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OCHO YAOKECBEH HO OHCIOy_IQDBSHUA Alonyweno Munncreperaom auicwero » cpearero cneynansnoro o6pazos: yue6nnix sanenen 26 W3AAHHE, NEPEPABOTAHHOE AONOMHEHHOE Kues TOROBHOE H3AATENBCTBO W3MATEMGCKOFO OSBEAWHEHH sBOLLLA LIKONA® 1968 BBK 30.1828723 B67 YAK 7:621(075.3) Peyensenr sacnymentnik aenrens nexyccra YCCP, AoueHT Kaeapel KoMNoMuKH H, A. CropomenKe (Knescnni rocygapcraennnit xyaomectBeHHnii MHCTHTYT) Penaxuna nureparypsi no MauMocrponrenbHomy KOMNNEKCY Penaxtop E. B. Anexcemuyx Bonkorpy6 M. T. B67 Ochosu xyAomectsennoro KoHcrpynposanna: Yue6unk ana xy- om, yue6. sapenenni.— 2-e naa., nepepas. 4 gon.— K. : Bea wi. Tonostoe 139-80, 1988.— 191 c., 104 nn.— Bu6nnorp.: 43 Haas. ISBN 5—11—000296—7. Aaru caenenns 0 22pomaenun m paasntan xyAOmectBeHHoro KoNeTPyMpoBaHys, 06 sBomiounn opm NPOMBILINEHHBIX HIACNHA, OCHOBHBIX CPeACTBAX KOMNOSHUMA, Ka- TeropHnk KOMNOSMUMM 8 NPHPORE H TexHHKe. [pHBeAeHBI: NPMHUNNI MOAENHPOBAAR, matepwanbl # HHCTPYMEHTHI, NPHMEHREMBIE 8 NPOUECCE MOAENAPOBAHHS, HCNONIOBa- we aera @ TeXHHUeCKOM TROPYECTE, METOAWKA HIYNEHMR KAPAKTEPHCTHKH Bera HA APMPOAHHIX aHanorax, EHOHHKA H ee aHaweHMe B XYAOMECTBEHHOM KOHCTPYAPOBAHKK, MMeTOAMKA Pa6OTH! HAA XYAOKECTBEHHO-KONCTPYKTOPCKHM NPOEKTOM, Bropoe WaAanne AONONHeHO HOBbIMM TKCTOBLIMM H KAMOCTPAUMONNBIMH mare pranamn, Ocsew\exsi BonPOCeI PrOHOMHKH, MeTOAHKA PaGOTe! HAA AWTOMHKIM NPO~ 2KTOM, OcHOBHHIe GOpMb! AHIAHHA, CNEUMDHKA AHIAMEPCKOTO MAILINEHHR. Ann ywaunxca cpeaunx cneynansubix yuebuuix sasenennh. Kunra moner Grit noneana cryAeHTam xYAOMECTREHHLIX H TEXHAYECKHX BY308, NPenoAaBaTenaM WKOR, TexHuKymos, BY200, HHMeHEpam H apxHTeKTOpaM, 2190000000095 ye 3434988 BBK 30.1822723 M241(04)—88 © Manarensenoe o6veqnnenne «Bruja wKonan, 1982 © Manarenncnoe o6veannenne ISBN 5—11—000296—7 «Buia wKonam, 1988, ¢ HaMeHeHHAMH Ornaspnenne Mpeancnosne i 13. 1.5. 24 2.2, 23. Komnosnuns, ee 4 Kateropnn Patm — ocHopa KOMNOSHHOHMEIX NO- ‘erpoennit PAKTHYECKOE 3AQAHHE Ne 1 Buinontenne paTMuvecknx KoMnoaH\HA Pasnosecne TPAKTHMECKOE 3AMAHHE Ne 2 Flonck pasnosecns Annamnsnocts « cratHunocte opal MPAKTHHECKOE 3AAAHME Ne 3 Avanna amHamnunocT CTaTHMHoCTH opmet (asinonneHne KOMMOSKYMH Ha CoueTaHHe ARHAMMUNOCTH H CTATHM woctn) ChmmeTpHs 4 achmmeTpHs PAKTHMECKOE 3AMAHHE Ne 4 Bhinommenne KoMnoanunis MeTPHIO H ACHMMETPHIO H HK aHann3 3 5 Begone 7 (71 1. 3axcnomepnocrn w cpenetaa KomnosKynn OCHOBHLIe «BH ALI 1.6. MacwTa6 » macuta6HocTe 40 19 1:7. Mponopunn a 1.8. Koxrpact 44 a IPANTHUECKOE 3ARAHHE Ne 5 Oprannaauna nnocnoctn © NOMOLMO a Konmpactupyrouyn anemexroe ar 311.9%. 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Buinonvenwe KOM6nHaTOpHEIx 2ne- Mentos wa Bymarn, nnactanmna Kranca — 6t Derernweckas pons AeKopatnsHoro KOmBnHaTOpHoro anemenTa B HH= Tepsepe x >Kctepsepe 63 Kom6naropunie ynpaxnenns s oGreme 64 Kom6nnaropnele npHems 8 ausaine W apxntextype 66 Userosom moanc 88 @ynkuyns usera B npxpone Ey PAKTHMECKOE 3AMAHME Ne 9 Buinonnenne yperosuix Tabany, n Ornannenwe 4 Oo 4. Ws06pasntenbume cpegctsa nepeaaun cbaxtypys Matepuanoe 41. Obune ceeqenns 100 TIPAKTAYECKOE 3AAAHME Ne 12 ren Vmirauna nomen 110 eee an re 1 FIPAKTHHECKOE 3ARAHME Ne 13 Marana paKtype Rept Vmntauna AeKxopaTHsHon TKAHM 115 [RPAKTAMECKOE SAMAHME N11 PAKTHUECKOE 3ADAHME No 14 Hmnraunn nnactmacce! 110 mnrauna daxrypst xamner 118 [1 5. cragnn npoexrnporsnne npomsuinennux xsqenni 5.1. Merognxe pa6ore: nag xyaomecteeH- A ana CTpyKTypHo-xy AOMECTBEHMEIX HO-KONCTPYKTOPCKMM MPOKTOM 126 ceoficrs KOMNOSMUyH 2anaHHOH MpO- 5.2. Dprowomuuecknit avanna 128 Sciainea nent aepe 133 5.3. Xypomecraento-tonerpyxropew ana 5.4. Mpouece npoextaponanns 133, ai 132 5.5. Beinonwenne 2cxn208 134 PERRI Chor aan aL: 112) 5.6. Buinonvenwe npoexta Ha nnanwerax — 135 ‘Ananna ¥3A@nnn KaK snemenTa NpeA- 37, Mipoenmnan spapmna 136 meTHoi cpent [1]. c6semnoe npoexriposanne Obune ceegenna 139 MIPAKTHYECKOE 3A/AHHE No 19 Bras manera 140 Bunonuenne monenn 43 nenonnacra 152 ee eee TPAKTHHECKOE 3AMAHME No 20 TPAKTHYECKOE 3AMAHHE Ne 16 Buinonnenne mofenh 43 Repesa 153 TPAKTAMECKOE SAQAHME He 21 Buinontenwe monenn 4a nnacrununa 145 aenainieence Staaam aati Boinommenwe mofenk m3 oprcreKna Beinonnenne Mogenn Ha rnWHbl 4 rin 147 cee 153 a wrnnce 6.4. Tpyutet 154 IRPAKTANECKOE SAAAHME Ne 18 Bunonenne mogeneh a 6ymarn 4 Kaprona 148 ao. 7A, O6uwe caegennn 156 7.2. OcvosHeie merTogs! AnsainepcKon Bonner (6noanaaina) 158 11 &. aunnonsoe npoextuposanne Kparcni cnosaps repmunos rexnn- Crncok pexomenayemoi nureparyph 190 ecko scTeTMKH 187 Npegncnosue Hayuno-Texinuecknit nporpecc, Henpeps HOe passHTHe COUMANHCTHYECKOH NPOMbILI- ReHHOCTH, CenecKOrO Ko3siicTBAa, CTpoHTenb- cTea 4 Tpancnopra, sHeapenne 8 npoHsBOACT- 80 aBTOMATHKH, 2NeKTPOHHKM, WHpOKoe par BHTHe MexAHH3aUKH BO BCEX OTPACAAX HAPOA- Horo xossicTea, acecTopoHHee paaBHTHe kynetyproro crponrenscrsa 8 CCCP npeaeae naoT HoBbIe TpeBosanHa K ypoBHio o6wero 4 cneynansHoro o6pazonanns. «B UeHTp 2KOHOMMUECKOM NONMTHKH NapTHH 4 aced npaxTu¥eckor pa6ors! sbiasHraerca 22 ava BcemepHoro NOBMWNENKA TeXHHYECKOrO poss w Kavectaa npomYKynH. Conerckan Apoaykyna AomHa BonnoUaTe B ce6e No- cneAHne AOCTHKeEHHA HayYHOM MBICNH, COOT- BeTCTBOBATE COMBIM BLICOKHM TEXHHKO-2KOHO- MHYECKHM, SCTETHYECKHM H APYTHM NoTpe- GurenecKnm TpeGosannam, Grits KOHKypeH- Tocnoco6Ho Ha MHPOBOM PBIHKe. MosbiieHHe ee Kavectsa — Hagexneii nyte Gonee non- Horo yAosneTBopeHua noTpebHocTeH CTpaHbl B HeOBxOAMMBIX HaAeNHAX H pactyulero Cnpo- ca Hacenenua Ha pasHoo6paanbie ToRapu. Huakoe kaectao, 6pak — 270 pactpara mare- Pwanbieix pecypcos m Tpyaa Hapoaa. MaptHa 6ynet axtusHo noARepynsats Gopeby 3a MecTe cosercKoli mapnn. Kauecrao MpoAyKiyHn AomKno 6biTe nPegmetom npocecchoHanbHoit W narpHornueckon ropacctH» '. CnocoBcTso- " Marepwans XVII cheana _KommynncraecKos napran Conercnore Cowaa.— M. : Monmruanar, 1986.— c, 142—143, BaTb PasBHTHIO HOBO TexHHKH, CoBepleH- cTBOBaTe Opransaynio NPOHaBOACTEa H Tpy- fa, paseuBare couMannctHueckyio KyneTypY MOryT MMI NOnHTexHHYeCKH OBpazonaHHbie mopH, CGnagaioulne BEICoKOH OBu\er H NPOHS- BOACTBeHHOM KyneTypok. Dynaament 3ToK o6ujeH, TPyAOBOH H TexHHUECKOH KyNBTYPEI AOMKEH saKnagbiBaTeca, NPexAe BCerO, BCNe- umanbHeix yue6HeIx aasenennax. «llepcnex- TBI COUMANLHO-SKOHOMMUECKOFO, Hay4HO- TexHuecKoro H AyXOBHOTO Nporpecca 80 MHOFOM BaKNAABIBAIOTCA CHCTEMO! H KaHeCT- 80m o6pazosannsy ',—nogvepKusaeca 8 * Marepnanci KNICC, 2728 sweeps 1987. C. 57. Tinenyma Lenrpansnoro Komurera 1987 r—M.: Tonarnanar, Marepnanax snsapcKoro Mnenyma LIK KIC. B uenrpe sunmanns s npoyecce noprorosKn MOMOABIX CNe4MANHCTOR AOMKHB! HAXOAMTECA Bonpoce! ychneHHA npakTHYecKon HanpaBneH- HOCTH y4e6si, TBOpYecKoro HayYeHHA H BHEA- PeHHa nepeqosoro onsiTa 2KoHOMMH H Bepen- ausoctu. Ha coBpemeHHom sTane paseHTHa DKOHOMHKH HaWweH CTpaHbl BaxHelWeH sana- Nei spnaeTca HeEOBXOQHMOCTe >pextHaHoro, MchOMes0BaHHA NPHPOAHBIX, MaTepHaNbHbIX M4 TpyAosbix pecypcos. B canaw ¢ 3THm pactet W noTpe6HocTs B M3- AaHun yue6HoR nMTeparyper B npeanaraemom yue6HnKe Ha ocHoBe MAPKCMCTCKO-NEHHHCKOH acTeTHKH B AocTyn- Hol opme HanOMeHbI OCHOBEI HCTOPHH pas- BHTHR XYAOMECTBeHHOO KOHCTpyHpoBAHHs, B YacTHOCTH >BOMOUKH NnpOMbILINEHHOH opmel. PaccmarpuBaiorcs ocHosHble cpeA- €TBa KOMNOSMUMH, HX PONE B KOHCTPyMpOBAHHH POMBILINEHHEIX HaRenKi H MeTOAB OBNaRe- Hus STHMM CpeacTBamn. PackpbiTel nPHHKMNE! MeTOAHKa Hcnonb3oBaHHA KOMBHHaTOPHKH kak HOBOH TenAeHUMH B xyAomeCTBEHHOM KOHCTpyHpoBaHHH, npeacTasnsiowed co6om HanBonee cosepuienHuit o6pazey normueck TOuHOH MbiCMH, NOCTPOeHHO Ha MaTemaTH- weckom pacsere. Hosoro Tana. Tpeancnosne Obscene npHHunne! HcnonesoBaHna 6H0- HOFHYECKHK CHCTEM B XYAOMECTBEHHOM KOH- erpynposanin. Manomkenbi ocHosHbie 3HaHna No uBseToBeReHnio B OB beme nporpammei npe- Nofasanns coorsercrByroMero Kypca B xyAO- 2KECTBEHHO-NPOMBILINEHHBIX YUHAMUAX H TEX HnKyMax, AajOTCa PeKOMeHAaUHK No oBnage- HMO NPHeMamH M MeTOAMH HENOMeIOBAHHA usera 8 xyAOKeCcTaeHHOM KOHCTPyHPoBAHKH. Non6op unmocrpaynii rapmonnuno gonon- wer TeKcr KHurM, cnocoBcreyer nyuwemy YeBoennio yue6HO nporpammel. BuaunrenbHoe mecTo B yue6HHKe OTBeAeHO nanomkennio npHpoas! AMsaiHa Kak o6nacTH TBOpYeCKOw AesTENHOCTH, HanpaBMeHHOH Ha opmuposatine rapmonnueckok npeamerHon peas, NosBIWeHKe KavecTea NPOMBIINEHHOH npoaykuyn, cosmaHne HOBbIX KynbTYpHEIX yeHHocres. Yuauynmes npeamowensi npakTaveckne 3a AaHus, BbinoMHeHHe KOTOPSIX HenocpeACTBeH- Ho caazaHo c O6ujecTBeHHbIm npoHsBOACTaOM n cnocobcrayer npHMeHeHHio 3HAHHii, YMeHHA M HaBbIKOS 8 NPOKIBOACTBEHHOH gesTens. HocTH yuauynxcs. Asrop crpoun ceolt yue6unk no npHHunny «oT npoctoro K CHOMHOMYD, 4TO H ONpeAe- Met OcHOBHOe conepmKaHKe o6yYeHHA No XyAOMKECTBeHHOMY KOHCTPyHpoBaHHio, Kpyr SHAH, YMeHHK W HaBbiKoB, nopnenKauinx YeBOeHKIO YuaLyHMHCR, OPMymMHpyeT YenH W sagaun oby4eHKa NpeaMery B CooTBeTCTBHK © ero mecTom H 3HaveHHeM 8 Obie CHCTeEMe Hapoanoro xossiicrea. Yue6uuk aapecosat yuauynmcs cpeannx cneunanbHex yuebubx saseqennii. Xouercs Hanestecs, 470 yNeBHHK NOMOMKET M yuaL4HM- ca M npenogaparensm xyAoKeCTBEHHOFO KOH- CTPYMPOBAHKA NOAHSTR Ha HBB ypoBeHe nayuenve «OcHos xy@oxKecTBeHHOrO KOH- Crpynposanns 8 ycnoBHax ocyuecTBneHHs pecbopms! sbicwero 4 cpegHero cneynanbHo- Fo o6pasoaanis, npoBoAAMOH 8 crpaHe. Asrop seipaxaer 6narogapHoct sacny- >eHHOMY AesTeNIO HeKyccTs YCCP H. A. 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Wanenns, byHkuns KoTopbix seKamn ocra- eTCA HEHSMEHHOH, NOUTH HE HEMEHSIOT CBOIO hopmy. 3ro npexae acero orHocuTca K npeA- meta 6piTa, HesnaunTenbHoe HameHeHHe CbopMel MBI mowem Ha6niofatTs Ha npAMepe mHorHx MHCTpYMeHTOB, KoTOpbIe CeRaaHbI Henocpea- CTBEHHO ¢ PyKOH HenoBeKa: MonOTOK, ToNOp, HOMHMUbI, KOCa HT, n, ConepuleHcTsosanca cnoco6 HaroTOBNeHHs, HIMEHANCE 8 KAKOH-TO cTeneHn matepuan, HO, NocKONbKY MONTH He MeHaNace YHKUMS, COpMa HaMeHANaCe mano. Ognako 6bisaior 4 HcKmoueHHs: HanpH- BREAEHME ep, HeT Huero O6ujero BO BHELIHeH opme onacHol m sneKtpuueckod 6puTs, Xora CyHK- ua ocTanack HenameHHOH. Ecnu Ke npocneants 2B0nloKnIo opme! Toro Mk MHOrO craHKa, TO anech HabMogaeTcR Apyras KapraHa. BypHoe passutue TexHHKy Guicrpo orpaxanoce Ha ero sHeUIHeH cbopme. B aapncumocta of auga 2HeprHK, npHMeHs- emo ana paGorel cranka, H3meHancA ero BHEWHHH BHA H KOHCTpyKUMA. 