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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Предисловие……………………………………………………………………… 4

Методическая записка………………………………………………………….. 5

Chapter 1. Introduction: Understanding the Culture of the United States………. 7

Chapter 2. Traditional American Values and Beliefs…………………………… 16

Chapter 3. The American Religious Heritage…………………………………… 26

Chapter 4. The Frontier Heritage………………………………………………... 35

Chapter 5. The Heritage of Abundance…………………………………………. 45

Chapter 6. The World of American Business…………………………………… 53

Chapter 7. Government and Politics in the United States……………………….. 63

Chapter 8. Ethnic and Racial Diversity in the United States……………………. 74

Chapter 9. Education in the United States………………………………………. 84

Chapter 10. How Americans Spend their Leisure Time………………………… 94

Chapter 11. The American Family……………………………………………… 106

Chapter 12. American Values at the Crossroads………………………………… 116

Video and Text Bank……………………………………………………………... 128

Принципы измерения навыков экзаменуемых…………………………………. 178

Образцы зачетных / экзаменационных

материалов………………………………………………………………………. 181

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Предисловие
Учебное пособие Discovering America составлено в рамках программы обучения практике
иностранного языка (модуль «Домашнее чтение») на уровнях B2–C1 и предназначено для студентов
программ бакалавриата, изучающих английский язык как основной иностранный на факультете
международной журналистики МГИМО МИД России (продолжающие и начинающие группы).
Рекомендовано для обучения в третьем и четвертом семестрах продолжающего потока
(продвинутый уровень), в пятом и шестом семестрах групп начинающего потока (средний уровень)
в рамках модулей «Домашнее чтение 3, 4» и «Домашнее чтение 5, 6» соответственно. Пособие
нацелено на подготовку бакалавров в рамках единого европейского пространства высшего
образования.
Темы пособия охватывают следующие значимые вехи в культуре США: первые поселенцы,
иммиграция, жизнь на фронтире (в исторической зоне освоения западных территорий США),
традиционные ценности, религия, бизнес, этнос и расовое разнообразие, образование, спорт, досуг,
семья, политическое устройство, история. Культурологический материал включает основные
понятия: «плавильный котел», «фронтир», «традиционные ценности», «этническое и расовое
многообразие», «язык», «образ жизни», «массовая культура», «церковь» и т. д. Лексический
материал предлагается сообразно рассматриваемому культурологическому пласту.
Учебник Maryanne Kearny Datesman, JoAnn Crandall, Edward N. Kearny American Ways:
An Introduction to American Culture (fourth edition) (Pearson Education, Inc., 2014) был выбран
авторами практикума в качестве опорного материала, поскольку в настоящее время он является
одним из самых современных изданий, отражающих реальность и доступно повествующих обо всех
течениях, происходящих в США на сегодняшний день; развивает лингвострановедческие знания
студентов; сочетает в себе насыщенное информационное содержание и систематическую работу
по развитию аналитических навыков и коммуникативной компетенции; направлен на развитие
критического мышления благодаря тщательно продуманным сценариям, позволяющим активно
использовать язык.
В конце пособия приводятся принципы измерения навыков экзаменуемых, экзаменационные
требования и критерии оценки ответа испытуемого, также предлагаются образцы экзаменационных
заданий.
В соответствии со ст. 1274 Гражданского кодекса Российской Федерации авторы данного
практикума использовали в своей работе с обязательным указанием имени авторов, произведения
которого используется, и источника заимствования правомерно обнародованные произведения
и отрывки из них в качестве иллюстраций в объеме, оправданном поставленной целью и методикой.

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Методическая записка
Задания учебного пособия направлены на развитие иноязычных коммуникативных навыков
студентов, изучающих английский язык как основной иностранный, а именно на лексическую
и социокультурную составляющие таких навыков.
Языковой уровень студентов, для которых предназначен практикум, характеризуется в рамках
Европейского языкового портфеля (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) как
пороговый продвинутый уровень (B2) и уровень профессионального владения (С1). На этих
уровнях достигаются следующие цели:
§ B2: понимать общее содержание сложных текстов на абстрактные и конкретные темы, в том
числе узкоспециальных текстов; быстро и спонтанно говорить для общения с носителями
языка без особых затруднений для любой из сторон; уметь делать четкие, подробные
сообщения на различные темы и излагать свой взгляд на основную проблему.
§ С1: понимать объемные сложные тексты на различную тематику; говорить спонтанно
в быстром темпе, не испытывая затруднений с подбором слов и выражений; гибко
и эффективно использовать язык для общения в профессиональной деятельности; создавать
точное, детальное, хорошо выстроенное сообщение на сложные темы.
Для достижения поставленных учебных целей в практикуме предлагается следующий
методический аппарат. В начале каждого дидактического раздела представлен список активной
лексики, связанной с тематикой соответствующего урока учебника American Ways: An Introduction
to American Culture без перевода на русский язык. Далее предлагается ряд упражнений,
направленных на перевод, отработку и закрепление активной лексики. Среди таких упражнений:
нахождение английских эквивалентов в основном тексте главы, добавление пропущенного
слова/фразы в дефиниции, подбор коллокаций, добавление пропущенного слова, решение
лексических кроссвордов, составление предложений, перевод предложений по теме главы
с русского языка на английский с использованием активной лексики. Предложения на перевод
с русского языка на английский направлены на активизацию нового словаря через контекстное
употребление посредством предлагаемого перевода.
После отработки активной лексики дается список вопросов, направленных на контроль
понимания студентами прочитанного в учебнике. Вопросы касаются ключевых моментов каждой
главы и представлены в том порядке, в каком ответы на них встречаются по ходу прочтения
материала.
Заключает дидактический блок список имен, событий и реалий, упомянутых
в соответствующей главе. Данный блок представляет собой переводческий глоссарий,
направленный на развитие лингвострановедческой компетенции и закрепление фактологической
информации.

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В приложении Text & Video Bank к ряду глав представлен материал, предназначенный для
дополнительной групповой или самостоятельной работы. Видеоролики, размещенные на YouTube,
и тексты отражают проблематику учебника и соответствуют темам каждого дидактического блока,
сопровождаются упражнениями на расширение вокабуляра, вопросами, направленными на
проверку понимания просмотренного и прочитанного материала, а также дискуссионными
вопросами и темами.
Все упражнения задаются на дом и отрабатываются в классе фронтально, в парах, в группах.
Прохождение всех упражнений практикума рассчитано на 58 аудиторных часов (29 занятий).
Работа над одним дидактическим блоком занимает 4 академических часа (2 аудиторных занятия).

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American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION: UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURE OF THE
UNITED STATES

Language Guide

1. ethnic diversity 25. nationwide


2. dominant language/culture 26. to tighten border restrictions/tight
3. significant factor 27. census
4. immense size 28. to maintain (their own) language/cultural
5. to comprehend the size traditions
6. incidentally 29. bilingual/bicultural/bi-racial …
7. to establish settlements bilingualism/biculturalism
8. to claim territories 30. to establish communities
9. to shape the values/traditions 31. cultural pluralism
10. to take in/to admit/to absorb immigrants 32. ethnic heritage
11. assimilated (to)/to assimilate 33. interracial marriages
12. Melting Pot 34. racial acceptance
13. to limit immigration 35. to identify oneself with/self-identify
14. the Immigration Act of 1924 36. national identity
15. a quota system 37. to make generalizations and be cautious
16. industrialized countries about them
17. illegal immigration 38. basic American beliefs
18. family reunification 39. to hold beliefs
19. a foreign-born 40. to embrace the way of life
20. immigration patterns 41. to draw on the wisdom
21. ethnic mix 42. the settling of the western frontier
22. a descendant/descent 43. the adoption of the U.S. Constitution
23. first-, second-, third-generation 44. to take pride in (today)
immigrants 45. motivating force
24. to win votes

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Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 1).
мультикультурные программы
штаты США с преобладающим не белым
населением
европейского происхождения
должно прийти осознание
передать язык
личное пространство
просто американец
организация по исследованию общественного
мнения
расовая терпимость/толерантность
случайная выборка
разрозненные племена
заселение границы
иммигранты, число которых серьезно
ограничивается
перенять традиционные ценности
гордиться чем-л.
быть политкорректным
определять свою национальную
принадлежность по племени
рабочая гипотеза
составлять
верить в такой же степени
лицом к двери
иммигранты, которым отдается
предпочтение
гастарбайтер
проводить опрос общественного мнения
ученый (в гуманитарных областях)

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Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list below.
to make generalizations • Melting Pot • a dominant language • racial acceptance • to
assimilate • ethnic mix • motivating force • a foreign-born • to claim territories •
ethnic heritage • industrialized countries • to take into/to admit to • an interracial marriage
• family reunification • a quota system
1. ……………………………………………. – if (and only if) it is used by bilinguals or polyglots
around the world. It is not the number of speakers that determines it
2. ……………………………………………. – to demand the ownership of a particular area of land
or water
3. ……………………………………………. – a place where many different people and ideas exist
together, often mixing and producing something new
4. ……………………………………………. – resettlement case in which immigrants are reunited
with relatives already residing in the United States
5. ……………………………………………. – born in a country other than that in which one resides
6. ……………………………………………. – something left by ancestors and is identified with
them; it overlaps on the ethnicity and nationality a bit at times
7. ……………………………………………. – alliances or unions between people who are from
different racial or ethnic groups
8. ……………………………………………. – to acknowledge others who are different from you; to
respect and embrace those differences
9. ……………………………………………. – to provide a specific kind of conclusion
10. ……………………………………………. – is a stimulus that makes you achieve things
11. ……………………………………………. – allow (someone) to enter a place
12. ……………………………………………. – to absorb and integrate (people, ideas, or culture) into
a wider society or culture
13. ……………………………………………. – a policy of limiting by nationality the number of
immigrants who may enter the U.S. each year
14. ……………………………………………. – those states that have highly developed economies
(high GDP), high per capita income, high standard of living, and have developed infrastructure
15. ……………………………………………. – human groups having racial, religious, linguistic, and
certain other traits in common

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Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below.
to win votes • national identity • to limit immigration • to establish communities • cultural
pluralism • to shape values • ethnic diversity • to maintain language/culture • to maintain
traditions • to take pride in • to tighten border restrictions • to hold a belief

1. The results of the 2010 census had shown that ................................ was increasing in the country.
2. Television especially has the greatest impact on young people and, as such, has the ability
................................, attitudes and perceptions in both positive and negative ways.
3. The United States often argue the need ................................ due to economic interests, even though
there are labor needs in the country.
4. Politicians often ................................ by proposing populist policies reflecting public attitudes.
5. The United States also ................................ in a more than legitimate effort to deal with terrorism
and other threats to security.
6. Immigrants to different countries ................................ to ................................ their
................................ and ................................ .
7. The freedom ................................ of one's religion, or to change it, is an essential attribute of the
human society.
8. Throughout history Native Americans have preserved their unity, ................................ , and
................................ their ................................ .
9. Minority group identity requires not only tolerance but a positive attitude
towards ................................ on the part of the State and the larger society.
10. Having remained faithful to its ideals and objectives, the United Nations can ................................ its
today’s striking achievements in the promotion of peace and security.

Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.

1. ethnic a. settlements
2. dominant b. immigration
3. significant c. territories
4. immense d. factor
5. to comprehend e. pot
6. to establish f. diversity
7. to claim g. size
8. to shape h. the size
9. melting i. language/culture
10. to limit j. the values/traditions

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B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.

1. A quota/an illegal system was established that specified the number of immigrants that could come
from each country.
2. The United States was admitting more immigrants than all the other ethnic/industrialized countries
combined.
3. If we look at the immigration/family patterns of the 1900s, we see that the greatest numbers came
at the beginning and the end of the century.
4. Presidential candidates now consider how to win/tighten Hispanic votes.
5. Immigrants to the U.S. try to establish/maintain their own language and cultural traditions.

C. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.

1. Today, cultural ……………… is more accepted in the United States than it was in the first half of
the 20th century.
2. Many Americans try to maintain their ethnic ……………… and their cultural traditions.
3. The number of ……………… marriages is increasing, and the majority of young people believe it
does not matter which race or ethnic group they marry into.
4. The 2008 election of Barack Obama is the evidence of racial ……………… in the U.S.
5. In spite of all the diversity, there is still a tie that binds Americans together – a sense of
……………… identity.
6. Not all Americans hold basic American ………………, or believe these thing to the same degree.
7. American cultural values caused people from all over the world to ……………… the way of life in
the U.S. and to identify themselves as “Americans”.
8. American Ways is the book drawing ……………… of a famous observer of the American scene,
Alexis de Tocqueville.
9. The character traits Tocqueville describes are the same ones that many Americans still
……………… in today.
10. Tocqueville’s book is not about American behavior or institutions, but it is about the ………………
forces behind the people and their institutions.

Exercise 5.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Этническое разнообразие и огромный размер страны являются важными факторами,
влияющими на жизнь в Соединенных Штатах.

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2. В XX веке Америка приняла около 35 миллионов иммигрантов, большинство из которых
приспособились к превалирующей американской культуре.
3. В 1921 году Америка ввела систему квот, чтобы ограничить иммиграцию до 150 тысяч
человек в год.
4. Модели иммиграции XXI века продолжают менять цвет и этнический состав американского
населения, снижая число белых американцев европейского происхождения.
5. Из-за ужесточения правил пересечения американской границы количество нелегальных
иммигрантов сократилось.
6. Число межрасовых браков возрастает, что постепенно приводит к потере этнического
наследия.
7. В период с 1990 по 2010 год количество людей, родившихся за границей, но проживающих
на территории Соединенных Штатов, возросло с 20 до 40 миллионов.
8. Согласно переписи населения 2010 года впервые иммигрантов из Азии было больше, чем
иммигрантов испанского происхождения.
9. Несмотря на то что многие дети росли в двуязычной и многокультурной среде, многие из них,
в силу разных причин, не передали свой язык и культуру последующим поколениям.
10. Некоторые темнокожие американцы предпочитают термин «афроамериканец» вместо
«черный», чтобы отождествлять себя со своим африканскими предками (= наследием).
11. Когда речь идет об американских основных убеждениях, необходимо помнить, что не все
американцы разделяют эти убеждения.
12. Американские культурные ценности побудили людей со всего мира (= иммигрантов)
принять местный образ жизни.
13. Начало XIX века ознаменовалось становлением традиционных ценностей новой страны и
установлением границ новых земель на западе.
14. Всего через каких-то 40 лет с момента принятия Конституции США новая форма правления
создала общество, обладающее набором уникальных ценностей.
15. Превалирующая американская культура выжила и в разные периоды своей истории приняла
(= поглотила) огромное количество иммигрантов.

Exercise 6.

Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

INTRODUCTION

1. What do people want to know when they meet those from other countries?

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2. What are the hardest questions to answer?
3. (a) Is it possible to comprehend the size of the USA? (b) What is the best way to experience it? (c)
What factors influence the country’s diversity?
4. (a) What is the major factor influencing American life? (b) What do you know about the
contemporary Americans’ ancestors? (c) Who shaped the values and traditions of the country?

A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS

5. What were the main surges of immigration to the US?


6. (a) How did Israel Zangwill describe the USA of 1908? (b) Which term did he invent?
7. How has the American culture survived through the centuries?
8. (a) What do you know about the limits imposed on the immigration? (b) Which act closed the door
to the newcomers? (c) Which of the newcomers were favored and severely limited?
9. (a) What changes has been observed since 1965? (b) How does the illegal immigration add to the
total? (c) How did the concept of family reunification change the ethnical face of the country?
10. (a) What are the results of the immigrations boom of the 21st century? (b) How many people are
foreign-born? (c) Which states are leading the list?
11. What is happening at present to the white Americans of European descent?
12. (a) What is the largest ethnical minority in the US? (b) What is their political and economic
influence over the country?
13. (a) What are the reasons for the decline in the new Hispanic immigration? (b)Why do new
immigrants return to their home countries?
14. (a) What is the proportion of the Asian immigrants in the total population of the country? (b) What
does “majority minority” mean?

CULTURAL PLURALISM IN THE UNITED STATES

15. What are the most critical questions that the USA are facing today regarding immigration?
16. (a) Do the immigrants of the first generation pass on their language and culture? (b) Where do
bilingualism and biculturalism continue? (c) Is there any place for cultural pluralism in the USA now?
17. What did the census of 2010 recognize?
18. (a) Do Americans maintain their ethnic heritage? (b) What is racial acceptance? (c) What skin color
are the Americans expected to have by the mid 21st century?
19. (a) How sensitive are Americans to the language used to describe racial or ethic groups? (b) What
universal categories can you name?
20. (a) What is the tie binding Americans together? (b) What misunderstanding results from a purely
language issue - absence of the term United Statesians?

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MAKING GENERALIZATIONS ABOUT AMERICAN BELIEFS

21. (a) Is it possible to make generalizations about Americans? (b) Do they hold and practise their
belief equally?
22. (a) What caused people from all over the world to embrace the American way of life? (b) Is it a
moral or cultural engine?
23. (a) Who is Alexis de Tocqueville? (b) What is unusual about his power of observation? (c) What
is deemed to be the classic study of the American way of life?
24. (a) What was America like in the 1930s? (b) Why is this important to know? (c) Do the
Americans still keep the old established conventional values?
25. Is the current book about cold facts of the American character and institutions?
26. (a) What is the author’s recommendation about perception of the already observed and reported
values and character traits of the Americans? (b) What do we learn by studying others?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

Israel Zangwill Was a British author at the forefront of cultural Zionism during the 19th
century.
(1864 –1926)
Zangwill’s Melting Pot Is a play by Israel Zangwill, first staged in 1908. It depicts the life of
a Russian Jewish immigrant family, the Quixanos. David Quixano has
survived a pogrom, which killed his mother and sister, and he wishes to
forget this horrible event. He composes an "American Symphony" and
wants to look forward to a society free of ethnic divisions and hatred,
rather than backward at his traumatic past.

The Immigration Act Limited the number of immigrants, allowed entry into the United States
through a national origins quota. The quota provided immigration visas
of 1924 to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the
United States as of the 1890 national census. The law was primarily
aimed at further decreasing immigration of Southern Europeans,
especially Italians; and, to a lesser extent, immigrants from countries
with Roman Catholic majorities, Eastern Europeans, Arabs, and Jews.
The law affirmed the longstanding ban on the immigration of other non-
white persons, with the exception of black African immigrants (who had
long been exempt from the ban). Thus, virtually all Asians were
forbidden from immigrating to America under the Act. Subsequent court
rulings would determine that Indians and Arabs were not white and
could not immigrate.

Native Americans Also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other
terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii.

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There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half
of which are associated with Indian reservations. The Indian
Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans
born in the United States who had not yet obtained it. This emptied the
"Indians not taxed" category established by the United States
Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, and
extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people
"subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. Bill of Rights
protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those
mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968.

The U.S. Constitution Is over 200 years old. The Constitution was a new set of rules that told
the government how to work. The 55 men who wrote the Constitution
worked on it for four months. Below are some of the important dates that
led to the creation of the Constitution:
1775 — The Revolutionary War between the Colonies and Britain
begins.
1776 — Declaration of Independence written; the 13 colonies become
the 13 states, but are not yet united under one central government.
1781 — The last battle of the Revolutionary War takes place; the 13
states set up a federal government under laws called the Articles of
Confederation.
1786 — Representatives from five states meet at Annapolis, Maryland,
to discuss interstate trade. Because so few representatives attend,
Alexander Hamilton and James Madison call for another convention to
be held in Philadelphia.
1787 — The Constitutional Convention begins on May 25, in
Philadelphia. Fifty-five representatives attend and begin drafting the
Constitution. On September 17, 1787, the convention comes to a close
as the representatives sign the Constitution.
1788 — The Constitution becomes the law of the land after New
Hampshire becomes the ninth and last state required to approve it.

Alexis de Tocqueville Was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian. He was best
(1805 – 1859) known for his works Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes,
1835 and 1840). He analyzed the improved living standards and social
conditions of individuals as well as their relationship to the market and
state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after
Tocqueville's travels in the United States and is today considered an
early work of sociology and political science.

15
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 2. TRADITIONAL AMERICAN VALUES AND BELIEFS

Language Guide

1. self-reliant 29. a race for success


2. welfare 30. an ethical rule
3. a foundation 31. to be born into a wealthy family
4. a pursuit 32. to cause
5. inalienable 33. (a) constant (emotional strain)
6. to endow 34. to fit into the mainstream (of American
7. to accept ethnic & cultural diversity life)
8. a widespread recognition of (cultural 35. a compelling reason
pluralism) 36. abundant natural resources
9. basic values/rights/responsibilities 37. to get rich overnight
10. a pollster 38. to go from rags to riches
11. to survey public opinion 39. to be attached to material things
12. to share a common set of values 40. tangible evidence
13. “the land of opportunity” 41. a decided advantage
14. to nurture (a unique set of values) 42. a facet
15. individual freedom & self-reliance 43. to create the fabric (of the American
16. equality of opportunity & competition society)
17. material wealth & hard work 44. to weave together
18. to defy 45. to come apart
19. (a) profound (effect)
20. to write the Constitution
21. to limit the power of the government &
church
22. to eliminate a formal aristocracy
23. to create a climate of freedom
24. apt (to)
25. a hereditary aristocracy
26. to accumulate (over hundreds of years)
27. to fulfill the hopes & dreams
28. uniformity (of conditions of life)

16
Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 2).
изобилие
снижать
одарен
благочестие
меркантильный / бездуховный
репутация / имя
воплотиться в жизнь
составить закон
направлять развитие страны
избавиться от чего-л. / выйти из-под
контроля
контролировать
все стороны жизни
категорически запретить
высокооплачиваемая работа
работать
продвижение по социальной лестнице
быть в руках народа
жить на пособие
не давать полной картины
сторонний наблюдатель
вдохновлять / быть двигателем нации
пытать / искать счастье
жить на собственные средства
большие богатства/блага
рабочая беднота

17
Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list
below.
to survey public opinion • inalienable • a decided advantage • self-reliant • to defy
(public opinion) • apt (to) • to cause • to fit into the mainstream (of American life) • a
compelling reason • to go from rags to riches • tangible evidence • a facet • to weave
together • to come apart • an ethical rule
1. ……………………………………………. – to investigate the opinions or experience of (a
group of people) by asking them questions
2. …………………………………………… – is one that convinces you that something is true or
that something should be done
3. ……………………………………………. – is a particular aspect or feature of something
4. ……………………………………………. – to belong to the most typical, normal, and
conventional group or system
5. ……………………………………………. – to ignore
6. ……………………………………………. – to make a complex from a number of
interconnected elements
7. ……………………………………………. – is evidence which can be treated as fact; real or
concrete
8. ……………………………………………. – is a law or principle relating to moral principles or
the branch of knowledge dealing with these
9. ……………………………………………. – you are able to do things and make decisions by
yourself, without needing other people to help you
10. ……………………………………………. – to have a tendency to do something
11. ……………………………………………. – is not subject to being taken away from or given
away by the possessor
12. ……………………………………………. – is an unquestionable benefit
13. ……………………………………………. – to make somebody do something
14. ……………………………………………. – to refer to any situation in which a person rises
from poverty to wealth, and in some cases from absolute obscurity to heights of fame—sometimes
instantly
15. ……………………………………………. – it becomes disorganized or unable to work
effectively, or breaks up into its different parts

18
Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below.
cultural pluralism • diversity • rights and responsibilities • a race for success •
competition • abundant natural resources • “get rich overnight” • “going from rags to
riches” • a decided advantage • fabric
1. Because of its incredibly ................................ , the United States appeared to be a land of plenty
where millions could come to seek their fortunes.
2. The phrase ................................ became a slogan for the “American Dream”.
3. The large variety of ethnic, cultural, and religious groups meant that accepting
................................ was the only practical choice.
4. Another way of thinking about the basic values involves ................................ .
5. Most immigrants did not ................................ , and many of them suffered terribly.
6. The price to be paid for equality of opportunity is ................................ .
7. Inheriting money does not give a person ................................ .
8. Americans see much of life as ................................ .
9. Today, there is widespread recognition of the value of ................................ , particularly among
young people.
10. The relationship among these values – the rights and the responsibilities – creates the
................................ of the American society.

Exercise 4. Collocations.
D. Match the words to build collocations.

1. to survey k. a formal aristocracy


2. to share l. a wealthy family
3. the land of m. aristocracy
4. to write n. a climate of freedom pot
5. to limit o. the Constitution
6. to eliminate p. over hundreds of years
7. to create q. the power of the government & church
8. hereditary r. a common set of values
9. to accumulate s. opportunity
10. to be born into t. public opinion

E. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.
1. Traditional values are the cultural power/engine that drives the United States.

19
2. To have a better life was probably the most compelling reason/fact why immigrants have
traditionally come to the United States.
3. The pressure to compete causes Americans to be energetic, but it also places a constant
emotional stress/strain on them.
4. In the 1830s, Tocqueville was impressed by the great uniformity of conditions of life/lifestyles.
5. The historic decisions made by the first settlers have had a profound influence/effect.

F. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.
1. American values are so tightly ……………… together that if any one of them is pulled out, the
entire fabric is affected.
2. Inheriting money does give a person a decided ……………… .
3. In some ways, material possessions were seen not only as tangible ……………… of people’s
work, but also as their abilities.
4. The large variety of ethnic, cultural, and religious groups meant that accepting ………………
was the only practical choice.
5. Today, there is widespread recognition of the value of ……………… pluralism, particularly
among young people.
6. The early settlers created a climate of freedom by eliminating a formal ……………… .
7. Americans see much of life as a race for ……………… .
8. Because of its incredibly ……………… natural resources, the United States appeared to be a
land of plenty where millions could come to seek their fortunes.
9. Many Americans have achieved material success and became very attached to ………………
……………… .
10. Any group of people who do not compete successfully – for whatever reason – do not fit into the
……………… of American life.

Exercise 5.

Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.

1. Один известный американский социолог считает, что Америка остается единой благодаря
общему набору основных ценностей, которые делают американцев американцами.
2. Тремя традиционными причинами, притягивающими иммигрантов в Америку, являются
индивидуальная свобода, равенство возможностей и материальное благополучие.
3. Америка – страна возможностей, но за материальное благополучие нужно платить
усердным трудом; за равенство возможностей – соперничеством; за личную свободу –

20
экономической независимостью. Выполняя все эти условия, можно воплотить свою
великую американскую мечту!
4. Основные американские ценности тесно переплетены друг с другом и создают структуру
американского общества.
5. Фраза «из грязи в князи» стала основой понятия «американская мечта», так как многие
американцы, добившиеся материального благополучия, стали крепко цепляться за
материальные блага.
6. Изобилие ресурсов является наиболее неопровержимым доводом/вынуждающим
обстоятельством того, что так много иммигрантов приезжают в Соединенные Штаты.
7. Необходимость в соперничестве заставляет американцев быть энергичными,
одновременно накладывая на них постоянное эмоциональное напряжение.
8. Многие американцы смотрят на жизнь, как на гонку за успехом, делая равенство
возможностей этической нормой.
9. Джеймс Мэдисон, отец американской конституции, утверждал, что материальные блага
являются вещественным доказательством труда, так же как и личные качества
американцев являются бесспорным преимуществом.
10. Американские ценности так плотно переплетены друг с другом, что если отменить хотя бы
одно из них, то развалится вся структура общества.
11. В 1776 году британские поселенцы объявили о своей независимости и проигнорировали
короля Англии, что оказало сильное воздействие на формирование американского
характера.
12. Ранние поселенцы ликвидировали номинальную аристократию и создали атмосферу
свободы, делая акцент на личность.
13. В 1830-х Токвиль заметил, что американцы склонны верить, что их судьба в их руках.
14. Токвиль был впечатлен единообразием условий жизни и отсутствием потомственной
аристократии.
15. Президент Авраам Линкольн не родился в обеспеченной семье, он вступил в гонку за успех
и воплотил свои мечты и надежды в жизнь.

Exercise 6.

Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

INTRODUCTION
1. Describe the type of the first settlers by their occupation and ethnical descent.

21
2. What was the only practical choice for the early Americans?
3. When did the system of basic American values emerge?
4. What, according to John Zoghby, an American pollster, holds the US together?
5. (a) What are the 6 basic traditional American values? (b) Which pairs of benefit-price do they
compose?
6. How else can these pairs be interpreted? (rights vs responsibilities)

INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND SELF-RELIANCE

7. (a) What was the main purpose of establishing colonies for the Europeans? (b) Whom did they
defy and what was to lie in the hands of people? (c) How did the Americans protect themselves from
government-supported church? (d) What did they expressly forbid? Why?
8. (a) How did these historic decisions effect the American character? (b) What is a climate of
freedom? (c) Which concept has the US come to be associated with? Are the words individualism and
freedom used interchangeably in the US?
9. What do the Americans understand by freedom?
10. (a) What is the cost for the benefit of freedom? (b) What must an individual learn? (c) What kind
of independence should one achieve? At what age? (d) How did Alexis de Tocqueville observe the
American belief in self-reliance?
11. (a) What do the Americans fear when they have to be too reliant on others? (b) What do they do
to be in the mainstream of American life?
12. (a) What is normally expected to be a short-term arrangement for an adult child? (b) What is not
admired by the society?

EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND COMPETITION

13. (a) Why did the first and further immigrants feel they had a better chance for personal success?
(b) What was of particular importance?
14. (a) Has any formal social class system developed in the USA? (b) What largely determined the
life of the people in their old country?
15. What was Tocqueville’s impression of the equality of opportunities in the US?
16. (a) What does the phrase "American concept of fair play" mean? (b) What is the most basic
ethnical rule in the USA?
17. What did Abraham Lincoln believe in?
18. (a) What is the price to be paid for the equality of opportunity? (b) What is viewed as a personal
duty in the US?
19. How long does an American experience competition in his life? How is it encouraged?

22
20. (a) What are the results of the pressure to compete? (b) Who are those who do not fit into the
mainstream American life? How do they feel?

MATERIAL WEALTH AND HARD WORK

21. (a) What was the most compelling reason for moving to America? (b) What were the immigrants
fairly certain of? (c) What is the slogan for the “American Dream”? What were the immigrants very
much attached to? What has become their value?
22. (a) What does the term materialism mean? (b) Why do Americans find this word offensive? (c)
What is still of great importance for most Americans?
23. (a) What kind of measure has been traditionally accepted for material wealth? (b) Which
European conventional norm did it substitute? What did the Puritans associate the material wealth with?
24. (a) What is the price for the material wealth? (b) What was the pre-requisite for the effectiveness
of the hard work in America? (c) How were the material possessions seen through the history of the
nation? (d) What was the only tangible evidence of people's work? (e) What did James Madison state
about the difference in material possessions?
25. (a) If one does not hold a job, what does he/she live off? (b) What is a larger question for the
American society in relation to the hard work?
26. (a) Is it feasible for an average worker to go from rags to riches now? What are the reasons? (b)
What does the working poor mean?

AMERICAN VALUES AND THE STATE OF THE AMERICAN DREAM

27. (a) What is the concept of the American Dream about? (b) Does the ideal of upward mobility
still exist? (c) What is the relationship between the belief and reality?
28. (a) Do the values of equal opportunities and self-reliance describe the reality of life in America?
(b) Who often has decided advantages? (c) What factors still affect success?
29. (a) Should we diminish the importance of these values even if they are not carried out in real life?
(b) To what extent do they affect the modern American life?
30. What two main things should we remember about the values of the Americans?
31. What sort of framework do the 6 values create?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

John J. Zogby Is an American public opinion pollster, author, and public speaker.
He is founder of the Zogby International poll. In 1981, Zogby ran
(born September 3, 1948)
unsuccessfully for Mayor of Utica, New York. He is a Democrat. In
addition to serving on the advisory boards of the Arab American
Institute and Upstate Venture Connect, he is Director of the Keenan

23
Center for Entrepreneurship at Le Moyne College. He also serves as
senior partner at John Zogby Strategies, a full-service marketing and
political consulting firm.
The Declaration of Is the statement adopted by the Second Continental
Independence Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known
as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4,
1776. The Declaration announced that the Thirteen Colonies at war
with the Kingdom of Great Britain would regard themselves as
thirteen independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule.
With the Declaration, these new states took a collective first step
toward forming the United States of America. The declaration was
signed by representatives from New Hampshire, Massachusetts
Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
New World Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British
Colonies or Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British
colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th
and 18th centuries. They declared independence in 1776 and formed
the United States of America. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar
political, constitutional, and legal systems and were dominated by
Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's
possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in
Canada, the Caribbean, and the Floridas. Between 1625 and 1775,
the colonial population grew from roughly 2,000 to over 2.5 million,
often displacing American Indians. Slavery was introduced during
the colonial period. The Thirteen Colonies had a high degree of self-
governance and active local elections, and they resisted London's
demands for more control. Indeed Rhode Island and Connecticut had
always elected their own governors. Before the fighting started in
1775 the majority Whigs and the minority Tories, who both favored
the connection with the Mother Country and were Loyal to the
Crown, were opposed to Parliamentary interference in local affairs.
President Became the United States’ 16th President in 1861, issuing the
Abraham Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves
within the Confederacy in 1863. As President, he built the Republican
Party into a strong national organization. On Good Friday, April 14,
1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington by
John Wilkes Booth, an actor, who somehow thought he was helping
the South. The opposite was the result, for with Lincoln’s death, the
possibility of peace with magnanimity died.
James Madison Is America’s fourth President (1809-1817), made a major
contribution to the ratification of the Constitution by writing The

24
Federalist Papers, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In
later years, he was referred to as the “Father of the Constitution.”
The American Dream Is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals (democracy,
rights, liberty, opportunity and equality) in which freedom includes
the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an
upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through
hard work in a society with few barriers. In the definition of the
American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, “life should be
better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each
according to ability or achievement” regardless of social class or
circumstances of birth. The American Dream is rooted in
the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims that “all men are
created equal” with the right to “life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness.” Also, the U.S. Constitution promotes similar freedom, in
the Preamble: to “secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and
our Posterity”.

25
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 3. THE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS HERITAGE

Language Guide

1. to attend a worship service 16. to practice religion


2. to belong/to be attached to a church 17. priesthood
3. congregation/a congregant 18. religious
4. creationism 19. religious affiliation
5. crucifixion 20. religious climate
6. denomination 21. religious moderates/liberals
7. evangelical conservatists 22. religious persecution
8. evangelicals 23. religious pluralism
9. freedom of religion 24. secular
10. to grant/seek forgiveness (for sins) 25. secular liberals
11. grace 26. to sin against
12. higher power / universal spirit 27. spiritual
13. mainline churches 28. spiritual matters
14. megachurch 29. volunteerism and humanitarianism
15. none(s) or unaffiliated 30. work ethic

Exercise 1.
Translate the following proverbs and sayings into Russian.
A penny saved is a penny earned
Early to bed and early to rise makes a man
healthy, wealthy and wise
Save something for a rainy day
Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow you die
Idle hands are the devil’s workshop

26
Exercise 2.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 3).
вести войну
выходить далеко за пределы
действующая сила
делиться с нуждающимися
жертвователь, благотворитель
налоговый вычет
несогласие встречает неодобрение
огромная волна гордости
осуществлять
отделиться от
повышать самооценку
неослабевающее желание
проявление (излияние) любви
самосовершенствование
следствие / результат чего-л.
способность к чему-л.

Exercise 3.
Reproduce the collocations with the words religious, evangelical, secular, spiritual
and make up sentences.

Exercise 4.
What does it mean to Americans?
• self-improvement
• huge surge of pride
• to give back
• tax deduction
• megachurch

27
Exercise 5.
Do the crossword

1. Clergy
2. Concerning belief in divinity
3. Dispute, quarrel
4. Worldly, civil
5. Fundamentalist
6. Creed
7. Not catholic
8. Creation science
9. Oppression, expultion
10. Moral principle
11. Assembled group, especially concerned with church-going
12. The practice of doing work for good causes, without being paid for it
13. Pardon, end of blame
14. Metaphysical, otherworldly

28
15. Any Protestant Christian congregation with a sustained average weekly attendance of 2000
persons or more in its worship services

KEY WORD: ______________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Католическая вера впервые была привезена испанцами в Северную Америку в XVI веке.
2. Согласно опросам в некоторых приходах люди ходят на службу чаще одного раза в
неделю.
3. Протестантизм, как ветвь христианства, отделился от Римской католической церкви в
Европе в XVI веке.
4. Если христианин согрешил против какой-либо заповеди, то идет к священнику за
отпущением грехов и прощением.
5. Свобода вероисповедания гарантирована первой поправкой к Конституции США.
6. Жертвователи получают налоговые вычеты за перечисление средств в
благотворительные фонды.
7. Американцы были не согласны с решением правительства вести войну во Вьетнаме.
8. В американском обществе не прекращается культурная война между религиозными
консерваторами и светскими либералами.
9. В последние десятилетия растет доля американцев, посещающих мега церкви, а также не
относящих себя к какой-либо конфессии. При этом духовное значение деноминаций
традиционного протестантизма слабеет.
10. Волонтерство, гуманизм, усердный труд являются проявлениями протестантской
трудовой этики, которая неразрывно связана с самосовершенствованием с одной стороны, и с
приобретением материальных благ - с другой.
11. В евангелических общинах часто нет не только епископов, но и духовенства. Как правило,
это надконфессиональные религиозные сообщества, исповедующие конверсионизм, активизм,
библиизм и крестоцентризм.
12. Для прихожан евангелических религиозных общин очень важен опыт «духовного
преображения», что отличает их от прихожан традиционных протестантских церквей.
13. Многие эмигранты бежали от религиозного преследования в Европе в надежде, что на
американский континент они смогут принести терпимость и религиозный плюрализм.
14. Американские родители стараются развить в своих детях способность к состраданию и
оказанию помощи нуждающимся.

