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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ДОНЕЦКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ


ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
ДОНБАССКАЯ ЮРИДИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ


КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ЗАОЧНОЙ ФОРМЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ

по курсу «Английский язык»

Донецк 2019

УДК Утверждено на заседании кафедры


ББК Протокол №3 от 25.10.2019 г.
Утверждено на заседании МК
факультета ГОУ ВПО «Донбасская
юридическая академия» Протокол от
11.11.2019 г.
Утверждено на заседании
учебно-методического совета
ГОУ ВПО «Донбасская юридическая
академия»
Протокол №3 от 12.11.2019 г.

Методические рекомендации по выполнению контрольних работ для студентов


заочной формы обучения./ Составители: Воеводина А.В., Журавлёва Е.А./. –
Донецк: Цифровая типография, 2019

Учебно-методическое издание предназначено для студентов заочной


формы обучения. Подготовлено 10 вариантов. Каждый вариант содержит текст
для письменного перевода и задания по грамматике, содержательные
параметры которых соответствуют программе курса «Английский язык в сфере
юриспруденции». Подготовка и выполнение контрольной работы поможет
студентам лучше усвоить учебный материал и закрепить его в формате
практических навыков владения языком, а также сформировать собственный
вокабуляр профессиональной лексики.

©Воеводина А.В., Журавлёва Е.А., 2019

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Настоящие методические указания имеют цель помочь студенту-заочнику в
его самостоятельной работе над развитием практических навыков чтения и
перевода научно-популярной литературы на английском языке и
приобретением умений понимать общее содержание текста с целью
извлечения нужной информации.

Цель обучения
При заочном обучении в ГОУ ВПО «Донбасская юридическая
академия» практическое владение английским языком означает умение
самостоятельно читать и переводить со словарем литературу на английском
языке с тем, чтобы на основе приобретенных в вузе знаний, умений и
навыков читать англоязычные юридические тексты, извлекать из них
полезную для работы информацию.
Для развития навыков чтения решающими факторами являются:
1) накопление словарного запаса;
2) овладение грамматическими формами и оборотами, необходимыми
для понимания текста и перевода его с английского языка на русский.

Лексика английского языка


За полный курс обучения студент приобретает словарный запас в 900-
1000 лексических единиц (слов и словосочетаний) профессиональной
лексики.
В этот минимум не включаются международные слова.
Встречающиеся в английском языке и совпадающие или близкие по
значению с такими же словами русского языка, но отличающиеся от них по
звучанию и ударению, например, basis, n; contact, n.
Большое значение для расширения запаса слов, необходимого для
понимания английских научных текстов без словаря, имеет твердое усвоение
системы английского словообразования.
Студенту следует усвоить явление конверсии и научиться с помощью
формальных признаков – строевых слов и места в предложении определять, к
какой части речи относятся одинаковые по написанию слова.
Студент должен овладеть практическим минимумом
словообразовательных средств английского языка и на их основе уметь
установить значение производного слова по известному корневому слову
(coexistence – сосуществование, от exist – существовать).
Следует помнить, что части речи могут различаться как посредством
чередования ударения (increase – увеличить, increase – увеличение), так и с
помощью чередования звуков(use[ju:z] –использовать, use[ju:s] – польза; long
– длинный, length – длина; hot – горячий, heat – тепло, жара). Усвоение и
расширение словарного запаса происходит также за счет совершенствования
умения переводить английские фразеологические сочетания типа to take part-
принимать участие, to take place – происходить. Студент должен усвоить
наиболее употребительные синонимы, антонимы и омонимы английского
языка. Ему необходимо запомнить также условные сокращения слов,
принятые в английских научных и технических текстах.

Грамматика английского языка


Для овладения навыками чтения оригинальной юридической
литературы на английском языке, для развития умений понимать общее
содержание прочитанного, а также переводить с английского языка на
русский со словарем студент в течение курса обучения должен изучить
основные грамматические формы английского языка. (Более подробное
распределение грамматического материала по этапам прохождения курса
дается в начале каждого контрольного задания).

Морфология

Имя существительное.
Артикли (определенный и неопределенный) как признаки имени
существительного; предлоги-выразители его падежных форм. Окончание – s
– показатель множественного числа имени существительного. Окончания 's,
s' как средство выражения притяжательного падежа (the Posses-sive Case).
Образование множественного числа имен существительных путем
изменения корневой гласной. Множественное число некоторых имен
существительных, заимствованных из греческого и латинского языка.
Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык.

Имя прилагательное и наречие. Степени сравнения. Усиление


сравнения. Перевод сравнительных предложений, содержащих конструкции
типа the more... the less... .

Имена числительные. Количественные, порядковые, дробные


числительные, чтение дат.

Местоимения.
Личные местоимения в формах именительного и объектного падежей;
две формы притяжательных местоимений; возвратные и усилительные
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местоимения; местоимения вопросительные, указательные, относительные.
Неопределенное местоимение one(ones) и его функции. Неопределенные
местоимения some, any, отрицательное местоимение nо и их производные.

