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М И Н И С Т Е Р С Т В О О Б Р А З О В А Н И Я И Н А У К И У К Р А И Н Ы ОДЕССКАЯ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ МОРСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

Н.Л.ТРУХАНОВА, Н.А.КРАВЧЕНКО

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
СУДОВОЙ ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГЕТИКИ
ДЛЯ МОРЯКОВ

TROUKHANOVA N.L., KRAVCHENKO N.A.

ENGLISH
OF MARINE ELECTRICAL AND POWER
ENGINEERING
FOR SEAMEN

Одесса ЛАТСТАР 2000


Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для изучения английского языка в области судовой
электроэнергетики.
Предназначено для студентов старших курсов энергетических факультетов морских учебных
заведений, а также для судовых механиков и электромехаников.
Рецензенты:
проф. Радченко А.П., зав. кафедрой основ судовой электроэнергетики ОГМА;
доц. Григорян Н.Р., зав. кафедрой экспериментальной и прикладной фонетики английского языка
факультета романо-германской филологии ОГУ им. И.И.Мечникова.
Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия Ученым советом ОГМА.

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящее учебное пособие имеет своей целью обучение специальному английскому морскому
языку в области электротехники и предназначено как для студентов старших курсов энергетических
факультетов высших мореходных учебных заведений, так и для судовых электромехаников и
механиков, желающих усовершенствовать свои знания л области профессионального морского
английского языка.
Учебное пособие состоит из десяти разделов, в каждом из которых I 4 тематически объединенных
текста, сопровождаемых словарем и вопросами. В конце раздела помещены упражнения,
способствующие укреплению новой лексики, использованию ее в другом контексте, разит то
навыков говорения, а также повторению различных грамматических структур. Следует отметить, что
тексты расположены в порядке нарастания уровня сложности, поэтому желательно прорабатывать
пособие от начала до конца.
Наряду с текстуальным материалом в пособии находится приложения котором представлены
изображения основных электрических приборов и инструментов, с которыми часто сталкиваются
электромеханики и механики в своей работе, а также их названия на английском и русском языках.
Англо-русский словарь, представленный в конце пособия, содержит в себе не только
электротехнические термины, но и словосочетания, употребляемые с ними. Сопровождение
технических терминов транск р и п ц и е й облегчает самостоятельную работу с пособием.
Ли горы считают своим долгом выразить искреннюю благодарность всем преподавателям
кафедры английского языка № 2 ОГМА, особенно доцентам Богомолову О.С. и Никулиной E.JI. за
проявленный интерес к работе и се поддержку. Также выражаем признательность профессорам МЛ
Скрипнику В.Н. и Радченко А.II. за профессиональную помощь.
PREFACE
This book is intended to be used either by senior engineering cadets of higher maritime educational
institutions or by individual students - sailing seamen - who have already completed their course of study
and received qualification certificate but have difficulties in using "professional marine English" and need to
improve it.
The textbook incorporates ten units, each of them being organized as a thematic entity and dealing with
this or that aspect of marine electricity and electrical power engineering. The units are ordered according to
level of difficulty, so the book is advisable to be worked through from beginning to end. It is started with
introducing some simple facts from the history of electricity and, what is most essential, basic notions of
electricity, such as "electromagnetism", "kinds of currents and their properties", "standard electrical units",
"basic electrical measuring instruments" etc. Units 2-6 provide material for studying principal items of
electrical equipment on board ship: its constructional features, purpose, application and most widespread
types. Unit 7 gives a detailed description of a shipboard electric power plant as a whole and as an aggregate
of components. This unit also concentrates on shipboard electrical circuits: their types, main functions,
apparatuses and wiring accessories. Units 8,9 cover the problems of electric shock hazard protection, oper-
ation and maintenance of marine electrical equipment and types of repair this equipment is subjected to. Unit
10 provides coverage of troubleshooting procedures: those of electrical components, D.C. motors, and three-
phase motors. They are based upon fault finding charts that will probably be most useful for working marine
engineers.
We have given such a detailed description of the thematic contents of the units to show that the textbook
is a kind of original experience systematizing the facts exceptionally referring to marine electrical systems,
mechanisms, devices and their operation and maintenance on board ship.
Each unit consists of a number of texts directly followed by a terminological vocabulary The latter does
not only include words of different parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) but also word
combinations and whole phrases showing various ways of collocability that English technical terms are
revealing. We find it very important to present collocations of terminological words since students have
particular difficulties in using correct structures of "technical English" in their speech.
The vocabulary is usually followed by a list of questions intended for two purposes. The first one is to
check how well the texts have been understood and how good the student is at making up independent
correct English statements. The second one is connected with necessary development of skills and habits of
annotating and reviewing the studied material.
The texts, the vocabulary and the questions may be considered one part of the unit. The other is a
complex of various exercises. Some of them may be qualified as tests since they are used to check how well
the student has grasped the meaning of the suggested texts. They are the exercises that 1) require a definite
answer to a question given as a characteristic description of a mechanism, a phenomenon, a property, a
technological process, an engineering procedure etc., 2) suggest a choice of the correct answer from a few
proposed variants. But there are also exercises for revision since the book is intended for students who have
already finished the so-called "common course of English". They are exercises practicing grammar
phenomena especially used in structural patterns of "technical English". Very often they provide "mixed"
practice bringing together grammar points that are easily confused by Russian and Ukrainian native
speakers.
"The technique" we have applied in making grammar exercises is widely represented in both foreign and
home textbooks of English. The students are invited 1) to open the brackets giving the correct grammar
form, 2) to compose one sentence from two organizing it correctly, 3) to make up statements or questions
from the suggested words, 4) to choose one of the words from the box leaving it in its original form or
transforming it into the form which the given sentence requires, 5) to find English equivalents to the sug-
gested Russian ones, 6) to translate from Russian into English etc.
There is one Appendix in the textbook. It gives a number of pictures organized in accordance with three
themes closely associated with electrical work. They are "Electric Tools", "Wiring Accessories" and
"Lighting Fittings". We find it necessary for engineers and electricians to know what the things they work
with and operate by are called in English. So, we have provided the pictures with both English and Russian
words and word combinations corresponding the images.
Finally, there is an English-Russian glossary at the back of the book. It includes terms denoting
electromechanical materials, electric machines of both direct and alternating current, electric power plants
and circuits, power systems, electric drives, measuring instruments as well as devices, arrangements and
fittings associated with light engineering. The word-nucleus (the one which dominates in meaning in a word
combination) is frequently accompanied by its stable subordinates in order to show in what way the former
and these latter are collocated in "the English language of engineering".
We would like to thank all the staff at the English Department of Odessa State Maritime Academy,
especially Associate Professors O.S. Bogomolov and E.L. Nikoulina, for their interest and encouragement.
We are also grateful to Professors V.N. Skripnick and A.P. Radchenko for their help.
UNIT 1. NATURE OF ELECTRICITY
1. PRIMARY INVESTIGATIONS. CLASSES OF ELECTRICITY
It was known since the ancient Greeks that when a piece of amber or glass is rubbed with silk or fur, it
achieves the power of attracting light objects. Later on, this phenomenon was studied and the word 'electric'
(after Greek "electron" - "amber") was put in use.
During the 18-19th centuries many discoveries about the nature of electricity were made: Charles
Coulomb investigated the forces between tin charged objects; Benjamin Franklin invented the lighting rod,
etc.
There was developed the idea that there are two kinds of electricity, which were called resinous
electricity, and that opposite kinds of electricity attract one another, whereas similar kinds repel one another.
The study of electricity may be divided into three classes (or branches):
■ magnetism;
■ electrostatics;
■ electrodynamics.
Magnetism is the property of the molecules of iron and other certain substances due to which they store
energy in a field because of the arranged movement of the electrons in their atoms.
Electrostatics is the study of electricity at rest, or static electricity. Examples of this type of electricity
are charges on condenser plates. Rubbing glass with silk produces static electricity.
Electrodynamics is the study of electricity in motion, or dynamic electricity. The electricity which
flows through wires for light and power purposes is a good example of the latter type of electricity.
VOCABULARY
amber янтарь, смола
rub тереть, натирать
fur мех
power of attracting способность притягивать
phenomenon явление (явления)
(phenomena)
discovery открытие
nature природа
investigate исследовать
charge (charged) заряд (заряженный)
invent изобретать
lightning rod светящаяся палочка
resinous смолистый
repel отталкивать
property свойство
substance вещество, материя
store накапливать
at rest в покое
in motion в движении
charges on condenser заряды на пластинах конденсатора
plates
for light and power для освещения и питания силовых установок
purposes

QUESTIONS
1. Under what conditions can amber or glass attract light objects?
2. What discoveries about the nature of electricity were made during the 18-19th centuries?
3. What happens to the opposite kinds of electricity?
4. What happens to the similar kinds of electricity?
5. What classes can the study of electricity be divided into?
6. What is magnetism?
7. What helps the molecules of iron to store energy in a field?
8. What is electrostatics?
9. What are the examples of static electricity?
10. What is electrodynamics?

2. MAGNETISM. ELECTROMAGNETISM. MAGNETIC FIELD


The principles of magnetism are of great importance in the field of electricity as generators, transformers
and motors depend on magnets and magnetism in their operation.
A magnet can be either permanent or temporary. If a piece of iron or steel is magnetized and retains its
magnetism, it is a permanent magnet. Permanent magnets are the basis for some of the simpler devices. The
compass needle responds to the magnetic field of the Earth which is itself a permanent magnet. Other
exampl es of permanent magnets are a horseshoe magnet, a bar magnet, etc. Each of these magnets has a
north and a south magnetic poles.
Permanent magnets are used for producing the magnetic field necessary for operation of small,
inexpensive electrical motors.
When current flows through a coil, a magnetic field with a north and south poles is set up like that of a
permanent magnet. However, when the current flow stops, the magnetic field disappears as well. This type
of temporary magnetism is called electromagnetism.
When electricity flows through a wire or conductor, magnetic lines of force (magnetic flux) are created
around that wire. When a piece of wire is passed through a magnetic field, electricity is created in that wire.
Electromagnetic method of producing electricity is based on operation of rotating generators in which the
electricity is produced by conductors moving through a magnetic field. This method is used for generators of
various sizes.
VOCABULARY
depend on (upon) зависеть от
permanent magnet постоянный магнит
temporary magnet электромагнит
magnetize намагничивать
retain сохранять
compass needle стрелка компаса
magnetic field магнитное поле
horseshoe magnet подковообразный магнит
bar magnet стержневой магнит
north (south) magnetic pole северный (южный) магнитный полюс
inexpensive недорогой
coil катушка, обмотка
wire проволока, провод
conductor проводник
magnetic flux / lines of force силовые линии магнитного поля
be based on основываться на
rotating generator вращающийся генератор

QUESTIONS
1. What is the role of magnetism in the field of electricity?
2. What kinds of magnet do you know?
3. What is a permanent magnet?
4. What examples of permanent magnets can you give?
5. What is electromagnetism?
6. What happens to a wire when electricity flows through it?
7. What is the principle of electromagnetic method of producing electricity?
8. Where is electromagnetic method of producing electricity used?
3. ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
Electric charges in motion form electric current. Electric current is equal to the quantity of electric
charges passing a given point in unit time. Conduction is the name given to a movement or flow of charges.
The charges may be either positive or negative. In electrical circuits the flow of electric charges is
considered to be a flow of electrons (negative charges) along a conductor or through a conducting medium.
But charges may also be ions when the conduction takes place in gaseous or liquid conductors in which the
ions are mobile.
To make electrons move through a metal conductor, there exists a driving force called electromotive
force (e.m.f.), which moves electric charges from one point in the circuit to another. When the e.m.f. is
applied to the ends of the wire, the free electrons move in one direction. The greater the number of
participating electrons, the greater is the flow of current.
As it is impossible to see electric current, its existence is proved by its effects. A current can heat a
conductor, it can have a chemical action when passing through a solution, or it can produce a magnetic
effect. The currents can be measured by observing their heating, chemical or magnetic effects.
There exist several kinds of current: direct current, alternating current, pulsating current.
Direct current (D.C.) is an electric current that flows in one direction only and doesn't change its
direction and magnitude at a constant resistance of a circuit.
The sources of direct current may be either galvanic elements, or thermoelements, or D.C. generators and
accumulators. Besides, direct current may be obtained by converting alternating current into direct one with
the help of rectifiers.
Almost all current calculations in D.C. circuits are based on Ohm's law. According to this law, any
circuit section, connecting two points of (his circuit and not having electromotive force, contains current

where U - voltage or potential difference between these two points, R - resistance of the circuit section
connecting them. Ohm's law can be applied to the whole circuit in case there exists only one source of
supply in it:

where E - electromotive force of d.c. source of supply; R - resistance of the entire circuit, including internal
resistance of the source of supply.
Alternating current (A.C.) is an electric current that changes both its direction and magnitude at fixed
intervals of time. The strength of the current in alternating circuits, unlike that in direct ones, depends not
only on the resistance of the entire circuit and the voltage applied to it, but on the inductance and capacitance
of the circuit sections as well.
Pulsating current is an electric current, alternative in its magnitude and stable in its direction. It is
produced when conversion of an alternating current into a direct current in current rectifiers, in anode cir-
cuits of electronic lamps etc. takes place.
VOCABULARY

quantity количество
unit time единица времени
ion ион
gaseous газообразный
mobile подвижный
conducting medium проводящая среда
electromotive force электродвижущая сила
existence существование
magnitude величина, значение
resistance сопротивление
galvanic element гальванический элемент
thermoelement термоэлемент
d.c. generator генератор постоянного тока
convert преобразовывать
rectifier выпрямитель
circuit section участок цепи
voltage напряжение
potential difference разность потенциалов
source of supply источник питания
inductance индуктивность
capacitance емкость

QUESTIONS
1. What forms electric current?
2. What is electric current equal to?
3. What charges flow in electrical circuits?
4. What is conduction?
5. What charges flow in gaseous and liquid conductors?
6. What is electromotive force?
7. What happens to free electrons when the electromotive force is applied to the ends of the wire?
8. What kind of current is called direct current?
9. What are the sources of direct current?
10. How can alternating current be converted into direct one?
11. How can Ohm's law be applied to a circuit section? To an entire circuit?
12. What is alternating current characterized by?
13. What does the strength of the current in A.C. circuits depend on?
14. When is pulsating current produced?

4. BASIC UNITS OF ELECTRICITY AND MEASURING DEVICES


There exist three basic electrical units in any electrical circuit: ampere, ohm and volt.
The ampere is an electrical unit for measuring the strength of electric current in a circuit. One ampere
represents the amount of current generated by 1 volt acting through the resistance of 1 ohm. For measuring
the intensity of an electric current in amperes a device called ammeter is used.
The ohm is an electrical unit for measuring the resistance or opposition to the flow of current. All
substances show different resistances to the flow of electricity through them. With the increase in the tem-
perature the resistance of all metals increases while the resistance of carbon, insulating materials,
(electrolytic) solution decreases. One ohm represents such a resistance that a one-volt addition to the
potential produces 1 ampere of current. The device used for measuring resistance is called ohmmeter. The
most commonly used device for measuring insulation resistance is megohmmeter or "megger". It is usually
employed for continuity, ground and short-circuit testing in general electrical power work.
The volt is an electrical unit measuring the external force applied to a circuit to overcome the opposition
to the flow of current. This force is called voltage and is also referred to as electromotive force or electric
pressure. The electromotive force that causes a current of 1 ampere to flow through a resistance of 1 ohm
equals 1 volt. The device used for measuring voltage is called voltmeter.
One more important unit of electrical measurement is the watt - the unit of power: the power of 1
ampere of current pushed by one volt of electromotive force. Devices used for measuring delivery of electric
energy in watts are called wattmeter and watthourmeter.
VOCABULARY
unit единица (измерения)
measuring device измерительный прибор
strength, intensity сила, напряженность
ammeter амперметр
(electrolytic) solution электролит
carbon угольный электрод
potential эл. потенциал, напряжение
insulation resistance сопротивление изоляции
continuity непрерывность
ground заземление
short circuit короткое замыкание
external force внешняя сила
electric pressure электрическое напряжение
cause a current to flow заставлять ток течь
power мощность, энергия
wattmeter ваттметр
watthourmeter электросчетчик

QUESTIONS
1. What is ampere?
2. What does one ampere represent?
3. What device is used for measuring the intensity of electric current?
4. What is resistance measured in?
5. What is the difference between the resistance of metals and that of carbon?
6. What does 1 ohm represent?
7. What is ohmmeter used for?
8. What device is used for measuring insulation resistance?
9. What testing is "megger" employed for?
10. How is the external force applied to a circuit to overcome the resistance measured?
11. What does 1 volt equal?
12. How is the power of electric current measured?

EXERCISES
I. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. the property of the molecules of iron to store energy in a field?
2. the study of electricity at rest?
3. the study of electricity in motion?
4. a piece of iron or steel which being magnetized retains its magnetism?
5. the method of producing electricity based on operation of rotating generators in which electricity is
produced by conductors moving through a magnetic field?
6. a movement of charges?
7. a driving force making electrons move through a metal conductor?
8. an electric current that doesn't change its direction and magnitude?
9. an electric current that changes both its direction and magnitude at fixed intervals of time?
10. an electric current alternative in its magnitude and stable in its direction?
11. an electric unit intended for measuring the strength of electric current in a circuit?
2. a device used for measuring resistance?
3. a device used for measuring insulation resistance?
4. an external force applied to a circuit to overcome the opposition to the flow of current?
5. a device used for measuring voltage?
2. devices intended for measuring delivery of electric energy in watts?
3.

II. Make sure you’ve grasped the contents of the texts given above:
1. There was developed the idea that similar kinds of electricity:
a) attract each other;
b) repel one another;
c) attract small pieces of iron.
2. Electrodynamics studies:
a) electricity at rest;
b) random movement of free electrons;
c) electricity in motion.
3. Examples of static electricity are:
a) charges on condenser plates;
b) magnetic lines of force around the wire;
c) ions moving In liquid conductors.
4. Each of permanent magnets has:
a) a north pole only;
b) a south pole only;
c) both a north and a south poles.
5. Permanent magnets are used for producing the magnetic field necessary for operation of;
a) ship's electric propulsion plants;
b) small electrical motors;
c) generators of all sizes.
6. In electrical circuits the flow of electric charges is a flow of:
a) electrons;
b) positive charges;
c) ions.
7. When the E.M.F. is applied to the ends of the wire:
a) positive charges move in one direction;
b) free electrons move in random manner;
c) free electrons move in one direction.
8. According to Ohm's law applied to the entire circuit the strength of the current is;
a) inversely proportional to the e.m.f. and directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit;
b) directly proportional to the e.m.f. and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit;
d) inversely proportional to the e,m.f. and to the resistance of the circuit,
9. The strength of the current in A.C circuits depends on:
a) the resistance of the circuit and the voltage applied to it only;
b) the resistance of the circuit and the inductance and capacitance of the circuit section;
c) the resistance of the circuit, the voltage applied to it, the inductance and capacitance of the circuit
sections.
10. With the increase in the temperature the resistance of all metals:
a) decreases;
b) increases;
c) remains unchangeable.

III. Mind your Grammar.


Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form - Present or Past Simple Active.
1. The study of the nature of electricity (to begin) in the 18th century.
2. Rubbing glass with silk (to produce) static electricity.
3. Electromotive force (to make) electrons move through a conductor.
4. The experiment held yesterday (to prove) that these substances (to show) different resistances.
5. If you want to measure insulation resistance, you (to use) "megger".
6. Voltage (to overcome) the opposition to the flow of current.
7. Many scientists (to investigate) electric phenomena in the 19th century.
8. Electrons (to move) under the influence of e.m.f.
9. Ohm's law (to give) the possibility to measure electric current in a circuit.
10. After some experiments the scientists (to define) the law of measuring three basic electrical units.
11. Charges in motion (to give rise) to a magnetic field.
12. Michael Faraday (to discover) magnetic induction.
13. When the current (to stop), the magnetic field also (to disappear).
14. Loudspeakers and electric motors (to be) examples of application of magnetism.
15. The principal utilization of electricity (to increase) rapidly with the development of telegraph in 1844,
electric motors in 1887 etc.

UNIT 2.

SHIP'S DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRIC MACHINES

I. THE CONSTRUCTION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION


D.C. machines converting mechanical energy into electrical one are referred to as D.C. generators.
Those, on the other hand, which convert electrical energy into mechanical one, are spoken of as D.C. motors.
D.S. machines are reversible and, therefore, identical in construction. They are composed of two main parts -
the stationary part which is called the frame provided with the main poles and the commutating poles, and
the rotating part which is said to be the armature, its windings and commutator being positioned on it.
The frame is made of steel in the form of a closed magnetic conductor, The main poles for the purposes
of decreasing the losses are assembled of sheet steel laminations. Mounted on them, the field windings are
built of copper isolated conductors. The main poles are intended to produce the main magnetic flux.
The commutating poles are also made of steel and arranged midway between the main poles. Their
windings as well as those of the main poles are built of copper conductors. The commutating poles with the
windings are designed to ensure non-sparking operation of an electric machine.
The armature makes up a cylindrical core made of sheet steel laminations, a two-layer winding being
fixed in their slots. The former is built of sections made of isolated copper conductors.
The commutator is constructed of separate copper bars isolated from each other and from the frame.
The section leads of the armature winding are connected to the bars. The commutator is designed for the
conversion of an alternating E.M.F. induced in the armature winding into a direct one.
The brushgear is an element designed for collecting the current from the armature winding and leading
it to the latter. It is composed of brushes, brush-holders, brush-studs, brush-rockers and current collecting
bars.
The commutator and the brushgear are the most essential parts of a d.c. machine, its reliable operation
being dependent on their condition.
The operative principle of a D.C. machine is built upon the laws of electromagnetic induction and
electromagnetic force. As the armature is rotated in the magnetic flux of the main poles by a drive motor, the
E.M.F. is induced in the armature winding. In the loaded machine, the e.m.f. brings into existence the current
with which it coincides in direction. This current interacting with the magnetic flux produces the
electromagnetic torque directed in opposition to that produced by a prime mover. As this takes place, the
machine operates as a generator. The mechanical power consumed from the drive motor is converted into the
electrical one and is given up to the mains.
When a d.c. machine is connected to the electrical source of supply, the current is generated in the
armature winding. Interacting with the magnetic flux of the poles, it produces the electromagnetic torque
which brings into rotation the armature. The e.m.f. directed in opposition to the current direction is induced
in the armature winding. In this case the machine works as a motor. The electrical power consumed from the
mains is converted into the mechanical one.

VOCABULARY
Convert преобразовывать обратимый
Reversible преобразовывать обратимый
Identical одинаковый, идентичный
Stationary неподвижный
Rotating вращающийся
frame станина, корпус
main poles главные полюса
commutating poles добавочные полюса
armature якорь
commutator коллектор
in the form of в виде
closed magnetic замкнутый магнитопровод
conductor
for the purpose of в целях
losses потери
sheet steel laminations листы электротехнической
стали
mounted on them расположенные на них
lield winding обмотка возбуждения
copper isolated медные изолированные
conductors проводники
magnetic flux магнитный поток
tion-sparking operation безыскровая работа
cylindrical core цилиндрический сердечник
slot паз
Mictions' leads выводы секций
brushgear щеточный аппарат
brush-holder щеткодержатель
brush-stud щеточный палец
brush-rocker щеточная траверса
current-collecting bar токособирающая шина
essential parts ответственные узлы.
drive motor приводной двигатель
loaded machine машина, включенная на
нагрузку
bring into existence приводить к появлению
coincide in direction совпадать по направлению
electromagnetic torque электромагнитный момент
directed in opposition to направленный навстречу
prime mover первичный двигатель
consumed from потребляемый от
is given up to передается в
bring into rotation приводить к вращению
the mains сеть

QUESTIONS
1. What type of D.C. machine is referred to as a D.C. generator?
2. What type of D.C. machine is spoken of as a D.C. motor?
3. What are the two main parts of a D.C. machines?
4. What is the frame composed of?
5. Is the construction of the commutating poles identical to the one of the main poles?
6. Are the commutating poles intended for the same purposes as the main poles?
7. What does the armature make up?
8. What is the commutator designed for?
9. What are the elements the brushgear is constructed of? What is it designated for?
10. What laws is the operative principle of a D.C. machine built upon?
11. How can the operative principle of a D.C. machine be described?
12. In what case does a D.C. machine operate as a D.C. generator?
13. Under what condition does a D.C. machine work as a D.C. motor?
14. What happens to the electrical power consumed from the mains when a D.C. machine works as a
motor?

