done voluntarily.
A burnt child dreads the fire. A bad experience will make people stay away from certain things.
A cat has nine lives. 1) Cats can survive many accidents because they land on their feet

137
without injury.
2) Three lives = 3 years to play, 3 years to stray, 3 years to stay.
A chain is no stronger than its weakest link. The strength of a group depends on each individual member.
A change is as good as a rest. A change in routine is often as refreshing as a break or a holiday.
A dry March, a wet April and a cool May
Harvest predictions according to the weather.
fill barn and cellar and bring much hay.
A fault confessed is half redressed. Confession is the beginning of forgiveness.
A flower blooms more than once. If you miss an occasion, you can avail of it at another time.
A fool and his money are soon (easily)
A foolish person usually spends money carelessly.
parted.
A fool at forty is a fool forever. If a person hasn't matured by the age of 40, they never will.
A friend in need is a friend indeed. Someone who helps you when you are in trouble is a real friend.
Someone who is a friend to everyone makes none of them feel
A friend to all is a friend to none.
special.
A friend's eye is a good mirror. A real friend will tell you the truth.
A good example is the best sermon. Giving an example is better than giving advice.
If a task is carefully planned, there's a better chance that it will be
A good beginning makes a good end.
done well.
A good conscience is a soft pillow. You sleep well when you have nothing to feel guilty about.
A guilty conscience needs no accuser.
It is not possible for a bad or unpleasant person to become good or
A leopard cannot change its spots.
pleasant.
A loaded wagon makes no noise. Really wealthy don't talk about money.
A loveless life is a living death.
A man can die but once.
A man is as old as he feels himself to be.
A person's character is judged by the type of people with whom
A man is known by the company he keeps. they spend
their time.
A monkey in silk is a monkey no less. No matter how someone dresses, it's the same person underneath.
A new broom sweeps clean. A newly-appointed person makes changes energetically.
A rising tide lifts all boats. Describes something that will be helpful to all.
If a person keeps moving from place to place, they gain neither
friends nor possessions.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
Another interpretation is that, by moving often, one avoids being
tied down!
A dishonest or immoral person can have a bad influence on a
A rotten apple spoils the barrel.
group.
A smooth sea never made a skilled mariner. Overcoming adversity leads to competence.
It's better to deal with a problem at an early stage, to prevent it
A stitch in time saves nine.
from getting worse.
Correcting a small mistake may help you to avoid making a bigger
A stumble may prevent a fall.
one.
A swallow does not make the summer. One good event does not mean that everything is alright.
A tree is known by its fruit. A man is judged by his actions.
A watched pot never boils If you wait anxiously for something, it seems to take a long time.
A young idler, an old beggar. If you don't work, you won't have any money when you're old.
After dinner rest a while, after supper walk
a mile.
As you sow, so shall you reap You have to accept the consequences of your actions.
Ask me no questions, I'll tell you no lies. There are subjects I'd rather not discuss.

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People tend to circulate bad news (accidents, illness etc.) very
B Bad news travels fast.
quickly.
Beauty is only skin deep. A person's character is more important than their appearance.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Different people have different tastes.
Beauty is the wisdom of women. Wisdom is
the beauty of men.
Be swift to hear, slow to speak. Listen carefully before speaking.
Better be alone than in bad company. Be careful in the choice of the people you associate with.
Better be the head of a dog then the tail of a It's better to be the leader of a small group than a subordinate in a
lion. bigger one.
Better flatter a fool than fight him. It's better to avoid disputes with stupid people.
Better the devil you know than the devil you It's better to deal with somebody difficult but familiar, than change
don't know and risk dealing with somebody worse.
Better late than never. It's better to do something, even if it's late, than not do it at all.
It's better to stop and accept a small loss, rather than continue and
Better lose the saddle than the horse.
risk losing everything.
Better safe than sorry It's better to be too careful than to be careless and regret it later.
Better untaught than ill-taught It's better not to be taught at all than to be taught badly.
Beware of Greeks bearing gifts. Don't trust your enemies.
Birds of a feather flock together. People of the same sort are usually found together.
Family relationships are stronger than relationships with other
Blood is thicker than water
people.
Blood will out. A person's background or education will eventually show.

C Charity begins at home. A person's first duty is to help and care for his own family.
Children and fools tell the truth.
Cleanliness is next to godliness. A clean body is just as important as a pure soul.
Clear moon, frost soon. If the atmosphere is clear, frost may form.
Clothes don't make the man. Appearances can be deceiving.
Constant occupation prevents temptation. When you work you avoid temptation.

A dead person cannot cause difficulties by revealing something


D Dead men tell no tales
that it would be preferable to conceal.
Diamond cuts diamond. Refers to two people equally matched in wit or cunning.
Diligence is the mother of good fortune. Hard work brings rewards.
Discretion is the better part of valour It is useless to take unnecessary risks.
Diseases of the soul are more dangerous
than those of the body.
When you are separated from the person you love, your feelings
Distance makes the heart grow fonder.
are even stronger.
Dogs of the same street bark alike. People from the same background have the same behaviour.
Don't bark if you can't bite. Don't complain if you can't enforce your point of view.
Don't count your chickens before they're
You must not be too confident that something will be successful.
hatched.
Don't dig your grave with your own knife
Don't do something yourself which causes your own downfall.
and fork.
Don't judge a book by its cover. Don't judge by appearances.

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man


E
healthy, wealthy and wise.
What is suggested sounds easy but it is more difficult to actually
Easier said than done.
do it.

139
Elbow grease is the best polish. Hard work gives the best results.
Empty vessels make the most noise. The least intelligent people are often the most talkative or noisy.
Every ass likes to hear himself bray. People like to listen to themselves talking.
Every cloud has a silver lining There is a positive or hopeful side to every unpleasant situation.
Every man for himself. You must think of your own interests before the interests of others.
Every man has his price. Everyone's loyalty can be bought for a price.
Every man is the architect of his own
Life is what you make it.
fortune.
Every path has its puddle. Progress is rarely without difficulty.
Every rose has its thorn. Every good thing has an unpleasant side.
Every why has a wherefore. There is an explanation for everything.
Everything in the garden is rosy. Everything is satisfactory.
Experience is the father of wisdom. Experience and knowledge result in better judgement.

People show what they are really like by what they do, rather than
F Facts speak louder than words.
by what they say.
Failure teaches success.
False friends are worse than open enemies.
Knowing somebody very well may lead to a lack of respect for
Familiarity breeds contempt
them.
Fine words butter no parsnips. No amount of talking can replace action.
First come, first served. The first person in the line will be attended to first.
Fool me once, shame on you;
One should learn from one's mistakes.
fool me twice, shame on me.
Inexperienced people act in situations that more intelligent people
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread
would avoid
Friendship is love with understanding.

Gardens are not made by sitting in the


G Nothing is achieved without effort.
shade.
Give someone an inch and they will take a Give someone a little and they will want more - some people are
mile (or yard). never satisfied.
Give someone enough rope and they will
Give someone enough time and freedom and they will get into
hang
trouble.
themselves.
God helps those who help themselves.
Good and quickly seldom meet. A well-done job takes time.
Good management is better than good
income.
Great minds think alike.
Great oaks grow from little acorns. Large successful operations can begin in a small way.
Grief divided is made lighter

You should be grateful for something, even if it's not as much as


H Half a loaf is better than none.
you wanted.
Hard words break no bones.
If something is done too quickly, it may be done carelessly and
Haste makes waste.
need to be redone.
A person who feels hatred does not see any qualities in the person
Hatred is a blind as love.
he/she hates.
He has enough who is content.

140
If you delay your decision too long, you may miss a good
He who hesitates is lost.
opportunity.
He who is everywhere is nowhere. It's not good to do too many things at the same time.
He who knows nothing, doubts nothing. Knowledge leads us to make choices.
The person who provides the money for something should control
He who pays the piper calls the tune.
how it is spent
He who plays with fire gets burnt. If you behave in a risky way, you are likely to have problems.
He who wills the end wills the means. If you are determined to do something you will find a way.
He laughs best who laughs last. Don't express your joy, or your triumph, too soon!
Health is better than wealth. It's better to be in good health than to be rich.
Home is where the heart is. You call home the place where the people you love are.
Honesty is the best policy. It's always better to be honest.
Honey catches more flies than vinegar. You can obtain more cooperation from others by being nice.
However long the night, the dawn will
Bad things don't last forever.
break
Hunger is a good sauce. All food tastes good when you are hungry.

I In times of prosperity friends are plentiful. You have many friends when you have no difficulties.
If a camel gets his nose in a tent, his body
If you let something intrusive enter your life, your life will become
will
difficult .
follow.
If in February there be no rain, 'tis neither
good Plants and crops will grow badly if there is no rain in early spring.
for hay nor grain.
If you are patient in one moment of anger, Avoid regrets by taking time to think before speaking or acting
you will avoid 100 days of sorrow. angrily.
If you chase two rabbits, you will not catch
If you try to do two things at the same time, you won't succeed in
either
doing either of them.
one.
When two people do something together, one will be the leader
If two ride a horse, one must ride behind.
and the other will be the subordinate.
If you want a friend, be a friend.
If wishes were horses, then beggars would
Wishing alone is of no use; you must act as well.
ride.
Possible interpretation: What you do not know causes no worry or
Ignorance is bliss.
sadness.
If you start something, it's better to spend the time or money
In for a penny, in for a pound.
necessary to complete it.
In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is A man of even limited ability has an advantage over a person who
king. is less able.
It never rains but it pours. Misfortunes usually come in large numbers.
It is always darkest before the dawn The most difficult time is just before a problem is solved.
Don't express regret for something that has happened and cannot
It's no use crying over spilt milk.
be remedied.
It takes all sorts to make a world. People vary in character and abilities, and this is a good thing.

