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October 7, 2008

Solutions for Electrical Traction


Motor Drive
FA101
Roman Filka
Systems and Applications Engineer
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Session Content

►Hybrid EV powertrain
• Typical hybrid system
• Driving hybrid – driving modes

►Freescale MCU solutions


• Centralized (multi-axis) control
• Distributed (single-axis) control

►Electric motor control


• 3-phase motor control
• Achieving Deterministic and Precise Control

►Freescale application solutions


• Sensorless PM AC motor control

►Motor control on Freescale Web site

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Please Ask Questions
?
► Do you have something in mind?

► Do I need to be more clear?

► Do not hesitate to interrupt.

► Do not hesitate to ask.

► This session is long!

► Ask when you have a question in mind.

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Typical Hybrid System

Battery

Generator
Power circuit
Power split
device
Inverter

Engine Motor
• High efficiency gas engine
• Planetary gear power split device
AC synchronous generator
• High voltage AC-DC inverter
• Nickel-metal hydride battery
• Permanent magnet AC motor
Drive wheels

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Typical Hybrid System

Battery
• High efficiency gas engine
Power • Planetary gear power split
circuit device AC synchronous
Generator generator
• High voltage AC-DC inverter
Power
split Inverter • Nickel-metal hydride battery
device • Permanent magnet AC motor

Engine
Motor

Drive Wheels Drive power


Reduction Electric power
gear

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Hybrid Powertrain Roadmap

Parallel Hybrids
Full Electric Drive

Engine Assist
Hybrid Functions

Regenerative Braking

Engine Start/Stop
Micro Mild Full Series
Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid

2-10k 10-20k 20-80k 80-110k


12-42V 42-100V 100-300V 300-600V

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Driving Hybrid

Source: TOYOTA, Hybrid Synergy Drive, Information Portal

Hybrid strength
► Regenerative Braking. The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain causing the wheels to slow down. In return,
the energy from the wheels turns the motor, which functions as a generator, converting energy normally wasted during coasting
and braking into electricity, which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor.
► Electric Motor Drive/Assist. The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in accelerating, passing, or
hill climbing. This allows a smaller, more efficient engine to be used. In some vehicles, the motor alone provides power for low-
speed driving conditions where internal combustion engines are least efficient.

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Hybrid Driving Modes

Battery Battery Battery

Power Power Power


circuit circuit circuit

Generator Generator Generator


Power Power Power
split Inverter split Inverter split Inverter
device device device

Engine Engine Engine


Motor Motor Motor

Drive Wheels Drive Wheels Drive Wheels


Reduction Reduction Reduction
gear gear gear

Low Speed Normal Driving Sudden Acceleration

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Hybrid Driving Modes

Battery Battery

Power Power
circuit circuit

Generator Generator
Power Power
split Inverter split Inverter
device device

Engine Engine
Motor Motor

Drive Wheels Drive Wheels


Reduction Reduction
gear gear

Battery Charging Regeneration

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Hybrid Vehicle
Traction Motor
Field Oriented Control
AC Induction Motor
Sensorless control Battery Management
Charging mgmnt
(DC/DC conversion control)
Lifetime monitoring

Engine Control
Knock Detect (FFT)
Control of Engine

Generator / Starter
Field Oriented Control
Supervisor
Energy Flow
management

Source: www.ford.com

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Problem Statements

► Complex distributed system


• There is one MCU dedicated to synchronization of multiple controllers including the
transmission controller
• High bandwidth communication availability (5 ms response window)

► Motor control
• Precise, fast and deterministic control timing
• CPU bandwidth limitation which pushes the solution to one micro per motor
controlled; high bandwidth is emphasized more than memory. This may cause the
need for a horsepower part with low memory requirements.
• Need optimized and flexible PWM output control for 3-phase motor control linked
with fast and effective analogue acquisition

► System costs
• Multiple controllers and sensors
• Microprocessor needed for DC/DC converter also needed for control of voltage
conversion

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Freescale MCU Solution

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Freescale 32-bit MCU Solutions — Agenda

►Centralized (Multi-axis) Control


• System concept based on devices with eTPU
• What is an eTPU?
• eTPU operation in motor control application
• eTPU performance in motor control application

►Distributed (Single axis) Control


• Introduction of 32-bit MCU dedicated to motor control
• Motor control peripherals
– PWM — unique all edge control
– Timer
– ADC
– Cross triggering unit (CTU) – unique way to offload CPU

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Centralized Control

► Centralized control can be based on the powerful CPU supported by the motor
control “co-processors”, called eTPU.

Battery

Power
circuit

ECU

MCU
Generator eTPU
Inverter
CPU

eTPU
Motor MCU

Engine

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What is an eTPU?