Fig. 2 Four-pole D.C. generator

2. D.C. GENERATORS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS


D.C. generators are provided with the armature winding and one к two field windings. Depending on the
type of the armature winding and field winding interconnection D.C. generators may be recognized as those
of separate excitation, of shunt excitation, of series excitation, and of compound excitation.
In a separately excited generator, the field winding obtains its supply from a separate current source. It is
connected in series with the armature winding in a series-wound generator and in parallel - in a shunt-wound
generator. A compound-wound generator has two field windings positioned on the main poles, one of them
being connected IN shunt, the other - in series with the armature winding. The parallel field winding
concentrates the current ranging from 1 to 6% of the rated armature current. It is made from copper
conductors provided with a large number of turns of relatively small section. The series field winding carries
the entire armature current and hence its conductors are of large section.
Shunt-wound generators, series-wound generators and compound- wound generators are self-excited;
that is to say they don't require a separate current source for their excitation. The current supplying the wind-
ings is derived from the generator armature.
The generator properties depend upon the method of the generator excitation. They may be expressed by
definite characteristics, that is, the relationships between the e.m.f., the voltage, the armature curtail and the
excitation, all of them being responsible for the operation of и D.C. machine on different loads. The most
important of the indicated magnitudes is the voltage which is dependent on the above mentioned excitation
current, the armature current and the rotational speed.
The main characteristics which reveal the properties of D.C. generators may be described as follows.
No-load characteristic is defined as the relationship between the generator e.m.f. E and the excitation
current Iex with the armature current I = 0 (curve 1, fig.2,a): E = f(Iex). This characteristic lets us judge] the
saturation of the magnetic circuit and may be applied for plotting] the other characteristics.
Short-circuit characteristic (fig. 2,b) shows the relationship: between the armature current Ish and the
excitation current with the short circuited armature and the voltage equal to zero: Ish = F (Iex). This char
acteristic is plotted as a straight line since under short-circuit condition^ the generator magnetic circuit is
practically not saturated.
External characteristic (fig. 2,c) is the relationship between the voltage U and the armature current I
with the resistance in the excitation circuit Rex = const. The equation is U = f (I). The external characteristics
plotted in fig. 2,с are those of a separately excited generator (1), of a shunt-wound generator (2), of a series-
wound generator (3) and of a compound-wound generator when its field winding is either connected
accordantly (4) or in opposition (5) to the armature winding. With the excess M.M.F. of a series winding the
compound-wound generator voltage shows an increase when the armature current rises (6).
Regulation characteristic (fig. 2,d) makes up the relationship between the excitation current and the
armature current with the generator voltage U = const: Iex = f (I). Fig. 2,d shows by graphical display the
regulation characteristics of a shunt-wound generator (1), of a separately-excited generator (2) and of a
compound-wound generator (3) with its windings connected accordantly.
Load characteristic indicates the relationship between the volt age U and the excitation current Iex: U =
f (Iex) with I = const. The load characteristics of a separately-excited generator (2) and of a compound wound
generator (3) with its windings connected accordantly appeal in fig. 2, a. As illustrated in the figure, curve 3
passes above the noj load curve (1). This may be explained by the action of the m.m.f. of series winding.

VOCABULARY
depending on the type of the в зависимости от способа
Armature winding and field подключения обмоток якоря и
winding interconnection возбуждения между собой
separately-excited generator генератор независимого возбуждения
self-excited generator генератор самовозбуждения
shunt-wound generator генератор параллельного возбуждения
series-wound generator генератор последовательного
возбуждения
compound-wound generator генератор смешанного возбуждения
separate current source посторонний источник тока
In shunt / in parallel параллельно
in ,series по следовательно
rated armature current номинальный ток якоря
turn виток
section сечение
delivered from поступает с
properly свойство
relationship зависимость
rotational speed частота вращения
no-load characteristic характеристика холостого хода
saturation of the magnetic circuit насыщение магнитной цепи
short circuit characteristic характеристика короткого замыкания
straight line прямая
external characteristic внешняя характеристика
when its field windings при согласном и встречном
are either connected подключении обмоток возбуждения
accordantly or in opposition
with the excess m.m.f. при избыточной м.д.с.
regulation characteristic регулировочная характеристика
load characteristic нагрузочная характеристика
no-load curve кривая характеристики холостого хода
action действие

QUESTIONS
1. How many armature windings and field windings are D.C. generators provided with?
2. What types of D.C. generators depending on the way of the armature winding and field winding
interconnection do you know?
3. What fact does a separately excited generator take its name from?
4. In what way is the field winding connected with the armature winding in a shunt-wound generator?
5. In what way is the field winding connected with the armature winding in a series-wound generator?
6. How many field windings does a compound-wound generator have? How are they connected to the
armature winding?
7. Why are D.C. generators of shunt excitation, of series excitation and of compound excitation considered
to be self-excited?
8. What do the generator properties depend on?
9. What are the magnitudes responsible for a D.C. machine operation on different loads?
10. Which of the magnitudes is the most important?
11. What relationship is the no-load characteristic defined as?
12. What relationship does the short-circuit characteristic show?
13. What magnitudes are presented in the relationship which the external characteristic makes up?
14. What are the magnitudes displayed in the relationship by which the regulation characteristic is
expressed?
15. What is the relationship that the load characteristic indicates?

Fig.2. Characteristics of D.C. Generators: a - no-load and load characteristics; b - short-circuit characteristic; с
- external characteristics; d - regulation characteristics
3. APPLICATION OF D.C. GENERATORS AND THEIR PARALLEL OPERATION
Practically all D.C. generators installed on vessels for supplying auxiliary power are of the self-excited
type.
Shunt-wound generators are usually used as the exciters of separately excited generators and have the
added feature of charging accumulative batteries. The latter is associated with the fact that with a reverse
current they aren't remagnetized in view of the unchangeable current direction in the field winding.
Series-wound generators have the voltage which varies abruptly with the load and, therefore, this type of
D.C. generators is not used on hoard ships.
Compound-wound generators are not subject to frequent overloads and short-circuit, for the series field
winding demagnetizes them. They are employed in welders as well as in some electric drives on the voltage-
control system.
Separately excited generators find application where a wide- range voltage regulation is required, that is
in the electric drives of steering gears, windlasses, winches etc. as well as in the electric propulsion plants as
main generators and exciters.
When putting D.C. generators in parallel operation, it is necessary that two conditions be met: 1) their
polarity should be the same as the one in the mains to which they are connected; 2) their e.m.f. is required to
be equal to the mains voltage. The device responsible for fulfilling the indicated conditions is a voltmeter of
a magnetic electric system. In order to transmit the power from one generator operating in parallel to
another, the excitation currents of the generator to which the power is transferred, should be increased but
those of the generator from which it is collected, should be reduced. The generators are required to be loaded
as uniformly and proportionally to their rated capacities as possible. If this condition is not fulfilled, the
efficiency will be lower.

VOCABULARY
auxiliary power мощность собственных нужд
(электростанции)
exciter возбудитель
charge accumulative batteries заряжать аккумуляторные батареи
with a reverse current при обратном токе
remagnetize перемагничивать
in view of из-за
vary abruptly резко меняться
overload перегрузка
demagnetize размагничивать
welder сварочный агрегат
voltage-control system система "генератор - двигатель"
a wide-range voltage regulation широкое регулирование напряжения
steering gear рулевое устройство
windlass брашпиль
winch лебедка
electric propulsion plant гребная электрическая установка
polarity полярность
mains voltage напряжение сети
magnetic electric system магнитоэлектрическая система
transmit (transfer) the power передавать мощность
collect the power снимать мощность
uniformly равномерно
proportionally to rated пропорционально номинальным
capacities мощностям
efficiency кпд
QUESTIONS
1. What type of D.C. generators installed on vessels is used for supplying auxiliary power?
2. What purposes are shunt-wound generators applied for?
3. Why are shunt generators capable of charging accumulative batteries?
4. Is a series-wound type of D.C. generators employed on board ships?
5. If it isn't, why?
6. Why are compound-wound generators not subject to frequent
7. overloads and short-circuits?
8. Where are compound-wound generators employed?
9. Why are separately-excited generators used in driving steering gears,
10. windlasses, winches etc.?
11. As what are separately-excited generators applied in the electric propulsion plants?
12. What conditions should be met to put D.C. generators in parallel operation?
13. What do you call the device which is responsible for fulfilling the conditions necessary for putting
D.C. generators in parallel?
14. What is done to the excitation currents to transmit the power from one generator to another?
15. How should generators working in parallel be loaded?

EXERCISES
I. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. the rotating part of a D.C. machine?
2. the poles which are designed to ensure non-sparking operation of an electric machine?
3. the element of a D.C. machine which is intended to convert alternating e.m.f. induced in the armature into
direct one?
4. the element which brings into rotation the armature?
5. the type of D.C. generator the field winding of which obtains its supply from a separate current source?
6. the stationary part of a D.C. machine?
7. the element of a D.C. machine that is designed for collecting the current from the armature winding and
leading it to the latter?
8. the poles which are intended to produce the main magnetic flux?
9. the type of D.C. generator the field winding of which is connected in series with the armature winding?
10. the characteristic of a D.C. generator which is defined as the relationship between the generator e.m.f. E
and the excitation current Iex with the armature current 1 = 0?
11. the type of D.C. generator the field winding of which is connected in parallel with the armature winding?
12. the characteristic of a D.C. generator that shows the relationship between the armature current Ish and the
excitation current with the short-circuited armature and the voltage equal to zero?
13. the type of D.C. generator which has two field windings?
14. the characteristic of a D.C. generator which is the relationship between the voltage U and the armature
current I with the resistance in the excitation circuit Rex = const?
15. the power which is for the most part supplied by self-excited generators?
16. the characteristic of a D.C. generator that makes up the relationship between the excitation current and the
armature current with the generator voltage U = const?
17. the type of D.C. generator which doesn't require a separate current source for its excitation?
18. the phenomena to which compound-wound generators are not subject, for their series field winding
demagnetizes them?
19. the characteristic of a D.C. generator which indicates the relationship between the voltage U and the
excitation current Iex with I = const?
20. the set in which separately-excited generators are used as main generators and exciters?

II. Make sure you've understood the texts given above in a proper way:
1. A D.C. generator is a machine which converts:
a)electrical energy into mechanical one;
b) alternating e.m.f. into direct one;
c) mechanical energy into electrical one.
2. Non-sparking operation of a D.C. machine is provided by:
a) the brushgear; b) the commutating poles; c) the main poles.
3. The rotating part of a D.C. machine is:
a) the armature; b) the frame; c) the commutator.
4. The stationary part of a D.C. machine is:
a) the brushgear; b) the frame; c) the commutator.
5. The brushgear is an element of a D.C. machine designed for:
a) collecting the current from the armature winding and leading it to the latter;
b) producing the main magnetic flux;
c) decreasing the losses.
6. Separately-excited generators are those which obtain their supply from:
a) the generator armature; b) a separate current source; c) the commutator.
7. The most important of the magnitudes responsible for operation of a D.C. machine is:
a) the armature current; b) the e.m.f; c) the voltage.
8. External characteristic of a D.C. generator shows the relationship between:
a) the generator e.m.f. and the excitation current;
b) the excitation current and the armature current;
c) the voltage U and the armature current.
9. Load characteristic of a D.C. generator makes up the relationship between:
a) the voltage U and the excitation current Iex; b) the voltage U and the armature current;
b) the excitation current and the armature current.
10. Series-wound generators are those which:
a) are not used on board ships; b) are used in welders;
b) are used as exciters of separately-excited generators.
11. The device responsible for meeting the conditions of parallel operation of D.C. generators is:
a) voltmeter; b) wattmeter; c) ammeter.
12. Shunt-wound generators are capable of charging accumulative batteries as with a reverse current:
a) they aren't remagnetized;
b) they are demagnetized;
c) they are remagnetized.
III. Mind your Grammar.
1. Test yourself in some of the auxiliaries. Put one of the following into each gap.
is are do does
1) . . . D.C. machines identical in construction?
2) What p a r t s . . . a D.C. machine composed of?
3) W h a t . . . the field windings built of?
4) . . . the armature make up a cylindrical body?
5) W h e r e . . . the e.m.f. induced?
6) W h a t . . . the electromagnetic torque bring into rotation?
7) . . . those generators of the self-excited type?
8) . . . separately-excited generators require a separate current source?
9) What amount of c u r r e n t . . . the parallel field winding of a compound-wound generator concentrate?
10) . . . those machines operate on different loads?
11) . . . the generator magnetic circuit saturated under short- circuit conditions?
12) Where . . . separately-excited generators find application on board ships?
13) H o w . . . the generators operating in parallel required to be loaded?
14) . . . the commutator constructed of separate copper bars?
15) What relationship . . . short-circuit characteristic show?
2. Make sure you are good at building the English interrogative sentence. Put the following words in
the right order to ask a question.
1) D.C. machines reversible are ?
2) the frame made is of what ?
3) assembled what the main poles? of are
4) where the commutating poles are arranged
5) isolated the commutating bars are from each other
6) what kind of the brushgear element is
7) is from consumed a drive motor mechanical energy
8) does the field winding obtain where from its supply
9) how many a compound-wound generator does have
field windings
10) where the current is from derived
11) this characteristic is as a straight line plotted
12) relationship what make up regulation characteristic
does
13) what depend the generator properties do on
14) how the voltage does with the load vary
15) compound-wound generators subject to are overloads frequent short circuits and
16) find where separately-excited generators do application on board ships
17) the e.m.f. required is to be equal to what
18) compound-wound generators used are in welders
19) the excitation currents be should increased
20) they be can as exciters used
UNIT 3.

D.C. MOTORS

1. CONVERTIBILITY
When a D.C. machine is operating in a generator mode, the conductors of the armature winding across
which the current is flowing interact with the magnetic flux of the poles. As a result, the electromagnetic
force F opposing the armature rotation is produced. In order to overcome this force, the external force should
be exerted upon the generator armature.
If the external force is removed, the polarity of the poles is maintained and the current of the same
direction is passed through the armature winding, the electromagnetic force will preserve the same direction.
When acted upon by the electromagnetic force, the armature will rotate in the direction opposing that of the
generator rotation, and hence the D.C. machine will change over to a motor mode. The property by virtue of
which any D.C. machine may work either in a generator mode or in a motor mode is called convertibility.

2. E.M.F., TORQUE, POWER


When the D.C. motor armature is rotating, the e.m.f. the direction of which opposes the current direction
is induced in the armature winding. This e.m.f. which is called the counter e.m.f. is defined as much the
same way as the generator e.m.f.: E = сe n Ф.

The equation for the e.m.f. and voltages of a D.C. motor is the following:
(1)
where Ia is the armature current, Ra- the armature resistance.
From Equation (1) it follows that the armature current and the speed of the armature rotation can be
obtained from the equations:

(2)

(3)
Eq.(3) is the one for the speed characteristic.
The motor torque is defined by the formula:

(4)
where p is the number of pairs of poles; a - the number of pairs of parallel paths; cm - the design constant
of a D.C. machine.
The power of a D.C. motor consumed from the mains is described by the following equation:

(5)
where U is the mains voltage; I - the current consumed by the motor.
The power of the motor shaft, or the output power, can be determined in the following way:
(6)

where M is the motor torque.

3. STARTING, SPEED REGUATION, REVERSAL


While starting the D.C. motor, its armature is stationary (n = 0) and hence the counter e.m.f. E = 0. The
starting armature current is many times larger than the rated current, which may be explained by a small
quantity of the armature resistance Ra. Such a current is dangerous for the armature winding and the machine
as a whole.
In order to limit the starting current, an additional resistor (the starting rheostat) is placed in series with
the armature circuit. As the speed of rotation increases, the counter e.m.f. rises, but the armature current Ia
rapidly decreases. As the armature current decreases, the armature resistance is reduced. Towards the end of
starting, the starting rheostat should be completely withdrawn.
There exist three methods of D.C. motor speed regulation:
1) by varying the connected voltage U, owing to which stepless regulation can be accomplished (the
method is used in adjustable-potential systems);
2) by varying the resistance in the armature circuit; the regulation is step-by-step, not economical; it is
obtained by putting an adjusting rheostat in series with the armature circuit;
3) by varying the magnetic flux Ф; the regulation is stepless, wide ranged; it is attained by changing the
field current by means of an adjusting rheostat placed in the field circuit.
In order to alter the direction of the motor rotation, it is necessary to change the current direction either in
the armature or in the field winding. If the current direction in both of them is varied, the reversal will never
take place. In practice the change in the current direction о the armature usually applies.
VOCABULARY
convertibility обратимость
generator mode генераторный режим
oppose препятствовать
overcome преодолеть
exert приложить (силу, усилие)
remove убирать
maintain сохранять
pass through пропустить через
preserve сохранять
when acted upon by the под действием
electromagnetic force электромагнитной силы
change over переключаться, переходить
motor mode двигательный режим
induce наводить
counter e.m.f. противо э.д.с.
equation уравнение, равенство
speed characteristic скоростная характеристика
parallel path параллельная ветвь
design constant конструктивная постоянная
output power полезная мощность
starting пуск
speed regulation регулирование частоты вращения
reversal реверс
small quantity малая величина
in order to limit для ограничения
place (put) in series with the armature последовательно включать в цепь
circuit якоря
regulating (adjusting) rheostat регулировочный реостат
towards the end of starting к концу пуска
withdraw выводить
connected voltage подводимое напряжение
stepless regulation плавное регулирование
step-by-step regulation ступенчатое регулирование
wide-ranged regulation регулирование в широком диапазоне
QUESTIONS.
1. How is the electromagnetic force produced?
2. What should be done to overcome the electromagnetic force?
3. What are the conditions under which the electromagnetic force preserves the same direction?
4. How will a D.C. machine change over to a motor mode?
5. What kind of property is called convertibility?
6. How is the counter e.m.f. induced in the armature winding?
7. In what way is the counter e.m.f. defined?
8. Why is the starting armature current dangerous for the armature winding and the machine as a whole?
9. What should be done in order to limit the starting current?
10. What should be done to the starting rheostat towards the end of starting?
11. What are three methods of the D.C. motor speed regulation?
12. Which methods are used to attain stepless regulation?
13. Which method is used to accomplish step-by-step regulation?
14. What is to be done to alter the direction of the motor rotation?
15. Does the change in the current direction of the armature or of the field winding apply in practice?

EXERCISES
I. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. the e.m.f. having the direction opposing the current direction and induced when the armature is rotating?
2. the event which happens to a D.C. motor when the current direction either in the armature or in the field
winding alters?
3. the property of a D.C. machine by virtue of which it may work in either a generator mode or in a motor
mode?
4. the power on the motor shaft which is designated by P2?
5. the speed regulation which is accomplished by varying the magnetic flux Ф?
6. the device which is placed in series with the armature circuit in order to limit the starting current?
7. the method of D.C. motor speed regulation which is used in adjustable-potential systems?
8. the device which is put in series with the armature circuit in order to obtain step-by-step speed
regulation?

II. Make sure you have properly understood the texts given above:
1. To overcome the electromagnetic force, it is necessary that the external force:
a) be removed;
b) be exerted upon the generator armature;
c) preserve the same direction.
2. As the speed of rotation increases, the counter e.m.f. :
a) remains the same;
b) rises;
c) decreases.
3. The D.C. motor reversal will never take place if:
a) the current direction in the armature changes;
b) the current direction in both the armature and the field winding changes;
c) the current direction in the field winding changes.
4. The starting armature current is:
a) many times less than the rated current;
b) as large as the rated current;
c) many times larger than the rated current.
5. A D.C. machine will change over to a motor mode if:
a) the armature is rotating in the direction opposing that of the generator rotation;
b) the armature is stationary;
c) the conductors of the armature winding across which the current is flowing interact with the magnetic
flux of the poles.
6. Towards the end of starting of a D.C. motor the starting rheos should be:
a) completely withdrawn;
b) placed in series with the armature circuit;
c) placed in parallel with the armature circuit.

III. Mind your Grammar.


1. Notice the use of the Future Simple ("will") in the main claus Open the brackets using
the correct verb form. Translate the sentences
1) If the external force is removed, the electromagnetic force . . (preserve) the same direction.
2) If we don't change the field current, we . . . (not accomplish stepless wide-ranged speed regulation.
3) If the armature rotates in the direction opposing that of the generator rotation, the D.C. machine . . .
(change over) to a motor mode.
4) When the armature is acted upon by the electromagnetic force, it . . (rotate) in the direction opposing
that of the generator rotation
5) If we don't change the current direction either in the armature in the field winding, the reversal . . .
(not take place).
6) As soon as we place a starting rheostat in series with the armature circuit, we . . . (limit) the starting
current.
7) If we don't maintain the polarity of the poles, the electromagnetic force . . . (not preserve) the same
direction.
8) When the speed of rotation increases, the counter e.m.f. . . . (rise) but the armature current . . . rapidly
(decrease).
2. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in Present Simple Passive.
attain pass through place
induce vary withdraw
produce remove obtain
maintain define accomplish
1) The electromagnetic force F opposing the armature r o t a t i o n . . . .
2) When the D.C. motor armature is rotating, the counter e.m.f . . . in the armature winding.
3) If the external force . . . , the polarity of the poles . . . and the current of the same d i r e c t i o n . . . the
armature winding, the electromagnetic force will preserve the same direction.
4) The counter e . m . f . . . . as much the same way as the generator e.m.f.
5) The armature current and the speed of the armature rotation . . . from the following equations.
6) In order to limit the starting current, an additional resistor . . . in series with the armature circuit.
7) A step-by-step speed r e g u l a t i o n . . . by putting an adjusting rheostat in series with the armature
circuit.
8) If the magnetic flux . . . , a stepless wide-range r e g u l a t i o n . . . .
9) Towards the end of starting the starting rheostat . . . completely . . . from the armature circuit.
UNIT 4.
TYPES OF D.C. MOTORS AND THEIR DISTINCTIVE
FEATURES

1. SHUNT-WOUND MOTORS
This term is referred to a particular type of D.C. motor having the field winding connected in parallel
with the armature winding. Fig. 3, illustrates the diagram of a shunt-wound motor, on which A stands foi the
armature, ShW - for the shunt winding, SR - for the starting rheostat and Rrr - for the regulating rheostat.
This type of motor exhibits the following properties:
1. With the load increase from zero to its rated value the speed oi rotation is altered moderately - by 1 -
5% of its rated value; predominantly at the expense of the voltage drop in the armature. Consequent ly, the
speed characteristic curve (fig.3, b) is "rigid", i.e., slightly id clined:

With the change in the load the speed of rotation of a shunt-wound motor is kept constant. This can be
explained by the fact that the field current and hence the flux remain unchangeable.
2. The motor may be started idle. Stepless speed regulation within wide limits is accomplished by putting
both a regulating rheostat in the field current and an additional resistor in the armature circuit.
3. The starting torque of the motor is rather small, directly proportional to the armature current; this
being so, the current consumed from the mains is proportional to the load on the shaft. The motor torque
characteristic makes a straight line (flg.3, c).

By virtue of the fact that a shunt-wound motor features a small starting torque, a "rigid" speed
characteristic curve and a stepless speed regulation, it finds application in electric drives of fans, pumps,
compressors and other mechanisms.
Fig. 3. The diagram of a shunt-wound motor: a - the diagram; b, с - performance characteristics

2.SERIES-WOUND MOTORS
A series-wound motor possesses a field winding connected in series with the armature circuit (fig.4, a).
A series-wound motor manifests the following properties:
1. While running idle or at load which is 20 - 25% less than the filed one, the motor tends to overspeed.
The reason is that at light loads the current value both in the armature circuit and in the field winding small
and, therefore, the flux and the voltage drop in the field winding are both moderate and, as a consequence,
the speed of rotation is significant:

With the load increase the current value in the field winding and thus the flux rise. Moreover, the internal
voltage drop grows and in con sequence the speed of rotation abruptly drops off. The motor speed
characteristic makes up a "mild" curve, i.e., considerably inclined. The motor is only started under load.
2. The starting torque of a series motor is large, proportional to the square value of the armature current
(fig. 4, c):

3. The regulation of the speed of rotation is accomplished by several methods, but the one which is
economically attractive is performed by shunting the field winding, i.e., placing an adjusting rheostat in its
parallel. As a result, the speed of rotation shows an increase when compared to the rated one.
A series-wound motor is used where a large starting torque is required. They drive haulage mechanisms

(starters, turning gears etc.)

