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Strategic Management

BUSI 3158
20 Credits, Level 3, Autumn 2020 to Spring 2021

If you require this document or any other module materials


in an alternative format please contact the NUBS UG
Disability Officer Dr Dilip Mutum or the module convenors.

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Details of Module Convenor and Teaching Staff

Name Room No Consultation Hours


Dr. Avvari V. Mohan Block E, Kindly email ahead of time.
Email: EB 11 Do indicate “UG-SM” within
mohan.avvari@nottingham.edu.my email subject.

Dr. Patricia Ang Block E, Kindly email ahead of time.


Email: Lower Ground, Do indicate “UG-SM” within
Patricia.Ang@nottingham.edu.my ELG 11 email subject.

Details of External Examiner


Name: Anne-Marie Greene
Position: Professor of Employment Relations Institution: De Montfort University

Target Students and Anti-requisites:

Available to all Part II students. CANNOT be taken if taking or have taken BUSI
2065/ N12616 Management Strategy, N12410 Strategic Management: Content and
Analysis, or BUSI 3132/ N13420 Strategic Management: Process and Practice

Contact Hours:
 Autumn: 11 x 90 minute whole class sessions (lectures/ workshops), and one 2 hour
seminar.
 Spring : 11 x 90 minute whole class sessions (lectures/ workshops), and one 2 hour
seminar.

Breakdown of Student Learning Hours over two semesters:


33 hours comprising lectures and whole class workshops; 4 hours small group
seminars, 40 hours exam and coursework preparation, 123 hours private study.

Method and Criteria of Assessment:


 Autumn 2020 - Group Project (50%)
 Spring 2021 - Final examination based on a case study (50%)

 Information regarding Resit: Same format as the Final Examination

Module Aims:
To provide students of management with key tools, concepts and frameworks of strategic
analysis and to examine the process of strategy implementation.

AUTUMN Semester (I)

Lectures and Seminar

Lectures (Sept 2020) Week 3-4 Tuesday 3:00pm – 4:30pm Online

Lectures / Week 5-13 Tuesday 3:00pm – 5:00pm EA 23


Case Workshop
Seminar Week 11 Friday  11:00am – 1:00pm EA-29
(TBC) 20 Nov 20  14:30pm – 16:30pm

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Outline of Lecture and Syllabus

AUTUMN 2020 Semester


Date Teaching Lecture topic Lecturer Notes
Week
1 22 Sep 3 Introduction to Strategic Management AVM MS Teams
2 29 Sep 4 External Analysis: PEST Analysis PA MS Teams
3 6 Oct 5 External Analysis: 5 Forces + AVM
4 13 Oct 6 Internal Analysis: Competencies AVM
5 20 Oct 7 Business Strategy & Positioning: Cost Vs AVM
Differentiation
6 27 Oct 8 Business Strategy & Positioning: Blue Ocean PA
7 3 Nov 9 Case Workshop (whole class) AVM
8 10 Nov 10 Corporate Strategy: Diversification PA *
9 17 Nov 11 Corporate Strategy: Portfolio Vs Parenting AVM
10 24 Nov 12 Guest Lecture / Strategy and Structure TBC
11 1 Dec 13 Strategy Consulting Workshop (whole class) AVM/ PA

Wednesday, 16 Dec 2020: 4,000 word Group project due


Notes: AVM: Dr Avvari Mohan, PA: Dr Patricia Ang
2. This document is a guide to teaching and learning on this module, may be updated due to current developments or unavoidable circumstances.

Link to Timetable [Autumn 2020]

http://timetablingunmc.nottingham.ac.uk:8016/reporting/Individual;module;id;032550/01
%0D%0A?days=1-5&weeks=3-14&periods=3-
20&template=SWSCUST+module+Individual&height=100&week=100

Module Learning Objectives and Outcomes


Knowledge and understanding
This module develops a knowledge and understanding of:
 The dynamic and changing nature of business and the consideration of the future of
organisations within the global business environment, including the management of risk.
 The management of resources
 The development of appropriate policies and strategies within a changing environment to
meet stakeholder interests
 The need for individuals and organisations to manage responsibly and sustainably and
behave ethically in relation to social, cultural, economic and environmental issues
 The development of strategic priorities to deliver business at speed in an environment
where digital technology has reshaped traditional revenue and business models

