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NAIMA 3EPLUS Program Registration Version 2.12

You must complete and return this form for technical support, information regarding updates, and new products.

Company:

Name:

Title:

Dept:

Address:

Country:

Phone:

Fax:

Email:

Thank you for completing this registration form and returning it promptly. We welcome any constructive suggestions or comments you may have after working with the program.

Please mail the form to:

SofTech2

PO Box 55232 Grand Junction, CO 81505

or fax this page to 970-241-4107

Table of Contents

License Agreement

iv

Forward

1

Chapter I Introduction

2

Getting Started

3

3EPLUS Program Operation

5

Example 1

8

Chapter II 3EPLUS Users Manual

13

Project Data

14

Fuel Selection

14

Fuel Data

15

Economic Data

17

Operating Data

19

Report Format

21

Insulation Type

22

Insulation Material

22

Surface Type

23

Installed Cost Data

24

Example 2

29

Example 3

34

Program Output

39

Example 4

41

Chapter III Thermal Insulation Materials

45

Chapter IV Heat Flow Calculations

47

Thickness for Maximum Surface Temperature or Thickness for Condensation Control Using 1 Insulation Material

48

Example 5

51

Example 6

53

Thickness for Maximum Surface Temperature or Thickness for Condensation control Using 2 Insulation Materials

55

Example 7

57

Heat Loss (Gain) Calculations for up to 10 Selected Layers of Insulation

59

Example 8

61

Example 9

63

Heat Loss (Gain) Tables for Multiple Surfaces in 5 Temperature Ranges

65

Surface Type

66

Report

67

Chapter V Mathematical Model for Determination of the Economic Thickness for Hot or Cold Surfaces

69

Insulation related Costs

70

Heat Related Costs

71

Tax Savings for Hot Surfaces

72

Discounted Payback Period

74

Heat Gain Related Costs

76

Tax Savings for Cold Surfaces

78

Discounted Payback Period for Cold Surfaces

80

List of Symbols

82

Appendix A - Present Worth Factor

83

Appendix B - Heat Flow Model

85

Appendix C - Dew Point Model

92

Appendix D - Thermal Conductivity Equations

93

Appendix E - Carbon Dioxide Reduction

95

Appendix F - Program History Documentation

96

Appendix G - References

98

Appendix H - Sample Input Data Forms

101

North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA) NAIMA Program License Agreement

YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE INSTALLING THIS DISKETTE PACKAGE. INSTALLING THESE PROGRAMS ON YOUR COMPUTER INDICATES YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS.

The programs contained in this package are copyrighted. Any attempt to copy the programs or alter them in any way is a violation of this agreement and US copyright laws.

NAIMA provides these programs and licenses their use. The user assumes the responsibility for the selection of the program to achieve the intended results, and for the installation, use, and results obtained from the program. The user assumes all risk and liability resulting from the installation and use of the programs, whether used singly or in combination with other programs, services, or goods. NAIMA neither assumes nor authorizes any person to assume for NAIMA any other liability in connection with the sale or use or installation of the programs, and there are no oral agreements or warranties collateral to or affecting this agreement.

LICENSE

You may:

1. use the programs on a single machine. The network version allows you to use the programs on only the machines registered.

2. transfer the programs and license to another party if the other party agrees to accept the terms and conditions of this Agreement. If you transfer the programs, you must at the same time transfer all program materials and manuals.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

THE PROGRAMS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" AND "WITH ALL FAULTS". NAIMA MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATEVER, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAMS ARE WITH THE PURCHASER. SHOULD EITHER PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU AND NOT NAIMA, ASSUME THE ENTIRE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES, SO THE ABOVE EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. IN THAT EVENT, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO NINETY (90) DAYS FROM THE DATE OF DELIVERY OF THE SOFTWARE AND NAIMA'S ENTIRE LIABILITY AND YOUR EXCLUSIVE REMEDY SHALL BE THE REPLACEMENT OF ANY DISKETTE WHICH IS RETURNED TO NAIMA THAT HAS NOT BEEN TAMPERED WITH AND WITH THE PROGRAMS RECALLED.

IN NO EVENT WILL NAIMA BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE EITHER PROGRAM EVEN IF NAIMA OR ITS AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTOR HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY.

SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES SO THE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

The laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia govern this agreement . Should you have any questions concerning this Agreement, contact NAIMA 44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 310, Alexandria, VA, 22314.