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KOTOPBIX MOKHO YBHACTE TeNeps TONKO B My- 3€€ CBASM, KOTA M HNANHCS B CBOE BPEMA CO- BepUIeHHO HOBbIMM annapaTamH, He HMeBLIH- Mi HAKAKHX MPOTOTHNOB a NPOUITOM, TaKOKe He na6exann 9THX aKNEKTHNECKHX yKpALIeHH 8 auge MeTaNnHYecKHx y30pOB, TYCTO Hano- OMEHHBIX Ha AEPEBAKHEIA yTAAp. Tlogo6Heix nprmepos TaKoro nomHoro 4 noquac 6eaBKycHoro ykpauiaTenbcTBa MOXHO npusecth mHoro. Tlepasim, KTo noctasun sonpoc 0 opme Mauinibl, bin TeopeTHK maluMHOCTpoeHHA @pany Peno (1829—1905), npoweauii nyte oT yNeHnKa Ha 3a80me AO AMpeKTopa Bep- AMHCKOM pemecnenHon axagemnn. Ka cosna- Tenb TeOpHn KHHEMATHHECKHX Map, OH HE MOF He KOCHyTECA BonpOca O qopme MalLMHEl. Caoio saqayy on BHgen es BuisaneHHn H cHcTe- matnaalinn HawGonee OGuyHx 3aKoHOB H Npa- ann copmoo6pasopanus 4 cTapancs noKasan TO MaUMHa MOET H AOMMKHA BbITe KPacHBOn. No mHeHnio Peno, maumHoctpoenue fon- 2KHO CheAOBATS apxHTeKType Tam, rae Pee ugeT 0 PopmooGpazopanhn MallnHbl. Boob- lye, HCXOAA H3 NOMOKEHKS O TOM, HO MaluMHa BNAETCA HEKHM APXHTEKTYPHbIM YeNbIM, Peno tpe6onan ACHOCTH H YeTKOCTH B COOTHO- UleHWH OTAeNBHBIX uacTel, NpHNEM Noguep- KuBan PYHKUMOHaNbHOe 3HaNeHHE KAKO feranu. OW npeanonaran, sro 8 6yayuwem OBs3aTeNbHO NORBHTCA YHeHHE O MalUMHHOH opme, KoTopoe NossonnT 8 KaMAOM OTAEM- HOM cayae HaXOAMTs ONTHMANBHBIE PEIEHHS. Peno cmorpen Ha TexHuKy npexge Bcero c TOUKH 3peHHA MiOKeHEPA, HO HHKEHEpa LIMpO- koro mpotbuns, rny6oxo Hayynauiero ace 06- fact MauiMHOCTpOeHKA, HHKeHEpa, OG nanaB. wero BonbuHmh CnoCcOBHOCTAMH H CKNOHHOrO K c606weHHaM, Bonbuioce sHhmaHwe yaenan oH pHTMy 4 AponopunovansHocth, KoTopsle, no ero y6e- >KAeHHIO, 3anorKeHbI a NPHpoAe H YenoBeYe- col HaType H MPHcyiyH BCeM YenoBeYeCKHM TeopeHuam — or npowssemeHHA ncKyccraa AO MaUIHH. PuTMHuHaA H NponopyMoHAaNbHaR opma He moxer 6siTs HeYenecoobpasHon, a cneponatenbio, He MOKeT NPOTHBOPesHTS APHHUKNAM GyHKYROHANHOrO opmoobpa- aoaaHns. Ecan 8 TpaicnoptHom MaluMKocrpoeHHK >knexrHKa aasana o ce6e 3HaTb, ec ona ewe npouperana s Maccoabix HaAenHaX HapOAHOrO notpeGnenns, To 8 O6 mem maLuKHOCTPOeHKK MB OcoBeHHOCTH CraHKOCTpoeHHM K CaMomy konuy XIX 4 Havany XX sexa npossnnact Apyraa KpaiHocts. Tpaanynn KyctapHoro PemecnenHoro npoussoacrsa npu HaroTosne- HM maLUMH Ha4HCTO 3a6biBaloTca. Mauna Ha- UMHaeT BbINyCKATECR 8 TOM BHAC, KAKOH OHA abiuina 43 pyk H206perarens, KOHCTPyKTopa. Bonpocti ee sHeuHero Buaa, acTeTHuecKor ApmBneKatensHoctn gaxKe Ke 2aTparHaaioTcA. Kanurannctuyeckni cnoco6 npoxasoactaa BRE AEHHE 2knexrnKa — caewenne cranes. Yupawenna s snae mmerannnuecnnx y3opos HOCHAK OcpopMnTenbeKnh, npaunagwor xepaxtep (Ola) oS BE ACHE " cnommauniica 8 XIX sexe, nuuian Tpya pabo- Mero panocth, yHHuToaKaN TBOPYECKHe, KYAO- 2keCTBeHHDIe HepTbI, IpHCyLAMe Py4HOMy Pe- MecmeHHOMy Tpyay. Maccosaa npoayKynr, BbinyckaBuiascR Ha PbIHOK, OTpasnsna BKyC Nownoctsic, Aenana npeamers! o6uxona H ocobenHo y6panctea xKHnbA HocHTenaMH nmetnoro y6oxectsa H mellaHcKHX Bkycos. BypHoe passurne TexHnkn h He MeHee 6yp- Hui nporect nporHs Hee — Takos napagoKc nepsoh nonosnie: XIX sexa. Heymenne pa- s06parbca 8 NPHYnHaX COUMaNbHbIX 6eA NpH- Beno mHorHe nporpeccnsHsie YMbI K OTPHUa- Hilo TexHnkh. Mepanii ronoc nporecta npoTHE cpansumaoh 6ypryaaHon KyneTypel pasnanca 8 AHrnan 8 BHge TeopeTHNeckHx HccneAoBa- nuit Dpkona Pecknna (1819—1900), npwaasas lero orpomHoe sHa¥eHHe HcKycCTBY Kak MopamsHomy dpakropy. Peck, 6yay4n co- BpemMeHHMKOM HeBbiBanoro PasBHTHA TeEXHHKH h pomaenua Knacca nponerapres, caenan 8: Boa, 4TO noGeqHoe UeCTEKe MaLIKH H pacty- uaa enact KanwTana npespauiaeT mioged 8 pa6os h yponyer uemsie crpatel, uro c Hc¥es- HoseHnem py4Horo Tpyma WenoseK TepseT BOIMOMHOCTk NPORBNATH CBOHCTBEHHEIE EMy cnocobHocth, Ha0c6peratenbHocTe, 2Mo\4HO- HankHocts. C MaulHHamn OH Cessbisan rH6enb nekycctsa, a ¢ rnBenbio HcKyccTaa — HeM3- Gexnuii Kpax ao6pa H KpacoTel 8 4enoseKe. NporpeccnsHok 8 acrernke Pecknna Guna ‘otanulas OT APYFHx ero KOMUeNUHS, yTEepH- Aaroulas opraknveckyio Cease Mexay Kpaco- Toh Wnonba0k, V xoTa BCEM CBOHM CyLMeCTBOM Peck nporecrosan npoTHs MaluMHbI H Ma: UKHO NpoAYKYHH BO HMA COXpaHeHHa py- korsopHok KpacoTei Wenosevecknx TEOpeHHi, hmeHHo ero actethka 6bina nepsbim warom K CoaAaHnIo acTeTHKH MaLIKHHOM NpoAYKUMK, ac Hel H MaLIMHHOK opmel. B 50-e roqsi XIX seka s Aurnnn sapomnnoch Nepsoe Kpynioe ABMKeHHe esponehcKo; xy- ROMECTBEHHOH NpoMbIiNeHHOCTH, Boarna nsemoe Yunbamom Moppucom (1834—1896), nponommarenem uae Pecknna, TeopeTh- Weckh W npakThYeckn paspabarbiBasluHm scTe- THKy NPoMBiuNeHHOA BeWyH. TnasHaa aaqava 2TOH wKONbI KOHCTPyKPoBaHHA cocToana B Tom, YTO6bI yAOGHEIE H KpachBBIe NPeAMeTEI, KoTOpbIMM NOnbsoBanack coyMansHan Bep- xyuika G6ypmyasHoro o6ujectea, caenath AOCTYMHbIMH LKPOKHM MaCCAM H TEM CaMbIM BocnuTbIsaTe XOpOUIMe BKYCEI. Mopprcom 4 ero eAMHOMBIUNeHHHKaMH snageno *enaHne BHECTH sneMeHT KPACOTEI B 2KHaHb NPHHWKeHHOFO, OBeannNeHHOrO npo- MbILUEHHEIM OAHOOSpaszhem Yenosexa. V8 TO 2Ke BPEMA AOKAIATh NPEMMYULECTBO HHANBH- AyanwanposanHoro TpyAa H HHAMBHAYaNHSH- PowaHHoh GsiToBOH BemH. B mactepcKnx Moppuca paborann Bbigaiouyneca xyAOKHHKH Toro Bpemenh, Onn coagasann npesocxopHEle Kospsl, 060n, MeGens, BuTpaKH HT. n. OAHaKO rnaaHan wens AocTArHyTa MOppHCOM He Beina. Bmecro Toro, uro6ui coamasats maccosoe HC- kyccTa0, macrepckwe NpoHssoAKNK Aoporne npeamere! o6xoaa ans Goratoix. HanGonee UeHHuIM B MeRTebHOCTH MacTepcKKK MoppH- ca Gbino yrsepmaenne o6ujecTBeHHOH BarK- MocTH NPHKnaAHOrO HCKycCTBa ANA MaccoBOrO nponssoactsa npopyktos notpe6nenus. Ho ero abpnka, Ha KoTOpOH Aenannce AelicTaH- TenbHO NpeKpacnbie BeuH, Okasanace KpO- WesHbIm OcTPOBKOM B MHpe KaNHTANHcTHYEC- KOH MaMHHOA HHAYCTPHH HK TOMY Ke NPOHS- Boanna yHhkanbHule NPeAMeTEI POCKOWH, a HE Bein noscemHesHoro Gira, Moppne, kak 4 Pecknk, OTPHYATeENbHO OTHO- CHICA K PasBHTHIO TEXHHYeECKOM YUWBHNH3auKh, Ho paspa6orannble Hm ANS KyCTapHEIX Hane AM NPHHYHNe! PopmooBpasoBaHna npeAMe- Ton GbiTa oKazannce AeHiCTBEHHEIMH M8 Chepe maulnHHoro MpOKSBOACTEA. B nocnequed tpeth XIX Beka npombiuneH- Hoe nponssoactso gocturno 3penocth. Ha passHToH TexHHYeCKOH ocHOBe NOABHMOCE kpynocepniinoe nponssonctso. SneKrpH- Weckne namnouks, Tene*poub!, Tpameak BOUINK 8 GuiT H nepectpansann ero Ha HOBbIK nag. Opnako 8 ocHose xymowecTaeHHtIx 8033p Mii 2TOFO nepHona ace ewe Nexano NPMHYH- NnanbHO OTPHYaTENbHOe OTHOWeHKE K >cTe- BBEQEHHE BBEAEHAE 13 THYECKHM BOSMOKHOCTAM MaccoBoro NPOK3- Boacrea. 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B opHameHTanbHor TMHMH OH BHBEN CHAy, XYAOMECTBEHHO Npe- o6pasyiowyio abpuunwit npoaykr H cnoco6- HYIO NOAHATS ero AO ypOBHS py4Horo KycTap- Horo H3aqenKs. Onwaxo npn acex Hegocrarkax HeKoToppix OCHOBHLIX XYAOMECTBEHHBIX KOHWENUM MO- AepHa On ace me CbIrpaN NonomMTeRDHYIO Ponb e passurnn npHKnagHoro HcKyccTBa. STO 6uina_nepsan nonbirka HanaquTs KOHTaKT MeXKAY HCKYCCTBOM H TEXHMKOH, TROPYECTEOM XYAOMHMKA H NPOMBILINEHHEIM NPOKSBOACT- Bom. Tlonctne HeyAepammuit nporpecc TexHH- kn ¢ Havana XX aeka, sHeapeHne ee 80 ace o6nacth YenoBeuecKon AeRTenbHocTH nocTa~ BHNM XYROMHHKOB NepeA HeoBxoAMMOCTHIO Pewienns pasHoo6pasHex acTeTH¥ecKHx 3aqa4 8 O6NacTH MaluHHOCTpO- enna, craHkocrpoeHns, npH6opoctpoenns, tpavcnopta 4 MHOrHX APYTHX. PasantHe NPOMBILINEHHOCTH @ NepRoH veT- septn XX seka notpe6osano ocHopaTentHoro Nepecmorpa acreTHNeCKOH OWeHKH TeXHHUe- KOK opmbs. Mpoaykt Texnnueckoro TRop- Necraa qocturaer apenocth h BbiCoKOk crene- Hi copepwiencrea. MponcxoanT peumrenbHoe HaMeHEHHE OTHOUIEHHA XYAOKHHKOR K TEXHH- Necknm npo6nemam. Ha nytH acTeTHueckoro OCMbICNEHHA TeXHHKH HX OMMAANO MHOFO TPyAHOCTel, HO B KOHEHOM HTOre 2TOr NyTe npwsen x yTBepxKAeHHIO HOBOrO scTeTHHe- CKOFO NOHMMAHHS CBRIK HCKYCCTBAC MPOMBIL ReHHOCTbIO. Yraepanenve scrernueckoli aHaumrenbHocra TeXHHYECKOH Copmb! HauINo CBoe MOrHHecKoe BbIPaKeHHE B KOHCTPYKTHBHSMe, BOSHHKUIEM k Havany 20-x roaos XX sexa oAHOBpeMeHHO B pasHeix crpanax. KoxcrpykrHeam pacnpocrpanuncs 8 cas3K © POcTOM MHAYCTPHAMbHOH TEXHHKH H BHEAP HHem HOBbIX CTpokTenbHbIx MaTepHanos. KoH- CTPYKTHBMCTBI NbITAMMCe AOKABATR, HTO TEXHO- MOrHYeCKH H YHKUMOHANbHO onpaBAaHHan KOHCrpyKuna yKe OGnagaer BbICUIMM xyAO- TexHnuecKHX BBEAEHME BBE ACHE DKeCTREHHbIM KaHeCTBOM H BnonHe MODKeT YMOBneTsopHTs acTeTHYeCKHe noTpeGHOCTH cospemenvoro wenosexa, Ama KoTOporO xa- Pakrepe ytnHTapH3m 8 nogxoAe Ko BCem ABNeHHAM AelicTeHTeNbHOCTH. 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Ukona coverana yHkunn yue6Horo 2aBeaeHHA H npoHsB0R- cTBEHHBIX MacTepCKHX. Aestensiocts «Bayxaysa» 6eina cocpeno- ToweHa Ha paspaGoTke YenecooBpasHeix 4 KPacnabix opm, npolecce! HsroTosneHHA KoTOpbix cTporo yassbipankct C TexHonornelt nuayctpHanbHoro npowssogcraa, c HoBelw- MMi KOHCTPYKUKSMH H MaTepHanamn. Kak pe- aymbrar 3Toh paBors! BOaHHK cTHnb «Bayxay3>. Ana npomeuunentuix o6pasyos paannuneix Apeameros 8 3TOM cTHne xapakTepHi SMH, YanedeHHe KOHCTPYKYeH Kak TaKOBO maccnBHocte. Vnaycrpnannaayna 4 crpontenscroo co- Unannama B Hale CTpane Co3qasanh 8 3TOT NepHon npegnoceinkn ana sHeAPeHHs TPyAa XyAOMHHKA B COBETCKyIO NPOMBILINeHHOCTS. Ewe 8 1920 r. cornaco noctahosnenmio Co- sera Hapogusix Komuccapos 3a nognnceio B. V1. Jlenuna 8 Mockse 6binh oprannsosans! Buicume rocyqapcraenHbie xyAo>KecTBeHHO- Texunueckne mactepckne (BXYTEMAC) — cneynansHoe y¥e6Hoe saseaenne Ana nopro- TORKH XYAOMHHKOB-MacTepos NpHKnazHoro hckyccTBa ANA NPOMbIUINEHHOCTH. Ha nepauix nopax crpemnenne BonnotHTe B NpombilineHHEIx HIAeNHAX HOBLIe 2cTeTHHEC- Ke Y@HHOCTH HOCHNO XapaKTep YHCTO POMaH= THHeCKOH MeUTbI ONPEKPACHbIx, COBEPLIEHHHEIX Texnnuecknx dopmax, 6sino AaneKo oT geh- cTBHTeNHOrO NOHAMAHHS NYTeH, KOTOPEIe Pe- sontouns OTKPbina Ans pasBHTHsa NpOMbILINEH- HocTh HckyccTBa. XapaKrepHbima o6pasyamh XYAOMECTBGHHO-TexHHNeCKOK MeUTEI GbInK npoexrs! B. E. Tarnuna. B 1919 r. on noctponn Mopenk namatHnKa IIl MnTepHaynonany — Gauinn, cocronsue 43 crankHon Ganounoh KOHCTPYKUH ¢ PACNONOKeHHbIMH BHYTPH ee cyxocte, BBEAEHME 16 NOMEWIEHHAMH PasnHYHOH reomeTpHYecKOH Popms!, KoTOpbIe RONMHE! Bbinn spaujareca BOKPyr BEPTHKaNbHOH OCH C¢ PaanHuHbiMn cKopoctamn. Yepes HecKonbKo eT On Ke sbicTynin c MaKerom «JleTatnnHan — cpanta- cThYeckoro neTaiouyero Kopabns, He NOXOKe- Fo Ha camonersi Tex ner. Tlognmnieié nepenom 8 apxnrextype Hame- tunca 8 KoHYe 20-x — Hauane 30-x rogos. Ha- Manoc wnpoKoe NPHBNedeHHe apxHTeKTOpoS W xyYAOMHNKOR ANA PaGoTE! 