The enhanced time processor unit is a programmable I/O controller with its own
core and memory system, allowing it to perform complex timing and I/O
management independently of the CPU.
The eTPU is essentially a microcontroller all by itself! – motor control coprocessor
Host Interface Timer Channels
Scheduler
System Control Service request Channel 0
Configuration Channel 1
Channel TCR1 Channel 2

Channel
IPI
Control TCR2 /
Angle clock
Development
and Test Micro-engine
Control
Data Memory Fetch and Control and data
(up to 8k) Data Decode

Execution Unit
Code Memory Code
IPI (up to 64k) MDU Channel 31

Debug Interface Debug

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Centralized Control—System Concept
► eTPU drives a motor independently of the CPU
► eQADC (triggered by eTPU) samples analog quantities
► eDMA transfers data between eQADC and eTPU
► CPU only sets required quantity value (speed or torque)
► CPU can handle higher level tasks
CPU eQADC Hardware
two parallel
DC-Bus Voltage
DC-Bus
12-bit Phase Currents
conversions

eDMA
eTPU
enable/disable PWM Signals
User Interface

PWM signals
Application Power Motor
Stage
State Motor
Machine Drive Sensor Signals

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eTPU Operation

CPU eTPU ACIMVC u_dc_bus


Hardware
i_q_requiredDC-bus voltage
BC
u_q_lin DC-Bus

DC-Bus Ripple
PI u_d u_alpha alpha

Inverse Park

Elimination
Break

Transform
Limitation
i_d_required

Circle
Decoupling
DC-bus voltage u_d_lin
phase_a_current
PI
u_q u_beta beta
phase_b_current ASAC
i_q ADC
phase_c_current i_d Trigger
omega_field

cos
sin
required duty-cycles
alpha
torque PMSMVC beta PWMMAC PWMF Motor
/ACIMVC
Inverter
omega_actual

required actual u_alpha


torque speed u_beta
sin psi_r_alpha

Model
required position counter i_alpha i_a

Flux
Establishment

Transform
cos psi_r_beta
speed QD i_beta

Clarke
SC i_b
position difference omega_field Shaft
i_c

DQ
& time difference i_d i_alpha Encoder
QD_Index
i_q i_beta

► PWM signals generation ► PMSM/ACIMVC vector control loop


► Shaft encoder signals processing ► Speed-closed loop control
► eQADC trigger signal generation ► DC-bus break signal generation

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Applications based on Motor Control eTPU Library

Motor Control Functions work together to drive the following motors:


DC Motors AC Motors
DC Open Loop ACIM V/Hz Open Loop with Sine Wave Drive
DC Speed Loop with HD ACIM V/Hz Open Loop with SVM Drive

DC Speed & Current Loop ACIM V/Hz Speed Loop with Sine Wave Drive

BLCD with HD Open Loop ACIM V/Hz Speed Loop with SVM Drive
BLDC with HD Speed Loop ACIM Torque Vector Control
BLDC with HD Speed & Current Loop ACIM Speed Vector Control
BLDC with QD Open Loop PMSM Torque Vector Control
BLDC with QD Speed Loop PMSM Speed Vector Control
BLDC with QD Speed & Current Loop Stepper Motors

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eTPU Performance

PMSM Vector Control ACIM Vector Control


MCF5235 (simplified) MPC5553/4 MPC5553/4
CPU/eTPU Clock 150 MHz/75 MHz 128 MHz 128 MHz
eTPU Engine Time Load
average 68.7% @ 10 RPM 45.6% @ 10 RPM 53.1% @ 10 RPM
76.8% @ 1000 RPM 49.9% @ 1000 RPM 61.8% @ 1000 RPM
peak 78.6% @ 10 RPM 50.3% @ 10 RPM 58.8% @ 10 RPM
84.8% @ 10000 RPM 54.6% @ 1000 RPM 67.5% @ 1000 RPM
eTPU Memory Usage
Code RAM 6088 bytes 7508 bytes 8212 bytes
Data RAM 1024 bytes 1000 bytes 1072 bytes

Application Parameters
PWM frequency: 20 kHz
Vector control update frequency: 20 kHz
Speed controller update frequency: 1 kHz
Shaft Encoder - increments per revolution: 4096

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Where Can I Learn More?

eTPU Product Summary Web Page


http://www.freescale.com/etpu

► eTPU Function Library and API


► eTPU Applications and Demonstrations
► eTPU Libraries Installation and Integration Guide
► eTPU Graphical Configuration Tool
► Links eTPU Compiler and Simulator Tools
► Link to eTPU VirtuaLab — Web interface to live demo
► Information on Trainings and Courses
► eTPU Documentation

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Distributed Control

► Distributed control is based on micro-controllers with dedicated motor control


peripherals such as 6-ch. PWM, position sensor decoders, etc.

