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63
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65
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#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <pthread.h>
int i = 0;
void* thread_func(void *arg) {
pthread_setcancelstate(PTHREAD_CANCEL_DISABLE, NULL);
for (i=0; i < 4; i++) {
printf("I'm still running!\n");
sleep(1);
}
pthread_setcancelstate(PTHREAD_CANCEL_ENABLE, NULL);
pthread_testcancel();
printf("YOU WILL NOT STOP ME!!!\n");
}
int main(int argc, char * argv[]) {
pthread_t thread;
pthread_create(&thread, NULL, thread_func, NULL);
while (i < 1) sleep(1);
pthread_cancel(thread);
printf("Requested to cancel the thread\n");
pthread_join(thread, NULL);
printf("The thread is stopped.\n");
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
< 

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#include <pthread.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <unistd.h>

70
#define NUM_THREADS 6
void *thread_function(void *arg);
int main() {
int res;
int lots_of_threads;
pthread_t a_thread[NUM_THREADS];
void *thread_result;
srand ( (insigned)time(NULL) );
for (lots_of_threads = 0; lots_of_threads < NUM_THREADS;
lots_of_threads++)
{
res = pthread_create (&(a_thread[lots_of_threads]),NULL,
thread_function, (void *)&lots_of_threads);
if (res != 0) {
perror(“Thread creation failed”);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
sleep(1);
}
printf(“Waiting for threads to finish...\n”);
for (lots_of_threads = NUM_THREADS - 1; lots_of_threads >= 0;
lots_of_threads--)
{
res = pthread_join (a_thread[lots_of_threads],&thread_result);
if (res == 0) printf(“Picked up a thread\n”);
else perror(“pthread_join failed”);
}
printf(“All done\n”);
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

void *thread_function(void *arg) {

71
int my_number = *(int *)arg;
int rand_num;
printf (“thread_function is running. Argument was %d\n”,
my_number);
rand_num=1+(int)(9.0*rand()/(RAND_MAX+1.0));
sleep(rand_num);
printf (“Bye from %d\n”, my_number);
pthread_exit(NULL);
}
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pthread_mutex_t count_mutex;
long count;
void increment_count() {
pthread_mutex_lock(&count_mutex);
count = count + 1;
pthread_mutex_unlock(&count_mutex);
}

long get_count() {
long c;
pthread_mutex_lock(&count_mutex);
c = count;
pthread_mutex_unlock(&count_mutex);
return (c);
}
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#include <pthread.h>

72
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <math.h>
#define SIZE_I 2
#define SIZE_J 2
float X[SIZE_I][SIZE_J];
float S[SIZE_I][SIZE_J];
int count = 0; //   
   
struct DATA_ {
double x;
int i;
int z;
};
typedef struct DATA_ DATA;
pthread_mutex_t lock; //‘  Y  
// V%  
 
double f(double x) { return x*x; }
//  %  
 
void *calc_thr (void *arg) {
DATA* a = (DATA*) arg;
X[a->i][a->z] = f(a->x);
//   
pthread_mutex_lock(&lock);
//     
count ++;
//   
pthread_mutex_unlock(&lock);
delete a;
return NULL;
}
//  %   
void *input_thr(void *arg) {

73
DATA* a = (DATA*) arg;
printf("S[%d][%d]:", a->i, a->z);
scanf("%f", &S[a->i][a->z]);
delete a;
return NULL;
}
int main() {
//   
pthread_t thr[ SIZE_I * SIZE_J ];
// % %  
pthread_mutex_init(&lock, NULL);
DATA *arg;
//  
  
for (int i=0;i<SIZE_I; i++) {
for (int z=0; z<SIZE_J; z++) {
arg = new DATA;
arg->i = i;
arg->z = z;
//       ’  %

pthread_create (&thr[ i* SIZE_J + z ], NULL, input_thr, (void *)arg);


} // for (int z=0; z<SIZE_J; P ++z)
} // for (int i=0;i<SIZE_I; P ++i)
// GK       

//  
    thr
for(int i = 0; i < SIZE_I*SIZE_J; i++) pthread_join (thr[i], NULL);
// 
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pthread_t thread;
printf("Start calculation\n");
for (int i=0;i<SIZE_I; i++) {
for (int z=0; z<SIZE_J; z++) {
arg = new DATA;
arg->i = i;