29
15. В американском обществе несогласие с национальным патриотизмом вызывает
неодобрение, особенно в моменты подъема волны гордости за страну, сопровождающейся
массовым выражением любви и поддержки друг другу.
16. Дарвинисты оспаривают концепт креационизма, или сотворения мира «высшими силами».
17. Религиозный климат США определяется мирным сосуществованием множества религий,
включая конфуцианство, огнепоклонничество, индуизм и иудаизм.
18. Протестантский подход «живи сам и дай жить другим» выходит далеко за рамки
религии, побуждая гражданское общество к терпимости.
19. В истории Протестантизма было 4 периода «Великого пробуждения», первый из которых
именовался Евангелическим возрождением.
20. К основным ветвям протестантского вероучения относятся лютеранство, кальвинизм и
англиканство.

Exercise 7.

Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

STRENGTHENING THE AMERICAN CULTURAL VALUES

1. Describe the religious landscape of the US.


2. (a) How did the historical context shape the nation’s religious heritage? (b) Which cultural values
were particularly affected?
3. (a) What sort of faith was brought to the North American continent? (b) Which city names bear
memories of the first missionaries? (c) Which branch of the Christian faith had the strongest effect
on the religious climate of the US?

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTESTANTISM

4. (a) When did the East-West schism happen? (b) When did the Protestant branch of the Christian
Church break away from the Roman Catholic Church? (c) What role did the pope and the Catholic
priests play to the people?
5. (a) What were the Protestants insisting on? (b) What was the Protestant substitution for the power
and authority of priest?
6. (a) How did different protestant denominations emerge? Name the traditional ones. (b) What was
the result of the religious persecution in Europe?
7. (a) What were the hopes of some American Protestant denominations? (b) Which idea became
largely accepted?

30
8. (a) What was forbidden by the American constitution in 1789? (b) What part of it contains the
guarantee of freedom of religion?

SELF-RELIANCE AND THE PROTESTANT HERITAGE OF SELF-IMPROVEMENT


9. (a) Which is one of the most important values of American Protestantism? (b) How did it logically
develop?
10. What does the experience of being “born again” mean to a Protestant?
11. (a) How far has the idea of self-improvement reached? (b) What is the natural product of self-
improvement?
MATERIAL SUCCESS, HARD WORK, AND SELF-DISCIPLINE
12. (a) What should the nation’s Protestant heritage be responsible for? (b) Is there any contradiction in
it?
13. (a) According to the early European Protestants how can the one blessed (elected, predestined) by
God be recognized? (b) What did Bishop William Lawrence proclaim?
14. (a) What were the most meaningful factors contributing to the industrial growth of the US? (b) How
did the Protestant leaders view all people’s work and capacity for self-discipline? (c) How is self-
discipline often defined? (d) What did John Wesley teach people?
15. (a) What does the term “the Protestant work ethic or the Puritan work ethic” mean? Do all Americans
share this ethic? (b) What do you know about paid vacation days of the employed Americans? (c)
What emotional response is expected from an American called “workaholic”?
VOLUNTEERISM AND HUMANITARIANISM
16. How do the concepts of volunteerism and humanitarianism reflect the idea of self-improvement?
17. Name the most prominent donators among the Americans.
18. (a) How is the idea of charitable giving continued into the now? (b) Who can get tax deductions?
(c) How is the idea of self-improvement reflected in the context out of the religious one? (d) What
do American parents teach their kids?
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001, AND THE NATIONAL RELIGION
19. What caused the outpouring of love, charity and patriotism on September 11, 2001? How was it
displayed?
20. (a) What is called “the national religion”? (b) What is its main function? (c) Does this purpose differ
much from that of earlier organized churches of the European nations?
21. (a) What harmful effects of the “national religion” can be pointed out? (b) Who told “America –
love it, or leave it”?

31
THE RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE TODAY: POLARIZATION VS. PLURALISM
22. (a) What do Robert D. Putnam and David E. Campbell discuss in their book “American Grace: How
Religion Divides and Unites us”? (b) Who are evangelicals and secular liberals? (c) How can the
term “cultural wars” be defined? (d) How can religious pluralism coexist with polarization?
23. (a) What value lies at the heart of the coexistence of religious pluralism and polarization in the US?
(b) Can you name other religions that contribute to the American religious landscape?
24. (a) How many different religions have been recorded in the US by the Census of American Religious
congregations? (b) Which are the fastest growing ones? (c) Can you specify the main ten?
25. (a) Who are the “nones”? (b) How do they refer to themselves? (c) What is the percentage of the
unaffiliated population in the US?
26. (a) What sort of important development can one observe in the current American religious
landscape? (b) What are the mainline protestant churches? (c) Which have the most of the
evangelical spirit in them?
27. (a) What does a ‘megachurch” mean? Who are those attending megachurches? What do they seek?
(b) Can you give a striking example of such a megachurch?
RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES: A SPIRITUAL KALEIDOSCOPE
28. (a) What phrase describes the historical tolerance of the early Protestants? (b) What has created the
reality of the so called “spiritual kaleidoscope”?
29. (a) Who should be the center of the religious life according to Protestantism? (b) What do different
religions in the USA find easy to accept? (c) What sort of context has been created due to the concept
religion-wise?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

The Protestant or the The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan
Puritan work ethic work ethic is a work ethic concept in theology, sociology, economics
and history that emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality
are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the
Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.
The phrase was initially coined in 1904 by Max Weber in his book
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber asserted
that Protestant ethics and values along with the Calvinist doctrine
of asceticism and predestination gave birth to capitalism.
Protestants, beginning with Martin Luther, reconceptualized
worldly work as a duty which benefits both the individual and society
as a whole. Thus, the Catholic idea of good works was transformed
into an obligation to consistently work diligently as a sign of grace.
Whereas Catholicism teaches that good works are required of
Catholics as a necessary manifestation of the faith they received,
32
and that faith apart from works is dead (James 2:14–26) and barren,
the Calvinist theologians taught that only those who were
predestined to be saved would be saved. Since it was impossible to
know who was predestined, the notion developed that it might be
possible to discern that a person was elect (predestined) by
observing their way of life. Hard work and frugality were thought to
be two important consequences of being one of the elect. Protestants
were thus attracted to these qualities and supposed to strive for
reaching them.

“Live and let live” Attitude of the protestant denominations to each other.

Being “Born again” Evangelical term for spiritual rebirth, a “be-born” Christian means
an “evangelical”.

“America – love it or In the 1970's, President Richard M. Nixon coined the phrase
leave it” "America Love It or Leave It". It meant that anyone who opposed
the war in Vietnam should go back to their countries.

Culture wars Refers to the conflict between traditionalist, classical liberal, or


conservative values and social democratic, progressive or social
liberal values in the Western world.

Megachurch A church, usually Protestant, with a very large congregation,


typically housed in a complex offering sophisticated multimedia
presentations and a range of secular facilities and services.
/Collins English Dictionary/
Political and religious Thomas Jefferson; Bishop William Lawrence; John Wesley.
figures

Donators Andrew Carnegie; John D. Rockefeller; Bill Gates; Julius


Rosenwald (Sears Roebuck); Warren Buffet.

The Johnson The Johnson Amendment is a provision in the U.S. tax code, since
Amendment 1954, that prohibits all 501(c)(3) non-profit organizations* from
endorsing or opposing political candidates. Section 501(c)(3)
organizations are the most common type of nonprofit organization in
the United States, ranging from charitable foundations to universities
and churches. The amendment is named for then-Senator Lyndon B.
Johnson of Texas, who introduced it in a preliminary draft of the law
in July 1954.

In the early 21st century, many politicians, including President


Donald Trump, have sought to repeal the provision, arguing that it

33
restricts the free speech rights of churches and other religious
groups. These efforts have been criticized because churches have
fewer reporting requirements than other non-profit organizations,
and because it would effectively make political contributions tax-
deductible. On May 4, 2017, President Donald Trump signed an
executive order "to defend the freedom of religion and speech" for
the purpose of easing the Johnson Amendment's restrictions.
A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated
association, or other type of organization exempt from federal
income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States
Code. 501(c)(3) tax-exemptions apply to entities that are organized
and operated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, literary,
or educational purposes, for testing for public safety, to foster
national or international amateur sports competition, for the
prevention of cruelty to children, women, or animals. 501(c)(3)
exemption applies also for any non-incorporated community chest,
fund, cooperating association or foundation organized and operated
exclusively for those purposes. There are also supporting
organizations—often referred to in shorthand form as "Friends of"
organizations.

34
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 4. THE FRONTIER HERITAGE

Language Guide

1. a fistfight 22. to shoot it out


2. a buffalo 23. reservations
3. frontier experience 24. settled / unsettled regions
4. frontier heritage 25. untamed nature
5. a gunfighter 26. to conquer wilderness
6. a lawman 27. to deny comforts and conveniences
7. a frontiersman 28. inventiveness and can-do spirit
8. resourcefulness 29. to live on the frontier
9. a gang 30. to take law into one’s own hands
10. high adventure 31. to make a new beginning
11. militia 32. willingness to experiment and invent
12. hired helper 33. colorful and adventurous
13. to infringe 34. to master harsh challenges
14. gun control 35. to bear/own arms, carry guns
15. a law-abiding citizen 36. a cattleman
16. an outlaw 37. a wagon
17. physical prowess 38. incidentally
18. rugged and primitive life 39. fertile land
19. to rush for gold 40. to overlook
20. to seize the future 41. wilderness (of Kentucky)
21. settling of the continent

Exercise 1.
Types of weapon and related language. Translate into Russian.

rifle
automatic assault rifle
shotgun
handgun

35
firearms
cold steel / bladed weapon
fistfight
gunfight
shoot it out

Exercise 2.
Translate the following proverbs and sayings about succeeding.

Pull yourself up by the bootstraps.


If at first you don’t succeed try and try again.
Actions speak louder than words.
Life is what you make it.
Every problem has a solution.
When the going gets tough, the tough get going.

Exercise 3.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 4).

буквально
воспевать (как героев)
вселять оптимизм
злодей
идти согнувшись, неуклюжей походкой
испытать разочарование и потерпеть неудачу
истреблять
нарушить обещание
не обращать внимания
ограничивать
преобладать
преодолевать трудности и преграды
стать урбанизированной территорией
преувеличивать / преуменьшать
развитые штаты

36
романтизировать и прославлять
самосовершенствоваться
совершить дерзкий побег
стать менее чувствительным к чему-л.
не придавать значения чему-л.
стрельба по мишеням
ухаживать за садом
ходить прямо и с легкостью
являть собой пример

Exercise 4.
Correct the factual mistakes.
1. The American frontier consisted of the densely populated regions of the United States, usually
found in the southern part of the country. Here, both land and life were more rich and civilised than in
the less settled northern part.
2. For many years, the frontier experience was stigmatized in popular movies and television shows
that featured cowboy heroes fighting sheriffs and farmers.
3. The rush for coal and wild fish provided endless stories of misadventure.
4. Boone’s heroic strength is seen primarily in his ability to resist gunfighters of the saloons.
5. The image of the rugged individualist has been glorified for its being traditionally feminine,
putting an emphasis on the importance of pioneer women and their strength, hard work, resourcefulness,
and civilizing influence on the untamed frontier.
6. Many young people have become oversensitive to the sight of violence and killings.
7. The problem of gun owning is particularly bad in the fashionable residential areas, where a
number of young gang members carry guns.
8. Most firearms are owned by Americans who are genuine peace lovers and pacifists.
9. Americans strongly believe that the police can keep them in secure and have never hailed
anybody as heroes apart from the policemen.
10. Frontier people were fond of saying: “What’s beneath the ground is more important than what’s
above the ground”.

Exercise 5.
Guess the word by the definition and make up your sentence.
1. Willing to try new things and expecting that they will be successful.
2. Unexplored, unoccupied area of land.

37
3. Laws that control the sale and use of guns and who is allowed to own them.
4. Behaving forcefully or showing no emotion in a way traditionally thought to be typical of a
man.
5. The name given to the western part of the US during the time when Europeans were first
beginning to live there and when there was fighting between them and the native Americans; or the
western states of the us during the years when the first Europeans were settling there, used especially
when you are referring to the fact that there was not much respect for the law there.
6. A phrase used to refer to the western parts of America in the 19th century when white people
first settled there.
7. A situation in which a lot of people move to a place to try to find gold because they have heard
that gold has been found there.
8. Something or someone considered harmful or dangerous.
9. Dairy farm or homestead.
10. An area of land made available for a particular group of people to live in.

Exercise 6.

Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.

1. Многие годы опыт, полученный в результате освоения фронтира, идеализировался в


популярных фильмах, в которых ковбои сражались против злодеев-индейцев.
2. Погоня за золотом и плодородными землями породили бесконечные истории о
рискованных приключениях.
3. Женщины Дикого Запада являли собой воплощение национальных ценностей.
4. Даниэль Бун провел 2 года в глуши, среди дикой природы.
5. Герой Дикого Запада – человек, обладающий физической силой, выходящий победителем
из любой драки.
6. Чтобы стать хозяевами своей судьбы, жители фронтира заселяли неосвоенные земли, их
жизнь была проста и примитивна, лишена комфорта и удобств.
7. Банды преступников нарушали закон и устраивали перестрелки.
8. Переселенцы выжили на новом месте благодаря ощущению, что «им все под силу». Они
были готовы экспериментировать и изобретать, и поэтому преуспели, преодолев все преграды.
9. Пионеры Дикого запада начали жизнь с чистого листа, а для этого требовалось взять
власть в свои руки.
10. Жители фронтира были хорошо вооружены как холодным, так и огнестрельным
оружием.

38
11. Любой американский мачо с легкостью объяснит разницу между винтовкой и карабином,
а также ружьем и пистолетом.
12. Наемного работника на Западе отличала походка – прямая и легкая. А приехавшие на
заработки из восточных территорий были неуклюжие и ходили будто бы согнувшись.
13. В искусстве часто прославляются герои Дикого Запада, а их эпоха романтизируется и
воспевается.
14. Скотоводы с семьями отправлялись на повозках на запад. Их не останавливали
возможные разочарования и неудачи. Возможность жить на плодородных землях Калифорнии
вселяла в них оптимизм.
15. Культ насилия на ТВ привел к тому, что молодежь перестала с должной серьезностью
относиться к актам насилия на экране.
16. В обществе все чаще можно услышать поистине шекспировские строки: «Владеть или не
владеть оружием, вот в чем вопрос!».
17. Жители обжитых районов восточного побережья не хотели быть ограниченными тонкой
прибрежной полосой, их привлекали глухие неосвоенные земли запада.
18. Многие территории, не заселенные в период освоения фронтира, превратились в
урбанизированные районы.
19. Вооруженные отряды создавались в помощь шерифам для борьбы с бандитами и
преступниками.
20. Стала преобладать культура европейских переселенцев. С этим связано беспощадное
истребление бизонов.
21. История Дикого Запада полна увлекательных и опасных рассказов о том, как бесстрашные
переселенцы справлялись с суровыми испытаниями.

Exercise 7.

Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

THE IMPACT OF THE AMERICAN FRONTIER

1. (a) Why are the Americans still fascinated by the frontier? (b) Which of the American presidents
were reinforcing their cowboy image? How?
2. (a) How was the frontier heritage romanticized? (b) What are most Americans now more aware of?
(c) What is the Smithsonian?
3. (a) What are the timeframes of the Frontier experience? (b) What were the land and life like on the
frontier? (c) What did the settlers come to believe? (d) How did they treat the American Indians?

39
4. What sort of view do Americans have of the settling of the West?
5. What are the inspiring examples of the hard work and competitive race for success on the western
frontier?
6. (a) Was the daily life of the frontiersmen as dramatic as the frontier stories? (b) What did it
exemplify?
7. (a) Which values are most closely associated with the frontier heritage? (b) What does the frontier
settler embody? Why? (c) Why do the Americans experience such nostalgia towards the frontier
exploration times? (d) Which beliefs do some still hold?
SELF-RELIANCE AND RUGGED INDIVIDUALIST
8. What price was paid by the frontier settlers for their freedom from many of the society rules?
9. Draw a general portrait of the classic American male hero.
10. (a) What sort of man was Daniel Boone? (b) Was he admired for being a skilled fighter? (c) Which
era is he associated with? What was his main struggle?
11. (a) Describe the second type of western macho. What was his struggle? (b) Why was the frontier of
the last phase called “the Wild West”? What was so WILD about it?
12. (a) What is he admired for? (b) What is the principal source of his heroism? (c) Whom was he
defending?
13. (a) Whose memories give the basis for the image of a Wild West hero? (b) Who is more influential
in shaping the American idea of heroism – the hero of the earlier wilderness or the Wild West hero?
How can you justify this?
AMERICAN MACHO HEROES
14. (a) What has helped to shape the American idea of “macho” or male strength? (b) What do typical
male characters have in common? (c) In which settings was the model for the western macho hero
used? What are the machos valued for? (d) Are there female characters featured as well?
15. (a) Why was the image of the rugged individualist criticized? (b) What does it understate and
overstate? (b) How important was the input of pioneer women on the untamed frontier?
16. (a) What is the major concern of the critics of the western heroes’ promotion on the screen? (b)
What was romanticized and glorified about them? How can one distinguish a bad guy from a good
guy? (c) Who replaced the western heroes? Has the situation improved?
17. (a) How great is the impact of these role models on the young people? (b) Do the shootings occur
in the inner cities only? (c) What are the most spoken attacks in the USA?
18. (a) Where is the right to own and bear guns fixed? What did the founding fathers mean? (b) How
many privately held guns are there in the country? What does the statistic say? (c) Who are the
frequent users / owners of the firearms? (d) When did the gun sales rise?

40
19. (a) How does the reaction of the people to the 9/11 tragedy reveal the frontier legacy? Do people
rely much on the police? (b) Who are those hailed as heroes after the 9/11 attack?
20. (a) What is the controversy of the issue of the gun control? (b) Which arguments do they put
forward? (c) What happens with gun sales after each mass shooting?
INVENTIVENESS AND THE CAN-DO SPIRIT
21. (a) Who was also respected along with the romanticized rugged individualist? (b) What forced the
frontier settlers seek the new way of doing things?
22. (a) What was so impressive about the frontiersmen and pioneer women’s abilities? (b) What
observation did Lord Bryce, a famous English observer, make? (c) How did the inventiveness
become the national character trait of the Americans?
23. (a) What is another word for the sense of optimism? (b) What is the American attitude to facing
obstacles? (c) How do they link moon and earth in a popular saying related to problem solving? (d)
What was Alexis de Tocqueville’s commentary to the Americans’ ability to manage their future?
(e) When do the politicians remind Americans of their frontier heritage?
EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY
24. (a) How was the idea of equality of opportunity enforced by the frontier? (b) What was the popular
saying?
25. How enticing was the western frontier to those seeking a new beginning?
26. (a) Was there considerable difference between the rich and poor on the frontier? (b) What were the
ways and manners of the frontier people? (c) Why was an English visitor so impressed? (d) What
sort of warnings did the travelers to the frontier get?
27. (a) What does the frontier mean to American development according to Frederick Jackson Turner?
(b) What did the frontier provide to the nation? (c) How did the frontier values become national
values?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

Ronald Reagan Is the 40th president of the US (presidency 1981-1989).

George (Walker) Bush Is the 43rd president of the US (presidency 2001 – 2009).
(Jr.)
Daniel Boone American pioneer, explorer, woodsman, and frontiersman, whose
(November 2, 1734 – frontier exploits, made him one of the first folk heroes of the United
States. Although he also became a businessman, soldier and
September 26, 1820)
politician. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement
of what is now Kentucky.

41
Jesse James (September Is an outlaw, bank and train robber, guerrilla, the leader of the
5, 1847 – April 3, 1882) James–Younger Gang*.
Raised in the "Little Dixie" area of western Missouri, James and his
family maintained strong Southern sympathies. He and his brother
Frank James joined pro-Confederate guerrillas known as
"bushwhackers" operating in Missouri and Kansas during the
American Civil War. After the war, as members of various gangs of
outlaws, Jesse and Frank robbed banks, stagecoaches, and trains
across the Midwest, gaining national fame and often popular
sympathy despite the brutality of their crimes. The James brothers
were most active as members of their own gang from about 1866 until
1876, when as a result of their attempted robbery of a bank in
Northfield, Minnesota, several members of the gang were captured
or killed. On April 3, 1882, Jesse James was shot and killed by Robert
Ford, a new recruit to the gang who hoped to collect a reward on
James' head and a promised amnesty for his previous crimes. Already
a celebrity in life, James became a legendary figure of the Wild West
after his death. Despite popular portrayals of James as an
embodiment of Robin Hood, robbing from the rich and giving to the
poor, there is no evidence that he and his gang shared any loot from
their robberies with anyone outside their close kinship network.
Scholars and historians have characterized James as one of many
criminals inspired by the regional insurgencies of ex-Confederates
following the Civil War, rather than as a manifestation of alleged
economic justice or of frontier lawlessness. James continues to be
one of the most iconic figures from the era, and his life has been
dramatized and memorialized numerous times.

James–Younger Gang* The James–Younger Gang was a notable 19th century gang of
American outlaws that centered around Jesse James and his brother
Frank James. The gang was based in the state of Missouri, the home
of most of the members. The James–Younger Gang had its origins in
a group of Confederate bushwhackers that participated in the bitter
partisan fighting that wracked Missouri during the American Civil
War. After the war, the men continued to plunder and murder, though
the motive shifted to personal profit rather than for the glory of the
Confederacy. The James–Younger Gang dissolved in 1876, following
the capture of the Younger brothers in Minnesota during the ill-fated
attempt to rob the Northfield First National Bank. Three years later,
Jesse James organized a new gang, including Clell Miller's brother
Ed and the Ford brothers (Robert and Charles), and renewed his
criminal career. This career came to an end in 1882 when Robert
Ford shot James from behind, killing him. For nearly a decade
following the Civil War, the James–Younger Gang was among the
most feared, most publicized, and most wanted confederations of

42
outlaws on the American frontier. Though their crimes were reckless
and brutal, many members of the gang commanded a notoriety in the
public eye that earned the gang significant popular support and
sympathy. The gang's activities spanned much of the central part of
the country; they are suspected of having robbed banks, trains, and
stagecoaches in at least ten states: Missouri, Kentucky, Iowa,
Kansas, Minnesota, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, and West
Virginia.
Wyatt Earp (March 19, Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp, lawman and gambler, was an American
1848 – January 13, frontiersman who appears frequently in a variety of well-known
stories of the American West, especially in notorious "Wild West"
1929)
towns such as Dodge City, Kansas and Tombstone, Arizona. An
itinerant hunter, businessman, gambler, and lawman, he worked in a
wide variety of trades throughout his life. Among his many business
ventures, he owned several saloons, maintained a brothel, mined for
silver and gold, and refereed boxing matches. He is perhaps best
known for his part in the famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, an
event which became famous in his own lifetime.
He was known as a Western lawman, gunfighter, and boxing referee.
He had a notorious reputation and this only began to change after
his death when the extremely flattering biography “Wyatt Earp:
Frontier Marshal” was published in 1931. It became a bestseller and
created his reputation as a fearless lawman. Since then, Earp has
been the subject of numerous films, television shows, biographies,
and works of fiction which have increased both his fame and his
notoriety. Long after his death, he has many devoted detractors and
admirers. His modern-day reputation is that of the Old West's
toughest and deadliest gunman.

Lord Bryce A British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.

Frederick Jackson An American historian, primarily known for his “Frontier Thesis”.
Turner

The Smithsonian The Smithsonian Institution is a group of museums and research centers
administered by the Government of the United States. It was founded on
Institution
August 10, 1846, "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". The
institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James
Smithson. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million
items, the Institution's 19 museums, nine research centers, and zoo include
historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of
Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland,
Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama.
More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and
Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates.

43
The National Rifle NRA is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States.
Association, NRA Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-
Национальная стрелковая related legislation since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and
ассоциация (НСА) against firearms legislation since 1975. Founded to advance rifle
marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety
and competency. The organization also publishes several magazines
and sponsors competitive marksmanship events. According to the
NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although
that figure has not been independently confirmed. Observers and
lawmakers see the NRA as one of the three most influential lobbying
groups in Washington, D.C. The NRA Institute for Legislative Action
(NRA-ILA) is its lobbying division, which manages its political action
committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history
the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or
initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates at
local, state and federal levels. The NRA has been criticized by gun
control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and
politicians. The organization has been the focus of intense criticism
in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook
Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School
shooting.

The Brady Campaign to The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence and the Brady Center to
Prevent Gun Violence are affiliated American nonprofit organizations that
Prevent gun Violence
advocate for gun control and against gun violence. Together, they are
commonly referred to as the Brady Campaign. They are named after James
"Jim" Brady, who was permanently disabled as a result of the Ronald
Reagan assassination attempt of 1981, and Sarah Brady, who was a leader
within the organization from 1989 until 2012.

Americans for Americans for Responsible Solutions (ARS) was a United States non-
Responsible Solutions profit organization and super PAC /i.e. political action committee/
that supports gun control. The group's stated goal is "to encourage
(ARS)
elected officials to stand up for solutions to prevent gun violence and
protect responsible gun ownership." It typically supports Democratic
politicians in elections. In 2016, the organization joined the Law
Center to Prevent Gun Violence to become Giffords. (Giffords is an
American advocacy and research organization focused on preventing
gun violence, which draws its name from that of its co-founder,
Gabrielle Giffords, a former Democratic member of the U.S. House
of Representatives. Rep. Giffords was shot along with 18 others at a
constituent meeting in Tucson in 2011).

44
American ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 5. THE HERITAGE OF ABUNDANCE

Language Guide

1. to account for 24. to downsize


2. abundance, abundant, abound in 25. a prospective voter
3. wasteful 26. to overturn the dominance
4. (in)fertile 27. startling
5. to leave behind 28. an identity theft
6. to take sth for granted 29. a double– edge sword
7. to be determined at birth 30. to enable
8. to acquire possessions 31. scarcity, scarce
9. a vice, vicious 32. to run out of sth
10. a virtue 33. to overcome obstacles
11. an incentive 34. heritage
12. to maintain a high standard of living 35. accessibility
13. to reach consumers 36. to tear people apart
14. to appeal to individual buying habits 37. to practice values
15. to follow accepted standards 38. to project
16. to reinforce factory capacity 39. to have the basics covered
17. inventiveness 40. a poverty-stricken nation
18. a labor-saving device 41. running water
19. garbage disposal 42. to meet needs
20. a grocery store 43. to generate revenue
21. to make up half of the workforce 44. a novelty
22. childhood obesity 45. a means to an end
23. to target customers

Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 5).

удивительные факты
приносить доходы
бедная страна, доступность
отвечать нуждам

45
детское ожирение
придерживаться ценностей
выброс мусора
составлять половину работающего населения
отвечать индивидуальным покупательским
привычкам
палка о двух концах
поддерживать высокий уровень жизни
преодолевать препятствия, проточная вода
следовать принятым нормам
порок
дефицит

Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list
below.
vice • to project • a double-edged sword • novelty • abundance • scarcity • to abound in
• wasteful • virtue • incentive • poverty-stricken • infertile • to enable • startling
1. ……………………………………………. – a situation in which something is not easy to find or
get
2. ……………………………………………. – using something in a careless way and causing some
of it to be wasted
3. ……………………………………………. – surprising and sometimes worrying
4. ……………………………………………. – to exist in large numbers
5. ……………………………………………. – not able to produce young, or (of land) of poor quality
for growing crops
6. ……………………………………………. – to make someone able to do something, or to make
something possible
7. ……………………………………………. – using something in a careless way and causing some
of it to be wasted
8. ……………………………………………. – suffering from the effects of being extremely poor
9. ……………………………………………. – to calculate an amount or result expected in the future
from information already known
10. ……………………………………………. – a good moral quality in a person, or the general
quality of goodness in a person

46
11. ……………………………………………. – the quality of being new or unusual, or a new or
unusual experience
12. ……………………………………………. – the situation in which there is more than enough of
something
13. ……………………………………………. – something which acts in two ways, often with one
negative and one positive effect
14. ……………………………………………. – a moral fault or weakness in someone's character or
illegal and immoral activities, especially involving illegal sex, drugs, etc.

Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below.
to reinforce • to be determined at birth • to project • to run out of resources • to acquire
possessions • to meet needs • to target consumers • to generate revenue • to take for
granted • to account for • to enable • labor-saving • identity theft • heritage • to
downsize

1. A stronger European Parliament would, they fear, only ............................... the power of the larger
countries.
2. The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer; and we will ............................... unless
something drastic is done.
3. On Labour’s watch, class has become more rigid, destiny for most babies is ...............................,
and the incomes of rich and poor families have drawn further apart.
4. Health systems, particularly in poorer countries, need to adapt to ............................... the chronic
care ............................... of older people as the shift to ageing populations gathers pace in low–
and middle– income countries.
5. More than half of the ............................... was forecast to be ............................... in the US with
most of the non– US revenue coming from western Europe.
6. According to research released in June, internet advertising ............................... is
............................... to overtake broadcast TV advertising revenue.
7. With an effective strategy in place that ............................... consumer preferences as well as
potential challenges, brands and businesses will be able to reach specific, targeted groups in a more
meaningful way – enhancing user experience and creating sustainable business value.
8. Analytical insights can also be used to more precisely ............................... and provide brands and
businesses with the confidence that their advertising channel mix is yielding the desired actions
and returns.

47
9. The well– known writer did not ............................... or seek favours of the establishment, but spent
most of his time with what were called "the common people".
10. Application programming interfaces are ............................... businesses to maximise the potential
of the cloud services.
11. To truly stop ............................... the things in our life ............................... people need to stop
dwelling in the past, thinking over our regrets and missed opportunities.
12. The general idea that ............................... machinery is too expensive to be installed in ordinary
houses calls for an investigation of the cost of running a house with and without a servant.
13. A restaurant worker is suspected of using the identities of some of America's richest celebrities
and executives in a scam which the local authorities describe as the biggest ............................... in
internet history.
14. The UN’s world heritage body has recognised the old city of Hebron in the West Bank as a
Palestinian world ............................... site, sparking outrage from Israel.
15. Nestlé has announced the popular Killer Python confectionery will be............................... by
approximately half in an effort to reduce the portion size of the sweet.

Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.

1. to downsize a. obstacles
2. poverty-stricken b. nation
3. to practice c. needs
4. to overturn d. sword
5. to tear apart e. voter
6. to meet f. revenues
7. to overcome g. people
8. double– edged h. values
9. prospective i. the staff
10. generate j. dominance

B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.
1. Macroeconomic policies are essentially only a means/a halt to an end, and not an end in
themselves.
2. People who are under social security have the right to receive necessary pension and allowance
from the state in order to maintain/to support their living.

48
3. Gradual development of tourism in the park, as one means through which the park can generate/
make revenues.
4. Their service suppliers can reach/aim consumers around the world directly, offering both package
tours and individual air and land services.
5. Immigration is never an easy option: leaving behind/forgetting people and places always comes
at a painful price.

A. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.
1. Childhood ……………… is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health
or well–being.
2. In 2012, New York's public and private waste management systems spent a combined $2.3bn
on garbage collection and ……………… .
3. Sainsbury’s has launched the UK’s first till-free grocery ……………… , at a central London
branch, which allows shoppers to pay with their smartphone and walk out of the shop without
going through a checkout.
4. Today the productive factory ……………… allows producing as around 7 thousand of watches
within a month.
5. Household ……………… devices such as fuel–efficient stoves and food- grinding machines will
increase the amount of time women have for productive and reproductive activities and for leisure
and self-improvement.
6. The Scottish National party tonight pulled off a historic coup to ……………… Labour's
dominance of Scottish politics.

Exercise 5.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Согласно прогнозам, изложенным в докладе ООН, к 2050 году население мира превысит 9
миллиардов человек.
2. Многие коренные индейцы в резервациях живут в домах, где нет ни водопровода, ни
канализации, а также отсутствуют нормальные подъездные пути.
3. Во многих городах в продуктовых магазинах организованы пункты по сбору батареек для
их дальнейшей переработки.
4. В настоящее время в сельских районах хозяйки пользуются техническими средствами,
облегчающими их труд и освобождающими их дочерей-школьниц от работы по дому.
5. Чтобы получать доход в будущем, США вложили существенные инвестиции в
промышленность, образование, здравоохранение и производство продуктов питания.

49
6. Даже в самых отдаленных уголках страны, например в ряде бедных южных штатов, дела
обстоят успешно.
7. После урагана правительство немедленно приступило к проведению гуманитарной
операции, чтобы обеспечить удовлетворение потребностей тех, кто был эвакуирован.
8. Наблюдается увеличение разрыва между теми, кому удается поддерживать привычный
уровень жизни, и теми, кто борется за выживание практически на грани нищеты.
9. Благотворительные организации дали возможность бездомным и малоимущим гражданам
обращаться за медицинской помощью в медучреждения.
10. В отличие от других стран, США не намереваются сокращать свои вооруженные силы.
11. Нехватка земли в некоторых штатах привела к значительному росту цен на участки в
крупных городах.
12. В крупных городах необходимо бороться с неэффективным и неэкономным потреблением
энергии.
13. Пособие по безработице - это палка о двух концах: с одной стороны, оно дает возможность
жить на эти деньги, а с другой – граждане начинают излишне рассчитывать на помощь
государства и не торопятся устроиться на работу.
14. Если бы малоимущим гражданам предоставлялась реальная помощь, то это бы позволило
им разорвать порочный круг - получить образование и найти хорошую работу.
15. Увеличивающаяся пропасть между богатыми и бедными слоями населения может
расколоть общество.

Exercise 6.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

A HISTORY OF ABUNDANCE
1. Why is American society viewed as wasteful?
2. What kind of America did first settlers see when they first arrived?
3. Why did Americans strive to acquire more wealth in the early days according to Toqueville?
4. What did America manage to achieve after it gained independence?
5. How is wealth regarded in America in contrast to other nations?
FROM CONSUMERS TO PRODUCERS
6. What opportunities did mass media contribute to make America a throwaway society?
7. What effect does advertising have on society?
8. What is the connection between advertising and big events?
9. What advances did the Internet enable advertisers to realize?

50
WHAT AMERICAN CONSUMERS LIKE
10. What is American love for comfort rooted in?
11. Why is cleanliness highly valued?
12. What is love for novelty reinforced by?
13. When and how did the American desire for convenience emerge?
AN ABUNDANCE OF TECHNOLOGY
14. How do marketeers target clients nowadays?
15. What is news reporting like?
AN ABUNDANCE OF KNOWLEDGE: BIG DATA
16. What was election 2012 characterized by?
17. What controversy is there around Big Data?
18. What is supply of information like nowadays?
REDEFINING AMERICAN ABUNDANCE
19. How is American abundance redefined in the modern era?
20. How does the mindset of abundance affect attitude to life?
21. What are the living conditions of poor Americans like according to the authors?

DEFINE WHAT THE FOLLOWING MEANS

“throw-away nation”; “the hurry sickness”; “newsertainment or infotainment”; “Big Data”; “coffee
table” book; “crowdscience or citizenscience”; “curse of natural resources”; fracking.

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES


The United States is blessed with an unusual abundance of six natural resources. First, it has a
large land mass that, early on, became governed by one political system. Second, it is bordered by two
large coastlines that provide food and ports for commerce. Third, it has thousands of acres of fertile
land thanks to the Great Plains. Fourth, it has abundant fresh water. Fifth, it was once under a great
sea that created oil and coal. Sixth, it is easily accessible via ocean or land. This made it attractive to
immigrants who created diversity in the population.
The Texas oil boom, sometimes called the gusher age, was a period of dramatic change and
economic growth in the U.S. state of Texas during the early 20th century that began with the discovery
of a large petroleum reserve near Beaumont, Texas. The find was unprecedented in its size (worldwide)
and ushered in an age of rapid regional development and industrialization that has few parallels in U.S.
history. Texas quickly became one of the leading oil producing states in the U.S., along with Oklahoma
and California; soon the nation overtook the Russian Empire as the top producer of petroleum. By 1940
Texas had come to dominate U.S. production. Some historians even define the beginning of the world's
Oil Age as the beginning of this era in Texas.
Standard Oil, an American company and corporate trust that from 1870 to 1911 was the
industrial empire of John D. Rockefeller and associates, controlling almost all oil production,
processing, marketing, and transportation in the United States.