Intellectual skills
This module develops:
 The ability to analyse facts and circumstances to determine the cause of a problem and
identifying and selecting appropriate solutions
 Conceptual and critical thinking, analysis, synthesis and evaluation

Professional practical skills


This module develops:
 Commercial acumen based on an awareness of the key drivers for business success,
causes of failure and the importance of providing customer satisfaction and building
customer loyalty

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Transferable (key) skills
This module develops:
 Self-management and a readiness to accept responsibility and flexibility, to be resilient,
self-starting and appropriately assertive, to plan, organise and manage time
 Articulating and effectively explaining information
 Building and maintaining relationships.

This Module Outline should be read in conjunction with your Student Handbook.

Module Details on Moodle


The web address for Moodle is moodle.nottingham.ac.uk. Moodle contains the definitive
module specification, assessment details, assessment feedback, announcements, and links
to the Reading List. The module home page on Moodle provides access to online materials
such as lecture handouts and selected resources.

Feedback on Teaching
The School operates a system of formal teaching appraisal (termed SET/SEM). You may be
asked to complete a short on-line questionnaire relating to the teaching on this module.
Your co-operation would be very much appreciated, as we value feedback to maintain the
quality of our programmes. SET/SEM is completed online using Evaluate.

Assessment DETAILS
Autumn 2020

Group Course Work: This is a 4000 word group report as follows:

Select an organisation (in discussion with your module convenor/s). Identify a key strategic
problem /issue facing the organisation of your choice and analyse the problem / issue through
the application of relevant strategic theory /frameworks learnt in class. From your analysis
how would you recommend the organisation respond to this strategic issue?

There will be a coursework briefing session during the introduction session/lecture.

Each group can have 5 to 6 members.

Please note that 4000 words (excluding references) with a 10% plus or minus
tolerance will be permitted. All words including those in tables and figures are
included within this word count. Coursework which exceeds this word count will normally
be treated as having a major error (as defined in the Business School’s Undergraduate
Marking Guide) and hence will be limited to a maximum of 59%.

Any coursework that is not appropriately referenced in Harvard Style (as explained in your
UG Student Handbook) in the text where required and with a single and matching alphabetical
list of Harvard Style references under the heading of References at the end of your
coursework will be deemed to have a major error.

Deadline Date for Submission of Coursework


1. The deadline for coursework assignment submission online via the Turn-it-In link on the
module/course moodle page: by 3:00pm on Wednesday, 16 Dec 2020 (Malaysian
time).

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2. Do note that it may take up to 24 hours to obtain the Turn-it-In Similarity Index Report
when you submit your final coursework onto MOODLE TURN-IT-IN. Hence you should
complete this much earlier.
3. You may use the Test-your-Text Tab for Turn-It-In to determine your similarity index
before submitting the final coursework assignment.

Five marks will be deducted for each working day (or part thereof) if coursework is submitted
after the official deadline date without an extension having been obtained. Except in
exceptional circumstances, late submission penalties will apply automatically unless a claim
for extenuating circumstances is made within five calendar days following an assessment
deadline.

The group coursework marks will only be available after 18 January 2021, i.e. after the
examination period.

Spring 2021

Final Examination: One 2 hour examination (contributes 50% towards the module grade).
There are two sections in the paper. Answer two compulsory questions from section A, each
worth 30 marks. One question from a choice of four from Section B, worth 40 marks.

SPRING 2021 | Semester (II)

The Teaching timetable for Spring 2021, will be updated in due time

Lectures and Seminar

Lectures / Case Week Mondays Two hours Room


Sessions 21-33 (9.00 – 11.00 am) EA 29
Seminar Sessions Week 29 Thursday, Two sessions of 2 hours Room
25 March Gp1 Seminar @ 14:00 hrs F4.LG.10
2021 Gp2 Seminar @ 16:00 hrs F4-B-09a

