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Even though the project manager spends a great deal of energy and time preventing problems, there are still problems that need to be resolved. Below is the problem-solving tec

Stakeholder identification will continue throughout the project life cycle. As the project proceeds through each phase, additional stakeholders may be involved while others will be

The initial investment is $400,000. There are 4 quarters (3 months in each) in a year; thus, Cash inflows for the first year is 4*$40,000 = $160,000. So, in two years, the cash inflo

The Control Quality process is about monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of uns

Risk averse is someone who does not want to take risks, and the project manager seems to be part of such an organization. Risk neutral describes a person or an organization in

This is an example of constraints. Constraints are limitations that limit the available options for a project.

Plan communications is included in the planning process, which is generally completed prior to executing. Updates to the project plan, including the communications managemen

Once the project scope has been completed and validated and final delivery has been made, the project is considered completed. Any kind of disputes should be resolved in favo

A configuration management system is the subset of the project management information system (PMIS) that describes the different versions and characteristics of the product, s

Product analysis techniques, such as product breakdown, systems analysis, system engineering, value engineering, value analysis, functional analysis, and others, may be used

Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory demonstrates that employees who believe their efforts will lead to effective performance and who expect to be rewarded for their accomplishm

Claims administration is used as a tool and technique in the control procurements process. The key objective is the settlement of all outstanding issues, claims, and disputes, if p

Noncritical risks on the watch list are not only for historical use but also need to be monitored at intervals during the project to ensure they have not become critical.

The nature and structure of a PMO depends on the needs of the organization it supports. The projects supported by a PMO may not be related other than being managed togeth

The subject matter and topics discussed in the meeting may be important, but meetings are considered informal verbal.

As per Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, hygiene factors are not sufficient to motivate people, and motivating agents provide the best positive reinforcement. Hygiene factors

A robust change control process will ensure that only the necessary changes are considered and implemented. A change control process cannot help with the number of change

Constraints are restrictions such as limitations on time, budget, scope, quality, schedule, resource, and technology a project faces. An imposed deadline and budget are example

Estimate at completion (EAC) =BAC/CPI. Here, we have BAC=$3,000, AC=$2,000, and EV=$1,200. CPI=EV/AC=1200/2000=.6. So, EAC=3000/.6 =5,000.

A tornado diagram is a diagramming method to display sensitivity analysis data by examining all the uncertain elements at their baseline values. It gives a quick overview of how

Ishikawa diagram is a tool used for systematically identifying and presenting all the possible causes and sub-causes of a particular problem in a graphical format. It can help in qu

Lag is an inserted waiting time between activities. In this case, there is a three-day delay before we can start coding.

Funding limit reconciliation is a technique of reconciling the expenditure of funds with the funding limits set for the project. As per the variance between the expenditure of funds a

Configuration management plan is a subset of the project management information system (PMIS) that describes the different versions and characteristics of the product, service

Crashing is a technique of adding additional resources to a project activity to complete it in less time. Examples of crashing could include approving overtime, bringing in addition

You are in the Validate Scope process, which is closely related to the Control Quality process. Both the Control Quality and Validate Scope processes can be performed simultan

The project manager should document the change request as per the project scope management plan and then submit the change request to the change control board once the

Product scope describes the features, functions, and physical characteristics that characterize a product, service, or result. On the other hand, project scope describes the work n

You are assuming that the rest of the job will be done as per budget; all you need to do is take the remaining work (BAC-EV) and add funds spend, AC.

The precedence diagramming method (PDM) usually uses the activity-on-node (AON) convention where boxes/nodes are used to represent activities and arrows show depende

Iterative, incremental, and adaptive are different types of change-driven project life cycle.

You should proactively work with stakeholders to manage their expectations, address their concerns, and resolve issues.

GERT is a modified network diagram drawing method that allows conditional branches and loops between activities. For example, you may have two activities to design a softwa

The schedule management plan defines how the project schedule will be planned, developed, managed, executed, and controlled throughout the project life cycle. It serves as g

An external dependency is related to a non-project activity and is considered outside the control of the project team. This is an example of external dependency since the other p

Agile projects leverage a prioritized backlog and deliver the project in a series of short, timeboxed iterations. There are many varieties of agile techniques, but this question has p

In iterative relationships, a phase is planned at a given time. Planning for a subsequent phase is carried out as work progresses on the current phase or deliverables. In overlapp

Incentive is a bonus in addition to the agreed-upon price for exceeding time or cost objectives as specified in the contract. For the seller, the focus is on profit, and for buyers, the

Value analysis is also referred to as value engineering or value methodology. It is the technique of finding a less costly way to do the same work and of achieving more out of the

The project manager is in the process of determining the project budget. The cost baseline and the project funding requirements are outputs of the Determine Budget process.

Cost of quality technique is used to find how much money is required for cost of conformance and cost of non-conformance during the estimate costs process.

Since the problem has occurred, you should address the risk first. You accept the risk when you have no other option.

A quality audit is a scheduled or random structured review performed by internal or third-party auditors to determine whether quality management activities comply with organizat

Standard deviation (SD)=-0/6 Variance=(00/6)*2. We can see that variance is the square of standard deviation, so if we take the square root of variance, we will also get the stan

A marginal analysis refers to the point where the benefits or revenue from improving quality equals the incremental cost to achieve that quality.