Глагол.
Частица to-показатель инфинитива. Образование повелительного
наклонения и его отрицательной формы. Выражение приказания и просьбы с
помощью глагола to let.
Изъявительное наклонение глагола и образование видо-временных
групп Simple, Continuous, Perfect. Активная и пассивная формы (Active and
Passive Voice). Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский
язык. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Функции глаголов to be, to have,
to do. Основные сведения о сослагательном наклонении. Неличные формы
глагола: инфинитив и его функции.
ParticipleI, Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства.
Сложные формы причастия, кроме Perfect Participle Passive.

Строевые слова. Местоимения, наречия, предлоги, союзы, артикли.


Многофункциональность строевых слов - it, that (those), one, only, very, after,
before, because, because of, as, since, till, until, due, provided, providing, both,
either, neither, whether.

Синтаксис
Простое распространенное предложение. Прямой порядок слов
повествовательного предложения в утвердительной и отрицательной форме.
Обратный порядок слов в вопросительном предложении. Оборот there is (are)
в трех временах. Сложносочиненное и сложноподчиненное предложения.
Главное и придаточные предложения. Союзное и бессоюзное подчинение
определительных и дополнительных придаточных предложений. Обороты,
равнозначные придаточным предложениям. Независимый (самостоятельный)
причастный оборот. Инфинитив в функции определения и перевод его на
русский язык определительным придаточным предложением. Объектный
инфинитивный оборот (Objective Infinitive Construction); субъектный
инфинитивный оборот (Subjective Infinitive Construction).

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ВЫПОЛНЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ ЗАДАНИЙ И ОФОРМЛЕНИЕ
КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ
1. Количество контрольных заданий, выполняемых студентом в каждом
семестре, устанавливается учебным планом. На кафедре можно получить
точный график выполнения контрольных работ.
2. Выполнять письменные контрольные работы следует в отдельной
тетради в клеточку либо в печатном варианте.
3. Контрольная работа должна быть оформлена аккуратно. Материал
контрольной работы следует располагать по ниже представленному образцу.
Английский текст Русский текст Поля
4. Задания должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в какой
они даны в методических указаниях.
6. Выполненная контрольная работа направляется для проверки и
рецензирования в установленные сроки.
7. Если контрольная работа выполнена с нарушением данных
требований или не полностью, она возвращается студенту без проверки.

ИСПРАВЛЕНИЕ РАБОТЫ НА ОСНОВЕ РЕЦЕНЗИИ


1. По получении от преподавателя проверенной им контрольной
работы ознакомьтесь с замечаниями и проанализируйте отмеченные в работе
ошибки. Работы, не рекомендованные к защите, возвращаются студенту до
начала очередной сессии.
2. Руководствуясь указаниями рецензента, следует проработать заново
не вполне усвоенный учебный материал. Все предложения, в которых были
обнаружены орфографические и грамматические ошибки или неточности
перевода, нужно переписать начисто в исправленном виде в конце
контрольной работы (в той же тетради).
3. Только после того как будут выполнены все указания рецензента и
исправлены все ошибки, можно приступить к изучению материала
очередного контрольного задания и его выполнению.
4. Отрецензированные контрольные работы являются учебными
документами и хранятся на кафедре в течение года.

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VARIANT 1

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


A CAREER IN LAW
The legal profession traditionally is one of the most influential professions in
all societies. A career as a lawyer can be challenging and rewarding. The law is
constantly changing and each day brings new, usually unexpected challenge. The
practice of law is by its nature a learning process. The learning continues every day
as clients present new problems for lawyer to deal with. It takes years of long hard
work and dedication to become a successful lawyer. The reward comes not only
from good income but from doing a good job helping your client and seeing the
justice is done.
The most striking feature of the English legal system is the division of the
legal profession into two separate branches: barristers and solicitors. These two
kinds of lawyers do different jobs in the legal system. In the popular mind, the
distinction between solicitors and barristers is that barristers do the court work and
solicitors do the office work. In practice, the great amount of court work is done by
solicitors, and barristers do much office work. Barristers provide a specialist
consultancy and advocacy service. The majority of barristers work in private
practice. They can also be employed by organizations including the Government
Legal Service, the Crown Prosecution Service, industry, commerce and armed
forces. Solicitors make up the largest branch of the legal profession in England.
They provide comprehensive legal services including advice, preparation of
documents, negotiation, representation in court, and work often performed by
notaries in other countries. Solicitors are the first point of contact for the citizen,
public authorities, business, other professions and foreign clients when looking for
legal advice.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Карьера юриста; правосудие; адвокат, имеющий право выступать в высших
судах; адвокат, консультирующий клиента и выступающий только в судах
низшей инстанции; частная практика; служба уголовного преследования;
представление интересов в суде; переговоры; органы государственной
власти; юридическая консультация.

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. Why can a career as a lawyer be challenging and rewarding?
2. What is the most striking feature of the English legal system?
3. What is the distinction between barristers and solicitors?
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4. What organizations can employ barristers?
5. What services do solicitors provide?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


Solicitors are the first point of contact for the citizen.