By installing the program:

YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ THIS AGREEMENT, UNDERSTAND IT, AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY ITS TERMS AND CONDITIONS. YOU FURTHER AGREE THAT IT IS THE COMPLETE AND EXCLUSIVE STATEMENT OF THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN US WHICH SUPERSEDES ANY PROPOSAL OR PRIOR AGREEMENT, ORAL OR WRITTEN, AND ANY OTHER COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN US RELATING THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THIS AGREEMENT.

FOREWORD

As we all know, energy has a long term effect on every individual. It is the concern of virtually every individual and business organization in our nation. It also is a major concern of the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA). NAIMA represents a large producing segment of an industry dedicated to the conservation of energy. As a result of the oil embargoes, political unrest in the oil-producing countries, and other factors, NAIMA has refined economic thickness determination to accommodate the new and higher costs and again later to adapt the procedures to insulating existing facilities. Now there is an updated method to meet today's economic realities. This report finalizes and documents research performed by Louisiana Tech University for NAIMA from April l979 to August l979 and work contracted to Tutco Scientific from 1989 to 1991. The report documents two new computer programs for determining the economic thickness for thermal insulation for hot and cold surfaces and the calculation of heat loss and surface temperature. It examines the mathematics of determining the economic thickness for a given application and presents a user's manual for the utilization of the programs. We are indebted to many people who assisted in the research and preparation of this manuscript.

The original economic thickness program was prepared by:

Dr. B. F. Blackwell and D. E. McConnell Louisiana Tech University, Mechanical Engineering Department Ruston, L.A. February, 1980

The original heat loss program was prepared by:

SofTech² Grand Junction

CO 81521

March 1991

The previous releases of the economic thickness program were to provide the user with an easy method to determine economic thicknesses. The objective was to provide a program that could be run on a personal computer at the convenience of the user. Several users have made suggestions on the user interface and what they really needed from the program. This release incorporates many of those suggestions. The new release is designed to provide a table that summarizes the economic thicknesses for the given information. The heat loss calculation technique has been changed to agree with the method adopted by ASTM Committee C16 on Thermal Insulations. A separate heat loss program has been incorporated to allow the casual user to calculate heat losses and surface temperatures without having to enter all the economic data.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

The oil embargo of 1973 and recent unrest in the oil-producing countries of the Middle East have stimulated renewed interest on a variety of alternative energy sources. However, studies have indicated that energy conservation can be more cost effective than the utilization of energy from one of the newly emerging alternate energy sources. Thermal insulation is certainly an effective means of conserving energy. The question to be addressed by this program is how much insulation can one economically justify in today's changing fuel market.

Reference 1 reviews the work done on the determination of the economic thickness of industrial insulation. An outgrowth of the Reference 1 work was the development by Ranck of several computer programs for the determination of the economic thickness of insulation (Reference 2). The primary differences between this work and work by Ranck are in the following areas:

a) fuel inflation rate

b) equipment maintenance

c) insulation maintenance

d) equipment investment

e) tax savings

f) carbon dioxide reduction

The economic analysis procedure that was adopted for this program is an after-tax annual cost method. All costs associated with owning insulation are expressed on an equivalent uniform annual cost basis. Each commercially available thickness is analyzed, and the thickness with the lowest annual cost is the economic thickness (ETI). For situations in which condensation (sweating) is a problem, calculations will be performed to determine the condensation control thickness. Depending on the fuel source, the program will estimate the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions due to the use of additional insulation.

Chapter II describes the input procedure for both hot surface and cold surface applications. Chapter III discusses the thermal conductivity data maintained by the program. It describes how to remove and add insulation materials. Chapter IV describes the method used for simple heat loss calculation. This part of the program can be used to do surface temperature calculations, condensation control calculations and print heat loss tables. Chapter V presents a detailed description of the mathematical model for the 3EPLUS program. The manual is organized in a manner that would allow the person who is primarily interested in utilizing the computer results to skip the details of Chapter V.

GETTING STARTED

Throughout this manual, information that the user must type is printed in BOLD ITALICS. When typing commands, type the command as shown then press the ENTER key.

The economic thickness of insulation program is named 3EPLUS.

The installation instructions assume that the user is using drive A. If drive B is to be used, substitute the appropriate letter in the commands below. The normal procedure will install the program to drive C: and subdirectory NAIMA. To change either of these parameters, use the alternate installation command. Technical support is available from the company that provided this program package. To get support, call the company contact on the business card provided with the program package.