74
arg->z = z;
arg->x = S[i][z];
//     
 
pthread_create (&thread, NULL, calc_thr, (void *)arg);
//     
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pthread_detach(thread);
// for (int z=0; z<SIZE_J; z++)
} // for (int i=0;i<SIZE_I; i++)
do {
// G % "
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sleep(1);
//   
 
printf("finished %d threads.\n", count);
} while ( count < SIZE_I*SIZE_J);
// 
  
for (int i=0;i<SIZE_I; i++) {
for (int z=0; z<SIZE_J; z++) {
printf("X[%d][%d] = %f\t", i, z, X[i][z]);
}
printf("\n");
}
//     
pthread_mutex_destroy(&lock);
return 0;
}
< 
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#include "main.h"
#include <iostream.h>
#include <semaphore.h>
#include <fstream.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <error.h>

75
void* WriteToFile(void*);
int errno;
sem_t psem;
ofstream qfwrite;

int main(int argc, char **argv) {


pthread_t tidA,tidB;
int n;
char filename[] = "./rezult.txt";
qfwrite.open(&filename[0]);
sem_init(&psem,0,0);
sem_post(&psem))
pthread_create(&tidA,NULL,&WriteToFile,(void*)100));
pthread_create(&tidB,NULL,&WriteToFile,(void*)100));
pthread_join(tidA,NULL));
pthread_join(tidB,NULL));
sem_destroy(&psem));
qfwrite.close();
}
void* WriteToFile(void *f){
int max = (int)f;
for (int i=0; i<=max; i++)
{
sem_wait(&psem);
qfwrite<<pthread_self()<<"-writetofilecounter i="<<i<<endl;
qfwrite<<flush;
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return NULL;
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#include <semaphore.h>
#include <fstream.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <error.h>

76

int full;
pthread_mutex_t mx;
pthead_cond_t cond;
int data;
void *writer(void *)
{
while(1)
{
int t= write_to_buffer ();
pthread_mutex_lock(&mx)
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full=1;
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pthread_mutex_unlock(&mx);
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return NULL;
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{
while (1)
{
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pthread_mutex_lock(&mx);
while (!full)
{
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}
t=data;
full=0;
pthread_cond_signal(&mx);
pthread_mutex_unlock(&mx);
read_from _buffer();
}
return NULL;
}

77
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y
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84

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/home/larry# yes > /dev/null &
\verb+[1] 164+
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/home/larry# jobs
[1]+ Running yes >/dev/null &-
/home/larry#
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85
" *, 
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PID, *

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"  \ "
  

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{ctrl-Z}
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yes >/dev/null
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88
4.1.4. %=HF %VJ&:?%++:>: <H:;%*+< <  Unix
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89
<  

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#inlude <sys/ipc.h>
#inlude <sys/sem.h>

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int semid = semget (key_t key, int count, int flag)

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#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <sys/sem.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

100
#include <time.h>
#include <iostream.h>
#define MAXLINE 128
#define SVSEM_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
#define SKEY 1234L //   
union semun {
int val;
struct semid_ds *buf;
ushort *array;
};
int var;
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
char filename[] = "./rezult.txt";
pid_t pid; //     %
time_t ctime; //  
int oflag, c, semid;
struct tm *ctm;
union semun arg;
struct semid_ds seminfo;
struct sembuf psmb;
unsigned short *prt = NULL;
var = 0;
oflag = SVSEM_MODE | IPC_CREAT; //   
printf("Parent: Creating semaphore...\n");
semid = semget(SKEY, 1, oflag); //   
arg.buf = &seminfo;
printf("Parent: Getting info about semaphore (not required, for exam-
ple)...\n");
semctl(semid, 0, IPC_STAT, arg); //   .  
g.buf->sem_ctime;
ctm = localtime(&ctime);
printf("%s %d %s %d %s %d %s","Parent: Creating time - ",
ctm->tm_hour,":",ctm->tm_min,":",ctm->tm_sec,"\n");
arg.val = 5;