Задание 5: выберите правильную форму глагола to be.


1. My friend’s father … a lawyer. 2. … you an investigator too? 3. We … very
hungry, so we decided to have dinner earlier. 4. Next year we ... … students of
Moscow State Law University. 5. I ... very busy today. 6. That law … in effect in
about 3,500 B.C.

Задание 6: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
Black-mail Valid in law
Civil case Illegal drug trafficking
An offender Courtroom
Accidental damage Individuals
To fall under jurisdiction Dubious ancestry
To serve time Guilty
To be trapped Second-hand evidence
To reopen the case Organized crime
Case at bar Blooding
To put under arrest Party of defense

VARIANT 2

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


LEGAL PROFESSIONS IN THE USA
The American legal profession, like American law, has its roots in England,
but with a significant difference. In the United States there is no division of the
profession between office lawyers, known as solicitors, and courtroom lawyers,
known as barristers. An American attorney frequently does both office work and
courtroom work. As a result there is a great deal of variety in the types of work
American lawyers perform. Depending on the situation and the needs of the client,
the lawyer may be a counselor, a negotiator, and a litigator. As a counselor an
attorney advises clients in their business and personal affairs. As a negotiator a
lawyer works on behalf of his client with opposing counsel to get a favorable
resolution for the client. A litigator assists clients with litigation in court preparing
cases for trial and handling appeals. The lawyer is also an officer of the court and

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is required to deal fairly and honestly with the court and with other officers,
including the lawyers’ opponents.
Lawyers have historically been active in the most important political and
policy issues facing the nation. They are now active in a variety of legal
movements including promoting social reform legislation, abolishing the death
penalty; same-sex marriage rights and civil rights for gays; abortion and women’s
rights, immigration law and international human rights. The legal profession will
continue to play an important role in every issue society has to resolve. Lawyers
may also pursue careers as civic and political leaders, judges, governmental
officials, professors or business executives. Many lawyers work for public interest
groups representing the poor, protecting the environment or defending peoples’
civil liberties.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Адвокат, имеющий право выступать в высших судах; адвокат,
консультирующий клиента и выступающий только в судах низшей
инстанции; адвокат (американский вариант); советник, от имени клиента;
судебное разбирательство; смертная казнь, государственный служащий;
гражданские свободы; судебное дело.

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. Why is American legal profession different from the British one?
2. What does an attorney do as a counselor?
3. What does an attorney do as a negotiator?
4. What does an attorney do as a litigator?
5. What other careers can lawyers also pursue?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


The lawyer is also an officer of the court.

Задание 5: выберите правильную форму глагола to be.


1. The witnesses … in the courtroom now. 2. He … a prosecutor. 3. Last year
those criminals … behind the bars. 4. Next year we … … second-year students of
Law Department. 5. Mr. Black … a resident of the USA when he died. 6. I …
innocent.

Задание 6: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
To find sb. guilty Putative defendant

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To pass a sentence Pursuit
To stand trial Own confession
To return a verdict Ownership of property
To call a witness Taking of the body
Youthful misbehaviour Systematic criminal
Absent good cause Abuse of corpse
Encroachment Harassment
Narcotic officer Guilty party
Natural law Juvenile offence

VARIANT 3

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


LEGAL PROFESSIONS IN BRITAIN
The court system depends on the legal profession to make it work. Although
individuals can institute actions and defend them normally lawyers do this job for
them.
England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with
separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and
barristers. This division of the legal profession is due mainly to its historical
causes. This division is the main reason for the separation between civil and
criminal courts.
The traditional picture of the English lawyer is that a solicitor is a legal
adviser of the public. Members of the public can call at a solicitor’s office and seek
his advice in a personal interview. There is no end to the variety of matters a
solicitor deals with. He does legal work involved in buying a house, he writes legal
letters and carries on legal arguments outside Court. He prepares a case and the
evidence. In a civil action solicitors have right to speak in County Court when the
case is one of divorce or recovering some debts. They can also deal with some
petty crimes and matrimonial matters in Magistrates Courts. A barrister defends
client’s interests in a courtroom. He can only be consulted indirectly through a
solicitor. A barrister must be capable of prosecuting in a criminal case one day, and
defending an accused person the next, or of preparing a pleading and taking the
case for a plaintiff in one day, and doing the same for a defendant the next.
A lot of work in solicitor’s office is done by managing clerks, now called
legal executives, and being the third type of lawyers.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.

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Судебная система, возбуждать иск, защищать, консультант по юридическим
вопросам, раз вод, взыскать долг, истец, ответчик, обвиняемый,
доказательства, ходатайство, истец, преследовать в судебном порядке.

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. What makes British legal system work?
2. Why is British legal system unique?
3. What are the main responsibilities of a solicitor?
4. What does a barrister do?
5. Who does a lot of work in solicitor’s office?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.

Задание 5: выберите правильную форму глагола to be.


1. I … … a judge when I graduate the Academy. 2. This legal document … easy
for understanding. 3. In Britain the vast majority of judges … unpaid. 4. When the
trial finished, they … sent to prison. 5. The verdict … announced yesterday. 6. I …
over 18 years old.