NETWORK USERS

The program is not network compatible. It may or may not function correctly. It is not designed to communicate with a remote printer.

Standard Program Installation

Users who have older versions of the Economic Thickness, Heat Loss, or 3EPLUS programs should remove these programs since the older version cannot use the files from the new version.

For normal installation, insert the 3EPLUS disk into the diskette drive and type:

A:INSTALL

A subdirectory will be created on drive C and all the programs copied to it. If you have an older version, the directory may already exist. If it exists, you will see an error message on the display, neglect the message.

Custom Program Installation

To install the program and files to your own subdirectory, type the install command as below.

INSTALL FROM: TO: SUB

where FROM: is the floppy drive ID letter that contains the original 3EPLUS disk

TO: is the hard disk drive ID that will contain the 3EPLUS program and its data files.

SUB is the subdirectory on the hard disk where the program will be stored.

To put the commands on the screen for easier use, type INSTALL ?. This will display all the required information to install the program.

During the installation process, the user will be asked to enter his name and address. This information will be saved by the program and printed on all reports. This identifies the owner of the program.

The 3EPLUS program is copyrighted, you cannot use the program on more than one machine unless you purchase additional programs.

The 3EPLUS disk is compressed, therefore you must use the installation commands as shown. If you decide to use the program on a different computer, you can erase the programs and then install it on the other computer. In any case, the original program diskette must be used.

INSTALLATION PROBLEMS

If you encounter any problems during installation and you see errors displayed on the screen during the copying, retry the installation procedure. This may occur if you type an invalid name for the directory or do not separate the drive ID names from the directory name.

In some cases, certain TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident) programs may not work properly with this program. Since this program frequently uses and updates disk files, some anti-virus and disk monitoring programs can cause the 3EPLUS programs to fail.

Program Verification

To verify that the programs have been properly installed, go through the following steps:

1. Change the directory to the NAIMA directory by typing CD \NAIMA. If the program was installed to a different directory, use the correct directory name.

2. Type the name of the program, 3EPLUS.

3. The program will load into memory then display a menu.

4. Select Retrieve the information from a PREVIOUS 3EPLUS JOB by using the arrow keys to highlight the choice then press ENTER.

5. Use the arrow keys to select the example 1 file, EX1.ETI, then press ENTER.

6. When the program displays the first screen, press the F3 function key to begin preparing the report.

7. The program should print a report. The output report can be compared to Example 1 at the end of Chapter I.

3EPLUS PROGRAM OPERATION

First go to the NAIMA directory, or use an appropriate PATH statement. Refer to the User's Manual that accompanied your computer for information about the Change Directory (CD\) command or the PATH statement.

Type 3EPLUS then press ENTER.

The program will start by loading all the required data files and then display a menu. Use the arrow keys to select the choice. The default option for the 3EPLUS program is to Start NEW 3E ECONOMICS JOB and type new information about that job. Chapter II describes the 3EPLUS program operation when this option is selected.

Start NEW 3E ECONOMICS JOB Retrieve the information from a PREVIOUS 3EPLUS JOB HEAT FLOW calculations only Update the THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY file Change SCREEN COLORS

The second option is to Retrieve the information from a PREVIOUS 3EPLUS JOB. This option allows the user to make changes to the data or to begin printing a report immediately. You do not have to go through all the questions to start the report. Select the file name using the arrow keys then press ENTER.

The third option is to run HEAT FLOW Calculations only to determine heat losses or gains from piping, tanks, or flat surfaces. Use this option where you are not interested in economics. Chapter IV describes this selection and how to determine the amount of insulation to use for condensation control or a maximum surface temperature specification.

The fourth option is Update the THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY file. This option allows the user to add, delete, or print a list of insulation materials from the program. After selecting this option, a new menu will be displayed. Chapter III describes this option and how to change insulation materials.

The next option is to Change SCREEN COLORS. This option allows the user to customize the colors used in the program. If the computer is a laptop with an LCD screen, this allows the user to pick the best combination for his computer type.

The last option is QUIT and Return to DOS. This choice stops the program.

IMPORTANT

When starting a new job, be careful when typing the file name. File names are very important. Invalid file names can result in the loss of valuable data. Consult the PC-DOS or MS-DOS manual about how to name a file. Do not use periods, commas, blanks, or any other punctuation marks in the name. Names are limited to eight characters. Choose names that mean something to the user such as the job name, etc. This will help reduce confusion on systems that have many files. It is also helpful to keep a log of file names and a brief description of the job. This will allow the user to locate a particular file when the need arises. If the user needs disk space, copy older files to a floppy disk and store for future reference.