Fig.4. The diagram of a series-wound motor: a - diagram; b, с - performance characteristics


3. COMPOUND-WOUND MOTORS
This term relates to a specific type of D.C. motor which has two Hold windings: the shunt one and the
series one (fig.5). According to the method of the field winding connection the above mentioned motors may
be either differentially compounded or cumulatively compounded. A differential compound motor has the

fluxes directed in opposition: It features a small starting torque and, therefore, hasn't found
application on shipboard. A cumulative compound motor has the fluxes that add up: This
type of D.C. motor is sub classified into series-compounded and shunt-compounded.
Series-compound motors are those provided with a predominant series field winding and an auxiliary
shunt field winding. In properties, they are quite similar to series-wound motors which manifest a consid-
erable starting torque. Nevertheless, series-compound motors while running idle don't tend to overspeed
because of their shunt field winding. They are used for driving windlasses, capstans, cranes etc.
Shunt-compound motors are those which have the shunt field winding as predominant and the series
field winding as auxiliary. In properties, they are similar to shun-wound motors, but exhibit a considerable
starting torque. Shunt-compound motors are in use at electric drives of lathes, pumps etc.

Fig. 5. The diagram of a compound-wound motor: a - the diagram; b, с - performance characteristics, where
ShC - those of a shunt-compound motor, SC - those of a series-compound motor

VOCABULARY
diagram схема
exhibit/ feature/manifest характеризоваться, проявлять, иметь
отличительное свойство
moderately незначительно
predominantly в основном
at the expense of за счет
rigid жесткий
slightly inclined с малым наклоном
start the motor idle запускать двигатель вхолостую
within wide limits в широких пределах
while running idle при холостом ходе
at load при нагрузке
overspeed идти вразнос
significant большой, значительный
internal voltage drop внутреннее падение напряжения
mild мягкий
under load под нагрузкой
considerably inclined с большим наклоном
square value квадрат тока якоря
of the armature current
shunting шунтирование
haulage mechanisms тяговые механизмы
starter стартер
turning gear валоповоротное устройство
differential compound motor двигатель смешанного возбуждения с
рассогласованным включением обмоток
cumulative compound motor двигатель смешанного возбуждения с
согласованным включением обмоток
series-compound motor сериесный компаундированный двигатель
shunt-compound motor шунтовый компаундированный двигатель
lathe станок
QUESTIONS
1. What is the term of "shunt-wound motor" referred to?
2. How is the speed of rotation of a shunt-wound motor altered with the load increase?
3. What can the speed characteristic curve of a shunt-wound motor be described as?
4. Is it possible to start a shunt-wound motor idle?
5. How is stepless speed regulation of a shunt-wound motor accomplished?
6. What can you say about the starting torque of a shunt-wound motor?
7. What does the shunt motor torque characteristic make?
8. Where exactly on board ship do shunt motors find application?
9. What do you call "series-wound motor"?
10. Why does a series-wound motor tend to overspeed?
11. What can the speed characteristic curve of a series motor be described as?
12. What can you say about the starting torque of a series-wound motor?
13. What is shunting? Is shunting economically attractive?
14. What mechanisms do series-motors drive?
15. What do you call "compound-wound motor"?
16. What is the difference between a cumulative compound motor and a differential compound motor?
17. What type of compound motor is called "series-compound motor"? Where is it used?
18. What type of compound motor is called "shunt-compound motor"? Where is it used?

EXERCISES
I. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. the type of D.C. motor which possesses a field winding connected in series with the armature circuit?
2. the shunt-wound motor characteristic which makes a "rigid", slightly inclined curve?
3. the method of speed regulation which is performed by placing an adjusting rheostat in parallel with the
field winding?
4. the type of D.C. motor which has the field winding connected in parallel with the armature winding?
5. the shunt-wound motor characteristic which makes a straight line?
6. the property which a series motor manifests while running idle or at load that is 20 - 25% less than the
rated one?
7. the type of motor which is only started under load?
8. the series motor characteristic which makes a "mild", considerably inclined curve?
9. the type of D.C. motor which has two field windings?
10. the type of compound motor which hasn't found application on board ship?
11. the type of compound motor which features a small starting torque?
12. the type of compound motor which is provided with a predominant series field winding and an
auxiliary shunt-field winding?
13. the type of D.C. motor which while running idle doesn't tend to overspeed?
14. the type of compound motor having a predominant shunt field winding and an auxiliary series field
winding?
15. the type of compound motor which has the fluxes that add up?
II. Make sure you've properly realized the contents of the texts given above.
1. A shunt-wound motor is the one which has:
a) two field windings;
b) one field winding connected in parallel with the armature winding;
с) one field winding connected in series with the armature winding.
2. Stepless speed regulation within wide limits is accomplished by putting:
a) a regulating rheostat in the armature circuit;
b) an additional resistor in the armature circuit;
c) both a regulating rheostat and an additional resistor in the armature circuit.
3. The starting torque of a shunt-wound motor is:
a) small, directly proportional to the armature current;
b) large, proportional to the square value of the armature current;
c) considerable, inversely proportional to the armature current.
4. A series-wound motor is the one which:
a) doesn't tend to overspeed while running idle;
b) doesn't tend to overspeed while running at load which is 20 - 25% less than the rated one;
c) tends to overspeed while running idle or at load which is 20 - 25% less than the rated one.
5. The speed characteristic of a series-wound motor makes:
a) a slightly inclined curve;
b) a considerably inclined curve;
c) a straight line.
6. A series-wound motor is used to drive:
a) starters, turning gears etc.;
b) windlasses, capstans, cranes etc.;
c) pumps, compressors, fans etc.
7. A differential compound motor has the fluxes which:
a) add up;
b) are directed in opposition;
c) remain constant.
8. The shunt motor torque characteristic makes:
a) a slightly inclined curve;
b) a considerably inclined curve;
с) a straight line.
9. The properties of series-compound motors are:
a) absolutely identical to those of series motors;
b) different from those of series motors;
c) similar to those of series motors.
10. Cumulative compound motors may be sub classified into:
a) series-compound motors and differential compound motors;
b) shunt-compound motors and differential compound motors;
c) series-compound motors and shunt-compound motors.
11. The shunt motor speed characteristic makes:
a) a slightly inclined curve;
b) a considerably inclined curve;
c) a straight line.
12. The properties of shunt-compound motors are:
a) similar to those of shunt motors;
b) absolutely identical to those of shunt motors;
c) different from those of shunt motors.

III. Mind your Grammar:


Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form - Present Simple Ac tive or Present Simple
Passive.
1. Fig 1 . . . ( i l l u s t r a t e ) the diagram of a shunt-wound motor.
2. This type of D.C. motor . . . (exhibit) the following properties.
3. The speed of rotation of a shunt-wound motor . . . (keep) coti stant.
4. The field current and hence the flux . . . (remain) unchange able.
5. Stepless speed regulation within wide limits . . . (accomplish by putting a regulating rheostat in the
field circuit and an addition resistor in the armature circuit.
6. The motor torque characteristic . . . (make) a straight line.
7. While running idle a series motor . . . (tend) to overspeed.
8. The motor . . . only . . . (start) under load.
9. The speed regulation of a series motor . . . (perform) by shunting the field winding.
10. A series motor . . . (use) where a large starting torque . . . (require).
11. A differential compound motor . . . (feature) a small starting torque.
12. This type of D.C. motor . . . (sub classify) into series- compounded and shunt-compounded.
13. Series-compound motors . . . (provide) with a predominant series field winding and an auxiliary shunt
field winding.
14. Series-compound motors . . . (not tend) to overspeed while running idle.
15. Shunt motors . . . (find) application in the electric drives of fans, pumps, compressors etc.

UNIT 5. TRANSFORMERS

1. PURPOSE, CONSTRUCTION, TYPES


A transformer is an electromagnetic device converting an alternating current of one voltage into an
alternating current of another voltage but of the same frequency. Although there are many types of
transformers and a great variety of different applications, the operation principle is the same in each case.
A transformer (fig.6) is composed of a laminated iron core and two separate windings. The core is made
of electrical sheet steel. The winding, to which the voltage U1 is led, is called the primary winding W1. the
one from which the voltage U2 is collected, is called the secondary winding.
The operating principle of a transformer is based upon the phenomenon of mutual induction. If the
alternating current with the voltage U1 is led to the primary winding, the current I1 passing through it will
produce the alternating magnetic flux Ф in the core which cutting the turn of the primary windings will
induce the emf of self-induction E1 in iе, but in the turns of the secondary winding the emf of mutual
induction E2 will be induced. Since the magnetic flux is the same, in each turn of both the primary winding
and the secondary winding there will be induced one and the same in its magnitude emf - e. Therefore, the

emf с the primary winding the one of the secondary winding E2=ew2. If we disregard the voltage

drop in the windings, emf may be equate with the voltages:


Dividing on equation by another, we obtain:
U1/U2 = E1/E2 = w1/w2 = k;
where k is a transformer ratio, i.e. the ratio of the connected voltage to the obtained one or the ratio of
the number of turns in the primary winding to that of the secondary winding.
The currents in the transformer windings are inversely proportional to their voltages.
In construction, transformers are divided into two types - a bar- type transformer and an ironclad
transformer. Their cooling may be either airy or oily.
On board ships, in accordance with the work safety rules, only air- cooled transformers are used.
In the number of phases, transformers are one-phased, two-phased, or multiphased; in the number of
windings they are either two-circuit or multicircuit, there are also transformers which have windings with
special tappings.
In application, transformers are classified as power transformers, special purpose transformers and
autotransformers.

VOCABULARY

emf of mutual induction эдc взаимоиндукции


emf of self-induction эдc самоиндукции
turn виток
transformer ratio коэффициент трансформации
liar-type transformer стержневой трансформатор
ironclad transformer бронированный трансформатор
eooling охлаждение
airy воздушный
oily масляный
work safety rules правила техники безопасности
air-cooled transformer трансформатор с воздушным
охлаждением
multiphased transformer многофазный трансформатор

multicircuit transformer многообмоточный трансформатор


tapping ответвление, отвод
power transformer силовой трансформатор
special purpose transformer трансформатор спец. назначения
autotransformer автотрансформатор

1. What kind of electromagnetic device is a transformer?


2. What elements is a transformer composed of?
3. What is the transformer core made of?
4. What sort of windings does a transformer have?
5. What is the operating principle of a transformer based upon?
6. How are the emfs of self-induction and of mutual induction induced in the transformer windings?
7. How is the transformer ratio obtained?
8. In what proportion are the transformer currents to the transformer voltages?
9. What types of transformers do you know according to their 1)construction, 2)number of phases,
3)number of windings, 4)application?
10. What kind of cooling is used in shipboard transformers?

2. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS
A three-phase transformer is usually formed as a group of three one-phase transformers either star- or
delta-connected. Therefore, all processes taking place in a one-phase transformer are identical to those of a
three-phase transformer. The latter is composed of a three-leg core, each leg having both a primary field
winding and a secondary Held winding of the same phase. The beginning of the field windings of upper
voltage is marked by the capitals A,B,C, the ends - by the capitals X,Y,Z. Respectively, the beginning of the
field windings of lower voltage is marked by small letters a,b,c, the ends - by small letters x,y,z.
Standardized field winding connections of three-phase transformers are the following (fig.7):
a) double star connection (the second star is the one with a depicted central point);
b) star-delta connection;
c) star-delta connection (the star is the one with a depicted central point).
The last column of Fig.7 represents a number of figures (0(12),11,11). Each figure is referred to a group
of connections which reveals at what angle line-to-line lower voltage is shifted clockwise with respect to
line-to-line upper voltage, e.g. figure 0(12) shows that the shift is equal to 360°, or zero, but figure 11 - the
shift equal to 330°, as 30° is supposed to be unity.
These shifts make no difference to an energy consumer. They are only needed for putting transformers in
parallel operation.
Fig.7. Diagram of field winding connections of a three-phase transformer.

VOCABULARY
three-phase transformer трехфазный трансформатор
star-connected соединенный звездой
delta-connected соединенный треугольником
three-leg core трехстержневой сердечник
upper voltage высшее напряжение
lower voltage низшее напряжение
double star соединение звезда - звезда
star-delta соединение звезда - треугольник
depicted central point выведенная нулевая точка
shift сдвиг
clockwise по часовой стрелке
line-to-line voltage линейное напряжение
energy consumer потребитель энергии

QUESTIONS
1) What is a three-phase transformer formed as?
2) How are one-phase transformers connected in a three-phase transformer assembly?
3) Is the construction of a three-phase transformer identical to that of an ordinary transformer? What is it?
4) How is the beginning of the field windings of upper voltage marked? How is the one of the lower voltage
marked?
5) What types of standardized connections does a three-phase transformer have?
6) What are figures 12(0) and 11 referred to?
7) What are the shifts of voltage mentioned in the text needed for?

3. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS
Special transformers are available in three types: 1) current measuring transformers, 2) voltage
measuring transformers, 3) welding transformers.
Transformers measuring current and voltage are designed to widen measurement limits of ammetres,
voltmetres, wattmetres etc. in A.C. circuits. Above all, they provide operational safety of measuring instru-
ments in a high voltage network.
The rated secondary voltage of voltage transformers is equal to 100V, the one of shipboard voltage
transformers is 127V, therefore measuring instruments should be rated in accordance with this voltage.
The rated secondary current value of current transformers is equal to 5 A, the one of shipboard
transformers should be 1A. Fuses are not mounted in current transformers' secondary circuits since in case
they burn off, the transformer magnetic flux and the emf of the secondary open winding will go up to
dangerous values: winding insulation breakdown, overheating of the core and electric shock hazard of an
operating personnel become possible.
If measuring transformers are connected to a high voltage network their secondary windings and their
bodies are grounded. The value the primary (high) voltage U] in a measuring circuit is obtained by
multiplying U2 of the secondary winding by the transformer ratio

The current value I1 in a measuring circuit is equal to the product of I2 of the transformer secondary
winding and the current transform ratio:

Welding transformers are applied for arc welding by using an alternating one-phase current. Their
external characteristic is steeply drooping. The voltage in the secondary winding ranges between 30 70V.
They supply the arc across the reactive resistance, i.e. the reactor The current value may be adjusted by
varying the air-gap of the reactor magnetic conductor the current value of which may rise to 2,500A high|
On board ships only air-cooled transformers are in use. They differ in the following types:
- one-phase dry open transformer,
- one-phase dry waterproof transformer,
- one-phase dry splashproof transformer,
- three-phase dry waterproof transformer,
- three-phase dry splashproof transformer,
- one-phase dry ironclad waterproof type.
VOCABULARY
current measuring transformer измерительный трансформатор тока
voltage measuring transformer измерительный трансформатор
напряжения
welding transformer сварочный трансформатор
measurement limits пределы измерений
operational safety безопасность в эксплуатации
rated secondary voltage номинальное вторичное напряжение

rated secondary current номинальный вторичный ток


fuse предохранитель
secondary open winding вторичная разомкнутая обмотка
winding insulation breakdown пробой изоляции обмотки
high voltage network цепь высокого напряжения
body корпус
ground заземлять
product произведение
are welding дуговая сварка
steeply drooping круто падающая
magnetic conductor магнитопровод
one- phase dry waterproof однофазный сухой водонепроницаемый
one- phase dry splashproof однофазный сухой брызгозащищенный
one- phase dry ironclad однофазный сухой бронированный
waterproof transformer водозащищенный трансформатор
QUESTIONS
1. What types are special transformers available in?
2. What are current measuring transformers and voltage measuring transformers designed for?
3. In accordance with what should measuring transformers be rated?
4. Why are fuses not mounted in current transformers' secondary circuits?
5. In what case are the measuring transformers' secondary windings and bodies grounded?
6. How is the value of the primary voltage Uj obtained?
7. What is the current value Ij equal to?
8. What are welding transformers applied for?
9. What range does the voltage in the welding transformer's secondary winding vary in?
10. How can the welding transformer's current value be adjusted?
11. What types of air-cooled transformers are in use on board ships?

4. AUTOTRANSFORMERS
The primary and the secondary windings of ordinary transformers interact electromagnetically.
Autotransformers only have one winding which is primary and secondary at the same time. This winding is
arranged on a closed magnetic conductor; therefore , the conventional primary and secondary windings of an
autotransformer are not only connected electromagnetically, but also electrically. The common part of an
autotransformer winding is wound by the wire of smaller section, which makes it possible to save the mass
and the volume of the copper expended and, therefore, to reduce the steel mass. When the steel mass is
decreased,' the magnetic losses are decreased too; this being so, autotransformers are cheaper, but their
efficiency level is higher in comparison with that of ordinary transformers of the same power.
The ratio between voltages and currents in an autotransformer is identical to that of an ordinary
transformer:

Autotransformers are used for starting a.c. electric motors, regulating light, etc. Their use is prohibited,
however, in low voltage portable lighting because of the electrical type of connection between the windings
of lower and upper voltage, which can lead to the penetration of high voltage in a low voltage network and
cause injury of an attending personnel.
Autotransformers may be of a step-down and step-up type, one- phased and multiphased. If the
autotransformer winding possesses a large number of tappings, the secondary voltage Ux may be adjusted in
the range between zero and the mains voltage U 2 .
The disadvantage of autotransformers is the electrical type of connection between the secondary and
primary circuits, which makes their field of application narrower.
VOCABULARY
electromagnetically электромагнитным путем
closed magnetic conductor замкнутый магнитопровод
conventional условный
electrically электрическим путем
wire of smaller section провод меньшего сечения
mass масса
volume объем
magnetic losses магнитные потери
efficiency level к.п.д.
low voltage portable lighting низковольтное переносное
освещение
penetration проникновение
step-down transformer понижающий трансформатор
step-up transformer повышающий трансформатор
mains voltage напряжение сети
attending personnel обслуживающий персонал

QUESTIONS
1. How many windings does an autotransformer have?
2. Is the autotransformer winding primary and secondary at the same time?
3. Where is the autotransformer winding arranged?
4. In what way are the conventional autotransformer windings connected to each other?
5. What makes it possible to save the mass and the volume of the copper expended in autotransformers?
6. Why are autotransformers cheaper but their efficiency level is higher than that of ordinary transformers
of the same power?
7. Where are autotransformers used?
8. What can lead to the penetration of high voltage in a low voltage network and injure the attending
personnel?
9. What types of autotransformers do you know?
10. What is the disadvantage of autotransformers?
EXERCISES I. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. the transformer element which is usually made of electrical sheet steel?
2. the phenomenon upon which the transformer operating principle is based?
3. the ratio of the number of turns in the transformer primary winding to that of the transformer secondary
winding?
4. the transformers possessing airy cooling?
5. the transformers having a large number of windings?
6. the core which has three legs?
7. the type of the winding connection which is realized by two stars?
8. the type of the winding connection which is realized by both a star and a triangle?
9. the transformers having an electrical type of connection between the windings of lower and upper
voltage?
10. the type of lighting in which the use of autotransformers is prohibited?
11. the losses which are decreased when the steel mass is decreased?
12. the transformers that provide operational safety of measuring instruments?
13. the phenomenon of breaking the winding insulation?
14. the things related to a measuring transformer which are usually grounded when the latter is connected to
a high voltage network?
15. the type of resistance across which welding transformers supply the arc?
II. Test yourself how well you have understood "the senses" of the texts dealing with transformers.
1. A transformer is a device which converts:
a) mechanical energy into electrical energy;
b) alternating current into direct current;
c) the alternating current of one voltage into the alternating current of another voltage but of the same
frequency.
2. The operating principle of transformers is based upon the phenomenon of:
a) self-induction;
b) mutual induction;
c) electric induction.
3. The ends of the three-phase transformer windings of upper voltage are marked by:
a) the capitals A,B,C;
b) the capitals X,Y,Z;
c) the small letters a,b,c.
4. An autotransformer possesses:
a) one winding which is primary and secondary at the same time;
b) two windings;
c) many windings.
5. The efficiency of an autotransformer in comparison with that of an ordinary transformer of the same
power is:
a) higher;
b) lower;
c) absolutely the same.
6. The rated secondary voltage of shipboard voltage measuring instruments is:
a) 120 V;
b) 147 V;
c) 127 V.
7. The rated secondary current of shipboard current measuring tr formers is:
a) 1A;
b) 5A;
c) 3А.
8. Welding transformers are used for:
a) contact welding;
b) arc-welding;
c) electron-beam welding.

III. Mind your Grammar:


I. Complete the sentences with the correct form of Present Simple Active. Choose from the
verbs in the box. Use each verb once only
become show provide
supply have range
interact be cause
1) Figure 12 in the last column . . . that the shift is equal to 360
2) Current and voltage measuring transformers . . . operational safety of ammetres, voltmetres,
wattmetres etc.
3) The winding insulation breakdown and the overheating of the с . . . possible.
4) The voltage in the secondary windings . . . between 30 70 V.
5) Welding transformers ... the arc across the reactor.
6) Autotransformers only . . . one winding.
7) The transformer primary and secondary windings . . . elec magnetically.
8) The penetration of high voltage in a low voltage network . injury of an attending personnel.
9) The welding transformers' external characteristic ... steeply drooping.
2. Make one sentence from two using an -ing clause.
1) A transformer is an electromagnetic device. It converts an alternating current of one voltage into an
alternating current of another voltage.
2) The current produces the alternating magnetic flux Ф in the core. It passes through the primary winding.
3) We obtain the transformer ratio. We divide one equation by another.
4) The alternating magnetic flux Ф in the core induces the emf of self-induction. It cuts the turns of the
primary winding.

5) We obtain the value of the primary voltage U l in a measuring circuit. We multiply U 2 of the secondary
winding by the transformer ratio к.
6) An autotransformer is a device. It has one winding - the primary and the secondary at the same time.
7) The transformer magnetic flux and the emf of the secondary open winding go up to dangerous values.
They cause the insulation breakdown of the winding and the overheating of the core.

UNIT 6.
MARINE A.C. MACHINES AND SPECIAL PURPOSE
MACHINES
1. SYNCHRONOUS ALTERNATORS
This term refers to a particular type of generator the number of revolutions of which with standard
frequency is coordinated with the number of pairs of poles. The synchronous number of revolutions

The standard frequency


Synchronous alternators of small power are sometimes built like D.C. generators equipped with
stationary poles and a rotating armature. The difference is that not the commutator but the armature winding
is connected to the slip-rings causing its alternating current to flow into the external circuit.
Taking into account that it is difficult to collect large power by means of sliding contacts, synchronous
alternators are usually provided with rotating poles (the rotor) and a stationary armature (the stator).1 The
power of such alternators is practically unlimited (1,400,000 kVA).
The stator is found in a steel frame with the core mounted inside and assembled of 0,35 - 0,5 mm
electrical steel laminations. The stator winding is laid in the core slots, its leads being brought out to the ter-
minal box. Synchronous alternators may be either one-phased or three- phased. A three-phase alternator has
the stator windings either star- or delta-connected in the terminal box.
The greater part of shipboard alternators operates at the speed of
rotation ranging from 500 to 1500 rev/min and has the rotor equipped with salient poles.
The rotor is a steel shaft on which the cores of the poles with mounted on them excitation windings are
fixed, their supply being obtained through slip-rings and brushes. The source of direct current is usually a
shunt-wound generator (the exciter) which is mounted with asynchronous alternator on the same shaft.
The principal characteristics for synchronous alternators are the following:
No-load characteristic, which is the relationship between the alternator emf and the excitation currenl

with the speed of rotation n = 0. This characteristic makes it possible to judge the degree of uteel
saturation.
External characteristic which detects the relationship be
tween the alternator voltage and the load current with the speed of rotation n = const, the excitation current
and the power factor cos (p =const. The external characteristics show the change of the voltage
when the load current value and character are varied.