Задание 6: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
To serve one’s sentence Capital crime
To avoid violence Scene of crime
Espionage Seizure of property
To break confidence Bigamist
To dismiss an appeal Defense lawyer
Judgment Arrest
Attorney license Search
Injury Mortal damage
Offended party To get money by fraud
Legally capable Burglary

VARIANT 4

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


WHY DO WE NEED LAWS?
Almost everything we do is governed by some set of rules. However, some
rules – those made by the state or the courts – are called “laws”. Laws are designed
to control or alter our behavior. But unlike rules of morality, laws are enforced by
the courts; if you break a law - whether you like that law or not – you may be

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forced to pay a fine, pay damages, or go to prison.
Why are some rules so special that they are made into laws? Why do we
need rules that everyone must follow? What is the purpose of law?
Laws regulate our business affairs, help to ensure that people keep their
promises. Laws against criminal conduct help to safeguard our personal property
and our lives.
Even in a well-ordered society, people have disagreements and conflicts
arise. The law must provide a way to resolve these disputes peacefully. If two
people claim to own the same piece of property, they turn to the law and to
institutions like the courts to decide who the real owner is and to make sure that the
real owner’s rights are respected.
We need law, then, to ensure a safe and peaceful society in which
individuals’ rights are respected. The legal system should respect individual rights
while, at the same time, ensuring that society operates in an orderly manner. And
society should believe in the Rule of Law, which means that the law applies to
every person, including members of the police and other public officials, who must
carry out their public duties in accordance with the law.
Another goal of the law is fairness. This means that the law should protect
certain basic individual rights and freedoms, such as liberty and equality.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Свод правил, изменять поведение, нарушать закон, уплатить штраф,
возместить ущерб, разрешать споры мирным путем, защищать частую
собственность, защищать основные права, свобода и равенство.

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. What are laws designed for?
2. What can happen if you break a law?
3. What do laws regulate and provide?
4. What do laws ensure?
5. What is another goal of laws?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


Laws regulate our business affairs.

Задание 5: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную


форму глагола.
1.They (to call) his former girl-friend to give evidence tomorrow. 2. Yesterday
police (to arrest) 50 demonstrators outside the Parliament building. 3. A large
13
group of photographers and reporters (to gather) in front of the court before the
barristers’ arrival. 4. Look, the judge (to enter) the courtroom. 5. The defendant
just (to plead) not guilty.

Задание 6: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.


1.Police arrested Bates for dangerous driving. 2. They have charged no-one with
murder yet 3. They are looking for the murder weapon now. 4. They make up the
jury of seven women and five men. 5. Judge Evans will pass sentence on the three
men tomorrow.

Задание 7: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
To find sb guilty Putative defendant
To pass a sentence Pursuit
To stand trial Own confession
To return a verdict Ownership of property
To call a witness Taking of the body
Youthful misbehaviour Systematic criminal
Absent good cause Abuse of corpse
Encroachment Harassment
Narcotic officer Guilty party
Natural law Juvenile offence

Задание 8: подставьте модальные глаголы be to, may, have to, can, should.
1.The trial .. take place next month at Wood Green Crown Court. 2. Your honour,
… my client and I have some time to discuss the latest evidence? 3. Husbands and
wives don’t … give evidence against each other. 4. You … discuss this matter with
the solicitor. 5. … I ask some questions to the witness, your honour?

VARIANT 5

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary
democracy. Its constitution is partly unwritten and is flexible. It is also based on
customs and traditions. The constitution's basic sources are legislative acts of
Parliament and decisions made by courts of law. The head of state is a reigning
monarch. But he/she can act only on the advice of his/her ministers.
The Parliament is the supreme law-making body in the country. It consists of
the monarch, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. British
parliamentary system is one of the oldest in the world, it developed slowly during

14
13th century after King John's signature of Magna Carta in 1215. The House of
Commons has 651 elected and paid Members of Parliament (MPs) - 524 from
England, 72 from Scotland, 38 from Wales and 17 from Northern Ireland. They are
elected for 5 years but the Prime Minister can call general elections at any time.
The House of Lords is made up of the hereditary and appointed peers (Lords
Temporal), 2 archbishops and 24 bishops of the Church of England (Lords
Spiritual). The major part of Parliament's work is revising the Government's work.
The right to vote is given to all citizens at the age of 18. Citizens vote in
parliamentary and local elections and also in elections to the European Parliament.
Each member of the House of Commons represents one parliamentary
constituency.
The Government is the supreme executive power and is formed by the party
which has the majority in the House of Commons. The Queen appoints its leader
as the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints his/her Cabinet (a group of
main ministers) and also about 25 ministers outside the cabinet, as well as 50
junior ministers. The Cabinet takes decisions on major policy, plans and lays
before Parliament all important bills. The second largest party forms the official
Opposition with its leader and a "shadow cabinet"- an alternative government,
ready to take office at any time. The leader of the Opposition is paid an official
salary.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Основные источники конституции, законодательные акты, верховный
законотворческий орган, потомственные и назначенные пэры, право голоса,
представлять избирательный округ, местные выборы, назначить премьер-
министром, теневой кабинет.