HELP

Help screens are available at any time to provide additional information and typical answers. To get help, locate the cursor on the question of interest and press the F1 function key. The program will display HELP information. Press any key to return to your original place.

PAGE UP AND PAGE DOWN

You may use the Page Up [Pg Up] or Page Down [Pg Dn] keys to accept the information displayed on most screens. The Page Down key displays the next screen while the Page Up key displays a previous screen.

EXAMPLE 1 - File EX1.ETI

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

NAIMA 3EPLUS ECONOMIC THICKNESS ANALYSIS REPORT, Version 2.12

Project Name = Example #1 Project Number = 123-45 System = Production Steam Boiler Location = Central Plaza Date = 12-01-1995 Engineer = Plant Contact = Phone = ext 3765

All the information printed in this report is based on the given input information. Actual values will vary depending on the actual service conditions. The system of mathematical heat flux equations used in this analysis has been accepted by ASTM as applicable for most systems normally insulated with bulk-type insulations. The thermal performance equations are based on laboratory conditions and may not represent actual system performance. NAIMA makes no warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to performance of the actual system and expressly disclaims any and all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX1.ETI

Report date 04-12-1996

Page

1

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Fuel Type = Liquid First Year Price = 0.64 $ per gallon Heating Value = 91000 Btu per gallon Efficiency = 75.0% Annual Fuel Inflation Rate = 6.0% Annual hours of operation = 8320 hours

ECONOMIC DATA Interest rate or Return on investment = 10.0% Effective Income Tax Rate = 30% Physical Plant Depreciation Period = 7 years New Insulation Depreciation Period = 7 years

Incremental Equipment Investment Rate = 3.47 $/MMBtu/hr Percent of New Insulation Cost for Annual Insulation Maintenance = 2% Percent of Annual Fuel Bill for Physical Plant Maintenance = 1% Ambient temperature = 75 F Emittance of outer jacketing = 0.10

Wind speed =

0 mph

Emittance of existing surface = 0.90 Reference thickness for payback calculations = 0.0 inches

Insulation material = 1200F MIN.FIBR BOARD ASTM C612-93

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX1.ETI

Report date 04-12-1996

Page

2

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 1 Top of Tank - Steel Complexity factor = 1.00 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.97 $/ln ft

1.71 $/sqft

Operating Temperatures

 

200

300

400

500

600

700 F

ECONOMIC

THICKNESS

1.0

4.0

4.0

6.0

6.0

6.0 in

HEAT LOSS

26

16

25

25

35

46 Btu/sqft/hr

SURF TEMP

105

95

104

104

113

123 F

PAYBACK

0.35

0.21

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10 yr

ANNUAL COST

1.81

2.89

3.55

4.33

4.99

5.77 $/sqft/yr

TOTAL SAVINGS

20

46

79

123

178

248 $/sqft/yr

CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION

419

985

1692

2615

3768

5212 Lbs/sqft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX1.ETI

Report date 04-12-1996

Page 3

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 2 Vertical Flat Surface - Steel Complexity factor = 1.00 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.97 $/ln ft

1.71 $/sqft

Operating Temperatures

 

200

300

400

500

600

700 F

ECONOMIC

THICKNESS

1.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0 in

HEAT LOSS

25

20

32

47

50

67 Btu/sqft/hr

SURF TEMP

110

104

118

133

136

152 F

PAYBACK

0.38

0.29

0.14

0.10

0.10

0.10 yr

ANNUAL COST

1.73

3.54

4.40

5.45

6.65

7.80 $/sqft/yr

TOTAL SAVINGS

18

41

72

113

165

232 $/sqft/yr

CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION

378

890

1542

2392

3504

4893 Lbs/sqft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX1.ETI

Report date 04-12-1996

Page 4

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 3 Bottom of Tank - Steel Complexity factor = 1.00 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.97 $/ln ft

1.71 $/sqft

Operating Temperatures

 