101
printf("%s %d %s","Parent: Setting value \"",arg.val, "\" to sema-
phores...\n");
semctl(semid, 0, SETVAL, arg); //    
printf("Parent: Creating child process...\n");
if ((pid = fork()) == 0) { // child process ;
printf(" Child: Child process was created...\n");
struct sembuf csmb;
unsigned short semval;
union semun carg;
int oflag = SVSEM_MODE | IPC_EXCL;
printf(" Child: Opening semaphore...\n");
int smd = semget(SKEY, 1, oflag); // 
 
csmb.sem_num = 0;
csmb.sem_flg = 0;
csmb.sem_op = -1;
printf(" Child: Locking semaphore...\n");
semop(smd,&csmb,1); //   
printf(" Child: Do something...\n");
//  %  YY K
sleep(2);
//  %  YY K  
printf(" Child: Done something...\n");
carg.buf = NULL;
carg.array = &semval;
semctl(smd,0,GETALL,carg); //      
semval = *carg.array;
printf("%s %d %s"," Child: Semaphore value = ",semval,"\n");
csmb.sem_num = csmb.sem_flg = 0;
csmb.sem_op = -semval;
printf(" Child: Unlocking semaphore...\n");
semop(smd,&csmb,1);
printf(" Child: Terminating child process...\n");
exit(0);
}

102
printf("Parent: Waiting for unlocking semaphore...\n");
psmb.sem_num = psmb.sem_flg = psmb.sem_op = 0;
semop(semid,&psmb,1);
printf("Parent: Semaphore is unlocked...\n");
printf("Parent: Waiting for SIGCHILD...\n");
waitpid(pid,NULL,0);
printf("Parent: Deleting semaphore...\n");
semctl(semid, 0, IPC_RMID);
exit(0);
}
  

 Y
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4= -
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semsyn
Parent: Creating semaphore...
Parent: Getting info about semaphore (not required, for example)...
Parent: Creating time - 13 : 14 : 6
Parent: Setting value " 5 " to semaphore...
Parent: Creating child process...
Child: Child process was created...
Child: Opening semaphore...
Child: Locking semaphore...
Child: Do something...
Parent: Waiting for unlocking semaphore...
Child: Done something...
Child: Semaphore value = 4
Child: Unlocking semaphore...
Parent: Semaphore is unlocked...
Parent: Waiting for SIGCHILD...
Child: Terminating child process...
Parent: Deleting semaphore...
 
  *  '
 
 >  +
#4 
ipcs –s

103
------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key semid owner perms nsems
0x000004d2 425986 root 644 1
H;%C% JP
< *  shmget '
 
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/shm.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define SVSHM_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int c, id, oflag;
har *ptr;
size_tlength;
oflag = SVSHM_MODE | IPC_CREAT; //     
while ( (c = getopt(argc, argv, "e")) != -1) {
switch (c) { //      
case 'e':
oflag |= IPC_EXCL;
break;
}
}
if (optind != argc - 2)
{
printf("usage: shmget [ -e ] <path_to_file> <length>");
return 0;
}
length = atoi(argv[optind + 1]);
id = shmget(ftok(argv[optind], 0), length, oflag);

104
ptr = (char*) shmat(id, NULL, 0);
return 0;
}
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/shm.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#define SVSHM_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int id;
if (argc != 2)
{
printf("usage: shmrmid <path_to_file>");
return 0;
}
id = shmget(ftok(argv[1], 0), 0, SVSHM_MODE);
shmctl(id, IPC_RMID, NULL);
return 0;
}

105
< *  shmwrite ' "
 
*
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 0, 1, 2, ... , 254, 255. 
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/shm.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#define SVSHM_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int i, id;
struct shmid_ds buff;
unsigned char *ptr;
if (argc != 2)
{
printf("usage: shmwrite <path_to_file>");
return 0;
}
id = shmget(ftok(argv[1], 0), 0, SVSHM_MODE);
ptr = (unsigned char*) shmat(id, NULL, 0);
shmctl(id, IPC_STAT, &buff);
/* 4set: ptr[0] = 0, ptr[1] = 1, etc. */
for (i = 0; i < buff.shm_segsz; i++) *ptr++ = i % 256;
return 0;
}
< *  shmread 

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, ' -
 4  '
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4 # *  shmwrite.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/shm.h>
#include <error.h>