Задание 3:дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. What type of state is Britain?
2. How can you characterize British constitution?
3. What is Parliament?
4. Who is given the right to vote?
5. What is Government and what is it formed by?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


Each member of the House of Commons represents one parliamentary
constituency.

15
Задание 5: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную
форму глагола.
1.Jason (to join) the police force when he was 19. 2. Two plainclothes policemen
(to wait) outside in an unmarked car for an hour yesterday. 3. Uniformed officers
(to arrive) to an incident in Victor Road before the doctors were there. 4. The
police (to carry out) an investigation of a number of bank robberies now. 5. Since
last year, he (to commit) at least three further offences.

Задание 6: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.


1.They released him on bail of 10,000$. 2. This weеk police has arrested William
Loeb and charged him with rape. 3. The jury will return Mr. West guilty of several
robberies. 4. The police are holding the man in custody in connection with the
robbery. 5. He had committed several robberies in the neighborhood.

Задание 7: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
Infliction of a penalty To return a verdict
To appoint a hearing Harassment
Vicarious penalty (punishment) Ownership of property
Punishable act (offence) To reopen the case
Holdup man Right of suit
To intentionally deprive smb of his / her To fall under jurisdiction
life
Bank fraud Pickpocket
Acquiescence To serve one’s sentence
Magistrate's court Systematic criminal
Measure of restraint Burglarious entry

Задание 8: подставьте модальные глаголы must, can, may, must, need to.
1.The government … evolve new policies to reduce unemployment. 2. Where … I
find the nearest police department. 3. You don’t … call this witness, we have
already recorded his evidence. 4. He … have witnessed the crime if he describes
the details. 5. The trial … accuse him of being his brother’s accomplice.

VARIANT 6

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE USA
The United States of America is a federal republic, which consists of fifty
states and the District of Columbia. Each state has its own government, laws,
customs, education, taxes, traffic regulations, etc. The federal government is

16
responsible only for matters concerning the country as a whole: foreign affairs,
defense and finance. Each state government has to keep to the Constitution, which
was officially adopted in 1790 by the original 13 states. The Bill of Rights was
added in 1791 and other 26 amendments have been added over the years, but the
political system created by the Constitution is basically the same today as it was in
1790. The document guarantees freedom of religion, free speech, free press, the
right of citizens to bear arms and so on. It gave the USA the principle of a balanced
power divided into three branches – legislative, executive and judicial.
The supreme law-making body in the country is the Congress. Its seat is in
the Capitol in Washington, D. C. It consists of the Senate and the House of
Representatives. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its
population. A Senator is elected for six years, a Representative for two years. The
main task of the Congress is to make federal laws, declare war and deal with
foreign treaties. At the head of the executive power is the President. He is chosen,
together with his Vice-President, in nationwide elections every four years. His
powers are even wider than those of the British Prime Minister. He proposes bills,
can veto or refuse a law, appoints federal judges, ministers, who are called
Secretaries, and ambassadors. His Cabinet consists of 13 Secretaries who are in
charge of 13 departments. The most important among them are Departments of
State, Treasury, Defense, Justice and Interior. The Vice-president is the chairman
of the Senate. The two leading parties are the Democrats and the Republicans.
The Supreme Court is the main instrument of the federal judiciary. It
watches the President and congress and determines whether their acts and laws are
in accordance with the Constitution. The American flag was first adopted in 1777.
It is sometimes called „Stars and Stripes“.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Таможня, налоги, международные отношения, исполнительная ветвь,
законодательная ветвь, судебная ветвь, палата представите лей,
международные соглашения, выборы, законопроект, министерство финансов,
министерство юстиции, министерство внутренних дел.

Задание 3:дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. What type of state is the USA?
2. What is federal government responsible for?
3. What is Congress and what does it consist of?
4. What are the president’s powers?
5. What is the Supreme Court?

17
Задание 5: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.
The document guarantees freedom of religion.

Задание 6: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную


форму глагола.
1. Four dangerous criminals (to escape) from prison last night. 2. The police still
(to gather) evidence in the case involving a boy who was kidnapped. 3. This week
the President (to meet) with a group of senators and congressmen to discuss energy
policy. 4. Parliament (to vote) on the new divorce law tomorrow. 5. When we
entered the bar, a gang of men (to fight) inside it.

Задание 7: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.


1.Police charged a thirteen-year boy with shooting and killing a woman. 2. They
say that murderers always return to the scene of the crime. 3. A new crime
statistics has shown a rise in violent crime. 4. When the police arrived, he was
destroying the evidence of his guilt. 5. The report will find no evidence of damage
to private property.