The goal of team performance assessment is to identify the specific training, coaching, mentoring assistance, or changes required to improve the team's performance and effecti

Coercive power involves leveraging a technique that coerces others to agree to the proposal.

Fixed cost is based on a predefined service delivery for a flat, prenegotiated rate. The risk is on the seller.

Staff assignments will define how the resources obtained will be assigned.

Termination for convenience is a contract clause that permits the buyer to terminate a contract at any time for a cause or convenience. Usually, there will be specific conditions a
Issues and risks are not the same things. An issue is an obstacle that threatens project progress and can block the team from achieving its goals. Risk is an uncertain event or co

In Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, accomplishment, respect, attention, and appreciation are represented as esteem.

A bottom-up estimate is the most time-consuming and generally the most accurate estimate. In this technique, one estimate per activity is received from the team members. This

The tendency to rate high or low on all factors due to the impression of a high or low rating on a specific factor is known as the Halo effect. This kind of action has negative impac

Withdrawing or avoiding is the technique of retreating from conflict and avoiding or postponing resolution. This technique leads to the least sustaining positive results.

A flow chart helps the project team anticipate and identify where quality problem might occur in a project, which in turn helps the team develop alternatives when dealing with qua

Project communication is an output of the Manage Communications process. All other items listed are included in the communications management plan.

The contingency plan includes specific action that will be taken if opportunities or threats occur.

A project manager should always be truthful in communications and should provide accurate information in a timely manner. A project manager should not deceive others or mak

Urgency is not included in the basic communication model but should be considered when determining the method of communication to be used.

Avoid is the elimination of the threat by eliminating the cause or changing the project management plan. Here, you utilized the avoid strategy by terminating the contract with the

Value engineering is mainly focused on finding a less costly way to do the same work and on achieving more out of the project in every possible way to increase the bottom line,

Enhance is a strategy to deal with an opportunity. By influencing the underlying risk triggers, this strategy increases the size, probability, likelihood, and positive impact of an opp

Assumptions are not based on factual information, and failure to validate an assumption may result in significant risk events. Assumptions are usually documented during the pro

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis is the process of prioritizing risks by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact on the project if they occur. This fast, r

A project manager should understand the significance of this kind of findings and must consult the experts before proceeding further.

Any time you come across a new risk, the first thing you should do is document it in the risk register and then analyze the impact as well as the probability of that risk. You should

A resource calendar shows who is and who is not available to work during any given time period. The resource calendar may consider attributes such as experience, skill level, e

We know PV=FV/(1+r)*n, Initial cost=$6,000, and interest rate=10 percent. So, present value for the first project is $10,000/(1+.1)*2=$9,009. The other project has a bigger NPV

We know PV=FV/(1+r)*n, Initial cost=$6,000, and interest rate=10 percent. So, present value for the first project is $10,000/(1+.1)*2=$9,009. The other project has a bigger NPV

Once the WBS is created with all the work packages, the team members should work on decomposing the work packages to create the detailed activity list. Network diagram and

Assuming the same progress has already been experienced, the project would take 10 weeks or 25% of the original 40-week estimate.

Some changes in the project are inevitable. A project manager should make sure that the change requests are evaluated and presented to the CCB for review. The project mana

Risk mitigation simply means a reduction in the probability and/or impact of an adverse risk event to an acceptable threshold. Leasing the equipment reduces the consequence o

The standard deviation measures how diverse the population is in the data set. It is calculated by finding out the mean and then calculating the average of the distance of each d

You have 20 miles to complete at a rate of $10,000/mile. Your budget at completion is 20*10,000 = $200,000.

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis is the process of numerically analyzing the effect of overall project objectives of identified risks. It mostly performs a numerical analysis of the

Invitation for bid (IFB)/request for bid (RFB): Request from a buyer to all potential sellers to submit a total price bid for work to be performed. Request for proposal (RFP): Buyer's

Variety of work is a motivational agent, not a hygiene factor.

SWOT analysis, assumption analysis, brainstorming information gathering technique are used to identify risks in the project. RACI is a type of responsibility assignment matrix ch

Requirements and configuration managements activities are documented as a part of the requirements management plan, which is an output of the Plan Scope Management pro

Work authorization system is a formal, documented procedure to describe how to authorize and initiate work in the correct sequence at the appropriate time. The other options lis

Fait accompli is a negotiation tactic of using rules/laws, decisions already made, etc. as mandatory to avoid any further discussion. Personal insults is a negotiation tactic of attac

If CPI or past results are typical or expected to continue, the correct EAC formula is EAC = BAC/CPI. In this case, BAC = $90,000 CPI =EV/AC = $35,000/ $30,000 = 1.16 EAC =

Procurement performance review is a structured review that consists of seller-prepared documentation, buyer inspection, and a quality audit of the seller's progress to deliver pro

The cruise company is using the enhance strategy to increase the traffic and profitability. By influencing the underlying risk triggers, this strategy increases the size, probability, li
When the vendor is not following the instructions stated in the contract, the project manager should inform the vendor th
A flowchart is a graphical representation of a process to help analyze how problems occur and to identify potential process improvement opportunities. There are many styles, bu

Performance reporting is a tool and technique in the Manage Communications process, not in the Plan Communications Management process. Communication requirement ana

The scope management plan and requirements management plan are the outputs of the Plan Scope Management process.