51
The company’s origins date to 1863, when Rockefeller joined Maurice B. Clark and Samuel Andrews in
a Cleveland, Ohio, oil– refining business. In 1865 Rockefeller bought out Clark, and two years later he
invited Henry M. Flagler to join as a partner in the venture. By 1870 the firm of Rockefeller, Andrews,
and Flagler was operating the largest refineries in Cleveland, and these and related facilities became
the property of the new Standard Oil Company, incorporated in Ohio in 1870. By 1880, through
elimination of competitors, mergers with other firms, and use of favorable railroad rebates, it controlled
the refining of 90 to 95 percent of all oil produced in the United States. Its history as one of the world's
first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in a
landmark case, that Standard Oil was an illegal monopoly. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1911 that
antitrust law required Standard Oil to be broken into smaller, independent companies. Some of them
that still exist are ExxonMobil and Chevron.
Most of this energy comes from fossil fuels: in 2010, data showed that 25% of the nation's energy
originates from petroleum, 22% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. Nuclear energy supplied 8.4%
and renewable energy supplied 8%, mainly from hydroelectric dams and biomass; however, this also
includes other renewable sources like wind, geothermal, and solar.
The geography and geology of the United States provided a tremendous comparative advantage in
building its economy. Only Australia and Canada have similar– sized land masses that aren't bordered
by enemies. China and Russia land masses are bordered by enemies making them subject to invasion.
America's large landmass under one nation allows economies of scale in government and businesses.
This advantage lowers the cost of providing services and products.
America has 95,471 miles of shoreline, including the Great Lakes, which border 26 of the 50
states. The coast contributed $222.7 billion to gross domestic product, creating 2.6 million jobs in 2009.
Almost three– quarters of these jobs are related to tourism and ocean recreation. The highest paying
sector is oil drilling, where workers earn $125,700 each on average. The ocean also provides other
industries. These include ship and boat building, transportation, and shoreline construction.
America is fortunate to have a large coastline. Countries that are landlocked or have little access
to the sea find that both exports and imports are more expensive. Commerce in landlocked countries is
dependent upon the whims of another government. America's large coastline means no hostile
governments border it. This allowed the United States to develop peacefully without the need to incur
large war costs.
Unlike Australia and Canada, the United States had temperate climates combined with fertile
soil. The early settlers found rich soil on the Great Plains. This is the 502,000– square mile area between
the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. The Plains was a huge basin sculpted out by glaciers
during the Great Ice Age. As a result, mountain streams from the Rockies deposited layers of sediment.
These streams then cut through the sediment to create plateaus. These large flat areas were untouched
by erosion.
That created thick sod and productive agriculture. But the Great Plains is semi– arid. On
average, it receives less than 24 inches of rainfall a year. The Plains became the breadbasket of the
world only after irrigation was put into place. The water came from streams fed by the Rockies.
Lakes, rivers, and streams provide 80% of the water used in America. The electric power industry
uses an astonishing 41%. Water cools electricity– generating equipment, but it is returned. Agricultural
irrigation uses 31%, but it is not returned. Families, businesses, and industries use the rest. The United
States Geological Survey estimates that only 20% has to be pumped out of the ground to irrigate the
semi– arid Great Plains.

52
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 6. THE WORLD OF AMERICAN BUSINESS

Language Guide
1. privately owned business 24. to pay the mortgage on one’s home
2. a charity 25. a stock market fall
3. free enterprise 26. credit card debt
4. regardless of 27. to go into foreclosure
5. to live up to the ideals of smth 28. to be taxed at a lower rate
6. a flaw 29. to sound the alarm
7. to rise from poverty to wealth 30. upward mobility
8. universal healthcare 31. to play by the rules
9. Social Security System 32. to get the short end of the stick
10. an entrepreneur 33. a laissez-faire (hands-off) policy
11. from rags to riches 34. to be faced with / to face economic
12. to fulfill the American Dream hardship

13. to submit to higher authority 35. to achieve a sense of personal fulfillment

14. to put a limit on the income 36. to conduct a census

15. to come under severe attack for smth 37. to tackle audacious goals

16. a stockholder 38. nuclear proliferation

17. to destroy smb’s retirement savings 39. to blur the line between

18. to require a college degree 40. to commit to doing smth

19. to downsize 41. bottom-line

20. to lay off workers 42. to bring about change

21. to outsource work to another country 43. to bring smth to life

22. to be hit by economic recession 44. an asset

23. to adjust for inflation 45. to undergo enormous change

Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 6)
частный бизнес

благотворительная организация

53
свободное предпринимательство

независимо от

соответствовать идеалам

недостаток

общедоступная система здравоохранения

система социального страхования

предприниматель

из грязи в князи

претворить в жизнь американскую мечту

подчиниться воле вышестоящих властей

ограничивать доход

подвергнуться серьезной критике

акционер, пайщик

уничтожить пенсионные сбережения

требовать диплом о высшем образовании

сокращать работников

пострадать от экономического спада

индексировать на уровень инфляции

платить ипотеку за жилье

падение (обвал) рынка ценных бумаг

задолженности по кредитным картам

облагаться налогом по сниженной ставке

бить тревогу

играть по правилам

политика невмешательства государства в


экономику

столкнуться с экономическими трудностями

самореализоваться

54
проводить перепись населения

ставить перед собой смелые цели

распространение ядерного оружия

стирать грань между

брать на себя обязательства

привести к переменам

претворить в жизнь, реализовать

актив, преимущество

сильно измениться

Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list
below.
free enterprise • to downsize • to lay off workers • to outsource work to another country
• a stock market fall • to go into foreclosure • upward mobility • to get the short end of
the stick • nuclear proliferation • bottom-line • an asset

1. ……………………………………………. — a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices,


resulting in a significant loss of wealth. It is usually driven by panic and underlying economic factors
and often follows speculative stock market bubbles

2. ……………………………………………. — to make a company or organization smaller by


shedding staff

3. ……………………………………………. — to make employees lose their jobs because the


employer has closed or moved, there was insufficient work for them to do, or their position or shift was
abolished

4. ……………………………………………. — an item of property owned by a person or


company, regarded as having value and available to meet debts, commitments, or legacies, or,
metaphorically, a useful or valuable thing or person

5. ……………………………………………. — to suffer the bad effects of a situation

55
6. ……………………………………………. — when someone who has lent money to a person
or organization so that they can buy property takes possession of the property because the money has
not been repaid

7. ……………………………………………. — the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons-


applicable nuclear technology and information, to nations which are not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon
States"

8. ……………………………………………. — movement from one social level to a higher one,


for example by changing jobs or marrying

9. ……………………………………………. — the final total of an account or balance sheet, or,


metaphorically, the fundamental and most important factor

10. ……………………………………………. — an economic system in which private business


operates in competition and largely free of state control

11. ……………………………………………. — to have part of your work done by another


company overseas

Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below.
upward mobility • regardless of • downsize • universal healthcare • flaw • entrepreneurs
• play by the rules • assets • a “laissez faire” policy • stockholders •economic recession •
get the short end of the stick

1. Top judges have reaffirmed the principle that businesses must serve all customers,
................................ sexual orientation, gender, race or class.

2. Fifty-six years after opening its first hospital, Qatar has launched an ambitious ................................
scheme providing cashless treatment to all.

3. Big Pharma companies are corporations and the main duty of the officers of these companies is to
protect the ................................ of these corporations for the ................................. .

4. In most businesses, a small coding error is a minor problem. With Bitcoin, an online
“cryptocurrency”, a fairly simple ................................ seems to have cost $5.3 billion.

5. ................................ such as Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford are celebrated in monuments all
over the place.

56
6. In early March two mining companies announced that they would ................................ their
Congolese operations in a bid to cut costs in the face of .................................

7. For free trade to work, all sides must ................................. If one does and the other does not, then
it is not free trade.

8. Blacks and Latinos ................................: poverty, sub-standard schools, administrative inertia.

9. The researchers defined high-opportunity neighbourhoods as those with higher rates of


................................ for children from low-income families.

10. It’s important not to apply market rules of ................................ to a poor country.

Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.
1)

1. privately owned a. policy


2. free b. healthcare
3. upward c. enterprise
4. a laissez-faire d. mobility
5. nuclear e. debt
6. universal f. proliferation
7. credit card g. business

2)

1. to sound a. the line


2. to face b. enormous change
3. to achieve c. a census
4. to conduct d. audacious goals
5. to tackle e. the alarm
6. to blur f. economic hardship
7. to undergo g. a sense of personal fulfillment

B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.

1. The government has added health insurance for workers to the social safety / security system.

57
2. Austerity is what you get when you spend more than you earn for so long that you can’t pay the
mortgage / credit on your home.

3. It's a strange system in that many if not most jobs that require a college diploma / degree don't
actually require any extra skills.

4. Towns in the rich south were hit by economical / economic recession.

5. Some say that E-cigs should be taxed at a lower rate / level than traditional cigarettes, to reflect
lower fire risk, and lower nuisance for people nearby.

C. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.
1. It is not too late for Europe to implement these reforms and thus ……………… up to the ideals,
based on solidarity, that underlay the euro's creation.

2. Rising from poverty to ……………… takes more than one generation.

3. How many people in developing countries have a fighting chance from ……………… to riches?

4. Some claim that taxes are just an unnecessary burden on the road to ……………… the American
Dream.

5. In some cultures it is virtuous to live by traditionally-defined roles and ……………… to higher


authority, such as women to their husbands or fathers, or men to their parents.

6. Mining companies have ……………… severe attack for collusion with corrupt governments.

7. The labor union leader has threatened the hotel chain with a boycott by state employees unless it
reinstates a group of recently ……………… workers.

8. If you do ……………… for inflation, Van Gogh's "Portrait of Dr Gachet" becomes the most
expensive painting ever sold at auction.

9. Polls show that the younger generation is willing to accept a cut in their income to get more control
over their lives, spend more time with friends and families, or ……………… a sense of greater
personal fulfilment.

10. Bill Gates announced that his foundation (named after him and his wife Melinda) is now ready to
tackle an ……………… goal to eradicate malaria.

58
Exercise 5.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Сегодня частные компании/бизнесы, подобно благотворительным организациям, все
чаще ставят перед собой амбициозную цель: работать не только ради прибыли, а помочь тем,
кто столкнулся с экономическими трудностями.

2. Если зарплаты не индексировать на уровень инфляции, население моментально обеднеет.

3. Распространение ядерного оружия снова занимает место в повестке дня, и лидеры


мировых держав бьют тревогу.

4. Обвал рынка ценных бумаг привел к банкротству множества банков.

5. Многих руководителей международных корпораций критикуют за готовность


сокращать сотрудников и масштабы самой компании и даже перевести часть отделов в
страны третьего мира, иными словами, за желание сделать, что угодно, лишь бы не
ограничивать собственный доход.

6. Президенту Обаме стоило больших усилий создать проект системы всеобщего


здравоохранения, но теперь, когда в Белом Доме появился президент-республиканец, эти усилия
окажутся напрасными.

7. Во время экономического кризиса десять лет назад у половины населения сгорели


пенсионные накопления.

8. Что будет, если я потеряю работу и не смогу выплачивать ипотеку за дом?

9. Клиенты банков часто жалуются, что не могут вовремя погасить задолженности по


кредитным картам, но ведь если открываешь кредитную карту, надо играть по правилам.

10. Его история — классическая сказка о том, как мальчик из рабочей семьи выбрался из
бедности и разбогател, буквально из грязи в князи, став одним из известнейших
предпринимателей. Он как никто другой воплотил в жизнь американскую мечту.

11. Мы наблюдаем настоящую академическую инфляцию: работодатели требуют диплом о


высшем образовании даже для секретаря приемной.

12. Он из тех, кто не умеет подчиняться вышестоящим лицам, и начальник его за это
ненавидел. Неудивительно, что его сократили одним из первых.

13. Одну из лучших систем социального страхования на сегодняшний день создали в


скандинавских странах.

59
14. По мнению многих экспертов, политика невмешательства государства в экономику
хорошо работает в законопослушных странах вроде Канады, но едва ли применима в России или
Аргентине.

15. Перепись населения проводится один раз в пять лет силами волонтеров.

Exercise 6.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

HOW BUSINESS COMPETITION REINFORCES OTHER VALUES

1. Define the terms business and free enterprise.


2. What makes competition such a vital concept in the American culture?
3. What relationship can there be between the government and business?

THE DREAM OF GETTING RICH

4. Explain how much the government is involved in the (a) business; (b) public; (c) social spheres in
the US.
5. What are the advantages and downsides of a state-funded social security system, including
retirement benefits and universal healthcare?

THE ENTREPRENEUR AS BUSINESS HERO


6. What makes the entrepreneur the ultimate American hero?
7. How has American history shaped the image of a businessman?

THE CORPORATE CEO / CFO

8. How is a CEO / CFO different from an entrepreneur?


9. What ethical dilemma have highly paid CEOs and CFOs given rise to?
10. What changes has the corporate world undergone since the 2000s? What caused them?

MIDDLE CLASS VS THE ONE PERCENT


11. Why were the American middle-class struggling economically by 2010?
12. What does the Misery Index show?
13. What prompted the Occupy Wall Street protest movement in 2011?

60
14. Paraphrase the sentence ‘Washington had rushed to the rescue of Wall Street but had forgotten
about Main Street’ in your own words.
15. Is upward mobility no longer possible for Americans? Why (not)?
16. What is the difference between the Democratic and the Republican approaches to government
interference in economy and business?

REDEFINING THE AMERICAN DREAM


17. Why has the American Dream survived until this day despite all the economic hardship?
18. Who are technophilanthropists? How are they changing the face of the American business world?
Give examples.

THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN BUSINESS

19. What changes has the advent of the Internet brought to American business?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES


The Affordable Care Act Comprehensive healthcare reform signed into law by President
(Obamacare) Barack Obama in March 2010. The law includes a list of health-
related provisions intended to extend health-insurance coverage
to millions of uninsured Americans. It prevents insurance
companies from denying coverage due to pre-existing conditions
and requires plans to cover a list of essential health benefits.
Lower-income families can qualify for extra savings on health
insurance plans through premium tax credits and cost-sharing
reductions.
Social Security The commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and
Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. The current version
encompasses several social welfare and social insurance
programs.
The Misery Index A measure of the economic well-being of the country, which is
calculated by taking adding the unemployment rate and the
inflation rate. The original misery index was popularized in the
1970s as a measure of America’s economic health during a
president’s term in office. The higher the index, the more is the
misery felt by average citizens.
Occupy Wall Street A protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in
Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial
district, against economic inequality. The main issues raised by
Occupy Wall Street were social and economic inequality, greed,
corruption and the undue influence of corporations on
government—particularly from the financial services sector.

61
The OWS slogan, "We are the 99%", refers to income and wealth
inequality in the U.S. between the wealthiest 1% and the rest of
the population. The protesters were forced out of Zuccotti Park
on November 15, 2011. Protesters turned their focus to
occupying banks, corporate headquarters, board meetings,
foreclosed homes, and college and university campuses.
The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution marked a period of development in the
latter half of the 18th century that transformed largely rural,
agrarian societies in Europe and America into industrialized,
urban ones. It took place over more than a century, as production
of goods moved from home businesses, where products were
generally crafted by hand, to machine-aided production in
factories. This revolution, which involved major changes in
transportation, manufacturing, and communications,
transformed the daily lives of Americans as much as— and
arguably more than —any single event in U.S. history.

62
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 7. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS IN THE UNITED STATES

Language Guide

1. the provisions of the Constitution 23. to run for re-election


2. separation of powers 24. to hold an election
3. legislative (lawmaking) branch 25. electoral college
4. executive branch 26. to lose the popular vote
5. judicial (judiciary) branch 27. to send shockwaves through …
6. the House of Representatives 28. the vote was close
7. the Supreme Court 29. the governor of the state
8. to settle disputes 30. a recount of the votes
9. a court case 31. a ballot
10. to interpret the law 32. the court ruled that
11. under the Constitution 33. government benefits
12. to abuse power 34. safety net
13. a system of checks and balances 35. lobbying / pressure groups
14. the Secretary of State 36. to favor stricter laws
15. to pass / veto a bill 37. labor unions
16. to override the president’s veto 38. a stand on smth
17. to strike smb as inefficient 39. to raise funds for smth red partisan
18. the Bill of Rights 40. a grass-roots organization
19. due process rights 41. to endanger individual rights and
20. to charge smb with a crime freedoms

21. to be presumed innocent until proven 42. the repeal of a law


guilty 43. to live beyond one’s means
22. to be elected president

63
Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 7).
положения конституции

(принцип) разделения властей

законодательная ветвь власти

исполнительная ветвь власти

судебная ветвь власти

Палата представителей США (т. е. нижняя


палата Конгресса США)

Верховный суд

улаживать споры

судебное дело

толковать закон

согласно конституции

злоупотреблять властными полномочиями

система сдержек и противовесов

Госсекретарь США (глава


внешнеполитического ведомства США)

принять / наложить вето на законопроект

показаться неэффективным

Билль о правах

право на соблюдение предусмотренных


законом процессуальных норм

предъявить обвинение в совершении


преступления

считаться невиновным пока не доказано


обратное

быть избранным на пост президента

баллотироваться на новый срок

64
проводить выборы

коллегия выборщиков

проиграть народное голосование

повергнуть в шок

набранное количество голосов было


практически равным

губернатор штата

пересчет голосов

бюллетень

суд постановил

государственные льготы

система федеральных программ помощи


малоимущим

выступать за более жесткие законы

профсоюзы

позиция по какому-л. вопросу

собирать средства на …

прореспубликанские / продемократические
штаты

ставить под угрозу права и свободы индивида

отмена закона

жить не по средствам

Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list
below.
the US House of Representatives • The Supreme Court • the US Secretary of State • the
Bill of Rights • the governor of the state • partisan • safety net • labor unions • lobbying

65
/ pressure groups • electoral college • a system of checks and balances • to override the
president’s veto • a grass-roots organization • due process rights
1. ……………………………………………. — the lower house of the United States

2. ……………………………………………. — the highest judicial court in a country or state

3. ……………………………………………. — a system that allows each branch of a government to


amend or veto acts of another branch so as to prevent any one branch from exerting too much power

4. ……………………………………………. — a senior official of the federal government of the


United States of America who is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the
U.S. government's minister of foreign affairs.

5. ……………………………………………. — when each chamber of Congress votes on a bill vetoed


by the President. To pass a bill over the president's objections requires a two-thirds vote in each Chamber

6. ……………………………………………. — the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the US,


ratified in 1791

7. ……………………………………………. — a requirement that legal matters should be resolved


according to established rules and principles, and that individuals be treated fairly

8. ……………………………………………. — a body of electors established by the United States


Constitution, constituted every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president
of the United States.

9. ……………………………………………. — the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in


each of the fifty states who functions as both head of state and head of government and is responsible
for implementing state laws and overseeing the operation of the state executive branch.

10. ……………………………………………. — something that provides security against


misfortune or difficulty, such as a government program

11. ……………………………………………. — organized groups of people attempting to


influence politicians in the legislative, or justices in the judicial, to create certain pieces of legislation,
loosen regulation, or to rule a certain way in a judicial process.

12. ……………………………………………. — an organized association of workers, often


in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests, such as a trade union

13. ……………………………………………. — prejudiced in favour of a particular cause


or a party

66
14. ……………………………………………. — an organization consisting of the ordinary
people as distinct from the active leadership of a party or organization, and usually thought of as best
representing the basic, direct political interests of the electorate

Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below.
settle the dispute • a stand on • partisan • the governor of the state • pass a bill • interpret
the law • run for re-election • checks and balances • abused power • government benefits
• charged with a crime

1. On February 15th ................................ announced on television that he would


................................. .
2. If you are going to make a movie that takes ................................ a controversial issue, you can
expect criticism.
3. In fact, research shows that most people consume predominately unbiased local TV newscasts,
while tuning out news from ................................ sources altogether.
4. More than a fifth of American kids remain poor after ................................, compared with 3.6%
of Finnish children.
5. The purpose of the court is to ................................, not to shape it to their beliefs. Rulings on
issues like affirmative action should not be based on personal preferences.
6. It may be crunch time in negotiations to ................................ between Britain and Spain over
Gibraltar, the tiny British colony at the southern tip of Africa.
7. There are reasons to be fearful that traditional ................................ of the American system won't
work as effectively as usual with the new president.
8. On the thorny issue of corruption, the president said in his address that those who
................................ would be held accountable.
9. Their pay is low, so corruption is widespread—almost one policeman in eight was
................................ last year.
10. Today the administration is working overtime to ................................ that the majority of the
American people do not want.

67
Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.
1)

1. The Supreme a. college


2. a court b. groups
3. due process c. net
4. electoral d. rights
5. government e. Court
6. safety f. case net
7. lobbying / pressures g. benefits

2)

1. to settle a. an election
2. to interpret b. the president’s veto
3. to abuse c. disputes
4. to pass / veto d. a bill
5. to override e. power
6. to strike smb f. for re-election
7. to run g. the law
8. to hold h. as inefficient

B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.
1. On December 16th a demonstration was held in the capital, calling for a repeal / cancel of the
law.
2. The leaders of the professional / labor unions are still exclusively Democratic supporters but the
rank and file no longer vote as their union leaders dictate.
3. The secretary / minister of state spent this week on a tour of the Middle East before touching
down in Germany and Britain.
4. Under pressure to reverse her refugee policy, Angela Merkel faces a trial / court case.
5. It is rare for the High / Supreme Court to give a unanimous judgment on a contentious appeal.

C. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.
1. They were among the first special interest group to really catch on by identifying itself as "small-
business" and a ……………… organization.

68
2. The idea of a criminal trial is that the accused is presumed ……………… until ………………
guilty. Any country that requires proof of innocence is an oppressive state.
3. Everyone thought that George W. Bush's election as president in 2000 despite ………………
the popular vote will probably not be repeated for a while. But it did happen.
4. The governor in North Carolina demanded a ……………… of the votes for the gubernatorial
race.
5. The electronic votes have been 100% counted. It will take months to recount them manually, in
states where the ……………… was close.
6. The auction was trying to ……………… funds for building projects in post-disaster locations.
7. The film, intended to undermine racial integration in student residences, sent ………………
throughout South Africa and beyond.
8. By a four-to-three majority, the court ……………… that the new bill violates the state's
constitution.
9. I do not ……………… stricter laws as they tend to shift guns away from honest citizens into
the hands of people who do not care about the laws and will use them regardless of any ban.
10. From the other European countries' perspective that are not indebted, the Greek situation could
be described as living beyond ……………….

Exercise 5.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Согласно положениям Конституции США все граждане имеют право на соблюдение
предусмотренных законом процессуальных норм.
2. Такие права американского гражданина, как свобода слова или ношение оружия,
гарантируются Биллем о правах — первыми десятью поправками к Конституции.
3. В основе принципа разделения властей лежат три ветви власти: законодательная,
исполнительная и судебная. В политической системе США эти ветви представлены Конгрессом,
президентом и Верховным судом.
4. Конгресс США — двухпалатный (= bicameral) орган законодательной власти, который
состоит из Сената и Палаты представителей.

5. Система сдержек и противовесов была создана, чтобы не допускать злоупотребления


полномочиями со стороны трех ветвей власти.

6. Глава внешнеполитического ведомства США не может подписывать договоры с


иностранными государствами без одобрения президента.

69
7. Выборы президента проходят один раз в четыре года, причем за президента голосует
коллегия выборщиков. Эта система, которая многим кажется неэффективной, позволяет
кандидату стать президентом, даже проиграв общенародное голосование.

8. Президент может наложить вето на законопроект, одобренный обеими палатами


Конгресса. Конгресс, в свою очередь, может обойти вето президента, если законопроект
получит поддержку двух третей голосов.

9. Решение губернатора штата Арканзас баллотироваться на пост президента повергло


всех в шок.

10. Кандидаты набрали почти равное количество голосов, поэтому суд постановил, что
необходим ручной (manual) пересчет бюллетеней.

11. Профсоюзы требуют увеличения государственных льгот и программ помощи


малоимущим, но лоббисты выступают за более жесткие законы, которые на руку не обычным
рабочим, а владельцам компаний.

12. У него нет ясной позиции по этой противоречивой проблеме, поэтому он старается
уклончиво отвечать на вопросы журналистов.

13. Новый президент обещает отменить этот закон, так как он ставит под угрозу права и
свободы индивида.

14. Ему предъявили обвинение в отмывании денег во время предвыборной кампании.

15. Вы живете не по средствам, и ничто, кроме немедленного сокращения расходов, не


спасет вас от банкротства.

Exercise 6.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT

1. Describe the division of governmental power under the US Constitution.


2. Speak about the US Congress as a political body.
3. What are the main rights and duties of the President?
4. What are the main functions of the US Supreme Court?
5. How does the system of checks and balances work?
6. What rights are guaranteed by the Bill of Rights?

THE ELECTION OF THE PRESIDENT AND THE CONGRESS

7. What makes the American system different from a parliamentary system?

70
8. What is the electoral college? Why was it chosen over a direct election?
9. How can a candidate lose the popular vote but still become President? Speak about at least one
precedent in the history of the US when it happened.

THE IDEAL OF THE FREE INDIVIDUAL

10. How did the American history shape the ideal of a free individual with a strong dislike of
government interference?

THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIG GOVERNMENT

11. What is the difference between the traditional views on the role of the government held by the
Democrats and the Republicans?
12. How has the Great Depression changed the views on the role of the government?

THE CONTROVERSY OF ENTITLEMENTS

13. Explain the difference between the terms ‘welfare state’ and ‘entitlement’.
14. Why do some Americans stand against a state-funded safety net for the citizens?

THE ROLE OF SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS

15. What are lobbying and pressure groups and how do they influence the legislative process? Give
examples.
16. What is the role of labor unions in today’s politics in the USA?

THE NEW INDIVIDUALISM: INTEREST-GROUP GOVERNMENT

17. How has the notion of American individualism changed over the years?
18. How are funding issues influencing the political change?

THE POLITICAL LANDSCAPE IN THE 2000s: RED STATES VS BLUE STATES

19. What are the blue and red states? Give examples of typical red and blue states.
20. What three major divisions are in evidence in America today? Describe each in detail and give
examples.

FINDING THE WAY FORWARD

21. What does each party ascribe the current economic problems to?
22. How can Americans ease the tension coming from the two clashing values, individualism and
respect for the community?
23. What six values remain at the heart of contemporary American society?

71
IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES
US Congress Established by Article I of the Constitution, the Legislative Branch
consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which
together form the United States Congress. The Constitution grants
Congress the sole authority to enact legislation and declare war,
the right to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments, and
substantial investigative powers. In order to pass legislation and
send it to the President for his signature, both the House and the
Senate must pass the same bill by majority vote. If the President
vetoes a bill, they may override his veto by passing the bill again
in each chamber with at least two-thirds of each body voting in
favor.
The House of The lower chamber of the US Congress. It is made up of 435
Representatives elected members, divided among the 50 states in proportion to
their total population. In addition, there are 6 non-voting
members, representing the District of Columbia, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and four other territories of the
United States. The presiding officer of the chamber is the Speaker
of the House, elected by the Representatives. He or she is third in
the line of succession to the Presidency. Members of the House
are elected every two years and must be 25 years of age, a U.S.
citizen for at least seven years, and a resident of the state (but not
necessarily the district) they represent. The House has several
powers assigned exclusively to it, including the power to initiate
revenue bills, impeach federal officials, and elect the President in
the case of an electoral college tie.
The Senate The upper Chamber of the US Congress. It is composed of 100
Senators, 2 for each state. Until the ratification of the 17th
Amendment in 1913, Senators were chosen by state legislatures,
not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to six-year
terms by the people of each state. Senator’s terms are staggered
so that about one-third of the Senate is up for reelection every two
years. Senators must be 30 years of age, U.S. citizens for at least
nine years, and residents of the state they represent. The Vice
President of the United States serves as President of the Senate
and may cast the decisive vote in the event of a tie in the Senate.
The Senate has the sole power to confirm those of the President’s
appointments that require consent, and to ratify treaties. There
are, however, two exceptions to this rule: the House must also
approve appointments to the Vice Presidency and any treaty that
involves foreign trade. The Senate also tries impeachment cases
for federal officials referred to it by the House.

72
The Great Depression Was the worst economic downturn in the history of the
(1929-1939) industrialized world. It began after the stock market crash of
October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out
millions of investors. Over the next several years, consumer
spending and investment dropped, causing steep declines in
industrial output and employment as failing companies laid off
workers. By 1933, when the Great Depression reached its lowest
point, some 15 million Americans were unemployed and nearly
half the country’s banks had failed.
The Democratic Party One of the two major US political parties. The logo of the
Democratic Party, the donkey, was popularized by cartoonist
Thomas Nast in the 1870s; though widely used, it has never been
officially adopted by the party. During the 19th century the party
supported or tolerated slavery, and it opposed civil rights reforms
after the American Civil War in order to retain the support of
Southern voters. By the mid-20th century it had undergone a
dramatic ideological realignment and reinvented itself as a party
supporting organized labor, the civil rights of minorities, and
progressive reform. The modern Democratic Party generally
supports a strong federal government with powers to regulate
business and industry in the public interest; federally financed
social services and benefits for the poor, the unemployed, the
aged, and other groups; and the protection of civil rights.
The Republican Party Also known as the Grand Old Party (GOP), is one of the two major
political parties in the US. The party’s official logo, the elephant,
is derived from a cartoon by Thomas Nast. During the 19th
century the Republican Party stood against the extension of
slavery to the country’s new territories and, ultimately, for
slavery’s complete abolition.

73
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 8. ETHNIC AND RACIAL DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES

Language Guide

1. to retain the language / a strong sense of 23. strong racial prejudice


group identity 24. (de)segregation
2. a continued flux of newcomers 25. a civil rights movement
3. to take pride in sth 26. to argue a case before court
4. a persecution 27. Supreme Court Justice
5. to trace one’s ancestry back to … 28. a Protestant minister
6. to make up a surprising 20% of the 29. a nonviolent march
population
30. to deny smb the right to vote
7. to be at an all-time high
31. an affirmative action
8. to arrive by the millions
32. to hold elective public office
9. poverty-stricken nations
33. to sit in (to hold a sit-in)
10. to meet the most basic needs
34. to advance the rights of women
11. to see to the needs
35. to enter the picture
12. to be more accepting of sth
36. to be grossly underrepresented in
13. to engage in illegal practices Congress
14. a rapidly expanding economy 37. a median income
15. at the turn of the century 38. in the suburbs / in the inner city
16. to come to accept the values 39. to have a criminal record
17. Americans of African descent 40. to be driven by economic hardship
18. to abolish slavery 41. to live in low-income housing
19. to degrade smb’s work 42. to slow to a trickle
20. to win the presidency 43. to enrich the cultural diversity of a nation
21. legacy 44. to cause major changes to sth
22. to be caught / trapped in the cycle of 45. to eliminate the bias in favor of …
poverty

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Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 8).
непрекращающийся поток приезжих

гордиться чем-л.

преследование

проследить историю своей семьи и предков до …

нищие страны

удовлетворить базовые потребности

позаботиться об удовлетворении базовых


потребностей

быть терпимее к …

заниматься нелегальной деятельностью

быстро растущая экономика

на рубеже веков

со временем принять эти ценности

американцы африканского происхождения

отменить рабство

стать президентом

попасть в замкнутый круг бедности

расовые предрассудки

правозащитные движения

священник (у протестантов)

мирный марш протеста

отказать в праве голосовать

занимать выборную должность в государственных


организациях

сидячая забастовка

бороться за расширение прав женщин

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«выйти на сцену», оказаться в фокусе внимания

быть практически не представленным в Конгрессе

иметь судимость или приводы в полицию

жить в жилье для бедных

замедлиться и сократиться до мизерных объемов

привести к серьезным изменениям

Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list
below.
to live in low-income housing • persecution • to have a criminal record • legacy •
median income • in the suburbs • racial prejudice • desegregation • affirmative action •
segregation • in the inner city • a civil rights movement • a Supreme Court Justice • to
degrade smb’s work • to argue a case before court • a Protestant minister

1. ……………………………………………. — hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of


race or political or religious beliefs; oppression.
2. ……………………………………………. — to cause people to have less respect for what you
have done
3. ……………………………………………. — a direct result of an event or period of history
which continues to exist after it is over
4. ……………………………………………. — a negative attitude towards a group of people
based on race, not on direct knowledge or experience
5. ……………………………………………. — a system that keeps different groups separate from
each other, either through physical dividers or using social pressures and laws
6. ……………………………………………. — the process of ending the separation of different
racial, religious, or cultural groups; the elimination of laws, customs, or practices under which people
from different religions, ancestries, ethnic groups, etc., are restricted to specific or separate public
facilities, neighborhoods, schools, organizations, or the like
7. ……………………………………………. — one of the nine members of the US Supreme Court
chosen by the president of the US and accepted by Congress who usually have this position for the rest
of their lives
8. ……………………………………………. — a person authorized by a church, or other religious
organization who provides for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of Protestant congregations

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and other people of the community by leading services, performing religious rites, and providing moral
and spiritual guidance to their congregation members
9. ……………………………………………. — the practice or policy of favouring individuals
belonging to groups known to have been discriminated against previously; positive discrimination
10. ……………………………………………. — the amount that divides the income distribution
into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that
amount, as opposed to mean (average) which is the amount obtained by dividing the total aggregate
income of a group by the number of units in that group.
11. ……………………………………………. — a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as
part of an urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city, usually
more affluent, safe and more prestigious to live in than central urban neighborhoods
12. ……………………………………………. — the area near the centre of a city, especially when
associated with social and economic problems
13. ……………………………………………. — known record of having been arrested in the past
for committing a crime
14. ……………………………………………. — accommodation for poor individuals who cannot
afford to pay the rent without government sponsored economic assistance aimed towards alleviating
housing costs.

Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below
to eliminate the bias in favor of • to retain the language • to arrive by the millions •
continued flux of newcomers • legacy • to trace one’s ancestry back to • to win the
presidency • to meet the most basic needs • persecution • to be more accepting of smth

1. Immigrant children as old as ten don't necessarily ............................... they were born into.

2. The Campbell County respondents are unusual in their pessimism about the negative
consequences of a ................................ .

3. In some countries, people who reject all religious belief or profess secular humanism are facing
discrimination and ................................ .

4. According to some studies, as late as the 1950s, as much as 70% of USA citizens could
............................... 17th century America.

5. The prohibition laws may have been brought about by a race element, as alcohol was equated
with recent Irish and German immigrants who were ................................ .

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6. Young adults in the area are in dire need of some cash, not necessarily to have some fun as in the
more affluent nations, but often to ................................ .

7. Traditionally, the American left has always tried to build consensus and tended to
............................... diversity.

8. Though the official result remains at least two weeks away, the Democratic candidate looks to
have ................................

9. Although affirmative action remains a controversial issue, the Supreme Court decided that quotas
are an acceptable weapon in the fight against the ............................... of slavery.

10. The fact that the aid is available to all companies regardless of their origin does not seem
sufficient to ............................... domestic firms.

Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.
1)

1. to retain a. a surprising 20% of the population


2. to trace b. by the millions
3. to arrive c. the language / a strong sense of group
4. to make up identity

5. to meet d. in the cycle of poverty

6. to engage e. the most basic needs

7. to be caught / trapped f. in illegal practices


g. one’s ancestry back to …

2)

1. poverty-stricken a. action
2. a rapidly expanding b. march
3. racial c. economy
4. a Supreme Court d. nations
5. a Protestant e. prejudice
6. a nonviolent f. Justice
7. affirmative g. minister

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B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.
1. In one study, white people with a criminal record / report received as many callbacks from
employers as black people who had never committed an offence.

2. National and religious identities are blurring, particularly among the young. A Protestant priest
/ minister says he now christens more children with Irish names.

3. In the 1950s and 1960s, the civilian / civil rights movement aimed to dismantle racial
segregation and legally entrenched forms of racial inequality.

4. Median / mean income is the amount that divides the income distribution into two equal groups,
half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount. Median / mean
income (average) is the amount obtained by dividing the total aggregate income of a group by the
number of units in that group.

5. International exchange students bring new ways of thinking, help to foster academic competition,
and enrich the cultural difference / diversity of campuses.

C. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.

1. A problem of any increasingly heterogeneous mix of people is that there is no strong


……………… of group identity.

2. Africans rightly take ……………… in conferences packed with Western bankers keen to invest
in their capital markets.

3. Interest in moving to Canada is at an all-time ……………….

4. India, also a rapidly ……………… economy, consumes only 61% as much energy as China per
unit of GDP.

5. Nairobi is unrecognizable from the sleepy town it was at the ……………… of the century. In
the past twelve years land prices have soared more than sixfold.