Battery

Power
circuit
ECU

MCU1
FlexRay
CAN
Generator
Inverter MCU2

PWM
MCU1
Motor CPU
Timer

Engine ADC MCU

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MPC5604P
(Execution)
Power Architecture® Core
System Crossbar Masters Debug • Up to 64 MHz e200 zen0h core
Integration
JTAG
e200 Memory
VReg Core •512 KB Program Flash with ECC
Nexus
•4 x 16 KB DataFlash® with ECC
Osc/PLL •40 KB SRAM with ECC

FlexRay™ I/O
Interrupt eDMA VLE Controller •1 x High speed FlexCAN with 32 Message Buffers (MB)
Controller
•1 x Safety port (can be used as additional FlexCAN – 32 MB)
•1 x FlexRay Dual Channel with 32 MB
•2 x LinFlex
CROSSBAR SWITCH •4 x DSPI (4 independent chip selects each)
•1 x FlexPWM (4 channels with 4 fault inputs)
•1 x eTimer (6 channels incl. quad decode)
•1 x eTimer (6 channels for general purpose)
I/O •2 x ADC
Bridge DATA •2 x 12 ch.(4 shared channels), 10-bit, conversion time
PROGRAM SRAM 700 nsec ( 2x 6 ch., 4shared on 100-pin package)
Flash
Flash •1 x CTU triggering unit: 8 events
Boot Assist
Crossbar Slaves Module (BAM)
System
•2 x PLL (one FM-PLL, one for FlexRay™)
•16-ch. eDMA
Communications
•Fault collection unit
I/O System
•16 MHz internal RC OSC
eFlexCAN

FlexPWM
4 x DSPI
LINFlex
eTimer

Safety

•Junction temperature sensor


CTU

ADC
1

2
2

•JTAG (2 pin or 5 pin) / Nexus Class 2+


•3.3V single supply (5V mask option) with external ballast
transistor
•100- and 144-pin thin quad flat pack (TQFP)

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Key Highlights
► Feature set specifically addressing electric motor control applications
• Timer resolution and functions
• PWM channel number and function
• ADC
► Safety focus
• Peripheral protection through access control
• Core test capability
• Flash and SRAM memories have error code correction ( ECC )
• FlexRay™ networking
► Software ecosystem
• Model based tools development
• AUTOSAR
• Optimized libraries for motor control and signal processing
► Zen 32-bit Power Architecture covers a complete range of performance and
cost
• easy migration as requirements grow
• Signal processing engine (on Z3 and above) for fast signal processing
► Proven eSys architecture used in most of the world’s powertrain control
products

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MPC560xP Functional Safety Highlights
Power Architecture® Core:
• Core self test planned

Vreg
• Spreads power losses over PCB
Fault Collection Unit Nexus
PowerPC™ FMPL
JTAG
IEEE -ISTO • Allows high temp operation
• Detects when errors have
C - JTAG

Interrupt e200z0 5001-2003

occurred and the source and Controller


Vreg
4-40 MHz RC OSC
sets a flag X -OSC
3.3 to 1.2V
Ext NPN • Provides seperate clock to
•Independant of software VLE
16 Ch. 16 MHz system watchdog
operation eDMA
FlexRay
RC-OSC

Crossbar Switch FlexRay Option


RAM • 2-channel w/32 MSG buffers,
• Provides ECC support in HW 10 Mbps
Boot Junction
• Offers higher safety than SW I/O
Bridge SIU 512K 40K
4+1 Ch.
PIT
Assist temp.
FLASH SRAM Module Sensor
signature at no speed constraint
EEE
Safety Port
• Allows CRC signed

Safety P.
I/F I/F

FlexCAN
communication to slave MCU
Timer

Timer

PWM
10bit 10bit

eSCI
eSCI

dSPI
dSPI
dSPI
Flash + Data Block S&H S&H

• Provides ECC for both


Mux Mux
(if needed)
program Flash and Data Flash • May be used as second CAN

There are many different features in MPC560xP that


introduce redundancy and enhance functional safety

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MC Peripherals System Diagram

MCU

CTU
eTimer
Timer/ Pos.
decoder compare

Trigger Generator
eTimer

Scheduler
(Pos Counter)
PWM
Triggers
ADC Cmd
Real

SHARED
ADC1

ADC2
flexPWM PWMs

ADC
PWM Trig & Ackw
Reload

Real External External


PWMs PWMs ADC Inputs
Signal Trigger

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Electric Motor Control Peripherals

Cross Triggering Unit MCU Timer Module:


• Allows mcTIM, PWM, ATD • DSC based
to be synchronized CTU
• Six Ch IC/OC
eTimer
• Automatic ADC & eTimer acquisitions Timer/ Pos. • Double buffered registers for
• No CPU intervention during the control decoder compare
detecting two edges in a row

Trigger Generator
eTimer
cycle

Scheduler
• eDMA supported
(Pos Counter)