200

300

400

500

600

700 F

ECONOMIC

THICKNESS

1.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

6.0

6.0 in

HEAT LOSS

23

15

24

35

34

45 Btu/sqft/hr

SURF TEMP

118

106

120

137

134

150 F

PAYBACK

0.57

0.33

0.16

0.10

0.10

0.10 yr

ANNUAL COST

1.58

2.84

3.48

4.26

4.92

5.69 $/sqft/yr

TOTAL SAVINGS

13

30

56

91

138

199 $/sqft/yr

CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION

272

670

1203

1931

2923

4194 Lbs/sqft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX1.ETI

Report date 04-12-1996

Page 5

CHAPTER II 3EPLUS USERS MANUAL

INTRODUCTION

The 3EPLUS program calculates the economic thickness of industrial insulation for a wide variety of operating conditions. There are five different fuel types and five different surface orientations. Several different generic insulation materials have built-in thermal performance relationships, plus the user has the option of supplying conductivity data for other materials. The large number of possible combinations of program options gives a great deal of flexibility to the computer program. Typical program output includes annual cost of owning the insulation (per unit area or foot of pipe length), payback period, surface heat loss and the surface temperature for each insulation thickness considered. The economic thickness is the thickness that gives the minimum annual cost over the designated insulation life. The analysis can be described as an after-tax, annual-cost procedure.

A detailed description of the economic analysis procedure used in the 3EPLUS program is presented in Chapter V. For the user that desires a better understanding of the computational procedure for determining the economic thickness, it is strongly recommended that Chapter V be studied. For the person primarily concerned with using the program and its output, it is not necessary to consider Chapter V in great depth.

The remainder of this chapter will be devoted to describing the input information and the proper format for typing information into the program.

The input data are broken up into several screens. Each screen is described below. To begin, select Start NEW 3EPLUS ECONOMICS JOB from the main menu.

Start NEW 3E ECONOMICS JOB Retrieve the information from a PREVIOUS 3EPLUS JOB HEAT FLOW calculations only Update the THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY file Change SCREEN COLORS QUIT and return to DOS

SCREEN 1 - PROJECT DATA

This screen consists of eight questions of descriptive information that can be used to identify the particular job. A blank line is acceptable. The information entered will be printed in the heading of the report.

The last two questions on this page are to select a Hot or Cold surface analysis and to select a new or retrofit application. The default is a Hot surface analysis for a New surface.

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION Owner Name

Project Name = Project Number = System = Location = Date = 12-01-1993 Engineer = Contact = Phone =

Analysis of Hot or Cold surface (H or C) = H

SCREEN 2 - FUEL SELECTION

Any one of five types of fuel can be selected by using the arrow keys to highlight the appropriate choice. The different fuel types have different units for both price and heating value.

Liquid ($/gal) Gas ($/mcf) Solid ($/ton) Electricity ($/kWh)

SCREEN 3 - FUEL DATA

This screen is used to enter economic information about the fuel chosen in the last screen. The user can change the defaults displayed or can type new information.

Fuel Data First year price ($ per gallon) =

0.640

Heating Value (Btu per gallon) =

91000

Efficiency (%) =

75.0

Annual Fuel Inflation Rate (%) =

6.0

First Year Price: Type the price in dollars per unit as shown on the screen. This is the price at the start or beginning of the project. This price will be inflated throughout the duration of the project.

Default values are included in the program and may be used by the operator. The values were obtained from the US Department of Energy and were the most recent data available when this manual was written. The user should be aware that the actual cost may vary considerably. The user should strive to get cost data that is specific for the job at hand. Updated information may be available from the Department of Energy.

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey, 1988

Coal

1.72 $/MMBtu

Natural Gas

2.52

Distillate

4.66

LPG

5.27

Electricity

13.44

DOE weighted average

4.68

For example, if the user selects coal as the fuel, the default values for the heating value and cost per ton equal the DOE value of $1.72/MMBtu will be displayed. The user should use these values only if he does not have access to any other cost information. The same applies to the other fuel types.

Heating Value: Type the amount of heat that one unit of the fuel can give off. This number will be corrected by the efficiency of conversion in the next question.

SOME TYPICAL HEATING VALUES

LIQUIDS

#2 OIL

134000

- 146000

Btu/Gallon

#4 OIL

138000

- 152000

#6 OIL

140000

- 155000

LIQUID BUTANE

102000

LIQUID PROPANE

91000

GASES

NATURAL

960

- 1100

Btu/Ft 3

BUTANE

3200

PROPANE

2500

PRODUCER

150

-

200

SOLIDS

LIGNITE

8000

Btu/Lb

SUB-BITUMINOUS

8300

- 13000

BITUMINOUS

11000

- 14000

ANTHRACITE

12000

- 15000

WOOD

4800

-

6300

 

PEAT

7600

- 10000

 

ELECTRICITY

3412

Btu/kW

Efficiency: Type the conversion efficiency of the equipment. This is the efficiency from converting one unit of fuel into the heating medium used in the process, such as steam or hot air.