J Justice delayed is justice denied. If the law is applied too late, there is no justice.

What you learn when you are young will be invaluable when you
K Knowledge in youth is wisdom in age.
grow old.
Knowledge is power. Knowledge makes it possible for you to act.
Kill one to warn a hundred. Warn many by punishing a few.

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Kill the goose that lays the golden egg. Destroy something that would be a source of wealth or success.
Kindness begets kindness. If you are kind to people, they will be kind to you.
L Laughter is the best medicine.
Learn to walk before you run. Don't rush into doing something until you know how to do it.
Learning is a treasure that will follow its
Education is something you keep forever.
owner everywhere.
Least said soonest mended. The more discreet you are, the less damage you cause.
Let bygones be bygones. Let's forgive and forget past quarrels.
Let the chips fall where they may. We should not try to control our destiny.
Liars need good memories.
Lightning never strikes in the same place An unusual event is not likely to occur again in exactly the same
twice circumstances.
Like father, like son. A son's character can be expected to resemble his father's.
Little strokes fell great oaks. If you divide a task into small parts, it becomes easier to do.
Look before you leap. Consider possible consequences before taking action.
Disclosing important information ( to the enemy or a competitor)
Loose lips sink ships.
could result in large losses.
Losers weepers, finders keepers. If you lose something you weep, if you find something you keep it.
Love is blind. A person in love does not see the faults of the person he/she loves.

M Make a silk purse out of a sow's ear Manage to produce something good using poor material.
Man is the head of the family;
woman is the neck that turns the head.
Man proposes, God disposes. Our destiny depends on God's will.
Manners make the man. Possibly: a person's manners show their origins.
Many hands make light work. Sharing work makes work easier.
If you get married too quickly, you may spend all your life
Marry in haste, repent at leisure.
regretting it.
Memory is the treasure of the mind.
Men make houses, women make homes.
Might as well be hanged for a sheep as (for) If the penalty is going to be the same, you might as well commit
a lamb the greater offence.
Money begets money. If you have money you can make more money.
Money doesn't grow on trees. You shouldn't waste money because it is not plentiful.
Money is the root of all evil. Money is the main cause of wrongdoing and problems.

N Necessity is the mother of invention. The need for something forces people to find a way of obtaining it.
Need teaches a plan. Necessity will make you find a solution.
Never put off till tomorrow what can be Don't postpone something you can do
done today now.
Never say die. Never give up.
Nobody is perfect.
No man can serve two masters. It's impossible to follow instructions from two different sources.
No man is an island. We all need other people.
If the news was bad, we would hear of it. Since we have heard
No news is good news.
nothing, we can assume that all is well.
No smoke without fire. There could be some truth in the rumour...
No wind, no waves. Similar to : 'no smoke without fire'.
Nothing ventured, nothing gained. You cannot expect to achieve anything if you don't take risks.

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After an unpleasant experience, people are careful to avoid
O Once bitten, twice shy.
something similar.
One father is more than a hundred
schoolmasters.
One good turn deserves another. You should be helpful to someone who helps you.
One of these days is none of these days. 'One of these days' remains vague.
One today is worth two tomorrow. What you have today is better than what is promised or hoped for.
One man's meat is another man's poison People don't always like the same things.
One man's trash is another man's treasure. What is useless to one person could be valuable to another.
A single satisfactory event does not mean that all the others will be
One swallow doesn't make a summer.
as good.
Only real friends will tell you when your
face is Only a real friend will tell you the truth.
dirty.
Opportunity seldom knocks twice. Don't miss opportunities that come along.
Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings Children often speak wisely.
Out of sight, out of mind. We tend to forget people or things that we do not see.

Refers to a person who is careful about spending small amounts of


P Penny wise, pound foolish.
money, but not careful about spending large amounts of money.
People who live in glass houses should not
throw One should not criticize others for faults similar to one's own.
stones.
Poverty waits at the gates of idleness. If you do not work you will not make money.
Practice makes perfect. Doing something repeatedly is the only way to become good at it.
Practise what you preach Do yourself what you advise others to do.
It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the
Prevention is better than cure
damage or cure the disease later.
Don't be too self-confident or proud; something may happen to
Pride comes before a fall.
make you look foolish.
Procrastination is the thief of time Delaying an action for too long is a waste of time.
Punctuality is the soul of business You should always be on time for your business appointments.
Risk everything by relying on one plan (by putting all one's money
Put all your eggs in one basket
in one business).

R Revenge is sweet. There is satisfaction in returning an injury.


It takes a long time to do a job properly. You should not expect to
Rome was not built in a day.
do it quickly.

S Save me from my friends. Friends can be more dangerous than enemies.


Saying is one thing, doing is another. People don't always do what they announce.
Short reckonings make long friends. Debts paid quickly encourage friendship.
Sickness in the body brings sadness to the
mind.
If you don't object to something it can be assumed that you agree
Silence gives consent.
with it.
Snug as a bug in a rug. Feeling very comfortable.
If you don't punish a child when he does wrong, you will spoil his
Spare the rod and spoil the child
character.
Sticks and stones will break my bones but
Physical attacks may harm me, but cruel words will not.
names

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will never hurt me
Still waters run deep. A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom.
It's better to deal with a problem in its early stages, because if you
A stitch in time saves nine
don't, it will get worse.
Stolen fruit is the sweetest. What is forbidden is the most tempting.

T Tall oaks grow from little acorns. Great things may come from small beginnings.
The apple doesn't fall far from the tree. Children resemble their parents.
The best advice is found on the pillow. After a good night's sleep we may find an answer to our problem.
The darkest hour is just before dawn. There is hope even in the worst of times.
The devil looks after his own. Success comes to those who deserve it least .
People who have no work, or are idle, often get into or make
The devil makes work for idle hands
trouble.
The die is cast. A decision has been made and it's impossible to change it.
If you want to do something successfully, you should do it as soon
The early bird catches the worm.
as you can.
Wrong or unfair methods may be used if the result of the action is
The end justifies the means.
good.
The first step is the hardest. The most difficult thing is to begin.
The more haste, the less speed. A person makes more progress if they do things less quickly.
The more you have, the more you want.
The mouse that has but one hole is quickly If you depend on just one thing, and it fails you, you will have no
taken. alternatives.
Words and communication have greater effect than war and
The pen is mightier than the sword
fighting.
The real value of something can be judged only after it has been
The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
tried or tested.
The road to hell is paved with good
It's not enough to intend to do something, you must actually do it.
intentions.
The tongue wounds more than a lance. Insults can be more hurtful than physical injuries.
The truth is in the wine. People speak more freely under the influence of alcohol.
The way to a man's heart is through his
Feed a man well and he will love you.
stomach.
The wish is father to the thought. You think that something is true because you want it to be so.
There is a black sheep in every flock. There is always one who doesn't behave or perform like the others.
There is a trick in every trade. There is an established way of doing things.
There is no fool like an old fool. A older person is expected to behave more sensibly.
There is safety in numbers Being in a crowd makes you feel more confident.
Time and tide wait for no man. Delaying a decision will not prevent events from taking place.
Time has wings. Time goes by quickly.
Time is money. Time is valuable and should not be wasted.
To err is human, to forgive divine It is human nature to make mistakes, therefore one should forgive.
Too many cooks spoil the broth.
If too many people are involved in something, it will not be done
(Humoristic version : Too many clicks spoil
properly.
the browse!)
Trust not a horse's heel nor a dog's tooth.
Truth is stranger than fiction. Events in real life are sometimes stranger than in fiction.
Two wrongs don't make a right It is wrong to harm someone because they have harmed you.

U Union is strength. A group has more force than an individual.

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A person who doesn't want to do something always finds a reason
Unwillingness easily finds an excuse.
to avoid it.

V Variety is the spice of life. Doing a lot of different things makes life more interesting.
Virtue is its own reward. You should not expect praise for acting in a correct or moral way.

W Walls have ears. Be careful. People could be listening.


Waste not, want not. If you never waste anything, you will have it when you need it.
What the eye doesn't see, the heart doesn't
grieve If a person doesn't know about something, it cannot hurt them.
over.
What a man says drunk, he thinks sober. People speak more freely under the influence of alcohol.
What soberness conceals, drunkenness
People are less discreet under the influence of alcohol.
reveals.
People misbehave when their boss, or the person in authority, is
When the cat's away, the mice play.
absent.
You should adopt the customs of the people or country you are
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
visiting, and behave in the same way.
When poverty come in the door, love goes
out the
window.
Where there's life there's hope.
Where there's a will, there's a way. A person with determination will find a way of doing something.
Who makes himself a sheep will be eaten by Possible interpretation: an easily influenced person can be
the wolves. mislead.
Wisdom is better than strength.
Wonders will never cease! Expresses surprise at an unexpected pleasure or event (ironic).
Worry often gives a small thing a big
Worrying over small details can make them seem worse.
shadow.