6. He was a liberal democrat, championing the cause of the public health, education for the
economically poor and equal opportunities for Americans of African ……………….

7. Strong racial ……………… against some immigrant groups still exists everywhere in the US.

8. Once we succeed in destroying the business model of the people-smugglers, the flow of refugees
by boat to Europe will slow to a ……………… if not stop completely.

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9. Black Americans are ……………… underrepresented in film & TV programs at US
universities.

10. On paper, Mauritania ……………… slavery in 1981, though without passing legislation to
punish slave-owners.

Exercise 5.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Многие иммигранты считают, что их дети сохранят язык родины без каких-либо усилий
со стороны родителей, но на самом деле родной язык забывается очень быстро.

2. Несмотря на то что единственными методами борьбы за права человека были мирные


протестные марши и сидячие забастовки, правительство все равно начало политическое
преследование.

3. Правительство финансирует специальные программы интеграции, чтобы иммигранты


постепенно принимали ценности своей новой страны, а местные жители проявляли больше
терпимости к новоприбывшим, которые делают регион более богатым и разнообразным в
культурном отношении.

4. Несмотря на огромный прогресс, женщины по-прежнему практически не представлены в


законодательных органах в большинстве стран мира, и даже в XXI веке за права этой группы
населения приходится бороться.

5. Пока в бедных (= нищих) странах Африки не будут удовлетворены самые базовые


потребности людей, массовая миграция сохраниться. Это значит, что европейским властям
придется обеспечивать самые базовые потребности этого непрекращающегося потока
приезжих.

6. Лидер правозащитных движений Мартин Лютер Кинг был протестантским


священником, выступавшим за равные права черного и белого населения.

7. Соня Сотомайор — первая женщина латиноамериканского происхождения, ставшая


членом Верховного суда США.

8. Даже после отмены рабства черному населению США было отказано в праве голосовать
и занимать выборные государственные должности.

9. Поскольку расовые предрассудки по-прежнему сильны, многих шокировало, что пост


президента достался афроамеркианцу.

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10. У многих жителей центральных городских неблагополучных районов есть судимости.
Попадая в замкнутый круг бедности и нелегальной работы, эти люди не получают никакой
выгоды от быстро развивающейся экономики.

11. Уровень преступности среди молодежи высок, как никогда.

12. Многие жители южных штатов, например Луизианы, потомки французских переселенцев,
перебравшихся сюда из-за экономических трудностей на родине.

13. Наследие многовекового рабства не так просто изжить, но программы «позитивной


дискриминации» приносят плоды. Так, в 2017 году в высшие учебные заведения США поступило
на целых 36% больше афроамериканцев, чем в 2000 году.

Exercise 6.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DOMINANT CULTURE

1. How is the image of a melting pot different from those of a salad bowl and a mosaic?
2. What are the major ethnic groups that make up the American nation?
3. What ethnic group has been traditionally the largest among the settlers?
4. Who are WASPs and what connotations does the term carry today?
5. What countries provided the largest numbers of European settlers in the US? How easily did they
assimilate? Why?

THE ASSIMILATION OF NON-PROTESTANT AND NON-WESTERN EUROPEANS

6. Describe the process of assimilation for the non-protestant and non-white Europeans. How was
it different from the way the Germans or the Dutch assimilated?
7. Why was the the non-protestant and non-white European immigration originally associated with
crime?
8. Who were the so-called «political bosses»?

THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

9. What major difference is there between the African American and other ethnic groups of the US
population?
10. What ideological and social divide was caused by slavery?
11. How did slavery affect the economic situation in the country?
12. What case did Abraham Lincoln make against slavery?
13. What was the role of the Civil War in the abolition?

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14. Why did the abolition of slavery not bring about an instant change in the rights of the black
American population?

THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT OF THE 1950s AND 1960s

15. How did WWII advance the equal rights cause?


16. Which public spheres were desegregated in the first place? Why?
17. Speak about Martin Luther King and his ideas.
18. How was Malcom X’s ideology different from Martin Luther King’s?
19. What is affirmative action? What makes it controversial? Weigh its pros and cons.

DIVERSITY IN THE 21 CENTURY

20. What minority groups are fighting for their rights today?
21. What social and economic divide separates the inner cities from the suburbs?
22. Speak about minority representatives who have managed to break the mould and fulfil the
American Dream.
23. What are the challenges of accommodating the immigrants in the US today?

A UNIVERSAL NATION

24. What legislation regulated the flow of immigrants in (a) 1920; (b) 1965. What caused these laws
to be passed?
25. Does the US attract large numbers of immigrants today? Why?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES


Civil Rights Movement A struggle by African Americans in the mid-1950s to late 1960s to
achieve Civil Rights equal to those of whites, including equal
opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the
right to vote, the right of equal access to public facilities, and the
right to be free of racial discrimination. No social or political
movement of the twentieth century has had as profound an effect on
the legal and political institutions of the United States. This
movement sought to restore to African Americans the rights of
citizenship guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth
Amendments, which had been eroded by segregationist Jim Crow
Laws in the South. It fundamentally altered relations between the
federal government and the states, as the federal government was
forced many times to enforce its laws and protect the rights of
African American citizens. The civil rights movement also spurred
the reemergence of the judiciary, including the Supreme Court, in
its role as protector of individual liberties against majority power.
In addition, as the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr, and other

82
leaders of the movement predicted, the movement prompted gains
not only for African Americans but also for women, persons with
disabilities, and many others. The civil rights movement has been
called the Second Reconstruction, in reference to the
Reconstruction imposed upon the South following the Civil War.
WASPs White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, a social group of white Protestants
in the United States, often of British descent, and typically wealthy
and well-connected. The group has long dominated American
society, culture, and the leadership of major political parties, and
had a monopoly on elite society due to intermarriage and nepotism.
Although the WASP hegemony on the American establishment has
sharply declined since the 1940s, WASPs continue to be well placed
in some financial and philanthropic roles. During the latter half of
the twentieth century, outsider ethnic and racial groups grew in
influence and WASP dominance gave way. Americans increasingly
criticized the WASP hegemony and disparaged WASPs as the
epitome of "the Establishment".
Abraham Lincoln The United States’ 16th President (1861-1865), issuing the
Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves
(1809-1865)
within the Confederacy in 1863. In 1865, Lincoln was assassinated
in a theatre in Washington by an actor.
Martin Luther King A social activist and Baptist minister who played a key role in the
(1929-1968) American civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his
assassination in 1968. King sought equality and human rights for
African Americans, the economically disadvantaged and all victims
of injustice through peaceful protest. King was awarded the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1964 and is remembered each year on Martin Luther
King, Jr. Day, a U.S. federal holiday since 1986 (observed on the
third Monday of January each year).
Malcolm X (1925-1965) An African American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of
Islam who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism
in the early 1960s. After his assassination, the widespread
distribution of his life story — The Autobiography of Malcolm X
(1965) — made him an ideological hero, especially among black
youth. An articulate public speaker, a charismatic personality, and
an indefatigable organizer, Malcolm X expressed the pent-up
anger, frustration, and bitterness of African Americans during the
major phase of the civil rights movement from 1955 to 1965. His
keen intellect, incisive wit, and ardent radicalism made him a
formidable critic of American society. He also criticized the
mainstream civil rights movement, challenging Martin Luther King,
Jr.’s central notions of integration and nonviolence.

83
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 9. EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

Language Guide

1. social class distinction 24. to put emphasis on


2. to seek a high status 25. to develop critical thinking
3. regardless of 26. extracurricular activities
4. vocational skills 27. a well–rounded student
5. to do an 28. to meet standards
associate/bachelor’s/master’s/doctoral 29. to hold sb accountable for
degree in 30. to give a failing grade
6. to charge/ to pay tuition 31. regardless of
7. to have competitive entrance 32. superior/inferior
requirements 33. to be in line with
8. to maintain/hold upper class position 34. to violate the rights
9. admission to university 35. an economic downturn
10. to fund schools 36. to widen the gap
11. a property tax 37. to get admitted to
12. a low–income community 38. to be suspicious of sth
13. eligible 39. to run sth
14. a financial aid 40. to account for sth
15. to take a student loan 41. well–being
16. a scholarship 42. to acquire wealth
17. to pay the living expenses 43. to put emphasis on
18. to enroll in college 44. to set standards
19. to fill jobs 45. to address problems
20. employment prospects 46. What does the future hold?
21. to get a high/low– paying job 47. to displace
22. a vocational school 48. to memorize
23. distance learning

Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 9).
аспирантура

степень кандидата наук

стипендия

уровень образования

84
экономический спад

денежное выражение

связывать

практическая составляющая

натаскивание

заучивание (фактов)

взимать плату за обучение

отказать в приеме

вправе

программа дошкольного образования

отличница/отличник

конкурсная основа (при поступлении)

проживать на территории вуза

приезжать на занятия из других мест

основы гражданского права и обязанности граждан

управляющий совет

перевозка учеников на школьном автобусе

разница в успеваемости

престижный район

бедный квартал крупного города

воспользоваться всеми возможностями

государственная система образования

жизненная ситуация

нести расходы

требования для поступающих

альтернативная государственная школа

85
Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list
below.

• inferior • superior • tuition fee • well-being • prospects • vocational school • to account


for • to put emphasis • distance learning • property tax • displace • economic downturn •
scholarship • accountable • eligible • enroll •

1. ……………………………………… – the state of feeling healthy and happy


2. ……………………………………… – low or lower in position
3. ……………………………………… – required or expected to justify actions or decisions;
responsible
4. ……………………………………… – the idea of something that will or might happen in the
future
5. ……………………………………… – a tax on buildings or land that is based on its value
6. ……………………………………… – having the necessary qualities or satisfying the necessary
conditions
7. ……………………………………… – to put yourself or someone else on an official list for an
activity or for membership in a group, or to accept someone in such a list
8. ……………………………………… – to place a particular importance or attention that is given
to something
9. ……………………………………… – a reduction in the amount or success of something, such
as a country's economic activity
10. ……………………………………… – an amount of money given by a school, college, university,
or other organization to pay for the studies of a person with great ability but little money
11. ……………………………………… – a way of studying, especially for a degree, where you
study mostly at home, receiving and sending off work by post or over the internet
12. ……………………………………… – better than average or better than other people or things of
the same type
13. ……………………………………… – to force something or someone out of its usual or original
position.
14. ………………………………………. – money that a student pays to a university for their
teaching
15. ……………………………………… – providing skills and education that prepare you for a job.

86
Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.

1. to set a. entrance requirements


2. to charge b. distinction
3. to widen c. higher social status
4. social class d. the gap
5. competitive e. a master’s degree
6. to address f. aid
7. to seek g. tuition fee
8. distance h. learning
9. to do i. standards
10. financial j. problems

B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.

1. International treaties approved by the Parliament take precedence over national legal norms, but
are inferior/eligible to the Constitution.
2. Developed country Governments can assist in this process by facilitating technology transfer and
providing technical assistance to build the capacity necessary to meet standards/deadlines.
3. The United Nations recognizes that it must be the champion of democratic values and human
rights in a complex and diverse world where challenges of economic equalities, terrorism and unlawful
counter– terrorism measures, which violate rights/standards and retard democratic change, persist.
4. Opportunities to improve teaching standards are constrained by the fact that that local authorities
do not pay for travelling and living expenses/requirements for further training course.
5. Since 1975, Brazil has run a student loan/student mortgage system for private higher education
institutions called the Educational Credit Programme.

C. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.
1. Supporters of the lawsuit say Harvard illegally discriminates against Asian Americans, putting a
cap on the number of Asians ……………… to the university and making it harder for Asian
applicants to get in.
2. Plans by Ireland's government for property ……………… have come under fire from the main
opposition party amid concerns the move will land homeowners with a bumper bill as they struggle
to pay a string of other new taxes.
3. Students are debating whether you should do a ……………… you love or should you be more
realistic about what will lead to a career?

87
4. Communities of color and ……………… communities already face health disparities, including
much higher rates of asthma.
5. Labour is calling for cross– party talks on how religious education is conducted and monitored in
the state sector as a special poll for the Observer shows widespread concerns about the use of
taxpayers' money to ……………… faith schools in a multicultural Britain.
6. Musarsa, a 29– year– old woman from Palestine, was one of those arrested without trial for civil
immigration ……………… because she ……………… in the university, located just outside of
Detroit in Farmington Hills, Michigan.
7. Cred is in an initiative that chimes perfectly with the educational zeitgeist. It involves a private–
sector company, Lattice – an offshoot of the old British Gas – ……………… a school for
disaffected schoolchildren that puts the ……………… on ……………… qualifications.
8. As with the French baccalaureate, they would have a range of subjects to choose from based on
their strengths, but they would also be required to study a number of key subjects …………….. of
chosen streams.
9. From computer coding to toilet unblocking, we need ……………… students, not rote– taught
robots – and what you learn shouldn’t depend on where you live.
10. A growing number of companies are reporting difficulties ……………… jobs, according to a
report out today which signals pay growth will remain a top concern for Bank of England
policymakers.

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active
vocabulary.
1. Американское государственное образование имеет серьезную практическую
составляющую, которая включает в себя обучение профессиональным навыкам.
2. Студенты могут получить диплом младшего бакалавра, окончив муниципальный колледж.
3. Государственные колледжи и университеты берут плату за обучение, а поступить в них
можно только на конкурсной основе.
4. Некоторые студенты проживают на территории вуза, а некоторые приезжают на занятия
из других мест.
5. Абигейл Фишер, белокожей отличнице, отказали в зачислении в университет Техаса в
2008 году.
6. В школьную программу обязательно входит изучение основ гражданского права.
7. Все дети без исключения вправе проходить программу дошкольного образования.
8. Согласно решению управляющего совета перевозка учеников на школьном автобусе
осуществляется с письменного согласия родителей.

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9. За обучение в элитном университете взимается приличная плата. В случае отказа платить
- в приеме будет отказано.
10. Наблюдается существенная разница в успеваемости среди студентов из престижных
районов и бедных кварталов крупных городов.
11. В обществе идут дискуссии о том, должны ли учителя заниматься натаскиванием, а
ученики – простым заучиванием фактов.
12. Отличником может стать каждый, кто воспользуется всеми возможностями, которые
предоставляет государственная система образования, вне зависимости от жизненной
ситуации.
13. В денежном выражении получаемое образование в обществе связывают с его
практической составляющей.
14. Семья учащегося несет расходы за его проживание на территории учебного заведения.
15. В период экономического спада уровень образования снизился, но успешные студенты
могли рассчитывать на получение стипендии.
16. Существует ряд требований для поступающих в альтернативную государственную школу.
17. После учебы в аспирантуре выпускник получает степень кандидата наук.

Exercise 6.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN AMERICA: TOQUEVILLE’S


OBSERVATIONS
1. (a) What value does American education reflect? (b) How are schools financed and how does the
system reflect the American values?
THE EDUCATIONAL LADDER
2. (a) What age do Americans start school at? (b) How do the Americans view school?
3. (a) What is a college diploma? (b) In what way is the financing of public schools different from
that of universities? (c) How does the educational system reflect the American ideal of success?
ATTENDING AN AMERICAN UNIVERSITY
4. (a) Are there private schools in the US? What is their purpose? Why do parents send their
children to these private schools? (b) Are there private schools for wealthy people? Can less affluent
children also get admitted? (c) Do elitist private schools go in line with American values? Why? Why
not?
5. How does the quality school education vary from district to district? Why?
6. How can the voucher system help to erase inequality?
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7. (a) How are universities funded? (b) How are private universities different from public ones?
8. (a) How do students deal with high tuition fees? (b) How do community college programs help
American students get a degree? (c) What are the reasons why many Americans cannot study at
universities?
9. (a) Do Americans value education? Why? Why not? (b) What fields of education are valued more
than others? Why?
10. (a) Do adult professionals carry on attending colleges? (b) What enables them to do it?
11. (a) What is MOOC? (b) How does it work?
EDUCATING THE INDIVIDUAL
12. What does the American education system put emphasis on?
13. (a) What skills are considered to be important? (b) How are they developed?
14. (a) What role do sports play in society? (a) Why is it important for children to do sports?
15. (a) What is student government designed for? (b) What skills does it help to develop?
16. (a) What other extracurricular activities are available to children? (b) What skills are they aimed
at developing?
THE STANDARDS MOVEMENT
17. (a) How has national standards of education changed over years? (b) What was the reason for
that?
18. How are these standards maintained?
19. What controversy is there about standardized tests?
20. (a) What is the NCLB program? (b) Is it successful? (c) How can problems be solved?
INEQUALITIES IN THE AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
21. Is the education African Americans receive different from that white Americans receive? Why?
22. (a) What problems did schools in black neighbourhoods experience? (b) How was this problem
tackled? (c) Was it a success?
23. How did affirmative action change the situation with schooling for blacks?
24. How is ethnic diversity ensured in American universities?
THE INCREASING RESPONSIBILITIES OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS
25. What responsibilities does society place on schools?
26. What challenges do immigrants pose for the education system?
27. Are children from immigrant families disadvantaged in comparison to locals? Why?
28. How does the education system contribute to widening the gap between the rich and the poor?
29. Why is this disparity between the rich and the poor still an issue in America despite their respect
for the value of equality?

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TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGES TO AMERICAN EDUCATION
30. What challenges do American people face in the 21st century because of unequal educational
opportunities?
31. Are there any positive trends in terms of equality?
32. (a) How are schools run? (b) Why doesn’t the federal government run schools?
33. What challenge are Americans now concerned with?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

Ivy League Schools are considered the most sought-after institutions of higher learning in
the country and around the world. These eight private Northeast
schools are known for their highly selective admissions process,
academic excellence and promising career opportunities for those who
attend. The name recognition and social prestige don’t hurt either.
First grouped together by athletic conference, Ivy League schools have
been known to churn out not only well-rounded student-athletes, but
future presidents, Nobel Prize winners and other high-achieving
graduates. The list of Ivy League schools includes some of the oldest
institutions in education, with well-respected professors, ample
research grants and generous financial aid resources. To make it to the
halls of Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University,
Dartmouth College, Harvard University, the University of
Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University, prospective
students’ applications must be extraordinary.

The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United
(/ˌɛsˌeɪˈtiː/ ess-ay-TEE) States. Since it was debuted by the College Board in 1926, its name
and scoring have changed several times; originally called
the Scholastic Aptitude Test, it was later called the Scholastic
Assessment Test, then the SAT I: Reasoning Test, then the SAT
Reasoning Test, then simply the SAT.
The SAT is wholly owned, developed, and published by the College
Board, a private, not-for-profit organization in the United States. It is
administered on behalf of the College Board by the Educational
Testing Service, which until recently developed the SAT as well. The
test is intended to assess students' readiness for college. The SAT was
originally designed not to be aligned with high school curricula, but
several adjustments were made for the version of the SAT introduced
in 2016, and College Board president, David Coleman, has said that
he also wanted to make the test reflect more closely what students learn
in high school with the new Common Core standards.

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The SAT takes three hours to finish, plus 50 minutes for the SAT with
essay, and as of 2019 costs US$47.5 (US$62.5 with the optional essay),
excluding late fees, with additional processing fees if the SAT is taken
outside the United State Scores on the SAT range from 400 to 1600,
combining test results from two 200-to-800-point sections:
Mathematics, and Critical Reading and Writing.
The SAT is typically taken by high school juniors and seniors. The
College Board states that the SAT is intended to measure literacy,
numeracy and writing skills that are needed for academic success
in college. They state that the SAT assesses how well the test-takers
analyze and solve problems—skills they learned in school that they will
need in college. However, the test is administered under a tight time
limit (speeded) to help produce a range of scores.
The ACT is a standardized test used for college admissions in the United States.
It is currently administered by ACT, a nonprofit organization of the
(/eɪ siː tiː/; originally an same name. The ACT test covers four academic skill
abbreviation areas: English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning. It also
of American College offers an optional direct writing test. It is accepted by all four-year
Testing) colleges and universities in the United States as well as more than 225
universities outside of the U.S.
The main four ACT test sections are individually scored on a scale of
1–36, and a composite score (the rounded whole number average of
the four sections) is provided.
The ACT was first introduced in November 1959 by University of
Iowa professor Everett Franklin Lindquist as a competitor to
the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). The ACT originally consisted of
four tests: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Natural
Sciences. In 1989, however, the Social Studies test was changed into a
Reading section (which included a social sciences subsection), and the
Natural Sciences test was renamed the Science Reasoning test, with
more emphasis on problem-solving skills as opposed to memorizing
scientific facts. In February 2005, an optional Writing Test was added
to the ACT. By the fall of 2017, computer-based ACT tests were
available for school-day testing in limited school districts in the US,
with greater availability expected in fall of 2018.
The ACT has seen a gradual increase in the number of test takers since
its inception, and in 2012 the ACT surpassed the SAT for the first time
in total test takers; that year, 1,666,017 students took the ACT and
1,664,479 students took the SAT.

System of vouchers Система школьных субсидий (школьных ваучеров)


A school voucher, also called an education voucher, in a voucher
system, is a certificate of government funding for a student at a school
chosen by the student or the student's parents. the funding is usually
for a particular year, term or semester. in some countries, states or

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local jurisdictions, the voucher can be used to cover or reimburse home
schooling expenses. in some countries, vouchers only exist for tuition
at private schools.

NCLB The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was a U.S. Act of Congress that
No Child Left Behind reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included
program Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students. It supported
standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting
high standards and establishing measurable goals could improve
individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop
assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states
had to give these assessments to all students at select grade levels. The
act did not assert a national achievement standard—each state
developed its own standards. NCLB expanded the federal role in public
education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual
academic progress, report cards, and teacher qualifications, as well as
significant changes in funding. The bill passed in the Congress with
bipartisan support. By 2015, criticism from right, left, and center had
accumulated so much that a bipartisan Congress stripped away the
national features of No Child Left Behind. Its replacement, the Every
Student Succeeds Act, turned the remnants over to the states.
MOOC MOOC /muːk/ is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and
Massive Open Online open access via the web.In addition to traditional course materials,
Courses such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs
provide interactive courses with user forums to support community
interactions among students, professors, and teaching assistants (TAs),
as well as immediate feedback to quick quizzes and assignments.
MOOCs are a recent and widely researched development in distance
education, first introduced in 2006 and emerged as a popular mode of
learning in 2012.
The Common Core The Common Core State Standards Initiative is an educational
Standards initiative from 2010 that details what K–12 students throughout the
≈ ФГОС (федеральный United States should know in English language arts and mathematics
государственный at the conclusion of each school grade. The initiative is sponsored by
образовательный стандарт) the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief
State School Officers (CCSSO) and seeks to establish consistent
educational standards across the states as well as ensure that students
graduating from high school are prepared to enter credit-bearing
courses at two- or four-year college programs or to enter the
workforce.

93
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 10. HOW AMERICANS SPEND THEIR LEISURE TIME

Language Guide

SPORTS. LEISURE. RECREATION.

1. being tough 13. a recreation center


2. to drive home 14. recreational activities
3. to engage in recreational activities 15. recreational interest
4. feature events 16. to rough it
5. having guts 17. to safe pastimes
6. an honorable competition 18. a sedentary lifestyle
7. honorable defeat 19. sports scholarship
8. never quitting 20. to tackle sport
9. organized sports 21. team loyalty
10. performance-enhancing drugs 22. to trade players
11. persistence 23. to work out
12. recreation

WORKOUT
1. lifting weight 6. rowing machine
2. squash or racquetball 7. stair-stepper
3. aerobic exercise classes 8. races
4. exercise bike
5. treadmill

ADVENTURE TRAVEL
1. white-water rafting 3. rock climbing
2. mountain climbing 4. skydiving
5. helicopter skiing 6. bungee jumping

HOBBIES AND HANDICRAFTS


1. weaving a quilt or quilted garment. Typically,
2. needlework quilting is done with three layers: the top
3. wood carving fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating
4. quilting (the process of sewing two or material and backing material, but many
more layers of fabric together to make a different styles are adopted.)
thicker padded material, usually to create
5. handicrafts

94
Exercise 1.
Learn the following collocations.

OUTDOOR FACILITIES

soccer
field
baseball
basketball
court
tennis
walking
trails
bike
golf course

Exercise 2.
Make up sentences with the phrases below.
CULTURAL ACTIVITIES

attend live theatre performances


go to symphony concert
hear lectures
participate in artistic activities
perform music

Exercise 3.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 10).

бездельник, диванный эксперт


бить тревогу
блага цивилизации
борьба (расталкивание соперников)
бурный рост
длинные выходные
добавка (о порции еды)
доводить до крайности
ежегодное послание президента Конгрессу о
положении в стране

95
жертва мошенничества
жизненные силы
заложено, укоренилось
культура переедания
лишить медалей
набирать популярность
неправильное питание
переключение тв-каналов
перекусывать на бегу / на ходу
печально известный
похищать (людей)
правила приличия
предписывать, постановлять
принципы конкурентной борьбы, спортивное
поведение (2 варианта)
различать, отличать
слабак
слабоумие, деменция
сотрясение мозга
непрофессиональный спортсмен / член
студенческой спортивной команды
ставить под сомнение

Exercise 4.
Guess the term and name the sport it is related to.
Playground Sport
a smooth, level quadrangle Þ
a ground, which has 125 to 175 acres, usually with 18 holes Þ
varying from to 594 meters in length
a piece of ground devoted to sports or contests Þ
a path through the countryside, often where people walk Þ

96
Name it in both English and Russian.

a) b)

b) d)

e) f)

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Exercise 5.

You are an advertising and marketing manager. Do the following tasks.

1. Plan an orientation visit for the new guests of your health club.
2. Design a brochure offering adventure travel options for adrenaline junkies.
3. Justify your recreation center’s leading positions among the local communities.

Exercise 6.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.

1. Население страдает избыточным весом из-за неправильного питания и сидячего образа жизни.
2. Многие печально известные спортсмены принимают анаболики, поэтому их лишают
медалей.
3. Контактный спорт связан с серьезными травмами головы, что в свою очередь может привести
к слабоумию.
4. В США спорт популяризируется (прославляется) многими профессиональными
спортсменами и представителями студенческих команд.
5. Досуг в США организован на местном уровне и отражает интерес американцев к творчеству.
Например, к таким видам декоративно-прикладного искусства, как шитье и рукоделие, резьба
по дереву, художественная стежка.
6. Далеко не все американцы любят экстремальные виды спорта. Многие предпочитают более
спокойное времяпрепровождение или познавательный туризм.
7. Культура переедания влечет за собой серьезные проблемы со здоровьем, связанные с
ожирением.
8. Компьютерная безграмотность может сделать пользователя сети жертвой мошенничества.
9. Дашь слабину – проиграешь! Покажи характер!
10. Муниципалитет проводит для местного населения различные культурные мероприятия:
фермерские ярмарки, дегустации и конкурсы.
11. В последнее время наблюдается бурный рост среди числа любителей таких видов отдыха, как
скалолазание, сплав по горным рекам и прыжки с тарзанки.
12. Американцы в свободное время с удовольствием посещают театр, играют на музыкальных
инструментах, а также посещают спортивный зал, чтобы позаниматься на велотренажере
и беговой дорожке.
13. Сотрудники компаний чаще используют длинные выходные, а не одно-двух недельный отпуск,
чтобы куда-нибудь съездить.
14. Излюбленная закуска американцев на спортивных мероприятиях и в кино – это чипсы с
соусом.

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Exercise 7.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

SPORTS AND AMERICAN VALUES

1. (a) Which type of sports has a more serious social purpose in the US? (b) Name the main three popular
organized sports. (c) Which is the one gaining traction now?
2. (a) Why are organized sports an example of equality of opportunity in action? (b) Which ethnicities
are predominant in professional sports? (c) What about women’s involvement in organized sports?
3. (a) Which ideal is at the very heart of organized sports? (b) What should be learned and ingrained in
youth? Why? (c) How many boys and girls are involved in organized sports outside school?
4. (a) What is an amateur athlete valued for? (b) What element does the competitive ethic contain? (c)
Hard work and physical courage are sometimes called ___________. (d) What do slogans drive home
for the young participants?
5. (a) In which way can organized sports be considered to be part of “national religion”? (b) What is the
stance of Billy Graham on this? (c) Is the morality of both the collegiate and professional athletes
flawless?
COMPETITION CARRIED TO AN EXTREME

6. (a) Are sports predominantly glorified or criticized? (b) What makes many critical of sports?
7. (a) Adduce examples of “winning is the only thing” philosophy. (b) What are the other elements of
sports to be valued?
8. What is underneath the idea of “honorable defeat”?
9. (c) What happens when the idea of winning in sports is carried to extreme? (b) What is coaches’
popular approach to fights on the field? (c) What do the fights increase? (d) How do the fans treat
fighting?
10. (a) What sort of articles are published in Sports Illustrated magazine in the USA? (b) What is the
most major injury discussed in most articles?
11. How early do the kids start to play tackle games?
12. (a) Why are girls more at risk? (b) What is there more in competition for the national character:
strengthening or corrupting it? (c) How do some view the criticism of competitive sports? (d) What
do these views illustrate?
13. (a) How does the money matter come into professional sports criticism? (b) What are professional
sports about now?
14. (a) How does big money affect college football and baseball? (b) What is a sports scholarship? (c)
Why do some students fail academically and drop out of college?

99
15. (a) Why do some athletes turn to performance-enhancement drugs? (b) Does the use of steroids go in
line with the basic American cultural values? (c) What did President George W. Bush mention in his
State of the Union address? (d) What has all this called into question?
16. (a) What episode received increased international attention? (b) Why was Lance Armstrong highly
regarded but in the end stripped of all his victories?

RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

17. (a) What does recreation serve? (b) How are recreational activities organized and paid for? (c) How
does a Parks and Recreation department operate? (d) Specify the range of recreational activities being
organized. (e) Are they provided free of charge? (f) What do communities sponsor during good
weather?
18. (a) How do some Americans carry over their belief in hard work into their world of recreation? (b)
Adduce an example of this philosophy.
19. (a) How do those who want to be physically fit work out? (b) Is there a sort of cult of races? (c) What
do the statistics say?
20. (a) Are the races open to all? (b) What do you know about Charity races? (c) How are they sponsored
and organized? Whom do they draw?
21. (a) What sort of interest is traceable to nation’s Protestant heritage? (b) How do they carry it over into
recreational activities?
22. (a) How do Americans improve their minds and skills via participating in cultural activities? (b) What
are popular hobbies of the Americans? (c) What classes are offered by the Community education and
recreation programs?
23. (a) Do all Americans show the continuing respect for the self-reliance or are there those who like safe
pastimes in their den? (b) What is the Adventure Travel known for? (c) What activities does it often
include? (d) Do the US parks officials complain about people taking unreasonable risks?
24. Are all Americans thrill-seekers and love “to rough it”?
25. What do they mean by “soft adventure”?

HEALTH AND FITNESS

26. Why has obesity and being overweight become a national epidemic? What do numbers say?
27. (a) What is the contradiction in the information available in the media on the matter of diet? (b) What
type of diet is popular today?
28. (a) What makes people give up and eat what they want? (b) Do the uniform labeling and information
about nutritional content really help consumers?
29. What does the culture of overindulgence mean? What did it arise from?

100
30. How do junk food, busy lifestyle and eating on the run worsen the situation?
31. (a) Describe the initiative of the First lady Michelle Obama and suggest the reasons for it. (b) Why
do those living in poverty suffer from obesity more than the general population?
32. How did Mississippi authorities tackle the problem of child obesity?
33. What is the overall child obesity rate in the US?
34. What do figures say about ethnic minorities’ percentage of overweight children?

THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION, VIDEO GAMES AND THE INTERNET

35. What is at the heart of the conflict between the ‘heavy’ reality and the ideal of the TV commercials?
What does it result in?
36. (a) What is the correlation between watching TV and exercising? (b) Who are those called “couch
potatoes”?
37. (a) How do surfing on the web and TV channel surfing affect the youngsters? (b) Why are our brains
being rewired? (c) Do high school students get the recommended level of physical activity?
38. (a) What is the current dilemma that Americans face in terms of media content? (b) What are their
expectations about the regulation of the entertainment industry?
39. What are the most sensitive moments in regard to Internet regulation?
40. (a) Is there any argument in society about the government regulation of the Internet? (b) What impact
does the 24/7 access to the Internet have on Americans’ life? What is in danger? (c) Do Americans
enjoy long paid vacation?
41. (a) What is the goal of Joe Robinson’s “Work to live” campaign? (b) Under which circumstances is
democracy in danger according to Thomas Jefferson and John Adams?
42. (a) What does vacation time give a person? (b) What is its main reward for the Americans?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

Football American football, referred to as football in the United States


(зд. не путать с and Canada and also known as gridiron. Is a team sport played
by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with
британским “soccer”)
goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team with
possession of the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down
the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense,
which is the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the
offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves.
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or
plays; if they fail, they turn over the football to the defense, but if
they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue
the drive. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into

101
the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball
through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with
the most points at the end of a game wins.
American football evolved in the United States, originating from
the sports of soccer and rugby.
Walter Camp is known to be the "Father of American Football".
The sport is closely related to Canadian football, which evolved
parallel and contemporary to the American game, and most of
the features that distinguish American football from rugby and
soccer are also present in Canadian football. The two sports are
considered the primary variants of gridiron football*. American
football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States.
The most popular forms of the game are professional and college
football, with the other major levels being high school and youth
football. The National Football League, the most popular
American football league, has the highest average attendance of
any professional sports league in the world; its championship
game, the Super Bowl, ranks among the most-watched club
sporting events in the world, and the league has an annual
revenue of around US$10 billion. Other leagues exist worldwide,
but the sport does not have the international popularity of other
American sports like baseball or basketball.

Gridiron football* The sport is typically known as simply "football" in the countries
where it originated, regardless of the specific variety. Various
sources use the term "North American football" when discussing
Canadian football VS.
the American and Canadian games together. It is also sometimes
Gridiron known as "gridiron football". This name originates with the
sport's characteristic playing field, which is marked by a series
of parallel lines (grid – сетка, решетка; gridiron – поле для
игры в американский футбол) along the width of the field in
a pattern resembling a cooking gridiron (решетка для гриля.
However, "gridiron football", or "gridiron", usually refers to
American football specifically, sometimes in distinction from
Canadian football. "Gridiron" is the usual name for American
football in Australia and New Zealand. But some sources,
including the International Federation of American Football
(IFAF), use "American football" inclusive of Canadian football
and other varieties.

Softball Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball (11 to


12 in. circumference) on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet,
a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35-43 feet away from home
plate, and a homerun fence that is 220 feet away from home plate.
It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, Illinois, United States as an
indoor game. The game moves at a faster pace than traditional

102
baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first while
the opponent fields the ball; yet, the fielder has less time to field
the ball while the opponent is running down to first base. The
name softball was given to the game in 1926, because the ball
used to be soft, however in modern day usage, the balls are hard.

“Winning is the only thing” "Winning isn’t everything; it's the only thing" is a well-known
philosophy or "Winning quotation in sports. It is attributed to a football coach Henry
Russell ("Red") Sanders, who spoke two different versions of the
isn’t everything; it's the
quotation. In 1950 Sanders told his group: "Men, I'll be honest.
only thing" Winning isn't everything", then following a long pause, "Men, it's
the only thing!" In 1955, in a Sports Illustrated article preceding
the 1956 Rose Bowl, he was quoted as saying "Sure, winning isn't
everything; it's the only thing."
The quotation is widely, but wrongly attributed to American
football coach Vince Lombardi, who probably heard the phrase
from Sanders. Over time, the quotation took on a life of its own.
The words graced the walls of locker rooms, ignited pre-game
pep talks, and echoed from the rafters of banquet halls. Lombardi
still claimed to have been misquoted. What he intended to say
was "Winning isn't everything. The will to win is the only thing."
However, Lombardi is on record repeating the original version
of the quotation on several occasions. Its assertion about the
importance of winning has been touted as a basic tenet of the
American sports creed and, at the same time, identified as
encapsulating what is purportedly wrong with competitive
sports. This credo has served as counterpoint to the well-known
sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice that, "it's not that
you won or lost but how you played the game", and to the modern
Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin:
"The most important thing. . . is not winning but taking part".
There is another famous quote attributed to Sanders regarding,
"Beating 'SC is not a matter of life or death, it's more important
than that."

Homerun 1. a point scored in baseball by hitting the ball so far that


you have time to run all the way around the four corners of the
playing field before it is returned
2. (in baseball) a play in which a player hits the ball and
scores, usually by hitting the ball a long way so that it comes
down beyond the playing area:
3. fig. The movie didn’t just make money, it hit a home run
(= was extremely successful).

