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20 MAY 2020

1. What are the purpose of edging in vehicle driving?

The safety edge is a 30 degree angle placed at edge of newly installed asphalt.

The purpose 30 degree edge is to allow drivers that drift off of the pavement surface the opportunity to
safely return to the roadway. Studies have found that the typical means of applying asphalt results in a
steep edge at the outer edges of the pavement surface. When erosion or wear remove the baking
material of the shoulder this steep edge becomes exposed. When a driver drifts off of the pavement
with the steep edge the usual attempt to return to the pavement involves a grad left turn, when the tire
finally grabs the pavement edge it jumps the vehicle onto the pavement surface resulting in vehicle
surging toward the opposite lane. At higher speeds the lurching movement can send the vehicle either
into oncoming traffic or across the road into a ditch or fixed object on the opposite side of the road. The
main purpose for the installation of the safety edge is to improve the safety along a specified roadway.
Benefits of the safety edge are the reduction in the frequency and severity of road runoff types of
accidents, additionally the angled edge provides better support to the pavement edge than one would
typically get from a steep edge reducing the potential for edge cracking.

2. Write the procedures to start to drive manual and automatic transmission vehicle?
Manual Transmission

Push the clutch pedal in, make sure the gearshift is centered in neutral, and start the engine. Release the
emergency brake. With your foot on the clutch, shift to first gear.

Ease your foot off the clutch slowly to feel where the engagement point is, and the car starts moving.

Continue easing off the clutch while pressing the accelerator pedal (the throttle). Listen to the engine
revs rise; keep between 1,500 to 2,000 rpm at first.

The trick is in coordinating the clutch release with the application of throttle. If you give the car too
much gas with the clutch half-engaged you will "ride the clutch." (If you keep doing this, you'll
eventually damage it.)

If you release the clutch too quickly, the car will lurch forward. If that happens, simply push the clutch
back in and start again.

Release the clutch fully and apply throttle.

If the engine stalls, repeat the steps. Keep trying until you get the feel for how the clutch and throttle
work together.

Automatic Transmission

Although automatic gearboxes are generally very easy to use, the confusion comes when starting and

When you get into a car with an automatic gearbox, it should have been left in ‘park’.

Put your right foot on the left-hand pedal (the brake) and push down, start the car using the key or start
button, and (with your foot still on the brake), move the shifter to ‘D’ (if you want to drive forward) or
‘R’ (if you wish to reverse).

Lifting your foot off the brake will cause most automatic vehicles to ‘creep’ forwards - this helps with
parking or in low-speed traffic.

It might need a bit more gas if you’re on a hill or want to move off quicker.

Once moving, the gearbox will select the correct gear for the situation and do all the hard work for you.
When you’ve finished your journey and the car is stopped, keep your foot on the brake and shift the
lever to ‘P’, turn the ignition off and exit the car

3 Discuss the procedures to do hill start without a car rolling back and forth?
Whether you’re making a hill start in traffic or simply pulling away from a parked position, you should
always start with your handbrake firmly on to stop your car rolling backwards.

First, put the clutch to the floor and select first gear. Then push down gently on the accelerator while
bringing the clutch up to the biting point — you’ll know you’ve hit the biting point because the engine
sound will change slightly and your car will feel like it wants to move.

After checking it’s safe to move, release the handbrake and let the clutch bite a little more until the car
slowly starts rolling forward. Gradually push down further on the accelerator while bringing the clutch
up slowly and the car will move up the hill.

As you drive forward you can start moving through the gears but remember that driving uphill will
require you to stay in a lower gear to ensure you have enough power to get to the top.

To recap how to do a hill start:

Start with your handbrake firmly on

Put the clutch to the floor and select first gear

Push down gently on the accelerator while bringing the clutch up slowly to the biting point

Check it’s safe to move, then release the handbrake whilst letting the clutch bite a little more until the
car starts to move forwards

Gradually push down on the accelerator and bring the clutch up slowly and you’ll move up the hill One
of the most common problems with hill starts is stalling, which is caused by two things: not pressing on
the gas pedal enough and bringing the clutch up too fast (i.e. past the biting point).

To avoid this, make sure you gradually bring the clutch up to the biting point while simultaneously
pushing down on the accelerator to keep the car moving forward at all times.

4 In what condition or cases a driver must never park?

→ Alongside of a red curb

→ In an area with a NO PARKING sign

→ In a parking space for drivers with disabilities (unless you have a disability plate)

→ 15 feet or closer to fire hydrant or fire station driveway

→ On a side walk or within 3 feet of a sidewalk ramp

→ On a cross walk (marked or unmarked)

→ On the wrong side of the street

→ In a space marked for zero emission vehicles with a valid decal

5 what are the factors that affect safe vehicle driving?

Understanding the risk factors affecting road accidents is an important area in road safety research. This
paper provides a summary and overview of those factors, as well as road safety theories that explain
how and why these factors affect road traffic accidents. This provides the road safety community with a
better understanding of road accidents and aids in developing suitable methods and policies for road
safety improvement. Road safety analysts could use the findings from this research as a marker as to the
important risk factors that need to be controlled for while developing accident prediction models so as
to reduce the impact of omitted variable bias. Several factors most notably: speed, traffic density, flow,
congestion, demographics (namely age gender and deprivation), driving behavior (involving alcohol
consumption, helmet or seat belt usage) and land use, such as residential or economic zones, were
found to have mixed effects on road safety and need further examination. In addition, factors relating to
the environment, in particular lighting, road surface and weather conditions need to be explored. Future
research directions on the effect of risk factors are also developed such as improving the quality of data

and developing causal relationships. There is also a need to further investigate issues such as the effect
of speed on road accidents, whether curvature improves road safety, the use of more sophisticated
statistical models so as to better understand the effects of risk factors on road accidents and the
utilization of naturalistic driving data in accident analysis.