Y You are what you eat. What you eat has an effect on your well-being.
You are never too old to learn.
You can lead a horse to water but you can't You can offer someone an opportunity to do something but you
make it drink. can't force them.
You can't teach an old dog new tricks. A person who is used to doing things a certain way cannot change.
You never know what you can do until you
Try first before deciding not to do something.
try.
You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. You help me and I'll help you.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Practice Exercises : -

PROVERBS

I. Given below are some commonly used proverbs. Some of them, you may have studied and
some of them may be new to you. Try to locate the meaning of each proverb:

The first step is the hardest


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

They Brag Most That Can Do the Least


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

Pain is so close to pleasure


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

Never say die


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

Make hay while the sun shines


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

I had no shoes and complained, until I met a man who had no feet
_____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________.

Better an open enemy, than a false friend


_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________.

A bad workman blames his tools


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

Absence makes the heart grow fonder


_________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________ .

Better bend than break


_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________ .

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II. Find the correct endings to the proverbs:

a. You can't teach an old dog

__________________________________________________________________
b. Once bitten

__________________________________________________________________
c. In for a penny

__________________________________________________________________
d. it never rains

__________________________________________________________________
e. too many cooks

__________________________________________________________________
f. a friend in need

__________________________________________________________________
g. a stitch in time

__________________________________________________________________
h. never put off until tomorrow

__________________________________________________________________
i. what the eye does not see

__________________________________________________________________
j. like father

__________________________________________________________________
k. one swallow

__________________________________________________________________
l. promises

__________________________________________________________________

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m. better safe

__________________________________________________________________
n. out of sight,

__________________________________________________________________
o. listeners

__________________________________________________________________

III. Which of the proverbs mean the same as these sentences.

1. It is not a good idea to decide if a thing is good or bad just by how it appears at first or by its
outward appearance.

__________________________________________________________________

2. When a bad thing happens there is always a positive aspect to it.

__________________________________________________________________

3. If you don't see someone for a long time you like them better.

__________________________________________________________________

4. When you are in a strange place (temporarily) it is better to follow the local customs.

__________________________________________________________________

5. You should be happy with what you have got even if it is less than what you want.

__________________________________________________________________

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6. In many areas in life if you do not confront a problem when it starts it can deteriorate rapidly
therefore it is much better to act soon.

__________________________________________________________________

7. This proverb was probably written by someone who owns his own house and doesn't stay up all
night dancing.

_________________________________________________________________

8. Don't become very upset by trivialities.

__________________________________________________________________

9. Don't take risks.

__________________________________________________________________

10. Those who cast threats are seldom man enough to carry them out.

__________________________________________________________________
IV. Match the proverbs given in Column A with their meanings in Column B:

Column A Column B
• Justice delayed is justice • You should not expect praise for acting in a
denied correct or moral way
• Hunger is a good sauce • you can’t expect to achieve anything if you
• Cleanliness is next to can’t take risks
godliness • A decision has been made and it's impossible
• Manners make the man to change it
• Nothing ventured, nothing • You should adopt the customs of the people or
gained country you are visiting
• You never know what you • Try first before deciding not to do something
can do until you try • If the law is applied too late, there is no
• When in Rome, do as the justice.
Romans do
• Virtue is its own reward. • All food tastes good if you are hungry
• The pen is mightier than • Words and communication have greater effect
the sword than war and fighting.
• The die is cast. • A clean body is just as important as a pure
soul.
• Feelng very comfortable.
• a person's manners show their origins
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V. use the proverbs given below in sentences of your own:

1. Spare the rod and spoil the child.

_____________________________________________________________________________
2. One today is worth two tomorrow

_____________________________________________________________________________
3. Need teaches a plan

_____________________________________________________________________________
4. Put all your eggs in one basket

_____________________________________________________________________________
5. The end justifies the means

_____________________________________________________________________________
6. Wonders will never cease!

_____________________________________________________________________________
7. Better lose the saddle than the horse

_____________________________________________________________________________
8. A watched pot never boils

_____________________________________________________________________________
9. Every path has its puddle

_____________________________________________________________________________
10. Hatred is as blind as love

_____________________________________________________________________________

150
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

VI. Look at the following pictures and write proverbs that explain the picture:

1.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

2.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

3.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

4.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

5.

______________________________________________________________________________

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6.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

7.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

8.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

9.

______________________________________________________________________________
_

10.

____________________________________________________________________________

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Find pictures that describe the following proverbs.

1. Between the devil and the deep sea

BETWEEN
2. burnt child dreads fire

3. hungry man is an angry man

4. Empty vessels make the most noise

5. an idle brain is the devil’s workshop

6. Faint heart never won the fair lady

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7. A penny saved is a penny gained

8. A rolling stone gathers no moss

9. as you sow, so shall you reap

10. barking dogs seldom bite

11. a bird in hand is worth two in the bush

12. birds of a feather flock together

13. call a spade a spade

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14. charity begins at home

15. all that glitters is not gold

Use the following proverbs in sentences of your own

where there’s a will, there’s a way

__________________________________________________________________________
discretion is the best part of valor

__________________________________________________________________________
any time means no time

__________________________________________________________________________
dead men tell no lies

__________________________________________________________________________
better late then never

__________________________________________________________________________
an ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit

__________________________________________________________________________
a friend in need is a friend indeed

__________________________________________________________________________
first come, first served

__________________________________________________________________________
a man is as old as he feels

__________________________________________________________________________

great talkers are little doers

__________________________________________________________________________

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 25
Conditionals
Practice Exercises :-

I. Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to party, but nobody's really keen on
preparing and organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to
make sure that the others will also do something.

Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.

1. If Caroline and Sue_______________( prepare) the salad, Phil____________ (decorate) the


house.
2. If Sue _____________ (cut) the onions for the salad, Caroline______________ (peel) the
mushrooms.
3. Jane ______________ (hoover) the sitting room if Aaron and Tim ____________ (move) the
furniture.
4. If Bob _______________ (tidy) up the kitchen, Anita ____________ (clean) the toilet.
5. Elaine ______________ (buy) the drinks if somebody _________ (help) her carry the bottles.
6. If Alan and Rebecca ______________ (organize) the food, Mary and Conor ____________
(make) the sandwiches.
7. If Bob _________ (looks) after the barbecue, Sue ______________ (let) the guests in.
8. Frank _______________(play) the DJ if the others__________ (bring) along their CDs.
9. Alan ___________ (mix) the drinks if Jane ____________ (give) him some of her cocktail
recipes.
10. If they all (do) their best, the party (be) success.

II. Complete the story “The Cat and the Mouse” using conditional sentences:
1. Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off. “Give me back my tail,” said the mouse. And
the cat said, “Well, I (give)_______________ you back your tail if you fetched me some milk.
But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
2. The mouse, however, went to the cow. “The cat (give / only) ______________ me back my
tail if I fetch her some milk.”
3. And the cow said, “Well, I would give you milk if you (get)_____________ me some hay. But
that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
4. The mouse, however, went to the farmer. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the
cow (give)_________________ me some milk. And the cow (only /
give) ______________________ me milk if I get her some hay.”
5. And the farmer said, “Well, I would give you hay if you (bring) _____________ me some
meat. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”

156
6. The mouse, however, went to the butcher. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the
cow (give) _____________________ me milk. And the cow will only give me milk if
she (get) __________ some hay. And the farmer (only / give) _____________ me hay if I get
him some meat.”
7. And the butcher said, “Well, I would give you meat if you (make) ________________ the
baker bake me a bread. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
8. The mouse, however, went to the baker. “The cat (give / only)____________________ me
back my tail if I fetch her some milk. And the cow (give / not) ___________ me milk if I don't
get her hay. And the farmer will only give me hay if the butcher (have)__________________
some meat for him. And the butcher will not give me meat if you (bake / not)
_______________ him a bread.”
9. And the baker said, “Well, I (give) __________ you bread if you promise never to steal my
corn or meal.”
10. The mouse promised not to steal, and so the baker gave the mouse bread, the mouse gave the
butcher bread. The butcher gave the mouse meat, the mouse gave the farmer meat. The farmer
gave the mouse hay, the mouse gave the cow hay. The cow gave the mouse milk, the mouse
gave the cat milk. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back.
11. But imagine what would have happened otherwise:
12. If the mouse (promised/not) _______________ never to steal corn or meal, the baker
(not/give)____________the mouse bread.
13. If the baker (not / give) _______________ the mouse bread, the
butcher (refuse) ______________ to give her meat for the farmer.
14. If the butcher (refuse) _____________her any meat, the farmer (not/be) __________willing
to give the mouse hay.
15. If the farmer (not/be)______________willing to give the mouse hay, the mouse (not/receive)
_________________milk from the cow.
16. If the mouse (not/receive) _________________ milk from the cow, she (not/get)
__________back her tail

III. Complete the sentences according to the basic rules for Conditional Sentences.

1. Do you like jazz music? Because if you (like)_______ jazz, you (love) __________ New
Orleans.
2. Vanessa hates boat trips. But if she (hate / not)______________ boat trips, she (enjoy)
___________ a riverboat cruise on the Mississippi.
3. I (do) _________a course in jazz dancing if I (have)________more time. But unfortunately I
don't have time.
4. If the founders of the city (hate) ___________the King of France, they (call /not)__________
the place Nouvelle-Orléans in honor of him.
5. It (be) _____________ silly if we tried to walk there.
6. I (watch) __________ the film only if the reviews are good.
7. She'd have taken me to the station if her car (break) ____________ down.
8. If you (ask) ____________, , he won't help you.

