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ДОНСКОЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ДИСТАНЦИОННОГО ОБУЧЕНИЯ И ПОВЫШЕНИЯ


КВАЛИФИКАЦИИ

Кафедра «Лингвистика и иностранные языки»

Методические указания
по анализу текста
по дисциплинам
«Практический курс первого
иностранного языка»,
«Практика устной и
письменной речи»,
«Интерпретация
художественного текста»
Авторы
Яровая Л.Е., Богатская Е.Ю., Лысенко К.Н.

Ростов-на-Дону, 2018
Управление дистанционного обучения и повышения квалификации
«Практический курс первого иностранного языка», «Практика устной и
письменной речи», «Интерпретация художественного текста»

Аннотация
Методические указания по анализу текста
работы предназначены для самостоятельной работы
студентов направления обучения 45.03.02
Лингвистика; также могут быть использованы
для подготовки к практическим занятиям.
Цель методических указаний – развитие навыков
анализа художественных произведений современных
англоязычных авторов, а также развитие навыков
анализа и аннотирования англоязычных газет и
журналов.

Авторы

К.п.н., доцент кафедры «Лингвистика и


иностранные языки» Яровая Л.Е.,
к.п.н., доцент кафедры «Лингвистика и
иностранные языки» Богатская Е.Ю.,
к.п.н., доцент кафедры «Лингвистика и
иностранные языки» Лысенко К.Н.
Управление дистанционного обучения и повышения квалификации
«Практический курс первого иностранного языка», «Практика устной и
письменной речи», «Интерпретация художественного текста»

Оглавление

PART 1. READING AND ANALYSING FICTION .........................4


Plan of analysing and discussing a story ............................. 4
Word combinations which may come helpful in analyzing the
text............................................................................................ 4
PART 2. READING NEWSPAPER ARTICLES ..............................8
A. Plan of rendering newspaper articles .............................. 8
Word combinations and clichés which may come helpful in
press reviews ............................................................................. 9
B. Headline English........................................................... 10

3
Управление дистанционного обучения и повышения квалификации
«Практический курс первого иностранного языка», «Практика устной и
письменной речи», «Интерпретация художественного текста»

PART 1. READING AND ANALYSING FICTION


Plan of analysing and discussing a story
1. The main idea of the text (story, abstract). Give its subject in
one word or in a short phrase, e.g. love, family relations, war ... The
title of the text.
2. Composition of the text. What does the text present?
(narration, description, character drawing, an account of events,
dialogue, etc.). Who tells the story? Is it told by one of the characters
or by a narrator outside the story? The participation of the author in
the events.
3. Setting of the events. Where does the story take place and
when? Does the setting matter to the story or could it have taken
place equally well in some other place and at some other time?
4. Give a brief summary of the text.
5. Study the structure of the text. What parts does it fall into?
Suggest possible titles.
6. What key is the text written in? Does the mood change from
part to part? If so, what is the prevailing, dominant mood? Is it
satirical, humorous, pathetic or unemotional? How can you prove it?
7. Main and minor characters. What are they like – in
appearance, speech, behaviour. The speech of a person is very
important. It reveals his/her individual experience, culture and
psychology, social position, profession, etc. Does the author use direct
or indirect methods to describe the characters?
8. What is the author’s point of view on the problems raised in
the story? Does he/she sympathize with his/her characters?
9. What sort of language is used in the text? Is it simple or
elaborate, plain or metaphorical?
10. Give your opinion of the story.

Word combinations which may come helpful in


analyzing the text
 to deal with problems of topical interest
 to draw (portray) the character truthfully
 the character is merely sketched
 a vivid description of smth
 the story is set in…, the scene is laid in…
 as the story unfolds…
 the author’s power (gift) of observation
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«Практический курс первого иностранного языка», «Практика устной и
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 the author keeps us in suspense


 the author resorts to the direct/indirect method of description
 the character is the mouth-piece of the author, the author
looks through his eyes
 the text is rich in the choice of words
 a character is characterized through his speech as uneducated
person
 the author avoids common, neutral words and uses
emotionally coloured ones
 the vocabulary is elaborate
 the abundant use of colloquial expressions and idioms serves
to make the dialogue sound natural
 …apt examples to prove the above stated idea
 digressions from the thread of narration
 uneducated dialectal speech represents all kinds of deviations
from standard English: phonetic, graphic…
 the reader inevitably associates smb with smth
 smb’s inner qualities are in full harmony with his/her
appearance
 the idea is not expressed in a straightforward categorical
manner
 all the other sentences of the paragraph explain or clarify the
main idea
 the sentence… introduces the main idea of the extract
 the next paragraph adds some details to the reader’s
knowledge of the character
 the extract presents narration interwoven and interlaced with
dialogues
 the (last) sentence is the culminating point of the text
 the phrase (sentence) may be regarded as a logical summing
up of what was previously said
 the author’s sympathy towards smb is seen from…
 to emphasize/underline smth