According to Herzberg, destroying hygiene factors such as working conditions, salary, status, and security can destroy motivation, but improving them under most circumstances

Parametric estimating is a technique that reviews historical data for statistical correlations. Variables are then used to estimate the costs in the current project. For example, if his

Critical path method (CPM) is a technique of schedule analysis that considers activity durations, logical relationships, dependencies, leads, lags, assumptions, and constraints to

You just finished the Plan Procurement Management process and should be moving to the next process of Conduct Procurements. In Conduct Procurements process, you shoul

Perform manage quality is a process to determine if the project activities are complying with organizational and project policies, standards, processes, and procedures. This proc

Earned value analysis is used to integrate scope, cost, and schedule measures to assess project performance. Trend analysis and variance analyses are included in earned valu

While the buyer may have had something they did not like, if the terms of the contract are complete, objectives are met, and project is complete according to agreement the contr

The Project Manager needs to communicate project progress to stakeholders at all the major milestones. Option (a) would have been addressed during revisiting the risk as part

A scatter diagram is a tool and technique used in quality management processes to analyze two characteristics of a process and see if there is any interdependency between the

Let n equal the number of months when both options' cost will be the same ((2000*10) + 2000) n = 180,000 + 4000n Or (20,000+2,000) n=180,000+4000n Or 22,000n=180,000 +
According to the learning curve theory, when a large number of items are produced repetitively, productivity will increase but at a diminishing rate. Learning curve data indicates

Source selection criteria are not an output of the Conduct Procurements process. They are an output of the Plan Procurement Management process. They are developed and us

Conduct Procurements is the process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding the procurement, usually in the form of a contract. Plan Procurements is the

The very first thing the project manager should do upon receiving a change request is to evaluate the impact to project objectives such as scope, time, cost, quality, risk, resource

The cost baseline is a time-phased budget used to monitor, measure, and control cost performance during the project. It is developed by summarizing costs over time and is usu

Sunk cost is a retrospective cost that is already paid in a project and is often used to describe what is written off from a canceled project as unrecoverable.

Procurement documentation includes all documents, correspondence, performance, and communication relevant to a contract.

You are performing a procurement performance review as part of the Control Procurements process. It is a structured review of the seller's progress to deliver project scope and

Claims administration or handling of claims is one of the most frequent activities in the Control procurements process. Claims, disputes, or appeals are requested when the buye

A contract can be terminated for a convenience by the buyer. In this case, seller's failure to deliver the equipment on time will drastically impact the project. So, the contract can b

According to McClelland's Achievement Motivation theory, individuals who work best when cooperating with others and working in a team, seek to maintain good relationships an

Since a stakeholder register contains sensitive information, a project manager may publish it with other project documentation or keep it in reserve for personal use only.

Involving the stakeholders in some project activities is a good way to bring them to a supportive or a leading state.

Fixed price contract will be the best option in this case as this type of contract will have less risk for the buyer and most risk for the seller.

You should pay the fee since the fee has a valid purpose and should not be considered a bribe.

Final product, service, or result transition are outputs of the Close Project or Phase process, not the Direct and Manage Project Work process.

You should always try to have a win-win situation. The lowest possible price and shortest possible duration will put the vendor in an extremely difficult situation and increase the

The bidder conference is also called the contractor conference, vendor conference, or pre-bid conference. It is intended to assure that no seller receives preferential treatment an

You should have a discussion with the customer about any issue with the deliverable so that a mutual solution can be identified. Capturing the issue in the lessons learned will no

If you cannot estimate the value of the impact, you can utilize qualitative estimates as low, medium, high, and others. Qualitative Risk Analysis is the process of prioritizing risk by

Since the problem has occurred, the first thing you should do as project manager is address the risk by creating a workaround. Once the issue is addressed, you may need to ree

Giving special rewards to some employees, such as assigned parking spaces, corner offices, and executive dining, are considered perquisites. Fringe benefits are the standard b

A project manager should actively listen to the stakeholders' concerns, resolve conflicts among the stakeholders, and build trust. The project manager should convey the ground

In this kind of situation, you should always find out details of the design defect before you have a discussion with the sponsor or the customer. The very first thing you should do i

A short delay of a critical path activity will result in an overall delay of the project duration, so a change request should be created. A major delay of a non-critical path activity may

The only way to modify a contract is through a formal, written change request. This change request then follows the formal contract change control process. Contract change con

The Force majeure clause states that if a natural disaster such as fire, hurricane, freak electrical storm, or tornado occurs, the event will be an allowable cause for either party for

Releasing the team members is not a part of closing process.

When the project manager ascertains the current project status, it should be communicated to the project stakeholders as per the communications management plan.

Procurement negotiation is a tool and technique in the Conduct Procurements process, not in the Control Procurements process.

Process improvement activities, including corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs, are implemented in the Direct and Manage Project Work process.

CPM is a technique of schedule analysis that evaluates the activity duration, logical relationships, dependency, leads, lags, assumptions, and constraints to determine the float o

To identify the appropriate training for the team members, you should refer to the resource management plan as it identifies the training needs and certification requirements of th

Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope, maintaining control over the project by preventing overwhelming scope change requests,

Here target cost = $250,000, and actual cost = $225,000. Thus, savings = $250,000 - $225,000 = $25,000. Seller portion of savings is 25 % of $25,000 = $6,250. Buyer portion o

Aligning the project with strategic objectives will assist in both managing the effort as well as ensuring that benefits of the project are valuable to the organization.