Racquetball 1. Racquetball is a racquet sport played with a hollow


rubber ball on an indoor or outdoor court. Joseph Sobek is

103
credited with inventing the modern sport of racquetball in 1950,
adding a stringed racquet to paddleball in order to increase
velocity and control. Unlike most racquet sports, such as tennis
and badminton, there is no net to hit the ball over, and, unlike
squash, no tin (out of bounds area at the bottom of front wall) to
hit the ball above. Also, the court's walls, floor, and ceiling are
legal playing surfaces, with the exception of court-specific
designated hinders being out-of-bounds.
2. Racquetball is very similar to 40×20 American handball,
which is played in many countries. American handball, known
as handball in the United States, is a sport in which players use
their hands to hit a small rubber ball against a wall such that
their opponent cannot do the same without it touching the ground
twice. The three versions are four-wall, three-wall and one-wall.
Each version can be played either by two players (singles), three
players (cutthroat) or four players (doubles), but in official
tournaments, singles and doubles are the only versions played.
3. It is also very similar to the British sport Squash 57,
which was called racketball before 2016. Racketball was
patterned on racquetball in 1976. The main differences are that
the British ball is smaller, denser, and less bouncy; the British
sport's court is a squash court, which is substantially shorter and
somewhat wider; and the ceiling in the British game is out of
bounds.

Heli-skiing Heli-skiing (хели-ски) is off-trail, downhill skiing or


snowboarding reached by helicopter, instead of a ski lift. In the
late 1950s helicopters were used in Alaska and Europe to access
remote terrain. In 1965 Hans Gmoser commercialized the
activity in Canada by combining lodging, transport and guiding.
In Switzerland there are an estimated 15,000 heliskiing flights
each year, to 42 landing sites. In 2010 Switzerland's major
environmental groups, including the Worldwide Fund for Nature,
handed a petition with over 15,000 signatures to the Swiss
government, demanding a ban on heliskiing. Heliskiing is banned
in Germany and was banned in France in 1985. Austria allows
two landing sites.

Soft Adventure Tourism Soft Adventure Tourism is all about the sharing of information
and tips with travelers planning vacations or trips to non-
traditional destinations for new experiences, activities, cultures,
and natural wonders, with some mild physical activity.
It's one of the fastest growing segments of the travel industry and
is enjoyed by anyone who is looking for more than just your
typical vacation to a beach, a cruise, or a sightseeing trip to a
big city. Although many of the soft adventure short tours are often

104
taken to supplement the traditional vacation. This includes many
trips to destinations that offer eco-tourism or special interest
expeditions or themes.

Chips and dip Chips and dip is a dish consisting of chips or crisps served with
dips. Chips used include potato chips, tortilla chips, corn chips,
bean chips, vegetable chips, pita chips, plantain chips and others.
Crackers are also sometimes used, as are crudités, which are
whole or sliced raw vegetables. Various types of dips are used to
accompany various types of chips.
Chips and dip gained significant popularity in the United States
during the 1950s, in part due to a Lipton advertising campaign
for their French onion dip recipe, sometimes referred to as
"California dip". Specialized trays and serving dishes designed
to hold both chips and dip were created during this time. Chips
and dip are frequently served during the Super Bowl American
football game in the United States. National Chip and Dip Day
occurs annually in the U.S. on March 23.

The land of plenty “The land of plenty” (благодатный край)


A fictional or imagined utopian place where there is an
abundance of everything needed to survive and flourish. A huge
influx of people headed to California at the beginning of the 20th
century, thinking it was the land of plenty.

105
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 11. THE AMERICAN FAMILY

Language Guide

1. a classic traditional American family 12. an equal-partnership marriage


2. an immediate family 13. an institution of marriage
3. an extended family 14. a nursing home
4. a nuclear family 15. a retirement community
5. a blended family, stepfamily 16. a daycare centre
6. a civil union 17. a maternity leave
7. companionship 18. a paternity leave
8. a stable family 19. irreconcilable differences
9. a self-supporting family 20. a “breadwinner”
10. a separate household, a separate unit 21. a “homemaker”
11. arranged marriages 22. a “no-fault” divorce

Exercise 1.
Translate the following proverbs and sayings.

The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.


As the twig is bent, so grows the tree.
The child is a chip off the old rock.
A man may work from sun to sun, but a woman’s
work is never done.
Behind any successful man, there is a woman.
Blood is thicker than water.

Exercise 2.
Find the English equivalents in the text.

брать от жизни все


быстрый карьерный рост

вести легкую светскую беседу

106
взаимная поддержка
взять (приемного) ребенка на воспитание
возмущенный / обиженный
воспитывать / обучать
высокий процент разводов
добросовестный / сознательный
законный правитель
иметь равное право голоса
консультант по вопросам воспитания
найти убежище
остаться в одиночестве
первоочередное соображение / условие
работать полный день
разрываться между
сложившееся разделение труда
совмещать
утомительный и неблагодарный
ухаживание

Exercise 3.
Fill in the gaps.

a) b) c)

107
d) e) f)

a. What do they do? __________________________________

b. It’s a student ________________________ and pick-up area.

c. She is a well-known __________________________ expert.

d. Is she a “breadwinner”? _____________________________

e. The proverb says: __________________________________

f. What is their problem? ______________________________

Exercise 4.
Guess by the definition and translate into Russian.

Russian
Definition Vocabulary Item
Equivalent
a kinship group consisting of a family nucleus
and various relatives, as grandparents, usually
living in one household and functioning as a
larger unit
a family composed of a couple and their
children from previous marriages

108
an establishment offering care to preschool
children, enabling their parents to work full time
or have extended relief if child care is a problem
an absence from a job for a father to care for a
new baby
a person who earns a livelihood, especially one
who also supports dependents
a private residential institution equipped to care
for persons unable to look after themselves, as
the aged or chronically ill
a system of organizing the manufacture of an
article in a series of separate specialized
operations, each of which is carried out by a
different worker or group of workers
the wooing of one person by another
to feed and protect
relating to the raising and parenting of children

Exercise 5.
Decipher the word.
panipcoshmion; sefntulre; nscociusentio; lugjeg; uiprtscoh; rbeinenadwr; uerrl; tymarntei; emomakerh;
reoirblncilcae.

Exercise 6.
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.
1. Традиционная американская семья – это нуклеарная семья, состоящая из ближайших
родственников: супруга, супруги, их детей, проживающих в одном доме или квартире. Тети, дяди,
двоюродные братья и сестры, бабушки и дедушки считаются расширенной семьей, проживающей
отдельно.
2. В 50-х годах отец являлся «кормильцем», а мать – «хозяйкой». В настоящее время матери
часто трудятся полный рабочий день, а отцам могут предложить отпуск по уходу за ребенком,
чтобы они оставались дома с новорожденным.
3. На сегодняшний день процент разводов велик, так как пары сталкиваются с неразрешимыми
противоречиями. Во многих штатах допускается развод по обоюдному согласию супругов.

109
4. Американцы согласны с доктором Споком, одним из известнейших специалистов по
вопросам воспитания детей, в том, как правильно воспитывать детей и быть сознательными
родителями.
5. Овладеть искусством вести легкую светскую беседу не просто.
6. Многие американцы живут гражданским браком, не желая создавать классическую
американскую семью.
7. В американской семье во главу угла ставятся (является первоочередным условием)
партнерские отношения, оказание взаимной поддержки.
8. Те, кто живут по принципу «бери от жизни все» и стремятся только к быстрому карьерному
росту, как правило, не усыновляют детей.
9. Пожилые люди, оставшиеся в одиночестве, как правило, оказываются либо в доме
престарелых, либо в интернате, где за ними ухаживает медицинский персонал.
10. Люди сэндвич-поколения разрываются между уходом за престарелыми родителями и
присмотром за подросшими детьми. Совмещать эти обязанности непросто.
11. В сельских районах многие семьи имеют собственное хозяйство.
12. Если семья живет по принципу равноправия супругов, то в ней не возникнет неразрешимых
противоречий.
13. Жена имеет равное право голоса в решении внутрисемейных вопросов. От женщины не
ожидают покорности мужу.
14. Исторически сложившееся разделение труда в семье предполагает, что женщина ведет
хозяйство и занимается воспитанием детей.
15. Законным представителем ребенка может быть его совершеннолетний родственник.

Exercise 7.
Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

FAMILY STRUCTURES
1. Describe a typical American family.
2. (a) What does a “nuclear family” term mean? (b) What was the classic traditional American family
like in the 1950s?
3. (a) How have things changed within the American family? (b) What are the new living patterns? (c)
Who are the ones who prefer to live alone and what are the reasons?
4. Give the demographic explanation of the collapse of the classic traditional American family.

110
THE EMPHASIS ON INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM
5. (a) What is the primary responsibility of the American family members? (b) How does it correlate
with the society type?
6. (a) Why isn’t the modern American family considered to be an important economic unit? (b) What is
a farmer’s son expected to do in his life?
7. (a) Do Americans like to have a control placed on them by other family members? (b) Do they take
in consideration what would be best for the family when making decision? (c) Do families encourage
their independence?

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE


8. (a) Do parents exercise any control over or influence their children in relation to marriage? (b) Do
“arranged” marriages happen often? (c) What remains the traditional ideal and shapes the views of
courtship and marriage among young Americans?
9. (a) What is the main value of marriage for the Americans? (b) On what is it primarily based? (c) Are
there other possible values and motivation to get married? (d) Can the couple choose to get a divorce?
10. (a) When did the divorce rate rise rapidly? What do the numbers say? (b) What is the pattern typical
of the new upper class and of the poor? Who is less likely to get divorce?
11. (a) Is divorce socially unacceptable now? (b) Are unhappy couples ready to sacrifice their individual
happiness for the sake of children? (c) Are kids embarrassed to say that their parents are divorced?
12. (a) What did Judith Wallerstein find in her research? (b) What categories of people did she compare?
(c) What sort of lasting effect does divorce have even in the best cases?
THE ROLE OF THE CHILD
13. (a) How does the emphasis on the individual affect children? (b) What is the constant struggle of the
working parents?
14. (a) Are social and family responsibilities well balanced with the emphasis on children’s need and
desires? (b) What sort of experts emerged in great numbers after the WWII? (c) What do the books
on children upbringing share?
15. Why does Dr. Benjamin Spock claim that the focus on the psychological need of the individual child
has been carried too far?
16. (a) Are American parents now more concerned about teaching their kids responsibility? (b) What is
still the largely held basic belief?
EQUALITY IN THE FAMILY
17. (a) How did inequality extend into the family in aristocratic society? (b) What are the relationships
between the father and his kids in the USA? What has vanished and what remains?

111
18. (a) How much social equality is there between parents and children in the USA now? (b) What makes
parents worry about their kids? (c) Why do they seem to have little control over the behavior of their
teenage children?
19. (a) When are children expected to “leave the nest”? (b) What happens if they still live with the parents
by their mid-twenties? (c) What does the term “boomerang generation” mean? (d) Is
multigenerational living appreciated or not?
FOUR STAGES OF MARRIAGE RELATIONSHIPS
20. What are Letha and John Scanzoni known for?
21. Describe STAGE I: Wife as Servant to Husband
22. Describe STAGE II: Husband – Head, Wife – Helper
23. Describe STAGE III: Husband – Senior partner, Wife – Junior partner
24. Describe STAGE IV: Husband –Wife Equal Partners
25. (a) What sort of discrimination can be seen now against women? (b) Why is it exhausting and
unrewarding to follow “have it all” lifestyle?
26. (a) How does the author Sheryl Sandberg view the potential of women striving for true equality in
the workplace?
27. (a) How difficult is juggling both career and family responsibilities? (b) Do businesses have to
accommodate families where both parents work? What do they offer?
THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY IN SOCIETY
28. Why have many American families become less stable and lasting than those of some other cultures?
29. Justify the statement: the Americans believe that family life is an important value though attitude
towards the family contains many contradictions.
30. Why do many second marriages often fail?
31. What do the terms “single parent” and “civil union” mean?
32. How do many Americans define a family now?
CHALLENGES TO THE AMERICAN FAMILY
33. How are those who belong to “sandwich generation” pulled in many directions? Why does it happen?
34. How does it happen that Americans sacrifice conversation for connection?
35. What does it mean to be “alone together”?
36. Why can’t people truly customize their lives?
37. What social skills does conversation teach kids?
38. Why is “small talk” important?
39. Are both the institutions of family and family values in danger now?
40. What is the classification developed by Daniel Yankelovich regarding family values? Which are
“clearly traditional” and “a blend of traditional and newer/more expressive ones”?

112
41. (a) What is the ideal of the American family? (b) Why is it compared to churches? (c) Do all families
succeed in the task of providing mutual support and renewing the spirit?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

“baby boomers” Baby boomers (also known as boomers) are the demographic cohort
(послевоенное поколение) following the Silent Generation and preceding Generation X. The Baby
Boom generation is most often defined as those individuals born
between 1946 and 1964. In Western Europe and North America,
boomers are widely associated with privilege, as many grew up during
a period of increasing affluence due in part to widespread post-war
government subsidies in housing and education. As a group, baby
boomers were wealthier, more active and more physically fit than any
preceding generation and were the first to grow up genuinely expecting
the world to improve with time. They were also the generation that
reached peak levels of income in the workplace and could, therefore,
enjoy the benefits of abundant food, clothing, retirement programs.
“boomerang Boomerang Generation is a term applied in Western culture to young
generation” adults graduating high school and college in the 21st century. They are
(Поколение бумеранга) so named for the percentage of whom choose to share a home with their
parents after previously living on their own—thus boomeranging back
to their parents' residence. This arrangement can take many forms,
ranging from situations that mirror the high dependency of pre-
adulthood to highly independent, separate-household arrangements.
The term can be used to indicate only those members of this age-set
that actually do return home, not the whole generation. In as much as
home-leaving practices differ by economic class, the term is most
meaningfully applied to members of the middle class.
“sandwich” generation The sandwich generation is a generation of people (usually in their
(сэндвич-поколение) 40's to 70's) who care for their aging parents while supporting their
own children.
According to the Pew research center, just over one of every eight
Americans aged 40 to 70 is both raising a child and caring for a parent,
in addition to between seven and ten million adults caring for their
aging parents from a long distance. US census bureau statistics
indicate that the number of older Americans aged 65 or older will
double by the year 2030, to over 70 million. in Australia, the term
'sandwich carer' relevant to the 2.6 million unpaid caregivers. A carers
UK report in 2012 said that approximately 2.4 million people are
combining childcare with caring for older or disabled relatives.
Carol Abaya, nationally recognized as an expert on the sandwich
generation, aging and elder/parent care issues in the US, categorized

113
the different scenarios involved in being a part of the sandwich
generation.

• traditional: those sandwiched between aging parents who need


care and/or help and their own children.
• club sandwich: those in their 40s, 50s or 60s sandwiched
between aging parents, adult children and grandchildren, or those in
their 20s, 30s and 40s, with young children, aging parents and
grandparents.
• open faced: anyone else involved in elder care.
Merriam Webster officially added the term to its dictionary in July,
2006.
The term "sandwich generation" was introduced to the social work and
the gerontology communities, respectively, by Dorothy Miller and
Elaine Brody in 1981. The construct refers originally to
younger women in their thirties and forties who were taking care of
their children, but also having to meet the needs of their parents,
employers, friends, and others. Now that people are living longer and
children are growing up and needing continued care, the
"sandwiching" is felt by both men and women who are in their fifties
and sixties. The demographic could continue to change, but the idea
remains the same, with recent research focusing on the concept of
the senior sandwich generation. Due to poor economy, research shows
that modern American society has had substantial increase of young
post-college kids who return home to live with their parents or continue
living with their parents throughout college. In a study done by the pew
research center in 2012, published in an article called “the boomerang
generation,” about 29% of young adults ranging from the ages of 25–
34 live with their parents. It is also becoming more acceptable;
therefore, people who are in this situation are generally satisfied with
their situation, which is likely to make it more common and less
temporary. Now the parents of these young adults are being held
responsible to care for their children longer than they expected, as well
as now also being expected to assume the role of caretaker for their
elderly parents. These sandwiched people become responsible for
helping their loved ones with daily functioning, medical services and
supervision, giving medications, and aiding in financial, legal, and
emotional difficulties of their loved ones as well as themselves.
CEO - chief executive officer - The chief executive officer (CEO) or just chief
(руководитель, директор, executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or
президент, генеральный administrative officer in charge of managing an organization –
директор, председатель
especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit
правления и т.п.)
institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and
private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some

114
government organizations (notably Crown corporations). The CEO of
a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors
and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may
include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another
element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim
at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as
reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.
In the early 21st century, top executives typically had technical degrees
in science, engineering or law
COO - chief operating officer - The chief operating officer (COO), also
(исполнительный директор, called the chief operations officer, is one of the highest-ranking
заместитель генерального executive positions in an organization, comprising part of the "C-
директора по Suite"*. The COO is responsible for the daily operation of the
производственной части и company, and routinely reports to the highest-ranking executive,
т.п.) usually the chief executive officer (CEO).
The COO is usually the second-in-command at the firm, especially if
the highest-ranking executive is the Chairman and CEO.
C-Suite* Corporate titles or business titles are given to company and
(топ менеджеры, первые organization officials to show what duties and responsibilities they
лица компании) have in the organization. Such titles are used by publicly and privately
held for-profit corporations. In addition, many non-profit
organizations, educational institutions, partnerships, and sole
proprietorships also confer corporate titles.
Fortune Global 500 The Fortune Global 500, also known as global 500, is an annual
ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue
and the list is compiled and published annually by fortune magazine.

long-term care long-term care refers to a host of services that aren’t covered by
insurance regular health insurance. This includes assistance with routine daily
(долгосрочное страхование activities, like bathing, dressing or getting in and out of bed.
по медицинскому уходу) A long-term care insurance policy helps cover the costs of that care
when you have a chronic medical condition, a disability or a disorder
such as Alzheimer’s disease. most policies will reimburse you for care
given in a variety of places, such as:
• your home.
• a nursing home.
• an assisted living facility.
• an adult day care center.
Considering long-term care costs is an important part of any long-
range financial plan, especially in your 50s and beyond. Waiting
until you need care to buy coverage is not an option. You won’t qualify
for long-term care insurance if you already have a debilitating
condition. Most people with long-term care insurance buy it in their
mid-50s to mid-60s.

115
American Ways: An Introduction to American Culture.
Chapter 12. AMERICAN VALUES AT THE CROSSROADS.

Language Guide

1. to assassinate, an assassination 28. a plight/to plight


2. to impeach a president 29. a decent-paying job
3. to amend the Constitution, amendment 30. mounting costs
4. founding fathers 31. like-minded people
5. to undertake responsibilities 32. to find oneself in a gridlock/ to be
6. to strive for prosperity gridlocked
7. values divide 33. state/government interference
8. to gain prosperity 34. to steer clear of
9. to pursue happiness/life’s goals 35. an ally, an alliance
10. to be subjected to slavery 36. to be reluctant to
11. to adjust standards 37. to make a commitment
12. an attainment 38. to lower/raise taxes
13. to make up for 39. to reinforce
14. to deny admission 40. a single–income family/a two-income
15. to be mindful of family
16. to encounter problems 41. to pay the mortgage
17. to make a distinction between 42. a starting line
18. to strike a balance 43. to save for a rainy day
19. insistence on 44. to make people dependent on sth for sth
20. a paycheck/to live from paycheck to 45. a standard of living
paycheck 46. below/above the poverty level/line
21. to pay bills 47. to descend from slaves
22. to lay off, a lay off 48. to go into debt
23. to go into bankruptcy/go bankrupt 49. a blue collar job
24. to fall behind (with payment/in education) 50. to reach historic crossroads
25. a household 51. to struggle for civil rights
26. housing bubble burst
27. to near retirement

Exercise 1.
Find the English equivalents in the text (Chapter 12).
преследовать жизненные цели
происходить из семьи рабов
вмешательство государства
за чертой бедности, союзник
понизить налоги

116
уровень жизни
делать людей зависимыми от государства в
вопросах жизнеобеспечения
люди одинаковых взглядов
достойно оплачиваемая работа
испытывать проблемы
оказаться в безвыходном положении
платить по счетам
затруднительное положение
найти баланс
настойчивость
неохотно что-то делать
сокращение кадров
отставать
делать различие между
приближаться к пенсии
выплата зарплаты
перенести производство за границу
обесцениться
продолжающийся дефицит в экономике
растущий национальный долг
сократить программы помощи бизнесу в
частном секторе

Exercise 2.
Fill in the explanations and definitions with the correct word/words from the list below.
plight • a household • to pay mortgage • starting line • mounting costs • to strive for •
prosperity • alliance • to steer clear of • to be mindful of • assassination • amendment •
insistence • housing bubble burst • to make up for • attainment
1. ……………………………………………. – a situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one
2. ……………………………………………. – giving attention to something
3. ……………………………………………. – gradually increasing
the amount of money needed to buy, do, or make something.
4. ……………………………………………. – the murder of someone famous or important.
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5. ……………………………………………. – to avoid someone or something
that seems unpleasant, dangerous, or likely to cause problems.
6. ……………………………………………. – an occasion when you demand something
and refuse to accept opposition, or when you say firmly that something is true.
7. ……………………………………………. – a change to a law that is not yet in operation and is
still being discussed.
8. ……………………………………………. – one of several types of asset price ball formed of air
which from time to time occurs in the market which breaks opens or apart sudden.
9. ……………………………………………. – to take the place of something lost or damaged or
to compensate for something bad with something good.
10. ……………………………………………. – the act of achieving something.
11. ……………………………………………. – a line drawn on the ground behind
which competitors wait for a signal to begin a race.
12. ……………………………………………. – to try very hard to do something or to make
something happen, especially for a long time or against difficulties for the state of being successful and
having a lot of money.
13. ……………………………………………. – a group of countries, political parties, or people who
have agreed to work together because of shared interests or aims.
14. ……………………………………………. – to return an agreement that allows you
to borrow money from a bank or similar organization, especially in order to buy a house.
15. ……………………………………………. – a group of people, often a family, who live together.

Exercise 3.
Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the box below.
• housing bubble • fall behind • reinforce • household • below the poverty line •
assassination • paycheck • ally • to raise taxes • lay off

1. Campaigners call for all nurseries to have an early-years trained graduate as children from
disadvantaged families often ................................ in literacy at an early age.
2. Alan Greenspan will go down in history as the person most responsible for the enormous economic
damage caused by the ................................ .
3. Laws that ................................ HIV-related stigma and prejudice impede both HIV prevention
efforts and access to treatment.
4. People are asked to consider the factors contributing to their livelihoods and judge how resilient
they consider their ................................ to be to given threats.
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5. The earnings of more than half of American authors fell ................................ the US federal
................................ last year.
6. Subcontractors owed money by the construction and services giant are already being pressurised by
their banks and have begun ................................ workers.
7. Many Americans struggle to make ends meet on six– figure ................................ – which some
would consider the salaries of the “upper income” or even rich.
8. Benazir Bhutto's ................................ yesterday robbed the White House of an important
................................ in Pakistan days before elections that were supposed to return the country to civilian
rule.
9. Government documents newly released on Friday regarding the ................................ of
President John F Kennedy say allegations that Lee Harvey Oswald was connected to the CIA were “totally
unfounded”.
10. More than 40 millionaires on Monday asked New York state ................................ on the wealthy,
under what they called a “1% plan for tax fairness”.

Exercise 4. Collocations.
A. Match the words to build collocations.

1. decent– paying a. mortgage


2. to pay b. line
3. mounting c. retirement
4. single– income d. of living
5. starting e. to slavery
6. to strike f. a distinction
7. to make g. family
8. standard h. a balance
9. to be subjected i. job
10. to near j. costs

B. Underline the word that matches the collocation. Then provide complete
collocations for the odd words in each sentence.

1. The prime minister is wrong to pretend that it’s the economy’s loss if high–income/low–income
earners have less money to spend.
2. The commitment/the promise, to be made/to be kept in an amendment/adjustment to the Climate
Change Act laid in parliament on Wednesday, would make the UK the first member of the G7 group
of industrialised nations to legislate for net zero emissions, Downing Street said.

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3. Holidaymakers heading overseas for Easter who have yet to book their car have already missed the
cheapest deals – but they could still steer clear of/reinforce rip– offs and get a bargain even from
unscrupulous vehicle hire outlets.
4. Pro–democracy demonstrators in central Hong Kong have used cement to reinforce/strike the
barricades defending a protest site after being attacked by counter– protesters on Monday afternoon.
5. Longstanding bus routes will see their last journeys this month, which will mirror decline of bus
service and rural Canada’s plight/commitment, as those who remain are unable to leave the region.

C. Fill in the gaps with the missing words to form the collocations.
1. More than 2 million people have used credit cards to pay ……………… or rent, an increase of
almost 50% in a year.
2. The UK is heading for a foster care crisis as a majority of carers are nearing ……………… age
and fewer people volunteer to replace them, a leading charity has warned.
3. British Trust for Ornithology finds 99% of birds steer ……………… wind turbines, easing fears
over the impact of blades but caution is still needed.
4. In this way, the UK try to strike ……………… of interests between our own country and the other
States of the Commonwealth.
5. As Democrats spent months on internal debates over whether to impeach
………………, Republicans and conservative media were ready to march in lockstep.
6. Foreign maids, cleaners and other domestic workers are being ……………… to slave–like labour
conditions in Qatar, with many complaining they have been deprived of passports, wages, days off, holidays
and freedom to move jobs.
7. Senator Chuck Schumer of New York has ramped up pressure on Donald Trump and the federal
government to accept the ……………… costs of protecting the president, the first family and their extended
entourage.
8. One aspect the tables show is that budget measures will mean dual– income families are better off
compared with ……………… families.
9. However, one expert said that regional arrangements could ……………… problems if the members
involved have different specific national characteristics.
10. Russia and China intend to strengthen their good– neighbourliness and friendship from generation
to generation, to deepen mutually beneficial practical cooperation, and to ……………… joint development
and prosperity.

Exercise 5.

Translate the sentences from Russian into English using active vocabulary.

1. Миллионы американцев со средним уровнем дохода живут от зарплаты до зарплаты, изо


всех сил стараются оплачивать счета, но многие влезают в долги.
2. Многие семьи находятся всего в одном шаге (= в одном увольнении) от банкротства (=
словосочетание).
3. В США не осталось хорошо оплачиваемых производственных работ, так как еще в 90-х
большая часть американского производства была перенесена за границу.

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4. В настоящее время американцы и их ценности достигли исторического перепутья.
5. За свою историю Америка пережила американскую революцию, гражданскую войну и
Великую депрессию, убийства политических лидеров, но всегда ее народ умел отстоять свои
гражданские права и предпринял несколько попыток объявить импичмент своим
президентам.
6. Американские ценности – это основополагающие права, которые сначала были
зафиксированы в Декларации независимости, а затем перенесены в Конституцию, где в них
не раз вносили поправки.
7. Американцы отстаивают (= защищают/обороняют) традиционную идею равенства
возможностей и верят в «естественное», а не в утвержденное правительством многообразие
Соединенных Штатов.
8. Семьи, в которых работают оба супруга, могут позволить себе ежемесячно выплачивать
ипотеку, медицинскую страховку, обслуживать два автомобиля, но вот отложить деньги на
черный день у них не получается.
9. Жилищный кризис сильно ударил по среднему классу, так как жилье, которое было
приобретено на пике своей стоимости, сейчас обесценилось.
10. Постоянно растущая цена на «социальную защиту» и «медикэр» вызывает беспокойство
среди представителей среднего класса, поэтому люди отстаивают свои права на получение
хорошо оплачиваемых рабочих мест.

Exercise 6.

Check your understanding of the main facts and concepts answering the following
questions and commenting on the statements.

THE ROLE OF VALUES IN THE NATIONAL IDENTITY

1. What values define the American nation? What historic events contributed to their formation?
2. What rights are considered basic? How are basic rights guaranteed?
INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND SELF-RELIANCE
3. How did the Great Depression change the role of the government and its responsibilities?
4. What is the notion “Values divide”? How is it connected to economic rights?
5. Why do social benefits undermine the basic value of self-reliance?
EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND COMPETITION
6. Why are they discussing the extension of basic human rights?
7. What historic phenomenon undermined the value of freedom? How did the situation change later?
8. Did affirmative action help to put the situation right?
9. How can the value of equality be misinterpreted? What does the value actually mean?
10. Did affirmative action produce controversial results? Why?
11. What examples of equality from famous politicians are given in the text?
12. What role do these stories of success play in people’s perception?

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13. What is the difference between the “hard” culture and the “soft” culture?
14. What issue did President Obama bring up in his Inaugural address? What made him do it? Why was
his observation thought-provoking?
15. How has the attainment of American Dream changed over the years?
MATERIAL WEALTH AND HARD WORK
16. How did the attitude to education change with financial crises?
17. What can help young people on their way to high-paying jobs and at the same time meet the
economic needs?
18. How has the situation of middle class families changed?
19. How do Americans plan retirement now?
THE VALUES DIVIDE
20. How do Republicans and Democrats use the “Values divide” for attainment of political purposes?
21. What national issue do Americans face nowadays?
THE UNITED STATES IN THE WORLD
22. What is the US role on the international arena? How has it changed over centuries? What are the
reasons for the change?
23. How do Americans view international politics? What value can explain this view?
24. Why are Americans concerned about the issue of illegal immigration?
25. What is the main strength of the US, which might help it respond new challenges?

IMPORTANT FACTS AND NAMES

US Healthcare Services The United States spends more on health care services than does any
other nation-on average, more than twice as much per person as the
other OECD countries. These expenditures are financed by a
complex mixture of public payers (Federal, State, and local
government), as well as private insurance and individual payments:
There is no single nationwide system of health insurance. The United
States primarily relies on employers to voluntarily provide health
insurance coverage to their employees and dependents; government
programs are confined to the elderly, the disabled, and some of the
poor. These private and public health insurance programs all differ
with respect to benefits covered, sources of financing, and payments
to medical care providers. There is little coordination between
private and public programs: Some people have both public and
private insurance while others have neither. Nevertheless, persons
without health insurance are not entirely without health care.
Although they receive fewer and less coordinated services than those
with insurance, many of these “uninsured” individuals receive health
care services through public clinics and hospitals, State and local

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health programs, or private providers who finance the care through
charity and by shifting costs to other payers.
There are more than 1,000 private health insurance companies
providing health insurance policies with different benefit structures,
premiums, and rules for paying the insured or medical care
providers. These companies are regulated by State insurance
commissioners; the Federal Government does not generally regulate
insurance companies. States sometimes specify that certain, often
narrowly defined, benefits or providers (e.g., chiropractic services)
be covered by all health insurance policies sold in the State. States
may also regulate insurance premium increases and other aspects of
the insurance industry. In recent years, most large employers have
opted to “self-insure,” or cover health expenses as they occur, rather
than purchase insurance from a company, because this exempts them
from State insurance regulation as detailed later.
Although employer-provided health insurance is voluntary, it is
encouraged by tax policy. Employer-paid contributions to employee
health costs are basically a substitute for cash wages. This
substitution has increased in recent years. Health benefits rose from
2.4 percent of total compensation in 1970 to 5.8 percent in 1989, and
from 23 percent of total benefits in 1970 to 36 percent in 1989. When
employers pay wages in the form of health benefits, they are subject
neither to the personal income tax nor to the Social Security tax.
The majority of those with private health insurance are covered for
inpatient hospital services and physician services; the breadth and
depth of coverage of other services vary. Industries with strong
unions (e.g., steel, automobile) have the broadest benefit packages.
On the other hand, service industries (e.g., restaurants) may provide
little or no coverage. The amount of patient cost sharing also varies.
For example, as many as 55 million Americans with private health
insurance are underinsured, that is, they do not have a limit on their
out-of-pocket health expenses and are at risk of being impoverished
should they experience a costly, major illness. The cost of treating a
serious emergency can be catastrophically high. Home care is
covered in most insurance plans after a hospitalization for an acute
episode of illness in order to allow recovery in a less costly setting.

Medicaid is a health insurance program for certain groups of the poor. It


covers preventive, acute, and long-term care services for 25 million
people, or 10 percent of the population. Medicaid is jointly financed
by Federal and State governments. The Federal Government matches
State Medicaid outlays at rates which vary by State personal-income
levels: The Federal share of total expenditures ranges from 50 to 83
percent, with the poorer States receiving a higher match from the
Federal Government. Medicaid is administered by the States under
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broad Federal guidelines governing the scope of services, the level
of payments to providers, and population groups eligible for
coverage.
In order to be eligible for Medicaid, a person must be poor as well
as aged, blind, disabled, pregnant, or the parent of a dependent child.
Mothers and dependent children comprise about 68 percent of
Medicaid recipients, the elderly 13 percent, the blind and disabled 15
percent, and others 4 percent. States further define eligibility levels
(e.g., maximum income and asset levels) within certain broad
parameters. Consequently, about 60 percent of the poor below the
Federal poverty line are excluded from Medicaid. Childless, non-
disabled adults under 65 years of age, no matter how poor or how
high their medical expenses, are not eligible, nor are individuals with
assets above State-defined levels. On the other hand, because
Medicaid is the only public program that finances long-term nursing
home care, a significant number of middle-class elderly have become
eligible for Medicaid-covered nursing home care by intentionally
transferring assets to their children and exhausting their income on
nursing home expenses. About 43 percent of Medicaid expenditures
are spent on skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities.
The uninsured receive fewer health services than insured individuals
with comparable health status. Services for the uninsured are
provided through a variety of sources, the amount and scope of which
vary by community. Federal, State, and local governments support
public health clinics and hospitals with a primary mission of
providing care to the indigent. In some cases they pay private
providers to care for the indigent as well. Public health expenditures
support preventive health measures such as vaccinations, cancer
screening programs, and well-child care. The services are often
available to all, although a fee which varies according to income may
be charged. As insurers and employers try to control their own costs,
the ability of hospitals and other providers to cross-subsidize care for
the uninsured, by cost-shifting to insurers and employers, may
decrease.

The Trump Administration addresses problems of healthcare. President Trump signed a new
Executive Order to improve seniors’ healthcare and improve the
fiscal sustainability of Medicare. As more than two-thirds of
Americans worry about unexpected medical bills, according to a
2018 poll, President Trump is committed to ending surprise billing
so no American is ever blindsided by medical bills for services they
never agreed to. The President has put forward principles on surprise
billing to ensure patients are not taken advantage of and have the
information they need to make informed decisions.

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Fee-for-service (FFS) is a payment model where services are unbundled and paid for
separately.
Medicare Medicare is the federal health insurance program for:
• - People who are 65 or older
• - Certain younger people with disabilities
• - People with End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure
requiring dialysis or a transplant, sometimes called ESRD)
The different parts of Medicare help cover specific services:
Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance)
Part A covers inpatient hospital stays, care in a skilled nursing
facility, hospice care, and some home health care.
Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance)
Part B covers certain doctors' services, outpatient care, medical
supplies, and preventive services.
Medicare Part D (prescription drug coverage)
Part D adds prescription drug coverage to:
These plans are offered by insurance companies and other private
companies approved by Medicare. Medicare Advantage Plans may
also offer prescription drug coverage that follows the same rules as
Medicare Prescription Drug Plans.
Assassination of JFK John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States,
was assassinated on November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. Central
Standard Timein Dallas, Texas, while riding in a
presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding
with his wife Jacqueline, Texas GovernorJohn Connally, and
Connally's wife Nellie when he was fatally shot by former U.S.
Marine Lee Harvey Oswald firing in ambush from a nearby
building. Governor Connally was seriously wounded in the attack.
The motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital where
President Kennedy was pronounced dead about 30 minutes after
the shooting; Connally recovered.
Oswald was arrested by the Dallas Police Department 70 minutes
after the initial shooting. Oswald was charged under Texas state
law with the murder of Kennedy, as well as that of Dallas
policeman J. D. Tippit, who had been fatally shot a short time after
the assassination. At 11:21 a.m. November 24, 1963, as live
television cameras were covering his transfer from the city jail to
the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot in the basement of Dallas
Police Headquarters by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby.
Oswald was taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital where he soon
died. Ruby was convicted of Oswald's murder, though it was later
overturned on appeal, and Ruby died in prison in 1967 while
awaiting a new trial.
After a 10-month investigation, the Warren Commission concluded
that Oswald assassinated Kennedy, that Oswald had acted entirely
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alone, and that Ruby had acted alone in killing Oswald. Kennedy
was the eighth and most recent US President to die in office, and
the fourth (following Lincoln, Garfield, and McKinley) to be
assassinated. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson automatically
assumed the Presidency upon Kennedy's death.
The Watergate Scandal The Watergate scandal was a major federal political scandal in the
United States involving the administration of President Richard
Nixon from 1972 to 1974.
The scandal stemmed from the June 17, 1972, break-in of
the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at
the Watergate Office Building in Washington, D.C., by five men
and the Nixon Administration's subsequent attempts to cover-up its
involvement in the crime. Soon after the men were arrested, the
press and the U.S. Justice Department discovered a connection
between cash found on them at the time and a slush fundused by
the Nixon re-election campaign committee.
Further investigations along with revelations during subsequent
trials of the burglars in January 1973, led the U.S. House of
Representatives to grant its Judiciary Committee additional
investigation authority to probe into "certain matters within its
jurisdiction," and the U.S. Senate to create a special investigative
committee to look into the scandal. The resultant Senate Watergate
hearings commenced in May 1973. Broadcast "gavel-to-gavel"
nationwide, by PBS, the hearings aroused great public
interest. Senators heard testimony that the president had approved
plans to cover up administration involvement with the Watergate
break-in, and learned of the existence of a voice-activated taping
system in the Oval Office. Meanwhile, Nixon's administration
resisted its probes, which led to a constitutional crisis.
Several major revelations and egregious presidential action against
the investigation later in 1973 prompted the House to commence
an impeachment process against the president in February
1974. On July 24, while the impeachment process was under way,
the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously ruled
in United States v. Nixon that the president was obligated to release
the Oval Office tapes to government investigators. The tapes
revealed that Nixon had conspired to cover up activities that took
place after the break-in and had attempted to use federal officials
to deflect the investigation. Shortly thereafter, the Judiciary
Committee approved articles of impeachment against the president
for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of
Congress and reported those articles to the House of
Representatives.