8 NPOMbILINEH- nocth. B 30-e roasi Ginn oprannaosane pasnuu- Hale xyQormectaeHHo-npoeKxTHposounsie Giopo, a Ha HeKOTOpEIX KPynHEIX NpeaNpHE- TWAX COPMHPOBAHEI XyAOMECTBEHHBIE OT- Aenwi. Taxnm o6paa0m, now snusHnem o6wect- BeHHEIX M 2KOHOMMUECKMX ChaKTOPOB, HOBBIX xyAomecTaeHHbix BOaspeHHiK H Mporpecca huAyeTpHanbHoro MponssoAcTea cknaAbisa- Tce HOBbIE OTHOWEHKA MEKAY HCKYCCTBOM 1 RPOMBILINEHHOCTHIO. B ctpanax kanurana 2TH oTHOUeHHs opm Posannce oA onpepensiouinm snaHHeM rpe6osanni pexnamel H KOHKYpeHTHOA Gopt 6b. B Cosetckom Colo3e oH oco3HaBannch kak o6ujectaenHan HeoBxoAHMocTe, Kak oBujenaponnoe weno, HeoTwemneman YacTs KyAbTYPHOK Pesoniounn m OpyAne BocrMTaHHA coBeTCKhX mogen. Oanaxo pa6ora 8 npombiuineHHocth — ara Honan OGnacTk AeRTeNBHOCTH XYAOMHAKA — He cpazy npuobpena s Hawel cTpaHe cHcre- marnuecknit xapakrep. B nepsie rogel nocne OKOHYaHHA rPAkAaHCKOK BOHHBI NepeA rocy- AapcrBom croann apyrne, 6onee HeotnomHbie 3amaun ckopemwero BOspO%*KAeHHA NPOMbILI- neHHoro NoTeHuMana CTpaHbl, BOCCTAHOBNeHHA Paapywentiix cba6pnk n sasono8. Hanpaxex- bli ptm nepebix naTaneToK, a 2arem Bennkaa OreuectseHHas BokHa TaKxKe He CnocobcTBO- Bann WHPoKOMY H CHCTeMaTHHeCKOMY NpH- BneueHiio XYAOMHAKA Ha NPOMIBOACTBO. Mo6eaa cosercxoro Hapoma 8 BennKo OreuectBeHHor BOKHe ana HoBbIA cTHmyn nonckam 8 o6nacth MOHYMeHTaNbHOFO CTHna. Tlepaie nocnesoeHHele roabi MOxKHO CuHTaTE. Hayanom opraHnazosaHHoro aH3aiina. Mossns- forces oprannaaynH, seayuine paGors! no XYAODKECTREHHOMY —MPOeKTHpOBAHHIO NpO- MbIUNeHHBIX HaReNKi Ha CHOBE HcnONbIOBa- Hua HanGonee YeHHBIX gocTHKeHHH 20-x rogos. Onpegensiowyio pons 8 copmxposannn wpelHo-scTeTHHeCKHX NPHHUHNOS xyAoKeCT- BeHHoro KOHCTpyHposaHus 8 CCCP ceirpann pewenna naprun w npasnrenscrea 1955—1957 ronos © nepectpokke npoektuposanna 1 crponrenscrea, Gops6e ¢ Hannulectsamn 8 apxnrextype H oGopynosannn o6ujecTBeHHEIX aAatnit, 06 opraHH3ayHH maccosoro BbinycKa MeG6eNbHEIX H APYTHX H3RENKH Ha BbICOKOMH- AYCTpHanbHoM ocHoBe. Ha ocose onbita paborsi xyaoxectBeHHo- koneTpykTopcKHx oprannaayni 8 1946—196t rofax Guinn HameueHb! OnTHMankHbIe CPopmb! RanbHetwero passHTHA xygorKecTBeHHOrO. KOHcTpymposanns 8 Crpane. Toctanosnennem Cosera Munncrpos CCCP of 28 anpena 1962. «OB ynyuweHnn KayectBa APOAYKUMH MALIHHOCTPOEHHS H TOBAPOR KYL TypHo-6uiTosoro HasHaveHHA nyrem sHeApe- HW# MeTOROB XYAOMECTBEHHOFO KOHCTPYKpO- BaHisn, yuaCTHe XY BOMHMKA B COBAaHKH HaRe- MH NPOMBILINEHHOCTH MPHaHAeTCA He TONBKO skenatenbHbim, HOW OBsaaTenbHbim. Mocra- HoBneHne KopeHHbim o6paaom MeTOAMKY NPOEKTHPOBAHHA HOBEIX NPOMBILI- ReHHEIX naAENKA, NOAYEPKHYNO BEKHYIO pone XYAOMHMKa-KOHCTPYKTOPA Ha NPoMaBOACTBC. Tlepeg sceii cosercKoi npombiluneHHoctEio ¢ Hosoi cHnok 6bina nocrasnena sanaua o6ec- Reunts pesKoe NosbiweHne KayecTea NPOAYK- UAH APH NOMOWYH WHPOKOFO HEMOMbIOBAHHS meTonos xyMOmeCTBeHHOrO KOHCTpyHposa- Hwa, mosBonsioWWHX co3AaTh yAobHBIe 6 akcnayataunn, Henoporne mM KpachBBIe H3Re- nna, B 1962 r. Guin coanan BcecoiosHbii Hay4- Ho-HCCHeAOBATENBCKHit HHCTHTYT TEXHHYECKOK actetnin (BHAMT3) & Mockse H ero unnan 8 Jlennurpage, Knese, Ténnucn, Baky, Epesa- nameHnno EAEHME He, Hosocn6npeKe, Xapsxose, Pre, Caepa- noBce H APYFHx ropopax. Benen 3a 2TH He- koropble sbicume xyAOmecTaeHHBIe yHeGHEIE sasegenna coaaann Katbeapsl npomoluineH- Horo HcKyccTBa H OTKPBINK qbaKyMbTeTBI X¥AO- 2KeCTBeHHOTO KOHCTpyMposanns. Bro 6bin Baxi war a pewennH npobmembt Ka~pos. B Hactoaujee Bpems nogrotosKy cneyna- JIMCTOB AM3aKHA BEAYT AeBATH BbICWIHX y4eE- Hex 2aseReHHH, NATE cpeAHHx, KPOMe Toro, 8 Copoka Bbicwnx TexHMueciHX YHEOMBIX 2aBe- ReHHRX OTKPBITH! KAPEAPHI OCHOB NPOMbIL- neHHol acrerHKn. B 1957 F, Guin cosnan MexkayHapoansii co- BeT oprahn3auHi WHAYCTPHManbHOrO An3zaiHa (UKCHQ). B ero 3aqa4y Bxoaut cogencrane PassHTHIo xyAOKecTBeHHOrO KOHCTpynposa- tna Bo acem mupe, BuipaGorKa cornacosaH- Horo NOHMMaHKA CouMaNbHEIX YeneH H 3aqaN Ausaiina, NoBbILIeHHe ypoBHa npodeccuoHa- TbMOK NORFOTORKH. xy AOMKHNKOB-KOHETPYKTO- pos. C1965 r, wneHom >To} OprannaaunM 8 nM ue BHMMTS crana Hawa crpana. Ha Teepansnoh accam6nee MKCHQa, cocrossuierica 8 Slonqone 8 1969 r., onpene- neva opmynuposKa Au3aiHa. CornacHo et AvaaiH — 270 Teopyeckan AesTensHocTs, Yenbio KoTOpoH saBnaeTca copmuposanne TaPMOHHUHOH NPeAMETHOR cpenL!, HaKGonee nono yAosnetsopsiowjed marepnanvibie W AyxoBHbie norpe6HocTH enoBeKa. Cneayer oTMeTHTb, 4TO npoHHKHoBeHHe Auaaiina B Hay KMIHb He OrpaHnunBaercs Paspa6orKor TonbKo MawnH, BbIToBLIX H3qe- nuit, npHBopos. Mpoxoansuni 3—4 anpens 1987 ropa 8 Mockse Yupeantensisit coesa ausainepos CCCP cangerenscrayer 0 603- Poculem aBroputere, MPHaHaHHH sacnyr HM BaxcHocTH 3afa4, CTOmUIMX NepeA OTeHECTBEH- HbIM XYAOKECTBEHHLIM KOHCTPyHpoBaHnem cebepoi npoeKTHO-xyAOxKeCTBeHHOM AesTe- AbHOCTH B Yenom. OpraHn3ayns Coio3a an- salinepoa CCCP 8 Gnwmaliwee spems npune- cet caon nnoabi. Cosnanne Coisa ansarine- pos CCCP cosnano ¢ >ranHuim nepHonom neTopHn Haulero rocynapcraa, nepHonom "7 YeKopenna H nepectporikn, KorAa HabICKHBa- forca HoBbIe NoAXOABI K PeweHHIo cTOSLAHX Nepea 2KOHOMMKOH H NPOMbILINEHHOCTBIO npobnem H ackpsisaiorca HeMcnonbsoBaHHbIe Panee pesepes! pasentns, Monumanne ucTo- PHueckoro MOMeHTA CTABMT Ha BbICOKMA YPO- BeHb AuaaiinepcKoe ofpaszosanne, Tem 6onee, STO AOMKHOCTR _xyAOMHHKA-KOHCTPYKTOPA (anaaiinepa) 4 ace ee nponssoaHuie (Beay- Uy, FAABHEIi) BKMONeHE! 8 OGujecoIosHer knaccncpurarop npo@eccnii pabounx 4 OK HocteH pykonoanrenel, cneunanncros 4 cay- 2KaLYHX, KOTOPHIM YTBepHAEH 27 asrycTa 1986 rona Toccraxgaptom CCCP no cornacosakHio < Tockomrpyaom CCCP, Tocnnanom CCCP w UCY CCCP. 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HyMHO 3HaTs 2aKOHO- MePHOCTH, COrNaCHO KOTOPHIM CTPOHTCA KOM- NosKunA moGoro HaRenHs. Ana onpepenetina paannuneix sxqos Kom- NOSHUMOHHOFO CTPOA M PasMHUHbix aaaHCH MocTed nombaylorca TakHMA KaTeropHaMH, 3HaKOMbIMH NO HaBMOReHKIO 3a sBTeHHAMK Tpmponsi, Kak pHTM, PasHosecHe, CHMMETPHS, aCHMMeTpHS, AMHAMHKA, CTaTHKa, MaCWuTa® 1 macuTa6Hoct®, Nponopuns, KOHTPACT, HIOAHC * Ap. aanTe- 2. Kaxne pasnwuaior snasi KoMnosKuw? HasoBHTe Hx OCHOBHEIE NPHIHEKH. oO 3. Kparko oxapaxrepuayiire ocHoshsie KaTeropHn KOMnOsHuMH. Parm — ockosa Komnoshymonnu nocrpoeHnit a 4.2. Patm — ocHopa KOMNOSMUMOHHbIX NocTpoeHH Oanum va saxneiumx cpeacrs npnsegenus MHOrOOGpasHbIx 9NeMeHTOB OPM! K EAHH- ctay, YNOpaAOveHHA Hx PacnonomeHns ABA eTCa PHT, KOTOPHIi MPHCYLA PASNHUHbIM 88- HeHKSm 4 cOPMaM NPHPOALI, TPYAOBLIM NPO- ueccam 4 T. A. @ Put — >to pasHomepnoe epe- Aosanne pasmepHbix 3nemenros, ROPAACK CONETAHHS NHHHH, OB ne- ‘MOB, MNOCKOCTeH. Putm geicteyet Ha Haw 4yBcTBa. MbI BOC- APHHKMaeM ero He TOABKO 3PHTEMBHO, HOM Ha cayx. Ckauyusaa noulaae PHTMHYHO OT6HBAeT takt. PuTmHuHB! CTyK KONeC NapoBo3a, My3bIKa Tanya. Yem purmnunee cruxoreopenne, Tem nerve OHO uHTaeTCA WH 3aNOMHHaeTCA. McTou- HK 3ByKa BOCMPHHHMAETCA KAK PHTMMUHEIA NoTOMy, 4TO BLIAEPKAH CAMHAKOBLIA HHTEp- ban MedKaY aByKamH, yAapamn. Oanako pur cBosicTBeHeH He TonbKO ABH- DKEHMIO, HOH CTaTHUHOMy Npegmety. Hanpu- MMeP, 8 APXMTEKTYPHBIX COOPYHEHHAX, PHT- muunoe pacnpegeneline OKOH No BepTHKanH H TopHszontann. Putm MomKHO HaGmomaTe 1B AnockocTHom HacbpakeHHH: OpHameHT Ha 0608x, Ha KoBpax, Ha TKaHsx. OcoBeHHo spKoe APOABReNHe PuTMA Mul MOxEM HaBMOAaTe 8 KHBOTHOM H. pacTHTeNbHOM Mupe. Korga bi CMOTPHM Ha HENOAEHKHOE H306- pakenne Ha Tom Hn HHOM Coopy>KeHHH (op- Hamentanbueii dpu3) unK Ha npeamere (op- Hament Haeaze), ¢ 4epegoBannem KakHx-nH6O RosTopsmroUXcs nnockoctHElx, OBbeMHbIX, MMHeHHBIX, OLLYLKEHHE PHTMa AaeT BOCNPHATHE YCNOBHOTO ABWKEHHS, ras Haul KaK 661 cnemyeT 28 2TH pasmepHeIm NOBTO- Pom anemenror BakonomepHoe uepegosakue o6nemos, MneHeHit nosepxHocteH, rpanek, a Taxxe YMOpaAoweHHoe HameHeHHe KapaKTepHcTHK anementos tbopmb! — ace sto ucnonbayercs 8 anementos, kauecrae cneundpuueckoro cpeactea KOMMno- BMUWH KaK ANA OTAENBHEIX NPEAMeTOB 1 CO- opykenuii, Tak H Ans Hx KoMnNeKcos. Npoc- Teliuee NPossnenne puTma C xapakrepHbim nostopennem «opm Npx pabtbix MuTepBanax MomHO HabnIO- Rate ® pacnononenun xpamos, 8 PabHOMepHOM pacnonomweHHH OANOTHNHBIX cTaHKOB B Yexe, 8 PacnononeHHH kHonoK Ha npHBopax HT. a. Purm monet Brith ChOKOHHBIM H BecnoKol- Hum, morkeT Obit HaNPaBNeHHEIM 8 OAHY CTO- pony (opHamentansHaa Kalima) Hnk CKOAS- Umea K UeHTPy (y20P 8 YeHTpPe NogHoca, ckarepTH, wkatynky, poseTka menHan now mocrpoii), HanpaaneHnbim Kak NO ropH3oHTa- mH, Tak 4 NO BEPTHKANH. YacTEle HNeHeHHA B TOpHaovTansHom HanpaBnennn, KaK MB BEPTH- kanbHom, MOryT CoagaBaTh BnevaTneHHe 6ec- noKoicrsa. Ynenenns no ropHaoHTann 6yayr apHrent. HO CHWOaTb BbICOTY BELL, a BEPTHKANbHEI nac6opor, Renaiot ee sue. MKenaemoe anevarnenwe oT npeamera MomHO CO3AaTe NPARKAbHbIM HCNONLIOBAHH- em BCeX BOSMOMHOCTEH PHTMa, B HACTHOCTH, POAYMAHHbIM M NPOUYBCTBORAHHBIM YepeAo- anementos, obvemos, ypeTosbix aren W Kaknx-nH60 Aetanel, Kak 6b1 Nanpas- AMOWWMX BEWKEHHE raza B CooTReTCTBHH © BbIBpannbim puTMom. Kak cpeactao Komnosnunn putm ucnonb- BYETCA B XYAOMECTBEHHOM KONCTPyMpoBaHHH 8 Tex cny4asx, Korga On OBveKTHBHO npego- Apemenen KOHCTpyKTHBHOR ocHoBOH. Mpose- TeHKa PHTMa B TeXHMKe BecbMa PasHoo6pas- Hbl. OH MOET HrpaTh akTHBHYIO opraHHayio- llylo Pon 8 KOMNOSMUMH, CTaHOBSCh HHOrma ee rnasiuim crepanem. LUMpoKo nenonbay- eTea UseTOBOH puTM, B HacTHOCTH Ha NpoH3- Boactse: useT NomeweHni, oGopyposanns, pa6ounx mec, cneuonemabl, KOMMyHHKauHi. Lseronok purm coagaer croeobpaannil yse- Tosok KnMmar. B KOMNOSHUMH OAKHaKOBbIX KONOHH aHTHUHBIX annem AKOHOMEPHOCTH M4 CPE: KomnosHutan TPAKTHYECKOE SAMAHME No 1 Buinonenne puTMMdeckHx KOMNOSMUNi © Marepwanni « nHcTpyMeHtsI: kapaHaawh Teepgocteio «T» 4 «M» orevectsenHoro npoHsson- crea («H» 4 «B> wmnoptHeie); TYUlb WepHas; nnHetiKa; TPeyronk- HuK; neKano; UUPKyAe H pelicipe: Aep nnvediHbii, nDAMeHsioMHiics Ana NpoBeAeHHA TyUBIO NPRMbIX W ROMaHBIX MAHA PasHor TonuyH- Hol a npenenax 1... 