Задание 8: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
Larceny by extortion Act of grace
Seizure of property measure of restraint
Valid in law Own confession
Juvenile court Guilty party
To fall under jurisdiction unreported crime
infliction of a penalty temporary custody
rioting mob To return a verdict
Burglarious entry To call a witness
right of suit To stand trial
Pursuit public trial
Задание 9: подставьте модальные глаголы should, may, have to, must, be to.
1.It is assigned that the case … be tried on Monday morning. 2. You … plead not
guilty because they have no evidence against you. 3. Any good lawyer … do his
best to defend his client. 4. If he behaves well, he … be released from prison a year
early. 5. I … get up early tomorrow and get prepared for the trial hearing.
VARIANT 7

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


ORGANIZED CRIME IN THE USA
Organized crime may be defined as systematically unlawful activity for
profit on a city-wide, interstate, and even international scale. Criminal
18
organizations keep their illegal operations secret, and members confer by word of
mouth. Gangs sometimes become sufficiently systematic to be called organized.
The act of engaging in criminal activity as a structured group is referred to in the
United States as racketeering.
A criminal organization depends in part on support from the society in
which it exists. Therefore, it is frequently expedient for it to compromise some of
society's upright members — especially people in the judiciary, police forces, and
legislature — through bribery, blackmail, and the cultivation of mutually
dependent relationships with legitimate businesses. Also, as these organizations
grow so does the number of those in need of a drug treatment center. Thus a racket
is integrated into lawful society, shielded by corrupted law officers and politicians
— and legal counsel. Its revenue comes from narcotics trafficking, extortion,
gambling and prostitution, among others.
Criminal organizations sometimes arise in closely knit immigrant groups,
not trusting the local police and other authorities. The Mafia, also known as La
Cosa Nostra (Our Thing), or the Mob, is the name of several clandestine
organizations in Sicily and the United States. Midway through the 20th century,
Mafia influence crested in the United States. Investigations, conducted by FBI in
the 1970s and 1980s, somewhat blunted the Mafia's power.
The term "mafia" has been generalized to label any sizable group involved in
racketeering, such as the Russian Mafia or the Japanese Yakuza. When formally
applied, however, "Mafia" refers to the traditional Sicilian/American crime
families.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Занятие преступной деятельностью, взяточничество, шантаж, центр лечения
от наркотической зависимости, торговля наркотиками, азартные игры,
власть, расследование.

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. What type of activity is referred to as an organized crime?
2. In what way can society back up organized crime?
3. Enumerate the sources of criminal income.
4. In what environment do criminal organizations arise?
5. Name the most well-known organized groups.

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


A criminal organization depends in part on support from the society.

19
Задание 5: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную
форму глагола.
1. Last month the President ( to have) the meeting on domestic affairs attended by
the number of top officials. 2. Since 1911 the Parliament Act (to restrict) the life of
the House of Commons. 3. Electoral law (to divide) the United Kingdom into 650
constituencies. 4. The committee still (to discuss) the bill. 5. Only by the beginning
of the 20th century the actual evidence of the strength of the British labour
movement (to appear).

Задание 6: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.


1.The officers will write the report in a terrible hurry. 2. The judge of the Supreme
Court is being appointed at the moment. 3. The Committee has already examined
the results of the meeting of the heads of the states. 4. Somebody was following
him in the empty street. 5. The magistrates issued the warrant to arrest the killer.

Задание 7: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
Act of grace Right to appeal
Common law Violent death
Juvenile court Taxation
Felony To pass an act
Inquire agent Plaintiff
Larceny by extortion Hijack
Lawful age Inquest of a body
Punishment Burglarious entry
To try a case Stateless
Proper evidence Target company

Задание 8: подставьте модальные глаголы had to, can, need, be to, must.
1.To be a candidate a person … n’t live in the area. 2. Every householder … enter
on the register of electors. 3. During the cold war Europe … choose between
another war and peaceful coexistence. 4. Each member of the General Assembly
… vote only once. 5. We have the list of all residents who … vote.

VARIANT 8

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN GREAT BRITAIN
Persons offending against the law are summoned before a court of law. The
summons issued by the court states the charges moved against the offender by the
persons sueing him. When a defendant is brought before a court the charge is read
20
out to him and he is asked whether he pleads guilty or not guilty. If he pleads
guilty he is sentenced by the court. If he pleads not guilty, a jury of 12 persons
must be formed and summoned to attend the court.
The trial begins with opening the case for prosecuting party and hearing
evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution. On the completion of the plaintiff’s
case and evidence, the defendant’s case is stated and evidence is heard in support
of it.
The accused is entitled to be defendant by the counsel. Witnesses for the
prosecution may be cross-examined by the accused or his counsel. The accused
may call witnesses or give evidence of his own defense. At the conclusion of the
evidence and after speeches of both sides, the judge sums up the case to the jury.
The jury consider the verdict. If they decide that the accused is not guilty, he is
immediately discharged. If the jury return the verdict of guilty, sentence is
pronounced by the judge.
The following punishments for crime can be inflicted: life imprisonment,
imprisonment consisting in corrective training or preventive detention. The
defendant may appeal against the sentence to the Court of Appeal up to the House
of Lords, which is the supreme judicial body of Great Britain.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Наказание, истец, ответчик, выносить приговор, признать себя виновным,
пожизненное заключение, снять обвинение, перекрёстный допрос,
задержание, доказательство

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. In what cases can a person be summoned before a court of law?
2. What takes place after reading a charge?
3. Is defendant’s case stated before or after plaintiff’s?
4. Who decides whether the accused is guilty or not?
5. What punishments can be inflicted for a crime?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


The jury consider the verdict.