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With his complicity in the cover-up made public and his political
support completely eroded, Nixon resigned from office on August 9,
1974. It is a virtual certainty that, had he not done so, he would
have been impeached by the House and removed from office by a
trial in the Senate. To date, he is the only American president to
have resigned from office. On September 8, 1974, Nixon's
successor, Gerald Ford, pardoned him.
Altogether, the scandal resulted in the indictment of 69 people.
Trials or pleas resulted in 48 people--many of them top Nixon
officials--being found guilty. The term Watergate, by metonymy,
came to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal
activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration.
Those activities included bugging the offices of political opponents
and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious;
ordering investigations of activist groups and political figures; and
using the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Central
Intelligence Agency(CIA), and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
as political weapons. The use of the suffix "-gate" after an
identifying term (e.g. Bridgegate) has since become synonymous
with public scandal, especially political scandal, in the United
States and some other parts of the world.

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VIDEO & TEXT BANK

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION: UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURE OF THE


UNITED STATES

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 05:00)
UNDERSTANDING THE AMERICAN IDENTITY MEANS LISTENING TO IMMIGRANTS
Americans are in the midst of a conversation about the national identity. Immigrants play an essential role
in this discussion. To promote cultural and civic literacy around the country, the Aspen Institute Citizenship
and American Identity Program is sharing the stories of four immigrants living in the US.

https://www.aspeninstitute.org/blog-posts/understanding-american-identity-means-listening-immigrants/

Some vocabulary and facts to help you:


Super Bowl = (in the US) the National Football League championship game played annually between the
champions of the National and the American Football Conferences.
a bloodline = genealogy, family tree
a reflection = a thought
civic identity = locating self in community
to shatter = to destroy
to transition out (Am.) = to move to another place
a selling point = a feature of a product for sale that makes it attractive to customers
to be made up of different nationalities = cultural pluralism; melting pot
the Gettysburg Address (Геттисбергская речь) = is a speech that U.S. President Abraham
Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers’ National
Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, four and a half
months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is one of
the best-known speeches in American history.
to approach it from an immigrant perspective = to look at it from the point of view an immigrant
to bind together = to unite
an economic driver = is a factor that has a material effect on the economy

to persevere = to persist
a red state = a US state that predominantly votes for or supports the Republican Party
a blue state = a US state that predominantly votes for or supports the Democratic Party

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fragmented = split into pieces
Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions:
1. Summarize the stories of the four immigrants. What were the reasons for them to move to America?
2. What is the whole point of the U.S.? What makes America America?
3. How do the four immigrants describe the country?
4. What social project has been launched?
5. What should every American know?
6. In what way does America benefit from immigrants and vice versa?
7. According to the speakers, immigrants are … ?
8. Is it important for future generations to understand why immigrants come to America? Why?
9. Why is it important to have the common language base?
10. What does it mean to be an American?

Task 2. Watch the video again and complete the summary with the missing information.
The United States is the country that is open to …………………… , ……………………. ,
…………………… and …………………… that aren’t from here. When talking about ……………………
, the immigrant experience has to be …………………… . America is inviting people in, immigrants,
refugees, people from small towns and big towns, to share their …………………… on what’s meaningful
to the country about …………………… and …………………… .
America is …………………… . The process of integration is not easy since people do not have
…………………… of what it means to actually show up and participate in civic life.
When thinking of 10 things every American should know, consider the things that ………………… .
Immigrants are not just …………………… , they are also …………………… , they come here and they
are …………………… . They start businesses, they are big parts of industries.
It is important to understand why immigrants are coming here. The American Dream will come true for
immigrants when they learn …………………… and if they are able …………………… .
The …………………… is important for immigrants to begin to reflect on who they are as a people and
what they are trying to become as Americans.
America is a place that there is love, there is conflict, there are many different pieces that come together.
Immigrants all bring something …………………… , one society.
…………………… makes America America. Diversity is the …………………… , it is not
…………………… , it is part of who immigrants are.
Task 3. Give a one-sentence gist of the summary you have completed.

DISCUSSION
• Do you know of any immigrant with a similar story?
• Do you agree that there should be social programs to help immigrants assimilate? Why?
• Is assimilation into the dominant culture important and necessary? Why?
• What things do you think immigrants to Russia should know?
• Make a list of 10 things every Russian should know.
• Make a list of 10 things you know about the United States.

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#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss
IMMIGRATION: THE MYTH OF THE MELTING POT

In 1908, British writer Israel Zangwill wrote a stage play, the title of which popularized a term that came
to be used as a metaphor for America itself: The Melting Pot.
Debuting before U.S. audiences in 1909, Zangwill’s play told the story of David Quixano, a fictional
Russian-Jewish immigrant who is intent on moving to the United States after his family dies in a violent
anti-Semitic riot in Russia.
For Quixano (and many actual immigrants at the time), America, in all of its culturally “blended” glory,
stood as a beacon of light visible from the darkest and most oppressed corners of the world, offering
promise, possibility and maybe even acceptance.
Well before Zangwill put the “melting pot” label into the global lexicon, the United States had already
earned a reputation as an immigrant haven.
• New England’s first immigrant settlers, the Puritans and the Pilgrims, left their native England in
the early 1600s in order to practice their respective religions more freely, without antagonistic
meddling from the Church of England.
• In the early 1800s, the French Revolution saw thousands of rural Europeans flee to America, to
escape the war-torn countryside and a government in shambles.
• As a result of the great famine that struck Ireland in the first half of the 19th century, millions of
Irish-Catholic immigrants crossed the Atlantic, settling into various pockets of the East Coast.
• The next wave came from Asia, with Chinese and Japanese immigrants arriving to California in
droves, working throughout the West as the Gold Rush and the railroad stirred dreams of vast riches.
The arrival of these immigrants, and with them their varied cultural backgrounds, was essential in molding
America’s public identity. And it fed into America’s self-history, enshrining the United States as a refuge
for all those suffering persecution for political or personal beliefs; a shelter that accepts a wide variety of
faiths and ideologies.
In fact, there is a rich American tradition of rejecting immigrants and refugees.
Prior to the late 1800s, the federal government did little to control the flow of immigration. State
governments attempted to pass their own immigration laws, and the chaos that ensued across state borders
finally led the federal government to take control of the issue in the late 1800s.
Despite these new laws and bouts of anti-immigrant fervor, foreigners continued to flock to America.
• The last major wave of immigration in the United States occurred around the turn of the 20th
century and brought with it immigrants from previously unrepresented regions (Eastern Europe and
Russia, among others).
Though many tried to assimilate into American daily life, they were seen as cultural and economic threats.
The cycle—immigrate and then turn against those who come after—began anew, and a new assimilation
movement arose. With so many ethnic groups a part of 20th-century America, calls for assimilation began
to see opposition in the form of multiculturalism, a school of thought that stresses the importance of
recognizing individual ethnicities. It’s in direct contrast to the concept of a melting pot and has earned
catchphrase metaphors of its own, like “salad bowl” and “cultural mosaic.” With the introduction of this
ideology, Zangwill’s grand melting pot theory was aggressively called into question.

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Even now, multiculturalism is but one of the terms used in an ongoing debate of how best to describe
America’s diverse and growing population. Though Zangwill’s play advocated for America as the great
equalizer, the melting pot was no more than a myth, albeit one cherished by many Americans.

https://www.newsweek.com/immigration-myth-melting-pot-408705

#3 – Read & Watch


Read the background text, then answer the questions.
1. Why do people immigrate to the United States?
2. How well are they able to assimilate?
3. What is the country’s single-largest ethnic group?
4. How has America benefited from it?
5. Why is the country’s immigration a mess?
IMMIGRATION IN AMERICA // THE MELTING POT WORKS
- Why a nation built on immigration should remain open to foreign talent.
THE tired, poor, huddled masses who arrive on America's shores yearning to breathe free actually bring
talent, youth and global connections. Some create jobs; others do the work most natives shun. And they
prosper. Just look at German-Americans, the country’s single-largest ethnic group, who have assimilated
so thoroughly that their neighbors now barely notice them, who are thriving, and whose culture flavors
America's like cinnamon in an Apfelkuchen (= apple pie). Among other things, they gave Americans
pretzels and hot dogs, ensuring that spectators of that great American pastime, baseball, never go hungry.
America is built on immigration. Yet the country’s immigration system is a mess. Instead of fixing it,
Congress seems poised to make things worse. Far too many lawmakers are trying to build ever-higher
fences to keep foreigners out. Our leader argues that in the absence of common sense in Washington, more
power over immigration policy should be delegated to the states.
KEY WORDS
1. huddled masses
2. to yearn to breathe free
3. the work most natives shun
4. never go hungry
5. instead of fixing it
6. Congress seems poised
a. correcting or repairing
b. crowds
c. no to suffer due to the lack of something
d. is ready
e. to avoid
f. to wish / to desire
The video below explains how this (sometimes) works.
https://www.economist.com/democracy-in-america/2015/02/05/the-melting-pot-works

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Video: (time: 02:47)
HOW IMMIGRANTS CAN SAVE DYING CITIES
Some vocabulary and facts to help you:
a policy maker = a person responsible for or involved in formulating policies, especially in politics
to reverse the fortune of decaying cities = to prevent the cities from falling into despair and dilapidation
suburbanization = is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs
to revitalize = to reconstruct
to be resident = to live permanently, or on a long-term basis
property = real estate
derelict = abandoned and empty
to pay income taxes = to pay a certain percentage of your income that you have to pay regularly to the
government
pension liabilities = pensions (money) to be paid by the government
to accumulate = to amass; to hoard
staunch = faithful
a cut = an accusation
a mortgage = money from a bank or building society to buy a house
to spruce up = to improve
a cluster = a group of similar things or people positioned or occurring closely together
repopulation = introduction of a population into (a previously occupied area or country)
to deter scavengers = to stop people from being homeless
a grocery shop = is a retail shop that primarily sells food
bail bond = is a written promise signed by a defendant and surety to ensure that a criminal defendant will
appear in court at the scheduled time and date, as ordered by the court
a merchant = a vendor
well-heeled = wealthy
to lure = to attract
to scare off = to frighten sm. so that he goes away

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions.


1. What is the main message of the video?
2. What is the same problem policy makers are struggling with in many cities?
3. Why have the city centers been left depressed and dangerous?
4. How can immigrants help revitalize a city?
5. What property do newcomers usually rent or buy?
6. In which ways do immigrants differ from normal residents?
7. Where do they normally settle? Why in these places?

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8. How does repopulation help streets become safer?

9. How do businesses set up by immigrants help transform depressed areas?


10. Why does the policy of luring immigrants to cities in decline work differently?

Task 2. Complete the notes answering the question “How can immigrants help revitalize a city?”.
Then watch the video again and check your answers.
1) Immigrants can:
• Transform an area by being 1……………
• Rent or buy property which otherwise be 2……………
• Buy goods and services; pay 3……………
2) Immigrants differ from normal residents:
• They often can’t get 4……………
• They move to the toughest – and so cheapest – neighbourhoods
• 5
…………… houses that natives have left abandoned for years
• Settle in places where they know family or friends
3) Immigrants:
• May not be able to get more 6…………… jobs
• 7
…………… businesses that can transform depressed areas
• Their restaurants and grocery shops attract 8…………… natives

DISCUSSION
• Do you know of any depressed and dangerous cities in your country that should be transformed?
• Have you ever taken part in revitalizing a derelict house, or a decaying area? If you have not, would
you like to? Is there a place you would like to transform?
• Why do you think natives simply abandon dilapidated houses and transition out, they do not care about
those areas and cities, but immigrants do?
• Are there any restaurants or grocery shops set up by immigrants where you live? Do you go there?
• What would you do to attract well-heeled natives to depressed areas?

Chapter 2. AMERICAN VALUES & BELIEFS

#1 – Watch
Video: (time:03:12)

NATIONAL: DEFINING THE AMERICAN DREAM / THE NEW YORK TIMES

In the recession, the American Dream is alive, if not entirely well, according to a poll by The New York
Times and CBS News.

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https://www.nytimes.com/video/us/1194840031120/defining-the-american-
dream.html?action=click&contentCollection=us&module=embedded&region=caption&pgtype=article
Some vocabulary and facts to help you:
incoming background = is the kind of family you come from and the kind of education you have had. It
can also refer to such things as your social and racial origins, your financial status, or the type of work
experience that you have.

the economy may be tanking = in Am.E “tanking” means failing or hitting rock bottom / a tanking
economy means the economy is down.

contradictory = if two or more facts, ideas, or statements are contradictory, they state or imply that
opposite things are true

to meet one’s dreams = the dreams come true

affluent (midtown Manhattan) = prosperous, wealthy (midtown = N.Amer: the central part of a city)

the long-time (dream of upward mobility) = long-term

palpably = obviously

to put kids through (college) = to arrange or pay for your children to attend a school, college, etc.

up in smoke = something fails or ends without anything being achieved

credit default swap [CDS] = a credit derivative contract between two counterparties. The buyer makes
periodic payments to the seller, and in return receives a payoff if an underlying financial
instrument defaults or experiences a similar credit event.

puzzling = causing one to be puzzled; perplexing.

the nation is a recession = the condition of the nation is bad // the nation is doing badly

elusive = difficult to find, describe, remember, or achieve

Task 1. Watch the video and match the speakers to their opinions.
THE AMERICAN DREAM IS:

1) Sidd Singhal a) to become a lawyer, and a judge


b) about being able to take a vacation
2) Susan Mendez c) available to everybody
d) about being able to send your kids to school
e) possible for many families if you work hard enough
3) Aliyah Pierce f) about being able to take care of your elderly parents
g) having a great family, a great home on the beach, and
enough money to support myself and the family
4) Mark Cates h) about being able to save up

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5) Joe Fine i) the opportunity to meet your dreams and achieve
success

6) Ed Toler (four opinions)

Task 2. Watch the video again and answer the questions.


1. How many people have actually achieved their dream according to the New York/CBS poll?
2. In hard times the American Dream has another meaning. What does it mean?
3. What is the American Dream about in good times?
4. Why are some people already living the American Dream?

DISCUSSION
• the Russian Dream

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss

AMERICAN VALUES: THEN AND NOW

Who are you? If asked, most Americans would respond, “We are the good guys.” That would be a popular
self-image, but one that reality and facts call into question. Famed Harvard political scientist, Samuel
Huntington, is most noted for his classic work, Clash of Civilizations addressing the post-Cold War
realignment of power. Lesser known is his prescient book, Who Are We? Published in 2004, immigration
was the theme, but the bottom line was that we are no longer who we were and that the American dominance
of white Anglo-Saxon influence was in jeopardy. Specifically, Huntington noted the effects of the influx
of Hispanic cultures and language. That alone has struck fear in too many people.
The historic gateway into America from Europe is marked by the Statue of Liberty. Held in the welcoming
sculpture’s arms is a famous poem that reads in part, «Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses
yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest-
tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!» Not mentioned, but inferred by many Caucasian citizens
is, “As long as they look like me.” What matters more, is that the poem’s sentiments have long passed, and
many non-Americans are viewed with disdain and contempt. The melting-pot philosophy emulsified and
what emerged has become a pattern of exclusion.
Many Americans believe our values include compassion, generosity, civility, accountability, loyalty, and
truthfulness. Some even suggest that our national inception was divinely inspired. Though sometimes
idealistically-tainted, America has served as an exemplary beacon of democracy; a bright shining light seen
far and wide. However, as exemplified by our actions, the current reality is far more dark and
sinister. Worse, the adulteration has been accomplished both wittingly and with the acquiescence of elected
leaders. Those invertebrates too frequently have the support of their constituents; most of whom, while
painfully ignorant of the facts, are vociferously opinionated on a myriad of issues.
Traditional “American values” have been replaced by fear, greed, and isolation. Facts and truth are readily
ignored, even by those charged with the responsibilities of articulating and monitoring the national
discourse. False, even patently illogical, narratives have become a norm. Festering, they undermine the
validity of American institutions; ones held together solely by common confidence in their validity and
efficacy. Former NSA and CIA director, Michael Hayden, was absolutely correct when he addressed the
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“thin veneer of civilization.” We both have seen how quickly well-organized institutions can dissolve into
chaos. That already has happened both here and abroad.
Yes, we are a nation of immigrants; most of whom seem bent on pulling the ladder up behind them. At an
Annenberg School of Communications conference at the University of Southern California, I heard a U.S.
State Department official state, “Nobody in Africa wakes up in the morning and thinks, I wish I were
Chinese.” The image of Utopian America lives on, just like we still see light for stars long extinguished.
That will continue for years to come and attract others, just as it did most of our forebearers. That reality
could be rekindled, but given the extant political climate, that is unlikely and we are the poorer for it.
In the end, we can no longer claim to be the good guys. As a country we have lost our moral compass. Our
national values have changed, and not for the better. Bullying and irrational/counterfactual fear tactics
dominate both our discourse and policies. We, as citizens, are to blame for the current state of affairs.
Unless we act immediately, this insidious path will lead us into the abyss.
https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2018/6/19/1773436/-American-Values-Then-and-Now\

#3 – Watch & Discuss


Before you the video, answer the questions.
1. Who are Millennials? What is distinctive about Millennials? How do their personal and public values
differ from those of previous generations?
2. How will they shape future?
3. What do young people in your country think about democracy, its problems and its promises?
4. Where do young people come down on questions of faith, values, and public life?
5. How do they relate their values to public policy issues including education, economic inequality, and
the environment?

MILLENNIALS, VALUES, AND AMERICA’S FUTURE

In October 2012, Georgetown University convened students from around the country for a series of
conversations about values and the future of American democracy. This second Millennial Values
Symposium—the first was held in April 2012—featured discussions with elected officials and media
leaders, as well as the release of a national survey of young Americans on religion, values, and the 2012
election.

This video is part of the “Dialogue on American Values,” a partnership between the Ford Foundation and
Georgetown University.
Georgetown students were asked: “Do you believe Americans hold a set of shared values, such as freedom,
equality and community? What are some other important values in public life?”
Berkley Center
Published on Oct 13, 2011

https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/projects/campus-conversation-on-values

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Video: (time: 01:54)
Some vocabulary to help you:
a senior student = a student of or for the final year at a university or high school

a major = a student's principal subject or course

to hold on to values = to believe in values and do not change or abandon them if others try to influence
you or if circumstances cause you to doubt them

to pull oneself up by bootstraps (idiomatic) = to succeed only by one's own efforts or abilities

to be a part of the issue = only a piece of an existing problem/matter

to hold sway = have great power or influence over a particular person, place, or domain

Task 1. Make a list of the values you think are personal and public. Watch the video and compare
your values to the ones of Americans.
Personal Values –
Public Values –

Task 2. Watch the video again and put down what each senior student answers to the question “Do
you believe Americans hold a set of shared values?”

Task 3. Watch the video again and complete transcript with the missing words and phrases.
Aamir Hussein - I do believe that Americans hold on to their values and Constitution very highly, but also
I think that all of Americans have a strong belief in their own ………… and their own ability to …………
in their own lives.
Devin Coleman - there’s a certain something about being …………, being very American and as a senior
at Georgetown I tend to see this come out much more, especially as I ………… with my fellow classmates
for job offers and fellowships and other opportunities.
Anna Lee Keeliens - especially speaking of the …………, I think Americans have a thousand worth
…………, like to work hard and you’ll get what you want to.
Colin Steele - we think that you can start ………… and work your way up as fast as you can, the whole
pulling yourself up by your bootstraps notion, I think we really do believe in that, but I think that part of
the issue is that that doesn’t really ………… anymore.
Christopher Dix - I think ………… is pretty important.
Maura Holman - I guess ………… maybe, but that kind of thing goes in any other community, I would
say.
Anaram Dane - I think also most people do have a value kind of ………… their own …………, I think
that moral codes tend to be a more or less the same amongst those societies.
Colin Steele - I would like to see things like ………… and ………… and ………… work their way more
towards the forefront of the conversation, I think they’re in there, they’re just not being properly weighted.

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DISCUSSION
• Is there a set of shared values for Russians?
• What are those values? Are they similar to the ones the students mentioned?
• Are you aware of any other sets of shared values held on to in communities around the globe?

Chapter 3. THE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS HERITAGE

A BRIEF INSIGHT INTO THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY

After the Great Schism of 1054 Early Christianity was divided into Catholicism (Western branch) and
Orthodoxy (Eastern Branch).

In the 16th century there started the European Reformation movement when Protestantism took its shape.
In Europe – Lutheranism and Calvinism (for theological reasons), whereas in Britain – Anglicanism (more
for political reasons) as well as old forms of Puritanism, pietism and Presbyterianism.

138
Within the Protestantism there should be mentioned the Four surges of Great Reawakening (or
Evangelical revival) then.
First Great Awakening or Evangelical Revival (18th century). It was a series of Christian revivals that
swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s. The revival movement permanently
affected Protestantism as adherents strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion. The Great
Awakening marked the emergence of Anglo-American evangelicalism as a trans-denominational
movement within the Protestant churches. There emerged such churches as Church of England, Methodism,
Congregational and new Presbyterian one.
Second Great Awakening (early 19th century) was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th
century in the United States. It reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal
to the supernatural. It rejected the skeptical rationalism and deism of the Enlightenment and led to the
formation of new denominations.. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many
reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus
Christ. Baptist and Methodists led the movement. There were the following subgroups that appeared:
Adventism, Holiness movement, Restoration Movement.
Third Great Awakening (late 19th century) was marked by religious activism in American history and
spans the late 1850s to the early 20th century. It influenced pietistic Protestant denominations and had a
strong element of social activism. It gathered strength from the belief that the Second Coming of Christ
would occur after mankind had reformed the entire earth. It was affiliated with the Social Gospel
Movement, which applied Christianity to social issues and gained its force from the awakening, as did the
worldwide missionary movement. New groupings emerged, such as the Holiness and Nazarene movements,
Jehovah's Witnesses, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Thelema, and Christian Science.
Fourth Great Awakening was a Christian awakening (late 20th century) took place in the United States
in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The "mainline" Protestant churches weakened sharply in both
membership and influence while the most conservative religious denominations (such as the Southern
Baptists and Missouri Synod Lutherans) grew rapidly in numbers, spread across the United States, had
grave internal theological battles and schisms, and became politically powerful. There was a new emphasis
on a personal relationship with Jesus from newly styled 'non-denominational' churches and 'community
faith centers'. This period also saw the rise of non-traditional churches and megachurches with conservative
theologies and a growth in parachurch organizations while mainline Protestantism lost many members. The
Jesus Movement is considered by some to be part of the Fourth Great Awakening. A charismatic awakening
occurred between 1961 and 1982. This stemmed from a Pentecostal movement that placed emphasis on
experiencing what they saw as the gifts of the spirit, including speaking in tongues, healing, and prophecy.
Meanwhile Catholic leaders were opening up to more ecumenical beliefs, to a reduced emphasis on
institutional structures and an increased emphasis on lay spirituality.

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Organized religion in the United States changed in the face of secularizing pressures after World War II.
There was a proliferation of mega-churches. Denominations such as the Assemblies of God, Southern
Baptists and Latter-day Saints (Mormons) became more popular. Three particular religious leaders were
very influential: Martin Luther King Jr., Billy Graham, and Pope John Paul II. Mega-churches won
attention for the simple reason that 10 churches with 2,000 members were more visible than 100 churches
with 200 members. The "mainstream" Protestant churches contracted sharply in terms of membership and
influence. After World War Two, some conservative Christian denominations (including the Southern
Baptists, Missouri Synod Lutherans, the Church of God, Pentecostals, Holiness groups and Nazarenes)
grew rapidly in numbers and also spread nationwide.

PROTESTANTISM AND EVANGELICALISM IN THE USA TODAY

PROTESTANT MEANS
a member or follower of any of the Western Christian Churches that are separate from the Roman
Catholic Church in accordance with the principles of the Reformation.
EVANGELICAL MEANS
(noun) a member of the evangelical tradition in the Christian Church;
(adj.) of or according to the teaching of the gospel or the Christian religion.
Evangelical is “one who evangelizes” which means putting emphasis on the importance of sharing the
gospel with those who haven’t yet heard or given their lives to Christ.

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Most Christians would do this to some degree but evangelicals often see the role of the governing church
in society at the group level as less important and tend to put special emphasis on evangelism at the
individual level.
Mainline Protestants or so called "Seven Sisters of American Protestantism" are
1) the United Methodist Church
2) the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
3) the Presbyterian Church (USA)
4) the Episcopal Church
5) the American Baptist Churches
6) the United Church of Christ
7) the Disciples of Christ (as well as the Quakers, Reformed Church in America, African
Methodist Episcopal church and other churches).

Evangelical Protestants in America are:


1) Southern Baptist Convention
2) the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church
3) Holiness Movement
4) Pentecostal
5) Nazarene

NON-DENOMINATIONAL EVANGELICALS
Non-denominational just means “does not belong to a specific denomination.”

Evangelicals are a diverse group found in many churches, denominations and nations. They focus
on the following core theological convictions:

Conversionism Конверсионизм (от convert, conversion) –


необходимость духовного преображения (рождения
нового духовного человека – “born-again” experience)
и следования за Христом
Activism Активизм – христианское служение и поддержка
социальных реформ (активная христианская
жизненная позиция)
Biblicism Библицизм – следование канонам, изложенным в
священном писании – Библии
Crucicentrism Крестоцентризм – почитание страданий Христа на
кресте во искупление человеческих грехов

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MAINLINE PROTESTANTS VS. EVANGELICAL PROTESTANTS
https://classroom.synonym.com/non-evangelical-protestants-vs-evangelical-protestants-12086102.html

The shadow of modernity looms over American Protestantism. During the Reformation in the 16th century,
the word "evangelical" was synonymous with Protestant. Today, much like Protestantism set itself apart
from Roman Catholicism, contemporary evangelicalism is a movement with its own distinct beliefs and
institutions. While today's mainline Protestantism has chosen to embrace historical development and new
scientific theories, evangelicalism tends to view itself as the defender of unchanging traditional ideals, even
as it adopts new technologies and adapts to social change.
Organizational Structure
The basic structure of mainline Protestantism is the denomination, a group of churches with a shared set of
beliefs and practices. In contrast evangelicalism is trans-denominational. Some evangelicals have chosen
to remain in mainline Protestant denominations, such as the Episcopal Church or United Methodist Church.
Others have formed their own denominational or expressly non-denominational churches. Linking various
evangelical believers and churches together are shared beliefs and a network of interdenominational
evangelical organizations.
Authority of Scripture
The nature of the Bible is another key area of difference. Mainline Protestantism sees the Bible as an
important, even central, book of faith, but it is not necessarily infallible. From this perspective, the books
of the Bible are products of their times, with errors and inspirational stories that may not be historically
factual. In contrast, evangelicals believe that the Bible is God's infallible word, written by human authors
under the unerring guidance of the Holy Spirit. The popular evangelical term for this is inerrancy.
Core Beliefs
Mainline Protestantism tends to see truth in terms of a liberal theology of growth and development. This
doctrine expresses itself in the defining values of tolerance and acceptance, even recognizing the possibility
of salvation in non-Christian religions. The evangelical perspective sees belief in Jesus as essential to
salvation. There is consensus among scholars that one essential evangelical doctrine is atonement through
Christ's sacrifice on the cross, in which Jesus suffers punishment on behalf of sinners who deserve to be
condemned.
Social Issues
Mainline Protestantism has a strong liberal social justice component. In recent years, this impulse has
expressed itself in advocating for such issues as feminism, environmentalism and gay marriage.
Conversely, evangelicals tend to be socially conservative. Issues commonly associated with evangelicals
include abstinence from pre-marital sex, opposition to same-sex relationships and advocacy for legislation
to ban abortion.

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Conversion Experience
For evangelicals, being converted, or born again, is an identifiable moment in time when someone starts a
new life in Christ. Evangelical conversion has its own distinct vocabulary, such as "accepting Jesus" as
one's "personal savior." Mainline Protestants also speak of being born again. However they tend to focus
instead on gradual spiritual transformation.
Shifting Boundaries
The differences between evangelicals and mainline Protestants are not set in stone. For example, writers
such as Diana Butler Bass are calling upon mainline Protestantism to reclaim the evangelical name for
itself, in part by blending social justice with a deeper personal experience of faith. At the same time, a
growing trend among evangelicals is going beyond a focus on conversion to promote helping the poor. If
anything connects these traditions besides their historical roots, it might be their tendency to change.

THE AMERICA’S TOP 10 RELIGIONS AND THEIR AFFILIATES

Catholicism Католичество
Catholics Католики

The doctrine of the Baptists Баптизм (религиозное течение)


Baptists Баптисты

Methodism Методизм (религиозное течение)


Methodists Методисты

Non-denominational Evangelical Надконфессиональный Евангелический


Protestantism Протестантизм
Non-denominational Evangelical члены евангелической общины, не относящейся к
Protestants какой-либо конфессии

Lutheran Church Лютеранская церковь


Lutheran Лютеране

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Религиозное движение «святых последнего дня»
day Saints
Latter-day Saints or Mormons Мормоны

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Pentecostal Church Церковь Пятидесятников
Pentecostal Пятидесятники

Presbyterian Reformed Church Реформатская пресвитерианская церковь


Presbyterian Reformed прихожане реформатской пресвитерианской
церкви

Islam Ислам
Muslims Мусульмане

Judaism Иудаизм
Jews Иудеи

And some other making important contribution to the American religious landscape

Buddhism Буддизм

Hinduism Индуизм

Daoism Даосизм

Confucianism Конфуцианство

Shintoism Синтоизм

The Native American religions традиционные верования индейцев Северной


Америки
Zoroastrism Зороастризм, огнепоклонничество

MEGACHURCHES IN AMERICA: WHERE BIGGER IS BETTER


In nineteen sixty-one, five families near Washington, D.C., formed a Protestant church in McLean,
Virginia. Over time, the church grew, especially after nineteen eighty. That was when a clergyman named
Lon Solomon became the new minister.

As he brought in more and more families, the church needed more and more space. Today, as many as
twelve thousand people attend services each week. The McLean Bible Church is not just big. It is a
megachurch.

Scott Thumma works in the Institute for Religion Research at the Hartford Seminary in Connecticut. He
has started a new project on megachurches with Dave Travis and Warren Bird of the Leadership Network.
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The researchers define a megachurch as a church where more than two thousand people attend services
each week.
The men already have found at least one thousand two hundred megachurches in the United States, higher
than earlier estimates. They say up to twelve million people could be members of these churches.

The research has identified huge Protestant churches in forty-five of the fifty states. Most are in Texas,
California and Georgia. The Texas cities of Dallas and Houston together have fifty-six megachurches.

Western Christianity is divided mainly between Protestants and Roman Catholics. Megachurches in
America are usually Protestant. Many of these are connected with the Southern Baptists. But many others
are independent or nondenominational.

Scott Thumma says the United States has about three hundred twenty thousand Protestant churches. Most
are far smaller than the less than one-half of one percent identified as megachurches.

Research a few years ago found that less than ten percent of American churches averaged one thousand
people at their services. Only fifty or one hundred adults are active in some churches.

Even the smallest church can serve its people well. Yet some lack enough members to provide money for
programs.

Many small churches are mainline churches. "Mainline" suggests moderate. But many people are no longer
satisfied with the established ways. In the last forty years, most mainline churches have failed to grow or
have lost members.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America said its membership last year was less than five million. The
church said this was the first time in more than twenty years that membership was that low.

The government does not count people by religion, so there are no official numbers. But estimates show
that just over one-half of Americans are Protestant. About one-fourth are Roman Catholic.

Catholics, however, are the largest single religious group in America. That is because Protestants are
divided into many denominations.

A two thousand two estimate found that two percent of Americans were Mormon, one percent Jewish and
one percent Muslim. Ten percent were members of other religions, and another ten percent belonged to no
religion.

Researchers have found that the largest percentage of megachurches identify their congregations as
evangelical. Evangelicals say they are guided by the life and teachings of Jesus and his followers, especially
as contained in the Gospels. The Gospels are four books of the New Testament in the Christian Bible.

Greg Laurie is an evangelical minister based in California. He travels around and holds huge prayer
gatherings called Harvest Crusades. These events try to get more people to become Christians.

Politically, some evangelicals identify themselves as liberal or progressive.

But many other evangelicals share the beliefs of what people call the Christian right -- right of the political
center. This movement is strongly conservative on social values and other issues.

Religious conservatives helped elect President Bush in two thousand and again last year. They support his
positions against same-sex marriage and the freedom to end unwanted pregnancies. His position against
stem-cell research when it destroys embryos is also popular among evangelicals.
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And so is the president's nomination of Judge John Roberts to the Supreme Court. Rod Parsley leads a
megachurch in Ohio. Reverend Parsley also leads an organization called the Center for Moral Clarity. Its
Web site says Judge Roberts will judge laws, not make them. It urges people to sign an electronic petition
to support him in his Senate confirmation hearings next month.

In two thousand one, researchers announced findings of a study called the Faith Communities Today
Project, or FACT. The study took place in nineteen ninety-nine. It showed that attendance at megachurches
had increased by an average of ninety percent over twenty years.

The researchers received information from one hundred fifty-three of six hundred places identified as
megachurches.

The study found that most megachurches are in communities around large cities. People of different races
join megachurches. The majority are neither rich nor poor. Many did not belong to any other church before
they joined.

Services in megachurches generally use less of the religious language traditionally found in mainline
churches. Lon Solomon at the McLean Bible Church in Virginia buys time on local radio. He calls his
one-minute messages "Not a Sermon, Just a Thought."

Now, we look inside one of America’s largest churches. Lakewood Church in Texas holds services where
the Houston Rockets used to play basketball. The church spent ninety-five million dollars to redesign a
sports center. It can hold sixteen thousand people. Around the building are Internet computer stations and
places to play religious video games.

The Lakewood Church started in an empty feed store in nineteen fifty-nine. When the man who started it
died, he left the leadership of the church to his son.

Joel Osteen is not schooled in religious studies. In fact, Reverend Osteen left college after one year. People
sometimes say he avoids major questions like why good people suffer and what is God like. But he clearly
appeals to thousands. People call him a rock star.

Members of some megachurches do not even have to all sit in the same building. Satellite television and
the Internet let them watch and pray from other gathering places, from their home or from wherever they
are.

Like in any big organization, individuals in a megachurch could feel lost in a crowd. So the churches do
what they can. The Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, California, is a good example. It has two thousand
six hundred small groups for people who share common interests. These groups offer a chance to make
new friends. There are also chances to help the needy in the community.

Rick Warren leads the Saddleback Church. He also writes books. He has sold millions of copies of “The
Purpose-Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For?”

This book became even better known earlier this year after a series of events in Atlanta, Georgia. This is
what officials say happened: A prisoner armed with a gun fled a courthouse. He killed a judge and three
other people. Later, he seized a young woman named Ashley Smith and held her hostage in her home.

She had read “The Purpose-Driven Life.” She shared thoughts from the book with the man. He let her
leave, unharmed. Ashley Smith called the police and the suspect surrendered.

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We talked to a clergyman in Maryland who is concerned about the lack of growth in his mainline church.
This is what he told us: "Our people do not want the church to be extremely large. But megachurches offer
people a warm welcome and a feeling of belonging. Mainline churches could borrow some of their
methods."

Other countries also have megachurches. And they are not a new idea in America. Some existed here more
than sixty years ago. Megachurches are not for everyone. Some say they are too big, too political and too
untraditional. But, for others, the appeal today is clearly growing.