1,5 mm; 6yma- ra opmara 12; moxer 6eiTe npH- meen panngorpap. Boasmem nncr 6ymarn, nposegem pamoury Ha PaccTosHnn AO AByX CaHTHMeTpOB OT KPaR 1 pasrpacum ero NPAMbIM NHHHSMH NO BEP- Tuan 4 TopHzoHTan Yepes onpegeneHHuii hHTepsan TaK, YTOBbI AKHKK He BBIXOAHNH 3a npegensi pamku, Mony4urcs wneHeHne PUTMi- Yeckoe, Ho HenHTepecHoe, NPHMUTHBHOE. 3a- Tem Mposegem He NO OAHOH AHHHK, ano TPA BMecte Ha paccrosHuy apyr oT apyra 2... 3 Mm, a Mexay Nepsbimn 1 NocneAyIOWAMH TpeMA muHMaMH chenaem paccrosHne tu1,5 cm. Nossurca ywe Gone uHTepechbili parm. A ec mn 8 Tex MeCTaX, Fae BEPTHKANH M FOpHa0HTa- JH Nepecenaiorcs, 3aKpachTs obpasyiowneca keaaparnkn TOHOM, PHTm CraHer eule Cone suipaanrensieim. PuTM MOOKHO CTPOMTh He TORBKO HANPAMBIX, HOH NOMAHBIX, BONHHCTEIX MHHHSX, Ha CaMBIX cnomneix nepeceveHnax. Beneg 3a nunelt Haz08em Toy, Koropan Kak Hapyurenne npowssoact pane? 6. Kaxne s06pasnrensit meTPHdecknx nocTpoeHni? Komnosnynoumuie Rocrpoenna parma ApH nomouyn Tou, nMMH Wx ConeraHM mano WTO aHaunT Cama no ce6e, Ho NpH noBTO- Penwn ager mexoparnsnnit acbcbexr. OsHaKOMMBLIHCe C AMHETHEIM H TOHEUHBIM MOcTPOeHHeEM PHTMa, MOKHO nepelith K 6o- Mee CHOKHBIM ero BAAaM, CONeTAA AHHKIO ¢ TOKO, 3a OcHOBY MOMKHO B3ATb NPHpOAHDIA aHa- nor — KaKoe-nvBo HecnorHoe pacreHne, Ha- APAMEP, WBETOK, NNOA, AKCTOK MAK HaceKo- moe. Ux HYMHO 2apHCoRaTe ¢ HaTypEI Co BceMM NoApobHocTAMK, a NOTOM ynPOCTHTk pHcy- HoK, Tak, 4TO6s! OcTanace KOHTYpHaR cKema 3apHcoBkn, TO eCTe TpaHcopmupoBarb NpH- PoAHyto opmy Ao TexHHNecKo#, Coxpanns ee ectectaeHHbii putm. Morom 43 aTHx anemeH- Tos COCTaBHTs PHTMHYECKHA psa, PHTMMHe- cnyto cerky. Pa6oran Han 2TH aanaHHem, HyMHO CTpe- MATHER K 2aKOHYEHHOR PHTMAYECKOH KOMNO- SMyMH, 4TO6bI HE BOSHHKNO BneYaTneHHe cAy- NaiiHoro o6psipa. Alonyctam, 4To 3a ocHosy opHamentanHoro PuTma Bb! a3anh NPHpoa- Holt aHanor — 6a6ouKy. Monosuna 6abouKn Monagaer 8 pamky sawero ns06paKenns, a BTopas He Nomeuaerca. Yro6si sToro He cAy- 4unoce, HYMHO npexkAe BCero NpoRepHTs sce 8 WepHoBHKe Ha ManOM paamepe, a YHCToaHK *KeNATEMbHO PasMeTHTs NO ropHzoHTann Beptukann. Mnave Komnosnuns puTma 6yaer BbIrnspets cayuarHwim (bparmeHTom Yenoro. Moncio nH HTM CHNTaTe OCHOBOR mHaHEAeRTeNbHOCTH HenoBeKa? HHOFO PUTMA cKaabiBaercs Ha TpyAocnocobHOCTH pabouero? Purm nousTne Yenoveweckoro soobpameHHa HK TeopeHNe npHpoALI? Kanne pactenns wim nacexomsie Gonee acero npHroAME! ANS CTHAMIAUMM PATMHeCKOrO Haaopnte npusHakn, no KoTOpkiM oT6upaior NpHpoaHbit aHanor ANR puTMa. cpeact cyuectayioT ARR BbIpameHHa PHTMHHECKHX 7. Momo nu ucnome3088T» KOMBHHaTOPHbI NPHEM MPH NOHCKE PHTMMYECOX M METPHYECKX nocrpoenwi? Par — cova KomnosnuHoHHele nocrpoeHHi 23 ecoererererce e . e . e . e . e . e ini am i ae hn VAIN | Ween UA il ) ) YX BERRA Li ip ie SY Wy HRCA | ML CON TPS WSS ZZ Wiel Uf oN YN YW \ 7 iN Yi aN \ a a 1poe! sHuHO Par Yu, AES WA Le exe 3 OE <3 SB hag 3 1,3. Papnosecne Mol He moxkeMm apHTenbHO BOCNPHHAMaTe Ha- Renne 2aKoHYeHHBIM, ECM ero MaCChI KOH- CTPYKTHBHO He ypasHoBewens!. Oxo AOMKHO Guirh He TONBKO HBHYECKH, HO H apHTeNbHO yeTonunesim. Bosbmem Ana npHmepa cTapa- AbHy!o mawnHy. Mpegctasbte ce6e, uTo em- KocTe, KyAa MBI 2anHBaeMm BOAY ANA CTHPKH, Casnnyta 8 CTopoHy OTHOCHTeNbHO ABHratens. Y Wac HemnHyemo coapactca aneuatnenne, ATO CTOWT HAM BKMIONHT MaUIMHY, KAK OHA ON- PoknHercs, xoTA Ha Camom Aene 8 cHny npa- BunbHoro pacnpegenenna maccel mawnHa mower 6biTh ycToruHBor. © Pannonecne — 210 taKoe coctos- Hue opmsl, pH KoTopoM ace anemente! Banalcuponanel Mex- By co6oi. Oxo aasuct ot pac- npeenenna macc KomnosH4nn oTHocHTenbHO ee YeHTpa. Pacnpenenenne Harpy30K, rovex onopsi or HocHTenbHo YeHTpa TwKECTH AONMHO AazaTs ACHY!O 3pHTENbHYIO HHGopmMauuio 06 ycTOH- unaoctn. Mpamepom moner Brits ppesepHbii craHok. Komno3HuHoHHoe pasHoBecne goc- THHYTO B HEM NPerxkAe Acero opMOH AeTa- nek, ypeTom, TOHOm 4 nnacTHKOH. Pashonecne Tak xe, Kak H PHTM, NPUCyUIE H pactuTenbHomy, 4 KHBOTHOMY Mpy. BarnaHH- Te Ha NMpamHAanbHbIi TONONb, Ha MCT KauiTa- Ha, Ha creBenex 6enor akaunn, Ha nioBoe H- BoTHoe —y sac cospactcs snevatnenne ye- MOCTHOCTH, 3aKOHYeHHOCTH, ypasHoReuleH- oct. PapHonecne o6semon unk Yactei nioGoro coopykenns, mo6oro npeamera apurenbHo BbiabiBaer UyBCTBO NOKOR, YBEPEHHOCTH H YC~ rowunsoctn. Yenosevecknit rnaa oTAabixaer Ap BocnpHsTHH Takoro npeameta. Corep- uleHHo ofpatHoe uyactao abiabiaaet npeAMeT unn coopymenne, xapakTepuayiouneca He- YPaBHopeWeHHOCTHIO OGKEMOa HnM OTAENE- Hoix vactel. TIPAKTHYECKOE 3AMAHME No 2 Tlonck pastonecna © Marepnansi 4 mHcrpyMentel: kepanjau marknii 3M-4M; aKaa- Pensuble Kpacky; ryawe; KHCTH Kpyrnbie 4 nnockHe, marke 4 akectkne; 6ymara copmara 12. Tlonck pasHonecha moxHO aecTH AByMa cnocobamu: 1) rpaduuecknm — kapanae- WOM, KpackamH akRapenbHbimn, ryaulbio; 2) annanKathaisim —npH noMouyn «xryp, BuipesaHHbix Ha 6ymarn Hn KapToHa. Tipu pi6ope matepuance 4 HHCTpymeHTOB Ans peinonHeHna paborb! HEO6XOAHMO yHTbBI- Bate HexoTopsie Hx ocoBeHHOCTH. Tak, ryalue 8 OTAMUKe OT akBapeNbHbIX KPACOK, NOmUTER Ha Gymary 6onee rycrsim ANOTHRIM cnoeM. Tyauisio momno pa6orars Ha 6ymare, KapTo- He, Repene, crekne, TkaHax. 370 OAKH 43 OC- HoaHBIX maTepHanos 8 pa6ote xyAODKHHKa- Kouctpyktopa. HyxHoe KonH4ecTBO Kpackn Geperca nonatouKo#, nepenocurcs e cneun- anbnyto nocyay, rae passoautcs Ao onpene- TeHHOH KOHCHCTeHYMH. Kuctn HyxHo HMeTS Kpyrnbie 4 nnockHe NO PopMe H MsTKHE HN KeCTKHE NO KauecTay. Y xopowiek markoi KHCTH OKOHYaHHA BOnocA Aonmib! Geir ecrectBeHHuimH, a He nogpe 3aHHbiMn. KucTe C NOAPesaHHbIM BONOCOM ANA paGorsi He roqurcs. pn aeiGope Marko Kpy- Fnok KuCTH Hago O6patHth BHHMAHHE Ha TO, 470641 KoHEU ee He pasasanaanca H RonoC Buin co6pan KomnaktHo. Kayectso KucTH onpege- TReTCA TAK: HAAO CMATS AAYMA Manbyamn ee BONOCAHYIO HacTh — ech oHa NPHMeT BeEpo- o6pasnyio Popmy, TO KMCTe roAMTcA ANA pa- Got. Kavectao KuctH MonHO TaknKe NpoBe- PHTb, CMOUHB €@ BOAOK H 3aTeM eCTpaxHys. Y xopowesi Kucth nocne nerkoro scTpaxnBa- fina oBpaayerca ocrpeii KoHeU. Tlnockwe kKHcTH HMelor opmy monaTouKH. Onn Grisator mecTKMe (M3 CAHHOH HH KOH- ckKOH WeTHHE!) H MarkHe (BenHubH KONOHKO- sbie). B saBnchmoctn or xapaktepa paborsi, BuAa KPacoK abiGUpaeTcA Ta HAH HHAA KUCTE. 3AKCHOMEPHOCTH H CPE/ICTBA KOMNOSHLAMHL Anacrasnocrs, yenoctnocts, kpacora ypera 4 @opmet auipamaer cocrommme ypaswosewennocrx Bunamsanocte 4 crarmunocts opmet 33 Axsapenbio pa6oraiot TonbKO Markoh KH ctoio, Yro6b1 OcmbicAKTs H NpoUyECTBOBAT, TO Takoe pasHoBecve, KeNaTeNbHO ebiNonHTe HECKONGKO BAPHAHTOR YCHOBHBIX H KOHKpET- HbIx KOMNOSHUKH M3 FeEOMETPHYECKHX DArYp. Boabmem TpH-veTbipe reomeTpHuecKHe cpH- FYpbl NPoHaBONbHEIK pasmepos, K NPHMepy 88 npaMoyronbHNka, Kpyr, TpeyronbHnK (momo H apyrne uryps!) x nonpobyem pas MMECTHTS HK Ha ANCTe ByMarM Tak, HTOBbI 3pH- TembHO BOCAPHHAMANOCh KOMNOIMUMOHHOE pasHosecne. Pasmeulath ¢burypsi KenaTeNbHO komnaKtHo. Bnonckax pewienns sT0h aaga4n MOmHO HA- TH rpadnueck4m Man aNMAMKaTHBHEIM MyTAMH, Tpw rpauueckom KomnoaHUHOHHOm NOHCKE Ha 6ymare MarKHM KapaHAaliom mbI 6ce BPe- ma cpaskusaem, or6xpaem 4 coBepuleHcT- Byem KomnosHUnto. Annnnkathenbiit cnoco6 sakmovaerca 8 cneayioujem: ycraHoans no ceoemy ycmoTpe- Hiio pasmepsi KaKAOK reoMeTPHYECKOH cu- 1, Hasosute pactenus paanosecne dopmur 4 npombiunennbie nanenns, FYpbl OTAEMBHO, BLINePYNBAEM HX Ha KAPTOHE him Ha MMOTHOK 6ymare, Bbipesaem HOKHH- uamn HA ckanbnenem, a noTom Ha 6enom nncte 6ymarn, nepeasnran (burypbic mecTa Ha MMeCTO, KOMMOHYA HX TO Tak, TO 2TaK, MUKeM BapHaHTe! KOMNOSHUMOKHOTO pasHosecua (urypsi momo HakNagbieaTe Ayr Ha Apyra). Te HaxoAKu npK noucKe, KOTOPLIE NOKAKYTCA YAaNHbIMK, 3PHTENBHO BOCNPHHHMAeMbIMN, O6s0AKm KapaHAauiom, WTO! MOMHO 6riNo NoTOm cpasHuTs 4 OTOGpare nyMUIMii, Tenept o6patamcs k aHanuay pasHosecua 8 Apmpone m TexHuke. Buinoniaior 210 aaganne TPadHueckh e AHMAX HB TOHE HH YReTe, WTO 61 MOH BIO CPaBHHTe, HACKONBKO TOH UgkeT MeHsIOT apHTenbHoe BocnpHATHe ‘op- mol. Slanesinoe Hs06pakenne AaeT npeacras- Henne 06 OCHOBHbIX paamepax, KOHTYPHOK cxeme, xapakrepe Hagens. Mo rovosomy Kink UseToBomy PeWeHHIo mbI MOMEM CYAMTE 06 OBbEMe HaAeMHA, ero nnAc- Take, a rnasKoe — onpegennts screTHuecKoe kavectBo naqenna. korope! apHTeEeHO aBIpanaoT Beemy 1 KHBOTHOMY H PACTHTENbHOMY MHpY NPHCyWe PeBHoBecne? Kanne Kateropax Gonee BnkaKH K PaBHOBECHIO: CHMMETPHR HAH ACHMMETPHRT Ecre 1m paannya MeKAY HaKNECKHM apHTeNbHbIM MomHO nH KOMBHHATOPHEIM NPHEMOM BLICTPEE, NEM TPAPHNECKHM, PEWHTs aamary Hopechem? ROMCKa PaBHoBecis H saNETeR nM On BONEE MHERTHBHEIM H KaveCTHEHHDIM? 6. Kaxnnn cpeqcTaamh 4 NPHEMaMH MOMHO H3YSHTS NOHATHE PaBHORECHA @ yue6HOM npouecce? 1.4 Danamnunocts W cTaTH4Ho.Te cpopms! © Dnwamnna— oto aputensnoe BOCNPKATHE ABHMEHHS, CTPEMH- TenbHocth opmer Cpashum ans npumepa Ky6 H BbicoKyIo Tpexrpannylo nupamuay. 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Ecnu, HanpHmep, cgenaTe aH- HaMHUHOK (POPMy TOKApHOrO CTaHKa, TO 27O He Gyget o6ycnosneHo rpeboBaHnamn >KC- Nayataunn, HasHAYeHHEM CaMoro CTaHKa, TO pa6orok, KoTopyto ‘oH AomKeH abinonHani Bro He 6yget onpegensiounm chopmy Ka- Hectaom # 6yAeT npoTHBopeunTs norHKe Ha- sHaueHHs ero byHKynH. Ech Ke 838Te rOHOU- Hbi aBTOMOGHNe Hn CBepx3ByKOBOH camo- er, TO AMHaMHKA HK COpMbl abipaxaer CyU4- HocTs camoro npeameta H Wem BRIE cKo- Pocts, Tem crpemurenbHee copma. Tenep o6patumca x npupoge. Cpasnnm menpens oneHs. Dopma mensea Gonee KOMNaKTHaA, rpy3Has, a ONeHA nerkas, CTpOK- Has, AnHaMHNHad — Bene 8 Gope6e 3a cy- wjectBosanne menpens nobexgaer cunok, a ANA ONeHA BaxHbI NPexAe BCero nerKocTe 4 ckopocts Gera. Bce o6ycnoaneno. Apnamaunocre genaer opmy 6pocKoi, ax- THBHOH, 3aMeTHOH, BbIAenaA ee cpeaH Apyrux. @ CratKa — ato cocrosune noKos, PapsHosechs copmel, ycrokun- BoCTe 80 Bcem ee crpoe, B caMoit reomerpueckor ocHore. 