Sn Date Teach Lecture topic Lecturer /


ing Notes
Week
12 23 Introduction to the Module and Assessment;
Strategy and Structure
13 24 Strategy Execution and Organisation
14 25 Strategic Change
15 26 Strategic Change
16 27 Strategic Case Discussion Session
17 28 Strategic Leadership
18 29 Strategic Leadership
25 Mar 29 14:00 Seminar Gp 1 16:00 Seminar Gp 2
19 30 Stakeholder Management
20 31 Strategy Integrated Case
21 32 Revision
22 33 Case Management and Exam Workshop

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Reading List

AUTUMN 2020

Principal text:
Title: Contemporary Strategy Analysis (9th edition)
Author: Robert Grant | Publisher: Wiley | Copyright: 2016 (Other editions are fine)

We will, however, explore issues that fall outside of the scope of, or are not covered in
sufficient detail in, the course text. There are a range of recommended readings for each
topic, which should be used to both supplement and complement the principal text.

The Reading List also provides additional book titles, which you may find useful.
Search “BUSI 3158” from: readinglist.nottingham.edu.my or click
https://rl.talis.com/3/unmc/lists/27B7EA0A-4322-3D71-8CBD-6F0B40607900.html

Topic: Introduction to Strategic Management & Group Project Overview

Grant, Chapter 1.

 Hambrick, D., & Fredrickson, J. (2001). Are you sure you have a strategy? Academy
of Management Executive, 15(4), 48-59.
 Mintzberg, H. (2014). Five Ps for Strategy in Lampel, J., Mintzberg, H., Quinn, J.,
Goshal, S. The Strategy Process. Pearson: UK.
o (The above excerpt will be made available within lecture 1 and on Moodle)
 Porter, M. E. (1996). What is Strategy? Harvard Business Review, 74(6), 61-78.

Topic 2, 3: External Analysis

Grant, pp. 63-102.

 Brandenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff, B. J. (1995). The Right Game: Use Game Theory
to Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 73(4), 57-71.
 Porter, M. E. (2008). The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy. Harvard
Business Review, 86(1), 78-93.
 Rumelt, R. P. (1991). How Much Does Industry Matter? Strategic Management
Journal, 12(3), 167-185.
 Yoffie, D. B., & Kwak, M. (2006). With Friends Like These. Harvard Business Review,
84(9), 88-98.

Topic 4: Internal Analysis

Grant, Chapter 5.

 Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantage. Journal of


Management. 17(1), 99-120.
 Kraaijenbrink, J., Spender, J. C., & Groen, A. J. (2010). The Resource-based View: A
Review and Assessment of its Critiques. Journal of Management, 36(1), 349-372.

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 Leonard, D. (1992). Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A paradox in Managing New
Product Development. Strategic Management Journal, 13(2), 111-125.
 Prahalad, C. and Hamel, G. (1990). The Core Competence of the Corporation, Harvard
Business Review, 68(3), 79-91.

Topic: Business Strategy and Positioning

- Generic Strategies

Grant, pp. 178-200.

 Banker, R., Mashruwala, R., & Tripathy, A. (2014). Does a differentiation strategy
lead to more sustainable financial performance than a cost leadership
strategy?. Management Decision, 52(5), 872-896.
 Porter M. (1996). What is Strategy? Harvard Business Review, 74(6), 61-78.
 Thornhill, S. and White, R. E. (2007). Strategic Purity: A Multi-Industry Evaluation of
Pure vs. Hybrid Business Strategies, Strategic Management Journal, 28(5), 553-561.

- Blue Ocean Strategy

Grant, pp.216-221.

 Deephouse, D. L. (1999). To be Different, or to be the Same? It's a Question (and


Theory) of Strategic Balance. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 147.
 Johnson, G. and Greenwood, R. (2007). Institutional Theory Perspective. In V.
Ambrosini & M. Jenkins (Eds.), Advanced strategic management (chapter 2, pp. 11-
29). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.
o The above chapter will be made available in the lecture and on Moodle.
 Kim, W., & Mauborgne, R. (2004) Blue Ocean Strategy. Harvard Business Review,
82(10), 76-84.

Topic: Corporate Strategy and Diversification

Grant, Chapters 11 and 13.