PWM
Triggers • Integrated quad decoder support
flexPWM ADC Cmd
• 2 x BUS frequency Æ high resolution

SHARE
ADC

ADC
Real

2
D
PWM’s

PWM ADC
Reloa Trig & Ackw
d

Real PWM’s
2x ADC
External External
PWM’s
Signal Trigger ADC Inputs
• Up to 24channels, with 4 shared.
• 10-bit
FlexPWM • 700 nsec conversion time
• Based on DSC PWM PWM0 Ch0 • Limit checking & zero crossing detect
• Optimized for 3ph motor control PWM0 Ch1 M
• One „extra“ pair of PWM integrated 6
PWM1 Ch0
• Includes dead time insertion, fault channels,
Control

PWM1 Ch1
2 DC/DC
center/edge alignment, Distortion I/F I/F
correction, … PWM2 Ch0 10bit 10bit
PWM2 Ch1
• Register protections S&H S&H
• Double buffered registers PWM3 Ch0 MUX MUX
M
• eDMA supported PWM3 Ch1 8
• 2 x BUS frequency Æ high resolution 11 1 4 1 11

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Motor Control PWM Peripheral Module

Complementary Pairs ► Main Features


PWM Modes ► 4 Submodules, each with complementary PWM generation, Isense
PWM0 Ch0
auX IC/OC and fault input
PWM0 Ch1 ► 16 bits of resolution for center, edge aligned, and asymmetrical
PWMs
PWM1 Ch0
auX ► PWM outputs can operate as complimentary pairs or independent
PWM1 Ch1 channels
Control

► Independent control of both edges of each PWM output


PWM2 Ch0 ► Independently programmable PWM output polarity
auX
Faults PWM2 Ch1 Independent Channel ► Separate dead time for rising and falling edges
PWM Modes
► Each complementary pair can operate with its own PWM frequency
PWM3 Ch0 and deadtime values
auX
PWM3 Ch1 ► All outputs can be programmed to change simultaneously via a
"Force Out" event
CMP2 Double buffered PWM registers
Independent ►
CMP1 Integral reload rates from 1 to 16
Internal triggers Edge Control •
• Half cycle reload capability

► Safety
• Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, PMAC)
• Brushless DC motor (BLDC) ► Write protection for critical registers
• Brush DC motor (BDC) ► Fault inputs can be assigned to control multiple
• AC induction motor (ACIM) PWM outputs
• Switched reluctance motor (SRM)
• Variable reluctance motor (VRM) ► Programmable filters for fault inputs
• Stepper motors
• DC/DC converters

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Quasi-Centre Aligned PWM (Full Resolution) – Normal Polarity

4
Val0 3
ValOFF 0
ValON -3
INIT -4

PWM output Case A Case B Case C Case B Case A


0% 100% 62.5% 100% 0%

• Case A • Case B • Case C


• Duty cycle – 0% • Duty cycle – 100% • Duty cycle – <0%,100%>
ƒ General ƒ General ƒ General
– x% = 0% – x% =100% – x% = <0%,100%>
– ValON = 0 – ValON <= INIT – TMP = MOD/2 * x%
– ValOFF = 0 – ValOFF >= -(ValON) = -(INIT) > Val0 – ValON = -round(TMP
ƒ Example ƒ Example – ValOFF = truncate(TMP)
– MOD = 8 – MOD = 8 ƒ Example
– x% = 0 – x% = 100% – MOD = 8
– INIT = -4 – INIT = -4 – x% = 62.5%
– Val0 = INIT + MOD – 1 = -(INIT) -1 = 3 – Val0 = INIT + MOD – 1 = -(INIT) -1 = 3 – INIT = -4
– TMP = MOD/2 * x% = 0 – TMP = MOD/2 * x% = 4 – Val0 = INIT + MOD – 1 = -(INIT) -1 = 3
– ValON = -round(TMP) = 0 – ValON = -round(TMP) = -4 – TMP = MOD/2 * x% = 2.5
– ValOFF = truncate(TMP) = 0 – ValOFF = truncate(TMP) = 4 – ValON = -round(TMP) = -3
– ValOFF = truncate(TMP) = 2

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Other PWM Paterns — Example

►3-ph PWMs can be divided into:


• Standard – center aligned

• Two active vectors – left aligned


60° - 120° 120° - 180°

• Three active vectors – sequential

• Two active vectors – centered


60° - 120° 240° - 300°

• Three active vectors – center aligned


(double switching) 0° - 60° 60° - 120°

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Motor Control eTimer Peripheral Module
eTimer Channel
Peripheral Clock

PRESCALER Output
Prim.
OUTPUT
Input WD Count
Output Disable
Edge
UP/DN MUX OFLAG
Detect.
PRIMARY
MUX
SECONDARY
COUNTER COMP. COMP.
OTHER CTNTRS