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Mpea- cragete ce6e Ha MHHYTKy, 4TO Ha PagHONpHEM- HKe perynstop rpomKoctH AMaMeTPOM 15 cm. Byget nH 310 coorsercTaoBats pasme- pam camoro pagMONPHEMHHKA M KHCTH PYKH uenosexa? Her. Ani posemem K NpuMepy >KH- nyo Keaprapy. Cpeanas sbicota noronka 2,6 M, NODTOMY Bbinyckaeman npombiuneH- HocTbIo meGenb BbicoTon 2,7 m He 6yqer cO- PasmepHolt raKoH KBaprupe. Ans xapaxrepnetaxn copasmepHocth npez- meTOR, Y@nOTO H OTAEMBHBIX ero HacTel, a TaK- 2ke NpegMera H YenoBeKa HCroNbsytoT NOH Tha macwraba 4 macuTa6uoctH. 4 Yyecrao — macuita6HoctH — 370 peankHoe socnpuatHe mupa, OT- RenHLIX ABNEHMT B Hx KOHKPeT- HOA Beaune. Bonbwyto ponb 8 AocTHKeHHH NpaBHALHOH macwra6Hocth npoMbiUIneNHEK HOMER Hr- paror Aerann, pasmep KoropuK o6ycnosneH TexXHMWECKHMU H 2ProHOMHECKHMK Tpe6OBa- Hwamy. Macurta6Hocts — HanBonee cnomHoe cpegcreo KomnosHyHH. Bce npeamersi 4 Hanenus, KoTOpbie Kcno- AbayeT YenoBeK 8 CBOeH AeRTeNbHOCTH, AON- dKHbI GbITk COOTHOCHME € PasMepamH Hend- Beka, copasmepie! emy. 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Kak 4 Kaknmn macuiTabamn Nonbaowarecs, noApoGHo ykazaHo B rocyaap- crBeHHex cranpaprax = 1. Bee A npomuunenMue HaAeNHA HY>KHO NPOSKTHPOBATE & macusTabe? 2. MoMeT nn XYAOMMKK-KOMCTPYKTOP HAM APXHT@KTOP NPOBKTAPORATS NpOMIURERHoS 4. Yem pykosoncreyiotcs nph onpegenennn macuTa6a npw npoekTHpoRAHHH xHaHeHHOM TO ¢ yBenHYeHHem OAHOR na HMX 8 HECKONDKO YBENKUMBAR NO CPAsHEHWIO C MMMLIMH ROMA man. a uagenne Ges yuera macurabal 3. Camzan m4 macwTa6 ¢ spronommwecumn rpeomannnmn? cpegei 4 NpOMMusneniux nanennBlt 1.7, Tpotiopyy B10 oMHo ma KnaccnueckHx Cpeacre KoMnOaH- kM, € NOMOULbIO KOTOpOrO AocTHraercs Opra- HuaoBaHHOCTs bopmel. Macuitaé 4 nponop- UKM HepaspeiBHo cBRzaHDi mexay co6oH. * Mponopyna— sro AByx OTHOWeHM Kangoe aganne xwnoro Wn o6uecraeHHO- TO HAaHAMeHKa, KaKAoe NPOMBIUMEHHOE H3- Aenve Hmeer ceon nponopuun. Mponopuno- HAAbHEI — 3HAUHT HaxoAAUAHiica B onpeze- TOHHOM OTHOWEHKH K KaKOH-nBo BenHunHe. Tponopynonansune penwuntibi — sennunnbi, BaBMcsWiMe Apyr OT Apyra TakHm o8paz0M, aa CooTBeTCTBEHHO BO CromsKO 2Ke pas yBe- AMunpaetcs Apyras sennunua, B npornaHom cay4ae nponopunk Hapywatorca. PasmepHbie OTHOWIeHHA SneMeHTOR ‘POpMbl— >TO Ta OC- HoBa, Ha KOTOPOH cTpoHTeR BER KOMNOSKUHA. Kax Gui Hw Ginn camh no ce6e xopoum Aer M WaAeNHKS, HO ecnH BCIO ero OBLEMHO-NPO- crpancraenuylo crpyxtypy He oBseqnuser WerKas nponopuxoHanHaR cHcTeMa, TPYAHO paccuntpiwere Ha YenocTHOCTe opMsi. Mpo- OpyMOHMPOBaHKe cheaAyeT peccmaTPHBaTb keK TRopwecknii npowecc, NosTomy KaKAoe cOopyKeHHe, KaKACE NPOMBIUINEHHOE HIAe- JME Npeacrasnser Yenyio cHcTemy paamep- SAKOHOMEPHOCTH Hi CPEACTBA KOMMOIMUKH q Aponopyss Hbix OTHOWEHHi, ONPeAeNsOMYIO yHKYHO- HanbHoe HasHa4eHHe npeamerta. Henb3a NponopynoHHposare, ckamem, CTaHOK, NPEK- fe Nem onpenenntcs ero KuHeMaTHueCKan cxema. Mponopuns ysurbisaer KonKperHBIE yenosus, mecTo HaaHa¥eHHe npeAmera Bnpeamernom mupe, Kak 4 8 Mupe APHpOAL, Bce AOMKHO GbiTe BsanmocaRzaHo npo- Ropunsmn. Nponopunn umetor Bonbuice xyaomecrsen- Hoe aHaveHne. On onpeaensior copasmep- HOCTS M raPMOHANHOCTS 2MeEMeHTOB ~PopmEl ecex ee Hactei apyr ¢ APyrom 4 ¢ YenbiM. Cpean apyrux oco6o skigenserca Tak Ha- abisaemoe «aonoroe CeveHHen, KOTOpOE BbI- paxmaeres uncnom 1,62. Yro6e! pasgennts or- peaok AB 8 nponopynh «3sonororo ceueHnan, MOCTATONHO 8B ToUKe B BOCCTaBHTh Nepnen- B auynap BC= s wna cropoe AB ornomute AQ = AC —BC. a AB: AQ = 1,62. «Bonoroe cevennen ncnonesoBaHo npH no- CTPOeHHH NATHKOHeYHOH S8ezAbI, rae R KAM AOH TouKe NepeceyeHHa CTopoHb! 3Be3AbI Ae- ASTCA Ha ABE YACTH 8 OTHOUIEHKH «ZOROTOFO cevennan. Cekper «aonorore cevennnn Guin naBecTeH ® AaNeKOK ApeBHOCTH, HO CaM TePMMH >TO seen 8 o6nx0g Sleonapao aa Bunun. Mapie- HOH H cratyn @uaus, rpeveckue saabl, Apes- a: OrHowenne apxuteKtypHoro coopyKenHa? Hue Erunerckwe xpambl, nypamuabl — ace 370, kak yTBepxKAaeT HaYSHBIA MUP, peaynbTar ApakTHyeckoro NPHMeEHEHHR 3OAYHMM H xy- AOXHMKAMK NPOCTOrO OTHOWIEHHR — «30NO- Toro ceveHnan. Hemeukomy actponomy Moranny Kennepy (15711630) npuiaanemar cneayroune cno- Ba 0 «30NOTOM CeveHHW»: «FeomerpHs O6na- ART ABYMA BENMKHMH COKPoBHIyamn. Mep- soe — 210 reopema Muparopa, stopoe — Aenenne oTpeske 8 cpeaHem m Kpaiiem otHoweHHH. Mepsoe momwHo cpaHuTs © Mepok sonota, sTopoe MomKHO HasBaTh AparoueHHbim KamHemD |. EM. Oxcrep. Bs Hayna, 1966.— C. 236. yenne = reomerpwio.— M.: Dlopep noametun ero 2 copaamepnocrn Menoseveckoro Tena, C Hum xopowlo 6bin 3Ha- KOM Benuknit mactep Crpagueapn, Koropsit YeneuHo Hcnonb30BaN >To CoOTHOWeHHE NpH WarOTOBEHHH HenpessorgeHHEIX cKpHNOK. Vasectio, Yro wsonoroe CeNeHMen Bbiabi8a- eT snevarneHue Kpacorsl, npUsTHOCTH, corna- coBaHHocTH, rapmoHM4HocTH. Mpaxruueckh awe scero npumensercs NPHEAWKEHHOe «sonoTOe CeHeHHen, HecNeAC- BaHHoe 8 XII Beke H3BeCTHEIM HTaNbAHCKHM matematHkom DuGoHauun, KoTOPOe H HazBa- Ho 8 Yectb astopa. Bro TakHe CoorHoWeHHs, Tae Kamqoe nocneayiowee aMcno sBnsercs cyMMoi AByX NpeabiayiuMx: 3: 5;5:8;8: 13; 13:21 a. Ceasanei nn nponopynn ¢ macwTa6om H aBHCAT 1M OHH OT 2proHOMMUECKHX TPeBoBaHHh? Bruset nu macura6 # nponopuns Ha o6paaHoe peweHHe NPOMbILNeHHOTO HaReNKA HAH D3, Cobmonaiorca nm macuita6 nponopunn & pactHTeMsHoM H mHBOTHOM MMpe? 4, Vcnonmayet m4 YenoBek 3aKoHb! npHpoAt 8 cBoeH TeopuecKon AesTenbuoctA? 5, Bsammoceasana nx nponopuna c APYTMMH KATeFOPHAMH KOMNOSHUMH: CHMMeTPHER, achmmerpnel | AMMAMHUHOCTHIO, PaBHOBECHEM MT. AL? SAKOHOMEPHOCTH H CPEACTBA KOMNOSHUMH 1.8. Kontpact Kourpact — 210 peako asipaxen- Haa_npornaononomHocre: Anni Mei — KOporKH, —ToncTeiaé — TOHKHi, KpYNHbIt — menknit B xyAorkectaeHHOm KOHCTpyHpoBaHHM KOH- tpact cocrasnaet OQHO 43 OCHOBHEIX cpegcTE KOMnosHuMH, FlyTem KOHTpacTa MOXKHO yCH- JMTb abipaaHTenbHocTe HagenKA, STO ROCTH- raeTca nyTem NPAMEHEHHS pasHelx maTepHa- nos (Manpumep, 8 Teneanz0ope — 2KpaH 13 crekna, Kopo6Ka 43 Aepesa, pykn perynsaro- P08 H pewleTKH 43 MnacTmaccel, OKaHTOBKA — metannuueckan), 4 3a cuet o6pa6orkH no- BepxHocTh MaTepHana — nonuposaHHas no- BepxHocts meranna un rpy6oulepoxonaTan (baxrypa, aepeso nonuporanHoe WAH NpocTo noxpeiroe naKom. TIpH ymenom HcnonbsoBa- HHH KOHTpact MOxeT CbIFpaTe peUlaioLlyio ponb B KOMNOSHuMH, NMog4HHeHHsIi HHTepe- Cam KOMNOSMMH, OH AKTHBHIKPYeT Copmy. Npu orcyrcraun KonTpacta chopma oKaabisaer- CA manoabipaanTenbHol H cKy4HOH. Kontpactasie conocrasnenus cnoco6cray- for o6ocrpennio socnpuatna yenoro. KonT- Pact ycunusaer, nogepkusaer pasnnune coders opm, Aenaer nx eguicrso 6onee Ha- NPHKEHHbIM, BNevaTAmOWAM. Nokasatenbitim npumepom KoHTpacta mo- 2KeT CAYIKHT CBRE FeOMeTPHUECKHX qpHrYP, KOrga OAHa 43 HHX yaennunBaeTcA NO CBOMM Pa3sMepam NO OTHOWEHHIO K APYTHM, 47061 onpegenuth ueHtp KoMnosHunu. Haxogsce 6 onpenenenHom caasn apyr ¢ Apyrom TaKHe KOMMOSHYKH NpeACTaansioT NPHMep KOH- CIpyktueHore 1 KOmBmHaTOpHOro coeaHHe- hua, Taxwe ynpaxkHenna umelor oco60e 3Ha- Henne 4 sensor co6OK HeOBxoAMMyIo NpH- HaqMexHocTe OcHoR KOMNOaHUHH. Korga reomerpnueckue snementb! conpa- Fasc apyr ¢ Apyrom, o6paaylor HeuTO Ue- Oe, rapMOHHUHOE, H 9TO YENoe NpeACTaanser co60H4 onpegenennylo caasHyio KOMNOSHUMIO, TO 3THM CaMbIM B KaKOli-To mepe pewaerca npo6nema KOmG6nHaTOpHEIx nocTpoeHnit. 44 O6uocrs acex yuacreyiouyx snemeHtoB ro- BOpHT © TOM, TO COeTAHHE 3THX SNeMeHTOR coageer koropoe Mb! HaabiBaem KOMNOsHUKeH, KOHCTpyk\Hel, (CBa3b 3neMeHTOB YCNOBHOH KOMNO3KYHH cravoBHTca opraHuuHee H noHsTHee, ecnH & Het umeeTcs rnaBHbid SnemeHT, BOKPYF KOTO Poro Ha xyfOxKecTReEHHOK ocHoBe OBbeAHHs- forces ocTanbHble. Stor rnaaHbld snemeHT yc- nOBHO HadLiBaeTcA YeHTPOM KOMMOSHHH. Noaunvenne getank cnookHo KOMNO3HUHOH- Ho pa3BuTok spopmel TawKe MOKET HMeETE CBOM UeHTp, HO No cue BbIpasnrenbHocTH OH Qon- DkeH BbITe MeHee aHAYNTENbHLIM, HEM YeHTP o6uni. Baegenne rnasoro KOMMOSHUKOHHO- FO 2nemenTa H HaAneKawaa conoaunHeH- Hocte Ocranbubix AeTanes ycunueaey aHyTPeH- HIOlo CBa3b AeTaneH mexay co6O% u noBbI- wiaeT o6u\yIo abipaanrensHocre, Komnoan- UAOHHEI YeHTP NpHOBperaer ocoboe aHave- Hue NpH nocTpoeHHM ycnoBHbIX KOMNOsHYKi, Paccmorpum HECKONBKO BapHaHToR ycnos: HbIX KOMMOSHUMOHHDIX CxEM, BbINONHEHHEIX TpacHyeckHm NpHeMOM Ha MAOCKOCTH 3 reO- METPHYECKHX UTYP, MPH NOMOUM KOTOPLIX oprannayercs s2anmogelicrene moTuBoE, on- PeReNsIOWHx YeHTp KOMNOSHUMH. C BbipasuTenbHocTblo B KOMNO3HKHH TeECHO: ceagaha rapMoHHUHOCTe, OcHOSHOM sana4eH KOTOpOR sBseTcA cosmaHHe snevarneHHs YPaBHOBeWeHHOCTH, HaALHOCTH 4 TOUHOCTH o6pasa hopmei 4 xygomectBeHHoH cornaco- BaHHOCTH KOMEHHATOPHBIX 2neMeHTOR Ucnonbaonaie KoHTpacra 8 TexHuKe can3a- Ho euje H ¢ HEOBxOAMMOCTHIO CoaRaHKA OnTH- manbHeix yenos ana paGouero. Koxrpact AOMMeH BbITs YMepeHHbIM, NOCKONEKY Ypes- MePHO peakne KOHTpactbl 6ygyT cnocobcTBO- BaTb NPexXAeBpPeMeHHOMY YTOMNEHHIO, aNON- Hoe oTcyrcrane KOHTpacta — coaganars MO- HoTOHHOcTs, O6ycnopnusate nputynnene BHumanua paGovero, LseTosok KoHrpacr spnenne, Pesko supaxennas Apormsononomnocts, yennnaaer > Paanwune cbopmut SAKOHOMEPHOCTH H CPEACTBA KOMNOSKUWH Hioane (natHo, ox) secema WHpoKo pacnpoctpaHeH 8 KOMNOSHUHH NPOMbILUNEHHEIX HaBeNHi. KOH- TpactHble UseTOBbIe OTHOWEHKA No3soNsIOT sbIAeMHTs HaHGonee OTBeTCTBeHHBIE 3OHbI cTaHka, nynbta ynpasnenus, cocpeaorounTe BHAMaHMe paGouero Ha BaKHeHUHX cHCTeMaX ynpasnenus. Bexay 2toro npm pabore waa MPoeKTOm npombluiNeHHOrO M3AeNKs KOH- pact, Kak M MHOrHe ApyrHe KaTeropHn, cne- Ayer paccmarpusats He TOMBKO 8 YHCTO KOM- NOSMUMOHHOM Nae, HO Hc npaKTHuecKon cToponti, 8 casan ¢ OnpemenenHod aesent HocTeIO NenoseKa. Ovens cunbaeiis KoHTpacr, co¥eTaHne Bonb- winx H Manbix O6bemMoB MOET 3PHTENbHO PaspyusTe KOMNOSHUKOHHEIA cTpoH. Mo3To- My CTeneHe npHMeHsemoro KOHTpacTa Orpa- Hmunaaetca TpeGoBaHnamn CoxpaHeHua Yene- HocTH anevatneHns, Bbi6op cTeneHh KOHTpac- Ta onpegensercs Ha ocHoBaHMH xyAoxeCTBeH- Horo WyTba K MpakrMYecKoro OnbiTa AMsarHe- pans Gonbwen creneHh sasHcuT oT HasHaue- HHS H MecTa NPHMeHeHHS npombiWinEHHOrO wapenna, 47 MIPAKTHMECKOE 3AMAHME Ne 5 Oprannsayna nnockoctn € MOMOULIO KOHTPACTHPYIOUINX >REMeHTOR © Marepwanui n HHerpymentsl: 6ymara (popmar 11); kapanaau; aknapenb Wnh ryaulb; TyUlb; aKea Penbunie KMCTH; NepTemHEle nepss. Cocrasnts ycnosHyto KOMNOSHUMIO H3 re ometpnuecknx uryp Ha coveranne Gonbusnx M Manbix O6BEMOB, UBETORBIX MMH TOHOBLIX potmsonononnbix xapakrepucTak (Genoe — weproe, Kpachoe — xentoe, menToe — 3€- nenoe). Teomerpuueckne ¢xrypei moryt 6biTe of- HotanHoro nnana: nM6o OAHK TpeyronsHnKH, 60 OAHH KPYTH HN NPRMOYTONBHHKH 4 T. Ao, nnBo cmeulaHHoro nana. OHM moryT GbiTe BBEREHI B KOMNOSHUOHHOE PeWeHHe ANA sbiaenenna KoHTpacta. TexHnka sbinonHeHHs mooker 6biTh pasnan: depHobenan Hnn a UseTe, TouKaMM HAH WTpHxAMM. 