Regulation characteristic which reveals the relationship


between the excitation current and the load current with the alternator voltage the speed of rotation
and the power
factor The regulation characteristics indicate in what way
the excitation should be varied with the alteration of the load current value and character in order to keep the
voltage at the alternator terminals unchangeable.
Synchronous alternators in marine application are those with silicon rectifiers in the excitation system,
those with static excitation system, brushless alternators etc. Self-excited brushless alternators are the most
widespread because they do not have either a commutator, slip-rings or brushes, which makes them more
reliable and easier to operate.
VOCABULARY
synchronous alternator синхронный генератор переменного тока

standard frequency стандартная частота


synchronous number of revolutions синхронное число оборотов
external circuit внешняя цепь
sliding contacts скользящие контакты
steel frame стальной корпус
terminal box клеммный щиток
salient poles явные полюса
steel shaft стальной вал
no-load characteristic характеристика холостого хода
relationship зависимость
load current ток нагрузки
excitation current ток возбуждения
the degree of steel saturation степень насыщения стали
power factor коэффициент мощности
load current character характер тока нагрузки
alteration изменение
unchangeable неизменный
marine application морское исполнение
silicon rectifier кремниевый выпрямитель
brushless alternator бесщеточный генератор

QUESTIONS
1. What does the term of "synchronous alternator" refer to?
2. What is the equation by means of which the synchronous number of revolutions is expressed?
3. What is the standard frequency for synchronous alternators equal to?
4. What are synchronous alternators equipped with when they are built like D.C. generators?
5. Is there any difference between a synchronous alternator of small power and a D.C. generator?
1. What are the main constructive elements of synchronous alternators of large power?
2. How is the stator of a synchronous alternator of large power constructed ?
3. What types of synchronous alternators can be distinguished according to their number of phases?
4. How is the rotor of shipboard alternators constructed?
5. What are the principal characteristics for synchronous alternators?
6. What magnitudes are in relation to each other when the no-load characteristic is considered?
7. What sort of relationship does the external characteristic detect?
8. What sort of relationship does the regulation characteristic reveal?
9. What types of synchronous alternators in marine application do you know?
10. Which of synchronous alternators in marine application are the most widespread on board ships and
why?
2. INDUCTION (ASYNCHRONOUS) MOTORS.
Induction motors are simple in construction, economical and reliable in operation, owing to which they are
widely used in all industries. On board ships they are afforded to drive various machines, mechanisms and
devices; they make 80-90% of the total number of the electric motors installed.
Induction motors are the machines the rotor of which rotates asynchronously with the magnetic field. The
rotor speed of rotation varies with the change in the load on the shaft of the asynchronous motor. The ratio
between the speed of rotation of the magnetic field n, and the rotor peed of rotation n2 is defined by the slip
S = (n1-n2)/n1.
The construction of induction motors (fig.8 ) provides for two main parts: the stator which is the stationary
part and the rotor which is the moving part. The stator is a steel frame 1 with the core 2 mounted a three-
phase cage motor inside and assembled of sheet steel laminations needed to reduce eddy currents. A three-
phase winding 3 is laid in the core slots and made either one-layered (with low powers), or double-layered.
The rotor is a steel shaft 4 on which the core 5 also made o| sheet steel laminations is mounted. In the
core slots, the copper and aluminium legs 6 can be found being short-circuited from their ends by rings 7.
Such rotor is called a (squirrel-) cage type.
The operation of the induction motor is principally based on the electromagnetic interaction of its
rotating magnetic field with the cur rents in the rotor winding. The way in which the mentioned rotating field
is established by means of a set of stationary windings may be briefly described as follows. Across three
stator windings (AX,BY,CZ) shifted by 120° relative to one another a three-phase current is flowing. The
direction of the current from the beginnings of the phase windings (A,B,C) towards their ends (X,Y,Z) is
presumably regarded as opposite. At the, time to the current in the winding AX isn't flowing, but it obtains a
negative direction in the winding BY and a positive direction in the winding CZ. The resultant magnetic
field inside the stator is, therefore, directed downwards. Since the N and S poles of the field are being
permanently displaced across the inside of the stator, the revolving magnetic field is produced. The above
mentioned stator winding has only one pair of poles, owing to which the magnetic field does one revolution
during one cycle of the current reversal. If the winding has a pairs of poles and is supplied by the current of
frequency f,, the speed of rotation of the revolving magnetic field

This speed of rotation is called a synchronous one. The rotor speed of rotation is asynchronous. It is
smaller than the stator speed of rotation by the value of the slip S.
If the rotor is stationary (n2 =0), S = 1. If theoretically n2 = n, S = 0, i.e. the slip may vary between 0 and
1. With the rated load Sr= 2:6%. The rotor speed of rotation may be detected from the formula n2= n,(l - S).
The larger is the rotor speed of rotation, the less is its slip and the smaller is the rotor current frequency f2=
f1S (where f, is the stator current frequency).
On board ships tree-phase cage motors are used for driving ship's auxiliaries, anchor-mooring
mechanisms, cranes, winches etc.

VOCABULARY

induction (asynchronous) motor асинхронный двигатель


economical экономичный
reliable in operation надежный в эксплуатации
slip скольжение
one-layer winding однослойная обмотка
double-layer winding двухслойная обмотка
short-circuited закороченный
leg стержень
end торец
(squirrel-) cage motor двигатель с короткозамкнутым
ротором
presumably regarded as- предположительно принимается за...
resultant magnetic field результирующее магнитное поле
are being permanently displaced постоянно перемещаются
directed downwards направлено сверху вниз
revolution оборот
cycle период
current reversal изменение тока
rotor current frequency частота тока ротора
anchor-mooring mechanisms якорно-швартовые механизмы
QUESTIONS
1. Why are induction motors widely used in all industries?
2. What are induction motors afforded to do on board ships?
3. What do we call "induction motors"?
4. What are the constructive elements of a cage motor?
5. What is the operation of a three-phase cage motor principally based on?
6. How is the rotating magnetic field established?
7. How many revolutions does the magnetic field do during one cycle of the current reversal if the stator
winding has one pair of poles? |
8. What do we call the speed of rotation which is detected by the formula
9. What do we call the value by which the rotor speed of rotation i| smaller than the stator speed of
rotation?
10. In what way can we define the rotor speed of rotation?
11. What is the slip?
12. What exactly are the mechanisms on board ships which are driven by a three-phase cage motor?

Fig. 8. Asynchronous Cage Motor

3. ELECTRIC SPECIAL PURPOSE MACHINES


On board ships separate electrical energy consumers (radiocommunication, electric radionavigational
instruments etc.) require special sources of energy , the main electrical properties of which (voltage, the kind
of current, frequency) are different from those of shipboard electric power station. For the purposes of
converting electrical parametres
of shipboard electric power station into required ones such machines as converters are used. Rotary
converters may be either multiarmatured or one-armatured The general disadvantage of all rotary converters
is both the moving contact in the commutator-brushgear transition and the rotating parts, which makes the
converters considerably less reliable and harder to operate. At present time static converters are widespread
on board ships. The are deprived of the drawbacks indicated above.
Another variety of an electric special purpose machine is amplifiers. They are distinguished as magnetic
amplifiers and rotary amplifiers. Magnetic amplifiers (MA) have acquired a wide application on board ships
being designed for automatic regulation, monitoring and control of various marine sets. They are
advantageous in not having moving parts, being simple in construction and easy in operation, possessing
high reliability and efficiency, being characterised by instant readiness and resistance to moisture and
vibration. Magnetic amplifiers are provided to control a big power by expending a small one.
Rotary amplifiers (RA) find application in automatic control and regulating circuits of marine
generators and servomotors included into the adjustable-potential systems. Depending on its capacity a
rotary amplifier may operate as either an exciter or a generator of the system. The most widespread type of a
rotary amplifier is an amplidyne owing a cross field. It is a D.C. generator specially constructed with a
number of advantageous features: a big magnification ratio, small inertia capability, a big overload capacity
etc.
Another electric special purpose machine is a tachogenerator. It is designed for converting the speed of
rotation of the shaft possessed by machines and mechanisms into the proportional electric voltage. A
tachogenerator is required to keep linearity and symmetry of an output characteristic within the entire range
of the change of either the speed of rotation or the direction of rotation. On board ships D.C. and a.c. ta-
chogenerators are used to measure the speed of rotation of propulsion
shafts and other mechanisms. They are also provided in automatic systems to obtain the rotational speed
feedback.
Synchronous transmission systems are called selsyn systems. Various instruments designed for
controlling the operation of the ship base themselves on selsyns. Such instruments as engine and bridge tele-
graphs, a gyro-pilot, a gyro-compass, tachometres of propulsion shafts, logs etc. are installed to ensure the
control of steering gear positions, the operation of the boilers, the ship's speed and the direction of the ship's
motion.
A selsyn is composed of both the stator and the rotor. In construction, selsyns are divided into those
provided with slip-rings and those deprived of them. Slip-ringed selsyns, in their turn, may be equipped with
either the primary one-phase field winding mounted on the stator and having salient poles or the secondary
three-phase synchronisation winding mounted on the rotor and having non-salient poles.
VOCABULARY
electrical special электрическая машина
purpose machine специально) назначения
rotary converter вращающийся
преобразователь
static converter статический
преобразователь
коллекторно-щеточный
переход
magnetic amplifier магнитный усилитель
rotary amplifier электромашинный
усилитель
instant readiness мгновенная готовность
resistance to moister and влаго- и вибростойкость
vibration
automatic control and схемы автоматического
regulating управления
circuits и регулирования
adjustable-potential система генератор -
system двигатель
cross field поперечное поле
magnification ratio коэффициент усиления
inertia capability инерционность
overload capacity перегрузочная
способность
linearity линейность
symmetry симметричность
rotational speed обратная связь по частоте
feedback вращения
synchronous система синхронной связи
transmission system
slip-ringed selsyn контактный сельсин
QUESTIONS
1. For what purposes are converters used?
2. What types of converters do you know?
3. Which type of converter is advantageous on board ships ? Why?
4. What types of amplifier do you know?
5. Why has a magnetic amplifier acquired a wide application on board
ships?
6. What is a magnetic amplifier designed for?
7. Where does a rotary amplifier find application?
8. What may a rotary amplifier operate as depending on its capacity?
9. Which type of rotary amplifier is the most widespread on board ships? Why?
10. What is a tachogenerator designed for?
11. What are D.C. tachogenerators and a.c. tachogenerators used for on board ships?
12. What types of synchronous transmission system do you know?
13. What instruments base themselves on a selsyn? What are they responsible for?
14. What parts is a selsyn composed of?
15. What types of selsyn do you know?
EXERSISES
I .Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call: 1. the machine which is designed to convert the electrical parametres of shipboard electric
power station into the required ones?
2. the field with which an amplidyne is provided?
3. the frequency which is important for a synchronous alternator and equal to 50 Hz?
4. the type of alternator which doesn't have either a commutator, slip- rings or brushes?
5. the magnetic field which is established inside the motor stator and directed downwards?
6. the type of alternator the number of revolutions of which with standard frequency is co-ordinated with
the number of pair of poles?
7. the alternator characteristic which makes it possible to judge the degree of steel saturation?
8. the type of converter that doesn't have either moving contacts or rotating parts?
9. the circuits in which rotary amplifiers find application?
10. the type of motor which makes 80-90% of the total number of the electric motors installed on board
ships?
11. the property owing to which magnetic amplifiers get instantly prepared for operation?
12. the type of rotary amplifier that owns a big magnification ratio?
13. the contacts by means of which small power is collected in synchronous alternators?
14. the type of amplifier which is constructed for automatic regulation, monitoring and control of various
marine sets?

15. the value which shows the ratio between the speed of rotation of the magnetic field n x and the rotor
speed of rotation n2 ?
//. Make sure you have properly understood the texts given above:
1. Synchronous alternators are machines which:
a) convert the speed of rotation of the shaft possessed by mechanisms into the proportional electric
voltage;
b) have the number of revolutions co-ordinated with the number of poles with standard frequency;
с) regulate, monitor and control various marine sets.
2. Induction motors are machines which:
a) convert mechanical energy into electrical energy;
b) find application in automatic control and regulating circuits included into the adjustable-potential
systems;
c) have the rotor moving asynchronously with the magnetic field.
3. Converters are used for:
a) transforming electrical parametres of shipboard electric power station into the required ones;
b) driving ships auxiliaries, anchor-mooring mechanisms, cranes, winches;
c) converting electrical energy into mechanical one.
4. Amplifiers may be distinguished as those of:
a) a magnetic type and a rotary type;
b) a static type and a rotary type;
c) a one-layer type and a double-layer type.
4. Tachogenerators are machines which are used:
a) to drive various machines, mechanisms and devices;
b) to measure the speed of rotation of propulsion shafts;
c) to convert current and voltage parametres of shipboard electric power station into required ones.
5. Selsyns are systems:
a) provided with air-cooling;
b) which realize "generator-motor" interaction;
c) on which various instruments constructed for controlling the operation of the ship base themselves.
III. Mind your Grammar.
1. Complete the following sentences with the correct -ing and - ed forms. Select the right
verb from the box using it once only:
own possess have
assemble mount obtain
short-circuit equip construct
characterize range drive

1) . The stator is found in the frame with the core . . . inside and . J of 0,35-0,5mm electrical steel
laminations.
2) . A lot of shipboard alternators operate at the speed of rotation . . from 500 to 1500rev/min.
3) . Magnetic amplifiers are electric special-purpose machines . . by instant readiness and resistance to
moisture and vibration.
4) . An amplidyne is a D.C. generator specially . . . with a number advantageous features.
5) . The most widespread type of rotary amplifier is an amplidyne . . a cross field.
6) . Slip-ringed selsyns may have either the primary one-phase fiel] winding . . . salient poles or the
secondary three-phase synchr nization winding . . . non-salient poles.
7) . Three-phase cage motors are induction motors . . . ship's auxif iaries , anchor-mooring mechanisms,
cranes, winches.
8) . The core and aluminium legs . . . from their ends can be fou in the core slots.
9) . The cores of the poles have the field windings . . . their supp| through slip-rings and brushes.
10) . A great deal of ship alternators have the rotor . . . with salie poles.
2. Fill the gaps after the modal verbs with the Passive Infinitivei
1) . The copper and aluminium legs can . . . (find) in the core slots^j
2) . The way in which the rotating field is established in the stator m . . . (describe) as follows.
3) . The current value can . . . (adjust) by varying the air-gap of reactor magnetic conductor.
4) . Measuring instruments should . . . (rate) in accordance with t voltage indicated above.
5) . Slip-ringed selsyns can . . . (provide) with the primary on phase field winding.
6) . Insulation stands must . . . (use) to protect personnel against a phase voltage.
7) . Insulation gloves should . . . (put) on when it is necessary to withstand a working voltage of an
electrical set.
8) . If the rules of the electrical maintenance and safety are not observed, the normal state of the
equipment may . . . (break).
9) . The troubles must . . . (eliminate) in time.
10) . The test procedure of this autotransformer should . . . (do) in accordance with the safety rules.

-
UNIT 7.

SHIP'S POWER PLANTS AND NETWORKS


1. SHIP'S POWER PLANTS
Ship's power plant is a complex of primary mechanical motors electric generators and distribution gears
with control and protection devices.
Ship's power plants are classified according to their function, kind of current, type of primary motor,
voltage and mode of control.
According to their function, power plants can be subdivided into} a) lighting power stations, having a
power up to 100 kW; b) com* bined power stations (for power and light consumers supply) - 6000kW and
more; c) emergency power stations - up to 500 kW; d) power stations for electric propulsion - up to
140.000 kW; e) auxiliary power stations for electric propulsion - up to 15.000 kW.
According to the kind of current, they are classed as power station! of direct or alternating current.
According to the type of primary motor, there distinguished: a) diesel generators, b) steam generators;
c) turbine generators; d) shaft generators.
According to the voltage: the rated voltage on the electric powef supply terminals should not exceed: a)
at a direct current - 230 V; b) at a one-phase alternating current - 270V; c) at a three-phase alternating
current - 460 V.
According to the mode of control, there recognized: a) non-automated, b) partially automated; c)
automated power stations.
DISTRIBUTION (SWITCH-) GEARS
Distribution gears are such constructions which serve to accommodate commutating, protective,
regulating, signalling apparatuses and electric measuring devices. Thus, they ensure control, protection and
regulation of electric installations and power plants operation as well as measuring of electric power supply
sources parametres.
Distribution gears are classified according to their function, kind of current, design, mode of installation
and fastening.
According to the function, there distinguished: a) main distribution boards (switchboards), intended for
control, protection and regulation of basic generator units parametres as well as for electric power
distribution over its consumers; b) emergency distribution boards, performing the same function as the
main ones but for emergency generating units and their consumers; c) control panels (consoles), exerting
remote control and control over the generating units and essential power consumers operation; d) coastal
power supply boards, intended for energy delivery from the coast or from other ships; e) switchboards,
which serve to ensure power supply in a certain part of a ship. They are supplied from main or emergency
distribution boards; f) separate consumers boards, exerting control over operation of essential consumers,
having a complicated mode of operation; g) electric power converters boards are similar to main
distribution boards but designed for electric power converters and their consumers.
According to the kind of current, there recognised switchgears of a) direct current, b) alternating one-
phase and three-phase current.
According to their design, switchgears can be: proof, drop-proof, splash-proof, water-proof and
watertight, explosion-proof, hermetic.
According to the mode of installation and fastening, there can be a) suspended switchgears of a leaning
type, which are installed on a
VOCABULARY
power plant (station) электростанция
lighting ~ осветительная ~
combined ~ комбинированная ~
emergency ~ аварийная ~
~ for electric - электродвижения
propulsion
auxiliary ~ вспомогательная ~
distribution gear распределительное
(switchgear) устройство
primary motor первичный двигатель
mode of control способ управления
rated voltage номинальное
напряжение
partially automated частично
автоматизированный
accommodate размещать
mode of installation способ установки
fastening крепление
consumer потребитель
generator units генераторные
агрегаты
exert осуществлять,
выполнять
essential основной, (зд.)
ответственный
coastal power supply щит питания с берега
board
mode of operation режим работы
converter преобразователь
proof защищенный
water-~ водо—
drop- капле—
splash— брызго—
explosion— взрывобезопасный
hermetic герметичный
suspended подвесной
of leaning type прислоннош типа
free-standing свободностоящий
QUESTIONS
1. What does the notion "ship's power plant" include?
2. How are ship's power plants classified?
3. What is the classification of ship's power plants according to their function?
4. How are power plants classed according to the type of primary motor?
5. What modes of control are used for ship's power plants?
6. What do switchgears serve to? What do they ensure?
7. What are the principles of classification of switchgears?
8. How are switchgears classified according to their function?
9. What is the function of main distribution boards?
10. What is the difference between emergency distribution boards and main ones?
11. What are the functions of:
■ control panels?
■ coastal power supply boards?
■ switchboards?
■ separate consumers boards?
■ electric power converters boards?
12.What currents can switchgears run on?
13. What peculiarities of switchgears' design do you know?
14. How can switchgears be installed on board ships?
2. POWER PLANT SWITCHGEAR EQUIPMENT
According to the function, switchgear equipment is subdivided into (twitching, protective, switching-
protective, measuring, control and signaling equipment.
Switching equipment serves for electric circuits switching-in, switching-off and switching-over. Among

switching equipment are: knife SWitches, knife-blade-type switches, packet switches and universal

switches
Protective equipment is intended for protection of electric energy sources, circuits and consumers
against overloads, short-circuits, voltage drop, inverse current and inverse power. Among protective equip-
ment are fuses and relays.
Switching-protective equipment is applied for electrical installation switching-in, switching-off and
protection. Automatic switches of different types refer to this kind of equipment.
Measuring equipment (ammeters, voltmeters, wattmeters, pha- someters, megohmmeters and
synchronoscopes) is destined for the control over the electrical installation normal operation.
Control equipment is intended for stabilization and control of the electric circuits preset parameters. It
can be manual or automatic. Among manual control equipment are rheostats of different types and excitation
controllers.
Signaling equipment is designed for signaling about the electric circuits state and the position of the
switching equipment. It includes light and audible signaling devices.
switchgears аппаратура распределит,
equipment устройств
switching ~ коммутационная ~
protective ~ защитная ~
switching-protective коммутационно-защитная ~
~
measuring ~ измерительная ~
control ~ регулировочная ~
signaling ~ сигнальная ~
knife switch рубильник
knife-blade-type переключатель рубящего
switch типа
packet switch пакетный
выключатель/переключатель
control over контроль за
control of регулирование /чего-либо/
excitation controllers регуляторы возбуждения
light/audible alarm световая/звуковая
сигнализация
QUESTIONS
1. How is switchgear equipment subdivided according to its function?
2. What does switching equipment serve for?
3. What is protective equipment intended for?
4. What is switching-protective equipment applied for?
5. What is measuring equipment destined for?
6. What is control equipment intended for?
7. What is signal equipment designed for?
3. SHIP'S POWER NETWORK
Ship's power network is a complex of electric cables, wires, nwitchgears and accessories, which serve for
electric power delivery to the consumers.
According to their function, networks are divided into:
■ Power mains, intended for power consumers' supply, i.e. different electric drives and powerful
electric heating devices.
■ General lighting network, which, in its turn, is subdivided into: и) ship's accommodations lighting
network; b) engine room and boiler room lighting network; c) outside lighting network; d) hold lighting net-
work.
■ Emergency lighting network, which is supplied from the main distribution board through the
emergency distribution board and usually Has no switches.
■ Battery-powered emergency lighting network, which is «witched on automatically, when the
voltage on the main or emergency distribution board vanishes.
■ Portable low-voltage lighting network, which is used while ex- ttmining and repairing the
equipment. It is supplied through bucking transformers or, if electric power distribution is performed on
normal voltage, through plug-transformers.
■ Light-current installations network includes engine and rud-
84
85
der telegraphs networks, tachometers, salinometers, pyrometers, resii tance thermometers networks as well
as networks of telephone comma nication and alarm ( fire, emergency, watch, etc.)
■ Electric radio navigation equipment network comprises g; rocompass, echo sounder, log, radio
pelorus etc. networks.
Electric networks are made of ship's cables and wires. The ship* cable is one or several isolated electric
conductors, having one or seM eral mutual protective shells, which guard isolation and current-carry! ing
conductors against mechanical and chemical effects. Marine powal cables isolation is mostly rated for 700 V
of direct current and 1000 4 of alternating current. In accordance with the type of protection the ctr bles are
divided into: non-hermetic (which are not protected again» moisture), hermetic (protected against moisture
in both radial and Ion gitudinal directions), iron-clad (protected against mechanical damage: and shielded
(protected against interference during radio reception anA against mechanical damage).
VOCABULARY
сеть силовая сеть
сеть основного освещения ~ освещения судовых помещений 1 ~ наружного освещения ~ трюмного
освещения ~ ~ аккумуляторного аварийного ~
~ низковольтного переносного ~ J установка слабого тока машинный телеграф рулевой телеграф
арматура исчезать
network сеть
power mains ~ силовая сеть
general lighting сеть основного освещения
network
ship's accommodations ~ освещения судовых
-~ помещений
outside — ~ наружного освещения
hold ~ ~ ~ трюмного освещения
battery-powered — ~ аккумуляторного
emergency аварийного ~
portable low-voltage ~ низковольтного
— переносного -
light current установка слабого тока
installation
engine telegraph машинный телеграф
rudder telegraph рулевой телеграф
accessories арматура
vanish исчезать
bucking transformer понижающий
трансформатор
понижающий трансформатор 86
plug-transformer штепсель-
трансформатор
salinometer соленомер
pyrometer пирометр
log лаг
radio pelorus радиопеле нгатор
mutual protective общая защитная
shell оболочка
guard предохранять,
защищать
moisture влага
radial direction радиальное
направление
longitudinal продольное
direction направление
iron-clad панцирный
shielded экранированный
interference помеха
radio reception радиоприем

1. What is the aim of the ship's power network?


2. What is the power mains intended for?
3. What is the general lighting network subdivided into?
4. How is the emergency lighting network supplied?
5. Under what condition is the battery-powered emergency lighting network switched on?
6. What is the purpose of the portable low-voltage lighting network?
7. What does the light-current installations network include?
8. What does the electric radio navigation equipment network comprise?
9. What is the ship's cable?
10. What are the cables divided into according to the type of protection?