Sec. CONTROL
TMRLOAD TMRHOLD CAPTURE CAPTURE TMRCMP1 TMRCMP2
Input
STATUS &
CONTROL
CAP Buf.1 CAP Buf.1 CMPLD1 CMPLD2

DMA IF
DATA BUS

► Main Features
► Six 16-bit general purpose up/down timer/counter per module ► Dual action capability per channel
• PWM measurement 0% to 100%
► Powerful multiplexer between external pins and internal signals for
external triggers ► Quadrature decoder
• rotor position
► Individual channel capability: • rotor zero speed detection (position watchdog)
• Input capture trigger
• Output compare ► ADC trigger can also trigger input capture for rotor position
• Many counting modes (gating; triggered; one-shot) measurement (ex: sin/cos sensor)
• Separate prescaler for each counter
• Selectable clock source ► Cascade able for higher precision (32 bits)
• Rotation direction flag (Quad decoder mode)

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eTimer — Encoder Interface Mode
Trigger/Clock
► The counter is clocked by each valid transition on IC 1 or IC 2
Controller
by incremental encoder output
Encoder trigger
► Depending on the sequence the counter counts, automatically, Interface

up or down
PRESCALER 16-BIT
► The Output of Encoder Interface can be connected to Encoder
Index to reset the counter on zero position detection Encoder
Index
► The timer can provide information on encoded position ARR
16 bit counter

► To obtain dynamic information (speed, acceleration,


deceleration) by measuring the periods between two encoder
events using a second timer
IC 1 Input Capture Output Compare

IC 2

forward jitter backward jitter forward


IC1
IC2

Counter

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Encoder Interface Mode — Safety

What happens when PHASE A is cut off ?

Incr.
Encoder
► Position WATCHDOG Timer/Counter

PHASE A ► Two successive counts indicate proper


operation and will reset the timer.

PHASE B ► The timeout value is programmable.


When a timeout occurs, an interrupt to
Normal the processor can be generated.
Operation
► This timer is separate from the watchdog timer
in the COP module.
+/-1
Position Operation at phase cut off
Counter +/-1 counts of the Position Counter do not reset
Watchdog timeout the Watchdog timer!

Pos. Watchdog The Watchdog can detect the encoder signal line
Int. Request cut off!
ISR

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Motor Control ADC Peripheral Module
ADC Unit

AIN0 ► Main Features


AIN1 Results
FIFOs ► 2 Independent units
• <=12channels on ADC1, <=12 channels on ADC2,
SAMPLE 10 bit
• 4 channels shared on ADC1 and ADC2
. ANALOG
& Convertor
. MUX
HOLD
ADC data
registers
► 4 shared signals for motor control acquisitions
3 for phase currents
►D0
. •
• 1 for other acquisitions
SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION A/D CONVERTER ►D1 ► 760 ns conversion time,
including 125 ns sampling time
AIN15
►.
► 10-bit resolution (+/- 2LSB; target +/-1,5LSB)
►.
AIN0
► Single sample and hold per ADC
►. END OF • Dual sample through ADC cross triggering
CONVERSIO
AIN1 N
►D14 END OF
► Separate sampling and conversion
INJECTION clock pre-scalers
. ANALOG
SAMPLE 10 bit ►D15 THRESHOLD
VIOLATION
MUX & Convertor
. INTERRUPTS
HOLD
. ►ADC_INTER
RUPTS
I/F I/F
SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION A/D CONVERTER►ADC_CONT 12bit 12bit
Trigger Event for ROL
AIN15 conversion S&H S&H
►Analog MUX MUX
Trigger event for
injected watchdog
conversion
10 4 10

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Motor Control Cross Triggering Unit

2 x CLK ► Main Features


► Two modes of operation:
• Sequential mode
Presc. CTU • Triggered mode
Trigger
► Schedule acquisition of the state
0..7
PWM reload variables (ADC, position counter, PWM
duty cycle decoder) with respect to PWM
PWM triggers Trigger
cycle
odd ADC
Command ► ADC commands stored in ADC lists
PWM triggers Bus
even ► Support for over-sampling
Trigger
Scheduler ► Triggers activate an ADC list
Real PWM’s/ Generator
IsenseX Subunit • ADC commands can be static
Subunit • Triggers are changed according to space
eTimer1 vector location
eTimer1
eTimer2/ eTimer2/ ► Trigger generation, ADC commands and
Master Reload
Pos. decoder Pos. decoder ADC lists are double-buffered
compare compare
External signal ► Manages both ADCs
External
trigger ► No real time involvement of CPU
► Compliant with ISO26262 for reduction of
CPU interrupts
► DMA support