Fast Tracking and Crashing a schedule are techniques used to evaluate the Critical Path and relationships between tasks to optimize a schedule.

A bidder conference is an open dialogue dealing with questions and clarifications around a RFP. Selecting a seller is done through an internal process after proposals are submi

As the cost of the project is lower than expected, the seller will receive their $45,000 fee plus $25% of the savings between $355,000 and $325,000 ($25,000 x 25% = $7,500). $

Project constraints are known limitations on a project relating to schedule, cost, quality, resources, etc.

The project charter is the initial document that describes the scope, Project Manager assignment, business case, expectations, and assumptions and constraints. It would be the

During Monitoring and Controlling process, the Project Manager compares actual versus planned performance to determine variances and metrics of performance for the effort.

EMV is a form of decision tree analysis used to select the best of several alternative courses of action. Each decision note has an input based on the cost and its probability, whic

Delphi technique not used in identify risk process. Delphi technique is a secret balloting typically used while gathering information. This can be used before unanimity under the v

Stakeholders are identified throughout the life of the project. While attempts are made to identify all stakeholders early in the effort, realistically stakeholders will be identified thro

Manage quality is the process of determining if the project activities comply with organizational and project policies, standards, processes, and procedures. This process is prima

SWOT analysis and information gathering techniques such as brainstorming and root cause analysis technique are used in the Identify Risks process in order to identify and cate

A product fix will require rework, and the cost associated with it will fall under the cost of nonconformance, that is, internal failure cost category.

A qualified sellers list is a list of preapproved or prequalified prospective sellers interested and capable of doing the contract services for the organization. Prequalified sellers for

An approved change request for corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs will be implemented in the Direct and Manage Project Work process.
The project is 5 months long, so you are scheduled to complete 20 percent of the work every month. We know PV=BAC*planned % complete After two months, the planned valu

The opportunity cost reflects the cost of the foregone solution. By selecting Project Beta, which has a higher NPV, you are foregoing the opportunity to complete Project Alpha of

Make-or-buy decision is the input in the conduct Procurements process, not make-or-buy analysis. Make-or-buy analysis refers to determining whether a product can be produce

The best option is to verify your observation by having a discussion with your employer about the violations and learn about the employer's perspective.

The project charter may contain the high-level budget but not the detailed cost estimates. You should inform the hospital authority that they have to wait as the project budget and

A project charter identifies the high-level business objectives and needs, current understanding of the stakeholders' expectations, and the new product, service, or result. The pro

Reference power is based on referring to someone in a higher position to leverage some of the superior's power. This power is also based on the charismatic personality of the p

Resource leveling is used to produce a resource-limited schedule by letting the schedule slip and cost increase in order to deal with a limited amount of resources, resource avai

A change control board (CCB) consists stakeholders, managers, project team members, senior management, and other people, and it is responsible for reviewing, approving, or

While performing the project performance appraisal, the project management team meets with the team members and provides feedback about team members' performance and

Ishikawa diagram or cause and effect diagram is a tool used to systematically identify and present all the possible causes and sub-causes of a particular problem in a graphical f

Stakeholder register contains all details related to the identified stakeholders including buy not limited to: Stakeholder classification: Internal/external, neutral/resistor/supporter, a

Plan Quality Management is the process of identifying all the relevant quality requirements, specifications, and standards for the project and product and specifying how the spec

Colocation/war room is a technique of placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team. Si

The project was unsuccessful as was gold plated. You should always focus on meeting and exceeding customer expectations by delivering the features and functionalities as pe

Anything that interferes with the meaning of a message is considered noise or communication blocker. Source credibility, or the credibility of a message to its receivers, may be i

Cost aggregation describes the bottom-up estimate, which will provide the most accurate estimate in this case. Other estimates, such as heuristic and analogous estimates are v

A project can be terminated at any time due to a specific reason or convenience. The project manager should conduct a scope verification to measure the amount of completed w

Your project can move into a subsequent phase even if the deliverables of the prior phase are not completely approved. Any scope change in the initial stage will be the least exp

Attribute sampling is a method of measuring quality that involves observing the presence (or absence) of some characteristics (attributes) in each of the units under consideration

Rolling wave planning takes the progressive elaboration approach and plans current/near term work in great detail, while future work is planned in a more abstract and less detai

Plurality is a group decision making technique where a decision is based on the largest block in a group even if a majority is not achieved. As PMO permits plurality, you have no

An analogous estimate measures project parameters such as budget, size, complexity, and duration based on the parameters of a previous, similar project and historical informa

Upper and lower control limits are usually set as +-3 Sigma. 97.73 percent occurrences will fall within 3 sigma from the mean.

As a project is refined, iterative process groups might be revised several times throughout the project life cycle as more information becomes available. Some planning must take

Configuration management plan is a subset of the project management information system (PMIS) that describes the different versions and characteristics of the product, service

The project must be in the Monitor Risks process if risks have occurred. Workarounds are unplanned responses developed to deal with the occurrence of unanticipated risk even

Number of communication channels = n(n-1)/2, where n= number of members in the team, so 9(9-1)/2 = 72/2 = 36 You have 9 members in the team to have 36 communication c

Transferring risk may increase costs but will assist in moving the risk from the primary to another group or entity, lowering the overall risk exposure.