157
9. If it (rains) ____________, yesterday, we would have gone sailing.
10. (Look) ______________after their dog again if they go on holiday this year?
11. Would you mind if I (use) _____________ your mobile?
12. I (open) ________________ the mail if it had contained a virus.
13. Even if I (have) _____________, a wet-suit, I wouldn't go scuba-diving.
14. (be) _____________ that strict if you'd known the truth?
15. If you (go) __________out with your friends tonight, I (watch) ___________the football
match on TV.
16. I (earn) __________a lot of money if I (get)_________ that job.
17. If he (try) ________harder, he (reach) __________his goals.
18. If she (hurry / not)__________, we (miss) ________the bus.
19. If we (listen) __________to the radio, we (hear) ___________the news.
20. She (come)_________to our party if she (be / not) ____________on holiday.
21. I (buy) ________these shoes if they (fit) _______________
22. It (surprise / not) ____________me if he (know / not) ____________the answer.
23. If you (switch) __________on the lights, you (fall / not) ____________over the chair.
24. If I (be) _______________ stronger, I'd help you carry the piano.
25. If we'd seen you, we (stop) _________________.
26. If we (meet) __________, him tomorrow, we'll say hello.
27. He would have repaired the car himself if he (has) _____________ the tools.
28. If you drop the vase, it (break) ________________.
29. I wouldn't go to school by bus if I (has) ___________a driving licence.
30. I (travel) __________to London if I don't get a cheap flight.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 29
AUXILIARY VERBS

Practice Exercises : -
I. Is the bold verb an auxiliary or a full verb?
1. I am hungry.______________________
2. They will help you. ______________________
3. We do not know his address. ______________________
4. My friend Amy does a lot of sports. ______________________
5. How much is it? ______________________
6. I am reading an interesting book at the moment. ______________________
7. Will you be there? ______________________
8. She has never been to London. ______________________
9. Does he speak English? ______________________
10. They have a cat and a dog. ______________________
11. Dad is working in the garden. ______________________
12. We do the shopping once a week. ______________________
13. These students never have classes on Fridays. ______________________
14. What do you do for a living? ______________________
15. The kids were dancing to the music. ______________________
16. Did you see him? ______________________
17. The door is closed. ______________________
18. Where have you been? ______________________
19. My parents are on holiday. ______________________
20. I had just finished my breakfast when the phone rang.____________________

II. Complete each sentence with the correct auxiliary verb


1. What ______________________ you done?
2. I ______________________ not like this song.
3. ______________________ she know that you are here?
4. The lesson ______________________ not started yet.
5. ______________________ you drink milk?
6. Who ______________________ eaten my biscuits?
7. It ______________________not matter.
8. They ______________________not want to play outside.
159
9. We ______________________not seen you for a long time.
10. My friend ______________________sent me some photos
11. The train ______________________just arrived.
12. ______________________you understand?
13. They ______________________been learning English for two years.
14. ______________________you heard that?
15. My uncle ______________________ not eat fish.
16. I ______________________ not live here.
17. ______________________ anybody rung up for me?
18. She ______________________not play the piano.
19. How ______________________we get there?
20. Where ______________________ he live?
21. ______________________ you usually send postcards home when you are on holiday?
22. I ______________________not working today.
23. ______________________she given you the book yet?
24. The boy ______________________playing with his toys.
25. I ______________________not seen that film yet.
26. Who ______________________ told you to do this?
27. Where ______________________ he go to school?
28. What ______________________ you doing at the moment?
29. Amy ______________________not go by bus very often.
30. Marc ______________________ never travelled by plane before.

III. Write negative sentences in the tenses given in brackets. Decide whether or not to use an
auxiliary.

1. we/eat/not/meat (Active Voice - Simple Present) ______________________


2. he/send/not/the parcel (Active Voice - Simple Past) ______________________
3. they/help/not/you (Active Voice - will-Future) ______________________
4. she/see/not/us (Active Voice - Present Perfect Simple) ______________________
5. the car/steal/not (Passive Voice - Simple Past) ______________________
6. they/read/not (Active Voice - Present Progressive) ______________________
7. the room/clean/not (Passive Voice - Present Perfect) ______________________
8. you/do/not/your homework (Active Voice - Past Progressive) _____________________

160
9. the test/write/not (Passive Voice - will-Future) ______________________
10. he/go to school by bike/not (Active Voice - Simple Present) ______________________

IV. Write questions in the tenses given in brackets. Decide whether or not to use an auxiliary.

1. you/know/this girl (Simple Present) ______________________


2. who/say/that (Simple Past) ______________________
3. why/she/want to do this (Simple Present) ______________________
4. he/go home (Present Perfect Simple) ______________________
5. she/come/to our party (will-Future) ______________________
6. they/travel/by train (Simple Past) ______________________
7. they/buy/the present (Present Perfect Simple) ______________________
8. you/sleep (Present Progressive) ______________________
9. they/be/there (Simple Past) ______________________
10. where/he/be/from (Simple Present) ______________________
11. you/read/that book (Active Voice - Present Perfect Simple) ______________________

V. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs 'to be' and 'to have'. (Present tense only!)
1. Your father ______________ a doctor..
2. _____________ I your best friend?
3. This animal _____________black eyes.
4. The boys ______________ a tennis match on Saturday.
5. _______________ we on the right way?
6. It ______________ a white rose.
7. You _______________ something on your hair.
8. _____________ Mike Tyson a boxer?
9. The teacher _____________ a yellow book.
10. They _______________ a lovely garden.

VI. Complete the short answers which follow the questions.


Example: Is he angry with me? No, _____. (key = he is not) (key = he isn't)
1. Have they been here before?' 'No, _______________
2. 'Was your mother angry with you?' 'Yes_______________
3. 'Are Peter and Jane married?' 'Yes, _______________
4. Would he be able to pay for all that?' 'Yes, _______________
5. 'Do you live in Paris, Jacquie?' 'No, _______________
161
6. 'Could Peter read when he was four?' 'No, _______________
7. 'Sir, are you going to buy that CD?' 'Yes, _______________
8. Does Mr Brown speak French?' 'Yes, _______________
9. 'Did she understand you?' 'No, _______________
10. 'Is there much water in the glass?' 'No, _______________

VII. Complete the following sentences using the modals on the list below:
can / not
must / not
should / not
ought to
have to / don't have to
has to / doesn't have to

1. If someone faints, you _______________ loosen their clothing, not tighten it.

2. You _______________ use this ticket any time. You _______________use it today.

3. If you want a table for ten, you_______________ phone the restaurant.

4. You _______________ wash lettuce before making a salad.

5. We _______________take a taxi. We don’t have enough money.

6. In my country, students _______________wear uniforms at school.

7. People _______________. brush their teeth after every meal.

8. Sue gave me a letter to post. I _______________ forget it.

9. You _______________. anything before asking your father.

10. We _______________ walk on the grass in the park.

VIII. In this exercise, we focus on the uses of auxiliary verbs. There is only one error in each
sentence. Rewrite the sentences rectifying the error.
1. Many second language learners are confuse the use of 'must' and 'should'.
_________________________________________________________________
2. I think high income earners must pay more tax.
_________________________________________________________________

162
3. He was a natural tennis player so he must not train much.
_________________________________________________________________
4. I must to do some more work on this project before tomorrow.
_________________________________________________________________
5. I am pleased to hear that you are enjoyed reading our periodicals and wish to attend our
seminar.
_________________________________________________________________
6. Before an aircraft takes off, the pilot should go through the regulation safety checks.
_________________________________________________________________
7. Some students are not care about politics.
_________________________________________________________________
8. This grammar exercise maybe a little difficult for some people.
_________________________________________________________________
9. Many people are experience problems when they first climb high mountains.
_________________________________________________________________
10. Some parents think that if they have a lot of children they mustn't worry about money.
_________________________________________________________________

IX. . Fill in each blank space with the correct auxiliary verb:
1. ________ he as mean as people say?
2. ________ he know how to cook well?
3. ________ you upset?
4. ________ you told her yet?
5. ________ they ever been here before?
6. ________ that a good movie?
7. _______ she in love with Marco?
8. ________ you stopped smoking?
9. ________ you play tennis on weekends?
10. ________ your grandmother 80 years old?

163
X. The following sentences are taken from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Underline the
auxiliary verb in each sentence.

1. Tom was swimming in bliss.

2. Well, I’ve been pretty much so, too, Huck.

3. I been creeping all over, ever since I got here.

4. The boys were subdued by these solemnities, and talked little.

5. Now the raft was passing before the distant town.

6. Well, he’s mended kites for me, Huck, and knitted hooks on to my line.

7. Daily Muff Potter’s gratitude made Tom glad he had spoken; but nightly he wished he had
sealed up his tongue.

8. Aunt Polly was vexed to think she had overlooked that bit of circumstantial evidence, and
missed a trick.

9. They’re coming right toward the door.

10. The family were still at table, but they had finished breakfast.

XI. Fill in the blanks with the correct auxiliary verb. If there is more than one tense possible,
indicate both options. For example: She was/is going to the prom. Remember, auxiliary
verbs are forms of be, have, and do.