EXERCISES
I. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. a complex of primary mechanical motors, electric generators distribution gears?
2. a construction which serves to accommodate commutating, profi tive, regulating and signalling
apparatuses?
3. a distribution gear which serves for control, protection and regU tion of basic generator units parametres?
4. a distribution gear which exerts remote control and control over generating units?
5. a distribution gear which is intended for energy delivery from coast?
6. a distribution gear which is designed for control, protection and r ulation of electric power converters and
their consumers?
7. equipment which serves for electric circuits switching-in, swit1 ing-off and switching over?
8. equipment which is applied for electrical installations switchiii in, switching-ofif and protection?
9. equipment which is destined for the control over the electrical г stallations normal operation?
10. equipment which is intended for stabilization and control of q electric circuits set parametres?
11. a network which is intended for power consumers supply?
12. a network which is switched on automatically, when the volt on the main or emergency distribution
board vanishes?
13. a network which includes tachometers, salinometers, pyromet: networks, etc.?
14. a network which includes echo sounder, log, radio pelorus networ
II. Make sure you have properly understood the texts given above:
1. Lighting power stations have a power:
a) up to 270 kW;
b) over 270 kW;
c) up to 100 kW.
2. Combined power stations are intended:
a) for power and light consumers supply;
b) for electric propulsion;
c) for emergency power supply.
3. Separate consumers boards are intended :
a) for control over the generating units;
b) for control over operation of essential consumers with a complicated mode of operation;
c) for control, protection and operation of emergency generating units.
4. Suspended switchgears of leaning type are installed:
a) vertically on deck;
b) on a vertical bulkhead;
c) on a horizontal bulkhead.
5. Protective equipment comprises:
a) fuses and relays;
b) rheostats and excitation controllers;
c) automatic switches of different type.
6. Electrical installations switching and protection is conducted by:
a) switching equipment;
b) protective equipment;
c) switching-protective equipment.
7. Synchronoscopes refer to:
a) switching equipment;
b) measuring equipment;
c) control equipment.
8. Emergency lighting network is supplied from
a) emergency sources of energy;
b) main distribution board;
c) accumulators.
9. Shielded cables are protected against:
a) mechanical damage and interference during radio reception;
b) mechanical damage and chemical effects;
c) chemical effects and interference during radio reception.
III. Translate into English, using the verbs in Active or Passiv forms or in the Infinitive: To activate
1. Вакуумные трубы приводят в движение эту машину.
2. Реле служит для приведения в движение механизма циферблат (dial mechanism) часов.
3. Станки (machines) на этом заводе приводятся в движени двигателями переменного тока.
То test
1. Электрик проверил электрическое оборудование перед пуском.
2. Для проверки этой гипотезы (hypothesis) ученые провели сери экспериментов.
3. Машина была дважды проверена, прежде чем ее пустили эксплуатацию.
То change
1. Чтобы изменить ситуацию к лучшему, вам следует обратит больше внимания на работу этого
блока.
2. Электрический ток, который меняет и величину и направление в определенный интервал
времени, называется переменным током.
3. Хотя курс судна и был изменен в последний момент, они не смогли избежать столкновения.
To explain
1. Принцип запуска этой машины трудно объяснить. Лучше я покажу.
2. Им объяснили важность соблюдения правил безопасности мореплавания.
3. Старший механик объяснил новому электрику, что в его обязанности входит ежедневный осмотр
судового электрооборудования.
То show
Курсантам показали машинное отделение, в котором они будут проходить свою первую
плавпрактику.
Курсантов провели в машинное отделение, чтобы показать, где они будут проходить свою первую
плавпрактику.
Термометр показывает 25° ниже нуля.

UNIT 8.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SHIP'S ELECTRIC MACHINES


1. WATCH MAINTENANCE
Service life and reliability of the electrical equipment largely depend on its proper operation and

maintenance, namely, watch mainte-j nance, maintenance (work) and repairs.


Watch maintenance ensures electric machines readiness for operation, the change of their mode of
operation as well as starting and! shutdown operations supervision.
Normal operation of electric machines includes: correspondence] of the operating parameters to the rated
ones (voltage, current, current' frequency, speed of rotation and number of startings); the degree of heat-j ing
of separate machine parts; the condition of the insulation resistance] the proper operation of the protective
and signalling equipment, the сом rect instrument readings, etc.
After repairs or long inaction electric machines should be tested thoroughly. Trial start is usually
performed under idling conditions. Then] the load is gradually upped to the rated one.
When the generator runs under nominal load, the personnel of watch should make sure that the switch
apparatuses are in good work-' ing order, there is no inadmissible sparking on the commutator and rings, the
voltage regulators are operating properly, the frequency is normaU When the generators are working in
parallel, watch personnel should check the operation of both synchronizing apparatuses and electric mea«!
suring devices. They should observe that the voltage and frequency are
of rated values, and that the load between generators, working in parallel, is distributed properly; they should
also check the isolation resistance condition.
While working with shaft generators, the watch personnel should observe the generator drive condition
and fluctuations in voltage and frequency.
During preparation of electric motors for operation, the personnel of watch should perform superficial
examination of both the electric motor and the driving mechanism (electric drive), check the position of the
starters, the condition of the electromagnetic and mechanical brakes, and measure the insulation resistance of
the electric drive and the equipment together with the feeding cables.
In case the motor doesn't reach the required frequency, or consumes high-amperage current, or tends to
overspeed, it should be immediately stopped and started only after the fault is remedied.
While examining the electric drives the watch personnel should check that the switch apparatuses operate
properly, and that there is no sparking on the electric motors rings and commutators; examine electric
machines for local overheating; test the condition of the signaling system and measuring devices.
VOCABULARY
service life срок службы
operation and техническая
maintenance эксплуатация
watch maintenance вахтенное
обслуживание
maintenance (work) техническое
обслуживание
running repairs текущий ремонт
correspondence соответствие
rated/nominal номинальный
number of startings количество
включений
instruments readings показания приборов
inaction бездействие
thoroughly тщательно
trial start пробный пуск
idling condition режим холостого хода
switch apparatuses коммутационная
аппаратура
sparking искрение
synchronizing аппараты
apparatuses синхронизации
distribute распределять
fluctuations in колебания
voltage напряжения
superficial внешний осмотр
examination
feeding cable питающий кабель
high-amperage большой ток
current
overspeed идти вразнос
local overheating местный перегрев
QUESTIONS
1. What do the service life and reliability of the electrical equipment depend on?
2. What does watch maintenance include?
3. What is meant by normal operation of the electric machines?
4. How is trial start performed?
5. What must be included into checking the generators working in parallel?
6. What should the watch personnel observe while checking the shaft generators?
7. What must be done before starting the electric motor?
8. What does the electric drive examination include?
2. ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Electrical maintenance consists in ensuring safe operation of shipboard electrical equipment and stability
of its performance characteristics between factory overhaul periods.
Electrical maintenance is to be performed in accordance with Regulation on Operation and Maintenance
of Merchant Marine and guided by a maintenance schedule.
Periodicity and labour-intensiveness of work as well as the maintenance staff intended to do it are all set
by a standard maintenance schedule and to be corrected, relying on the actual state of assemblies of electrical
machines in compliance with their operating conditions.
The state of assemblies and parts of electrical machines is assessed on the strength of the data on the
value and change of 1) insulation resistance, 2) heating, 3) moistening, 4) brush sparking, 5) vibration, 6)
noise, 7) gaps in sleeve bearings, 8) axis runs of rotor shafts, 9) air- gaps of interiron space as well as on the
state of 10) commutators (slip- rings), 11) brushes, 11) bearings, 13) bandages, 14) bracings on the
commutator shaft.
In order to keep electric machines in operating condition preventive maintenance in provided. There are
three basic ways of preventive maintenance with which:
1) electric machines remain assembled;
2) electric machines are partially disassembled;
3) electric machines are completely disassembled.
Preventive maintenance of electric machines which remain assembled or are partially disassembled
may be executed either while the ship is running or staying in a scheduled port. The electric drives involved
in maintenance while the ship is running are those of cargo-lift- ing mechanisms, which possess a standby.
Those included in maintenance during the ship's stay in the port are electric drives of the mechanisms which
work continuously, ensure ship's safe running and have no standby. The electric drives of steering gears
relate to them, as an example.
Maintenance provided for electric machines which remain assembled incorporates their cleaning in
available places. The loosened attachments are tightened, the brushes are replaced, the brushgear is partially
adjusted, the commutator and slip-rings are cleaned, the lubrication of bearings is substituted, the insulation
resistance is measured.
Once the fault cannot be remedied with a machine which remains assembled, the latter is partially or
completely disassembled. Minor
repair, not pertaining to rewinding and re-impregnation of windings, i carried out by a ship's crew. Major
damages are dealt with in electric; workshops of ship-repairing factories. These latter also replace windinqs
insulation.
VOCABULARY
electrical maintenance техническое
обслуживание эл.машин
safe operation работоспособность,
исправность
performance эксплуатационные
characteristics характеристики
Regulation on Operation Положение о технической
and
Maintenance of Merchant эксплуатации морского
Marine флота
maintenance schedule план-график
техобслуживания
periodicity периодичность
labour-intensiveness трудоемкость
maintenance staff состав исполнителей
(работ)
standard типовой
actual state фактическое состояние
operating conditions условия эксплуатации
assemblies and parts узлы и детали
assess оценивать
moistening увлажненность
sleeve bearing подшипник скольжения
axis run осевой разбег
interiron space междужелезное
пространство
bandage бандаж
bracing, attachment крепление
preventive maintenance профилактическое
обслуживание
standby резерв
available доступный
loosen ослабить
tighten подтянуть
minor repair мелкий ремонт
rewinding перемотка
re-impregnation перепропитка
workshop цех
QUESTIONS
1. What does electrical maintenance consist in?
2. In accordance with what is electrical maintenance to be performed?
3. What is set by a standard maintenance schedule?
4. What data are needed to assess the state of assemblies and parts of electric machines?
5. What are three basic ways of preventive maintenance?
6. Why are the electric drives of cargo-lifting mechanisms maintained while the ship is running?
7. Why are the electric drives of steering-gears maintained during the ship's stay in the port?
8. What maintenance is provided for electric machines which remain assembled?
9. Is minor repair carried out by a ship's crew?
10. Where are major damages dealt with?
3. TESTING ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR DEFECTS AND CARRYING OUT REPAIRS.
CURRENT REPAIR
Electric machines are tested for defects before being repaired. The procedure of testing for defects results
in filling a detailed repair request form and making up a repair list which contains a machine registration
certificate, a number of detected defects and repairs intended to correct them. The list of materials, spare and
component parts, wiring accessories needed for repairs are also included in the list. The latter equally
identifies the type of repair - either it is current (running) or capital (overhaul).
Current repair of a D.C. machine can be performed in two ways - either the machine poles are removed
or not removed.
When the machine poles are not removed, the current repairs involves the following procedures:
1. Disassembling a machine;
2. Cleaning a machine;
3. Blowing through and washing out inner parts, bearings, а commul tator and a brushgear;
4. Detecting and eliminating minor defects;
5. Replacing bearings;
6.Slotting and grinding a commutator;
7. Drying, enamelling and redrying windings;
8. Partial repair of a brushgear with replacing and grinding brushes;
9. Assembling a machine, adjusting and testing it on a test bed;
10. Mounting a machine on a machine bearer and testing it foil operation.
When the machine poles are removed, the current repair addition4 ally provides the
following:
11. Removing the main and commutating poles with coils;
12. Disassembling, cleaning and washing poles;
13. Drying and impregnating coils with varnish;
14. Replacing and repairing defective insulative gaskets;
15. Restoring micanite gaskets of pole cores;
16. Checking insulation resistance of coils;
17. Assembling, mounting and testing pole coils for polarity.
Current repair of an a.c. synchronous or asynchronous machine
involves the same procedures as that of a D.C. machine, but the poles! are never removed as well as
commutator is not placed under repair. The brushgear, however, of both a synchronous machine and an
asynchronous phase motor is laid under partial repair.
VOCABULARY
testing for defects дефектация
repair list ремонтная ведомость
registration паспортные данные
certificate (машины)
component part комплектующая часть
wiring accessory установочное изделие
current (running) текущий ремонт
repair
capital repair капитальный ремонт
(overhaul)
blowing through продувка
washing out промывка
inner part внутренняя часть
slotting продораживание
grinding шлифовка, притирка
drying сушка
redrying повторная сушка
enamelling покрытие эмалью
impregnating with пропитка лаком
varnish
test bed стенд
machine bearer фундамент
insulative gasket изоляционная прокладка
micanite gasket миканитовая прокладка
place (lay) under ремонтировать,
repair подвергать ремонту
QUESTIONS
1. What happens to electric machines before they are repaired?
2. What does the procedure of testing for defects result in?
3. What information does the repair request form contain?
4. What ways can current repair of a D.C. machine be performed in?
5. What are the procedures that are involved in current repair when the machine poles are not removed?
6. What are the procedures that are included in current repair when the machine poles are removed?
7. Is there any difference between capital repair of a D.C. machine and that of an a.c. machine?
8. Is the brushgear of an a.c. machine laid under repair?
4. CAPITAL REPAIR OF D.C. AND A.C. MACHINES
Capital repair of electric machines is basically carried out in electrical workshops of ship-repairing
factories.
Capital repair of a D.C. machine is predominantly performed with the following procedures:
1. Disassembling a machine with removing its armature, poles with coils, bearings;
2. Complete or partial rewinding of windings with replacing wedges and slot insulation;
3. Impregnating a winding with varnish, drying, enamelling and re- drying it;
4. Disassembling and removing the commutator with replacing mi- canite gaskets between commutator
plates and cone micanite insulation;
5. Assembling a commutator on a shaft by a pressed fit, turning it on a lathe, slotting, grinding and
polishing it;
6. Replacing armature bandages and performing static balance;
7. Rewinding a half of both the main and commutating poles, repairing the others, drying, impregnating
them with varnish, drying them and enamelling pole coils;
8. Mechanical repair of a brush-rocker and brush-holders as well as restoring galvanic coating on the
parts;
9. Assembling a machine, grinding its brushes on a commutator, checking gaps;
10. Adjusting, testing a machine on a test-bed, mounting it on its bearer and testing for operation.

Г
Capital repair of an a.c. machine includes partial or complete rewinding of both the stator and the rotor.
Damages in a cage motor those of its legs and end rings - are corrected as well. Generator exciters are also
placed under repair and the latter is carried out in much the same way as that of a D.C. machine.
VOCABULARY
removing выемка
wedge клин
slot insulation изоляции пазов
cone micanite insulation миканитовая
изоляция конуса
assembling on a shaft by a сборка с
pressed fit напрессовкой на вал
turning on a lathe проточка на токарном
станке
armature bandage бандаж якоря
static balance статическая
балансировка
restoring восстановление
galvanic coating гальваническое
покрытие
grinding brushes on a притирка щеток по
commutator коллектору
leg стержень
end ring замыкающее кольцо
QUESTIONS
1. Where is capital repair of electric machines basically carried out?
2. What are the procedures of capital repair of windings?
3. what are the procedures of capital repair of a commutator?
4. What are other procedures?
5. What is the principal difference between capital repair of a D.C. machine and that of an a.c. machine?
6. What damages in a cage motor are corrected?
7. How are generator exciters in an a.c. machine repaired?

EXERCISES
1. Think of English equivalents for suggested Russian words and word combinations and complete the
sentences:
1. __________ (срок службы и надежность) of electrical
equipment largely depend on its (грамотная
техническая эксплуатация).
2 . ___________ (пробный пуск) is usually performed
___ _______ ____ (в режиме холостого хода).
The ____________ (вахтенный персонал) should observe the

generator drive condition and ___________________ J

(колебания частоты и напряжения) while working with (валогенераторы).


Once the motor doesn't reach the
(необходимая частота), or consumes a ____ (большой
ток), or tends to overspeed, it should be immediately stopped.
5 . _________________ (техническое обслуживание
электрических машин) ensures __ ___ (исправная
работа) of shipboard electrical equipment and stability of its (эксплуатационные характеристики).
6. Electrical maintenance is guided by a
___________ ____________ (план-график технического
обслуживания).
7. The _______________ (состояние узлов и деталей) is
assessed on the strength of the following data.
8. In order to keep electric machines in __ _ ____
(рабочее состояние) ___________ (профилактическое
обслуживание) is provided.
9. The electric drives involved in maintenance while the ship is running are those of
(грузоподъемные
механизмы) which possess a ________ (резерв).
10. The _____________ (ослабевшие крепления) are tightened,
the ________ (щетки) are replaced, the ________ (щеточный аппарат) is adjusted, the
__________ (сопротивление изоляции) is measured.
11 . (мелкий ремонт) not pertaining to
____________________ (перемотка и перепропитка) of
windings, is carried out by a ship's crew.
12. The procedure of ________ (дефектация) results in making up
a detailed __ __________ (ремонтная ведомость).
13. The lists of materials, _ ____________ (запасные и
комплектующие части), __ (установочные изде
лия) needed for repairs are also included in the repair request form.
14. The procedure includes ___ ___ ____ (продоражи-
вание и шлифовка коллектора) as well as ___
(продувка и промывка подшипников).
15. Any repair starts with ___________(разборка и чистка
машин).
16. Any repair finishes with ______ ___ ___________
(сборка, испытание машины на стенде, проверка в работе).
17. Capital repair also incorporates __________ _(вос-
становление гальванических покрытий) on the parts.
18. The maintenance staff must substitute the (бандажи якоря) and perform (статическая
балансировка).
19. Damages in a _________ (электродвигатель
с короткозамкнутым ротором) - those of its __ (стержни) and (замыкающие кольца) - are rectified as
well.
20. After assembling a machine the workman must grind its brushes on the commutator and check the
(зазоры).
II. Choose one of the linking words or word combinations from the box and complete the sentences.
as by means of therefore
in view of depending on as illustrated
as a whole that is to say as well as
at the expense of this being so due to
while in order to both ... and
1. Magnetism is the property of the molecules of iron and other cdj tain substances _______ which they
store energy in a field.
2. Alternating current is an electric current that changes _____ I direction magnitude at fixed intervals of
time.
3. The resistance of metals increases with the increase in the tempe; ature, ______ the resistance of
insulating materials decreases. 1
4. D.C. machines are reversible and their construction
are identical.
5. Their windings __ those of the main poles are built of coi
per conductors.
6. As this takes place, the machine operates a generator.
7. Shunt, series and compound generators are self-excite;'
________ they don't require a separate current source for the
excitation.
________ in the figure, curve 3 passes above no-load curve.
9. They aren't remagnetized _______ the unchangeable current
rection in the field winding.
10. __________ overcome this force, the external force should
exerted upon the generator circuit.
11. Such a current is dangerous for the armature winding and a machl
12. It is attained by changing the field current ________ an adjust!
rheostat placed in series with the armature circuit.
13. The speed of rotation is altered moderately - predominant ___________ the voltage drop in the
armature.
14. The starting torque of the motor is rather small, directly proportio
to the armature current; ________ the current consum
from the mains is proportional to the load on the shaft.
15 . _______ its capacity, a rotary amplifier may operate as eithf
an exciter or a generator.

UNIT 9. ELECTRICAL SAFETY


1. THE MAIN REASONS OF ELECTRICAL TRAUMATISM AND MEANS OF PROTECTION
AGAINST IT
The main reasons of electrical traumatism on board ships are the following:
■ rough infringement of Rules of both shipboard electrical maintenance and electrical safety;
■ live-line maintenance without observing protective measures;
■ imperfection of operation manual of electrical mechanisms (those of deck machinery, engine-room
etc.);
■ imperfection of construction of wiring accessory;
■ faultiness and imperfection of portable accessory and portable tools;
■ lack of uniformity in the choice of voltages of start regulating equipment control circuits;
■ unsatisfactory condition of the mains electrical insulation;
■ ill-timed elimination of the troubles and damages of the electrical equipment occurred;
■ formal instructing on safe methods of work.
The use of electrical energy on board ships is not only associated with the danger of electric shock
hazard of an operating personnel but also with possible fires.
Under normal conditions a thermal effect of an electric current is rated, i.e. the heating of conductors and
current-leading parts of the electrical equipment is calculated so that it not exceed fixed rates.
If the Rules of shipboard electrical maintenance and safety are notj observed, if damages occur and the
environmental conditions (dampness, dust, chemically active substances) affect the electrical equipment, its
normal state is broken. On electrical sets there emerge short-circuits, overloads, large transient resistances,
arc and spark discharges, which can also cause fires.
To protect an operating personnel of electrical sets against electric- shock hazard there exist principal
and additional protective means.
Principal protective means are those the insulation of which is reliable enough to withstand a working
voltage of an electrical set and makes it possible to touch hot-line current-leading parts. On electrical sets
with voltage up to 1,000 V the above mentioned means are the following: insulating gloves, tools equipped
with insulated handles, voltage indicators, insulating and clip-on instruments.
Additional protective means are not designed to ensure protect tion against electric shock hazard, but
against a pace voltage and detri-j mental effect of an electric arc and the products of its burning. Sucn means
are the following: insulating galoshes and high overshoes, insu-l lating rubber rugs, insulating stands.
There are also auxiliary protective means designed for individu-1 al protection of an operating
personnel against light, thermal and me-j chanical effects. They are protective glasses, gas-masks, special
gaunt-] lets etc.
VOCABULARY
shipboard electrical обслуживание судового
maintenance
электрооборудования
electrical safety электробезопасность
live-line maintenance работа на линии под
напряжением
с непосредственным
прикосновением
к токоведущим частям
operation manual инструкция по эксплуатации
protective measures защитные мероприятия
wiring accessory электроустановочная арматура
faultiness неисправность
portable accessoiy переносная арматура
start regulating цепи управления
equipment пускорегулирующей
control circuits аппаратуры
formal instructing формальный инструктаж
electric shock hazard опасность поражения
электрическим током
operating personnel оперативный
(эксплуатационный)
персонал
fixed rates установленные нормы
withstand a working выдерживать рабочее
voltage напряжение
hot-line current- токоведущие части,
leading parts находящиеся под
напряжением
insulating gloves изоляционные перчатки
tools equipped инструменты с
изолированными
with insulated рукоятками
handles
insulating and clip- изоляционные и
on клещи токоизмерительные
instruments
pace voltage шаговое напряжение
insulating galoshes изоляционные
(диэлектрические)
and high over-shoes галоши и боты
insulating rubber изоляционные резиновые
rugs коврики
insulating stands изолирующие подставки
protective glasses защитные очки
gas-mask противогаз
special gauntlets специальные рукавицы
QUESTIONS
1. Is the thermal effect of an electric current rated under normal conditions?
2. In what way is the heating of conductors and current-leading parts calculated?
3. What happens if the rules of shipboard electrical maintenance and safety are not observed?
4. What are the phenomena emerging on electrical sets that can cause fires?
5. What are the principal means protecting an operating personnel against electric shock hazard?
6. What are the additional means protecting an operating personnel against a pace voltage and detrimental
effect of an electric arc?
7. What do you call the means designed for individual protection?
8. What are the auxiliary protective means?
2. SOME RULES FOR SAFE PRACTICE AND AVOIDING ELECTRIC SHOCKS
Electricity can be dangerous and even fatal for those who do not understand the simple rules of safety.
There are many fatal accidents involving by a well-trained personnel who violates the basic rules of personal
safety.
Currents above 100 milliamperes or only one tenth of an ampere are fatal. A workman who has contacted
currents above 200 milliamperes may live to see another day if given rapid treatment. Currents below 100
milliamperes can be serious and painful. A safe rule: Do not place yourself in a position to get any kind of a
shock.
Here are some rules that should be observed to avoid electric shocks.
1. Be sure of the conditions of the equipment and the dangers present before working on a piece of
equipment. Many sportsmen are killed by supposedly unloaded guns; many technicians are killed by
supposed "dead" circuits.
2. Never rely on safety devices such as fuses, relays and interlock systems to protect you. They may not
be working and may fail to protect when most needed.
3. Never remove the grounding prong of a three wire input plug. This eliminates the grounding feature of
the equipment making it a potential shock hazard.
4. Do not work on a cluttered bench. A disorganized mess of connecting leads, components and
tools only leads to careless thinking, short- circuits, shocks and accidents. Develop habits of systemized and
organized procedures of work.
5. Do not work on wet floors. Your contact resistance to ground is substantially reduced. Work on a
rubber mat or an insulated floor.
6. Do not work alone. It's just good sense to have someone around to shut off the power, to give
artificial respiration and to call a doctor.
7. Work with one hand behind you or on your pocket. A current between two members crosses
your heart and can be lethal. A wise technician always works with one hand.
8. Never talk to anyone while working. Don't let yourself be distracted. Also, don't you talk to
anyone, if he is working on dangerous equipment. Don't be the cause of an accident.
9. Always move slowly when working around electrical circuits. Violent and rapid movements lead to
accidental shocks and short circuits.
VOCABULARY
violate rules нарушать правила
personal safety личная безопасность
rapid treatment неотложная мед.
помощь
interlock system система блокировки
grounding prong заземляющий штырь
three wire input plug трехфазный входной
штепсель
work on a cluttered работать в беспорядке
bench
contact resistance контактное
сопротивление
artificial respiration искусственное
дыхание
be distracted отвлекаться
violent and rapid резкие и быстрые
movements движения
QUESTIONS
1. In what case can electricity be dangerous and fatal?
2. What currents are fatal?
Why must a workman not rely on fuses, relays and interlock systems? Why is it so important not to remove
the grounding prong of a three wire input plug?
What does a cluttered bench lead to?
Why is it so necessary for an electrician to work on a rubber mat? Should an electrician work alone or have
someone around? Why is it important for an electrician to avoid violent and rapid movements?