A resource histogram is a graphic display that can be used to track resources when shared or critically required resources are only available at certain times, in limited quantities

A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) chart cross-references team members with the activities or work packages they are to accomplish. One example of a RAM is a RACI (r

In non-competitive forms of procurement, a seller is usually selected from a list of qualified sellers interested in and capable of doing the job. Even though competition can result

Your SPI is more than 1, which indicates that you are ahead of schedule, but your CPI is less than 1, which suggests that you are over budget. Cost should be the main concern

Independent Estimates or in-house cost estimates are often provided by consulting services

Affinity diagram is a technique in which the ideas generated from other requirements gathering techniques are sorted into groups by similarity. Each group of requirements is then

A resource breakdown structure looks like a typical organizational chart but is organized by types of resources. RBS can help track project cost as it ties to the organization's acc

The first step to resolve an issue is to identify the root cause of the issue. Cause and effect (Ishikawa/Fishbone) diagram is a tool used for systematically identifying and presentin

Graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT) is a modified network diagram drawing method that allows conditional branches and loops between activities.

In this specific situation, the project manager should do a scope verification of the deliverables to ensure that they satisfy project objectives and were completed satisfactorily. A p

If it is customary in the country you are working in to pay for the private protection service, it will not be a bribe. A long as it is acceptable, reasonable, and legal in that country, yo

In the case of an external project, the client will send out the statement of work as a part of the bidding document such as a request for proposal (RFP). The SOW is a narrative d

Manage Quality is a process to determine if the project activities are complying with organizational and project policies, standards, processes, and procedures. This process is pr

It is intended to assure that no seller receives preferential treatment and all sellers have a clear, common understanding of the procurement (technical requirements, contractual

Claim administration is a technique in the Control Procurements process that documents, monitors, and manages disputed changes when the buyer and seller disagree on scope

You should make sure to gather lessons learned so that future projects can benefit. There is no reason to renegotiate with the higher management at this time. The project mana

SOW is a narrative description of products, results or services to be supplied by the project, including the business need, product scope description or what is to be done, and ho

EV= BAC* actual % complete So, EV = 900000*40 percent = $360,00 SV = EV-PV So, SV = 360,000 - $380,000= -$20000 CV= EV AC So, CV = $360,000- $390,000 = -$30000

It is important to complete all aspects of the project, as agreed by specification, even if it means the project will be delayed. The project manager should maintain his integrity and

The project team should have identified predecessors and successors for each activity instead of just for the major milestone activities. It is important that every activity and miles

By having the WBS at its lowest level, more information is available to make a more accurate cost estimate.
and organizations that may be affected either negatively or positively by the project outcome.

lent to the initial investment. The payback is 2 years and 3 months since it will take this amount of time to get the initial investment back. The second project has a longer payback period, so we s

eted, any addition to the project should be considered a new project, and detailed impact analysis should be carried out.

baselined and different configurations, versions, and branches are managed from that point. The process improvement plan looks at processes and outlines the activities and steps that will enha

tanding of the product.

submit change requests.

and objectives and is helpful in determining detailed response plans for elements with greater impacts.

d/or cost. Increasing the number of resources may decrease time but not in a linear amount as activities will often encounter the law of diminishing returns.

ocused on measuring specific project results against quality specifications and standards, whereas Validate Scope is mainly focused on obtaining acceptance of the product from the sponsor, cus

e, or result. Product scope completion, measured against the product requirements to determine successful fulfillment and project scope completion, is measured against the project plan, project

ats, and frequencies.

s kind of relationship may increase project risk and the potential for conflicts as a subsequent phase progresses before the accurate information is available form the previous phase. This kind of

toward the same objective for instance, completing the project on time. In this specific situation, an incentive will be most effective. Force majeure is an allowable excuse for either party for not m

actices, that can improve the performance of the current project or future ones. A quality audit to correct any deficiencies in the quality processes should result in a reduced cost of quality and an i

In this case, the SD for product variation is 0.7 inches and the SD for measurement variation is 0.5 inches. 0.7*0.7=0.49 and 0.5*0.5=0.25. So, total SD is the square root of (0.49 + 0.25) =0.86.

on are implemented. A team 's performance is measured against the agreed-upon success criteria, schedule, and budget target. The evaluation of a team's effectiveness may include indicators su
ailed data. It is used during the formative stages for initial evaluation of a project's feasibility. A heuristic estimate is based on rule of thumb, such as the 80/20 rule. A top-down estimate is usually

hen he has an accurate update.

ts do. Assumptions also do not allow for baseline adjustments in case of project crisis as it's not the correct process for adjusting project baselines.

es for them. Even though numbers are used for the rating in Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis, it is a subjective evaluation and should be performed throughout the project. Perform Quantitative R

rs such as name, contact details, role, and functional area. A responsibility assignment matrix is a chart that cross-references team members with the activities or work packages they are to accom

es as necessary.

des that quantitative statements about risk and impact are not needed.

man is a negotiation tactic of using a missing individual who has the power to everything.

a problem. Inspections and audits are activities mainly focused on the product itself and its conformance to specification. Performance reporting is an excellent tool that provides management wit

contract. You also cannot simply stop any payment.

hem and letting them grow.

pically, this technique has been known to produce a high level of accuracy, but it will be costly due to the level of sophistication that is required to implement it. In most cases, the technique is perf

, proposal evaluation techniques, and advertising.

cesses and activities undertaken to achieve quality.