1. Kekumn npwemamk 1 CPeACTEaMH MOMKHO AOCTHYR KOHTpACTa opel? 2. Baumer nk KOMTPact, Kak XyAODKECTAeHHOS CPEACTRO HA IMOUNOHAMEHYIO BLIPAsHTENbHOCTE APombIuineHHOrO HIAeAKs! caywaax? |. Moor mH KOHTpACT HrpaTh OTPHYATENbHYIO POM B POMBILINEHHOM HaAeAMM HB KAKHX 4, Yem onpepenserca crenene KoKTpacTa Np NPOeKTHPOBAHKH NpOMbIUINeHHOrO HaAeNHA? 1.9. Hroanc B usere, wHTOHAUHax, PeuH, B MyabiKaNbHbIX Nponssepennax KOHTPACT NOANEpKHAaeT ABHO BbIPAKEHHYIO NPOTHBONONOAHOCTS, a HOHE Hecer # ce6e equa aamerHbIt nepexoa, oTTe- HoK. Tem He MeHee KOHTPacT M HOAHC HMeIOT O6ulyIo Yenb —NOAYEPKHYTe, BbIAeNKTE oT- RenbHbIe AeTaNK KOHCTPYKUMK C YeNbIo HHAM- suayannaaunn Hanenns, ny4Wer opraHnsayHn Popmul, 80 HI6exKAHHe MOHOTOHHOCTH HT. n. Vicnonb3osanwe 4 npHmeHeHHe Hx BOMKHO 6siTe npoaymanHuim mM onpasgantbim. Kon- Tpactsl 4 HioaHcbl gocTHrarorca cbopmoit 4 yseTom. Hioanc, kak 4 KoHTpact,— cnoco6 npossne- Hua sbipasTenbHocTH a xyAoDKECTBEHHOM Koncrpynposanun. On npegctasnaet coboH kak 6bi rpagaynh oTHOWeHHK oAHOpoAHe kavects npegmeta: pasmepos, nponopuni, sera, caktypei HT. a. © Hioane — 210 orowenne opm, HesHaunTenbHo, 8 oTAHYHe OF konTpacta, pasnHuarouynxcs cao- hmu caolicraamn. Hioatc crnaKn- BaeT MOHOTOHHOCT H KECTKOCTE opmbl B nocTpOeHHK KOMNOSH- Unn nonennit. B texHnke HioaHc — >To pasHoobpashan Famma BapHaHToR 8 TOHNAKWHX OTHOWEHHAX S3AKOHOMEPHOCTH M CPEACTBA KOMNO3MUMH 48 Pasnwunbix marepHanos, cakrypsi, ysera. Oco6oe sHavenne Hioaic npHoBperaer a npo- exrnpoparnn nanennit SbiTOBoro HasHaNeHna, Boabmem pyunbie uacel. CkonbKo pasnHuHbix Mapoxk Hx BbinycKaercs! B OCHOBHOM Bce OHH kpyrnbie nH60 npsmoyronsHoh copmel. Ha Nepebit sarnay ace OHH OAMHaKoBLI, KoneGa- Hus B pasMepe, MaTepnane H UseTe He3HauH- Tenuibl. Ho 3TO TombKO Ha nepabit earnaa. Mpucmorpurece K Hum —Bce OHH pazHbie. VW sta pastnya npossnaerca a ToHuamiuHx Hioancax. Mn BoabMeM OCBeTHTENBHYIO aDMa- Typy, OcoBeHHO nnacboul K namnam. OcHowa Popmpt nocrosHHas, HesaBHcHMo OT MaTepH- ana — unnanap, Ky6, yceueHHbil KoHyc, MB TO KE BPEMA CKONLKO 3eCb BaPHALHi HIOSH- cos. To Ke camoe MOMHO HABMOAATE HB OTHO- WeHHH ynOros, XONOAMNEHKKOB M MHOMeCTBa APYHx HaAeNKA KynbTYPHO-BbITOBOrO HaaHa- Nena — ace 210 sewn, screrHuecKoe cosep- WeHCT8O KOTOpbIx 3aBHCHT OT HiOaHCHOH NPO- pa6orkn Hx dopmsi. HioaHcuposka copmb! tpebyet camo abt cOKOH KBaNHhuKayKH NPoeKTHPOBLYHKA, TOH- Koro uyths, K He npHGeraior OBbIUHO Ha 3a- Bepwaroujes craquh KOHCTpyMposanna, Koraa OcHoBa thopmel cnomMAace, MMEHHO HiOaHCH- poska, WAKhoska, PopMb! # KOHEYHOM cueTe aanepwaer geno. Hioancnposka — 210 rnas: Hoe, uTo AenaeT seul» Bonee cosepwieHHo’, aneranTHon. TIPAKTHECKOE SAMAHKE No 6 Oprauwaauns nnockoctn € MOMOUbIO HOaHCHEIX OTHOWeHHK © Marepwansi » MHcTpyMeHTEl: 6ymara (popmar 11); Kapanaaw; ryalue; KHCTH aksapenbHbie; no- PonoHosbit TaMnon. Slyuwe acero Ana ToHOBOM HicaHCHOM oT- MMbIBKM HCMOMbIORATE ryalu» — HenpospauHbie kpoiouywe Kpackn. YepHie Kpackn ynorpeb- AMOT Kak OcHoBY. LInHKOBIe Bennna npHMe- HaloT Ans pasbasneHHA YepHon KpacKH H NO- AYHeHHS Cepbix, Cepo-uepHiix 4 cepo-Genbix ToHOB Ha 11 @opmare ancra 6ymark 43 reomer- pruecknx duryp (npamoyronkunKos, Tpeyro- AbHMKOS, KPyroB) COsAaTe YCNOBHYIO KOMNO- 3MyHIO H 2aKOMnoHOBATE 8. CyuyHocts sbinonHenna 2aqaHna saKnioua- eTca 8 HesHauMTeNbHOA pasHHye B xapaKTepe OPM HNNaBHOM ToHOHOM Nepexone BcTopo- Hy ocna6esaHna Hunn ycunenns. Hain ToHO- Bole rpanaynn Ge asHo abipanenHbix crbikos. KomnosmynonHoe peuienne momer cTponTbca ha OAHOTHNHEIX reoMeTPHUECKHX Guryp 1 43 pastbix (a KoHTpacre). Ana Toro, uroBei ryause AOMKUNACe POBHO, €@ HYKHO 3aTOMNOBATe NO- PononoBon ry6Kor. 1. KeKose pons Hoanca 8 KOMMOSHYKONHOM peWeHnH HsAenKa? 2. Baanmocenzam! nm KoMTpacr WioaNe? i. 3. Onwnakonsi nn no cmbicay unioanen 4 aHioaHcuposKan? Texronnna 9 10. 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JTo- Gan reomerpuueckas curypa monet nocny- MATS MOTHBOM ANS paspaboTKH KOMBMHATOP- Horo AeKopatHBHoro anementa, HyKHO Tonb- Ko NocmoTpeTs Ha Hee rnasaMH XYAOMHHKA- KoncTpyktopa 4 npoanankaxposats urypy, NpaBuneHbit pacuet CTOPOH, 4TO6EI MPH co- cTaBneHHH PHTMHYECKOrO PARA MOXHO BEINo BaNOnHHTe MNOCKOCTH MOBO! KOH HTypAyWH. Or aaxonvennols reomerpnueckoh durypb! HYPKHO BasTh HEOBXOAMMyIO YacTe. YMeHne Paafennts reomerpHueckylo curypy Ha oT RembHble vactn ¢ WeNbIo NONyYeHHA mHOrO- BapmantHoro KOMGHHaTOPHOrO AeKOpATHBHO- roanementa — sanava Henerkas, 310 pesyne- Tat He TonbKo NposBneHHs BHYTPeHHEFO XyAO- DKECTBEHHOTO yTHS, HOM ToNHOrO pacueTa M npasnneHoro NocTpoeHHA opMb MOAYAL- Horo anemenra. yieHbix cneynanncros 8 sHauKTenbHo Bont. wei crenenu, 4em npexze. Onn crapaiorca ats scHoe 4 TouNoe O6ocHoBaHKe NOHSTHAM KOMBHHTOPHBIX Ha- Yan, 2aKoHo8, npasun. Mel octaHoBHmca Ha AByX BHAaX KOMBH- HaTOpHeIx ynpaKHeHHi: BeKOpaTHBHO-KOMBH- HaTopHoro anemenTa Ana ocbopmnenna mutepsepa « sKctepeepa 4 o6vemHo-npo- cTpancTBeHHOro MoAYAbHoro THnOaneMeHTa C MpMMeHeHHem B apxHTeKType HW ANaaiHe. 1. Yro raxoe moayne? Tae ero ncropnueckne KopHn? 2. B dem npenmyusectao KoMBuHaTopHoro merona? 3, Onpegennre pons KoMBnHaTOpHKH 8 XYROKECTSEHHOM KOHCTPYMPOBAHHH. 4, Kakne suas! KoMEnnaTopneix ynpannenni 1 anaere? © Mp noncke KomBuHatopHoro neMeHTa ROMKHE! PewaTeCs ABE OchosHsle sanauH: HenoBTopH- ‘MocTe pasHooBpaaHx KomnoaH- UMOHHEIX NPHeEMOB Hero feKO- PatwsHaa H 9scTeTHYeCKas UeH- vocn Kom6nnatopneit geKoparnanni anement HYKHO peuiate TAK, YTOBEI OH Mor, NO BO3- MOMHOCTH, BHHCEIBATECA B MIOByIO apxHTeK- TYPHY!O cpeay, Brite coctasHoK HacTeIO MH Teprepa unw >xctepsepa. [pn Hamenennn paamepa, macuia6a on He ONMeH TepaTe cB0eH BeKOpaTHBHOM LEHHOCTH, IMOWHOHANE- Horo soaneiicrans, O6pastoctn, sbiauieaemblx 0co60H HenoBTOPHMOCTEIO KOMNOSHUMOHHBIX noctpoenuii. TnasHas 3agaua, KoTOpas AonKHa PewaTEcA Mpm paspaborke KomBunaTopHoro snemeH- Ta— 270, Bo-nepsbix, veTKoe onpenenenne enh npoeKTHpoBaHHs, 4 8O-BTOPEIK, Opranh- weckaa CBA3b ¢ apxHTeKTypHOK cpeAon. Mo- STOMY YHM>HUMPOBAHHBIe AeKOpaTHBHBIe 2ne- MeHTb! AONKHE! BbITh PayHoHANbHb! B TeXHH- Noncx aekopatnaore KomEHHaropHoro anemenTa 37 NecKom oTHOWeHHK, TexHONOrHuH m cnocoBcTaosat AOCTHKeHMO KOH acTeTHuecKoH KynbTYpbI B OpraHnsayHH npoctpancra: Nponymannocts, TouHbii pacuer, oT6 pact BAUM H3NMWKH, HeNOsBONAIOWWKA OCna- GuTe KomnoaMuMo, CoRepuleHcTao HcnonHe- Has, HoBaTopcto, GeckoHeunoe pasHoo6pa- he ycnoBnii, 8 KOTOPLIX Moker GbITL NPHMe- HeH yHnepcansHe KOMBMHATOpHMI 2ne- MeHT,— Bor o6uyMe NpeANOCbINKH NonyYeHHs MCTHHHO npeKpachbix AeKopaTHBHLIX peUle- Hii B uHTepsepe # 2xcTepeepe, Bce 270 Tpe- Gyer Teopueckoro NpuMeHeHHA Toro orpom- Horo apcenana NpHeMoB M CpeACTe, KOTOPLIM BOOPYKEHD! CeFOAHA xyAOMHMKH-KOHCTPYK- Tops 4 apxuTexrops Mpuctynas x nonexy, HyKHO npexpe acero xopowo o6aymare nak BonnoWeHHs sambic- fa ® matepnanbHyio copmy. Ana sToro Heob- xoAMMe! rny¥BoKoe OcosHaHne OBuyecTReHHOH notpe6Hocth AaHHoro npoeKTa, KPHTHYECKHiI aHanw3 npeanaraembx pewenni 4 >KcnepH- eHTankHas npoRepKa saqymanHoro, cnoco6- crayiouyne nonomuTenbHomy pesynbraty. Nlonck gekopatnsHoro Kom6HHaTOpHoro: anementas o6veme — 970 no cyujecTBy, NPO- Aommenne To xe paborel, KoTopas Geina nponenana a rpauxe. Ha ee ocHoBse MOmKHO abinonHaTe monens, Nocne toro KaK oro6pan ontHmansHbit Ba PhaHT 8 rpaHKe, ncnpasnaior KOHTYpEI H YTOUHMOT PasMepEI BCEX CTOPOH, 2aTeM PH- cyHOK ysennunBaioT Ao HeoBxoAHMorO paz- mepa nu60 nponopunoHansHuim UKpKyNEM, AGO C NOMOLILO CeTKH, MHBO C NOMOUILIO o6uIuHOrO YMpKyNA K AMHeTHOrO Mac- wraé: Npexge vem nepesitn x abinonHeHnic Kom- GunaropHoro snementa B OBweMme, ICKH3 8 Ka PaAawe HyKHO npoReprTh Ha waGnonax. Ana store no yctaHosneHHomy pasmepy PucyHka Heo6xOAMMO BbIpesaTs 43 NHOTHOH Gymarn nk KapTOHA HECKONEKO KOHTYPHEIX we6novos. Mepensuran nx Ha nnockoc™H, HY KHO NOMCKATS BAPMAHTEL KOMNOSHUMOHHEIX nui Pewennit, 310 noasonser BbIsCHHTe BOIMON- HOCTH ¢ TOMKM apeHHs ero MHOrOBApHAHTHOC- TH aarlonHeHHa nnocKocTa onpeaeneHHok opmut (npamoyronbHok, KaaapaTHok, Kpyr- nok, TpeyronbHoli mT. n.), a TawKe BHeCTH cootsercrayioume nonpaskn. Takok noaxoa Aaer Gonee KavectaeHHbit peaynbrar. Mocne ykaaaHHoH nposepKm 4 coorsercrByIoWHx KoppektHa MOMHO NepexoAHTs K BbiNonHe- mo 8 Marepnane (nnactunuHe, rune, Renonnacte 4 1. A.)