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ADC Commands
► ADCs must be in CTU control mode
► 16 channels for each ADC (12 + 4 shared channels)
► Commands List of 24 commands
► Commands List registers are double-buffered
► Single conversion mode or dual conversion mode
► The result of each conversion, in both modes, can be stored in one
of the 4 FIFOs
► The interrupt request bit is used as an interrupt request to the CPU
when ADC will complete the command
► The commands in the list will allow to have control on:
• channel A number: number of ADC channel to sample from ADC unit A (4
bits)
• channel B number: number of ADC channel to sample from ADC unit B (4
bits)
Conversions only triggered by CTU • FIFO selection bits for the ADC unit A/B (2 bits)
• Conversion Mode selection bit
eTimer, • first command bit (only for CTU internal use)
FlexPWM • interrupt request bit

CTU ADC ► 1 trigger from CTU initiate an ADC command list; this command list
Channel
ch0
Conversion
Command ... can require several ADC acquisitions
chN
CPU/eDMA Result ...
FIFOs ch23

Memory

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Use Case for Cross Triggering Unit No.1

pwm a
pwm b
pwm c

DC-bus Calibration
t1 t2
current

t1’ t2’ Position

Calibration Position
DC bus voltage
DC bus voltage

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Use Case for Cross Triggering Unit No.2

Internal counter

Desired PWM
Overall delay: ~0.4 ÷ 6 us

Low pass filter delay + Topto: ~1us


Real feedback signal
at ADC pin

ADC Sample
ADC trigger
output event
Trigger advancement to
compensate ADC delays
ADC clock sync. ADC MUX selection S&H

ADC delays

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Motor Control Peripheral

► Freescale motor control peripherals are well suited to handle various


PWM patterns and ADC sampling schemes including very complex
ones.
► Effective and versatile cycle-by-cycle control is possible while
keeping SW driver load at minimum.
► Cross triggering unit (CTU) allows for two modes of operation
(relative trigger timing to PWM cycle or to PWM edges); thus, you
can select the most static mode with minimum CPU or SW load.
► In case of static pattern (e.g., PWM type, CTU trigger timing, ADC
sampling scheme) whole operation is fully automatic with zero CPU
or SW involvement.

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In Summary
► Power Architecture upward compatible roadmap
• Scalable performance Z0 to Z7

► Reliable supply
• Dual source — Single architecture, separate manufacturing and distribution
• Competitive sales and support

► Strong electric motor control


• Timer resolution and functions
• PWM channel number and function
• ADC

► Next Geneneration safety approach


• Core fault detection Lockstep and core self test
• Peripheral protection through access control
• Flash and SRAM memories have error code correction ( ECC )
• FlexRay™ communications networking

► Software ecosystem
• Model based tools development
• AUTOSAR
• Optimized libraries for motor control and signal processing

► Proven eSys Aachitecture used in most of the world’s powertrain


control products

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AC Motor Control

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Inverter Topology
►Typical representation with six switch configuration

Gate B
Motor
Driver
C
with Isolation

Current Position Feedback


Feedback Resolver or
Encoder Type

ECU

Typical circuit configuration used to control a 3-ph motor are the inverter is shown. Six power-
MOSFET or insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switches are used in the inverter.

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Fast and Precise Control — FOC

Inner Loop (faster) ~100μs

Outer Loop (slower) ~ 1-5ms

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Torque Production Principle

► Electromagnetic torque production by the stator magnetic flux and magnet flux
space vectors

Te = c ⋅ ΨR × ΨS = c ⋅ ΨR × ΨS ⋅ sin γ

max(Te ) → γ = 90°

γ γ
γ

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DC Motor Principle

► The stator of a permanent magnet DC motor is composed of two or more


permanent magnet pole pieces.
► The rotor is composed of windings connected to a mechanical commutator, which
mechanically ensures the angle between wire current and magnetic field ~ 90°.

nt
rre
cu

motion

S
N
nt
rre
cu

rotation commutator

“Mechanical” FOC

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Creation of Rotating Magnetic Field

► The space-vectors can be defined for all motor quantities.


j120o j 240o
is = i A e + i B e j0
+ iC e
B

3-ph currents/MMF

A B C
1

A
0

is
-1
π 2π

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Transformation to 2-ph Stationary Frame
3-ph currents/MMF

A B C
is = i αe j 0 + iβ e j90
o
1

β 3-ph quantities

-1
π 2π

α
α β
1.5
is
Stationary
2-ph quantities
0

-1.5
π 2π

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Transformation to 2-ph Synchronous Frame

► Position and amplitude of the stator flux/current vector is fully controlled by two DC
values α β
1

β Stationary
2-ph quantities
0

-1
π 2π

α
id
d q
iq 1
is
Rotating
2-ph quantities
0

-1
π 2π

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Transformation to 2-ph Synchronous Frame

► Position and amplitude of the stator flux/current vector is fully controlled by two DC
values α β
1