106
#include <fcntl.h>
#define SVSHM_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int i, id;
struct shmid_ds buff;
unsigned char c, *ptr;
if (argc != 2)
{
printf("usage: shmread <path_to_file>");
return 0;
}
id = shmget(ftok(argv[1], 0), 0, SVSHM_MODE);
ptr = (unsigned char*) shmat(id, NULL, 0);
shmctl(id, IPC_STAT, &buff);
/* check that ptr[0] = 0, ptr[1] = 1, and so on. */
for (i = 0; i < buff.shm_segsz; i++)
if ( (c = *ptr++) != (i % 256)) printf("ptr[%d] = %d", i, c);
return 0;
}
A  
'"#  '  

% Y
*  

 '
"
 #4.   "
'
 
*
 '
"

 " 1234   . " 
>  
*
  "#'

"
  "
* > " /tmp/test1. W  


 
>  ftok:
shmget /tmp/test1 1234
ipcs -bmo
IPC status from <running system> as of Thu Jan 8 13:17:06 1998
T ID KEY MODE OWNER GROUP NATTCH SEGSZ
Shared Memory:
m 1 0x0000fl2a --rw-r--r-- rstevens otherl 0 1234
< *  ipcs ' 
 " *,  
#,  
*

'
"
  

"# " '   
"  "
  ' -

Y
 *  shmcreate.

107
   *  shmwrite, + ' "# 
+
'
-
"
  "
 
"##4 ' 
.  
  =#4 -
*  shmread 

 
+

*
 '
"
 :
shmwrite shmget
shmread shmget
shmrmid shmget
ipcs -bmo
IPC status from <running system> as of Thu Jan 8 13:17:06 1998
T ID KEY MODE OWNER GROUP NATTCH SEGSZ
Shared Memory:
 "# '
"
4 # +, ' 
shmrmid /tmp/test1
&:>&F% /CF
< *  pipes '
  
  


  -
44 '# 
+  
 

 %   ".
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <iostream.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <fstream.h>
#define MAXLINE 128
void server(int,int), client(int,int);
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
int pipe1[2],pipe2[2]; //  
 
pid_t childpid = 0;
printf("Parent: Creating pipes...\n");
pipe(pipe1);
pipe(pipe2);
printf("Parent: Pipes created...\n");
printf("Parent: Creating child process...\n");
if ((childpid = fork()) == 0) { // child process starts
printf("Child: Child process created...\n");

108
close(pipe1[1]);
close(pipe2[0]);
printf("Child: Starting server...\n");
server(pipe1[0], pipe2[1]);
printf("Child: Terminating process...\n");
exit(0);
}
// parent process
close(pipe1[0]);
close(pipe2[1]);
sleep(2);
printf("Parent: Starting client...\n");
client(pipe2[0],pipe1[1]);
printf("Parent: Waiting for child porecess to terminate a zombie...\n");
waitpid(childpid, NULL, 0);
printf("Parent: Zombie terminated...\n");
return 0;

}
void server(int readfd, int writefd) {
char str[MAXLINE];
strcpy(str,"some string to transmit");
ssize_t n = 0;
printf("%s %s %s","Child: Server: Tranferting string
to client - \"",str,"\"\n");
write(writefd, str, strlen(str));
sleep(1);
printf("Child: Server: Waiting for replay from client...");
while ((n = read(readfd,str,MAXLINE)) > 0)
{
str[n] = 0;
printf("%s %s %s","Received OK from client - \"",str,"\"\n");
break;

109
}

printf("Child: Server was terminated...\n");


return;
}

void client(int readfd, int writefd) {


ssize_t n = 0;
char buff[MAXLINE];
while ((n = read(readfd, buff, MAXLINE)) > 0 )
{
buff[n] = 0;
printf("%s %s %s","Client: Recieved string from server: \"",buff,"\"\n");
break;
}
printf("Parent: Client: Sending OK to server\n");
sleep(1);
strcpy(buff,"sends OK from client");
write(writefd, buff, strlen(buff));
return;
}
 "



 * ,  * '4=

+ 

' -



 
 %   ".
&:>& +%&<%&
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <iostream.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <fstream.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <errno.h>