- Wcnonenne Komnoanunn e o6neme Tpe- 6yer Gonswesi sarpate! spemenn, Wem B rpa- une. Beinonnnts mopenb no saAaHHol Teme Ges weprexa AononsHo TpyAHo. HykeH 4ep- Tex ¢ HaHeceHHLIMK paamepamn. Beinonvenne mofenn tpeByer rounoctH Pactera m akkyparHoctn. Pacter AommeH 6eiTh Takum, MTOBbI KAKAAA CropoHa KOMEMHATOP- Horo snemeHTa npH CoeAMHeHHH CoorsercTBo- Bana moaynsHomy peweHnio. Toraa 6yaer no- Ay4aTeCA NETKAR, KOHCTPYKTHBHAR HM 3aKOHYEH- Has opma KomnosHuKH, NorHYecKH O60CHO- BaHHas 8 AeKOPATHBHO-PHTMHYECKOM H >CTe- THYeCKOM OTHOWEHHH. Henpemeninimn KoMnoHeHTamn ResTenb- HOCTH XYAOMHHK-KOHCTPyKTOpa sBASIOTCA HasbiKn 4 ymeHHs. Pabora 6yger sbinonHeHa KeanncpHunpoBaHHo, ecnh cneynanncT oBna- Reet BbICOKAM KCNONHHTeNBCKHM macTepcT- Bom, KOTOpoe NPHXOAHT Kak cneacTBHe OCo2- HaHHbIx aeticten, Aocthraetca 8 peaynbrare MHoroneTHHX ynpamHeHKi, camoo6paaor Hua. Cnomiuim ocHomannem momHo yraepyenare, NTO KoMOHHaTOpHKa He TomKO AaeT Ana Muiunenna GoraTeawnli marepuan, Ho M cno- coBcrayeT paseHTHIo AMaNeKTHYECKHX Has KOB MbICAHTeNHOrO Mpouecca. C NOMOLILIO KOMGMHATOPHEIX YNPAKHEHMH HANHHAIOUHK XYAOMHMK-KOHCTPYKTOP npuysaerca MccHe- ovate sNeHKs NPHpoALI H NPOUECCE! TEXHK- Kw BX pasBHThn. EcTecTReHHo, HMeIOTCR B BHAY B NepByio OMepeAL 2NeEMeHTH MbICAH- TensHok KyNbTypLI, HaBbiKH YMCTBEHHOTO tpyaa. KOMBHHATOPHKA 8 XYAOMECTBEHHOM KOHCTPYHPOBAHKH Kom6unaropuxa npeacrasnaer co6oH co- Bepwenni o6pasey NornueckH TOO: HM 6e- 3YNPeYHOM MbICNH, NOTOMY HTO OHA NoCTpO- ena Ha marematnuecKom pacuere, Bocnate- Baer ona npasHnbHoe h ceoeobpasHoe no crH- mo moiunenne, Pons 1 sHaveHHe KOMEHHaTO- PHKH 8 CopmHpOBaHHH AN3aMHEPCKOM mBICNH Bennka. Osnagenne ee meTogamn gaet 6onp- WOK NosHaBaTenbHb! w BocnHTaTenbHbIn 2¢pePext np HayHeHHH xyAOmeCTBEHHOTO KOH- cTpynposanns, B yye6ueix yensx nye cero npHMeHaTE nerko o6pabarbipaembie M AOCTYNHBIe mare- Phanbi: nnactunu, neHonnact, rnc, 6ymary. Uro Kacaetca BhinonHeHna KOmBKHaTOPHO- ro AeKopatHsHoro snemenra HenocpeqctaeH- Ho ana o6sekta, To matepwan nop6upaerca 8 2BHCHMOCTH OT ero HaaHaNeHna, MeCTaNPH- MeHEHNS H TOK Ponk, KOTOPy0 OH AOMMEH BbI- nonnste. Ecnk on 6yQeT NPAmeHeH BpemeHHo kak AeKopatHaHoe NaTHO npH OOpMneHHH SHTPHH MarasHHOB, BeYepoB OTABIXA, Ha Bpe- se MeHHbIX abicTaBKax HapoAHore Teopyecrea, TO MOKHO BbINOAHHTE ero H3 Bymarn. Ecnn Ke on AOMMeH BbiTe BNHCaH OCHORATENBHO B MH Tepbep Hin 2Kcreprep, To HyKeH MeKopaTHe- Ho BbIroAHBIK H NPOUHBIA maTepHan. Dkcrepsep rpe6yer Gonee npounsix 4 6o- nee ycroiwunenix marepnanos, Tak Kak OHM by- AYT NOAREPKEHEI aTMOCHEPHLIM BAKAHHAM, a HHTepeep — Gonee nerknx n meHee Ropo- rix (rnc, naactmacca, nenonnacr, KapToH, 6ymara npn coorsercreyiower o6paborKe). B npouecce pabors! Haq npoeKTom peas 4a4HO BaKHO BOCNHTaTe B cebe cnocoBHOCTH K camooyeHKe. OueHounoe wericTane HeO6xo- Ammo nPoBOAMTe He ToNeKO No sasepUeHHIO paBorsi, a HaynHas co cBopa HHpopmaunn, Ap ackHanpoRanin, MaroTORNeHKH NPOMERY- TOUHBIX MoAeNeH HT. 1. BnpoTHBHOM cnyuae: BOCMpHHHMAeMas MHOpMauHA HE npespa- W2eTCR 8 SHAHHS, HE CTAHOBHTCR HACTHIO HH Tennexta. STO TOKE ecTe CAHA Ha CTOpOH TBOPWECKHX HCKAHKA, TEOpYecKoro NPoYecca. 1. Sho6an nh reomerpuyeckan dpurypa MomeT Crate OCHOBOH ANA NoMcKa KOMBHHATOPHOrS feKoparneHoro anementa? 2. Hymato nw yuntbipare Marepnan mph paspaGorKe KomBHaropHoro AeKopaTHsHoro: a SReMeHTa H BAKHET MH On Ha ero DCTeTHECKME M AEKOPATHBHWIE KAYECTBA? 3. Kanne ochosHule tpeGopania anementy? 2.3. Nonck Kom6mHaTopHoro AekopatneHoro snementa Ha ocHose npHpogHoro akanora B npupone ectpesaiorcs cambte pasoobpas- Hobie reometpHueckne copmb!: TpeyronbHbIe, Kpyrnbie, osanbubie 4 apyrne. Ovens Yacro Npupona cama yHupuuupyer reomerpnuec- ke KOHCTPYKUHH, CTPOMT OHA Hx, KK MpaBH- JO, 43 OAHO! H TOR Ke Copmel. Mprmepom TakHXx KOHCTPYKUMH Chy>KaT NenecTKM UBeTOR, AMCTRA Aepesbes, CeMeHa 3naKoB, sroAbI Ma JHB, EXeBHKH, YeWyA poi, ame, WHUeK, NaHyMpH oKMBOTHEIX. Taka® nNoBTOpsemocTe OAHOTHNHEIK 3neMeHTOB 8 NPKPOAe — sane- He 3aKoHOMepHoe. Apeawasnsiorcs K AeKopaTHBHomy KOMBnHaTOpHOMy B nprpone yunukayna npusoant K cosep- weHcTay GPopMbi M HAeT B OCHOBHOM no onpe- AGNeHHbIM BHAAM HHBOTHOTO H PacTHTENbHO- ro mapa, Dopma yHHUNPoBAHHOro snemeH- ya cosgaer onpenenenium o6paa 4 xapaKrep Toro Maw nHoro OBveKra. Borarerusnm HCTOM- HuKOM ANA NOHCKA KOMBHHATOPHOrO AeKOpa- THBHOrO 2neMeHTA CHYMAT KHBAA NPHPOAA, Tp cocrasnenn ackn3a aekopatHBHoro: komBnHaTOpHoro snemeHTa MCnoMb3yIOT NpH- PoaHue qopme: (nucTes, User! H Ap.), npeobpaacevinas Hx (crunnays) 8 KOMNOaH- unax. B npouecce cTHnH3aynH BaKEH MOMEHT XYAOKECTAeHHOCTH, YMeHHA BACT» Kpa- cuBce H HCnONbaoRaTS & CROeH KOMNOSHUHH. Crnnnaayna goctnraetes o606ueHKeM, Yen 59 Mone Aekoparuanore KemEunaropHore anementa MWo6aa npmpoanas popma — aro ocwosa ans noKewa Aexoparuanoro KomBnaropHoro anenenta Buinonnenne KOMBuNaTOPHEIX >RementOR 6 KoToporo cAenaTe MOTHB NOHATHEIM ANA 3PM Tena, a Tae o6nerunts ero sbinonHeHHe xyAOnHnKOM. B mio6om cnyyae cTHnHzayHa BacTaanseT XYAOMKHMKA-KOHCTPYKTOpA YUHTEI- Bate 2aKoHb!, No KOTOPLIM Ha6upaeTcR ma- Tepwan, a TaKme ocoGeHHOCTH MecTa, OTBe- AeHHoro ana aeKopa. Tho6aa npupognas opma Mower cAyDKHTe OcHOBOM ANs NoMcKa AeKOpaTHBHOrO KOMEH- HaropHoro snementa. Ho nyuwe acero cocpe- AoTOuNT CBOE BHHMAHHE Ha TeX COPMax, KO- Topwie NoAAaIOTCA FeOMeTPHIAUAH H HMeIOT SPKO BLIPAKEHHYIO KOHCTPYKTHEHYIO OCHORY. Maywan saxoHomepHoctH npupoati, weno- BeK MbITaeTCA NPHMEHHTS HX B CBOE NoBceA- HeBHOH KHaHH. B caoem TaopyecTae xyAO>%K- MMKKOHCTPYKTOP BOCNPHHHMaeT HE ace H3 Toro, uo Bpocunock emy @ rnaza, a svi6upaet HanBonee samnoe, HyMHOe HM xapakTepHoe, Bapucoskh npupoaHoro avanora ace pasHo 6yaytT conepmate uenbii pag HecyuyecTBeH- Hbix NOAPOGHOCTes, HECMOTpA Ha CTPeEMneHHe K o6o6uennio ® NpoKecce paborsi. TaKor pu- CYHOK NogBepraioT AaneHeHWwe TpaHcop- Maun, Sakmouaouelica B nnacTHuecKom 1. Uro TaKoe craansauna opm 2: Q AeKopatnsnoro snementa? 4, Kaan Kayects npeobparceannn copmsi, 8 Gonee aktusHom or6paceisanun HeKoTopeix geraneH. fIna XYAODKHMKA-KOHCTPYKTOPA BOKHAB TAKOM CAY- wae yenoctHocTs Bocnpustas, Bo Bpems 32- PHCOBOK NPHpOAHEIX aHanoros XYAOKHMK HE TonbKo HaBnioAaer npeAMeT, HO HM NosHaet ero, He TonbKO cTpemuTcA ckonHpoRaTe ero BHEUIMIOI OPMY, HOH NOHATS BHYTPEHMIOIO CTpYKTYPY, KOTOpasH onpemenser aTY opmy. Tpnctynas x pas6opy npupoanore axanora, HeoBxoanmo yOequrecs, “To ocHoBa ero cooT- sercTayer noctasneHHod sagaue no KOHCTpyK- THaHBIM XapakTepHcTHKam. OGszaTeneH Tue TenpHsit pas6op npxpoaroro axanora, Npx ssiGope npxpoanoro ananora sHuma- TenbHo way4aior xapakrepHele AeTann, mecTa creika, yanosbie yronueHnn. PHconats npHpo- Avble aHanorH HauMHaIoT ¢ rabapHTHEIX KPa BLIX KOHTYPOB, NPHMEHSEMbIX 3a OCHORY KOMNOSMKMOHHOM 2aasaKn. KoHTYpHbIH pHcy- HOK MPMpoAHoro aHanora— ocHoRa nonCKA. Mocne toro, kak opma npupogHoro aHanora npopa6orana TOHOM H BBINCHEH pHcyHOK pe- Pa, BLINONHAOT MOAYNEHEIN KOMBHHATOP- Hult snement @ marepnane (2 o6eme). W ans wero ona genaercs? Hiro Takoe ynduauns? B KaroX MPHPOAKEIX POPMAX Mbl MOKEM HABMOAAT yHd>HKALO? TW06OK nh npHpOAHsIK aHanor MOMer CAYMHTe ANA paspaborKn KOMBKHaTOPHOrO ya AONKEH OBNaAaTe NPHPOAKKIA aHanor, uTOBbI NocAYKHTe OCHOROR Ana paspaGorKn KOMGmMaropHoro AeKopatnsHOFO snemeHta? 2.4. Bunonuenne KOMGHHaTOpHBX sneMeHToR ma GyMarn, nnactunMua H runca © Anssvinonhenna komEnnatopHo- TO AeKOpaTMBHoro snemeHTa 43 6ymark Tpe6yiorca 6ymara puco- sanbHas, Knel pesnHoanili 4 MBA, HOMHMUbI, HOM-PesaK ¢ OAHOCTO- POHHeH saTOUKOH, meTannnuec- kaa nnHediKa, YroMbHHKH, UMPKYne. To npeasapurensio pacuepueHHbim nH- Hwam Ha Bymare Renaior Hanpesb! HOKOM-pe- 3aKOM Ha NONOBHHY TORUAKHE, YTO6EI nony- YuTe ToUNDIA Nepenom Ha HarHBe. PassepTKH nA BeinonHeHHa KOMGHHaTOpHoro anemeHTa wa 6ymarn gone! 6oirs cHa6KeHe! KnanaHa mM Ansa cKnensaaHns. Ha cteikax (ocobeHHO. NowcKoBEIX K NepHoBbIx makeTos) nyuwe BCe- FO CKMeMBaTb PeSHHOBLIM KneeM, NO TOH NpH- WnHe, 4To BO apems paGoTbI OH HE NaNKaeT Gymary. Ecnw knew nonagaet Ha HexKenatenb- Hoe MecTo, TO On nerKo cHHmaercs. HeKaNect- BeHHy!o ckneliKy nerKo HenpasHTs. Kneem TBA, npegsapurensHo passegenHuim Boaoi, MOMBHHATOPUKA 8 XY AOMECTBEHHOM KOHCTPYHPOBAHHK Ronwaytorcs, Wro6si cknenTe Mogenb ocHo- Barenbho H Hagonro. Vsrorosnenne makera wa 6ymarn He Tpe- Gyer cneyransHoro oBopygosaHna x cnoxHEIX naseikos paborsl. Maker Ha Bymarn B UENOM C TPyAOM noagaerca AopaborKe, nosromy 06- HapykeHHbIe OWKEKH 4 NpocHeTbI ycrpaHaloT ToMbKO W3rOTORNEHHEM HORbIX anemeHToR: Yawe scero 6ymaxkHbii MakeT HCNOnb3ytoT B kavectae pabouero. 310 caazano ¢ rpyANocTa- Mau warorosnenna BymaxHOro maKera C XOpO- UMMA REMOHCTPAUMOHHLIMN KAHECTBAMM, eFO HemonroneunocTeto, HeyRo6crsom B TPaH- cnopraposke # xpaHeHnn, Mogens m3 nnactannia Kax peaynerar a NONHeHHS KpaTKOBPeMeHHOrO 3anaHHA HOCHT yue6uuii xapakrep. Mocne Toro Kak pucyHoK Haliaen 4 nposepeH Ha KApTOHHBIX BBIpeaKax, Ay4we acero nporepnTe mogens Kombnna- Topnoro snemenra Ha nnactHnnHe. MMeHHO 8 nnactunnne orpaBariaior ray6uHy H xapaK- Tep penseda nagenns, purmuuecknii noBTop, nposepsior urpy caeroreHn m Apyrne HioaH- cb. Mlocne TuaTenbHom npopaborkn mogenn ha nnactanuna npH HagoBHoCTH ee MomHO Ne- pesectn s Bonee npounbii marepuan — rnc. Tlepea Tem Kak cHsiTh cpopmy ¢ naactHaK- HOBO Monenn, ee KnagyT Ha Xopowo nporep- Toe oF nbinu crekno. Ha paccroaun AByx caH- THmMeTpoR OF MogeNK NO NepuMerpy AeNatoT orpaay 43 nnactannHa Ha Aba CaHTHMerpa BbI- we camow Mogenn, Passogat runc w 3annBaror AM MORENb Ha BBICOTY NNACTHAHHOROR Orpan- ku. Mocne toro Kak runc cxpatuncsa, creKom YAansior nnacTAnHHosyio MOReNe 42 rHNCo- BO hopmsi Tak, 4TO6LI He NOBpEAHTE ee ca- 62 my. Dopmy saunujaior 4 BbICyWMBaIOT, CMAgBI- Bator CNeWMaNbHOw Cma3KOH Hn BaseENKHHOM xv aanupaior B Hee unc. Dra copma HaabiBaer- ca wepHosol. YepHosas chopma yauje Bcero pas6upaercs np wasneveHnn na Hee runco- Bow Mopenn, OcoBeHHO CnomHOK No copme. Tuncoayto mogent Heo6xogumo xopowo npo- CYUIMTS M HECKOMBKO paa NOKPLITe cneyHanb- HbIM HK MEBENBHBIM NaKOM ANA TOrO, HTOBbI ova crana enaronenpoHnyaemon. Mo aTOK mo- ReNK CHHMaloT yKE KyCKOBYIO Ghopmy — 60pHo-pas6bopHyto. Kyckoayto cbopmy TuyarenbHo 3a4nujator Roche Toro, Kak Na xXOpowo sbiCOxHer. C axyrpenHes croponsi ee noKpsigator HEcKO- bo paa naKom. Ho Wro6bi KYCKM copa! He Pacnaaannce, HeoBxoaKmo Cpenate TaK Haabi- Baemsie 3amKn. Ha ORHOM KYCKE POPMbI Re- navor yrny6nenne, a Ha Apyrom nonyyaerca icTyn. Bce KyCKM bopmel COBMpaior H 3ank- Bator OGM KOmyxOm. Mocne TaKOK O6pa- Gorkn HauHHaIOT CepHiiny!o dopmoaKy KOM- 6unaropHoro snemenra. Takas popma 6uicTpo coBupaercs m paa6upaercs. Uro6si ycKopuTe pa6ory Haa HagenKem, HYKHO cHenaTe He- cKoneKo TaKKx opm (S— 10 wryk). B nnactunnne m runce c Gonbwon crenenbio RocrosepHocth npopabarniaior copmy chaxrypneie xapakrepucrin anemenros. Opnaxo. runcosan dopma Heponroseuna, Guicrpo HaHaMMBaeTCR H OFAMBBI NONyUAIOTCA He HerkHe. [ostomy nyuule npHMeHaTs ‘op- monnact. Mopmonnacrosan mogenb momKeT AaTb MHOFO OTNHBOB CaMOH CNOKHOK MoReNH, MeTKOH NO CROeMY PHCyHKy H penbedy. runcosbix OCHOBHLIM ANA BLINONHEHR AEKOPATHBHOTO KOMBMHATOPHOrO InemeHTa? *» 1. B kakmx cnyuaax npHMeHmoT ANaCTHAMH KaK MAKETHEIA MaTepHaN H MOKeT AH OM BxiTe 2. . Moret nm Gymara crate OCHOBHRIM MaTepHanoM ANH MarOTOBNEHHs eKopaTHBHoro 3B Kakom marepvane mMoxHO nerko nposepure KomOuHaTopHoro snemenTa HB KaKHX cnyMaRX? KOMMOSMUMOHHBIE —BO3MOKHOCTH KoMOnnaTopHoro AKOpATHBHOrO SheMeNTa, NPEKME Hem NEPEHTH K OKOHNATEMDHOMY OGbeMHOMY BhInonHEHnio? 