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Referencing and Citation

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Ahamed Shibly
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Referencing and Citation
Compiled By: - FHA. Shibly, Lecturer in IT, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka

shiblyfh@seu.ac.lk

Referencing is a system used in the academic community to indicate where ideas, theories,
quotes, facts and any other evidence and information used to undertake an assignment, can be
found. There are many types of referencing are available. But the below two methods are widely
used and most popular in the academic writing works.

01. Harvard Referencing & Citation

02. APA Referencing & Citation

01. Harvard Referencing & Citation

 The term referencing describes references to cited documents given in a list at the end of
the text. These are usually described as bibliographic references.
 In the Harvard System, the references are listed in alphabetical order of authors'
surnames.
 If you have cited more than one item by a specific author they should be listed
chronologically (earliest first), and by letter (1993a, 1993b) if more than one item has
been published during a specific year.
 Whenever possible, elements of a bibliographical reference should be taken from the title
page of the publication.
 Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples
for the different types of published work you may have referenced.

Examples - Harvard Referencing

 Reference to a book

Author's Surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title.Edition. (if not the first), Place of
publication, Publisher.

e.g.Mercer, P.A. and Smith, G., 1993. Private viewdata in the UK. 2nd ed. London: Longman.

 Reference to an article in a journal

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Author's Surname, Initials., Year of publication, Title of journal, Volume number and (part
number), Page numbers of contribution.

e.g. Evans, W.A., 1994, Approaches to intelligent information retrieval. Information


processing and management, 7 (2), 147-168

 Reference to a conference paper

Contributing author's Surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of contribution. Followed by


In: Initials. Surname, of editor of conference proceedings (if applicable), Title of conference
proceedings including date and place of conference, Place of publication, Publisher, Page
numbers of contribution.

e.g. Silver, K., 1991. Electronic mail: the new way to communicate.

In: D.I. Raitt, ed 9th international online information meeting, London 3-5 December 1990.
Oxford: Learned Information, 323-330.

 Reference to a publication from a corporate body (e.g. a government department or other


organization).

Name Of Issuing Body, Year of publication, Title of publication, Place of publication, Publisher,
Report Number (where relevant).

e.g. Unesco, 1993. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris: Unesco, (PGI-
93/WS/22).

 Reference to a thesis

Author's Surname, Initials., Year of publication, Title of thesis, Designation, (any type), Name of
institution to which submitted.

e.g. Agutter, A.J., 1995. The linguistic significance of current British slang, Thesis (PhD).
Edinburgh University.

 Electronic material - following the Harvard System

This section taken from:

Holland, M. (1996). Harvard system [online]. Bournemouth University.

Available from:

http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/service-depts/newslis/LIS Gen.citation/harvardsystint.html [15


Apr 1996].

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Harvard Citation

A citation is the part of the reference that you include within the main body of your work
whenever you directly quote from, paraphrase, summarize or refer to work produced by another
author. In the Harvard style, the citation includes the author's surname and year of publication.

It is good practice to vary the way you incorporate in-text citations; this will help enhance the
flow and style of your academic writing.

You may sometimes use the author's name in the text or just refer to the author in brackets and
citations might appear at the start, middle or end of your sentences.

You can also refer to multiple authors at once; this will not only help to make your writing more
succinct, but will improve the synthesis of sources, research or ideas within your assignments.

Examples

Citing in the text – One author

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author's surname
and the date of publication in brackets:

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 2011).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
Jones (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

Citing in the text – Two authors

If a source has two authors, both names should be given.

When the authors' names are not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the authors'
surnames and the date of publication in brackets:

Example:
It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones and Baker, 2011).

If you have already named the authors in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

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Example:
Jones and Baker (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

You should also include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific
ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

Citing in the text – Two or more authors

If a source has three or more authors' it is usual for the name of the first author to be given,
followed by the phrase "et al." (which means "and others").

Example:
When the authors' names are not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the first author's
surname and "et al.", followed by the date of publication, in brackets:

It was emphasized that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).

If you have already named the authors in the text, only the year needs to be included in brackets.

Example:
Jones et al. (2011) emphasized that citations in a text should be consistent.

You should also include page numbers if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific
ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc from a source.

02. APA Referencing & Citation

Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas
of others. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea
or quotation. This guide draws from the: American Psychological Association.

Examples - APA Referencing

Reference to a book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of book. Location of publication:
Publisher.

e.g. Ibn Abdulaziz, T. (2004). Classic experiments in psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

 Reference to an article in a journal

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number),
page–page. doi:xxxx

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e.g. Matney, G. T. (2014). Early mathematics fluency with CCSSM. Teaching Children
Mathematics, 21(1), 27-35.

 Reference to a conference paper

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the
meeting of Organisation Name, Location.

e.g. Jodel, F., Russell, F, Tepper, K., Todd, P. & Zahora, T. (2009, September). Joined at the
hip: Partnerships between librarians and learning skills advisers. Poster session presented at the
International Congress of Medical Librarianship, Brisbane.

 Reference to a publication from a corporate body (e.g. a government department or other


organization).

Author, A.A. (year of publication). Title of publication (Number of report). Place of publication:
Publisher.

e.g. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0).
Canberra, ACT: Author.

 Reference to a thesis

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of thesis or dissertation (Doctoral dissertation or


Master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order no.)

e.g. Bozeman, A. Jr. (2007). Age of onset as predictor of cognitive performance in children
with seizure disorders. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and
Theses. (UMI 3259752)

 Electronic material - following the Harvard System

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work. Retrieved from URL

Singh, L. (2011). The critcal decade: Climate change and health. Retrieved from
http://climatecommission.gov.au/report/the-critical-decade-climate-change-and-health/

APA Citation

In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what
information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.

Examples:

 Works by a single author

The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate
point.

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from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)

If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information
in parentheses.

Simon (1945) posited that

 Works by multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the
text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Leiter
& Maslach, 1998)

 In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."

as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated

 When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the
reference occurs.

Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found

 In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first
author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.

Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Footnote

The Footnote/ Bibliography method requires two elements: footnotes throughout your
assignment, and a bibliography or list of references at the end.

Footnotes (sometimes just called ‘notes’) are what they sound like—a note (or a reference to a
source of information) which appears at the foot (bottom) of a page. In a footnote referencing
system, you indicate a reference by:

putting a small number above the line of type directly following the source material. This
number is called a note identifier. It sits slightly above the line of text.

It looks like this.1

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