The mood (key) may be:


 epic mood is typical of the description of events that have
been completed in the past and are viewed by the narrator in
retrospect; this key is impersonal, dry, matter-of-fact;
 dramatic, emotional or elevated mood is created through the
expression of agitation (exclamatory sentences, emotive words);
 lyrical mood – the text contains the expression of the author’s
feelings, his emotive attitude to life, his thoughts; the language is
5
Управление дистанционного обучения и повышения квалификации
«Практический курс первого иностранного языка», «Практика устной и
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elevated, there are many poetic words and stylistic devices;


 humorous mood reflects the comical aspect of life, points out
some contradictions, discrepancy between form and contents;
 irony unlike humour indicates mockery of something or
somebody; the emphasis is laid on the opposition between the literal
and the intended meaning of a statement – one thing is said and the
opposite is implied. Humour always causes laughter while the function
of irony is not to produce a humorous effect but a feeling of irritation,
pity, regret, displeasure.

Ex. 1. Read the following story and analyse it.

OLD MAN AT THE BRIDGE


by Ernest Hemingway

An old man with steel rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes
sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the
river and carts, trucks, and men, women and children were crossing
it. The mule-drawn carts staggered up the steep bank from the bridge
with soldiers helping push against the spokes of the wheels. The
trucks ground up and away heading out of it all and the peasants
plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there
without moving. He was too tired to go any farther.
It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead
beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this
and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and
very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.
"Where do you come from?" I asked him.
"From San Carlos," he said, and smiled.
That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to
mention it and he smiled.
"I was taking care of animals," he explained.
"Oh," I said, not quite understanding.
"Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I
was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos."
He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at
his black dusty clothes and his grey dusty face and his steel rimmed
spectacles and said, "What animals were they?"
"Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to
leave them."
I was watching the bridge and the African looking country of
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Управление дистанционного обучения и повышения квалификации
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the Ebro Delta and wondering how long now it would be before we
would see the enemy, and listening all the while for the first noises
that would signal that ever mysterious event called contact, and the
old man still sat there.
"What animals were they?" I asked.
"There were three animals altogether," he explained. "There
were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons."
"And you had to leave them?" I asked.
"Yes. Because of the artillery. The captain told me to go
because of the artillery."
"And you have no family?" I asked, watching the far end of
the bridge where a few last carts were hurrying down the slope of the
bank.
"No," he said, "only the animals I stated. The cat, of course,
will be all right. A cat can look out for itself, but I cannot think what
will become of the others."
"What politics have you?" I asked.
"I am without politics," he said. "I am seventy-six years old. I
have come twelve kilometers now and I think now I can go no
further."
"This is not a good place to stop," I said. "If you can make it,
there are trucks up the road where it forks for Tortosa."
"I will wait a while," he said, " and then I will go. Where do
the trucks go?"
"Towards Barcelona," I told him.
"I know no one in that direction," he said, "but thank you
very much. Thank you again very much."
He looked at me very blankly and tiredly, and then said, having
to share his worry with someone, "The cat will be all right, I am sure.
There is no need to be unquiet about the cat. But the others. Now
what do you think about the others?"
"Why, they'll probably come through it all right."
"You think so?"
"Why not," I said, watching the far bank where now there
were no carts.
"But what will they do under the artillery when I was told to
leave because of the artillery?"
"Did you leave the dove cage unlocked?" I asked.
"Yes."
"Then they'll fly."
"Yes, certainly they'll fly. But the others. It's better not to
think about the others," he said.
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"If you are rested I would go," I urged. "Get up and try to
walk now."
"Thank you," he said and got to his feet, swayed from side to
side and then sat down backwards in the dust.
"I was taking care of animals," he said dully, but no longer to
me. "I was only taking care of animals."
There was nothing to do about him. It was Easter Sunday and
the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. It was a grey overcast
day with a low ceiling so their planes were not up. That and the fact
that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck
that old man would ever have.

****This story takes place during the Spanish Civil War. This
war was between the Republicans on one side and right wing
conservatives on the other. This is the side Hemingway calls the
Fascists. They were led by General Franco and helped by Hitler and
Mussolini. The war began in 1936 and finally ended in 1939 with
victory for the Fascists. General Franco was president of Spain until he
died in 1975.