1. I ______ spending my money.


2. We _______________ going fishing.
3. They ________________ dancing all night.
4. He ___________ washed the car.
5. I ____________ eating a jelly donut.
6. Six hot dogs ___________ eaten by them during the game.
7. Bill _____________ gone to the doctor.
8. Ms. Keyser _______________ not teaching today.
9. We _______________ teaching instead.
10. I _____________ finished with auxiliary verb sentences.

164
XII. Negate the following sentences.

Bert was at the movie.

She is going to the store.

I am eating an egg.

Sally has danced all night.

You are cleaning your room after school.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 33

Language and Vocabulary Game

Practice Exercises : -
Give one word for the following:
1. group of ants _____________________________
2. group of hens _____________________________
3. group of fish ______________________________
4. group of sheep ____________________________
5. group of geese ____________________________
6. group of lions _____________________________
7. group of bees _____________________________
8. group of eggs _____________________________
9. group of dogs _____________________________
10. group of kittens ____________________________
11. group of soldiers ___________________________
12. group of sailors ____________________________
13. group of ships _____________________________
14. group of churches __________________________
15. group of chicks ____________________________
16. group of birds _____________________________
17. group of stars _____________________________
18. group of policemen ________________________
19. group of owls _____________________________
20. group of elephants _________________________

Complete the following:

1. Abdicate – __________________________________
2. __________________________________– Life story of a man written by himself.
3. Aggressor – __________________________________
4. Amateur – __________________________________
5. __________________________________ – A person appointed by parties to settle the
disputes between them
6. __________________________________ – The period between childhood and adulthood
7. Bibliophile – __________________________________
8. Botany – __________________________________
9. __________________________________ – A person who speaks two languages
10. __________________________________ – A list of books
11. Centenary – __________________________________
12. ______________________________ – A co-worker or a fellow-worker in the same institution
13. Contemporaries – __________________________________
14. __________________________ – A person who readily believes whatever is told to him/her.
15. Callous – __________________________________
16. __________________________________– A man with a broad and international outlook

166
17. Celibacy – __________________________________
18. Deteriorate – __________________________________
19. ____________________________ – Government of the people, for the people, by the people
20. Monarchy – __________________________________
21. __________________________________ – A game in which neither party wins
22. __________________________________ – A person who always thinks of himself;
somebody who is selfish or self-centered
23. Epidemic – __________________________________
24. __________________________________ – A speech or a presentation made without
previous preparation
25. ___________________________ – Established rules of conduct; rules of acceptable behavior

Can you substitute one word for the following:

Somebody who has refined taste for food; somebody who loves sensual pleasure and luxury
____________________________________
Free somebody from blame or guilt; free somebody from an obligation
____________________________________
Destroy or get rid of something completely; root out an evil or bad practice
____________________________________
A person difficult to please ____________________________________
A person who believes that all events are pre-determined
____________________________________
A post which doesn’t carry any salary ____________________________________
That which is against law ____________________________________
A person who cannot read or write ____________________________________
Intense aggression or anger; state of antagonism ____________________________________
Impossible to change ____________________________________
A man who is easily irritated ____________________________________
Not applicable ____________________________________
That which cannot be seen ____________________________________
That which cannot be heard ____________________________________
That which cannot be believed ____________________________________
That which cannot be practiced ____________________________________
That which cannot be conquered ____________________________________
Something that is essential and cannot be dispensed with
____________________________________

167
That which cannot be avoided ____________________________________
That which cannot be changed ____________________________________
That which is considered wrong or unacceptable by prevailing social standards
____________________________________
Incapable of being dissolved in a liquid ____________________________________
Something that quickly catches fire ____________________________________
The act of killing an infant ____________________________________
Killing of one’s own mother; killer of one’s own mother
____________________________________
Killing of one’s own father; killer of one’s own father
____________________________________
To take somebody away by force and hold him or her prisoner, usually for ransom
____________________________________
The branch of biology dealing with the study of animals
____________________________________

Match the following:

Column A Column B
• Belonging to the Middle Ages • Panacea
• A cinema show which is held in • Synonyms
the afternoon • Medieval
• A person with an evil reputation • Optimist
• Handwritten book • Polygamy
• Somebody or something with the • Namesake
same name as somebody or • Postmortem
something else • Postscript
• One who is new to a trade or • Polyandry
profession • Veteran
• All-powerful; possessing • Manuscript
complete power and authority • Venial
• One who is present everywhere • Matinee
• One who looks at the bright side • Pessimist
of things; somebody positive • Novice
• A supposed cure for all diseases • Vegetarian
or problems
• Smuggler
• The custom of having more than
• Omnipotent
one husband at a time
• Notorious
• The custom of having more than
• Omnipresent
one wife at a time
• Treasury

168
• Medical examination of a dead • Importer
body • Herbivorous
• Very negative person; somebody • Experienced
who always expects the worst to • Polyglot
happen • Immeasurable
• A short message added on to the • Archaeology
end of a letter after the signature • Medicine
• Words which have the same • Tragedy
meaning
• A person who imports or exports
goods into or from a country
secretly because they are illegal
or in order to avoid paying duty
on them
• Somebody who doesn’t eat meat
or fish
• Somebody who is considerably
experienced in something

Complete the following:

¾ Story of a person written by someone _ i _ _ r _ _ h _ .


¾ One who does not believe in god. _ t _ _ _ s _.
¾ One who is full of high spirits. _ b _ l _ _ e _ _.
¾ Blocking of light from one heavenly body by another. e _ _ _ p _ _.
¾ Science of origin of universe. _ o _ _ o _ o _ _.
¾ Study of relation of plants and animals to their surroundings. _ c _ _ o _ _.
¾ One who believes in god. T _ _ _ _ t.
¾ Government rule by a king/queen _ o _ a _ _ _ _.
¾ Story of a person written by himself/herself. _ _ _ o _ _ o _ _ a _ _ _.
¾ Story with a happy ending _ o _ e _ _.

Answer the following:

¾ A person who writes pamphlets is called a ------------------


¾ A person who looks after his wards is called a -----------------
¾ An unmarried woman is called a ---------------
¾ A person who plays tricks on others is called a --------------------
¾ A person who spreads rumors is called a ----------------------
¾ A person who sells fish is called a ---------------------
¾ A person who writes plays is called a --------------
¾ A person who makes wheels is called a ---------------
¾ A hastily erected barrier across the street is called a ---------------
¾ A person who leaves in a rented building is called a --------------
¾ A place where birds are kept is called a ----------------
¾ A place where monks live is called a -----------------

169
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 36
Revision
UNION IS STRENGTH
I. Pick out the auxiliary verbs in the following sentences:

1. Tired and hungry, they were flying over a forest.


___________________________________________________________________________
2. Union is strength
___________________________________________________________________________
3. O King, please, can we rest a bit?
___________________________________________________________________________
4. All the doves were trapped in it.
___________________________________________________________________________
5. We are caught in a trap.
___________________________________________________________________________
6. He was carrying a huge club.
___________________________________________________________________________
7. We must do something immediately.
___________________________________________________________________________
8. All the doves were struggling to get out of the net.
___________________________________________________________________________
9. Remember now, unity is our only hope.
___________________________________________________________________________
10. The hunter was almost upon them.
___________________________________________________________________________
11. Half our troubles are over.
___________________________________________________________________________
12. He was happy to see that it was his friend, the dove King, who was talking to him.
___________________________________________________________________________

THE BIG BROTHER

II. In the sentences given below, chose the auxiliary verbs, and label weather these have
been used as helping verbs or the main verb:

1. My brother was five years elder to me, but only three grades ahead
_____________________________________________________________________________
2. My upbringing was solely his responsibility and for me, his was obviously the final word
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Nor did I dare to ask him
____________________________________________________________________________
4. My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?”
_____________________________________________________________________________
5. I was happy being a dullard but god save me from this struggle…
_____________________________________________________________________________

6. The annual results were out

170
____________________________________________________________________________
7. Probably, he had guessed it
_____________________________________________________________________________
8. What did you learn from his story?
_____________________________________________________________________________
9. This is nothing but anarchy.
_____________________________________________________________________________
10. Are you out of your mind?
_____________________________________________________________________________

III. LETTERS OF BHAGAT SINGH

Underline the auxiliary verbs

The judgement has been delivered. I am condemned to death. In these cells, besides
myself, there are many others prisoners who are waiting to be hanged. The only prayer of
these people is that somehow or other they may escape the moose. Perhaps I am the only
man amongst them who is anxiously waiting for the day when I will be fortunate enough
to embrace the gallows for my ideal.
I will climb the gallows gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the
revolutionaries can sacrifice themselves for the cause.
I will condemned to death, but you are sentenced to transportation for life. You will live
and, while living, you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die
for their ideals but can face every calamity. Death should not be a means to escape the
worldly difficulties. Those revolutionaries who have by chance escaped the gallows for
the ideal but also bear the worst type o tortures in the dark dingy prison cells.

CONDITIONALS :-

Type I or Type II

Decide whether the following Conditional Sentences are Type I or Type II.