Chapter 5. THE HERITAGE OF ABUNDANCE

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 02:33)

MAPPING POVERTY IN AMERICA


America is the richest country in the world, but it also has one of the biggest divides between rich and
poor. What can a zip code reveal about inequality.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pUhViiNtxg

Some vocabulary and facts to help you:


to live above/below the poverty line = live on the official level of income that
is needed to achieve a basic living standard with enough money for things such as food, clothing, and
a place to live

unequal = to not have the necessary ability, power, or qualities to achieve something

to set the poverty line = to establish the official level of income that
is needed to achieve a basic living standard

the cost of living = the amount of money that a person needs to live

annual household income = average sum of money people earn yearly

poles apart = completely apposite

to wildly vary = to change greatly in amount or level, especially from one occasion to another:

wealth divide = inequality of money accumulated by different social classes of society

to fluctuate = to change, especially continuously and between one level or thing and another

a poverty rate = the ratio of the number of people (in a given age group) whose income falls below the
poverty line; taken as half the median household income of the total population. It is also available by broad
age group: child poverty (0– 17 years old), working– age poverty and elderly poverty (66 year–olds or

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more). However, two countries with the same poverty rates may differ in terms of the relative income–
level of the poor.

the gap between the rich and the poor widens = a difference between high and low income people.

food stamps = a piece of paper that is given to poor people by the government and with which they can
then buy food

a handout = something such as food, clothing, or money that is given free to someone who has
a great need for it.

dole = the money that the government gives to people who are unemployed

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions.


1. What's the percentage of people who live in poverty in the US?
2. Is the distribution of wealth equal among the population? Why? Why not?
3. What effect does the situation have on society?
4. Where are the poorest states located? What's the poorest state?
5. What people are likely to end up living below the poverty line?
6. What measures were implemented to reduce poverty?
7. What is going to happen if the distribution of wealth does not change in the near future?

Task 2. Watch the video and fill in the gaps.


The United States is the world's richest country. It is also 1…………………… of the most unequal. 40
million people live in 2…………………… – that's around 12% of the population. It has the highest poverty
rate in the rich world and three men own as much wealth as the 3…………………… half of the population.
The good news is that poverty has decreased over the past two years but 4…………………… inequality
has increased, resulting in a growing gap between the rich and the poor. Although the cost of living varies
from state to state, the poverty line is currently 5…………………… at an annual household income of
$25,100 for a family of four. The wealthiest states are coastal, with the south having a 6……………………
concentration of poorer States. In Mississippi around 20% of people live below the poverty line. That's the
highest percentage of any state in the country. In New Hampshire it's less than 7…………………… that.
California and Missouri have around the same percentage. Whereas poverty in neighboring Virginia and
West Virginia is 8…………………… apart. Poverty rates can wildly vary between towns within states.
Take Paris, Texas, which has a rate of 41% while in 9…………………… Reno it's just 3%. The wealth
divide can also be seen fluctuating between blocks and even streets. In different blocks on separate sides of
Ocean Parkway in Brooklyn, New York, the poverty rate is six times that of the other. Poverty in America
is not only geographical, it's also racial. African– Americans are more than twice as 10……………………
to live in poverty than white Americans, but it's Native Americans who have the highest poverty rate of any
race in the country, and this is even higher for those who live on 11…………………… Poverty declined

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in the majority of states in 2017 . Income growth, 12…………………… programs, and more jobs have led
to the decline – but if the incomes of the top 1% continued to grow faster than those of the other 99%, the
gap between the rich and the poor will continue to 13…………………… .

Task 3. DISCUSSION.
Take down the percentage of low income people in different states and analyze the underlying
historical/economic/cultural/ ethnic reasons for the geography of poverty?

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss

WEALTH DISTRIBUTION

The notion of abundance is very American. As a people, we generally like to consider the glass as half–
full. We believe cheerfully that there is a future, and that not only we benefit in planning for the future, our
actions should lead to a better tomorrow. When historian Alexis de Tocqueville visited the United States in
1831, he observed then that optimism defines our country. Our positive thinking continues to be a powerful
inherent advantage, which most other nations do not possess, and so it is fitting that we consider a long–
term strategy for national abundance.
The 400 richest Americans — the top 0.00025 percent of the population — have tripled their share of the
nation’s wealth since the early 1980s, according to a new working paper on wealth inequality by University
of California at Berkeley economist Gabriel Zucman.
Those 400 Americans own more of the country’s riches than the 150 million adults in the bottom 60 percent
of the wealth distribution. Overall, Zucman finds that “U.S. wealth concentration seems to have returned
to levels last seen during the Roaring Twenties.” That shift is eroding security from families in the lower
and middle classes, who rely on their small stores of wealth to finance their retirement and to smooth over
economic shocks like the loss of a job. And it’s consolidating power in the hands of the nation’s billionaires,
who are increasingly using their riches to purchase political influence.
Тhese numbers may understate the amount of wealth concentrated in the hands of the rich: It has become
more difficult to account for the true wealth of the ultra– rich in recent decades, in part because many hide
their assets in offshore tax shelters.
American wealth is highly unevenly distributed, much more so than income. According to Zucman’s latest
calculations, today the top 0.1 percent of the population has captured nearly 20 percent of the nation’s
wealth, giving them a greater slice of the American pie than the bottom 80 percent of the population
combined. That bottom 80 percent figure includes the 1 in 5 American households that has either zero or
negative wealth, meaning that its debts are greater than or equal to its assets.
The wealthy are becoming wealthier, in other words, and there’s good reason to think it’s happening at the
expense of everyone else. As Zucman notes, this has very different implications for different groups of
people. “For everybody except the rich,” he writes, wealth’s “main function is to provide security.” Middle–
class families tend to use their wealth to save for rainy– day expenses or to draw down on for retirement.

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But “for the rich, wealth begets power,” according to Zucman. Our electoral system is highly dependent on
outside financing, creating numerous opportunities for the wealthy to convert their money into influence
and tip the political scales in their favor. As a result, politicians have become accustomed to playing close
attention to the interests of the wealthy and passing policies that reflect them, even in cases where public
opinion is strongly trending in the opposite direction.
“Wealth concentration may help explain the lack of redistributive responses to the rise of inequality
observed since the 1980s,” Zucman writes. The interplay between money and power, in other words, may
be self– reinforcing: The wealthy use their money to buy political power, and they use some of that power
to protect their money.

https://www.uschamberfoundation.org/bhq/future– american– abundance


https://www.washingtonpost.com/us– policy/2019/02/08/wealth– concentration– returning– levels– last–
seen– during– roaring– twenties– according– new– research/

#3 – Watch & Discuss

HOW SILICON VALLY BOOM IS CREATING A HOUSING CRISIS

The U.S. homeless population is growing for the first time since the end of the Great Recession in 2010. A
one– night government census earlier this year counted 554,000 homeless people, up nearly one percent
from 2016. Silicon Valley's high cost of housing is causing a surge of homelessness in the area.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fgTjiY– HUQ
Video: (time: 03:51)
Some vocabulary to help you:
Silicon valley = Кремниевая долина, a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay
Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social
media.
The Great Recession = a play on a term The Great Depression (during the 1930s and featured a gross
domestic product (GDP) decline of more than 10% and an unemployment rate that at one point reached
25%). The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline (recession) observed in world
markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s
a surge = a sudden and great increase
an RV = a recreational vehicle, often abbreviated as RV, is a motor vehicle or trailer which includes living
quarters designed for accommodation
to fuel a crisis = to increase or make a crisis stronger
to drive prices to stratospheric highs = to boost prices
to drive nuts – to drive crazy
to fall into homelessness = to sleep rough
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thoroughfare = a main road for public use or a passage through somewhere
supply and demand = the idea that the price of goods and services depends on how much of something is
being sold and how many people want to buy it
a developer = a person or company that makes money from buying land, building new houses, offices,
etc., or by changing existing buildings to sell or rent
rental = an arrangement to rent something, or the amount of money that you pay to rent something
incentive = something that encourages a person to do something
to enact policies = to put into action, especially to make something law
to shove out = to push someone forcefully, in an unpleasant and threatening way
out of whack (US informal) = not operating correctly or looking right
to make a living = to earn enough money to buy the things you need

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions:


1. What did you learn about Ellen James–Penney’s background? What's her job?
2. Why did housing prices skyrocket in Mountain View?
3. How does Ellen live? What difficulties are there about living in RVs?
4. Why does not Ellen’s husband work?
5. How many people are homeless in the area?
6. What problem caused the high housing prices?
7. Why does not Ellen want to move out of the state?
8. What is the TV hosts' appraisal of the situation?

Task 2. Watch the video again and tick statements as true or false.
1. Two thirds of Professor Ellen James - Penney monthly income is taken up by rent.
2. Professor Ellen teaches maths and lives in a Ford van.
3. Her husband does not work because of a knee injury.
4. 10000 people are living in a parking lot in Mountain View, California.
5. The state of California needs to build more housing to meet the needs of the increasing population.

Task 3. DISCUSSION
Is it important to solve the problem of homelessness? Why? Why not? How can it be solved? Who is to
blame for the situation when people with college degrees end up sleeping rough?

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Chapter 6. THE WORLD OF AMERICAN BUSINESS

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 13:11)

US POST WORLD WAR II BOOM


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gmka2mydsD0

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions:


1. What were the 1950s called? Why?
2. Which new housing trend that is so typical of today’s America originated in the Fifties?
3. Why did the suburbs thrive at the time?
4. What were the family gender roles in the fifties?
5. Who are Baby Boomers? How are they different from the other generations?
6. Did everyone approve of the increasing popularity of the suburban housing?
7. How did the growth of the suburb affect cities? What social consequences did it have?
8. What was the new American Dream?
9. How did the money-making patterns change in the 1950s?
10. What became the new symbol of status?
11. What gave rise to the American car culture? How did it affect the business development?
12. How popular was television in the 1950s? What image of America dominated the TV? Was it hailed by
everyone?
13. What effect did the Cold War have on people’s lives?
14. When were the words «In God we Trust» added to the paper currency? Why?
15. How did the economic prosperity influence people’s leisure time?
16. Which new age group was singled out in the 1950s? Why?
17. What cultural trends sprang up in that era? How did they develop in the following decades?
18. What overall effect did the Fifties have on America?

Task 2. Watch the video again and fill the gaps with words that you hear:

1. This joyful mood came in part from the …………………… post-war economy. Factories were
…………………… products to satisfy the growing consumer appetite of America.
2. With job security, a good paycheck and no military responsibilities, for many the time was right to settle
down and get married. Millions rushed to the altar, sending marriage rates to …………………….
3. Home-builders …………………… the needs of newly-weds and young families.
4. …a neat, affordable place to live. $90 down and $58 a month could buy a two-bedroom one bath house
with modern ……………………, well …………………… of the new middle class. The 1950s home
was the …………………… point of family lives.
5. Urban planners warned against …………………… and wasting natural resources.
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6. In the cities, as whites took their economic cloud out of urban areas, funding for ……………………
improvement left too. Many …………………… cities became ……………………. Those outside the
financial boom of the Fifties remained in …………………… urban areas with growing poverty and
crime.
7. Buy now, pay later, was the mantra. Shopping …………………… credit …………………… in the
Fifties.

8. For the first time, …………………… service workers outnumbered those who made products.
9. … company men. For this group, …………………… meant success. A proper suit and
…………………… white shirt was the look that signaled «executive».
10. Business leaders took their …………………… from military experience: it was efficiency and
productivity, not individuality that counted.
11. People drove everywhere, and business changed to …………………… the trend.
12. Motels …………………… travelers on road trips.
13. Drive-in fast food restaurants, complete with ……………………, sprang up to meet the needs of an
increasingly …………………… population.
14. But in 1954 viewers were …………………… by the medium at its best. The unlikely event was the
first televised congressional hearings. Millions …………………… to watch the Army - McCarthy
hearings explode with human drama. (…) The hearings were …………………… in large part because
of the nation’s preoccupation with the Cold War.
15. Many believed that a strong religious faith would …………………… the nation from the
…………………… of so-called «godless communism». Participation in religion …………………….
16. In the prosperous Fifties, people discovered they had more leisure time and …………………… more
ways to fill it.
17. This feeling was most passionately expressed by …………………… artists, poets, writers, and other
non-conformers, known as the Beat generation.
18. Looking back on the post-war years, we are reminded of magnificent civic achievements, and
…………………… technological advances, but the period’s complex history also reveals a time of
…………………… fear, narrow vision and …………………… prejudices.

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss

Task 1. Quickly read the text below and give its gist in no more than two sentences.
Task 2. Now read the text again and answer the questions:
1. What is an economy of abundance and why does it sound like science fiction to many people?
2. How is the traditional scarcity mindset different from an economy of abundance?
3. What technological advances have made an economy of abundance possible?
4. What controversies, including lawmaking, has 3D-printing raised?
5. How has nanotechnology affected the economic impact of technology?
6. What does the new space race look like?
7. Why is the article headlined ‘The New Wild West’?

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ECONOMY OF ABUNDANCE: THE NEW WILD WEST
An economy of abundance.
Sounds a bit like science fiction after the last few years we’ve had, doesn’t it?
But as we’re seeing with new developments like nanotechnology, 3D printing and private spaceflight,
science fiction has an uncanny way of becoming science fact. So it is with abundance.
This is the third in a four-part series on the concept of abundance, the first being about free business models,
the second being on the triple bottom line. Both have at their core a common conception of a fundamental
shift in perception of how the economy, as well as the business and technology behind it, can work in a We
Cycle. (I’ve been inspired in this by the writings of the entrepreneur Peter Diamandis, and his bestselling
book, Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think.)
Before diving into what an economy of abundance might look like, let’s recall the traditional worldview of
scarcity.
Scarcity has been the cornerstone of the global economy since…well…forever. We live on a lonely rock
floating in space surrounded by virtually nothing except lifeless rocks and space dust. On this rock are finite
resources and us, who consume those resources. We’re reproducing faster than those resources can naturally
replenish. Something’s gotta give, right?
This was the case up until the mid-1980s, given the technology we were working with. But we’ve hit and
surpassed a critical point in technological advancement, and have stumbled onto the magic of exponential
growth and something called Moore’s Law, which was named for Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who
described the trend in a 1965 paper.
Each of the examples of “science fiction” that I cited above, such as 3D printing, are examples of
exponential technology at work (a subject that Diamandis has addressed in his writings). Moore’s Law
states that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two
years. Nanotechnology is a perfect example of Moore’s Law in action. As the space required for the same
technology to work halves every two years, we are seeing smaller and smaller machines that are more and
more powerful. This also has profound effects on the economic impact of technology, because as efficiency
in the development of electronics increases exponentially, the cost to develop those technologies drops at
the same rate. This results in massive increases in technological advancement in relatively short periods of
time.
If the technologies that created these new advances seem like science fiction, the mad rush to monetize
them is more reminiscent of the Wild West.
Take 3D printing, which is dependent on technology less than 30 years old: It’s is quickly becoming
accessible to regular consumers. In fact, 3D printers are getting smaller, more portable and more powerful
at a rate even faster than that of the advent of home computing. Kickstarter has become a playground where
3D-printing entrepreneurs can fund their businesses, and one company, Makerbot, is out seeking a new
round of financing after having raised $10M in 2011. This technological innovation can breed controversy
(consider the ability to “print” guns on demand), and has led to a scramble in Congress to ban the printing
of both guns and peripherals such as ammunition and magazines.
Let’s look at another area where technological is breathing new life into an industry. Spaceflight had
stagnated beginning in the early 70’s due to the centralization of the technology within organizations like
NASA under the impetus of control by the U.S. government at the height of the Cold War. Between 1991
and 2001, in fact, there was very little advancement in space flight at all. But with the diffusion of
technology in the last 10 years toward smaller and more flexible teams, along with an abundance mindset,
we now have companies like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic emerging as leaders in a new field — space
entrepreneurship. And in this new frontier, an even more futuristic project has just begun.
Planetary Resources, backed by Google founders Larry Page and Eric Schmidt, among well-heeled funders,
and by celebrity innovators such as filmmaker James Cameron, considers itself a “deep space company”
that will mine asteroids for valuable resources, both mineral and metallic. On April 24, president Chris
Vorhees announced on a Google+ Hangout that the first test spacecrafts will be launched in early 2014.
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You can expect other corporations to start budding up in competition with Planetary Resources to get a
piece of the action, screaming, “There’s gold in them asteroids!”
Welcome to the New Wild West.

http://www.penduluminaction.com/economy-of-abundance-the-new-wild-west/
Task 3. Summarize the text using at least 25 of the key words from the list below:

KEY WORDS LIST


• an economy of abundance.
• new developments like
• to have an uncanny way of becoming science fact
• the concept of abundance
• the triple bottom line
• to have smth at one’s core
• a fundamental shift in perception of how
• the traditional worldview of scarcity
• the cornerstone of the global economy
• finite resources
• to consume the resources
• to naturally replenish
• Something’s gotta give
• this was the case up until
• to hit and surpass a critical point in technological advancement
• to stumble onto smth
• exponential growth
• exponential technology at work
• to have profound effects on the economic impact of technology
• to increase exponentially
• the cost to develop drops
• to result in massive increases in technological advancement
• the mad rush to monetize smth
• to be reminiscent of smth
• to become accessible to regular consumers
• the advent of home computing
• to breed controversy
155
• to “print” guns on demand
• to lead to a scramble in Congress
• to breathe new life into an industry
• Spaceflight had stagnated
• at the height of the Cold War
• the diffusion of technology
• an abundance mindset
• to emerge as leaders in a new field
• space entrepreneurship
• to mine asteroids for valuable resources
• to start budding up in competition
• to get a piece of the action

#3 – Read & Watch


Video: (time: 03:38)
THE GREAT DEPRESSION

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8k0jJdqKP0

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions.


1. What preceded the Great Depression?
2. What was happening to the country in the early 30s? How did the Depression make people feel?
3. How did immigrants feel about the Great Depression?
4. Who was the President of the US during Depression? How did he handle the Depression?
5. What did the Great Depression reveal?
6. According to the speakers, what made it possible for the American nation to recover from the
Depression?

Task 2. Watch the video again and fill the gaps with words that you hear:
1. It has been difficult for …………………… generations to really imagine just how awful deep and long
it was.
2. At the worst moment there were 13 mln people unemployed, we had people on ……………………,
we had people unemployed… People were losing their homes around the country. The whole nation
…………………….
3. Was it all just an experiment that obviously didn’t work? And what will America be now, will it be a
…………………… nation, will it ever recover from this?
4. The collapse of the infrastructure of a country that had really up until that point been based on a sense
of ……………………, a sense of there being plenty for everyone must have …………………… in
people a real calling to redefine who we were gonna be in our history.
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5. America was made up again of immigrants, of people who had come from other forms of
…………………….
6. At the end of the day [it] was nothing more or less than a set of institutions that were ……………………
with the scale and complexity of the economy as it had evolved up to that time.
7. What the Great Depression revealed, and certainly what I think President Roosevelt thought it revealed,
were these deep structural deficits in American society and the economy that had been allowed to go
…………………… to… for about a 100 years.
8. The American people showed great …………………… and great determination.
9. Whether it was still that …………………… that …………………… in many of the people, that hope
for the future that «it’s bad now but if I keep working, keep …………………… away it’s gonna get
better»…
10. It was the idea that… Look, something’s gonna knock you down, but you can’t stay down, you got to
get back up and ……………………. You can’t sit around feeling sorry for yourself. You certainly can’t
look back and …………………… about good old times.

Reading and Discussion.


Task 1. Some analysts compare the 2008 crisis and the current economic slump with the Great Depression.
You are going to read three texts that look into this comparison.
Divide into three groups. Each group will read a different text, making an outline of the author’s argument
and taking notes of the main points.
Be ready to summarize the text to the other students who didn’t read it.
• Group A reads Economic history: What can we learn from the Depression? (The Economist, Nov 8th
2013. URL: https://www.economist.com/free-exchange/2013/11/08/what-can-we-learn-from-the-
depression)
• Group B reads Lessons from the Great Depression (The Conversation, February 11 2016, URL:
https://theconversation.com/lessons-from-the-great-depression-54494)
• Group C reads How close is today's economy to the Great Depression? (Politifact, June 17th 2011,
URL: https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2011/jun/17/how-close-todays-economy-great-
depression/)
Task 2. Get into new groups and share what you have read with the others.
Task 3. After each group has shared their summaries with the others, write a 200-word account bringing
the three texts together.

157
Chapter 7. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS IN THE UNITED STATES

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 03:20)
HOW CORRUPT IS AMERICA’S JUDICIAL SYSTEM?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWXLg_e9Ano

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions:


1. How many bribes are paid within the judicial system annually?
2. Describe the Kids for Cash scandal.
3. Which judges are appointed for life?
4. Speak about the corrupt Illinois judge and his involvement with the insurance company.
5. Why are judges with life-long terms just as corrupt as those who have to be re-elected?
6. How can a judge’s personal subjective opinion influence their professional decisions? Can they be
fought?
7. What is the role of the judicial system in society?
8. Why is it particularly difficult to deal with corruption within the judicial system?
9. What Is the logic behind life-long appointments?

Task 2. Watch the video again and fill the gaps with words that you hear:
1. A recent …………………… report estimated that almost half of all Americans think that the US justice
system is corrupt.
2. In the early 2000s two Pennsylvania judges sent thousands of children to a ……………………
detention center in exchange for financial …………………… from the detention center operators.
3. In many states, judges must still …………………… for re-election. While elections are supposed to
hold local judges …………………… to their ……………………, it can often create conflicts of
interest.
4. The judge later voted to …………………… a billion dollar …………………… against that agency.
5. As judges are usually unopposed in their ……………………, they hold the power to make dishonest
judgements for financial …………………….
6. In a 2013 case, a Texas state judge was …………………… of receiving more than 250 000 dollars in
bribes and kickbacks in exchange for favorable rulings.
7. Judges with tenure and life-long terms also pose a problem because they are essentially
…………………….

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8. Alabama Supreme Court Justice Roy S. Moore has more than once …………………… popular higher
court rulings because of his own religious …………………….
9. Few penalties have been …………………… against Moore for his actions though.
10. In 2015, the Southern Poverty Law Center officially …………………… an ethical complaint.
11. While an overwhelming majority of judges play by the rules, lack of …………………… and
…………………… leave the door wide open for corruption.
12. Federal judges are expected to be …………………… in their court decisions in order to
…………………… the law.

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss


Task 1. Quickly read the text below and give its gist in no more than two sentences.
Task 2. Now read the text again and answer the questions:
1. What is the regulatory state? What kinds of regulation are there?
2. Give examples of (a) government regulation; (b) consumer regulation. Which one do we face more
often in daily life? Which one do you notice more?
3. What is "regulatory capture"? What effect does it have on (a) businesses; (b) consumers?
4. Do you agree with the author in that government regulation is the less powerful form of regulation?
A BETTER KIND OF REGULATION
Less regulation by government doesn't mean less regulation. It means more regulation by consumer.
As President Trump talks about rolling back the regulatory state, it's worth pointing out something that
politicians would rather us not know: There is no such thing as an unregulated industry. When it comes to
doling out special favors to special interests, perhaps the only thing that benefits politicians more than a
complex tax code is a complex regulatory code. People love to be "protected" from self-interested
businesses and don't pay much mind to ever-increasing government regulation. But the opposite of a
government-regulated industry is not an unregulated industry. The opposite is a consumer-regulated
industry. And when it comes to regulations, businesses fear regulation by consumer far more than they fear
regulation by government, and with good reason.
People who wring their hands over the evils of profit-seeking businesses forget that profit is only one side
of the coin. The other side is loss. The more driven a business is to pursue profit, the more driven it will be
to avoid losses. And when it comes to awarding profit and inflicting losses, consumers hold almost all the
cards.
Last April, United Airlines violently expelled a paid passenger, Dr. David Dao, from his seat because
United had overbooked the flight. Other passengers made video recordings of the altercation and posted
them to social media. Within 24 hours, United's stock had plummeted by a quarter of a billion dollars as
investors dumped the stock in anticipation of consumers boycotting United. Within days, other airlines
announced that they would end their practice of overbooking flights. Why? Not only did they seek to avoid
a similar debacle and possible consumer boycott, they hoped to pick up former United customers. Within
days, major industry players were cowed by the consumers' might. This is regulation by consumer.
Meanwhile, back in Washington, it took Congress a month to schedule hearings for the purpose of looking

159
into the problem. By the time government got around to thinking about possibly regulating the industry,
consumers had already meted out punishment and doled out rewards.
In 2012, Rush Limbaugh called Sandra Fluke a "slut" on his radio program. Within a matter of days,
advertisers had pulled their financial support for Limbaugh's program. Why? In their pursuit of profit,
advertisers feared that consumers would associate their products with Limbaugh and punish the advertisers
by boycotting their products. Businesses were so afraid of consumers that they pulled their advertising.
They did this not because consumers were withholding their money, not even because consumers had
threatened to withhold their money, but because businesses feared that consumers might withhold their
money. This is regulation by consumer.
In 1982, prior to tamper-proof seals, someone poisoned Tylenol on store shelves in Chicago. The Tylenol
company immediately recalled all Tylenol everywhere, destroyed the product and re-issued new product.
The cost of the recall was (in today's dollars) over one-quarter of a billion dollars. Tylenol didn't do this
because of liability – Tylenol had violated no laws. Tylenol didn't do this because it feared the government.
Tylenol did it because it feared consumers. Within a couple of months, Tylenol re-introduced its product
with special tamper-evident seals. Although the FDA consulted with Tylenol in creating rules for tamper-
evident packaging for drugs, it took Congress an additional seven years to pass legislation requiring tamper-
evident seals.
Time and again, regulation by consumer has moved faster and been far more devastating than regulation
by government. Yet politicians keep pushing for more regulation by government. For evidence, look at the
amount of government regulation the average American faces on a daily basis. Government regulation has
become so commonplace that almost nothing we do remains untouched. We wake up in our government-
regulated beds, shower in our government-regulated bathrooms, eat government-regulated food in our
government-regulated kitchens, drive to work in our government-regulated cars to government-regulated
workplaces. Government regulates the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat. And every
level of government gets in on the act, from Washington all the way down to local zoning boards and animal
control.
One need look no further than the Code of Federal Regulations for evidence of how pervasive regulation
has become. The CFR contains all of the final regulations specified by the federal government. The first
compilation of federal regulations, published in 1936, contained about 2,600 pages. By 2014, the CFR had
grown to over 175,000 pages, covering everything from space exploration to how people must control their
pets in San Francisco's public parks.
Many voters prefer government regulation because they simply do not appreciate the power they hold in
the market. And in underestimating the power they wield as consumers, people ascribe near magical powers
to legislative fiat. While regulation by consumer always works in favor of consumers, regulation by
government often, perversely, works in favor of entrenched businesses. This is a result of a phenomenon
known as "regulatory capture." In Pennsylvania, for example, people who want to braid hair for money
must take a 300-hour course and pass a series of tests. This is required despite the fact that hair-braiders
don't cut hair, don't work with chemicals and literally can't cause any real harm to customers that can't be
fixed by combing out the hair and starting over. So who benefits from this government regulation?
Established hair salons. The more hoops individual stylists must jump through to remain in business, the
less competition established hair salons will have to endure. Chicago regulations make it very difficult for
food trucks to co-exist alongside brick-and-mortar restaurants. This is to the benefit of brick-and-mortar
restaurants, which would otherwise have to compete with businesses with lower overhead.
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This is not to say that there is no place for government regulation. Regulation by consumer works well
when property rights are clear and when harm can be remedied through civil action. Where property rights
are unclear - for example, in the case of air and water rights - government regulation can help to ensure that
resources aren't overused. And where damage to a consumer cannot be remedied – for example, in the case
of drunk drivers killing people – government regulation can alter people's and business' behaviors before
any harm occurs.
Our collective reaction to any problem is to look first to government regulation. That is the less powerful
form of regulation. We should look first to consumers to regulate, and only rely on government regulation
in those far fewer cases wherein consumer regulation isn't possible.
As for President Trump's apparent push to roll back the regulatory state, bring it on. Less regulation by
government doesn't mean less regulation. It means more regulation by consumer.
https://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/articles/2018-01-03/true-regulatory-power-
resides-with-consumers-not-the-government

Task 2. Summarize the text in English using the key words below:

• to roll back the regulatory state


• an unregulated industry
• to dole out special favors to special interests
• self-interested businesses / profit-seeking businesses
• ever-increasing government regulation
• a consumer-regulated industry
• to fear regulation by consumer / regulation by government
• only one side of the coin
• to pursue profit / to avoid losses
• to hold all the cards
• to be far more devastating than smth
• to become pervasive
• to wield power as consumers
• to jump through hoops
• to compete with businesses with lower overhead.
• to remedy harm through civil action

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#3 – Read & Listen
Task 1. Read the background text and explain why there are more and more calls to abolish the
electoral college.

Background text:
DEMOCRATS CALL FOR ABOLISHMENT OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE. BUT THAT
COULD GET COMPLICATED.
There have been five presidential elections in which the winner has lost the national popular vote, including
two in recent history (2000 and 2016). This has intensified calls to end the Electoral College, and those
calls are particularly strong among Democrats, the losing party in both 2000 and 2016. The Electoral
College gives disproportionate strength to lower-populated states. However, opponents of abolishing it say
that that would lead to candidates focusing intensely on cities at the expense of lower-populated areas.
Six Democratic 2020 presidential candidates have recently expressed support for abolishing the Electoral
College. U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren said in a recent Mississippi town hall that “everybody ought to have
to come and ask for your vote,” and South Bend, Indiana Mayor Steve Buttigieg pushed for the college’s
elimination on the first day of his presidential exploratory campaign.
The electoral college is unique — no other democratic country elects their head of state quite like the U.S.
does. Every four years when citizens vote in the presidential election, they are actually casting ballots for
electors. And in recent years, the system's been contentious. President Trump lost the popular vote to Hillary
Clinton in 2016 by a 2 percent margin, but won the election by 77 electoral votes. In 2000, President George
W. Bush also lost the popular vote, to Al Gore by a 0.51 percent margin, but won the election by five
electoral votes.
Ditching the system, though, which has allowed four presidents to take office despite losing the popular
vote, could be more complicated than it may seem. The change would have to come through either a
constitutional amendment or a national compact, according to NPR congressional correspondent Scott
Detrow.
Under a national compact, states sign laws pledging to give their electoral votes to the winner of the national
popular vote. “This will kick in as soon as they have 270 electoral votes in their compact,” Detrow explains
to Here & Now’s Jeremy Hobson.
The idea has gained more traction recently, with Colorado and Delaware signing laws joining the compact,
and it’s now up to 184 electoral votes, says Detrow.
“I think that would happen quicker than a constitutional amendment, given how fractured our current
government is to get most basic things done,” he says, “let alone amending the Constitution with the amount
of support that that would mean.”

Listening: (time: 05:39)


Task 2. Now listen to the interview (URL: https://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2019/03/29/electoral-
college-abolishment) mentioned in the background text and make notes under the following sub-
headings:

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• On the history of the electoral college
• On presidents who lost the popular vote, but won the electoral vote, and whether the Electoral College
is working the way it’s intended

• On the argument that abolishing the Electoral College would give population centers, like Chicago and
New York, all the political power in elections

• On what eliminating the Electoral College would mean for future elections

Task 3. Which system strikes you as the more democratic, a direct election through popular voting,
or election through an electoral college? Discuss.

Chapter 8. ETHNIC AND RACIAL DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 03:03)
NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE
This is a brief history of Native Americans. The video gives a general overview of culture and impact of
Western settlement. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XS8DEjd2QBg
Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions:
1. How and when did the first people reach the American continent?
2. What animals did the plains Indians hunt? How?
3. What are the North Pacific coastal tribes known for?
4. When did the first white settlers arrive?
5. What changed after Europeans came to America?
6. What is a reservation?
7. How many Indian tribes are federally recognized today?
8. What aspects of Indian cultural identity are preserved?
9. What traditional art forms have survived?

Task 2. Watch the video again and fill the gaps with words that you hear:
1. Scientists believe that as long as 30,000 years ago some …………………… from Asia walked or sailed
along the coast of a land bridge that once …………………… Russia to Alaska. Their descendants
became known as Native Americans.
2. As they …………………… out over the vast continent, Native Americans …………………… to
living in different regions, and hundreds of …………………… cultures were born.
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3. They cut down giant red cedar trees for their ……………………, dug out canoes and
…………………… totem posts.
4. When the first white settlers …………………… in the 1500s, about a million native Americans lived
…………………… of Mexico.
5. But the …………………… changed everything. Diseases from Europe, such as smallpox and
tuberculosis wiped out entire tribes.
6. Settlers began to claim Indian land for themselves. Some tribes resisted and …………………… back.
Others attempted to …………………….
7. Native Americans are working to …………………… living conditions on the reservations and to
preserve their languages, religions, and cultural …………………….
8. The Potlach, a religious ceremony that was once …………………… by the Canadian government, is
being held again by the Quakiyutl.
9. On the Navajo reservation, some ancient ways are …………………… into modern lives. This painting
…………………… the cloud people.

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss


Task 1. Read the text below and do the tasks below:
1. Write out all the terms that are considered polite and inoffensive to use in reference to different minority
groups. How many of them have a direct equivalent in Russian? What does it tell you?
2. Define the terms "euphemism," "pejoration" and "euphemism treadmill."
3. Do you agree with Steven Pinker in that "we're entering the age of pluralities, with no clear majorities."
Make a case to support your point.
4. Some terms are offensive in some countries but acceptable in others. Give examples.
5. Why are terms for minority groups so prone to change, while terms for the white majority have
remained stable over the years?
6. What is the difference between "autonyms" and "exonyms"?
7. In your opinion, is "political correctness" worth enforcing? Why (not)?