EXERCISES
/. Check yourself in your vocabulary.
What do you call:
1. the process of taking care of electrical mechanisms on board ship?
2. the actions you fulfill when you want to protect yourself?
3. the tools you can carry from one place to another in your hands?
4. the people who take care of any type of equipment?
5. the things you put on your hands when you want to let yourself touch hot-line?
6. the things you put on your feet to protect yourself against a pace voltage?
7. the means which ensure your individual protection?
8. the things you put on your face to protect your lungs and skin?
II. Make sure you have properly understood the meaning of the text:
1. Electrical traumatism is caused by:
a) electrical safety;
b) portable accessory;
c) formal instructing on safe methods of work.
2. The use of electrical energy is connected with:
a) possible fires;
b) thermal effect of an electric current;
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

c) environmental conditions.
3. The normal state of shipboard electrical equipment is broken when:
a) you do not put on special gauntlets;
b) insulation can't withstand a working voltage;
c) damages occur.
4. When the normal state of shipboard electrical equipment is broken:
a) clip-on instruments are used;
b) protective glasses are put on;
c) arc and spark discharges emerge.
5. Principal protective means are those which:
a) protect against a pace voltage;
b) help to withstand a working voltage;
c) are designed for individual protection.
6. Additional protective means are those which:
a) protect against light, thermal and mechanical effects;
b) protect against the effect of an electric arc;
c) make it possible to touch hot-line parts.
III. Mind the grammatical construction of Present Simple Passive.
1. Add the Past Participle to the following sentences taken from the text. Choose from the verbs in the
box. Use each verb once only:
design rate associate
observe calculate break
1) The heating of conductors and current leading parts of the electrical equipment i s . . . so that it not
exceed fixed rates.
2) Additional protective means are n o t . . . to ensure protection from electric shock hazard.
3) Under normal conditions a thermal effect of an electric current i s . . . .
4) If the Rules of electrical maintenance and safety are not . . . , the normal state of the equipment is . . . .
5) The use of electrical energy is not only . . . with danger of injury of an operating personnel.
2. Put the verb in the correct form using Present Simple Active Present Simple Passive:
If the Rules of shipboard electrical maintenance and safety . . (not observe), if damages . . . (occur)
and the environment conditions . . . (affect) the electrical equipment, its normal s'
. . . (break).
Isolating gloves . . . (use) as one of the principal protects means.
Insulating rubber rugs . . . (protect) against detrimental effr of an electric arc.
Insulation of principal protective means . . (withstand* working voltage of an electrical set.
The operating personnel of an electrical set may . . . (put insulating galoshes.
3. Translate into English using either positive or negative for' of Imperative:
Убедитесь в том, что оборудование исправно.
Никогда не убирайте заземляющий штырь трехфазного вх ного штепселя.
Всегда двигайтесь медленно, когда работаете в окружении эд^ трических цепей.
Ни с кем не разговаривайте во время работы.
Не работайте в одиночку.
Попытайтесь вспомнить правила эксплуатации электрообо дования и техники безопасности.
Никогда не работайте на мокром полу.

UNIT 10 TROUBLESHOOTING
1. TROUBLESHOOTING OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
The causes for electrical equipment to breakdown are heat, moisture, ingress of dirt and other

contaminants, vibration, and poor installation.


Heat increases the resistance of the circuit and thus increases the current causing the material to expand,
dry out, crack, and wear down much quicker. Sooner or later the device will be broken.
Moisture also causes circuit to draw more current and eventually breakdown. Moisture like water and
liquids causes expansion, warping of the material as well as abnormal current flow or short circuit.
Dirt and other contaminants are fumes, vapours, grease, oils etc. They cause electrical device to
clog or gum up and operate abnormally until breakdown.
Vibration and poor installation can also cause the above mentioned types of breakdown soon.
The breakdown causes listed above result in a number of detrimental effects involving open circuit,

short circuit, grounded circuit and mechanical breakdowns. These latter are often a result of too
much friction, wear or vibration which moving parts like broken belts, worn contacts, worn bearings, loose
belts etc. cause.
Here are some basic methods used in troubleshooting electrical or electronic devices.
1. Voltage measurement of a circuit, which is usually taken by ing a voltmeter. The electrician must
always connect a voltmeter in p allel with the circuit when measuring voltage.
2. Amperage measurement of a circuit, which is usually take by using an ammeter or a clam-on ammeter
that locates commq circuit faults, such as short, open or grounded circuits. The electrici must always connect
an ammeter in series with the circuit whe measuring current.
3. Resistance measurement with which an ohmmeter is used to m sure the continuity of a circuit or a
component. The electrician must r member to shut off the power before using an ohmmeter.
4. Substitution, which is a technique of replacing a suspected faul component with a good spare one.
5. Bridging is employed when an electrician suspects a component like a capacitor to be faulty and
places a good component across a sus; pected faulty one from the circuit.
Other methods of troubleshooting are those of heating, freezing) using testers, resoldering, adjusting, by-
passing etc. They are all effe tive in locating faults of every component in a circuit.
VOCABULARY
troubleshooti нахождение и устранение
ng неисправностей
ingress проникновение
contaminant загрязняющее вещество
expand расширяться
dry out высыхать
crack трескаться
warping коробление, деформация
vapour пар, испарение
fume дым
grease жир
clog засоряться
gum up склеиваться
grounded заземленная цепь
circuit
clam-on токоизмерительные
ammeter клещи
substitution замена
bridging соединение по
мостовой схеме
freezing замораживание
resoldering перепайка
by-passing шунтирование
QUESTIONS
1. What are the causes for electrical equipment to breakdown?
2. Why does heat cause the material to expand, dry out, crack and wear down?
3. What does moisture cause?
4. Do you know any contaminants? What are they?
5. What arc detrimental ettects that arc caused by heat, moisture, dirt, vibration?
6. What are mechanical breakdowns caused by?
7. What way of connecting a voltmeter does the electrician necessarily use when measuring voltage?
8. What way of connecting an ammeter does the electrician necessarily use when measuring current?
9. What is a clam-on ammeter used for?
10. What must the electrician remember to shut off before measuring resistance?
11. What kind of technique is substitution?
12. What method is called bridging?
13. What are other methods used in troubleshooting electrical devices?

2. TROUBLESHOOTING OF D.C. MOTORS


FAULT CAUSE TEST AND REMEDY
1. Motor fails to 1. Open fuse Replace defective fuse with
run with its 2. Open starting rheostat spare
armature 3. Open armature circuit after testing on multimeter
supplied by 4. Shorted coils of shunt Check rheostat for
rated voltage field winding disconnection and
5. Open field circuit (or repair where necessary Check
field circuit makes bad armature winding for discon-
contact) nection. Replace discontinued
6. Overload section, remove bad pieces of
7. Incorrect connection of soldering Replace defective
shunt field winding coils Check field winding for
(connected after starting disconnection
rheostat) and repair where necessary
8. Partially shunted parallel Remove overload
winding Connect shunt winding in
accordance with factory
wiring diagram
Check if parallel winding is
connected to other windings
or frame. Disconnect it from
these latter

2. Motor 1. Overload See 1.6


nominally 2. Low voltage at motor Supply motor terminals with
loaded runs terminals rated voltage
slowly (its 3. Brushes set off-neutral Set brushes on neutral. Make
rotational speed (in direction of motor use of a factory mark the
is lower than rotation) brush-rocker carries
rated one Examine armature coils for
4. Shorted armature circuit signs of burning. Replace
defective coils
3. Motor idle or 1. Brushes set off-neutral See 2.3
loaded runs fast (in direction reversing Connect shunt and series
{its rotational motor rotation) windings
speed is higher 2. Differential connection accordantly
than rated one) in a compound motor Decrease resistance
3. Large resistance on field Find and eliminate the cause
controller of insufficient loading See 2.2
4 Series motor runs loaded
with15-18%of its rated
power 5. High voltage at
motor terminals
4. Motor runs 1. Overload See 1.6
hot 2. Shorted armature coils Repair or replace defective
or pole coils coils
3. Short circuit between Eliminate short circuit
field winding coils of Blow trough ventilation
commutating poles channels with dry compressed
4. Clogged ventilation air Loosen bearing seal ring
channels
5. Tight bearings

5. Motor is 1. Worn bearings Replace with spare Turn


noisy in 2. High or low bars commutator See 5.2
operation 3. Rough commutator

VOCABULARY
motor fails to run with its двигатель не вращается, хотя к его
armature supplied by якорю подведено номинальное
rated voltage напряжение
open fuse перегорание предохранителя
open starting rheostat обрыв в пусковом реостате
open armature circuit обрыв в обмотке якоря
shorted coil короткое замыкание в катушке
disconnection обрыв
discontinued section секция с обрывом
remove bad pieces of soldering устранить плохие пайки
remove overload снять перегрузку
incorrect connection неправильное включение
factory wiring diagram заводская схема
partially shunted parallel winding частичное шунтирование
параллельной обмотки возбуждения
frame корпус
motor nominally при работе двигателя с номинальной
loaded runs slowly нагрузкой частота вращения ниже
номинальной
brushes set off-neutral смещение щеток с геометрической
нейтрали
factory mark заводская метка
in direction of motor rotation по направлению вращения двигателя
in direction reversing ~ против направления
motor idle or loaded runs fast частота вращения двигателя выше
номинальной как в режиме холостого
хода, так и при нагрузке
differential connection встречное включение
field controller регулятор возбуждения
series motor runs loaded with двигатель последовательного
15-18% of its rated power возбуждения нагружен до 15-18% его
номинальной мощности
insufficient loading нагружение ниже допустимого
предела
motor runs hot перегрев двигателя
shorted armature короткое замыкание в якорных
coils or pole coils катушках или в катушках полюсов
clogged ventilation засорение вентиляционных путей
channels
blow trough продуть
dry compressed air сухой сжатый воздух
tight bearings чрезмерная натянутость
уплотнительного кольца
подшипника
loosen bearing seal ослабить затяжку
ring уплотнительного кольца
подшипника
worn bearing износ подшипника
high or low bars выступ или западание
коллекторных пластин
turn обточить
rough commutator плохое состояние контактной
поверхности коллектора
1. What are the main faults emerging in D.C. motors?
2. Can you name the reasons owing to which a D.C. motor fails to run? What ;are they?
3. What should you do if the fuse is open?
4. What should you do if the circuit is open?
5. What should you do if the coils are shorted?
6. How do you fight overload?
7. In accordance with what should you connect shunt winding if it has been connected after a starting
rheostat?
8. Why does partial shunting of a parallel winding occur?
9. What causes a D.C. motor nominally loaded to run slowly?
10. What should you do if the brushes are set off-neutral?
11. What should you do if the voltage at the motor terminals is either low or high?
12. In what way is it necessary to interconnect the shunt and the series windings in a compound motor?
13. Should you increase or decrease the resistance on the field controller if it is large?
14. What are the reasons why a D.C. motor may run hot?
15. What causes a D.C. motor to be noisy in operation?
16. What should you do if the ventilation channels are clogged?
1. What should you do if the bearings are tight?
2. What should you do if the bearings are worn?
3. What motor element should be put under repair if the bars are either high or low?
4. What should you do if the commutator is rough?
3. TROUBLESHOOTING OF THREE-PHASE MOTORS
FAULT CAUSE TEST AND REMEDY
1. Motor fails 1. Open fuse Replace defective fuse with
to start 2. Defective circuit- spare after
breaker testing on multimeter
3. One phase winding is Repair
open when stator winding Check voltage at the
is star-connected terminals of stator winding.
4. Overload If one phase winding is open,
5. Worn bearings eliminate discontinuity. Mind
6. Two or three rotor stator winding. It may be
phase windings are open open as well Decrease motor
(or make poor contact) loading Replace with spare
7. Rotor one-sidedly Check for discontinuity or
attracted to stator; rotor is bad contact and repair where
caught in stator necessary Check gaps
between rotor and stator as
well as condition of bearing
shells. Also check if end
brackets are set correctly
2. Motor 1. Low voltage at Increase voltage up to rated
nominally terminals of stator one or decrease motor
loaded runs winding loading Reconnect to delta
slowly (its 2. Stator winding is star- Check if the contact is good
rotational connected as well as wires connecting
speed is low) 3. Large resistance on rotor to rheostat are not long
phase rotor circuit or small-sectioned. Mind
4. Incorrect rheostat. It may be faulty
interconnection of stator Check connection diagram.
phase windings (reversed Reconnect to star or delta in
phase windings) accordance with diagram
3. Motor 1. Overload See 1.4 See 1.5
becomes 2. Worn bearings Blow through ventilation
excessively 3. Clogged ventilation channels with dry
hot channels compressed air Remove dirt
4. Clogged air filters from air filters Clean air
5. Clogged water-cooled cooler, reduce motor loading
air cooler, cooling water Re-arrange fen wings or
temperature increase change direction of rotation
6. Incorrect rotation of
rotor equipped with fan
having inclined wings
VOCABULARY
motor fails to start двигатель не
разворачивается
one phase winding is open обрыв цепи одной
обмотки фазы
two or three rotor phase обрыв в двух или трех
windings обмотках
are open фаз цепи фазного ротора
rotor one-sidedly attracted одностороннее
to stator притяжение ротора к
статору
rotor is caught in stator задевание ротора о статор
bearing shell вкладыш подшипника
end bracket подшипниковый щит
motor nominally loaded двигатель работает с
runs slowly пониженной частотой
вращения при
номинальной нагрузке
incorrect interconnection неправильное соединение
of stator выводов
phase windings обмоток фаз статора
между собой
reversed phase winding одна из обмоток фаз
перевернута
motor becomes значительный перегрев
excessively hot двигателя
clogged air filters засорение воздушных
фильтров
remove dirt from air filters очистить воздушные
фильтры от rj:
clogged water-cooled air загрязнение
cooler воздухоохладителя с
водяным охлаждением
incorrect rotor rotation неправильное вращение
with fan ротора с
having inclined wings вентилятором, имеющим
наклонные крылья
re-arrange переставить
QUESTIONS
1. What are the main faults that can be observed in a three-phase tor?
2. Can you give a list of reasons due to which a three-phase mot fails to start?
3. What should you do if the motor circuit-breaker is defective?
4. How do you test an open phase winding?
5. What should you do if the rotor phase windings are open or m poor contact?
1. Why can the rotor be caught in the stator?
2. What causes a three-phase motor nominally loaded to run slowly?
3. What measures are to be taken to eliminate low voltage at the terminals of the stator winding?
4. What should you check if large resistance is observed on the phase rotor circuit?
5. How do you fight a "reversed phase winding"?
6. What causes a three-phase motor to become excessively hot?
7. What should you do if the ventilation channels are clogged?
8. What do you do to clean air filters?
9. What are the steps recommended to correct the rotor rotation with a fan having inclined wings?

EXERCISES
I. Make sure you've properly understood the texts dealing with troubleshooting of electrical
equipment.
1. Troubleshooting is the procedure of
a) finding a fault;
b) eliminating a fault;
c) both finding and eliminating a fault.
2. Heat and moisture cause:
a) rated current flow;
b) abnormal current flow;
c) minimum current flow.
3. When measuring voltage the electrician must connect the voltmeter:
a) in parallel with the circuit;
b) in antiparallel with the circuit;
c) in series with the circuit.
4. When measuring current the electrician must connect the ammeter:
a) in parallel with the circuit;
b) in antiparallel with the circuit:
c) in series with the circuit.
5. Before applying an ohmmeter the electrician must:
a) turn on the power;
b) turn off the power;
c) turn down the power.
6. If the fuse is open, you should:
a) rewind it;
b) repair it;
c) replace it
7. If a D.C. motor fails to run, one of the reasons is:
a) shorted armature circuit;
b) open armature circuit
c) incorrectly connected armature circuit.
8. If you've found out that the shunt field winding has been incorre ly connected, you should connect it in
accordance with:
a) a factory mark;
b) a factory wiring diagram
c) factory instructions.
9. If you've found out that the parallel field winding has been parti ly shunted, you should:
a) connect it to other windings;
b) connect it to the frame;
c) disconnect it from both other windings and the frame.
10. If you observe a differential connection of the shunt and the serie windings in a compound motor, you
should connect them:
a) in opposition;
b) in antiparallel;
c) accordantly.
11. If the motor ventilation channels are clogged, you should:
a) blow them trough;
b) remove dirt from them;
c) clean them.
12. If the commutator bars are either high or low, you should:
a) re-arrange the commutator;
b) grind the commutator;
c) set the brushes on neutral.
13. If a three-phase motor fails to start, one of the reasons may be:
a) rotor one-sidedly attracted to the stator;
b) rotor one-sidedly repelled from the stator;
c) rotor one-sidedly fastened to the stator.
14. If you observe large resistance on the phase rotor circuit, the reason may be:
a) a defective circuit-breaker;
b) a faulty rheostat;
c) a worn bearing.
15. If the temperature of cooling water in an air cooler increases, you should:
a) blow trough ventilation channels;
b) remove dirt from air filters;
c) clean the air cooler.
16. If a three-phase motor nominally loaded runs slowly, one of the causes is incorrect voltage at the
terminals of the stator winding. It is:
a) rated;
b) low;
c) high.
17. If a D.C. motor runs fast, one of the faults is incorrect voltage at the motor terminals. It is:
a) rated;
b) low;
c) high.
18. If you observe tight bearings, you should:
a) tighten a bearing seal ring;
b) loosen a bearing seal ring;
c) replace a bearing seal ring.
II. Choose one of the linking words or word combinations from the box and complete the sentences.
Some of them are interchangeable.
not only... but in accordance since
with
either... or with respect to in comparison
with
on the other however once
hand
because of above all as a consequence
in the form of thus by virtue of
hence than owing to
1. D.C. machines converting mechanical energy into electrical one are
referred to as D.C. generators. Those, __ which convert
electrical energy into mechanical one are called D.C. motors.
2. The series field winding carries the entire armature current and _____ its conductors are
of large section.
3. The property __ ___________________________ to which any D.C. machine may work
in a motor mode in a generator mode is called convertibility.
4. Series motors while running idle don't tend to overspeed
their shunt field winding.
5. On board ships, ____ the work safety rules, only air-cooled
transformers are used.
6. Their efficiency level is higher that of ordinary transformers
of the same frequency.
7. This group of connections reveals at what angle line lower voltage is shifted clockwise line upper
voltage.
8. Fuses are not mounted _____ if they burn off, the magnetic
flux will go up to a dangerous value.
9. The strength of the current in a.c. circuits depends ___
on the resistance of the entire circuit __ _ on the inductance and capacitance of the circuit sections.
10. Transformers measuring current and voltage are designed to widen measurement limits of ammeters,
voltmeters etc. ________ they
provide operational safety of these latter.
11. The use of autotransformers is prohibited, , in low voltage
portable lighting.
12. The flux and the voltage drop in the field winding are both moderate and, , the speed of rotation is
significant.
13. With the load increase the current value in the field winding and the flux rise.
14. The frame is made of steel _______ of a closed magnetic
conductor.
15. The above mentioned stator winding has only one pair of poles,
_________ which the magnetic field does one revolution during
one cycle of the current reversal.
16. Static converters are used more widely on board ships
rotary converters.
17 ._______ the load is increased, the internal voltage drop grows
and the speed of rotation drops off.
18. Heat increases the resistance of the circuit anu _____
increases the current.

GLOSSARY
ability [a'biliti] способность
abruption [э'Ьглр|п] обрыв, разрыв
access [a'kses] доступ
front [fr/vnt] с передней стороны
(панели)
on-load ~ [on bud] под нагрузкой
rear- [ro] с задней стороны
(панели)
accessibility [ak'sesi'bilit доступность,
i] досягаемость
accessible [sk'seibl] доступный, открытый (о
проводке
accessor/y (-ies) [ak'sesari] 1) вспомогательная
деталь
2) (pi) арматура
cable ~-ies [keiblj кабельная арматура
portable ~-y ГрэЛэЫ] переносная арматура
wiring—ies ['waiarig] электроустановочные
материалы (арматура)
accommodate [a'komadeit размещать, вмещать
]
accumulate [a'kjunnjule накапливать
it]
accumulation [a'kjuimjule накопление
ijn]
accumulator [g'kjumjulei аккумулятор
ts]
acid- ['aesid] кислотный -
alkaline - ['aslkalain] щелочной -
accuracy ['aekjurasi] точность
action ['aekjn] (воз)действие, эффект
activate f'asktiveit] 1) возбуждать, ставить
под
напряжение 2) включать
adjust [3'd3ASt] регулировать,
настраивать
adjustable [s'd^stsbl] регулируемый,
настраиваемый
adj ustable- система генератор
potential
system [pa'tenjral] - двигатель
air [еэ] воздух
cooling- ['ku:liq] охлаждающий ~
air-cooled [.ea'kuddj с воздушным
охлаждением
air-tight [^s'taitj воздухонепроницаемый
airy ['еэп] воздушный
alarm [э'кпт] 1) аварийный сигнал
2) сигнализация
audible - [adibl] звуковая ~
fire- [faia] пожарная ~
alteration [,D:ltareiJh изменение
]
alternator ['orltaneita] генератор переменного
тока
brushless- ['brAjIis] бесщеточный -
synchronous- ['sigkranas] синхронный -
amber ['aemba] янтарь, смола
ammeter ['aemita] амперметр
clam-on- ['klsem^n] токоизмерительный щит
amplifier ['aemplifai усилитель
a]
rotary- frautari] электромашинный
усилитель
angle Г*ад1] угол
apparatus ^aepa'reitas аппарат, прибор,
] устройство
application ^aepli'keift | исполнение,
a^] приложение
marine - [ma'ri:n] морское исполнение
lire [cuk] (электрическая) дуга
armature ['amatjua] якорь (эл.машины или
эл.магнита)
attract [a'traekt] притягиваться
automated [^ita'meitid автоматизированный
]
partially- fpcujiali] частично -
auxiliary [o:'gziljari] вспомогательный
механизм,
auxiliaries [oigziljariz устройство
] оборудование
собственных нужд