0+2,000) n=180,000+4000n Or 22,000n=180,000 + 4000 n Or 18,000 n= 180,000 Or n = 180,000/18,000 Or n= 10


will take less time than it did in the first room due to increased efficiency as workers become more efficient with the installation procedure.

ocurement negotiation is not a process but is a tool and technique used in the Conduct Procurements process. The Close Procurements process is mainly concerned with completing each projec

d change would not be done prior to evaluating the impact of the requested change. Also, the project manager should make every effort to prevent changers in the project as much as possible.

d managed in accordance with the contract terms throughout the contract life cycle. It is desirable to resolve the disputes though negotiation, but unresolved claims may require escalation to disp

that are challenging but reachable. These people may prefer to work alone and also like recognition. People who like to organize and influence others have a need for power.

ute prior to final contract signing.

ractors with the information they need to determine if they would like to continue with the contracting process. The bidder conference will ensure the mandatory standard of fairness in the PMI cod

s is on the right risk areas as per their ranking and priority and helps to allocate adequate time and resources for them. Even though numbers are used for the rating in the Perform Qualitative Ris

ventative actions.

also be used to deal with schedule variance.

solution processes, necessary paperwork, required authorizations, tracking systems, and other items.

e should be covered by insurance.

the longest path in the network diagram and the shortest amount of time project will take to complete.

e Integrated Change Control Process

mpact would be .4 * (-$15,000 + -$20,000) = -$14,000 . The other branch for the new component has $10,500 in cost savings, so the net effect is $10,500 * .3 = $3,150. We add the -$14,000 and t

activities undertaken to achieve quality. The key functionalities in this process include: Identify ineffective and inefficient activities or processes used on the project. Perform continuous improveme

s an input in the Conduct Procurement process, not as a tool and technique.


We know SPI=EV/AC=157,000/180,000=.875

ion to related risk, schedule, etc. Make-or-buy decisions document the decisions and justification regarding what project products, services, or results will either be acquired or developed by the p

ocated. You may have several peaks and valleys in your resource histogram. In order to level the resources, evenly utilize them as much as possible, or keep resource usage at a constant level;

er should consider establishing a CCB for the project if the organization does not have one.

s and external contractors.

ntial impact, importance, and influence on the project. Stakeholder management plan, an output of the Plan Stakeholder Engagement process, contains stakeholder management strategy. The st

e. Other techniques listed here will be beneficial to resolve conflict and concern about deliverables.

ject executing phase.

three groups, and the only time they will overlap when a project is canceled or terminated.

s much as possible. To keep resource usage at a constant level, you can move some of your activities from the week when you are using a lot of resources to a week when you are hardly using a

or quotations, then you cannot go for a sole source.

ystem, which can be used to calculate the cost of these resources.

ll not solve any real problem and should be avoided.

nd activities undertaken to achieve quality.

60,000 - $380,000= -$20000 CV= EV AC So, CV = $360,000- $390,000 = -$30000 Since both CV and SV are negative, you are over budget and behind the schedule.

sequent linked activities, as well as the overall project schedule. Option (a) schedule compression techniques are only required when the project schedule needs to be further reduced without co
has a longer payback period, so we should go for the first project.

the activities and steps that will enhance their value. Perform Integrated Change Control is the process necessary for reviewing change requests, approving or disapproving, and managing chang

e of the product from the sponsor, customers, and others.

sured against the project plan, project scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), WBS dictionary, and other elements.

orm the previous phase. This kind of relationship can reduce the ability to develop long-term planning, but it is very suitable in an undefined, uncertain, and rapidly changing environment.

wable excuse for either party for not meeting contractual terms in case of occurrence of an event beyond their control such as storm, etc. Since the event is considered neither party's fault, usually

lt in a reduced cost of quality and an increase in stakeholders' acceptance of the product.

e square root of (0.49 + 0.25) =0.86.

ffectiveness may include indicators such as how well the team is performing, communicating, and dealing with conflicts.
0 rule. A top-down estimate is usually given to the project manager from management or the sponsor. This type of estimate measures the project parameters such as budget, size, complexity, and

out the project. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis is the process of numerically analyzing the effect of overall project objectives of identified risks. It mostly performs numerical analysis using a mo

es or work packages they are to accomplish. One example of a RAM is a RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consult, and Inform) chart, which can be used to ensure clear divisions of roles and re

ent tool that provides management with information about how effectively the seller is meeting contractual objectives. This report can produce earned values, schedule and cost performance index

t. In most cases, the technique is performed when the performing organization conducts many similar projects, historical information is accurate, and the model used for the estimate is scalable.
oncerned with completing each project procurement.

in the project as much as possible.

claims may require escalation to dispute resolution procedures, such as arbitration or litigation, established in the contract.

a need for power.

ory standard of fairness in the PMI code of ethics and professional conduct by making the opportunity equally available to all qualified vendors.

e rating in the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process, it is a subjective evaluation and should be performed throughout the project.