1. If they go to Australia, they will go whale-watching.


_____________________________________________________________________
2. If she had a mobile, I would call her.
_____________________________________________________________________
3. If Bob were here, he would have a solution for our problem.
_____________________________________________________________________

171
4. If you move here, we will see each other more often.
_____________________________________________________________________
5. You'll live longer if you stop smoking.
_____________________________________________________________________
6. If Sarah didn't go with John, Anna would try to become his girlfriend.
_____________________________________________________________________
7. I will only dance if they play my favorite song.
_____________________________________________________________________
8. I wouldn't buy that computer if I didn't need it.
_____________________________________________________________________
9. If she doesn't feel better tomorrow, she will see a doctor.
_____________________________________________________________________
10. I'd lend you money if I had any.
_____________________________________________________________________

V. Fill in the blanks with ‘if’ or ‘unless’:


• ___ you are caught drinking and driving, you will lose your licence.
• ____ you stop smoking, you'll be seriously ill.
• I won't be able to do it ____ you help me.
• ____ you stop making that noise, I'll call the police.
• ____ you're late, I'll leave without you.
• ____ he gets caught, he'll go to jail.
• I won't do it ____ you agree to help me; I'm not doing it alone.
• ___ she pays up, we're going to be in real trouble.
• ____ we get the cheque today, we must bank it.
• She'll never agree to that ____ you accept her suggestions.
• ____ they're late again, I'll be furious.
• I don't want to go out ____ it's raining- I hate getting wet.
• We'll be in trouble ____ it goes wrong.
• ___ he gets caught, he'll make a fortune.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

VI. Choose the correct option:

1. If I were you, I ____ her straightaway.


• shall tell
• will tell
• would tell
• should tell

2. If I were you, I ______ that.

• wouldn't do
• wouldn’t have done
• won’t have done
• won’t do

3. If I'd been there, things _____ different now.


• would be
• would have been
• will be
• will have been

4. If I'd known, I ____.


• will help
• would help
• would have helped
• will have helped

5. Should you see her, _____ her to call me?


• will you tell
• would you have told
• would you tell
• will you have told

6. If you did that, it ______ cause trouble


• would probably
• might probably
• will probably
• shall probably

7. If you did that, it ______ cause trouble


• will
• would
• shall
• should

173
8. If you liked it, _____ you buy it?
• will
• would
• shall
• should

9. If it took all day, ___ you want to do it?


• will
• would
• shall
• should

10. Were you to fail, what ____?

• will you do
• would you do
• would you have done
• will you have done

11. If I'd known, I would ____ there.


• go
• have gone
• went
• have to go

12. If you are there, _____ you do me a favour?


• will
• would
• could
• should

13. If you'd been, there _____ you have helped?


• will
• could
• would
• should

14. Were you _____ the job, how would you feel?
• get
• to get
• getting
• will be getting

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Choose the correct answer.

1. If you'd arrived on time, none of this would have happened


• This sentence is about something that happened in the past
• This sentence is about something that is very unlikely to happen
_____________________________________________________________________
2. If I were you, I'd get in touch with a solicitor
• This is about something that is likely to happen in the near future
• This is about something now

_____________________________________________________________________
3. If I won the lottery, I'd go on a cruise
• This is about the present
• This is about the future

_____________________________________________________________________
4. If you should see him, tell him I've got the video he was looking for
• This is less likely to happen than if the speaker had said 'If you see him..
• This is as likely to happen as if the speaker had said 'If you see him...'

_____________________________________________________________________
5. If the weather stays good, I'll play a round of golf tomorrow.
• This is about something that is unlikely to happen
• This is about something that has a good chance of happening

_____________________________________________________________________
6. If they win, they'll be top of the Premier Division.
• This could well happen
• This is unlikely to happen

_____________________________________________________________________
7. But for Jane's help, I'd never have got it done on time
• Jane helped the speaker
• Jane didn't help the speaker

_____________________________________________________________________
8. It might not have been Sally
• The speaker thinks that it probably was Sally
• The speaker is fairly sure it wasn't Sally

_____________________________________________________________________
9. John, should you see her, could you ask Helen to give me a quick ring?
• John is likely to see Helen
• John might possibly see Helen

_____________________________________________________________________

175
10. If I told you what happened, would you keep it to yourself
• The speaker is definitely going to tell the person what happened
• The speaker might tell the person what happened
_____________________________________________________________________
11. As long as you do what the doctor told you, you should be better in a few days
• The person will probably get bette
• It is unlikely that the person will get better

_____________________________________________________________________
12. If I were in your shoes, I'd be celebrating
• This is unlikely to happen except in the distant future
• This is describing an imaginary present situation

_____________________________________________________________________
13. If I were in your shoes, I'd make sure that it is paid on time
• The speaker is giving an order
• The speaker is giving an order

_____________________________________________________________________
14. Unless you stop working so late, you'll never stop being so tired.
• The person should stop working late
• It's alright to work late

_____________________________________________________________________
15. If you see him, will you tell him that I need to talk to him
• There's a reasonable chance of seeing him
• There's a reasonable chance of seeing him.

_____________________________________________________________________

IDENTIFY THE CONDITIONALS

1. If I drink tea in the morning, it makes me feel sick.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________
2. I'll tell her if she comes.
• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________
176
3. I'd have helped had I been there.
• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

4. If he's there, could you tell him that I really need to speak to him.

• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

5. If I were you, I'd buy it as soon as possible.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

6. If I had the time, I'd help you.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional
_____________________________________________________________________

7. I would have handled things differently if I'd been in charge.

• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

177
8. Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees celsius.

• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

9. If she'd tried harder, she might have succeeded.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

10. If you work hard enough, you may well pass.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

11. If we fail, who will be held responsible?


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

12. If she went, she could report back to us all.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

178
13. If he'd studied at a good college, he might have got a better grade.

• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

14. If you ever need help, just ask me.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

15. If anyone complains, we deal with it immediately.


• Zero Conditional
• First Conditional
• Second Conditional
• Third Conditional
• Mixed Conditional

_____________________________________________________________________

179
WRITING
SKILL

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 4
Big Brother
Text based Questions :-
1. Write in your own words the summary of the story.
2. Keeping in mind the relationship of the brothers in the lesson relate any story based on the
relationship shared by two siblings
3. Relate / Comment on the relationship you share with your brother / sister

Vocabulary exercises based on text:


1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.
Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or
paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

2. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
____________ _____________ ____________ ___________

3. Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective], Beautifully[adverb]


____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________
____________ ______________ ________________

Exercise based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short
story or paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked
to tell the mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

4. SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings

1. Spellings

1. ________ 2. _________ 3. __________ 4. ____________ 5. __________


________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

2. Antonyms

1. ________ 2. _________ 3. __________ 4. ____________ 5. __________


________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

3. Synonyms

1. ________ 2. _________ 3. __________ 4. ____________ 5. __________


________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

4. Sentence formation
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

5. Forms (if verb)


________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________

6. Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism]


Noun Verb Adverb Adjective
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

7. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________

183
8. Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual
vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________

9. Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for
practice) __ __ __ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

10. In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place
Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________

11. Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the
column with the last letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an
appropriate sequence of words would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal,
loan, and so forth. No word can be repeated in any column.

3-letter adjectives 5-letter verbs 3-letter verbs 5-letter adjectives

___________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
___________________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
______________ __________________ _____________________ __________________
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Summarize the story


____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________
Prepare a short skit on the text .
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________
What would you change if you have to rewrite the story.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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Who is your favorite character in the story and why?
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Write the names of the characters on play cards, distribute them among Students and randomly pick
any two for role play.

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What touched you the most in the story?

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Tense check based on text-


GD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.
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Batting and Bowling

Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers)

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The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa
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Questions Based On Text :-

Role Play- The narrator and his brother.

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Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred with the passage
of time.
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Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education


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Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful.


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Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience.
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LECTURE – 8
February
Text Based Questions :-
1. Describe in your own words the weather in the month of February
2. Compare and contrast the month of February with the any other months of the year and
comment on the celebrations that fall in this month
3. Why do you think the month of the february has less days than the other months. Discuss the
cosmic and any other reasons that you can think of
Vocabulary exercises based on text:
1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.
Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short
story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

____________ _____________ ____________ ___________


____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
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____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
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____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
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____________ _____________ ____________ ___________
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189
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Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.


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Make more words from the picked verbs :

For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective], Beautifully[adverb]

____________ _____________ ____________


____________ _____________ ____________
____________ _____________ ____________
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____________ _____________ ____________
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____________ _____________ ____________
Based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or
paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to tell the
mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

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SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings

Spellings
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Antonyms
1. ________ 2. _________ 3. __________ 4. ____________ 5. __________
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Synonym
1. ________ 2. _________ 3. __________ 4. ____________ 5. __________
________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Sentence formation
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Forms (if verb)


________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________
________ _________ __________

Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism]


________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.


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191
Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual vocabulary
starting from the first letter of the name.
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Guess the word- A_m_ _e answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice) __ __
__ __ __

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

________ _________ __________ ____________ __________

In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place


Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir

Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________

Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons


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Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column with the last
letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence of words
would be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No word can be
repeated in any column.

3-letter adjectives 5-letter verbs 3-letter verbs 5-letter adjectives


________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________
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Summarize the Essay February.