В
bar [ba:] 1) пластина коллектора
2) электрическая шина
battery ['baetari] (аккумуляторная)
батарея
beam [bi:m] луч, пучок
bearing ['bearig] подшипник
bedplate ['bedpleit] фундаментная плита
board [bo:d] 1) панель, пульт, щит
2) коммутатор 3) плата
circuit-- ['safct] печатная плата
coastal power - [sa'plai] щит питания с берега
supply
control - [kan'traul] 1) пульт (панель)
управления
2) приборная доска
distribution ~ Ldistn'bjufOO распределительный щит
terminal ~ n] доска выводов
body [Ъ:ттэ1] корпус
box ['bodi] коробка, ящик
terminal ~ [boks] клеммный щиток
bracket ['tsminal] кронштейн, консоль
break ['braekit] выключение, разрыв
automatic ~ ['breik] автоматическое
[.oita'maetik] отключение «
line- [lain] обрыв линии
wire- [waia] обрыв провода
breakdown ['breikdaun] 1) пробой
- [insa'leij^n] 2) выход из строя,
['breika] авария
winding [,o:t3'mastik] 3) возникновение
insulation - ['ssrkit] разряда пробой
[bnd3] изоляции обмотки
breaker ['bnd3ir)] 1) выключатель
[ЪглЯ 2) прерыватель (тока)
automatic- [Ъгл^дю] автомат,
['brAjIis] выключатель
circuit- ['bAsba:] 1) автомат,
['baipa:s] выключатель,
bridge ['baiparsig] 2) рубильник мост,
['kaebinit] шунт, перемычка
bridging ['keibl] 1) соединение по
[,keip3'biliti] мостовой схеме!
[i'naijjs] 2) шунтирование
brush [ka'passitsns] щетка (электрической
['aektjual] машины) |
brushgear щеточный аппарат
brushless бесщеточный
busbar шина
bypass 1) байпас, обходная
цепь 2) шунт!
by-passing шунтирование
С шкаф
cabinet
cable 1) кабель 2)
многожильный
прово,
capability 1) способность 2)
мощность
inertia- инерционность
capacitance 1) электрическая
емкость
2) емкостное
сопротивление
actual - фактическая емкость
circuit ~ ['sadcit] емкость цепи
differential - дифференциальная
(input) [difa'renjisl]
(входная) емкость
capacitor [ks'passita] конденсатор
adjustable- [a'd^stabl] - переменной емкости
air (-dielectric)- [es^aia'lektri- с воздушным
k] диэлектрик
charging - ftja:d3irj] зарядный -
capacity [ka'paesiti] 1) электрическая
емкость
2) пропускная
способность
3) мощность
overload - [,suv9'taud] перегрузочная
способность
cell [sel] элемент, ячейка, клетка
change [tjeind3] изменение/изменять,
смена/
changeover [,tJeind3'3U заменять, переход
V3]
переключение/переклю
чать
character ['kaerakta] характер
load-current- ['laudWant] - тока нагрузки
characteristic ^kasraktg'ristikj характеристика
external - [iks'tamal] внешняя ~
no-load - [,n9u'bud] ~ холостого хода
regulation - [,regju'leij(3 регулировочная ~
)n]
short-circuit - ['Jo:t'sa:kit] - короткого замыкания
speed- [spiid] скоростная -
charge №:d3] (эл.) заряд,
зарядка/заряжать
negative - ['negstiv] отрицательный заряд
positive- ['pozitiv] положительный -
charges on [kan'densa заряды на пластинах
condenser plates 'pleits] конденсатора
check [tjek] проверка, контроль/
проверять,
контролировать
circuit ['s9:kit] 1) схема, цепь, контур
2) сеть
ac~ ['ei,si:] цепь переменного тока
automatic [^to'msetik] схемы автоматического
control
and regulating - [,regju'leitirj управления и
] регулирования
dc~ ['dii.si:] цепь постоянного тока
external - [iks'tomsl] внешняя цепь
field - [fi:ld] схема/цепь возбуждения
grounded - ['graundid] заземленная цепь
input - ['input] входная цепь/схема
power - [раш] силовая цепь
short- [Той] короткое замыкание
start regulating цепи управления
equipment - пускорегулирующей
control [s'kwipmant] аппаратуры
to place in series ['sirrjos] последовательно включать
with the ['aimatjua] в цепь якоря
armature ~
circuit-breaker ['sarkit (автоматический)
(breik3] выключатель
clock [klok] 1) часы
2) генератор тактовых
импульсов
master— ['ma:sto] основные (эталонные часы)
clock-wise ['klokwaiz] по часовой стрелке
counter-clockwise ['kaunto ,kbkwaiz] против часовой
стрелки
clog [kbg] закупорка,
засорение/засоряться
coating ['ksutnj] покрытие
coil [koil] катушка, обмотка
commutation ^komju'teij^n] коммутация, переключение
commutator ['komjuteits] 1) коммутатор 2) коллектор
compartment [kam'paitma отсек
nt]
compatibility [ksm^paeto'biliti] совместимость
condenser [kan'denss] конденсатор
conduct [kan'fkkt] проводить
conduction [k3n'dAkj"(3 электропроводность
)n]
conductor [kan'cLvkta] проводник, провод
magnetic - [maeg'netik] магнитопровод
closed magnetic [kbuzd] замкнутый магнитопровод
-
semi- ['semi] полупроводник
connect [ka'nekt] соединять, присоединять
connected [ka'nektid] соединенный, включенный
-voltage ['v3ultid3] проводимое напряжение
connection [кэ'пек|(э)п] 1) соединение, включение
2) вывод 3) проводник
accordant - [s'koidsnt] согласное включение
bridge - [bnd3] мостовая схема (соединение)
cascade - [kaes'keid] 1) каскадное включение
2) последовательное
соединение
current ~ ['kArant] соединение токовых цепей
delta ~ ['delta] соединение треугольником
delta-star - ['delta,sta:] ~ треугольник - звезда
double-star- [,dAbl(sta:] - звезда ~ звезда
star- [sta:] - звездой
star-delta - ['sta^delta] - звезда - треугольник
constant ['konstant] постоянная
design - [di'zain] конструктивная постоянная
consumer [kan'sjuma] потребитель
energy - ['enad3i] - энергии
consumption[kan'sAmpJ(a)n] потребление, расход
contact ['kontaskt] контакт
sliding contacts ['slaidig] скользящие контакты
contaminant [kan'taeminant] загрязняющее вещество
control [kan'traul] регулирование, контроль,
регулятор
automatic- [oita'mastik] автоматическое управление
mode of - [maud] способ управления
conventiona [kan'venjanl] условный
l
convert [kan'vart] преобразовывать, превращать
converter [kan'va:ta] преобразователь
ac/dc - ['ei,si: 'di:tsi:] - переменного тока в
постоянный
rotary - ['rautari] вращающийся -
convertibilit [kan,va:ti'biliti] обратимость
y
cooler [Чш:1э] охладитель
cooling ['ku:liq] охлаждение
air— |еэ] воздушное ~
copper ['кора] медь
core [кэ:] сердечник, стержень
armature - ['amatjua] сердечник якоря
three-leg - ['0п:'1ед] трехстержневой сердечник
counter ['kaunta] т счетчик
couple ['клр1] пара (термопара)
covering ['kAveriq] 1) покрытие 2) изоляция
crack [kraek] трескаться
cross [kros] 1) пересечение
9 \ ППЛША^ХГЛГТЛТШОи L'AUTOFT
cross- L) приМСЖу lUHrlbm KUHlaKl
section ['sekj(a)n] поперечное сечение
current ['lovrsnt] (электрический) ток
ас ~ fei.si:] переменный -
actual - ['eektjual] действительный -
armature- ['aanatjua] - якоря
conduction- [kan'dAkf(a)n] - проводимости
continuous ~ [kan'tinjuas] непрерывный -
countercurrent ^kaunta'kArant] противоток
dc — ['di:,si:] постоянный ~
excitation - [^ksi'teiJXa)!!] - возбуждения
input ~ ['mput] входной ~
mains — [meinz] - в сети
no-load - ['nau'laud] - холостого хода
output- ['autput] выходной ~
rated - ['reitid] номинальный -
rated armature ['aanatjua] номинальный ток
- якоря
rated secondary['sekandari] номинальный
- вторичный
- reversal [ri'vaisal] изменение тока
reverse - [ri'va:s] обратный ток
short-circuit- ['Jo:t'sadkit] ~ короткого
замыкания
stator- ['steito] ~ статора
current- ['kArant'kaeriiq токонесущий
carrying ]
current ['kArant токопроводящий
conducting kan'dAktig]
curve [ka:v] 1) кривая 2)
характеристика
no-load - ['nau'laud] кривая
характеристики
холостого хода
cut [kAt] 1) разрывать 2)
отключать/
отключение
cut-off (cut- ['kAt 'of] выключение
out)
cycle ['saikl] период, цикл
damage data D повреждение данные
decrease load- ['daemid3] уменьшение,
defect delay ['delta] снижение снижение
[di'kriz] нагрузки дефект,
[laud] неисправность
[di'fekt] запаздывание,
[di'lei] задержка
delivery [di'livari] подача, питание, доставка
delta ['delta] треугольник,
соединение
треугольником
demagnetize ['di:'maegnit размагничивать
aiz]
demand [di'mamd] 1) электропотребление
2) потребляемая
мощность
3) потребность
density ['densiti] плотность
dependence [di'pendans] зависимость
dependent [di'pendant] зависимый
design [di'zain] 1) расчет, проект,
конструкция/
1) рассчитывать 2)
предназначать
design constant ['konstant] конструктивная
постоянная
develop [di'velap] развивать, улучшать,
разрабатывать
deviation [,di:vi'eij(a') отклонение
n]
device [di'vais] устройство, прибор
diagram ['daiagraem] схема, чертеж/ составлять
схему
circuit- fsaikit] принципиальная схема
connection - [ka'nekj(a)n схема соединений
]
difference ['dif(a)rans] разность
potential - [pa'tenfial] - потенциалов
voltage - ['vaultid3] - напряжений
differential [,difa'renjal] дифференциал, разность
- compound ['kompaund двигатель смешанного
motor ] возбуж
дения с
рассогласованным
включением обмоток
direct [di'rekt] направлять
directed направлено сверху вниз
downwardsfdaunwadz]
/upwards ['Apwadz] / снизу вверх
direction [di'rekf(a)n] направление
disassemble ['disa'sembl] разбирать,
размонтировать
discharge [dis'tfa:d3] (электрический) разряд/
разряжать
disconnect ['diska'nekt] разъединять, отключать/
disconnection [,diska'nekj(a)n] разъединение,
отключение
1) разъединение 2) обрыв
discovery [dis'kAvari] открытие
displace [dis'pleis] перемещать
(are) permanently постоянно
displaced ['psansnsntli] перемещаются
distance ['distsns] расстояние, промежуток
distribute [dis'tribjut] распределять
distributed [dis'tribjutid] распределенный
distribution [,distri'bju:J(9)n] распределение
~ gear (switchgear) [gis] распределительное
устройство
double star (connection) (соединение) звезда ~
['dAbl 'sta:] звезда
double layer (winding) ['dAbl двухслойная (обмотка)
'leia]
drawing fdrong] чертеж, схема
drip-proof ['drip'prmf] каплезащищенный
drive [draiv] 1) привод
2) возбуждение/
возбуждать
driven ['drivn] приводимый в движение
drop [drop] 1) падение/ падать
2) уменьшение/
уменьшаться
(internal) voltage ~ ['vaultidj] (внутреннее) падение
напряжения
speed ~ [spi:d] снижение скорости
drop— [drop] капле ~
dry out ['drai'aut] высыхать

E
economical [,ккэ'пэгшк(э экономичный
)1]
economy [ii'konami] экономия,
экономичность
effect [i'fekt] эффект, влияние
efficiency ~ [I'fijansi] коэффициент полезного
level C'levO)l] действия кпд
electric(al) [i'lektnk(s)l] электрический,
электротехнический
electrical [,end3i'ni3] электромеханик
engineer
~ safety ['seifti] электробезопасность
~ special ['pa.-pss] электрические машины
purpose специального
machines назначения
electrically [I'lektriksli] электрическим путем
electrician [ilek'trijan] электрик, электротехник
electricity [ilek'trisiti] электричество
dynamic - [dai'nsemik] динамическое -
static ~ ['stastikj статическое -
electromagnetic [i' lektraumaeg электромагнитная
force 'netikj сила
electromagnetic [I'lekreumaeg'net электромагнитным
ally ikali] путем
element ['elimant] элемент
emf (electromotive force) эде
[r'lekrau'mautiv] (электродвижущая
сила)
counter- [kaunta] противо-эде
induced - [in'djust] наведенная эде
- of mutual induction ['mju:tjual] эде взаимоиндукции
- of self- ['self in'dAkj(a)n]эде самоиндукции
induction
emit [r'mit] излучать, испускать
enclosed [in'klauzd] закрытый,
герметичный
(заключенный)
end [end] торец, конец, вывод
energy ['еткхВД (электрическая)
энергия
- consumer [kan'sjunna] потребитель энергии
equation [i'kweif(a)n] уравнение,
равенство
equipment [I'kwipmant] оборудование,
аппаратура
essential (Ysenfial] основной
(ответственный)
excitation ['eksi'teij(a)n] возбуждение
- current ['kArant] ток возбуждения
exciter [ik'saita] возбудитель
exert [ig'za:t] 1) осуществлять
2) приложить (силу)
exhibit [ig'zibit] характеризоваться,
иметь
(feature, отличительное
manifest) свойство
expand [iks'pasnd] расширяться
expansion [iks'pasnj(a)n] расширение
expense [iks'pens] расход
at the - of за счет
explosion-proof [iks'plau3(a)n] взрывобезопасный
external [iks'ta:nal] внешний
factor F показатель,
['faekta] коэффициент
power ~ [paua] коэффициент
мощности
fail [feil] выходить из строя,
давать перебои
failure ['feilja] отказ (в
работе),неисправнос
ть
fasten ['foam] крепить, укреплять
fastening ffaisnirj] крепление
fault [forlt] повреждение,
неисправность
faultiness ['foiltmis] неисправность
faulty ['fo:lti] поврежденный,
неисправный
feature ffctje] характеристика/
характеризоваться
feed [fed] питание/ питать
feedback ['fiidbaek] обратная связь
feeder ['fiKfo] питающий кабель, фидер
field ffiM] 1) поле 2) возбуждение 3)
обмотка
возбуждения
cross ~ [kros] поперечное поле
fittings [fitirz] арматура
fix [fiks] закреплять, фиксировать
fixed [fikst] установленный
~ rates [reits] установленные нормы
flammability ^flaems'bil воспламеняемость
iti]
flash блеск, вспышка,
сверкание
flex [fleks] гибкий провод
flexibility [,fleksi'bili гибкость
ti]
flexible ['fleksibl] гибкий
flip-flop ['flip 'flop] триггер
flow (flux) [fbu] поток, протекание (тока)
-of electricity[ilek'trisiti протекание тока
]
continuous - [kan'tinjua непрерывный поток
s]
fluid ['flu(:)rd] жидкость
flux (flow) [fLvks] поток
magnetic- [maeg'neti 1) магнитный поток
k]
2) силовые линии
магнитного поля
force [b:s] сила
frame [freim] 1) рама 2) корпус 3)
станина
frequency ['friikwans частота (тока)
i]
fundamental [ fXnda'mentl] основная ~
-
freezing ['fri:zig] замораживание
fuel [fjual] топливо
fume [fjurn] дым
function ['fXnkf(a) функция
n]
fur m мех

fuse [fju:z] предохранитель


—plug [р!лд] штепсельный -
galvanic [gael'vaenik] гальванический
gap [g®Pj зазор, промежуток
air- [es] воздушный -
energy - ['enad3i] перепад энергии
gas [gass] газ
gas-mask ['gaesma:sk] противогаз
gasket ['gasskit] прокладка
gear [ди] 1) механизм, устройство,
аппаратура 2)
распределительное
устройство (щит)
brush - [ЬГАЛ щеточное устройство
distribution - [,distri'bju:J(3) распределительное -
n]
generate ['d3enareit] производить,
вырабатывать
generation [td3en9'reiJ(3) производство, выработка
n]
generator [^enareita] генератор
ac~ (alternator) ['ailtaneita] - переменного тока
air-cooled - [,Ј9'ku:ld] ~ с воздушным
охлаждением
asynchronous- [a'sigkranas] асинхронный -
brushless - ['brAjIis] бесщеточный -
compound (-wound) - ['kompaund] - смешанного
возбуждения
dc~ ['dir.si:] ~ постоянного тока
self-excited - ['self ik'saitid] ~ самовозбуждения
series (-wound) ['siams] ~ последовательного
-
возбуждения
shunt (— [[Ant] ~ параллельного
wound) -
возбуждения
synchronous- ['snjkranas] синхронный -
generator mode [maud] генераторный режим
generator units ['juinits] генераторный агрегат
glove [gbuv] перчатка
gradient ['greidjant] градиент
grease [gri:z] жир
ground [graund] заземление/ заземлять
grounded ['sa:kit] заземленная цепь
circuit
grounding ['graundirj] заземление, заземляющее
устройство
gum up ['длт 'лр] склеиваться
handle ['haendl] ручка, рычаг управления/
управлять
handling ['haendliq] 1) управление 2) обработка
haulage ['ho:lid3] 1) транспортировка 2) тяга
-mechanisms ['mekanizm тяговые механизмы
z]
hazard ['haezad] поражение
electric shock - [fok] - электрическим током
heat [hi*] 1) тепло 2) нагрев/
нагревать
heater ['hi.ta] нагреватель,
подогреватель
heating [Wig] 1) нагрев 2) обогрев
hermetic [ha:'metik] герметичный
high [hai] высокий
—capacity [ka'paesiti] большой мощности
—conductivity ^kondak'tiv с высокой проводимостью
iti]
--frequency ['friikwansi высокочастотный
]
—resistance [ri'zistans] высокого сопротивления
—voltage )['vaultid3] (цепь) высокого
(network напряжения
hole [haul] отверстие
horsepower ['ho:s,paua] лошадиная сила
hot [hot] горячий
hot-line ['hot.lain] под напряжением
hot-line current токоведущие части, находя
leading parts [lirdiq щиеся под напряжением
'pouts]
hour [aua] час
housing ['hauziq] 1) корпус 2) ниша 3)
розетка
hydrodynamics ^haidradai' nks] гидродинамика
nasm