= $3,150. We add the -$14,000 and the $3,1,50 to get the Expected Monetary Value of both decision tree paths which equals -$10,850

roject. Perform continuous improvement as appropriate. Perform quality audit to determine if project activities comply with organization and project policies, processes, and procedures. Identify re
her be acquired or developed by the project team.

p resource usage at a constant level; you can move some of activities from the week when you are using a lot of resources to a week when you are hardly using any.

eholder management strategy. The stakeholder management strategy defines an approach to manage stakeholders throughout the entire project life cycle. It defines the strategies to increase the

o a week when you are hardly using any.

eeds to be further reduced without compromising on project scope or objectives. Option (b) could be useful, but it is not mandatory. Option (c) is incorrect.
or disapproving, and managing changes to the deliverables, project management plan and documents, and the organizational process assets. A work authorization system is a formal, document

apidly changing environment.

onsidered neither party's fault, usually the seller receives a time extension, and risk of loss is borne by the seller, which is usually covered by insurance. Time is of the essence indicates that deliv
such as budget, size, complexity, and duration based on the parameters of a previous similar project and historical information. It is usually done during an early phase of the project when not mu

erforms numerical analysis using a modeling technique such as expected monetary value (EMV) of the probability and impact of risks moved forward from the Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis pr

ensure clear divisions of roles and responsibilities. A resource breakdown structure (RBS) is a graphical and hierarchical structure of the identified resources arranged by resource category (such

schedule and cost performance index, trend analysis, etc. The payment system is usually handled by the accounts payable system of the buyer organization and helps avoid duplicate payments

del used for the estimate is scalable.


processes, and procedures. Identify required improvements, gaps, and shortcomings in the processes. Identify and correct deficiencies. Recommend changes and corrective actions to integrated
t defines the strategies to increase the support of the stakeholders who can impact the project positively and minimize the negative impact or intentions of the stakeholders who can negatively imp
rization system is a formal, documented procedure to describe how to authorize and initiate work in the correct sequence at the appropriate time.

e is of the essence indicates that delivery dates are extremely important and that any delay will be considered material breach. With a retainage clause, in order to ensure full completion, an amou
early phase of the project when not much information is available; thus, it is less accurate even though it is less costly and less time-consuming.

e Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process.

s arranged by resource category (such as labor, material, equipment, and supplies) and type (such as expertise level, grade, and experience).

n and helps avoid duplicate payments, ensures invoices and payments match up, and ensures that the right amount has been invoiced for the appropriate deliverables at the right time.
s and corrective actions to integrated change control.
e stakeholders who can negatively impact the project.
der to ensure full completion, an amount of money, usually 5 to 10 percent is withheld from each payment and paid in full once the final work is completed.
liverables at the right time.
1 A
2 B
3 A
4 A
5 B
6 B
7 D
8 B
9 B
10 A
11 C
12 D
13 D
14 D
15 A
16 D
17 A
18 D
19 B
20 B
21 B
22 A
23 C
24 C
25 D
26 C
27 B
28 A
29 C
30 A
31 C
32 D
33 C
34 A
35 C
36 B
37 A
38 C
39 A
40 C
41 C
42 D
43 A
44 A
45 C
46 B
47 C
48 D
49 C
50 B
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In a weak matrix organization, a Project Manager typically performs the coordination role.

A product can spawn a single project in its life. Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design an

The charter is important because it formally authorizes a project. The Project Manager must do whatever possible to get the charter issued.

A PMO is supposed to be the center of excellence for project management in an organization.

Portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs grouped together to facilitate effective management to meet strategic business objectives, and the person managing it is called a

The Project sponsor is in the develop project charter process in the project integration management and is using the statement of work to understand the product requirements and de

Giving extra incentives to stakeholders to win them over amounts to gold plating or (even worse) unethical practices, so it is not recommended.

The entire project team is usually not available during initiation.

As per the new examination content outline, the Project Manager will not develop the project charter and will only participate in developing the project charter.

According to PMI®'s classification, the Project Manager should define the key deliverables of the project based on the business and compliance requirements to meet the customer's p

Expert judgment is a tool and technique for the "identify stakeholders" process and is not an input.

An iterative relationship is where one phase is planned at any given time and the planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on the current phase or deliverable.

Initiating process group includes the develop project charter and identify stakeholders process. Option (a) specifies the risk involvement, and option (b) specifies probability of success

Project Charter provides the high-level project description and product characteristics. It authorizes the project and provides the Project Manager the authority to assign organization re

A product lifecycle consists of generally sequential, non-overlapping product phases determined by the manufacturing and control need of the organization. For more details on produc

The question has a negative connotation. Refer page 10 of PMBOK® Guide - Sixth Edition.

It is during the initiating process group that you identify and document high-level risks, assumptions, and constraints to identify project limitations and thereafter propose an implement

The PMO's role is to identify and develop the project management methodology, best practices, and standards.

The ability to influence the final characteristics of the product without impacting the cost is highest at the start. Cost and staffing levels are low at the start. Uncertainty is greatest at the

A sequential relationship is the stage where a phase can only start once the previous phase is complete. The step-by-step nature of the approach reduces uncertainty but may elimina

This statement is wrong as stakeholders can exert influence over the project, its deliverables, and team members.

Lessons learned are part of the organizational process assets.

Since the Project Officer who works for XYZ is the sponsor, he is responsible for approving and signing the charter.

