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Characteristics of class aves:

1. Body usually spindle shaped with 4 division: head, neck, trunk and tail; neck
disproportionately long for balancing and food gathering.

2. Limbs paired with the forelimbs usually modified for flying; posterior pair variously adapted
for perching, walking and swimming; foot with 4 toes

3. Birds are the only group of animals to possess feathers. Feathers are used in flight but also
provide birds with other benefits such as temperature regulation and coloration (for display and
camouflage purposes). Feathers are made of a protein called keratin, a protein that is also found
in mammalian hair and reptilian scales. Birds have leg scales.

4. Fully ossified skeleton with air cavities; skull bones fused with one occipital condyle, each
jaw covered with horny sheath, forming a beak; no teeth; ribs with strengthening processes; tail
not elongate; sternum well developed with keel or reduced with no keel; single bone in meddle

5. Nervous system well developed, with brain and 12 pairs of cranial nerves

6. Circulatory with 4 chambered heart

7. Endothermic

8. Respiratory with slightly expansible lung, with thin air sacs among the visceral organs and
skeleton; syrinx( voice box) near junction of trachea and bronchi

9. Excretory system of metanephric kidney; ureters open into cloaca; no bladder; semisolid urine;
uric acid main nitrogenous waste

10. Sexes separate; testes paired, with a vas deferens opening into cloaca; female with left ovary
and oviduct only; copulatory organ in ducks, geese, paleognathids; and few others.

11. Fertilization internal; amniotic egg with much yolk and hard calcareous shells; embryonic
membranes in egg during development; incubation external; young active at hatching ( precocial)
or helpless and naked ( altricial) ; sex determination by females( female heterogametic)
Birds possess distinct characteristics that make them one of the most distinguishable groups of
vertebrates. The following characteristics are unique to birds:

• feathers - provide insulation and enable flight; feathers are modifications of a bird's
epidermis (outer skin)
• Bills - birds do not possess teeth or the heavy jawbones seen in other vertebrates; instead,
birds have a pair of toothless mandibles covered with a horny sheath of keratin (also
called ramphotheca).

• furcula - also known as the 'wishbone', the furcula is a bone located in the bird's chest
that prevents compression of the chest cavity during the downstroke of a wingbeat.

Birds also exhibit the following characteristics:

• Fused bones in pelvis, feet, hands, and head
• Lightweight bones (bones that are either hollow or spongy/strutted)

• No teeth or maxillary bones of the jaw (reduces anterior weight)

• Endothermic

• Possess a four-chambered heart and in general exhibit high metabolic rates

• Produce large, richly provisioned external eggs

• Adept navigational abilities in many species

• Extraordinary communication and song production


• Kingdom: Animalia
• Phylum: Chordata

• Class: Aves
The Class Aves contains the following subgroups:

o Order: Anseriformes (ducks, geese, screamers, swans, and waterfowl)

o Order: Apodiformes (hummingbirds and swifts)

o Order: Apterygiformes (kiwis)

o Order: Caprimulgiformes (nightbirds)

o Order: Casuariiformes (emus, cassowaires)

o Order: Charadriiformes (shorebirds and relatives)

o Order: Ciconiiformes (storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and relatives)

o Order: Coliiformes (mousebirds and colies)

o Order: Columbiformes (pigeons and doves)

o Order: Coraciiformes (kingfishers)

o Order: Craciformes (megapodes, curassows)

o Order: Cuculiformes (cuckoos, hoatzin, relatives, and turacoss)

o Order: Falconiformes (birds of prey)

o Order: Galliformes (chickens, fowls)

o Order: Gaviiformes (loons)

o Order: Gruiformes (coots, cranes, and railss)

o Order: Passeriformes (songbirds)

o Order: Pelecaniformes (pelicans and relatives)

o Order: Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)

o Order: Piciformes (woodpeckers)

o Order: Podicipediformes (grebess)

o Order: Procellariiformes (tube-nosed seabirds)

o Order: Psittaciformes (parrots)

o Order: Rheiformes (rheas)

o Order: Sphenisciformes (penguin)

o Order: Strigiformes (owls)

o Order: Struthioniformes (kiwis, ostriches)

o Order: Tinamiformes (tinamous)

o Order: Trogoniformes (trogons)

o Order: Turniciformes (buttonquail)

Similarities of reptiles and birds:

-Both have scales - creates a waterproof barrier that helps prevent dehydration in dry air

- Both lay eggs - shelled eggs on land

- Crocodiles and birds are archosaurs

- Sexes separate, fertilization internal

- Respiration by lungs; no gills

Differences between reptile and bird

Reptiles Birds
Cold blooded or ectothermic - which means warm blooded or endothermic - which means
absorbs external heat as the main source of they are able to keep the body warm via
body heat. metabolism

Reptiles does not have wings Birds have wings allowing them to fly.