 Markides, C. (1997). To Diversify or not to Diversify. Harvard Business Review, Nov-


Dec: 93-99.
 Palich, L. E., Cardinal, L. B., & Miller, C. C. (2000). Curvilinearity in the Diversification-
performance linkage: An Examination of over Three Decades of Research. Strategic
Management Journal, (21), 155-174.
 Rothaermel, F. T., Hitt, M. A., & Jobe, L. A. (2006). Balancing Vertical Integration and
Strategic Outsourcing: Effects on Product Portfolio, Product Success, and Firm
Performance. Strategic Management Journal, 27(11), 1033.

Topic: Strategy and Structure

 Grant, Chapter 6 and 14


 Barlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1989). Matrix Management: Not a Structure, a Frame
of Mind. Harvard Business Review, 68(4), 138-145.

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 Goold, Michael, and Andrew Campbell. "Do you have a well-designed organization?."
Harvard business review 80.3 (2002): 117-24.
 Campbell, A., Goold, M., & Alexander, M. (1995). Corporate Strategy: The Quest for
Parenting Advantage. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 120-132.
 Wilden, R., Gudergan, S. P., Nielsen, B. B., & Lings, I. (2013). Dynamic capabilities
and performance: strategy, structure and environment. Long Range Planning, 46(1),
72-96.

Notes:
- Additional Readings as needed will be informed / provided during class
- This module outline is a guide to teaching and learning for this course. It may be
changed due to current developments and unforeseen circumstances

=====================================================

SPRING 2021

This section will be updated ahead of the Spring 2021 semester.

Recommended reading for specific topics is provided within this document.


The main course texts are:

 Lampel, Mintzberg, H., Quinn, B. & Ghoshal, S. (2014) The Strategy Process:
Concepts, Contexts, Cases (Fifth Edition) Pearson. (LMQG)
 Dobson, P., Starkey, K. & Richards, (2004) Strategic Management: Issues and Cases,
Blackwell (DSR) (Available from the library as an eBook library resource. Please
contact the library for further details).

Additional reading:

The following journals are recommended for strategy related articles -

- Strategic Management, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, California Management


Review, Harvard Business Review, Journal of International Business Studies, Long
Range Planning, MIT Sloan Management Review, etc.

The following business magazines are recommended for cases and developments in industry-
- The Financial Times (FT), The EDGE (Malaysia / Singapore), The Business Week, The
Economist, Fortune, Forbes Asia and the business sections of the good quality
newspapers are good sources of information (Eg Saturday edition of The STAR has a
StarBiz). For further sources of company information for coursework please consult
the library.

Some additional readings that may be provided during the lecture / case sessions

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Topic: Strategy Execution and Organisation

Strategy as an emergent process


The relationship between strategy development, execution & organisation
Excellent organisations - organising for action and innovation
Other approaches to high performance and the Halo Effect
Strategy, HRM & knowledge

References
 Dobson, Starkey & Richards (DSR) Ch. 5
 Lampel, Mintzberg, Quinn & Ghoshal (LMQG)–Ch. 3 (Reading 3.3 Hamel & Prahalad

 ‘Strategic Intent’); Ch. 5 (5.4 Pascale – ‘The Honda Effect’); Ch. 8 (8.1 Mintzberg –
‘The Structuring of Organizations’)
 Collins, J. C. & Porras, J. I. (1994) Built to Last: Successful habits of visionary
companies, Harper Business.
 Hamel, G. (2009) Moon Shots for Management, Harvard Business Review, Vol.87
No.2, pp.91-98.
 Hamel, G. & Valikangas, L. (2003) The quest for resilience, Harvard Business Review,
Vol.81 No.9, pp.52-63.
 Kirby, J. (2005) Toward a theory of high performance, Harvard Business Review,
Vol.83 No.7/8, pp.30-39.
 Nohria, N., Joyce, W., & Roberson, B. (2003) What really works, Harvard Business
Review, Vol.81 No.7, pp.42-52.
 Peters, T. & Waterman, R. (1982) In Search of Excellence, Harper & Row.
(Retrospective reviews in (2002) Academy of Management Executive, Vol.16 No.1,
pp.38-56.)
 Rosenzweig, P. (2007) Misunderstanding the nature of company performance: the
Halo Effect and other business delusions, California Management Review, Vol.49 No.4,
pp.6-20.
 Waterman, Jr, R. H., Peters, T. J., & Phillips, J. R. (1980) Structure is not organization.
Business Horizons, Vol.23 No.3, pp.14-26.