110
#include <fcntl.h>
#define MAXLINE 128
#define FILE_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
#define FIFO1 “/tmp/fifo.1”
#define FIFO2 “/tmp/fifo.2”

int main(int argc, char **argv) {


int readfd = -1,writefd = -1;
pid_t childpid = 0;
ssize_t n;
char str[MAXLINE];
strcpy(str," some string to transmit ");
cout<<"Creating pipes..."<<endl;
unlink(FIFO1);
unlink(FIFO2);
if (mkfifo(FIFO1, FILE_MODE) == EEXIST) cout<<"\n Pipes is ex-
ists"<<endl;
if (mkfifo(FIFO2, FILE_MODE) == EEXIST) cout<<"\n Pipes is ex-
ists"<<endl;
cout<<"Pipes created..."<<endl;
writefd = open(FIFO2, O_WRONLY);
if ((writefd != -1)) {
cout<<"Transmitting the string..."<<endl;
write(writefd,str,strlen(str));
readfd = open(FIFO1, O_RDONLY);
cout<<"Waiting for respond..."<<endl;
while ((n = read(readfd,str, MAXLINE)) > 0) {
str[n] = 0;
cout<<"Received string - \""<<str<<"\""<<endl;
break;
}
close(readfd);
close(writefd);
unlink(FIFO1);

111
unlink(FIFO2);
} else cout<<"Can't open pipes..."<<endl;
return 1;
}
&:>& /C%
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <iostream.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <fstream.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#define MAXLINE 128
#define FILE_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
#define FIFO1 "/tmp/fifo.1"
#define FIFO2 "/tmp/fifo.2"

int main(int argc, char **argv) {


int readfd = -1,writefd = -1;
pid_t childpid = 0;
ssize_t n = 0;
char str[MAXLINE];
ofstream fsw("./rezult.txt");
fsw<<"Opening pipes..."<<endl;
while (1)
{
readfd = open(FIFO2, O_RDONLY, 0);
if (readfd != -1) {
fsw<<"Pipes opened..."<<endl;

112
fsw<<"Waiting for respond..."<<endl;
while ((n = read(readfd,str, MAXLINE)) > 0) {
str[n] = 0;
fsw<<"Received string - \""<<str<<"\""<<endl;
break;
}
strcpy(str,"Ok from other process");
writefd = open(FIFO1, O_WRONLY, 0);
fsw<<"Transmitting the string - \""<<str<<"\""<<endl;
write(writefd,str,strlen(str));
close(readfd);
close(writefd);
break;
}
sleep(1);
}
fsw.close();
return 1;
}
A  
'"#  '  

% Y
* , -
"#'4=% 

 
  ".
pipes
Parent: Creating pipes...
Parent: Pipes created...
Parent: Creating child process...
Child: Child process created...
Child: Starting server...
Child: Server: Tranferting string to client - " some string to transmit "
Child: Server: Waiting for replay from client...Received OK from client - "
sends OK from client "
Child: Server was terminated...
Child: Terminating process...
Parent: Creating pipes...
Parent: Pipes created...

113
Parent: Creating child process...
Parent: Starting client...
Client: Recieved string from server: " some string to transmit "
Parent: Client: Sending OK to server
Parent: Waiting for child porecess to terminate a zombie...
Parent: Zombie terminated...
< * , ' 
4=


'   " FIFO, '  4
"
4=  ':
client &
Opening pipes...
Pipes opened...
Waiting for respond...
Received string - " some string to transmit "
Transmitting the string - "Ok from other process"
server
Creating pipes...
Pipes created...
Transmitting the string...
Waiting for respond...
Received string - "Ok from other process"
[1]+ Exit 1 ./pn (wd: ~/makegnu/ipc/pipe_name/2/bin)
(wd now: ~/makegnu/ipc/pipe_name/1/bin)
@%&%; +::DT%*
< *  msgcreate '
 

# =
. < 
 -
     '"
  ' # >" * IPC_EXCL. <"
 > " ,
"4=

 ' 
"# *
    ,



>  ftok. <"
 "4
 '
  
>  >-

 msgget.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/msg.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <unistd.h>

114
#include <fcntl.h>
#define SVMSG_MODE (S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int c, oflag, mqid;
oflag = SVMSG_MODE | IPC_CREAT;
while ( (c = getopt(argc, argv, "e")) != -1) {
switch (c) {
case 'e':
oflag |= IPC_EXCL;
break;
}
}
if (optind != argc - 1)
{
printf("usage: msgcreate [ -e ] <path_to_file>");
return 0;
}
mqid = msgget(ftok(argv[optind], 0), oflag);
return 0;
}
< *  msgsnd 
=
  