The issue requires functional expertise and hence the Functional Managers are best able to assist in this matter.

These are parts of the corporate knowledge base in organizational process assets. The others are examples of enterprise and environmental factors and refer to both internal and exte

Many times, even a fundamentally functional organization may create a special project team to handle a critical project. This may have many characteristics of a project team in a proje

The planning process group consists of processes performed to establish the total scope of the effort, define the objectives, and develop the course of action required to attain those o

The Project Manager has created a WBS, a WBS dictionary, and an activity list in the planning stage. The next step would be to create a network diagram for the project. Quality stand

Since nothing is given about the organization structure, we have to assume that it is a matrix or functional organization where the resources are owned by the functional managers and

The role of a Project Manager is the combination of all the options, but the one that is most critical to the project's success is that of an Integrator. As described in the question, a Proje

The results of the process tailoring by the project team are captured in the project management plan, along with all the other information required by the stakeholder.

The kick-off meeting which is done in the beginning of the project and then before starting each new project phase has four main objectives: a) publicly state the beginning of the proje

The answer to this question can be reached by the process of elimination. Since the project is already initiated and is in the planning stage options A, and D can't be true. There is no

If you got confused with project scope, remember that the above statements describe the features, functions, and requirements which are part of defining product scope. To differentia

The Project Manager is in the process of "collect requirements" which has the output requirements documentation. This document describes how individual requirements meet the bus

The Project Manager wants the team to take ownership as well as understand how its individual project activities affect the overall project deliverable (the big picture). The Project Man

The best option is to compress the project schedule because the critical path activities can be delayed thus resulting in a negative float. In this case, the Project Manager should use a

The Project Manager is in the process develop schedule. Since the project schedule has already been approved, it implies Option A, B, and D are already completed as part of the pro

PERT allows the estimator to include three estimates: optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely, given by the equation Expected Duration = [P + 4(ML) + O]/6. Range is +/- standard devi

Float for an activity can be calculated using any of the two formula (i.e. Float = LS-ES or LF-EF). In this case, float = 5-3 or 10- 8 or 2 days. Remember, float or slack is the amount of t

This is an example of a start-to-start dependency. It means that B can't start before A starts, or in other words Activity B can start after Activity A has started.

Communications management plan contains details of how the communication needs of the project's stakeholders will be met.

Rolling wave planning is a form of progressive elaboration where work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the Work

Expected time = (O + 4M + P)/6 = 16

The formula for variance = [( Pessimistic-Optimistic)/6]squared. The answer is 4.

Critical path activities do not have any float. If any activity on the critical path is delayed, the completion of the project will be delayed by an equal amount. To determine the critical pat

Lifecycle costing provides the lowest long-term cost of ownership and should be used as a management decision tool. Although project cost management is primarily concerned with t
Value analysis is also referred to as value management or value methodology (VM). It requires the systematic approach to identify project functions and assign values to those functio

Funding limit reconciliation is one of the techniques used in the Determine budget process. See Page 253 of the PMBOK® Guide - Sixth Edition.

The total funds required in the project are those included in cost baseline, plus management reserve if any. Remember, the cost baseline includes contingency reserves because the c
h product lifecycle are product development, introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. A product can spawn or require many projects over its life.

business objectives, technical strategy, goals, etc.

ds of the project, along with a current understanding of the customer's needs, risks, name of the sponsor, and so on.

MBOK® Guide - Sixth Edition Introduction, page 38.

ormalized reporting structure.

group is the project management plan.

executing stage of the project.

come together to successfully deliver the project. Integration involves pulling together all aspects of project management including scope, cost, schedule, quality, and communication in addition to work

nfluence the project's outcome.

ility. This sponsor is thought to "own" the project and is considered responsible for ensuring its success. The sponsor is also typically the one who proposes the project in the first place, whose busines

hat needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. The product scope describes the function or service that will exist as a result of your proje

holder register is only a list of stakeholders in the project, whereas option B stakeholder management strategy describes the strategy to manage stakeholder expectations. Option D issue log is a docu

may not be always possible due to physical constraints in the project. Option D has limited utility, but Option B is the best choice as it fulfills multiple project objectives.

of the process control schedule.

and range (+/-Standard Deviation) is 8.00.

her-level work packages can be decomposed further. Option B templates, which are usually standardized, would not be a very helpful tool for evolving requirements. Option (c) and (d) are not recogniz

ng, and supporting the project. Hence, lifecycle cost analysis can be used to assist management in the decision-making process. Lifecycle costing looks at the entire cost of the product, not just the cos
ality, and communication in addition to working with other departments such as Legal, Human Resources, Training, Contract Administration, and Information Technology.

the project in the first place, whose business unit reaps its benefits.

ervice that will exist as a result of your project. The project scope, on the other hand, describes all the work to create the product scope. It includes only the required work to complete the project deliver

expectations. Option D issue log is a document to capture project issues.

ements. Option (c) and (d) are not recognized tools and techniques of project time management.

e entire cost of the product, not just the cost of project.


equired work to complete the project deliverable. Note: The completion of project scope is measured against the project management plan, the project scope statement and its associated Work Breakd
statement and its associated Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), WBS dictionary, and scope baseline. Completion of product scope is measured against product features or requirements.
duct features or requirements.