Topic: Strategic Leadership

Management and leadership


Examples of strategic leadership in practice
Managing shared vision & learning
Strategic leadership in dynamic environments
Top management teams

References
 (DSR) - Ch. 6
 (LMQG)- Ch. 2 (2.1 Mintzberg – ‘The Manager’s Job’; 2.3 Wrapp – ‘Good Managers Do
Not Make Policy Decisions’; 2.4 Senge – ‘The Leader’s New Work: Building Learning
 Organizations’); Ch. 12 (12.2 - Selznick ‘Leadership in Administration’)
 Ancona, D., Malone, T. W., Orlikowski, W. J. & Senge, P. (2007) In praise of the
incomplete leader, Harvard Business Review, Vol.85 No.2, pp.92-100.
 Collins, J. (2001) Level 5 Leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve, Harvard
Business Review, Vol.79 No.1, pp.66-76.
 Goleman, D. (2000) Leadership that gets results, Harvard Business Review, Vol.78 No.2,
pp.78-93.

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 Ireland, R. D. & Hitt, M. A. (2005) Achieving and maintaining strategic competitiveness
in the 21st century: The role of strategic leadership, Academy of Management Executive,
Vol.19, 4, 63-77. (reprinted - original 1999, AME, Vol.13 No.1, pp.43-57.
 Kotter, J. P. (1988) The Leadership Factor, The Free Press.
 Kotter, J. P. (2007) Leading Change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business
Review, January, 85, 1: 96-103. (reprinted – original 1995, HBR, Vol.73 No.2, pp.59-67).
 Kotter, J. P. & Schlesinger, J. A. (2008) Choosing strategies for change, Harvard Business
Review, 86, 7/8: 130-139. (reprinted – original 1979, Vol.57 No.2, pp.106-114).
 Lewis, M., Andriopoulos, C. & Smith, W. (2014) Paradoxical leadership to enable strategic
agility, California Management Review, Vol.56, 3, pp.58-77.
 Mayo, A. & Nohria, N. (2005) Zeitgeist leadership, Harvard Business Review, Vol.83
No.10, pp.4560.
 Miles, S. A., & Watkins, M. D. (2007) The leadership team. Harvard Business Review,
Vol.85 No.4, pp.90-98.

Topic: Strategic Change

Triggers for change


The successful pattern - radical or incremental change?
Change as crisis
Incremental change
Changing Asda & strategic renewal

References
 (DSR) - Ch. 6
 (LMQG) - Ch. 6 (6.2 Tushman, Newman & Romanelli – ‘Convergence and Upheaval:
 Managing the Unsteady Pace of Organisational Evolution’; 6.3 Quinn & Voyer – ‘Logical
Incrementalism: Managing Strategy Formation’)
 Agarwal, R. & Helfat, C. (2009) Strategic renewal of organizations, Organization Science,
Vol.20 No.2, pp.281-293.
 Balogun, J., Hope-Hailey, V., & Gustafsson, S. (2016) Exploring Strategic Change, 4th
Edition, Pearson Education.
 Balogun, J. (2006) Managing Change: Steering a course between intended strategies and
unanticipated outcomes, Long Range Planning, Vol.39 No.1, pp.29-49.
 Beer, M. & Nohria, N. (2000) Cracking the Code of Change, Harvard Business Review,
Vol.78 No.3, pp.133-141.
 Dunphy, D. & Stace, D. (1993) The strategic management of corporate change, Human
Relations, Vol.46 No.8, pp.905-920.
 Hope Hailey, V. & Balogun, J. (2002) Devising Context Sensitive Approaches to Change:
The example of Glaxo Wellcome, Long Range Planning, Vol.35, pp.153-178.
 Kotter, J. P. (2007) Leading Change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business
Review, 85, 1: 96-103. (reprinted – original 1995, HBR, Vol.73 No.2, pp.59-67.
 Kotter, J. P. (1996) Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press.
 Pettigrew, A. M. (1987). Context and action in the transformation of the firm. Journal of
Management Studies, Vol.24, No.6, pp.649–670.
 Pettigrew, A. & Whipp, R. (1991) Managing Change for Competitive Success, Blackwell.