Задание 5: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную


форму глагола.
1.It is the Cabinet and not the Parliament that (to control) the nation’s affairs in
Britain. 2. Now counsel for the defense (to try) to show that the accused is not
guilty. 3. People (not to realize) the importance of this problem a few years ago. 4.
21
I think he already (to achieve) a great progress in his study. 5. We (to discuss) new
aspects of privatization at the next seminar.

Задание 6: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.


1.The committee is still discussing the bill. 2. They adopted the US Constitution in
1789. 3. They have already interviewed the victim. 4. Many people will attend this
open trial. 5. They guarantee the accused the right to defense.

Задание 7: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные


предложения с 5 из них.
youth correction centre right of suit
wronged person public trial
to vandalize organized criminal group
unreported crime term of jail
taker of bribe arson
temporary custody rioting mob
swindler robbery
robbery with violence summoned juror
punishable act public safety
overt crime testimonial compulsion

Задание 8: подставьте модальные глаголы can, is to, must, should, may.


1.Everybody … know their rights and enjoy them. 2. A barrister … only be
consulted indirectly through a solicitor. 3. Witnesses for the prosecution … be
cross-examined. 4. The judge … have discharged one of the jurors. 5. The trial …
take place on Monday at 10 a.m.

VARIANT 9

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
Juvenile delinquency—negative behaviors of children and teens that may
result in crimes or legal action—frequently causes widespread problems in
communities. Juvenile courts are being challenged by an increase in the number of
child delinquents coming before them. In 1997 alone, juvenile courts handled more
than 180,000 juvenile offenders younger than 13 years old. These child delinquents
account for 1 in 3 juvenile arrests for arson, 1 in 5 juvenile arrests for sex offenses,
and 1 in 12 juvenile arrests for violent crime. Because youth referred to juvenile
court before the age of 13 are far more likely to become chronic juvenile offenders
than youth whose initial contact occurs at a later age, there is reason for concern
about the growing number of child delinquents.

22
In juvenile delinquency cases, a child (less than 18 years old) is alleged to
have broken a law ranging from being out past curfew to a charge of murder.
Special court procedures have been created to deal with children who break the law
that are separate from the adult criminal process. Most Juvenile Court delinquency
cases are not open to the public, except for serious crimes committed by children
over the age of 16. Juvenile Court judges and staff work with other government
agencies and community organizations to develop programs that help to ensure a
safe and healthy environment for juveniles. Reducing delinquency and youth
violence is the primary goal of the government.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Cуды по делам несовершеннолетних, обвинение в убийстве, комендантский
час, нарушать закон, судебный иск, уголовный процесс, насилие,
правительство.

Задание 3: дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. Explain the term “juvenile delinquency”.
2. What are the most common crimes committed by juveniles?
3. What person is more likely to become a chronic juvenile offender?
4. Is the court procedure the same for children and adults?
5. What is the aim of the government and the community?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


Juvenile courts handled more than 180,000 juvenile offenders younger than 13
years old.

Задание 5: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную


форму глагола.
1.Next year each constituency (to elect) a single member to the House of
Commons. 2. The sitting (to take place) in 10 Downing street at the moment. 3.
They (to participate) in the opposition political movement for two years already. 4.
The Liberals (to prevent) the establishment of the Labour party. 5. The reporter
arrived when the Queen (to open) the session of Parliament with a throne speech.

Задание 6: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.


1.The British working class won its rights in the course of struggle. 2. The rich and
privileged traditionally support the Conservatives. 3. Finally the Queen will sign
the bill. 4. The investigator was interrogating the suspect for an hour. 5. British
courts have adopted many general laws.

23
Задание 7: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные
предложения с 5 из них.
Cell Police reports
To call a witness To follow a criminal
Citizenship Violent death
Award punishment Witness box
To suppress a fact To lodge a complaint against somebody
Breach of law A law breaker
Hostage Pickpocket
Gambling To ambush
Life imprisonment To encroach one’s interests
Organized crime Assassination

Задание 8: подставьте модальные глаголы can, must, have to, should, may .
1.You … study hard to become a good specialist in the sphere of law. 2. … I take
part in the investigation? 3. The Prime Minister … be elected only by consent of
more than half of Verhovna Rada.4. The local government … deal with taxation,
budget, roads and health care. 5. I think, you … question this witness again.

VARIANT 10

Задание 1: прочитайте и переведите текст.