Reptiles have solid, dense bones. Birds have hollow bones making them lighter
in able to fly.

Differences between birds and mammals

Birds Mammals
Birds have feathers Mammals have hair or fur
Birds have porous, hollow bones Mammals' bones are denser and solid
Birds have wings Mammals have hands or paws or hooves
Birds lay eggs Mammals carry their young in a womb or pouch
Birds feed their young by regurgitating partially Mammals feed their young with milk from
digested material mammary glands



 Family Scolopacidae

i. Calidris ferruginea (Curlew sandpiper/Kedidi pasir kendi)

ii. Numenius phaeopus (Whimbrel/Kedidi pisau raut)

iii. Actitis hypoleucos (Common sandpiper/Kedidi pasir)

iv. Actitis hypoleucos (Common sandpiper/Kedidi pasir)

v. Tringa stagnatilis (Marsh sandpiper/Kedidi paya)

vi. Tringa tetanus (Common redshank/Kedidi kaki merah)

 Family Charadidae

i. Pluvialis fulva (Pacific golden plover/Rapang kerinyut)

ii. Charadrius dubius (Little ringed plover/Rapang gelang kecil)

iii. Charadrius mongolus (Mongolian plover/Rapang Mongolia)

 Family Ardeidea(Herons & Egrets)

i. Ardea cinera (Grey heron/Pucung seriap)

ii. Ardea purpurea (Purple heron/Pucung serandau)

iii. Butorides striatus (Little heron/Pucung keladi)

iv. Nycticorax nycticorax (Black crowned night heron/Pucung kuak)

v. Egrette alba (Great egret/Bangau besar)

vi. Egrette garzetta (Little heron/Bangau kecil)


 Subfamily Botaurinae(Bitterns)

i. Ixobrychus sinensis (Yellow bittern/Pucong kuning)

ii. Ixobrychus cinnamomeus (Cinnamon bittern/Pucong bendang)


 Family Alcedinidae

i. Alcedo atthis (Common kingfisher/Raja udang)

 Subfamily Daceloninae

i. Pelargopsis capensis (Stork billed kingfisher/Pekaka paruh pendek)

ii. Halycon chloris (Collared kingfisher/Pakaka sungai)

iii. Halycon smyrnensis (White throated kingfisher/Pekaka belukar)

iv. Halycon pileata (Black capped kingfisher/Pekaka kopiah)

 Family Meropidae

i. Merops viridis (Blue troated bee-eater/Beberek)

 Family Bucerotidae
i. Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental pied hornbill)

ii. Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros hornbill)


 Family Rallidae

i. Gallinula chloropus (Common moorhen/Tiong air)

ii. Amaurornis phoenicurus (White breasted waterhen/Ruak-ruak)


 Family Apopidae

i. Apus affinis (Houseswift/Layang-layang rumah)


 Family Caprimulgidae

i. Caprimulgus macrurus (Long tailed nightjar/Burung segan)


 Family Columbidae(Doves & Pigeons)

i. Chalcophaps indica (Emerald dove/Punai tanah)

ii. Geopelia striata (Zebra dove/Merbok)


 Family Accipitridae(Hawks & Allies)

i. Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)

ii. Elanus caeruleus (Black winged/Lang bahu hitam)

iii. Haliastur Indus (Brahminy kite/Lang merah)

iv. Haliaeetus leucogaster (White bellied fish/Lang laut)


1) Asian glossy starling/Perling (Aplonis panaycnsis)

2) Yellow vented bulbul/Merbah kapur (Pycnonotus goiavier)

3) Chesnut munia/Pipit rawa(Lonchura malacca)

4) Oriental magpie robin/Murai kampung(Copsychus saularis)

5) Golden back woodpecker (Dinopium javanensis)

6) Common myna( Acriduthres tristis)

7) Blue throated bee eater/Beberek (Merops viridis)

8) Black Drongo/Cecawi (Dicrurus macrocercus)

9) Pink-necked Green-pigeon (Treron vernans)