1 1
identify [ai'dentifai] идентифицировать,
опознавать
idle [aidl] холостой ход, режим
холостого хода
while running [wail при холостом ходе
idle 'глшг)]
illuminate [i'lju:mineit освещать
]
illumination [i,ljuaiii'nei ] освещение
j(a)n
impulse ['impAls] импульс недоступный
inaccessible [,m0ek'sesa
bl]
incomplete [^nkam'plir незамкнутый (о цепи)
t]
increase [in'kri:z] возрастание/ возрастать
indication [,indi'keij(a 1) индикация 2) показания
)n] 3) сигнал
indicator [^ndikeita] 1) индикатор
2) измерительный прибор
induce [in'dju:s] индуцировать, наводить
induction [m'(kkj(9)n] индукция, наведение,
индуцирование
~ (asynchronous) motor [ асинхронный двигатель
mauta]
mutual — ['mjuitjual] взаимоиндукция
self- [self] самоиндукция
inertia [i'na:fja] инерция
-capability [(keipa'biliti] инерционность
ingress ['mgresj проникновение
input ['input] 1) вход 2) ввод
3) подводимый ток 4)
входной
in-series [jin'siarias] последовательно
(включенный)
insert [in'sa:t] вставка/ вставлять
installation [,inste'leij(9) 1) установка, агрегат 2)
n] монтаж
electric ~ [ilektrik] 1) электроустановка
2) электрооборудование
instant ['instant] мгновенный
~ readiness ['redinis] мгновенная готовность
instructing [ins'trAktiij] инструктаж
formal ~ [Ъ:та1] формальный инструктаж
instruction [ins'trAkJ(a) инструкция
n]
engineering ~ [,end3i'ni3rir - по эксплуатации
)]
service - ['sarvis] - по техническому
обслуживанию
instrument ['instrumant] 1) инструмент
2) измерительный прибор
insulate ['insjuleit] изолировать
insulated ['insjuleitid] изолированный
insulating ['msjuleitig] изоляционные
~ and clip-on instruments - и токоизмерительные
['klip'on] клещи
~ galoshes [ga'bjiz] ~ (диэлектрические)
галоши
~ gloves [glauvz] - перчатки
-high over- [,auva'ju:z] - боты
shoes
- rubber rugs ['глЬэ 'глдг] - резиновые коврики
-stands [staendz] изолирующие подставки
insulation [,msju'leij(a) 1) изоляция
n]
2) изоляционный материал
insulator ['insjuleits] 1) изолятор 2) диэлектрик
intensity [in'tensiti] 1) напряженность 2)
интенсивность
interaction [lint9r'askJ(9 взаимодействие
)n]
interconnect [^ntsks'nekt] объединять
invent [in'vent] изобретать
inversion [in'v9:f(a)n] инверсия, обратное
преобразование
investigate [in'vestigeit] исследовать
invert [in'vsrt] обращать, преобразовывать
iron ['аюп] железо
ironclad ['aianklasd] бронированный
one-phase - [feiz] однофазный сухой
dry бронированны»
isolation [.aisgu'leij^n 1) отсоединение 2) изоляция
]
item ['aitgm] элемент
items of electrical элементы
электрооборудования
equipment [I'kwipmgnt]
join [d30in] J
соединение/ соединять
jump [d3Amp] скачок
jumper [^злтрэ] перемычка
junction ['d3AnkJ(9) 1) переход 2) соединение
n]
kilo— ['ki:l9u] К
кило -
- ampere ['аетреэ] ~ ампер
~ cycle ['saikl] ~ герц
(hertz)
-ohm [эит] ~ ом
-volt [vgult] ~ вольт
-watt [wot] - ватт
kit [kit] набор, комплект
knife-blade f'naifbleid] нож рубильника
lack [laek] L
недостаток, отсутствие
laminate ['laemineit] 1) слоистый материал
2) слоистый пластик
lamination [1lЈemi'neiJ( лист (пластина) сердечника
9)n]
lamp [laemp] лампа/ освещать лампами
lap [bp] нахлестка, перекрытие/
соединять
внахлестку, перекрывать
lathe [lei5] станок
law Doz] закон
lay [lei] прокладывать
laying ['lenrj] прокладка, укладка
(кабеля)
layout ['leiaut] 1) расположение
2) разводка (соединений)
lead (pi. [li:d] 1) питающий провод
leads)
2) (pi.) соединительные
провода
leak [li:k] утечка, течь/ протекать
leakage [■li:kid3] 1) утечка 2) ток утечки
3) рассеяние (магнитного
потока)
leg [leg] (магнитный) стержень
length [leg9] 1) длина 2) кусок, отрезок
level flevl] уровень/ устанавливать
уровень
life [laif] срок службы,
долговечность
long ~ [log] большой срок службы
operational [ppo'reifsnl] эксплуатационная
~ долговечность
rated ~ ['reitid] номинальный срок службы
service- fsaivis] срок службы
storage - ['sto^idg] срок хранения
lifetime [laiftaim] срок службы
lift [lift] подъем/ поднимать(ся)
light Пай] 1) свет 2) источник света/
светить
deck- [dek] палубное освещение
electric - [I'lektrik] электрический свет,
освещение
lighting [laitig] 1) освещение
2) осветительная
аппаратура
lighting rod [rod] светящаяся палочка
limit [limit] предел/ устанавливать
предел
measurement limits пределы измерений
['megsmant]
limitation [.limi'teift^n] ограничение, предел
line [lam] 1) (электрическая) линия
2) линия электропередачи
line-to-line voltage линейное напряжение
['voultid3]
live- - [laiv] линия под напряжением
(magnetic) -s of force [fo:s] (магнитные) силовые
— линии
linearity [^mi'aeriti] линейность
link [lirk] связь, соединение/
связывать, соединять
liquid [■likwid] жидкость
list [list] список, перечень
load [bud] нагрузка, нагружать
actual - ['asktfual] фактическая нагрузка
at- под (при) нагрузкой
excessive- [ik'sesrv] чрезмерная ~
linear- ['lima] линейная -
maximum
permissible - [pa:'misibl] максимально допустимая
~
no— [.kasrakta'rist характеристика холостого
characteristic ik] хода
overload ['auva] перегрузка
overload [ka'paesiti] перегрузочная
capacity способность
- characteristic ^kasrakta'rist нагрузочная
ik] характеристика
- current [Want] ток нагрузки
- current ['kaerakta] характер тока нагрузки
character
location [lau'keif(a)n] 1) расположение
2) определение
местонахождения
lock [bk] блокировка/ блокировать
log (-book) ['logbuk] (вахтенный) журнал
logic ['bd3ik] логика, логическая схема
loop [lu:p] 1) петля 2) контур 3)
рамка
losses flosiz] потери
load- [bud] нагрузочные ~
magnetic- [masg'netik] магнитные -
residual - [n'zidjual] остаточные ~
low [bu] низкий
lower voltage ['bua] низшее напряжение
lubrication [,lu:bri'keij(a смазка
)n]
machine M
[ma'Jim] машина, механизм
ac~ [ ei si:] машина переменного
тока
dc — ['di: 'si:] ~ постоянного тока
special ['papas] - специального
purpose- назначения
machinery [ma'Jiaiari] оборудование
magnet ['maegnit] магнит
artificial - [,a:ti 'fijal] искусственный ~
permanent- ['pa:manant] постоянный -
magnetic [masg'netik] магнитный
- amplifier ['aemplifaia] - усилитель
- conductor [kan'dAkta] магнитопровод
- electric system ['sistam] магнитоэлектрическая
система
- losses ['losiz] магнитные потери
magnetism ['maegnitizm магнетизм, магнитные
] свойства
magnetize ['maegnitaiz] намагничивать
magnificatio ^maegmfi'keiji^n] увеличение, усиление
n
-ratio ['reijiau] коэффициент усиления
magnitude ['msegnitjuid величина, значение
]
main (pi. [mein] 1) питающая линия 2) (pi.)
mains)
электрическая сеть, силовая
сеть
mains ['vaultid3] напряжение сети
voltage
maintain [mein'tein] сохранять
maintenance ['meintanans] 1) техобслуживание и
(текущий)
ремонт 2) поддержание
live-line- ['laiv lain] работа на линии
под напряжением
manipulate [ma'nipjuleit] управлять, манипулировать
Manual ['msenjual] руководство, справочник,
инструкция
operation- [,Dpa'reiJ(a) руководство по
n] эксплуатации
tiarine [ma'ri:n] морской
- application [^pli'keiKajn морское исполнение
]
liass [maes] масса
Material [ma'tiarial] материал, вещество
tiaximum ['maeksimam максимум, максимальное
] значение
Deans [mi:nz] средство, средства, метод
tieasure ['теза] 1) мера 2) измерение/
измерять
heasurement ['me3amant] измерение, замер
- limits ['limits] пределы измерений
fiechanism ['mekanizm] механизм
anchor- якорно - швартовые
mooring —s ^asgka'trnmrj механизмы
]
haulage —s ['ho:lid3] тяговые ~
megger ['mega] мегомметр, меггер
meter ['mi:ta] 1) измерительный прибор
2) счетчик
method ['meftsd] способ, метод
mild [maild] мягкий
mode [maud] 1) режим (работы) 2)
способ, мето,
~ of control [kan'traul] способ управления
-of installation [,msta'leif(a) ~ установки
n]
- of operation [,opa'reij(a)n режим работы
]
current ~ ['bsxant] токовый режим
motor ~ fmauta] двигательный режим
model ['modi] модель/ моделировать
moderately ['modarath] незначительно
moment ['maumant] момент
motion ['maujn] движение, перемещение
in ~ в движении
motor ['mauta] двигатель
(squirrel-) cage [,skwirl ~ с короткозамкнутым
~ 'keid3] роторе
cumulative ~ смешанного
возбуждения с
compound ~ ['kjurmjuleitr согласованным
v] включением обмот(
differential ~ смешанного
возбуждения с
compound ~ [.difa'renjial] рассогласованным
включением
обмоток
induction
(asynchronous) • асинхронный ~
- [in'dAkJ(a)n
]
primary ~ ['praimari] первичный ~
series- ~ | 'siarias] сериесный
compound компаундированный
shunt- - ftvnt] шунтовый
compound компаундированный
start the motor idle [ aidl] запускать двигатель
вхолостую
nature j Ч
['neitja] природа
needle ['nirdl] указатель, стрелка
(прибора)
net [net] сеть, схема
network ['netwaik] 1) электрическая сеть 2)
энерго
система 3) схема, цепь,
контур
distribution ~ [,distri'bju:J( распределительная сеть
a)n]
noise [noiz] шум(ы), помехи
ohm и
[aum] ом
ohmmeter ['aummi:ta] омметр
oil [oil] масло, нефть
oily ['oili] масляный
opening ['эир(э)шг)] 1) отверстие 2)
размыкание
operate ['opareit] 1) работать 2)
эксплуатировать
3) управлять
operating (personnel) оперативный (персонал)
j^paisanel]
operation [,орэ'геДэ)п 1) работа 2)
] эксплуатация
3) управление
~ manual ['maenjual] инструкция по
эксплуатации
operational ['seifti] безопасность в
safety эксплуатации
oppose [s'pauz] препятствовать
output ['autput] 1) выход 2)
производительность
~ power [раиэ] полезная мощность
overcome ^эиуэ'клт] преодолеть
overhaul ['auvahorl] капитальный ремонт
overload [Wvobud] перегрузка
~ capacity [ka'passiti] перегрузочная
способность
overspeed [^uva'spiid] идти вразнос
overvoltage [^uva'vaulti перенапряжение
dj]
pace P шаг
[peis]
~ voltage [Vaultidj] шаговое напряжение
pair [реэ] 1) пара 2)
двухпроводная линия
panel [paenl] 2) панель 2) плата
parallel ['ржгэЫ] параллельный
to connect in ~ [ks'nekt] включать параллельно
~ path [pa:6] параллельная ветвь
parameter [рэ'гаетЛэ] параметр
part [pent] 1) часть 2) компонент 3)
деталь
current-carrying ['kasriii]] токонесущий элемент
~
partially ГрсфЬ] частично
~ automated [^ta'meitid] ~ автоматизированный
particle ['partikl] частица
charged ~ [tfn:d3d] заряженная частица
pass (through) [pa:s] пропускать (через)
path [pa:9] 1) путь 2) контур, ветвь
parallel ~ ['рзегэЫ] параллельная ветвь
penetration [,peni treij(9)n] проникновение
perform [pa'fom] 1) работать 2)
выполнять
performance [pa'foirmns] 1) работа
2) рабочие
характеристики
period ['pisriad] период
permeability [jpaimja'biliti] проницаемость
personnel [.paiss'nel] персонал
attending - [s'tendig] обслуживающий -
operating ~ [,op3'reitig] оперативный
(эксплуатационный) -
operation and
maintenance ~ ['meintsnans] оперативно - ремонтный -
phase [feiz] фаза
in ~ в фазе
phenomenon
(pi. [fs'nomsnan] явление (явления)
phenomena)
plan [plaen] план, схема/ планировать
plant [plaint] 1) установка 2)
электростанция
electric ~[ргэ'рлЩэ)п гребная электрическая
propulsion ] установка j
power- [раиэ] электростанция
auxiliaiy power plant вспомогательная -
[oi'gziljsri]
combined — [kam'baind] комбинированная ~
emergency — [i'm3:d33nsi] аварийная -
lighting — [Wig] осветительная -
— for electric propulsion [ргэ'рл1[(э)п] -
электродвижения
plate [pleit] пластина
plug [р!лд] 1) вилка, штепсель 2)
штекер
point [point] 1) точка 2) контакт 3)
пункт
depicted [di'piktid выведенная нулевая точка
central - 'sentrol]
polarity [pau'lseriti] полярность
pole [paul] полюс
- of magnet ['maegnrt] - магнита
negative- ['negativ] отрицательный -
positive- ['pozitiv] положительный ~
position [p3'zij(9)n] положение/ располагать
positive ['pozitiv] положительный/
положительная величина
potential [p3u'tenj(s)l] электрический потенциал
- difference ['difrans] разность потенциалов
power [раиэ] 1) мощность 2) энергия
3) способность
auxiliary - [oi'gziljari] мощность собственных
нужд
consumed - [kan'sju:md] потребляемая -
nominal ['nominl] номинальная ~
(rated) ~
~ of attracting [a'trasktiq] способность
притягивать
~ factor ffekta] коэффициент мощности
~ plant (cm. plant) [plaint] электростанция
-transformer [trasns'fo:m силовой трансформатор
a]
collect the - [ka'lekt] снимать мощность
transmit the - [traenz'mit] передавать мощность
predominantly [pri'domina в основном
ntli]
preserve [pri'zarv] сохранять
presume [pri'zju:m] предполагать
presumably предположительно
regarded as... [ri'ga:did] принимается за...
primary ['praimari] первичный
- motor ['mauta] ~ двигатель
procedure [pra'si:d3a] 1) процедура, порядок 2)
процесс
process ['prausis] процесс
product ['prodAkt] 1) произведение (мат.) 2)
изделие
program ['praugraem программа
]
proof [pruif] защищенный
property ['propati] свойство
proportional [pra'paijanl] пропорциональный
directly - [di'rekth] прямо ~
inversely - [in'va:sh] обратно ~
proportionally [pra'poijanh пропорционально
]
- to rated capacities ~ номинальным
[ka'psesitiz] мощностям
protection [pra'tekj(a)n защита
]
protective [pra'tektiv] защитный
- glasses ['glcusiz] ~ очки
- measures ['тезэг] - мероприятия
pulse [PA1S] импульс/ генерировать
импульс
push [PUJ] нажать, толкнуть
push-button ['puJ.bAtft] (нажимная) кнопка
put (into operation/ service) вводить в эксплуатацию
[put]
quality ['kwoliti] Q
качество
quantity ['kwontiti] количество
quick [kwik] ig) быстрый
—acting ['asktig] быстродействующий
(operatir
rack [rack] R
стойка, стеллаж, штатив
range [reind3] 1) диапазон, пределы 2)
амплитуда
rate [reit] 1) скорость 2) частота 3)
норма
fixed rates [fikst] установленные нормы
rated ['reitid] номинальный
~ armature ['cnmatjua] ~ ток якоря
current
~ secondary current ~ вторичный ток
['sekandari]
~ (secondary) ~ (вторичное) напряжение
voltage['vaultidz]
ratio ['reijiau] 1) (со)отношение 2)
коэффициент
reaction [n'askj(3)n] реакция
readiness ['redinis] готовность
instant - ['instant] мгновенная -
rear [ПЭ] задняя сторона
—mounted ['mauntid] установленный с
внутренней стороны
(панели)
record [ri'koid] записывать
(гл.)
['reko:d] запись
(сущ.)
rectifier ['rektifaia] выпрямитель
silicon ~ ['silikan] кремниевый -
reduce [ri'djuis] уменьшать, снижать
regulating ['reqjuleitig] регулировочный
- (adjusting) rheostat - реостат
['ri:austast]
regulation [,regju'leif(9)n] регулирование,
регулировка
automatic- [^ita'maetik автоматическое ~
]
current- [Want] ~ тока
step-by-step - ['step bai ступенчатое ~
'step]
stepless - ['steplis] плавное ~
wide-range ~[remd3] широкое ~ напряжения
voltage -
~ characteristic [,kasrakta'ri | регулировочная
stik] характеристика
regulator ['reqjuleita] регулятор, стабилизатор
relationship [ri'leij(a)nji зависимость,
p] (со)отношение
relay [ri'lei] реле/ ставить реле
release [ri'liiz] 1) размыкание/ размыкать
2) отпускание/ отпускать
reliability [ri.laia'biliti надежность
]
reliable [ri'laiabl] надежный
~ in operation [,орэ'ге1Яэ) ~ в эксплуатации
п]
148
reload [ri'laud] повторно нагружать
remagnetize [ri'masgmtaiz] перемагничивать
remote [ri'maut] дистанционный
remove [ri'mu:v] убирать, снимать
repair [ripea] ремонт
capital ~ ['kaepitl] капитальный -
emergency ~ [i'ma:d3ansi] аварийный ~
maintenance ~['meintanans] текущий ~
preventive ~ [pn'ventiv] профилактический
repel [ri'pel] отталкиваться
requirement [ri'kwaiamant]требование
residual [ri'zidjual] остаток
resinous ['rezinas] смолистый
resistance [ri'zistans] сопротивление
-to moister ['moistja] влаго -
and
vibration [vai'breij(a)n] и вибростойкость
resoldering [ri'sauldarig] перемотка
respond [ri'spond] 1) реагировать 2)
срабатывать
resultant [ri'zAltant] результирующее
~ magnetic [maeg'netik ~ магнитное поле
field 'fi:ld]
return [ri'ta:n] 1) возврат/ возвращаться
2) обратный ход
reversal [ri'va:sl] реверс
revolution [,reva'lu:J(a)n оборот
]
rewind [ri'waind] перемотка/ перематывать
назад
rheostat ['ri:austaet] реостат
regulating- ['regjuleitig] регулировочный -
rigid fnd3id] жесткий
rocker ['roka] траверса
rotary ['rautari] вращающийся
- amplifier ['aemphfaia]. электромашинный
усилитель
-converter [kan'va:ta] вращающийся
преобразователь
rotate ['rauteit] вращаться
rotation [rau'teij(a)n] вращение, поворот
rotational [rau'teij"(a)nl 'spi:d] частота вращения
speed
- speed feedback ['fiidbaek] обратная связь по частоте
вращения
rotor ['raota] ротор
-currentfrequency частота тока ротора
['friikwansi]
149
rub [глЬ] тереть, натирать
rubber ['глЬэ] резина
rule [ru:l] правило
run [глп] 1) работа 2) режим работы
running Е'глшд] 1) работа 2) вращение, ход
safety S безопасность
['seifti]
operational ~ [lop9lreiJ(a) ~ в эксплуатации
nl]
~ rules [ru:lz] правила безопасности
salient (poles) ['seiljont] явные (полюса)
saturation [lsaetj3lreiJ' насыщение
(9)n]
~ of the [mseg'netik ~ магнитной цепи
magnetic
circuit 'saikit]
steel ~ [sti:l] ~ стали
scale [skeil] 1) шкала 2) масштаб
schedule ['Jedjuil] график/ составлять график
scheme [ski:m] 1) схема 2) план
screen [skrini] экран/ показывать на
экране
screw [skru:] винт, болт/ завинчивать,
крепить
винтами, болтами
secondary ['sekandari] вторичный
~ open winding [ эирп waindnj] вторичная разомкнутая
обмотка
section [ sekf(o)n] 1) сечение 2) участок
cross ~ [kros] поперечное сечение
segment [segmsnt] сегмент, сектор
self-adjusting [,self э d3AStig] автоматическое
регулирование
self-excited
(generator) [,self (генератор)
1'ksaitid] самовозбуждения
semiconductor ^semikon'd полупроводник
Akto"
sensibility [^ensi'biliti] чувствительность
separate
(current source) ['seprit] посторонний (источник
тока)
separation [lsepalreiJ(9 отделение, разделение
)n]
sequence ['siikwans] последовательность
series ['sisriss] 1) серия, ряд
2) последовательное
соединение
~ -connected [ka'nektid] соединенный
последовательно
—compound ['kompaund сериесный
] компаундированный
motor двигатель

F
—wound generator [waund] генератор
последовательного
возбуждения
place in series faimotjua последовательно включать
with
the armature 's9:kit] в цепь якоря
circuit
service ['s9:vis] 1) служба 2) эксплуатация
set [set] 1) комплект 2) агрегат 3)
установка
shaft [fa:ft] вал, ось, стержень
generator - [^зепегеЛэ] вал генератора
shift [fift] сдвиг/ сдвигать
shipboard №pbo:d] судовое
electrical электрооборудование
equipment
~ electrical обслуживание судового
maintenance ['memtanans эле ктрооборудования
]
shock Lfok] удар, толчок
electric - [ilektrik] поражение электрическим
током
shoe № полюсный башмак

short-circuit ['Jo:t 's9:kit] короткое замыкание


- characteristic ^kaerakta'ns характеристика короткого
tik] замыкания
short-circuited ['jo:t закороченный
'soikitid]
shunt Цл nt] шунт, параллельная цепь/
шунтировать, включать
параллельно
—compound j'kompaund] шунтовый
компаундированный
(motor) (двигатель)
—wound [waund] (генератор) параллельного
(generator) возбуждения
shunting [TAntiq] шунтирование
sign [sain] знак, обозначение
signal E'signl] сигнал/ сигнализировать
emergency - [i'm3:d39nsi аварийный сигнал
]
fire-alarm ~ ['fai9(r)9'la: пожарный -
m]
input- ['input] входной -
output - ['autput] выходной -
significant [sig'nifikgnt большой, значительный
]
silicon ['silikgn] силикон, кремний
- rectifier ['rektifaig] кремниевый выпрямитель
size [saiz] размер
sliding ['slaidig] скользящий
~ contacts ['kontekts] ~ контакты
slightly ['slaitli] незначительно, слегка
- inclined [m'klamd] с малым наклоном
Hiip [slip] скольжение
-ringed selsyn ['rigd 'seisin] контактный сельсин
slot [slot] паз
slowdown ['slaudaun] снижение скорости,
торможение
small (quantity) [smo:l] малая (величина)
smooth [smu:d] сглаживать, выравнивать
socket fsokit] розетка, патрон
soldering ['soldarig] пайка
source [so:s] источник
~ofenergy ['enad3i] - энергии
~ of supply [sa'plai] - энергоснабжения
current- [Want] - тока
space [speis] 1) пространство 2)
промежуток / !
располагать
special fspejal] специальный
- gauntlets ['go:ntlits] - рукавицы
- purpose ['pa:pas машина специального
machine ma'Jim] назначения
- purpose ['pa:pas трансформатор
специального
transformer traens'fo:ma] назначения
speed [spi:d] 1) скорость 2) частота
вращения
- characteristic [,kaerakta'ristскоростная характеристика
ik]
- regulation [,reqju'leij(a) регулирование частоты
n] вращения i
splash (-proof) [splcEj] брызго - (защищенный)
square [skwsa] квадрат/ квадратный
- value of the [Vffilju:] квадрат тока якоря
armature
current
spring [sprig] пружина/ пружинить
stability [sta'biliti] стабильность,
устойчивость
stabilization [,steibilai'zeij(a)n] стабилизация
stage [steid3] стадия, фаза
standard ['staendad] стандарт/ стандартный
- frequency ['frirkwansi] стандартная частота
star [sto:] (соединение) звезда
double— ['dAbl] соединение звезда - звезда
—connected [ka'nektid] соединенный звездой
—delta ['delta] соединение звезда -
треугольник;
start [start] (за)пуск, включение/
(за)пускать,
включать
- regulation цепи управления
equip
ment control circuits [ пускорегулирующей
saikits] аппаратуры
152

~ the motor faidl] запускать двигатель


idle вхолостую
starter ['state] стартер
starting ['statu]] пуск, включение
state [steit] 1) состояние 2)
положение
static ['staetik] статический
~ converter [kan'varta] ~ преобразователь
~ electricity [ilak'trisiti] - электричество
stator ['steita] статор
steam [sti:m] пар
steel [Still] сталь
-frame [freim] стальной корпус
-shaft Lfa:ft] - вал
steeply ['sti:pli] круто (падающий)
(drooping)
steering gear ['stiarig] рулевое устройство
step [step] 1) ступень, шаг 2)
перепад
—by— [,regju'leij(a)ступенчатое
regulation n] регулирование
—down transformer [traens1 понижающий
forma] трансформатор
—less [,re9iu'leij(a)плавное регулирование
regulation n]
—up [traens' повышающий
transformer forma] трансформатор
stop [stop] остановка
store [star] накапливать/накопление
straight line ['streit 'lain] прямая
strength [streggG] сила, прочность
structure [strAktJa] 1) конструкция 2) опора
substance ['sAbstans] вещество, материя
substitute ['sAbstitjurt] заменять
substitution [(sAbsti'tju:J замена
(a)n]
supply [sa'plai] 1) электропитание/
подводить
электропитание 2)
подвод, подача
suspended [sa'spendid] подвесной
switch [switj] переключатель/
переключать
switchgear ['switjgia] распределительное
устройство
switching ['switjig] переключение,
выключение
symmetry ['simatri] симметричность
synchronism ['sigkranizm синхронизм
]
synchronous ['sigkranas] синхронный
- alternator [^rlta'neita] - генератор переменного
тока
- number
of revolutions ^reva'luij^nz] - число оборотов
-transmission
system [traenz'mij(3) система синхронной
n] связи
system ['sistam] система
magnetic [maeg'netik] магнитоэлектрическая
electric - ~
transmission - [trsenz'mij(a) - связи
n]
voltage control ['vaultid3 kan'traul] ~ генератор-
- двигатель
tap (tapping) l ответвление, отвод
[tep]
technique [tek'niik] 1) техника 2) метод
technology [tek'nolad3i] техника, технология
temperature ['tempntja] температура
—dependent [di'pendant] зависимый от
температуры i
terminal ['taaninl] вывод, клемма
-box [boks] клеммный щиток
test [test] испытание, проверка/
испытыва!
theory ['Giari] теория
thermocouple ['8э:тэ'клр1] термопара
three-leg (core) ['9ri: 'leg] трехстержневой
(сердечник)
three-phase
(transformer) ['9ri: 'feiz] трехфазный
(трансформатор)
tie [tax] связь/ связывать
tighten ['taitn] натягивать, уплотнять
time [taim] время
timer ['taima] таймер
tongs [togz] клещи
tools [tuilz] инструменты
- equipped with - с изолированными
insulated ['hasndlz] рукоятками
handles
torque [folk] момент
transform [trasns'foim] преобразование/
преобразовыват
transformer [traens'fama] трансформатор
air-cooled - ['ea'kurld] - с воздушным
охлаждение!
auto— [o:ta] авто- ~
bar-type - [W 'taip] стержневой -
current- - измерительный -
measuring - ['kArant'me3a
rig]
['aisnklsed] бронированный ~
[,mAlti'sadcit] многообмоточный ~
[,mAlti'feizd] многофазный ~
[раиэ] силовой ~
['step 'daun] понижающий ~
['step !др] повышающий ~
['0ri: 'feiz] трехфазный ~
~[1 vaultid3 'тезэпд] измерительный ~ напряжения ['wojtaprmf] водозащищенный ~
fweldig] сварочный ~
['reijrau] коэффициент трансформации
['trsenziant] переходный (процесс)
[trsenz'mij(9)n] передача
[trasnz'mit] передавать [раиэ] ~ мощность
['triga] триггер
['trAbl] повреждение, неисправность
['trAblJurtig] нахождение и устранение
неисправностей
[fa:bm] турбина
[tarn] 1) поворот 2) виток
[Ъ:шг) 'gia] валоповоротное устройство
['tu: 'ко:] двухжильный
['tu: 'feiz] двухфазный
['tu: 'paul] двухполюсной
[taip] тип [lirnir)] прислонного типа
U
[An'beelanst] несбалансированный
[лп'Ыок] деблокировка
[An'tjeind3abl] неизменный
['Anda] под
[laud] ~ нагрузкой
['ju:nifo:mli] равномерно
['juinit] 1) элемент 2) прибор, аппарат
3) блок, узел 4) единица
[An'laik] разноименный
unload [An'laud] снимать нагрузку
upper Глрэ] высшее (напряжение)
(voltage)
use [furs] использование,
применение
utilization [jutilai'zeij(a)n] использование
value ['vaelju:] величина, значение
vapour ['veipa] пар, испарение
vaiy ['veari] изменять(ся)
~ abruptly [эЬ'глрШ] резко ~
ventilation [,venti'leij(a вентиляция
)n]
vibration [vai'breij(a) вибрация
n]
volt [vault] вольт
voltage f'vaultid3] напряжение
connected - [ka'nektid] подводимое -
line-to-line - ['lain ta линейное -
'lam]
mains - [memz] сети
pace- [peis] шаговое ~
rated ['reitid] номинальное (вторичное)
(secondary) -
- control system система "генератор —
[kan'traul] двигатель'
withstand [wiQ'stsend выдерживать
]
a working- рабочее напряжение
voltmeter ['vaultmirta вольтметр
]
volume ['voljum] объем
warping ['worpig] W
коробление, деформация
water ['worta] вода
waterproof ['wo:tapru:f| водостойкий
(водозащищенный)
watertight ['wo:tatait] водонепроницаемый
watt [wot] ватт
watt-hour f'wotaua] ватт - час
wattmeter ['wotmi.ta] ваттметр
wave [weiv] волна
wear [wea] износ
welder fwelda] сварочный аппарат
wide [waid] широкий
-ranged ['rcmd3d регулирование в
широком
regulation (regju'leij(9) диапазоне

n]
~ limits ['limits] широкие пределы
winch [wintj] лебедка
winding ['waindirj] обмотка
armature — fciimatjua] - якоря
field- [fiild] - возбуждения
- insulation [ms3'leij(9) пробой изоляции
n обмотки
breakdown 'breikdaun]
windlass ['windlass] брашпиль
wire [waia] 1) проволока 2) провод
-of smaller ['sekj(a)n] провод меньшего
section сечения
wiring ['waiarig электроустановочная
арматура
accessory a'ksesari]
withdraw [wiS'dro:] выводить
work [waik] работа
- safety rules ['seifti правила техники
'ruilz] безопасности
yoke Y 1) траверса 2) ярмо,
[jauk] станина
zero Z нуль, нулевая точка
f'ziarau]

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