4, Kaxoe pasnusne mexay YepHoBoK H KYCKOBOH rANCOBOH opmon? 5. B KaKoli nocnenowarenbHocTH BLinonHseTcs# KOMENNaTOpHbIi AeKOpATMBHEI snemeHT ha naactunnna 4 ranca? Derermeckas pane meKoparnenore KOMBHHATOPKOrO anemeHTa 83 2.5. Deretn¥eckan pons ReKopaTHBHoro KOMGHHATOpHOrO anementa 8 wHTepbepe m aKcTepbepe Kom6nnaropHeii AeKoparHeHbit anement WHPOKO NPHMeHAIOT B OchOPMNEHKH HHTepBE- Poe H 2KcTepHepos OBulecTBEHHEIX H KAMEIX MOMeUleHni, TPOTYAPOB YeHTPanbHEIX ynHu, TOPOACKHX 4 napKoBbiK ANoWaner, AeTCKHX nnowanok, TPamBaliHelx 4 TponnenBYcHEIK oc TaHOBOK, raseTHbIx KHOCKOB HT. n. C ero nO- MOU\bIO AOCTHFaIOT CTHNeBoro eANHCTBA BHEWI- Hero BHYTPeHHero OopmneHHA aqaHni. Hanpumep, npr oipopmmenun sHTepbepa MHOFOST@KHOFO 3AAHHA FOCTHHMUE! (OcobeH- Ho oie, xonnos, Kae, pecropanos) oAMH Tor Ke anement AaeT Gonbulce pasHoobpasHe KOMMOSHUMOHHEIX peweHHi. TlomeukeHna, YKPAWEHHBIe AEKOPATHBHEIM 2EMEHTOM, Ha- PaAHS!, TOpAeCTAeHHE!, YIOTHEI. OHH mcHXo- ROFHECKH BOCNPHHHMaIOTCA AyNWe. @ Mpx paspaborke KomBuHaTopHo- Fo snemeHta HeEOBXOAKMO YHHTEI- Bath yHKUAOHaNbHOe HaaHaHe- Hue HHTepsepa unu aKcTepepa Vckyccts0 He mpocto copmupyer cpeay. Oxo npeo6paxaer npoctpancrao 4 cosaaeT Hactpoenwe. Mpumenenne geKxopa yaayHo FMulk 8 TOM chywae, KorAa AeKopaTHBHbie anemenTel He HaHocsT yuwlep6a opme yKpa- waemoro oBvexra, a HanpoTHe, coxpaHsn xa- paktep ero crpyktypbi, fenaior o6veKT mpH- aTHuIm Ana paborb! 4 raza. XYAOKHHK-KOHCTPYKTOP AONMEH 3HaTb TOH- Hulk anpec BoaRercTaHa NpumeHneMoro KOM- 6unaTopHoro —AeKoparTHBHoro. Nnactnueckan cipyktypa geKopatHsnHoro ane- menTa ocranasnusaeT aHnmanne apuTens, aactasnser ero paarnapets 4 OCMbICMATE 2CTe- THHeCKYIO WeHHOCTh @eKopa. Mpoctota apxn- TeKTYpHBIX opm, mpHcyujan KOMBUHATOp- HbiM 2neMeHTam, QOMKHA CornacoBbIBATECA ananns, D 2. Kaxwe chakrops! Hane yunri a murepbepe » aKcreprepe? anemenra. © naKOHHIMOM CTHNA COBPEMEHHOH apXHTeK- Type Pexomenays KOMGHHaTOpHbIA snemeHT Ans opranmaaynn npocTpancrea, HYDKHO YYHTEIBaTE uenecooBpasHocTh coNeTaHHa maTepxanos 8 KaxOm KONKpeTHOM CnyHae. HO He HY>KHO Gostsca cmenoro coveTanus. Bupasurens- HOCTe MeKopa Bospacraer, ecnn on noAKep- kuBaeT CTPYKTYPHO-KOHCTPYKTHBHYIO OCHOBY nuTepsepa nn aKcTepepa, npxaneKan Tem Cambim Hale BHAMAHKE Mpumenas KomOHHaTOpHBIt MeKopaTHBHEti anement, HeoBXOAHMo YunTBIBATE ecTecTBeH- Woe (qHesHoe) H nckyccTBeHHoe (sevepHee) ocreuyenne. B 3aBncHMocTn OT xapakTepa OC- Beujens no-paahomy 6yayt sbissnensi o6- Ue KOHTYPBI, PHCYHOK, PeMbEd) H CAM PHTMH- WeckHit nostop AeKopatusHoro anementa. UckyccTaenHoe ocpeuyenne Bruner Ha BOCnpH- awe npoctpancraa. Caer sbinonuseT acTeTH- Meckyio PyHKUHIO, ComelicTayeT BbIABMEHHIO oBbema nomewennit, cosmaeT MeKOpaTHBHEIA a¢pexr. Crerossie ny HecyT scio apHTenb- HY!O MHchopMayHIO, BOCNPHHHMaeMyIO YeNO- BeKom, Boicoty pacnonomenus ocsetaTenbHow ap- Marypbl cneayer ebi6upate c y4eTom nyswero BBINBNEHHA TEKTOHHNECKOH CTpyKTYPHI HHTe- Pepa 4 ero mexoparHsHaix Kauects. He A0- NYCTHMA BRICOKAR APKOCTH OCBEWEHHA OTA MbHbIK yHaCTKOB HHTepkEpa, TAK KaK OHA HCKa- meaeT AeHCTBKTeENbHYIO CTaTHHECKyIO pone KOHCTPYKUK H AeKOpa. Userosce pewenxe nHTeprepa c yueTom seta geKoparHsHoro snementa cneayer co- rnacosbieats CO cneKTpanbHbim CocTasom MCTOUNHKOB HCKyCCTBEHHOFO ceeTa. Apxnrextypo-acreTuueckan opranuaaunn huTepeepa npoHsBogcTBeHHEIX 4 O6uLeCTBeH- HbIX MOMeWeHH OMKHA cnocobcrsoBaTh NOARep*KaHKIo TpyAOBOTO NoAbeEMa H Kok pa6orocnocobHoctH. Ico- Onpenennre pont KomBuHaropHoro 2nemente 8O BHELINEM H BHYTPEHHEM odopMneHHH ate MPH HCNOMbIOBAHKH AeKOPaTHBHOFO snemeHTa & KOMBHHATOPHKA 8 XYROMKECTBEHHOM KOHCTPYHPOBAHAH 54 2.6. KombnHaTopHeie ynpaKHeHns 8 o6beme ObvemHoe npoexrmposanne xopowo passn- Baer npoctpancrsenoe soobpaKenne. MnrKe- HeP-KOHCTPyKTOP, aPxHTeKTOP, xYAODMHAK- KOHcTpyKTOp, NPoAenae ABa-TpH pasa pabory NO KOHCTPYMpoBaHuIo HOBOTO HIAeNHKAC NPH- MeHEHHEM NpOMeryTOUHEIX Mogene, KCNON- HOHHBIK UM CaMMM HAH 8 COAPYDKECTBE C XY AOMHAKOM MMH MaKeTUAKOM, BbICTPO OHEHHT ace npenmywjectsa o6vemHoro npoeKrupo- Banus, Ans ynpaxknenua 8 o6vemHo-npocrpax- CTBEHHOM KOMNOSHUHH HEOBxOAHMO HanTH Ta- koe coueranne reomerpHuecknx @puryp, sTo- 651 on No cBoemy xapaKTepy, OBvemy H apH- TenbHomy Becy cocTasnann HeuTO Yenoe. Ko- mauecteo 4 pasmepe! Hx no6upaior @ saen- CHMOCTH oF NocrasneHHOH aaqaun, Kom6unaropHbii metog nossonser 8 onpe- AenenHeix rpaHmyax nepecrasnate anementss kak @ yue6Hbix, Tak HB ApAKTHYECKHX WeNAX. @ HasHauenne KombunaropHoro, Merona —sbiseHTs mHOrKecTBO couetaHnii 2nementos, o6paayio- ux oBvext, ans onpemenenus Avanasona @opmuposanna sapH- 2HTOB, 43 KOTOPLIX MOMHO abi pare cambit ontHmanbHbii. Yaaunoe coueranne pastbix reomerpnuec- kux Ten — sanaua tpyanas. 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Kaxabii 43 Bapnantoe KOMNOSKUMH ROMKeH BbITs npeAe- MBHO NAKOHHUHBIM, OTMHUATECR JAK OHNEH- HocTbIO, HeTKOCTHIO, AeKOPaTHEHO! NDHEMne- MocTbIo. Flonck Kom6unaropHoro o6vemHo-npo- crpancreenHoro 2nementa momer Gasnposa- Tees Ha OcHOBe moore reomerpHuecKoro Te- na: UAnnHapa, Ky6a, wapa, napannenenunena iT. n, Bastoe reomerpHueckoe Teno coorser- crayiowero pasmepa H nponopuni AennIca Ha onpenenenHoe KonnuecTBO CaMOCTORTeNbHBIX uactei. Durypa nonyuaetes yoxe He MOHOMHT- Hol, a NOABHKHON. K 2TOMy HEOBxoAHMo AO- Gasnre ewe OAMH-ABa Bua reomerpHuecKnx Ten 8 HYKHOM KOMMNECTBE 1 COOTBETCTEYIO- Ux nponopusii, 2rore AocTaroUHO ANS WH POKOTO NoHCKa KOMNOSHUMOHHBIX peUeHHi. Tlonck Kom6nHaropHoro anementa aomKeH 6site yeneHanpasnenHeim, Kanqoe HOBOE pe- uieHne HeoBxOAHMO HauHHaTe nocse Nonyye- HWa NPeabiayuiero. Sto HyKHO Ana BEIPabor- Ki HOBOH TOUKH apeHns Nocne aHannsa nepeo- To eapnanta, APHBNeYeHHa AONOAHMTENGHEIX aHaHMit MW npoeKTHBix cpeacre. Mpa yene- HanpasneHHom noncke nepea YuALAMMCA AON- MHa CTORTe KOHKPeTHaR 2aqaua, KOHKPETHDIA o6pas, TombKo Toraa KOHKpeTHaR yHKUHs sonnormrcs 8 pewaemyto copmy. OchosHas ngea Hcnonb30BaHhs CB LeEMHO- npoctpanctsenHoro KomBuHaropHoro ane- MeHTaB TOM, UO OBKEAMHAR MHOMeECTEO >11e- meHTOR Ha HaBeCTHEIX NPHHYMNaX MeXAY CO- Go10, HyMHO NONyYHTS 2aKOHNEHHYIO rap mo- Hnueckyio opmy, Cosmaoulyto onpeaenen- Hawan, Kom6uwaropnvie ynpaxnenna » o6veme Ogun m3 mapmanros yenoctHok Komnoanynn m3 O6nenno- npocrpancrsennux anementos 65 KOMBHHATOPHKA @ XY AOMECTEEHHOM KOHCTPYHPOBAHMH 66 Hoe anevarnenne 4 onpegeneHHuii o6pas. Tpn noncke HoBoro KOHCTPyKTHBHOTO KOM- GnnaTopHoro snementa onpenensior Yen’, Ha ocHose KoTOpoh paspabarbisaioT 2nemeHT (06vexr peanbHoro sonnowenns). Cobmone- He 2aKOHOB KOMBMHATOPHKH MPH ACex KOH- CTPYKTHBHBIX NOcTPOeHHaX KOMBHHATOPHOrO anemeHta O6ecneunBaetca eue HW TEM, YTO OAHOBPEMeHHO aHanHTHUeCKHM nyTeMm AOKA- ablaaioT BePHOCTE BLIGpaHHOro peweHHs, On- Pasqanne noaxona cnyKnT KpHTepHem Ans ApHaHanna HaAeHHOK copmot. C MOMOUsIO TEOMETPHHECKHK GpHTYP MONHO cosmarb paA cambix pasHoo6pasHbix KoMNO- SMUMOHHDIX PeUeHHii, Jake He MMEIOUAMX BHA- wane HHKaKOH NPaKTHYeCKOH CCHOBLI, HO O6a- Aaroux caoiicrsamn, KoTOpbie 8 6yayuiem Rony4ar HenocpeactaeHHoe npHmeHeHne 8 nenaHn, YNPAKHEHHS 8 PAAC KOHCTPYKTHBHDIX ocTpoeHnt h pasnnuHbix KOMBnHaUAK cno- coBctayior TOMY, HTO HHOrAa NOABAAIOTCA CO- BEPUIEHHO HoBbIe H OPHrHHanbHBIe PeWeHHs. Bee aBcrpakTHble KOMnOSHUWH 8 KOHENHOM nrore BbinnBaloTca @ NPakTHYECKHE PeLIEHHs, npersopsscs 8 peanbiule OGpasbi KOHCTPY- nposanns. B nonckossix Mogenax nyuwe Bcero ucnO- AbaoBaTb NAACTHAKH, KOTOpbIA Bnaropaps ceo- @% NogatansocTH nossonseT BECTH NOMCK HB KOPOTKHA CPOK NOCTPOKTh MHOKECTBO BApH- anos npomenyrounuix monenen, O6nanaer ANACTHYHOCTHIO, CNOCOBHOCTRIO —NPHHHMATS mio6yio opmy, AaeT BOIMOMKHOCTS GbiCTPO nepesecth cBot 3ambicen 8 o6bem. MnactH- AMHoBbIe AeTANH Nerko COeAMHAOTCS. [pH pa- Gore ¢ nnactannHom HanBonee npocto pe- uiaioTca Bonpochi CoBepWleHCTBOBAHHA H ne- Peaenkn monenn. Mosepxtocts makera 3 nnacthnna o6pabarsisaercs cxpebiamn, cre- Kamm, Homma. Ana npomexyTouHbix, noncKOBLIX Moneneit MONeT CAYKHTe TaKOR MarepHan KAK NeHO- mnact. OH nerko noggaetcs mexaHnueckon ob6paborke. Ans suinontenna monenn H3 ne- Honnacza tpe6yercs Habop Hoke h HaxAad- Han 6ymara. Ecnn nenonnact nnotHbii, ero MOMKHO Pe3aTb NPOCTOH NHno-HOKOBKOH, a 6onee marknii — snextpocnmpannio. fleta- nM #3 NeHonnacta yAO6HEI ANA KOMBHHATOP- HOH paborbi, CBASaHHOM C NOHCKOM HOBbIX KOH- CTPYKTHBHO-KOMBHHATOpHBIX peweHHit, Onn nerKo cKpennaiorea memay co6ol 6ynasKa- Mi, WITSIPAMH, TOHKAMH rBO3ARMK, BRBANGHBI- Mi METANTANECKMMH CHHYaMH. Hepeso ncnonbayerca ana narotosnenns MORenei B TOM cnytae, KOT B>TOM eCTH Ha- AOGHOCT», H KorAa ace NPoBEpeHO 1 oTpabo- Tano. M3 apesecniib! nonyuator nerkne 4 npo- wnule makerbi. Onin ROnroBeNHb! H TpaHcnop- ra6enbit 1. Kaxosa pone KOMGuNaTOpHbix ynpaKHeHnii 8 NPoKsBOACTBeHHOM npoueccet 2. Ha ochone wero Gaaupyetca nonck KOMxHaTopHoro O6memHo-npocrpancrseHHoro anemental 5 3. Kaxas Kom6unaropHaa KOHCTPyKUMa cuNTaeTcR saKOHNEHHOR? 4, Yro Tae a6crpaxtHan KomnoaMuna? Ee HasHaveHne, 2.7. Kom6mnatopHiie npwembt 8 AMsaiiHe H apxnTextype B apxnrextype cosgaiorca npoeKre! nerknx cknaaHeix TpaHcnopraBenbHbix AOMHKOB Pas- ARHOTO HaSHaNeHKS, BbICTPO TPaHchopmn- pyembix nomewennii (sans, ape) c HaMeHE- HHeMm nnowaRh 4 nnaHHposkn. Mpumepom Mower GuiTs cTaAMOH Ha npocnekte Mupa B Mockse. 3r0 camoe Gonbuice 8 Hawied cTpaHe 3aKpbIToe CnopTHBHoe Coopy»KeHHe, KOTOPOe 38 KOPOTKHi CPOK MOKHO TPaHCCpopMHpoBaTE B nerkoaTNeTHYeCKHh MaHem, rHmHacTH4eC- Knit nomoct, none Ans dyT6ona, XoKKes HAM nnowaaky Ans ckopocrHoro Gera Ha KOHbKAX. B Knese cozgeH npoext craquona c pier