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Tense check based on text-


GD - Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.
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Batting and Bowling

Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers)

The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa
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LECTURE -12
Summarizing speech visual
Teacher to tell students to come prepared with at least one speech and students to summarize it
(Home work)
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(FD Roosevelt)
Questions based on Text
Q1. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world
war?
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194
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Q2. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war. Comment on this statement in
the light of the above speech.
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Q3. Discuss the role of America in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the
present scenario.
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(Martin Luther – I have a Dream)


Q1. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to
America but to the entire world.
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196
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Q2. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Do you find similarity with the dream
of Mahatma Gandhi.
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Q3. Summarize the above speech in your own words.
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(Mary Fisher)
Q1. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race ,
gender, country , or region but looms large.
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Q2. Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.
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199
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LECTURE – 16
Dialogue writing based on movie clippings and speech visuals
The following dialogue sheet can be used to teach students to include the basic characteristics of good
dialogue in their own writing. The form may be modified to include whatever characteristics the
instructor desires.
*NOTE: Dialogue is a conversation between 2 or more characters.
A. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's occupation,
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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B. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's nationality?
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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C. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's social position or social class?
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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D. Write some dialogue which advances the action by relating to a conflict? (Include ____ vs ____ in
the explanation.) Write two examples.
Example one: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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Example two: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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200
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E. Write some dialogue which contains conversational give and take? (Where the speakers talk back
and forth.)
Write three examples:
Example one: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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Example two: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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Example three: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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F. Write some dialogue which reveals something about the character and personality of the speaker?
Write two examples.
Example one: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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Example two: ___________________________________________________
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Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________
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201
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Q1. Students to see the clippings of movie scenes and write the dialogues for the characters ?
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Q2: Write down the fictitious conversation between the characters you have seen in the video
clipping. At least 25 dialogues.

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202
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LECTURE - 22

Cartoon Based Stories


EXERCISE:1

Q1: writea story based on the pictures shown below Students to write
sentence for each picture and make a complete story

__

203
Picture1_______________________________________________________
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Picture 2
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Picture 3
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Picture 4
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Picture 5
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Picture 6
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Picture 7
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Picture 8
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Picture 9
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Picture 10
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204
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EXERCISE: 2

Picture1_______________________________________________________
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Picture 2
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205
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Picture 3
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Picture 4
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Picture 5
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Picture 6
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Picture 7
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Picture 8
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Picture 9
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Picture 10
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206
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EXERCISE: 3

Picture1_______________________________________________________
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Picture 2
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207
Picture 3
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Picture 4
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Picture 5
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Picture 6
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Picture 7
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Picture 8
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Picture 9
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208
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EXERCISE: 4

209
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Picture 6
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210
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LECTURE – 26
Comprehension passages from essays and text in reading module
Comprehension Passage – Big Brother

Q1: Read the following passage and answer the questions asked below:
At the end of this trail was the image of a man. I broke my head over this creation but failed
to unravel the mystery. Nor did I dare to ask him. He was in the ninth standard; I was only in
the fifth grade…how could I attempt to dissect such intricate stuff?

I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying
paper butterflies. Climbing up and down the stairs, riding the hostel gate like a motorcar….I
had great fun, but back in the hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.

My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?”

My answer was a meek silence, conveying the acceptance of my crime. He would then
caution me in a flurry of kind and rude words.

“Learn English in this fashion, and you had it. This is no child’s play dear. Slog for months
and you barely get to reach the shore, even scholars never take it easy.

And I ask, do you not see me toiling, poring over books, if you fail to see, that’s your fault.
There are umpteen plays, fairs, cricket matches every day, have you ever seen me taking a
break. And despite this devotion, I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two
years; you will probably spend a lifetime. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home
and play Gulli danda* to your heart’s content. Why blow Dada’s** hard –earned money for
nothing?”

I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was. He would hurt me with such choicest
words. For a second, I would be tempted to give up…why not go home... I was happy being a
dullard but god save me from this struggle…

But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.... to burn the
midnight oil, a new time table sans fun and frolics....
Give the meanings of the underlined words.

211
Word Meaning (Contextual Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation
Meaning)
unravel
dissect
intricate
pebbles
Eerie
unnerved
meek
flurry
poring
umpteen
dullard

‘I broke my head’ means ___________________________________.


‘to burn the midnight oil’ means ______________________________.
What was the speaker fond of?
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What kind of relations were the two brothers sharing? Explain in 25-30 words.
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What did the speaker used to do after being scolded by his elder brother?
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212
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Passage 2
One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites. I was one among the army of
10-12 lads carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. Our mission was to collect as many fallen
kites as we could. We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my
brother. He was probably on his way back home from the bazaar. He caught me by the wrist
and asked tersely

“Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. If not anything,
have some respect for your grade. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made
name as magistrates, collectors, editors, leaders and scholars. And look at yourself? You are
intelligent no doubt, but where's your self-respect?”

“I can read your mind all right. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right
to question you. But you are wrong. I am five years elder to you and will always remain
so…This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it...whether you get into my grade or
even move ahead. "
"And, thanks to the kind of examiners we have these days, that's indeed possible. . ." he added
with a wry smile.

"I have loads of worldly knowledge that’s way above academic grades. Did our Amma***
and Dada ever go to school? The government in America, constellations in space, wives of
Henry the VIII, they may not know, but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters.
Tomorrow, if I fall sick, you will surely panic and send a telegram to Dada, but Dada in your
place, would never react like that. He will first try some home remedy, only if it fails, will he
call for a doctor."

Give the meanings of the underlined words.

Word Meaning (Contextual Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation


Meaning)
Lads
oblivious
Bumped
Tersely
vagabond
hooligans
Wry
constellations
remedy

213
‘you have caught up with me’ means_______________________.
‘Are you out of your mind?’ means ________________________.
What happened when the narrator was playing with his friends?
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Why can’t the big brother ever lose the right of scolding the narrator?
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What is more important for the big brother: bookish knowledge or worldly knowledge and
why?
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Vocabulary Exercise from Big Brother

Match the following synonyms:


™ Grade Fail
™ Dissuade Weird
™ Motto Complex
™ Defy Rule
™ Flunk Engraved
™ Etched Level
™ Dissect Challenge
™ Intricate Outbreak
™ Eerie Scrutinize
™ Flurry Advise against

Match the following:


™ Toil gap
™ Umpteen Dejected
™ Dullard Chaos
™ Breach Drudgery
™ Penance Many
™ Crestfallen Bang
™ Rage Dull
™ Replete Wrath
™ Anarchy Penitence
™ Thud Abounding

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Pick the odd one out of the following:


Ghastly, horrible, frightful, pleasing

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Terse, large, concise, pithy

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Queer, bizarre, sober, eccentric


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Trickle, bounce, dribble, ooze


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Twine, staff, coil, rope


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Scribble, eradicate, scrawl, doodle


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Tug, jerk, haul, skip


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Remittance, debt, allowance, payment


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Thrash, flog, stroke, lash


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Hapless, fortunately, miserably, wretchedly


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215
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February - Comprehension Passage


Q1: Read the given passage and answer the questions asked below:

One simply lives through it as one lives through a necessary duty. It's a month--and that's all. Thank
Heaven! Somebody once made it the shortest! By the end of January most people have had more than
enough of the English Winter even if the English Winter thinks we can ever have enough of it, and
comes back saying "Hello!" to us right into Summer, and starts ringing us up, as it were, to tell us it's
coming back again as early as October. Just as if we didn't know--just as if we ever wanted to know!
The English Summer is far more modest. Usually it's gone before we have, so to speak, washed our
hands, tidied our hair, and dressed ourselves up to meet it. But winter in England not only comes
before it is wanted, but outstays its welcome by weeks. And of all the months it brings with it,
February, though the shortest, seems to linger longest. March may be colder, but the first day of
Spring is marked on its calendar; and we wait for it like we wait for a lover--a lover in whose
embrace we may not yet be, but who is, as it were, downstairs washing his hands, he has arrived, he is
here--and so we can endure the suspense of waiting for him with a grin. April may fill the dykes fuller
than February, whose skies are supposed to weep all day long, but generally only succeed in
dribbling, but April belongs to Spring--even though our face and hands and feet are still in Mid-
Winter.
Why does one live through the month of February as it is one’s duty to do so?
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How does the English summer pass ?
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Although February is the shortest month but it seems _____________________ .
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How is April different from February?
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216
Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Give the meanings of the underlined words.

Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation


Modest

Outstays

embrace

Dribbling

Use the word ‘spring’ as noun and as verb.


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Passage 2
To follow Spring round the world would be like following a mistress whose charms never palled,
whose welcome was never too warm to be sultry, whose friendship was never too cold to freeze
further promise of intimacy. What a delightful chase! and what a sweet-tempered man I should be!
For, say what you will, the weather has a lot to do with that spotless robe of white which is supposed
to envelop saints. If you can't be pure and good and generous and altogether delightful in the Spring,
you might as well write yourself off for evermore among the ignoble army of the eternally
disgruntled. And if you _can_ be all these things in weather that is typically English and typically
February, then a hat would surely hide your halo.
And this is about all the good that February does, so far as I can see. True, once in four years it also
allows old maids to propose. But the three years when they had to wait to be asked have usually taken
all their courage out of them. Besides, the married people and others who are otherwise hooked and
secure have turned even that benefit into a joke--and no woman likes to place all her heart-yearnings
at the mercy of a laugh. So that, what Leap-Year once allowed, people have turned into a jeer. But
then, that is all part and parcel of February.
Q1: Why is spring season liked?
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Q2: What are the benefits of the month of February as shown in this passage?
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Q3: What one should be in the month of February?