WHY WE HAVE SO MANY TERMS FOR ‘PEOPLE OF COLOR’


Last week, the Toronto Star found itself in the midst of one of those blink-and-you-missed-it Internet
kerfuffles over race. Here's what happened. The Ontario Human Rights Commission had settled on a term
to use in reference to people of color — "racialized people.» The commission wrote:
"Recognizing that race is a social construct, the Commission describes people as 'racialized person' or
'racialized group' instead of the more outdated and inaccurate terms 'racial minority,' 'visible minority,'
'person of colour' or 'non-White.' "

164
In turn, Star reporter Natasha Grzincic created a listicle: "5 other labels for people of colour er... non-whites
uh ... racialized people." It seemed to be riffing on a common idea that these designations are tortured and
overly sensitive.
Some readers complained that Grzincic was making light of the agency's decision, and the story was
subsequently removed from the Star's website a few hours later, with a note saying that it did not meet the
paper's standards.
On this side of the border, the Army found itself in hot water after it updated its regulations to prevent
discrimination, noting that some people who are "black or African-American" might also identify as
"Negro." The story was widely reported as Army says 'Negro' is OK to use, and although that's not exactly
what happened, the Army felt compelled to issue an apology and remove the motive. (You might recall a
similar controversy over "Negro's" appearance on U.S. Census forms that prompted the bureau to announce
last year that it would be removed from future questionnaires.)
Minorities. Nonwhites. People of color. In some corporate-esque sectors, you might even hear someone use
the term "diverse" as a modifier — as in, "We're really interested in hearing a diverse voice on this issue,"
as though an individual person might be diverse. Each of those terms came into wide usage in the 20th
century, only to fall out of vogue and be replaced with a new one. Each replacement was meant to be less
loaded than its predecessor, only to eventually take on all of that predecessor's anxieties — and some new
ones. Linguists refer to this process as "pejoration."
"If a word that refers to something always appears in sentences where that thing is framed negatively, then
that term will take on that negativity," Lauren Hall-Lew, a sociolinguist at the University of Edinburgh,
told me over email.
Steven Pinker gave this idea a more colorful name in his 2004 book The Blank Slate: the "euphemism
treadmill."
"The drive to adopt new terms for disadvantaged groups ... often assumes that words and attitudes are so
inseparable that one can re-engineer people's attitudes by tinkering with the words," Pinker wrote. He went
on:
"People invent new words for emotionally charged referents, but soon the euphemism becomes tainted by
association, and a new word must be found, which soon acquires its own connotations, and so on. [...] Even
the word 'minority' — the most neutral word label conceivable, referring only to relative numbers — was
banned in 2001 by the San Diego City Council ... because it was deemed disparaging to nonwhites. ... The
euphemism treadmill shows that concepts, not words, are primary in people's minds. Give a concept a new
name, and the name becomes colored by the concept; the concept does not become freshened by the name,
at least not for long. Names for minorities will continue to change as long as people have negative attitudes
toward them. We will know that they have achieved mutual respect when the names stay put."
These terms also become outmoded because of our shifting politics. A designation like "nonwhite" is often
criticized because it makes white people a kind of neutral default from which other people might deviate.
A term like "minority" might ruffle some folks because we're entering the age of pluralities, with no clear
majorities.
That same volatility dogs more specific racial designations than those describing all people of color. As I
wrote in a story some months back, Americans often change which boxes they checked for the race question
on the United States census. Indeed, the Census Bureau said no two decennial censuses have ever used the
same language or categories for questions about race or ethnicity.
165
"Oriental" became "Asian" became "Asian-American and Pacific Islander." "Colored" changes to "Negro"
and then to "black" and "African-American." The nomenclature for white people, on the other hand, has
remained more or less stable, even if the definition of who might qualify as "white" has been pretty fluid
over the past few hundred years.
But as Hall-Lew points out, this is all less about the words themselves than about the social context in
which they're being used. "Colored" is an ugly anachronism in the United States but still a pretty neutral
descriptor in South Africa, where "Coloured," with a capital C, refers to people with certain mixed-race
ancestries. "Despite the extremely fraught history of racial tension in South Africa," Hall-Lew said, "there
was not as direct a relationship between the term '[coloured]' and racist discourse the way there was in the
United States, in large part because of the role of the [black African and Indian/Asian groups] in South
Africa." She said context also explains why both "colored people" and "people of color" can have such
drastically different meanings in the U.S.: "It's about who says it and what they're saying when they say it,"
she said.
A big reason these terms have been in flux is because of the evolving social positions of the people being
referred to — that is, as people from different groups gain visibility, the names people give to their own
ethnic groups ("autonyms") are supplanting the names that groups are given by outsiders ("exonyms"). Of
course, those are contested, too; it's not like there's consensus on "black" or "African-American," and many
people toggle back and forth and employ their own, personal taxonomies.
This got us thinking about a whole other class of charged words whose meanings are especially dependent
on the speakers and audience — reclaimed slurs like "nigger" or "queer." As a Redditor pointed out to me,
those terms have never been neutral designations — they can't fall off the treadmill because they were never
euphemisms. In some contexts, they're terms of affection, markers of in-group status. In other situations,
they're derogatory. (Context and consequences, people.)
Hall-Lew told me that "reclamation is the other side to the same coin":
"[S]uccessful instances of reclamation suggest that those speakers have enough social capital (in certain
communities, at least) to make it stick (which, for example, might give us some insight on the cultural
change in the legitimacy granted to speakers who identify as queer)."
Pinker calls it the euphemism treadmill. Other folks might call it, derisively, "political correctness." But
this is how language works: It reflects the relationships between speakers and groups. These descriptors
will be in flux as long as our orientations to each other keep changing, which suggests that the treadmill
isn't likely to stop anytime soon.
https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/11/07/362273449/why-we-have-so-many-terms-for-
people-of-color

Task 2. Summarize the text in English using the key words below:

• to settle on a term to use in reference to people of color

• a social construct

• instead of the more outdated and inaccurate terms

• 'racial minority'

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• 'non-White'

• tortured and overly sensitive designations

• to update regulations to prevent discrimination

• to feel compelled to issue an apology

• a diverse voice on this issue

• to come into wide usage

• to fall out of vogue

• to be less loaded

• to be framed negatively

• the drive to adopt new terms for disadvantaged groups

• words and attitudes are inseparable

• to re-engineer people's attitudes by tinkering with the words

• emotionally charged referents

• to become tainted by association

• to be deemed disparaging

• shifting politics

• the extremely fraught history of racial tension

• evolving social positions

• to gain visibility

• terms of affection

• derogatory terms

#3 – Read & Watch


Task 1. Read the background text and summarize the biggest myths about the effect immigrants
allegedly have on the US economy:
Myth #1: Immigrants are moving to the U.S. because it has the “hottest economy anywhere in the world.”
Violence is a massive driver of undocumented immigration from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.
Data provided to us by the Department of Homeland Security showed that from 2011 to 2016,
unaccompanied child migrants apprehended at the U.S. border moved from Central America due to a
roughly equal mix of economic conditions and violence in their communities. The violence is significant.
Every 10 additional homicides in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras caused more than six additional
unaccompanied child minor apprehensions.

167
Myth #2: A “strong border” will cause immigrants to “turn away and they won’t bother” trying to
migrate.
Enforcement alone is not an effective migration deterrent. To be effective, it must be paired with enhanced
legal pathways for migration. People will move if they have to and because of dire situations in their origin
communities, they will be more willing to accept the risks of apprehension. There are interrelated migration
pressures that drive people to move---including violence in the home country, economic conditions at
home, and demographic realities. In Central America, these factors are interacting in complex ways and are
driving much of the migration we see at the U.S. border. More protection at the border isn’t a deterrent
without addressing the push factors that drive migration and providing sufficient legal channels for
migration.

Based on: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/us-not-being-invaded-fact-checking-immigration-myths

Video: (time: 02:52)


BUSTING THE BIGGEST IMMIGRATION MYTHS IN AMERICA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHtsBY146Ds

Task 2. Watch the video and answer the questions:


1. Why has there been so much noise about illegal immigration lately?
2. What is the 1st myth about immigration? Why is it a myth?
3. Are people coming to the US illegally in record numbers?
4. What is the percentage of illegal immigrant population?
5. Are immigrants stealing jobs from the locals?
6. Will American economy benefit from deporting all illegal immigrants?
7. Do most Americans support deportation? Why?

Task 3. Watch the video again and fill the gaps with words that you hear:
1. It’s hard to separate fact from ……………………, so here are some of immigration myths busted.
2. Donald Trump framed the debate with these now …………………… words.
3. As for the idea of folks …………………… to the US illegally, in record numbers… also not true!
4. They pay billions in local and state taxes, so they are funding programs like …………………… and
other benefits that they do not necessarily get.
5. ……………………, only a third of undocumented immigrants work in the formal economy.

Task 4. Summarize the information from the background text and the video.
Task 5. Divide into two groups. Half the class brainstorms the negative effects of migration. The other
half brainstorms the positives effects migration has. Which group can come up with a bigger list?

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Chapter 9. EDUCATION

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 04:42)

Higher education in the US: The student's perspective


Schools today are facing a make– it or break– it moment. Just as global economic pressures sideline their
most recent graduates and threaten their applicant pool, rising costs, changing student demands and new
business models are forcing many institutions to rethink their education strategies. Hear the students'
perspective about all the challenges and changes the sector is going through.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L0P1nxQQKvE

Some vocabulary and facts to help you:


credentials = a qualification, achievement, quality, or aspect of a person's background, especially when
used to indicate their suitability for something.
critical issue = a thing of the greatest importance to the way things might happen.
full time/ part time job = (of work or education) done for (not) the whole of a working week
to owe money in loans = to borrow money from the bank and have a debt
it pays off = if something you have done pays off, it is successful:
freshman = a student in the first year of high school, college, or university
sophomore = a student in the second year of high school, college, or university
junior = a student in the third year of a course that lasts for four years at a school or college
senior = a student in their final year of high school or university
unsustainable rise in tuition = an increase in the cost of university degrees that cannot continue at the
same rate
align with values = to change something so that it has a correct relationship to the principles that help you
to decide what is right and wrong
naive = too willing to believe that someone is telling the truth, that people's intentions in general are good,
or that life is simple and fair
Task 1. Match the speakers to the things in the right column they talk about.

1. Sean Obi a. Hopes doing their degree will be


worth it

2. Hadar Cohen b. Thinks higher education sometimes


seems to be designed for the
wealthy
3. Carly Marsh c. Lost financial aid and relies on
father’s money
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4. Rhon Flatts d. Believes higher education is crucial
for shaping social values

5. Amanda Zukofski e. Had multiple job positions

6. Sharang Biswas f. More credentials are important to


get a good job

7. Alex Tomlison g. Has to do homework instead of


working to pay her bills

Task 2. Watch the video and answer the questions.


1. What demonstrates that society cares for its citizen according to Hadar Cohen?
2. How much does Rhon Flatts owe in loans?
3. How does Amanda Zukofski feel about her financial situation?
4. What did Sharang Biswas realize after his tuition fee was not covered any longer?
5. Why is it important to find a job while in college and after according to Sean Obi?
6. How has tuition fee changed over years? What is the attitude to this development now?
7. What is the latest trend in higher education? Is a bachelor’s degree sufficient nowadays?
8. What role does education play in society according to Hadar Cohen and Sharang Biswas? What
makes them think so, in your opinion? Do you agree?

Task 3. DISCUSSION.
What challenges brought up by students in the video are similar to those of Russian students? What is
different? What do you think the future holds for the students from the video?

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss

DIRE THE STUDENT– LOAN CRISIS IN AMERICA

America is suffering from a student– loan debt crisis. While wages have increased by 67% since 1970,
college tuition has increased at an even faster rate. Consequently, student debt has reached record levels.
It's part of the Great American Affordability Crisis. Coupled with the fallout from the recession and a high
cost of living, student– loan debt has made it difficult for millennials to save and has forced them to delay
milestones like getting married, buying a house, and having kids.
Outstanding education debt has outpaced credit card and auto debt. The average student– loan debt per
graduating student in 2018 who took out is $30,000 in the red today, which is up from $10,000 in the 1990s.
Every day, 3,000 borrowers go into default. During that time, annual tuition rose to $9,970 from $3,190 for
public schools and to $34,740 from $15,160 for private schools. Young people aren't the only ones paying
off debt. More than 3 million Americans ages 60 and older owe more than $86 billion in unpaid student
loans. To pay it off, they're turning to their Social Security benefits, CBS News reported.

170
Black graduates with a bachelor's degree default on their loans — meaning they do not make a payment for
270 days — at five times the rate of white graduates, a January 2018 Brookings Institution report found.
They are also more likely to default than white college dropouts.
A recent Wall Street Journal report found that graduates of historically black colleges had 32% more debt
than students at other colleges and that most had not paid off any debt in their first few years out of school.
Carrying student loans keeps the wealth gap between black and white families startlingly wide: A Levy
Economics Institute study last year found that with student debt, young white families had 12 times as much
wealth as black ones; eliminating that debt lessened that to just five times as much wealth.
The report found that those with lower debt were actually more likely to default, since those with more debt
tend to have degrees that lead to higher– paying jobs. Those with less initial debt, meanwhile, likely dropped
out without a degree to get a better – paying job.
By analyzing the rate of default 20 years after graduation for those who started college in 1995 and 2003,
the report predicted that nearly 40% of borrowers could default on their loans by 2023.
Unsurprisingly, respondents who are still paying off their student– loan debt felt worse about having gone
to college than millennials who had already paid off their debt.

Student Loan Servicers

Student loan servicers are the primary point of contact for student loan borrowers: they collect student loan
payments, answer questions and help enroll borrowers in student loan repayment plans. According to the
U.S. House Financial Services Committee, consumer and federal watchdogs have said that student loan
servicers failed student loan borrowers in several ways, including, for example:

• 71% of student loan borrower complaints were issues related to a lender or servicer.

• 35% of borrowers said they had difficulty accessing information about their student loans and
repayment status.

• 59% of borrowers received unclear guidance from their student loan servicer about student loan
repayment options.

• 42% of borrowers reported having trouble changing to a different repayment plan when they faced
financial hardship.

• 99% of borrowers were rejected for public service loan forgiveness.

"The student loan debt crisis is a consumer protection crisis," said Seth Frotman, former student loan
ombudsman and consumer protection advocate, according to prepared testimony before the committee.
"...We encouraged millions of students to take on billions in debt.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/zackfriedman/2019/09/10/student– loans– consumers–


crisis/#1ee10399224d

https://www.businessinsider.com/student– loan– debt– crisis– college– cost– mind– blowing– facts–


2019– 7

171
#3 – Watch & Discuss
HOW A BOMBSHELL BRIBERY SCANDAL ILLUMINATES THE “CORRUPTION” OF
COLLEGE ADMISSIONS
Scandal has ensnared some of the nation’s top colleges, as prosecutors allege that wealthy parents conspired
to help their kids cheat on college admissions tests and funnel bribes to college athletic coaches to secure
admission into elite schools. William Brangham talks to Jeffrey Selingo, who covers higher education,
about the stunning charges federal prosecutors brought on Tuesday.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epZeq_SJ6cI
Video: (time: 08:05)
Some vocabulary to help you:
a cheating scam = an illegal plan for making money, especially one that involves tricking people
allegedly = used when something illegal or wrong is said to have been done, but has not been proved
a college admission counseling program = guidance and counseling of the college-bound student in a
secondary school setting
to revolve around = to move or cause something to move around a central point or line
to bribe = to try to make someone do something for you by giving them money, presents, or something
else that they want
a coach = someone whose job is to teach people to improve at a sport, skill, or school subject
to mask the fraud = to conceal the crime of getting money by deceiving people
to reject genuinely talented students = do not admit academically bright students
jaw– dropping = very surprising or shocking
gobsmacked (informal) = so surprised that you cannot speak
to proctor = to watch people taking an exam in order to check that they do not cheat
to purport = to pretend to be or to do something, especially in a way that is not easy to believe
division one institution = a prestigious college
to fill spots in teams = to use vacant places in college sports teams
a striking example = an example that is very unusual or easily noticed, and therefore attracting a lot of
attention
phony = represented as real but actually false; intended to deceive
to have connections = important people who you know and who can help and advise you.
the ACT = an acronym meaning "American College Test". The ACT is a standardized test to determine a
high school graduate's preparation for college-level work.
the SAT = defined as the Scholastic Assessment Test, now called the SAT Reasoning Test, which is a test
that measures the reading, writing and math levels of high school juniors and seniors
to submit test scores – to send them official score reports
a indictment = a formal statement of accusation

172
cut–throat = showing no care or consideration for the harm done to others with whom you are in
competition
scarce = not available in necessary amounts, or rare
devious means = devious methods are dishonest, often in a complicated way, but often also clever and
successful

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions.


1. What brought about the scandal in elite universities?
2. Who was involved into the scheme?
3. What universities are named among corrupt ones?
4. How did they organize cheating?
5. Is competition getting to the Ivy League schools high? Why?
6. Why are the wealthy people trying to secure spots for their children in best schools?

Task 2. Mark statements from the talk with the speaker, Jeffrey Selingo (a writer on higher
education) as true or false.
1. The interviewee is especially struck by cheating on tests.
2. Athletes are not given significant advantage in admission.
3. Many schools will accept athletes regardless of their academic scores.
4. The Yale soccer coach got $450,000 in bribes allowing to admit a student who had never played
soccer.
5. The competition among athletes to get into a university is more severe than among school leavers.
6. The speaker Jeffrey Selingo thinks it is understandable why wealthy parents wanted their children to
be admitted to best schools.
7. It is compulsory to submit test scores to get admission into university.
8. The application totals are lower every year.
9. There are plenty of opportunities to get into elite colleges.
10. Universities admit less than 3% of all applicants.

Task 3.
DISCUSSION
Why do you think wealthy people have to take a risk and resort to cheating to put their children to best
schools? How can this be prevented? Why does exam cheating need preventing?

173
Chapter 12. AMERICAN VALUES AT THE CROSSROADS

#1 – Watch
Video: (time: 09:30)
AMERICANS STRUGGLING TO MAKE ENDS MEET | A HIDDEN AMERICA
From fast food workers to shuttle bus drivers, many Americans aren't able to afford housing or pay the
bills on current wages.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I28_9eAwEW4

Some vocabulary and facts to help you:


to make ends meet = earn just enough money to live on
on a wide scale = large enough to affect or involve all or most of the relevant area
soaring = rising or increasing dramatically
displacement = the action of moving something from its place or position.
vicious = deliberately cruel, violent or immoral
to head somewhere - move from one place to another; travel.
a hike in = a sharp increase, especially in price
to commute = to travel some distance between one's home and place of work on a regular basis
leftover food = food that remains unused or unconsumed
food stamps = the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program formerly and commonly known as the Food
Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United
States
a work shift = the time period during which you are at work
to pay down the debt = to discharge a debt

Task 1. Match the speakers to the things in the right column they talk about.

1. Terrance Wise a. their father is an autoworker

2. Marisha Cevilla b. sleeps on an inflatable mattress in his


van

3. Scott Peebles c. makes 8 dollars an hour

4. Mark Bertolini d. doesn't own a house, doesn't have


savings to pay tuition for her children's
college

174
Task 2. Watch the video and answer the questions.
1. What has a regular fast food worker changed over the years?
2. Why does Terrance work in the fast food industry?
3. Why is Terrance Wise not content with his work conditions? How much does he make?
4. What do fast food employees demand when they go on strike?
5. How could the possible change in pay help Terrance in life?
6. How much is the combined profit of fast food chains?
7. How does it happen that American taxpayers are supporting the fast food industry?
8. What are contract workers' working conditions in Silicon Valley?
9. Why do bus drivers have to sleep in the parking lot?
10. What is Mark's Bertolini's job? Why was Mark Bertolini embarrassed?
11. How has the situation changed since the report according to the host?

Task 3. DISCUSSION. Do you think basic rights can be extended to rights to decent-paying jobs and
decent accommodation? What struck you most about the living conditions of people from the video?

#2 – Read, Summarize & Translate, Discuss


THE TRUMP WALL

While figures show that illegal border crossings have been rising since Donald Trump took office.
The current financial year has so far seen more than 800,000 people detained on the southern US border -
already twice the total for 2018. Mr Trump has argued a wall is needed to tackle the border issue - the
signature promise of his 2016 election campaign. A number of widely different estimates for Mr Trump's
promised concrete wall have been put forward by official and unofficial bodies - ranging from $12bn to
$70bn. However, no-one really knows how much it would cost. Mr Trump has changed his view of what
constitutes a wall.
His promise to build a "big, beautiful wall" between the US and Mexico was a rallying cry throughout his
2016 election campaign. And early on, when he described it, he talked about concrete. But once elected, he
began talking about a barrier made of steel, so that border agents could see through it. And in October 2017,
when the Trump administration revealed eight 30ft-tall wall prototypes - they were a combination of
concrete and metal.
In September 2019, Mr Trump visited a newly constructed section of steel barrier between Tijuana and San
Diego, southern California. He said the barrier was "virtually impenetrable", "very, very hot" and had been
tested by "world-class mountain climbers".
Border Patrol Chief Carla Provost told the Senate Judiciary Committee the numbers were "off the charts"
and that staff were facing an "unprecedented border security and humanitarian crisis along our southwest
border".
This rising number of families includes those fleeing violence in Central America and surrendering
themselves to US authorities at the border. Many have told officials that they fear returning to their home
countries. Some have blamed the decision to slash the number of refugees allowed into the US under the
Refugee Admissions Program for the rise in such claims for asylum at the border.

175
To apply for refugee status in the US, foreign nationals must obtain permission to enter the country before
travelling, but those arriving at the US border are able to claim asylum "defensively" to prevent them from
being deported back to a situation of "credible fear".
Such claims are then referred to the Asylum Officers of the US Citizenship and Immigration Services. And
despite Mr Trump's claims, any new border barrier is unlikely to stop these migrants legally claiming
asylum at a port of entry.
Although Mr Trump has blamed the southern border for illegal immigration, much of it also arises because
people overstay their visas. While almost 600,000 people were apprehended trying to cross the southern
border illegally last year, more than 660,000 people who entered the US legally overstayed their expected
departure date in 2018,
The Democratic Party, who are in opposition to President Trump's Republican Party, believe that building
the wall is wrong. Senator Schumer referenced the Statue of Liberty as a better symbol for the country.
The Statue of Liberty is also known as the Immigrant's Statue, as it was seen as a representation of hope
and welcome to the millions of people who immigrated to the US through New York more than a century
ago. But this does not mean that the Democrats are completely against more security at the border between
the US and Mexico. They have stated they would support increased security, but not in the form of a wall
and not in the form of a budget of $5.6 billion.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-46824649

#3 – Watch & Discuss

DONALD TRUMP'S WALL | "ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS" CROSSING THE BORDER

"We're going to build a wall" - it's something we have heard US President Donald Trump say many
times since he launched his presidential campaign.

The president wants a physical barrier along the border between Mexico and the US to prevent people from
crossing over it illegally. The border wall has proved to be a controversial topic, with many people
disagreeing about whether or not it's a good idea. Some of the existing border barriers have been replaced
since Mr Trump entered the White House, but by March 2019, work to extend what is there had only just
begun.

Newsround meets "illegal immigrants" looking for work in the US, and travels with a charity who drop
humanitarian supplies in areas many make the dangerous journey.

Video: (time: 05:50)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGj34HFPGxU
Some vocabulary to help you:
DIY = the activity of decorating, building, and making repairs at home by oneself rather than employing a
professional

176
a cartel = an association of manufacturers or suppliers with the purpose of maintaining prices at a high
level and restricting competition
to prevail = to be common among a group of people or area at a particular time
heat exposure = the fact of experiencing high temperatures or being affected by it because of being in a
particular situation or place
to spot sth = to see or notice someone or something, usually because you are looking hard
to detect = to notice something that is partly hidden or not clear, or to discover something, especially using
a special method
border patrol = a law enforcement agency that safeguards America's borders
to detain = to force someone officially to stay in a place
detention = the act or condition of being officially forced to stay in a place
to grant asylum = to give the right to reside in the country to people who are already in the United States
and are unable or unwilling to return their home country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of
persecution.

Task 1. Watch the video and answer the questions:


1. What is the location of the report?
2. Why are the immigrants gathering outside at that spot?
3. Why are Mexicans leaving for the US?
4. How many illegal immigrants were in the US according to the reporter?
5. What are volunteers like Hugo doing in bordering areas? Why are they doing it?
6. Why do illegal immigrants risk their lives trying to cross the border?
7. Why happened to volunteers of the group “No more deaths”?
8. What does Hugo believe about ways to prevent illegal migration? How does he explain his point of
view?
9. Why do immigrant die at the border?
10. What did the reporter spot while filming at the border?
11. What might happen to the detained illegal immigrants after the detention?
12. What does Hugo think about the construction of the Wall keeping away immigrants?
13. Why do you think Hugo volunteered to help? What do you think about his background?

Task 2. Watch the video again and describe the setting of the report? What kind of a landscape is it?
Are there any geographical constraints for Mexicans to cross the border? What makes the crossing
dangerous?

Task 3.
DISCUSSION
What solutions can you suggest to stop illegal immigration? Can authorities do something about it? Will
the Wall prevent border crossing? Why? Why not?
What threats might illegal immigration pose for the US?

177
ПРИНЦИПЫ ИЗМЕРЕНИЯ НАВЫКОВ ЭКЗАМЕНУЕМЫХ
1. Программа зачета уровня В2 – С1 по английскому языку в части, касающейся модуля
«Речевая практика», аспекта «домашнее чтение» (3 семестр для продвинутых групп
продолжающего потока, 5 семестр для средних групп продолжающего потока).
Письменная часть
Письменная работа (время написания 2 ак. часа) включает в себя тест с выбором вариантов ответа
и перевод предложений с русского языка на английский с активной лексикой, отработанной в
течение семестра.
Устная часть
Характеристика одного из пройденных в течение семестра раздела американской культуры с
использованием активной лексики (время подготовки 5 мин.).
2. Программа экзамена уровня В2 – С1 по английскому языку в части, касающейся модуля
«Речевая практика», аспекта «домашнее чтение» (4 семестр для продвинутых групп
продолжающего потока, 6 семестр для средних групп продолжающего потока).
Письменная часть
Письменная работа (время написания 2 ак. часа) включает в себя тест с выбором вариантов
ответа и перевод предложений с русского языка на английский с активной лексикой, отработанной
в течение семестра.
Устная часть
Характеристика одного из пройденных в течение семестра раздела американской культуры с
использованием активной лексики (время подготовки 5 мин.).

Программные требования к уровню владения английским языком


В письменной части:
- знать отработанные лексические конструкции (включая устойчивые словосочетания),
лексику, использующуюся для описания определенного культурологического явления;
- владеть навыками письменного перевода с русского языка на английский с использованием
активной лексики.

Критерии оценивания
В письменной части:
Для измерения письменных языковых навыков испытуемых используется следующая шкала
оценки.
Письменная работа оценивается как отличная (excellent), если от 90 до 100% ее объема
выполнено без ошибок. Оценка хорошо (good) выставляется, если от 75 до 89% ее объема

178
выполнено без ошибок. Испытуемый получает оценку удовлетворительно (satisfactory), если от 60
до 74% ее объема выполнено без ошибок.
Как вычисляются проценты? Перевод оценивается в 50 баллов – по количеству единиц
активной лексики. Таким образом, 60% работы, достаточных для получения минимальной
положительной оценки, – это 30 правильно написанных единиц активной лексики. Чтобы получить
минимальную положительную оценку, позволительно сделать ошибки в 40 единицах активной
лексики.
Если в работе испытуемого более 40 неправильно написанных единиц активной лексики, то
его работа считается выполненной менее чем на 60% и оценивается как неудовлетворительная
(unsatisfactory).
Внутри категорий хорошо и удовлетворительно рейтеры выделяют «низкую» и «высокую»
оценки, которые обозначаются соответствующими буквами латинского алфавита. Так, испытуемый
получает оценку E (low satisfactory), или «низкую тройку», если от 60 до 67% его работы выполнено
правильно. Работа оценивается как D (high satisfactory), или «высокая тройка», если от 68 до 74% ее
объема выполнено правильно. Испытуемый получает за свою письменную работу оценку С (low
good), или «низкую четверку», если от 75 до 81% объема работы выполнено без ошибок. Оценку B
(high good), или «высокую четверку», он получает в том случае, если от 82 до 89% объема его работы
выполнено без ошибок. В категории отлично (excellent) нет промежуточных делений,
обозначаемых латинскими буквами. Оценка A (excellent) выставляется, если правильность
выполнения составляет от 90 до 100% ее объема.
Как считаются ошибки? В соответствии со шкалой оценивания письменных работ оценка Е
выставляется, если испытуемый допустил от 17 до 20 ошибок; оценка D выставляется, если он
допустил от 13 до 16 ошибок; оценка С выставляется, если допущено от 10 до 12 ошибок; оценка В
выставляется, если допущено от 1 до 5 ошибок. Шкала оценивания и стоимость ошибок отражены
в приводимых ниже таблицах.

Таблица 1. Виды и стоимость ошибок

Лексика Грамматика Орфография, пунктуация,


синтаксис
активная лексика – 2% активная грамматика – 2% орфография, синтаксис –
прочая лексика – 1% прочая грамматика – 1% 1%
пунктуация – 1%
Неточность Искажение Логика

179
общий смысл верен, но искажен смысл – 3% нарушена логика – 2%
детали переданы неверно;
нарушена тема/рема – 2%

Таблица 2. Шкала оценивания

Категория оценки Оценка Процент Количество


правильного ошибок
выполнения
работы
Отлично А 90 – 100% 1–5
Excellent
Хорошо B 89 – 82% 6–9
Good C 81 – 75% 10 – 12
Удовлетворительно D 74 – 68% 13 – 16
Satisfactory E 67 – 60% 17 – 20
Неудовлетворительно F Менее 60% Более 20
Unsatisfactory

В устной части:
Устная часть экзамена представляет собой устное тестирование, под которым принято
понимать процедуру проверки устно-речевой коммуникативной компетенции, в которой
тестируемый говорит и оценивается на основе того, что он сказал. Устная часть экзамена в аспекте
«домашнее чтение» состоит из характеристики одного из изученных периодов американской
культуры и направлена на проверку лексико-грамматических и лингвострановедческих знаний
тестируемого.
Список вопросов по аспекту «домашнее чтение» известен тестируемым заранее и готовится
в течение семестра или учебного года. На подготовку организации ответа отводится 5 минут из
общего времени подготовки к устному экзамену.
Во время проведения устного экзамена члены экзаменационной комиссии, не занятые в
процессе коммуникации с испытуемым, выступают в роли рейтеров – людей, которые слушают
испытуемого и проводят оценивание на основе услышанного. При оценивании устной
коммуникативной компетенции рейтеры ведут протокол устного экзамена по английскому языку.
В протоколе оцениваются: содержание ответа, беглость, грамотность, связанность речи, выбор
языковых и речевых средств. Каждая их этих категорий оценивания рассчитывается из 20 баллов и
высчитывается исходя из количества сделанных ошибок (от 1 до 20 в каждой категории).

180
На основе данной рейтинговой шкалы устная коммуникативная компетенция испытуемого
может быть оценена в рамках четырех категорий (1) коммуникация эффективна; 2) коммуникация
в основном эффективна; 3) коммуникация в какой-то степени эффективна; 4) коммуникация
неэффективна), которые соответствуют традиционно выставляемым отметкам:
неудовлетворительно, удовлетворительно, хорошо, отлично.
Итоговая оценка англоязычной коммуникативной компетенции испытуемых выносится на
основе оценок за все тесты, входящие в экзамен.

ОБРАЗЦЫ ЗАЧЕТНЫХ / ЭКЗАМЕНАЦИОННЫХ РАБОТ

Зачет за третий семестр обучения по программе уровня В2 – С1, модуль «Речевая практика»
(3 семестр для продвинутых групп продолжающего потока, 5 семестр для средних групп
продолжающего потока).

1. Письменная часть
Written Test - Choose the most appropriate option.
Time allowed: 40 min
1. American Indians all speak the same language. T / F
2. Israel Zangwill believed that immigrants would keep their native culture and wouldn’t become
something different when they came to the U.S. T / F
3. Immigrants don’t change American culture and aren’t changed by it. T / F
4. U.S. immigration policy has stayed the same for the last 100 years. T / F
5. According to the latest census, who represent the largest minority in the U.S.?
White / Non-white population
6. While people are worried about the economy and America's place in the world, they are still confident
about their personal ability to achieve their personal American Dream. T / F
7. Currently, the most popular definitions of the American Dream are “a good life for my family,”
“financial security,” “opportunity,” and “freedom.” T / F
8. Most Americans believe that immigration is important for keeping the American Dream alive. T / F
9. But people have lost faith in American institutions that have protected the American Dream, including
politics, business, government, and the media. T / F
10. People also believe that the United States is losing economic power and influence in the world, and
the world is looking to other countries as the standard for success. T / F
11. Americans don’t believe strongly in self-reliance and the freedom and independence of the individual.
T/F

181
12. There is religious pluralism in the U.S. T / F
13. Protestant denominations are not part of the Roman Catholic Church. T / F
14. No single church has become the center of religious life in the U.S. T / F
15. Most of the settlers who came to colonial America to escape religious persecution in Europe were not
Catholics. T / F
16. The Constitution of the U.S. does not separate church and state. T / F
17. The Constitution of the U.S. forbids the government from ever establishing a national church. T / F
18. Protestantism does not encourage a strong desire for self-improvement. T / F
19. The settling of the frontier did a lot to affect the lives of the American Indians. T / F
20. Daniel Boone is an example of the earliest type of rugged individualist hero. T / F
21. the European settlers found a North American continent that was rich in developed resources. T / F
22. the values of the American people inspired them to develop a wilderness continent into a wealthy
nation. T / F
23. The American government discouraged American people from developing the natural resources.
T/F
24. Tocqueville believed that in a nation such as the United States, where wealth and social position are
not determined by birth, everyone is worried about either acquiring wealth or holding on to it if they
have it. T / F
25. Americans think of themselves more as consumers than producers because few people are still
farmers. T / F

Translate the following sentences from Russian into English, using active vocabulary.
Time allowed: 40 min

1. Америку иногда критикуют за то что она является страной «одноразового потребления», а ее


жителей за то, что они расточительны.
2. Таймс Сквер в Нью Йорке – самый известный и яркий пример американской наружной
рекламы.
3. К сожалению, многие компании ставят прибыль выше безопасности выпускаемой продукции.
4. Республиканцы поддерживают политику попустительства и невмешательства, а
демократы регулируют практику деловых отношений.
5. В XX веке Америка приняла около 35 миллионов иммигрантов, большинство из которых
приспособились к доминирующей американской культуре.
6. Из-за ужесточения правил пересечения американской границы количество нелегальных
иммигрантов сократилось.

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7. Тремя традиционными причинами, притягивающими иммигрантов в Америку являются:
индивидуальная свобода, равенство возможностей и материальное благополучие.
8. Основные американские ценности тесно переплетены друг с другом и создают структуру
американского общества.
9. В некоторых частях страны люди ходят на службу более одного раза в неделю.
10. Американцы, которые не принадлежат ни к одной конкретной церкви, руководствуются
протестантской этикой в своей повседневной жизни.
11. В странах, из которых прибыли американские колонисты, основные ценности часто
поддерживались церковью.
12. Религии эволюционируют, когда люди свободно переходят из одного прихода в другой.
Total: 25 points

2. Устная часть.
Answer the following questions, using active vocabulary.
1. Traditional American Values and Beliefs - equality of opportunity and competition; material wealth
and hard work; individual freedom and self-reliance;
2. The American Dream - Why do so many people want to come and live in the U.S.? What is so
attractive about the American way of life and the values of the society?
Total: 50 points

Экзамен за четвертый семестр обучения по программе уровня В2 – С1, модуль «Речевая


практика» (4 семестр для продвинутых групп продолжающего потока, 6 семестр для средних групп
продолжающего потока).

1. Письменная часть
Written Test - Choose the most appropriate option.
1. One American household in four now consists of someone living alone. T / F
2. “Baby boomers” are young people who are in their twenties. T / F
3. Americans usually consider what is best for the whole family first and what is best for them as
individuals second. T / F
4. Americans believe that the family exists primarily to serve the needs of its individual family members.
T/F
5. Most Americans believe that marriages should make both individuals happy and that if they cannot
live together happily, it is better for them to get a divorce. T / F
6. American parents generally think more about the individual needs of their children than they do about
what responsibilities the child will have to society as a whole. T / F
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7. Although Americans believe in democracy for society, they generally exercise strict control over their
children, particularly teenagers. T / F
8. The amount of equality between husbands and wives has remained pretty much the same since
Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s. T / F
9. If an American wife works outside the home, she is likely to have more power in the family than a
married woman who does not work. T / F
10. According to the statistics: today over half of all Americans have taken some college courses - more
than 20 million college students now, half of college students are first generation of their family to
attend. T / F
11. In the late 1900s, international comparisons of education revealed that, in general, American students
did not perform as well in maths, science, and other subjects as students from may developed
countries. T / F
12. Diana Ravitch is one of the strongest supporters of emphasizing standardized testing. T / F
13. According to the statistics: one in four children lives with immigrant parent; 45% of students are
members of ethnic or racial minorities. T / F
14. The impact of the enormous number of new immigrants cannot be overstated. T / F
15. Some wealthier Americans opposed to the first public schools in the U.S. because they cost too much
money. T / F
16. Tocqueville finally concluded that public education in the U.S. would give Americans not only the
desire but also the means to better their position in life. T / F
17. After twelve years of school, American students receive a bachelor’s degree diploma at graduation.
T/F
18. (George W. Bush became president in 2000) The Supreme Court played a major role in the 2000
election. T / F
19. Lobby groups have become less powerful in recent years. T / F
20. The Republicans and the Democrats basically agree about the role of government and they have the
same political beliefs. T / F
21. Republicans believe government spending should be reduced and that entitlements weaken American
values. T / F
22. Democrats do not worry about the widening gap between the very rich and the very poor. T / F
23. Republicans are pro-business, laissez-faire, or anti-government (conservative). T / F
24. Democrats see government as solution to social problems (liberal). T / F
25. Independents vote for candidates who do not reflect their wishes, regardless of party. T / F

Time allowed: 40 min

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Translate the following sentences from Russian into English, using active vocabulary.
Time allowed: 40 min
1. Традиционная американская семья – нуклеарная семья, состоящая из ближайших
родственников: супруга, супруги, их детей, проживающих в одном доме, или квартире. Тети,
дяди, двоюродные братья и сестры, бабушки и дедушки считаются расширенной семьей,
проживающей отдельно в отдельном месте (= отдельной семьей).
2. На сегодняшний день процент разводов велик, так как в парах существуют несовместимые
различия, поэтому многие штаты допускают развод по обоюдному согласию супругов.
3. Многие семьи находятся всего в одном шаге (= в одном увольнении) от банкротства (=
словосочетание).
4. В США не осталось хорошо оплачиваемых производственных работ.
5. В настоящее время Американцы и их ценности достигли исторического перепутья.
6. Американское государственное образование имеет серьезную практическую составляющую,
которая включает в себя обучение профессиональным навыкам.
7. Некоторые студенты проживают на территории вуза, а некоторые приезжают на занятия из
других мест.
8. Контактный спорт приводит к серьезным повреждениям мозга, что, в свою очередь, приводит
к слабоумию.
9. Досуг в США организован на местном уровне и отражает интерес американцев к различным
кружкам, например, к ткачеству, шитью, изготовлению свечей, резьбе по дереву, лоскутному
шитью и другим ремеслам.
10. Судебная ветвь регулирует конфликты.
11. Обвиняемый имеет право на адвоката и судебное разбирательство с вынесением
обвинительного приговора.
12. Многие Афроамериканцы получали образование низшего качества, что не давало им равного
права соперничать с обществом, в котором преобладало белое население.

Total: 25 points
2. Устная часть.
Answer the following questions, using active vocabulary.
1. Government and Politics in the United States: the organization of the American government, the
election of the President and the Congress, the development of Big government.
2. Education in the United States: the educational ladder, attending an American university,
inequalities in the American education system, 21st century challenges to American education.
Total: 50 points

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