PART 2. READING NEWSPAPER ARTICLES


A. Plan of rendering newspaper articles
1. The headline/title of the article.
2. The author of the article, the newspaper, where and when
the article was published.
3. The message/the main idea of the article. Give briefly the
main idea in your own words (The author’s purpose is to give the
reader some information on…, to provide the reader with some
material on…).
4. Summary of the article. The summary is to be not more than
a third or a half of the original (find answers to the major questions:
Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?).
5. Look through the text for figures which are important.
6. Your opinion of the article. Do you agree or disagree with the
author’s opinion?

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Word combinations and clichés which may come helpful


in press reviews
is headlined…
is entitled…
runs under the headline…
was published…
is dedicated …
●the article deals with…
opens with the description of…
describes…
comments on…
Stresses
points out
touches upon
gives priority to…

 summing up the results of… the author…


 the reviewer adds, deals with…
 the author agrees that…
 the headline reads…
 to hit headlines…
 the author strongly believes that…
 to draw attention to…
 to come to a conclusion…
 the author examined…
 to express alarm, concern, disappointment, belief, conviction,
hope….
 to bring smth into focus…
 front page reports include domestic and foreign news stories
 to raise a question
 to get wide coverage
 to cover a variety of international subjects
 to go into details/in detail
 the writer begins with an outline of…
 the author finds it significant…
 the most prominent topic
 in my view/opinion…
 I am perfectly aware that…
 I am confident that…
 I’d like to conclude by saying…
 I am not an expert, but…
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Ex. 1. Choose a short magazine or newspaper article and


prepare a short summary of it. Then work in groups and tell each
other about your articles.

Ex. 2. Scan the news, editorial and comment columns of a


newspaper and summarise their contents giving special attention to
the news that has aroused a lot of interest and caused a great deal of
comment.

B. Headline English
1. Headline writers try to catch the reader’s eye by using as
few words as possible. The language headlines use, is consequently,
unusual in a number of ways:
Grammar words like articles or auxiliary verbs are often left,
e.g. EARLY CUT FORECAST IN INTEREST RATES
A simple form of the verb is used, e.g. QUEEN OPENS
HOSPITAL TODAY
The infinitive is used to express the fact that something is going
to happen in the future, e.g. PRESIDENT TO VISIT MINE

2. Newspaper headline use a lot of distinctive vocabulary. They


prefer words that are usually shorter and generally sound more
dramatic than ordinary English words.
The words marked * can be used either as nouns or verbs.

newspaper Meaning newspaper meaning


word word
aid* Help key essential, vital
axe* cut, remove link* connection
back support move* step forwards a
desired end
bar* exclude, ordeal painful
forbid experience
bid* attempt oust push out
blast* explosion plea request
blaze* Fire pledge* promise
boost* incentive, ploy clever activity
encourage
boss*, head* manager, poll* election/public
director opinion survey

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clash* dispute probe* investigation


curb* restraint, limit quit leave, resign
cut* reduction riddle mystery
drama tense strife conflict
situation
drive* campaign, talks discussions
effort
gems jewels threat danger
go-ahead approval vow* promise
hit affect badly wed marry

Newspaper headlines often use abbreviations, e.g. PM for Prime


Minister, MP for Member of Parliament.

3. Some newspapers also enjoy making jokes in their


headlines. They do this by playing with words or punning, e.g. wet
open air concert in London by the opera singer Luciano Pavarotti was
described as:
TORRENTIAL RAIN IN MOST ARIAS (‘most areas’)
An announcement that a woman working at the Mars chocolate
company had got an interesting new job was:
WOMAN FROM MARS TO BE FIRST BRITON IN SPACE
(note that the word ‘Briton is almost exclusively found in
newspapers).

Ex. 1. On the left there is a list of headlines. On the right there


is a list of news topics. Match the headlines with the appropriate topic.
1. PM BACKS PEACE PLAN marriage of a famous actress
2. MP SPY DRAMA royal jewels are stolen
3. SPACE PROBE FAILS person who saw crime in danger
4. QUEEN’S GEMS RIDDLE proposal to end war
5. STAR WEDS satellite is not launched
6. KEY WITNESS DEATH THREAT politician sells secrets to enemy

Ex. 2. Explain what the following headlines mean in ordinary


English.
1. MOVE TO CREATE MORE JOBS
2. GO-AHEAD FOR WATER CURBS
3. WOMAN QUITS AFTER JOB ARDEAL
4. POLL PROBES SPENDING HABITS
5. BID TO OUST PM
6. PRINCE VOWS TO BACK FAMILY
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7. SHOP BLAZE 5 DEAD


Ex. 3. Look through some English language newspapers and
find some examples of headlines. Beside each headline make a note
of what the accompanying story is about. Try to find some examples
of amusing headlines.

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