β Stationary
2ph quantities
0

-1
π 2π

α d q
iq 1
is
Rotating
2ph quantities
0

-1
π 2π

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FOC Transformation Sequencing

Phase A α d d α Phase A

Process
Control
3-Phase Stationary Rotating
Phase B Phase B
Phase C
to
2-Phase
β to
Rotating
q q to
Stationary
β SVM Phase C

3-Phase 2-Phase 3-Phase


System System System
From
Frommeasurement
measurement ??
AC DC AC

Stationary Reference Frame Rotating Reference Frame Stationary Reference Frame

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Deterministic Control
► Sample the A/D on at least 2 of the phase currents simultaneously and read motor position.
► The A/D sample is performed on the same point during the PWM cycle
(ex. midpoint of off time).
Mid-Point of
PWM Off Time
PWM
Period
(50 us)

Motor Control (FOC)


Read Motor Position Time (~10us)

Motor
Control
(50 us)

A/D Conversion of A/D Conversion always


Motor Currents (~1us) done at same point of
profile
Current Ripple
Profile
Max 0.5 us delay
b/t successive A/D
sample 50us

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A/D Converter-PWM Synchronization Benefits
► ADC sampling helps to filtering the measured current – anti-aliasing
► Noise free ADC sampling when the power switch is not acting
► ADC sample is taken when shunt resistor signal (information) is available
Sampled and
Average Currents PWM Period

Phase Current

Shunt Resistor
Signals

PWM top
PWM Bottom

A/D

calc.

New PWM Parameters Calculation with Half-cycle Reload

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Freescale Application Solutions
Sensorless PM AC Motor Control

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Sensorless Control Basics

► What does it mean?


• Controlling of electric motors without position/speed sensors
• Utilizes motor phase voltage and current sensors
• Uses models and algorithms to estimate the state variables (e.g.,
speed, mag. flux, resistance …)
Supply

Position/speed
sensor

Ib C enter
Con tr ol
D av e’ s
M

M ot oro la

Ic

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Electric Motor Type Classification

ELECTRIC MOTORS

AC DC

ASYNCHRONOUS SYNCHRONOUS VARIABLE RELUCTANCE

Induction Sinusoidal Brushless Reluctance SR Stepper

Permanent Magnet
• Stator same
Surface PM • Difference in rotor construction

Interior PM If properly controlled


• Provides constant torque
Wound Field • Low torque ripple

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Sensorless Control of PM Motors

►Classifications of Used Sensorless Algorithms


• Utilization of Magnetic Saliency
ƒ rotor position detected by tracking magnetic saliency
ƒ carrier signal superimposed to main voltage excitation
• Calculating an Appropriate Motor Model
ƒ proper motor parameters, voltage & current required
ƒ issue at zero and low speed estimation
– measured current low, distortion by inverter non-idealities
– parameter deviation becomes significant with lowering speed
• Combination of two sensorless algorithms
ƒ covering the entire speed range

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IPMSM Saliency Identification

►HF Impedance Measurement


• Verification of motor magnetic saliency at higher
frequencies under varying load conditions
Salient
Salient Pole
Pole Motor
Motor
• D-Q axis impedance difference gets smaller
with increased load and might eventually be
zero causing failure of sensorless algorithm
– This is caused by saturation of q-axis inductance with
increased load.

►Armature Reaction Effect


• Increasing load generates stronger armature
reaction

• The motor armature reaction shifts the resulting


Saliency
Saliency shift
shift due
due to
to
magnetic saliency towards the direction of q-
Decreased
Decreased Saliency
Saliency armature reaction
armature reaction axis

50V @500Hz

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Saliency Tracking Observer for Low Speeds
∧ Vm ΔZ ►Adding additional signal into rotating
iq = − sin (2θ err ) coordinates excites the motor at low and
2ωhf Z d Z q zero speed and makes the magnetic
saliency signature visible.
PI regulator results in
►Signal frequency chosen sufficiently
steady state error high so no to interfere with base motor
value servoing to zero! operating frequency.
► Signal amplitude chosen such that the
hf currents generated by this signal are
measurable with sufficient accuracy.
►If the two frames are misaligned, a
high frequency signal injected in
estimated d-axis will also be coupled
into estimated q-axis and hf current
response will be generated in estimated
q-axis.
q axi
qa

s
xis

t)
(es
(es

xis
θ actual
t)

da

θerr
is
d ax

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Initial Axis Alignment
►PM polarity detection starts after initial
axis alignment
►STO settling time varies depending on
whether the STO stabilizing trajectory
starts in an unstable region or not

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PM Polarity Detection Principle
►Utilizing the effect of stator slot
saturation in direction of the rotor flux
►hf carrier voltage signal injected into
d-axis
►Amplitude of the exciting hf signal
must be sufficiently large to cause
visible
►Depending on PM flux direction,
one half of the hf signal period
creates flux that adds up with PM flux
whereas the other half acts against
PM flux.
►Signal visible at second harmonic of
Measured Ld = f(id) hf carrier