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Q4: Give the meanings of the underlined words.
Word Meaning (Contextual Synonyms / Pronunciation
Meaning) Antonyms
palled

intimacy

chase

Ignoble

ignoble

Halo

Q5: Use the following words in sentences:


Envelop Envelope
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Match the following:


Scarcely tire
Glad Annoyed
Depart Ooze
Dribble Hardly
Appalling Despicable
Mackintosh Muggy
Pall Cheerful
Sultry Anorak
Ignoble Horrifying
Disgruntle Leave

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 30
Formal Letter
Explain various parts of Letter as follows:
Address of the sender

Date Line

Address of the
recipient

Subject:

Salutation

Body_1Paragraph

Body_2 Paragraph

Body_3 Closing line

Complementary Close

Signature

Name

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

2: Arrange the following in order.

Name

Salutation

Address of recipient

Address of sender

Complementary Close

Date Line

Body of letter

Signature Subject

3: Cut redundant ideas, words and phrases


Avoid using words with similar meanings. Drop one and see if your sentence still makes sense. For
example:
1. 12 noon noon
2. Added bonus bonus
3. Advance notice notice
4. City of Renton Renton
5. Close Proximity Close, near
6. Current Status Status
7. Filled to capacity full, filled
8. First and foremost first
9. Future Plans ` Plans
10. General Consensus Consensus, agreement
11. Join together Join
12. Month of November November
13. Past History, Past experience history, experience
14. Period of time time, Period
15. Postpone until later Postpone
16. Refer back refer
17. Total number Total

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Rearrange the jumbled format of the given letter

Subject: To apply for the post of Project Manager.

The March 15, 2010, issue of the Times of India contained an advertisement for the Post of Project
manager in your esteemed organisation. After reading the required qualifications I believe I can meet
your Firm’s needs as I have led various similar projects.
Yours Faithfully
Campbell Companies
Cannaught Palace
New Delhi
110005

As my enclosed resume indicates, I have an M.E. in Manufacturing Engineering. Since I could


maintain my high C.G.P.A. during the course of my B.E., my university awarded me merit
scholarship.
XYZ Street
Delawar Road
Karnal
1122990
Om Parkash
April 6, 10
Dear Mr John Amen

I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and hope I may be given the
opportunity of meeting you. I hope to meet you soon.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Worksheet no 2 for letter writing


Assuming that you have the requisite credentials, draft Job Application Letters in response to the
following advertisement:

• Wanted a Plant Manager at our new factory in Gaziabad, UP. Engineering Graduates with
minimum 5 years experience in manufacturing industries as Plant Managers can apply. Salary
is negotiable. Apply with particulars within 15 days.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

• If you are a recent post-graduate in science and interested in research, apply for the post of
Junior Research Associate in our R&D Division. You should hold a post-graduate degree in
mathematics/physics/chemistry or Biology. If selected you will be given a Research
Assistantship of Rs 8000/- p.m. and you will have the opportunity to work in excellent
laboratories.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Formal Letter
Letter Writing

Instructions :- Letter of Complaints

I. Break into 2 groups to brainstorm and write a list of possible problems

Have each group choose what they feel is an important and or regularly occurring problem
Ask groups to write a quick outline of the problem

II. Have one group generate vocabulary and structures used when complaining, ask the other group
to generate vocabulary used when responding to complaints
Have two groups write their generated vocabulary on the board
Ask for further vocabulary and/or structures that the opposing group may have missed

III. Ask groups to compose a letter of complaint about the problem they have previously outline
Have groups exchange finished letters. Each group should proceed by first reading, then
correcting and finally, responding to the letter.

IV. Collect student letters and correct reply by pointing out which types of mistakes have been made
(i.e. S for syntax, PR for preposition etc.)
While correcting the letter have groups mix and discuss their responses to the problem
Redistribute corrected letters to original groups and have students try to correct their letters using
the cues given by the correction \

BUSINESS LETTER WRITING LESSON PLAN


Procedure:

Teachers: discuss with your students the importance of proper, clear communication to a business,
and how important it is to follow the formal business letter format.

Hand out the example business letter to students. Go over each part in detail.

Here are some topics to discuss:


• Business Letters are a formal way to communicate with a business or companies.
• Neatness counts – no errors in spelling or grammar.
• Organized in a very specific way following exact format.
• “Formal English”, no slang or casual chat.
• All parts in the letter are “left justified”, or lined up on the left.

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

Business Letter Parts


(Block Style Format):
In order from top to bottoms:
• Return address – address of letter writer.
First and last name, address, city, state and zip code.
• The date
• Inside address – of recipient (who you are writing the letter to) First and last name, title,
Company, address, city, state and zip code.
• Salutation – If the person is not a friend, write “Dear Mr. Smith”. If the person is a friend,
you may say “Dear Sally”.
• Body of Letter – this is the purpose of the letter. Should be clear and concise, with more than
one paragraph.
• Closing – “sincerely”, or “best regards”, “yours truly”, etc…
• Space for a handwritten signature
• Typed name of writer

Thank You Letters


Letter writing is not as common with the new technology of email, texting, and cell phones. A thank
you can be expressed with the simple click of a button, however too often it is a simple thank you.
A simple thank you is polite and appreciated but a thank you letter is a little more personal and
thoughtful. Writing a thank you letter requires a little more effort and reflection. The sender must
think about why they are thankful and what the person did to make their day a little more enjoyable.

Letter Writing Lesson Plan

Teach students the art of writing letters and the impact they create. Students are to write a friend,
teacher, doctor, policeman or other person in the community a thank you letter. The letter is to express
the students’ sincere gratitude for their service.
Often younger children are very willing to write to their doctor or dentist to thank them for an
enjoyable experience. However, as we age, the time required to write the letter is outweighed by other
activities. If a student feels the impact of the letter they may be more willing to write a letter.
If a teacher is able to input the time, write each student a thank you letter over the course of the year.
Near the end of the year, distribute the thank you letters to the students before commencing the letter
writing lesson. After the child reads their letter they will personally feel the value of the thank you
letter. Teach students the basics of letter writing and give them a sample of a thank you letter.
Letter Writing Etiquette
Date: List the date, the letter is being sent. The date should be written in full with no abbreviations.
Address: Includes street number, name, city, province, postal code, and country if being sent
internationally. As well, all the information is written in full with no abbreviations.

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Greeting and Salutation: For a thank you letter it is best to address it Dear Mr. Smith. If the letter is
informal you may wish to write their full name.
Body Text: Write your letter as if you are speaking to them in person. A conversational tone but
refrain from slang.
Closing: Write an informal closing as you are writing a thank you letter. Best regards is suitable for
this type of letter writing.
Signature Lines: Everyone should sign their letter.
Proofread: It is imperative to proofread your letter to ensure it is free of grammatical and spelling
errors. The letter is sent with good intent but it should show that you have put effort into writing the
letter. If the letter has spelling errors it suggests it was rushed and written carelessly.

Folding: After you have written an excellent letter, do not crumple the letter into the envelope.
Choose paper size to match your envelope. Be sure to fold the letter with care.
Thank you Letter Template
May 30, 2007
Johnny Gage
Paramedic
123 Sunshine Lane
Toronto, On, M9M 1C5
Dear Mr. Gage:
Body Paragraph: 3-4 paragraphs thanking the recipient for their service to you.
Questions to Answer in the Body
What service they provided and why you appreciated it?
How their service made you feel?
Why you want to thank them?
Best Regards
Theodore Rainbow

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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

A Persuasive Letter
Idea Web
What is the problem?
Who gets our letter?
Why are changes needed?
How can we fix the problem?

Writing a Persuasive Letter


Idea Web
You can use this graphic organizer to model how to begin organizing ideas.Children can make a
similar planner for their own work.

What is the problem?


The park needs fixing up.
Who gets our letter?
The mayo.
Why are changes needed?
The play equipment is dangerous.
How can we fix the problem?
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Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

A Persuasive Letter
Revising Checklist
Questions yes no not
sure

1. Have I clearly stated the problem?

2. Do I tell how the problem can be fixed?

3. Do I give supporting details?

4. Have I used persuasive words and phrases?

5. Have I used the correct Letter form?

The Parts of a Letter


A letter usually includes the following
parts:

The heading of the letter usually includes the address and date at the top of the letter.
The greeting is the opening like Dear Mom followed by a comma for a friendly letter or a colon for a
business letter.
The body is the heart of the letter. This is where you write your message. Remember to keep your
writing clear and easy to read. Write for your reader!
The closing is the ending of your letter. Sign your name at the end of the letter under a closing word
such as Sincerely followed by a comma. Here are some common abbreviations that you may need
when you have small spaces to write a word.

• N. north
• S. south
• E. east
• W. west
• St. street

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• Ave. avenue
• Blvd. boulevard
• Rd. road
• Dr. drive
• Ln. lane
• Cr. Circle
• XING crossing
• Hwy. highway

• I interstate

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LECTURE - 34

General writing Practice based on the speeches and text given in the reading
module
Q1: Compare and contrast the theme and mood/style of the poems ‘Casabianca’ and ‘Evelyn
Hope.’
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Q2: Bring out the chief traits of the personality of Shaheed Bhagat Singh after reading his
letters.

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Q3: ‘February is the month of beauties and hostilities.’ Justify on the basis of the text
‘February.’

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Q4: Summarize the ideas of Gandhi about the existence of God.

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