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Topic: Stakeholder Management

Stakeholder management
Stakeholders, strategic management, and competitive advantage
Strategy narratives
Strategy, purpose & responsibility
Sustainable strategy, sustainable leadership and stakeholders

References
 (DSR) - Ch.7
 (LMQG) - Ch. 12 (12.1 Gustafsson ‘New Values, Morality and Strategic Ethics’; 12.3
Ghoshal, Bartlett & Moran ‘A New Manifesto for Management’)
 Barnett, M. L. & Salomon, ft. M. (2012) Does it pay to be really good? Addressing the
shape of the relationship between social and financial performance, Strategic
Management Journal, Vol.33 No.11, pp.1304-1320.
 Freeman, ft. E. (1984) Strategic Management: A stakeholder approach, Pitman.
 Freeman, ft. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Parmar, B. L., De Colle, S. (2010)
Stakeholder Theory: The state of the art, Cambridge University Press.
 McWilliams, A. & Siegel, D. S. (2011) Creating and capturing value: Strategic corporate
social responsibility, resource-based theory and sustainable competitive advantage,
Journal of Management, Vol.37, No.5, pp.1480-1495.
 Polman, P. (2012) Captain Planet, Harvard Business Review, Vol.90 No.6, pp.112-118.
 Porter, M. E. & Kramer, M. ft. (2006) Strategy & Society: The Link between competitive
advantage and corporate social responsibility, Harvard Business Review, Vol.84 No.12,
pp.78-92.
 Porter, M. E. & Kramer, M. ft. (2011) Creating shared value, Harvard Business Review,
Vol.89 No.1/2, pp.62-77.
 Starkey, K. & Crane, A. (2003) Towards green narrative: Management and the
evolutionary epic, Academy of Management Review, Vol.28, pp.220-237.
 Stead, W. & Stead, J. (2004) Sustainable Strategic Management, M. E. Sharpe.

Final Lecture: Summary and revision

Good exam answers will introduce evidence, examples and arguments that require reading
beyond the lecture notes about the topics concerned. Therefore, those aiming for 1 st or 2i
marks are strongly advised to consult the reading list detailed for each lecture.

You are also encouraged to explore other texts and articles. For example, the following
journals provide useful sources: Harvard Business Review, Strategic Management Journal,
Academy of Management Perspectives, California Management Review and Sloan
Management Review.

The Financial Times, The Economist, Fortune, Management Today and the business sections
of quality newspapers are also good sources of information.

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MyNottingham Terminology

The University of Nottingham is introducing a new student records system across its campuses in the UK, Malaysia
and China. Students will access the new system through a web portal called MyNottingham.
MyNottingham will introduce some new terminology that you will need to understand and become familiar with.
The guide below has been developed to help prepare you for this change. You will receive more information about
MyNottingham and what this means for you before we launch the system to UK students.

MyNottingham Current Definition Examples


Language Language
Academic Plan Course or An approved plan of study that BSc (Hons) Management; MSc
Programme of provides a coherent learning Accounting and Finance.
Study experience and leads to a
qualification.
Accommodation Reasonable Learning adjustments for a student’s Alternative examination
adjustment particular circumstances (not a arrangements.
reference to living accommodation).
Advisee Tutee/ A student receiving advice from a N/A.
Student tutor, supervisor or advisor.
Career No direct Qualification level. Undergraduate, Postgraduate.
equivalent
Class No direct An umbrella term for specific units of Lectures, seminars or labs.
equivalent teaching.
Course Module A self-contained, formally-structured Applied Ethics, Advanced
unit of study, with a coherent and Financial Economics,
explicit set of learning outcomes and Biochemistry of Disease, Public
assessment criteria. Health and Epidemiology.
eDocs No direct Electronic document repository for Evidence in support of an
equivalent documents that are uploaded and extenuating circumstances
attached to a student record claim etc.
Financial Aid No direct An umbrella term for any Core bursaries, Aspire
equivalent scholarships, stipends or other scholarships, industry
funding awards given to students. scholarships etc.
Session No direct A specific teaching period, usually one Autumn Semester, Spring Term
equivalent semester but other defined teaching etc.
periods may exist.
Term Academic Year A defined period of time, refers to the September 2020 to August
academic year, which runs from 2021.
September to August.

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