#  =

'  
"   .  * 
'
  ' 
"#     msgbuf =
-
*  , ' 
 
 ' call 
"
 
 
"#4  -
  (>
' ) 
4=
* '
.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/msg.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <error.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#define MSG_W (S_IWUSR)
int main(int argc, char **argv)

115
{
int mqid;
size_t len;
long type;
struct msgbuf *ptr;
if (argc != 4)
{
printf("usage: msgsnd <path_to_file><#bytes><type>");
return 0;
}
len = atoi(argv[2]);
type = atoi(argv[3]);
mqid = msgget(ftok(argv[1], 0), MSG_W);
ptr = (msgbuf*) calloc(sizeof(long) + len, sizeof(char));
ptr->mtype = type;
msgsnd(mqid, ptr, len, 0);
return 0;
}
< *  msgrcv 
 =

' 

.   
 
+
 #  '  
 n, "4 4= " , -

 t +
 #  "#'  "  '   =
  >-
 msgrcv.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/msg.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define MSG_R (S_IRUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH)
#define MAXMSG (8192 + sizeof(long))
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int c, flag, mqid;
long type;

116
ssize_t n;
struct msgbuf *buff;
type = flag = 0;
while ( (c = getopt(argc, argv, "nt:")) != -1) {
switch (c) {
case 'n':
flag |= IPC_NOWAIT;
break;
case 't':
type = atol(optarg);
break;
}
}
if (optind != argc - 1)
{
printf("usage: msgrcv [ -n ][ -t type ]<path_to_file>");
return 0;
}
mqid = msgget(ftok(argv[optind], 0), MSG_R);
buff = (msgbuf*) malloc(MAXMSG);
n = msgrcv(mqid, buff, MAXMSG, type, flag);
printf("read %d bytes, type = %ld\n", n, buff->mtype);
return 0;
}
< *  msgctl  "
 

#.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#include <sys/msg.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <error.h>
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int mqid;

117
if (argc != 2)
{
printf("usage: msgrmid <path_to_file>");
return 0;
}
mqid = msgget(ftok(argv[1], 0), 0);
msgctl(mqid, IPC_RMID, NULL);
return 0;
}
A
'"#  '  

% Y
*  " "   

=
  

:
msgcreate /tmp/no/such/file
ftok error for pathname "tmp/no/such/file" and id 0: No such file or directory
touch /tmp/testl
msgcreate /tmp/testl
msgsnd /tmp/testl 1 100
msgsnd /tmp/testl 2 200
msgsnd /tmp/testl 3 300
ipcs -qo
IPC status from <running system> as of Sat Jan 10 11:25:45 1998
T ID KEY MODE OWNER GROUP CBYTES QNUM
Message Queues:
q 100 GGGGG‘I --rw-r–– rstevens otherl 6 3
  " %   '  

  =#4 
 
-
=
4=
* > " . < 
 '
,  > ",  '
   -


*
 >  ftok, ' 
"# "+
 =
 #.  -

 '
 > " /tmp/testl   "#'

*   '  

-
 =
. <"
\*  

# 
= 4   =
 "
1, 2  3    ' 
  100, 200  300. < *  ipcs  '-

,   

  % 3 =
 = ]
 6  .
$

# c =#4 *
 type  '
msgrcv  4
=
  '"#  
:
msgrcv -t 200 /tmp/testl
read 2 bytes, type – 200
msgrcv -t -300 /tmp/testl

118
read 1 bytes, type = 100
msgrcv /tmp/testl
read 3 bytes, type = 300
msgrcv -n /tmp/testl
msgrcv error: No message of desired type

 

' Y
 =

   200,  -
 

– =

  
#Y ' 

  , 

-
Y 4= 300,  
#
 –

=

 

. <"
 ' -
 msgrcv ""4  
 

>" * IPC_NOWAIT.
 "# 

# +, ' 
msgrmid /tmp/test1

4.2.  
$$
!  !
1. ' #  


  
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2.  # 
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3. 

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docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/custom-guide/. – 01.03.2010.
7. 
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