BUSINESS RELATED CRIMES
A business, like any person is subject to general criminal law. Some crimes,
however, are found more frequently in the business than elsewhere. Business firms
are frequently the victims of crimes such as robbery, burglary, shoplifting,
employee pilferage, passing bad checks, vandalism, receiving stolen property and
embezzlement. Less frequently, but often with much larger sums of money
involved, business persons and firms may commit crimes. Because such criminals
are generally well-educated, respected members of the community, the offences
are called white-collar crimes. These criminals exploit their victims through
concealment and deceit.
Common examples of white-collar crimes are income tax evasion, consumer
fraud, cheating with false weighing machines, conspiring to fix prices, bribery and
embezzlement. Normally no physical violence is involved in crimes of this nature.
Thus, courts tend to be more soft with the criminals, punishing them with fines or
short prison sentences.
Larceny is the wrongful taking of money or personal property belonging to
someone else. Variations of larceny include robbery (taking person’s property in
immediate presence and against the victim’s will and by force or by causing fear)
and burglary (entering a building with the intent to commit a crime.
24
Knowingly receiving stolen property is an offence separate from larceny. It
consists of receiving, concealing or buying property known to be stolen, with
intent to deprive the rightful owner of the property. One who receives stolen
property is known as a fence.

Задание 2: найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и


словосочетаний.
Потерпевший, ограбление, вымогательство, растрата, взяточничество,
собственность, тюремное заключение, совершить преступление,
правонарушение, кража.

Задание 3:дайте ответы на вопросы к тексту.


1. What types of crimes is business usually subject to?
2. What persons usually commit the so called white-collar crimes?
3. Do the courts give severe punishments to such criminals?
4. What crime does a fence commit?

Задание 4: поставьте вопросы всех типов к данному предложению.


These criminals exploit their victims through concealment and deceit.

Задание 5: раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую видо-временную


форму глагола.
1. The Civil law (to include) the law of contract and family law. 2. The police
already (to catch) the murderer. 3. Extra police force (to rush) to the scene of the
trouble at the moment. 4. He (not to have) any criminal records in the past. 5. If she
goes to the attorney, he (to advise) her to institute a criminal proceeding against her
employer.
Задание 6: переведите предложения из активного залога в пассивный.
1. People saw two men at the scene of the crime. 2. The witness was giving
evidence in a firm clear voice. 3. They don’t usually imprison first offenders. 4.
They will accuse him of bank robbery at the trial. 5. The investigators have not
found the evidence of his presence at the crime scene.
Задание 7: переведите юридические термины. Составьте собственные
предложения с 5 из них.
Legally capable To fall under jurisdiction
infliction of a penalty Juvenile court
Ownership of property Valid in law
Own confession measure of restraint
unreported crime Seizure of property
Absent good cause Pursuit
rioting mob To reopen the case
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temporary custody To lodge a complaint against somebody
To call a witness Pickpocket
To stand trial Harassment

Задание 8: подставьте модальные глаголы need to, may, be to, must, have to.
1.They don’t … buy the travel insurance, it’s not necessary. 2. Being sentenced, a
criminal … spend definite time in prison. 3. My husband … wait for me near the
underground at ten sharp. 4. The judge … stop the trial because of the noise in the
courtroom. 5. A convicted criminal … have the meeting with his relatives in
prison.

СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДУЕМОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ:

1. Андрианов С.Н., Берсон А.С., Никифоров А.С. Англорусский


юридический словарь. – М.: Русский язык, 1993.

2. Батлер У. Русско-английский юридический словарь – М.: Зерцало,1995.

3. Назаров В. Курс юридического перевода по англоамериканскому


торговому праву. – М.: Инфосерв, 1994.

4. Толковый русско-английский юридический словарь бизнесмена– М.:


Контракт, 1993.

5. Шевелева С.А. Деловой английский. Ускоренный курс – М.: ЮНИТИ,


1997.

6. Гвишиани, Н.Б. Современный английский язык. Лексикология: Учебник


для бакалавров / Н.Б. Гвишиани. - М.: Юрайт, 2013. - 273 c.

7. Шевелева С.А., Скворцова М.В. 1000 фраз. Деловая переписка на


английском языке. – М.: ЮНИТИ, 1995.

8. RileyA. English for Law – New York, London: Phoenix, 1996.

9. Рубцова С. Ю. Английский язык для юристов. English in law : учебник и


практикум для среднего профессионального образования / С. Ю. Рубцова, В.
В. Шарова, Т. А. Винникова, О. В. Пржигодзкая ; под общей редакцией С. Ю.
Рубцовой. — Москва : Издательство Юрайт, 2019. — 213 с. 

10. Baranovsky L.S., Kozikis D.D. Panorama of Great Britain. Minsk, 1990. 343
p.

11. Basic reading in U.S. Democracy. USIA. Washington, D.C. 430 p.


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12. Book of Britain. Leningrad, 1977. 460 p.

13. Bromhead P. Life in Modern Britain. L., 1986. 278 p.

14. Geldard L. Introduction to English Law. L., 1986. 278 p.

15. Harvey L. Britain Explored. Longman, 260 p.

16. Meador D. American Courts. West Publ. Co. 113 p.

17. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge, 1998. 328 p.

18. Outline of America History. Washington, D.C. 430 p.

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