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PM Polarity Detection Experiments

without PM polarity detection with PM polarity detection

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Sensorless Control of PM Motors

►Classifications of Used Sensorless Algorithms


• Utilization of Magnetic Saliency
ƒ rotor position detected by tracking magnetic saliency
ƒ carrier signal superimposed to main voltage excitation
• Calculating an Appropriate Motor Model
ƒ proper motor parameters, voltage & current required
ƒ issue at zero and low speed estimation
– measured current low, distortion by inverter non-idealities
– parameter deviation becomes significant with lowering speed
• Combination of two sensorless algorithms
ƒ covering the entire speed range

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Sinusoidal PM Motor Model in DQ Rotating Frame

►Salient vs. Non-Salient Machine Model in DQ rotating frame


ƒ Stator Voltage Equations
⎡usd ⎤ ⎡ Rs 0 ⎤ ⎡isα ⎤ ⎡ s ωre ⎤ ⎡ψ sd ⎤ d
⎢u ⎥ = ⎢ ⋅⎢ ⎥ + ⋅⎢ ⎥ s
⎣ sq ⎦ ⎣ 0 Rs ⎥⎦ ⎣is β ⎦ ⎢⎣ −ωre s ⎥⎦ ⎣ψ sq ⎦ dt
ƒ Stator Flux Linkages of Non-Salient Machine
⎡ψ sd ⎤ ⎡ Ls 0 ⎤ ⎡isd ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
⎢ψ ⎥ = ⎢ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ + ψ PM ⋅⎢ ⎥
Ls ⎥⎦ ⎣ isq ⎦
Direct & Quadrature Inductance
⎣ sq ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎣0 ⎦ Not Equal
ƒ Stator Flux Linkages of Salient Machine
⎡ψ sd ⎤ ⎡ Ld 0 ⎤ ⎡isd ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
⎢ψ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⋅ + ψ PM ⋅⎢ ⎥ Ld ≠ Lq
⎣ sq ⎦ ⎣ Lq ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ isq ⎥⎦ ⎣0⎦
ƒ L the average inductance & ΔL the zero-to-peak differential inductance
Ld + Lq Ld − Lq
L= ΔL =
2 2

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Saliency Based Back-EMF Observer
► Saliency based back-EMF voltage is generated
due to Ld≠Lq

► Because back-EMF term is not modeled,


observer actually acts as a back-EMF state filter

► Observer is designed in synchronous reference


frame, i.e. all observer quantities are DC in
steady state making the observer accuracy
independent of rotor speed.

dL dλ dθ dλ
causes , which when combined with , causes = voltage
dθ dθ dt dt

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Position Estimation Using Saliency Based Back-EMF

Position estimation steady state error at constant speed

Position estimation steady state error during speed ramp change

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Sensorless Control of PM Motors

►Classifications of Used Sensorless Algorithms


• Utilization of Magnetic Saliency
ƒ rotor position detected by tracking magnetic saliency
ƒ carrier signal superimposed to main voltage excitation
• Calculating an Appropriate Motor Model
ƒ proper motor parameters, voltage & current required
ƒ issue at zero and low speed estimation
– measured current low, distortion by inverter non-idealities
– parameter deviation becomes significant with lowering speed
• Combination of two sensorless algorithms
ƒ covering the entire speed range

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Full Speed Sensorless Control Operation

Accurate at low speeds ► Full Operation Speed Range


covered by two dedicated
algorithms

► Crossover Merging
Algorithm - based on FUZZY
logic merges the two
algorithm outputs into a single
position/speed estimation.

► Sensorless Algorithms
► Initial Position Detection
• avoids conventional alignment

► Low Speed Algorithm


Accurate at high speeds • Saliency Tracking Observer

► High Speed Algorithm


• State Filter Observer

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IPMSM Speed Sensorless FOC

Speed control loop PWM


generation

Current control loop

Position estimation

Speed estimation

Software Portion Hardware Portion

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Low Speed Operation

30 [rpm] reversal

15 [ ° ] el. degree error = 1.5 [ ° ] mech. degree error

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Entire Speed Operation — Speed Profile

High-Speed Operation Low-Speed Operation

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Full Speed Sensorless Experimental Results

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Entire Speed Operation — Reversal Detail

HF signal injection based


sensorless control
Transition to full EEMF
observer control

HF injection OFF

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Motor Control on Freescale Web site
Reference designs, application notes, …

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Freescale Motor Control Web Pages
www.freescale.com/motorcontrol

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Session Material
Session Location – Online Literature Library
http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/homepage.jsp?nodeId=052577903644CB

Demos
Pedestal ID Demo Title

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