Annual Fuel Inflation Rate: This is the annual rate at which fuel prices are inflating. Since this quantity is assumed to be constant over the insulation life, it should be representative of what is expected over the long term. Although there are instances where fuel prices escalated very rapidly or even reversed, it is extremely unlikely that one could expect such rates to continue for 10-20 years into the future. Although this is a very speculative quantity, it will certainly be greater than zero. The default value is 6%.

If the job is for cold surfaces, the following questions will also be displayed.

Cost of Condenser Make-Up Water: This represents the current price of the make-up water evaporated at the condenser, in $/1000gal.

Annual Condenser Water Inflation Rate: This is the estimated annual rate of increase in the price of make-up water.

SCREEN 4 - ECONOMIC DATA

This screen consists of seven or eleven items that specify the economic and general parameters that remain fixed for all of the operating conditions. Each item will be discussed in the order it is displayed on the screen. There are seven questions for a Hot surface analysis and eleven questions for a condensation control analysis.

ECONOMIC DATA Interest rate = 10.0 % Effective Income Tax Rate = 30.0 % Physical Plant Depreciation Period = 7 years New Insulation Depreciation Period = 7 yrs Incremental Equipment Investment Rate = 3.47 $/MMBtu/hr Percent of New Insulation Cost for Annual Insulation Maintenance = 2 % Percent of Annual Fuel Bill for Physical Plant Maintenance = 1 %

Interest Rate or Return on Investment: This is the best estimate of the average cost of money over the financial life of the project. You may also consider using a minimum required return on investment. After corporate taxes have been paid, this represents the minimum acceptable rate of return on investment required by management. This variable has a large effect on the economic thickness. The default is 10%.

Effective Income Tax Rate: This represents the effective corporate tax rate(%) for local, state, and federal income tax. Since state income tax is deductible from the federal return, the effective tax rate(%) can be calculated from

TR = (STATE TAX RATE + FEDERAL TAX RATE) - ((STATE TAX RATE X FEDERAL TAX RATE)/100)

The default is 30%.

Physical Plant Depreciation Period: The incremental cost of the heating or cooling plant is depreciated over the equipment life by the straight line method. For a job where there is no incremental physical plant cost, then the depreciation period has no significance. The minimum acceptable value is 1 year if you type an incremental cost. If you type 0, then type 0 for the incremental physical plant cost below. The default is 7 years.

Economic Life of New Insulation:

represents the period of economic analysis for the problem. All costs are uniformly distributed over the insulation life. The default is 20 years.

In addition to the new insulation life, this quantity

Incremental Physical Equipment Investment:

The addition of insulation can cause a

reduction in the physical plant load. For the design of a new plant, the increased insulation should be given credit for a smaller physical plant. This quantity represents the cost of adding an increase in the physical plant capacity of 1,000,000 Btu/hr. Two plant sizes and their corresponding costs are necessary to calculate this quantity. It is assumed that the relationship is a straight line between cost and the plant capacity range of interest. Plot the rated capacity (MMBtu/hr) on the X axis versus physical plant cost($) on the Y axis. The incremental investment is the slope of the line. This has a very small effect on the economic thickness.

If these data are unavailable, suggested values are

 

Oil

Gas

Electric

Water Boiler

10.49

10.62

5.04

Steam Boiler

7.68

3.47

7.29

The default is 3.47. Source: Means Construction Cost Data 1991, 49th Edition

For jobs that have an existing physical plant, the plant size is already fixed and the addition of insulation should not be given credit for a reduction in size, therefore type zero.

Percentage of New Insulation Cost for Annual Insulation Maintenance: The first year's insulation maintenance is proportional to the initial insulation cost. Each succeeding year, the insulation maintenance is allowed to inflate at the same rate as fuel.

The physical plant

Percentage of Annual Fuel Bill for Physical Plant Maintenance:

maintenance is assumed to be proportional to the cost of the heat loss or gain. The plant

usage increases with increased heat loss or gain for a fixed load. Each succeeding year, the plant maintenance is allowed to inflate at the same rate as fuel.

The following prompts will appear if the user selected a cold surface analysis.

Water Operated Condenser Factor: If the condenser rejects heat to water, an amount of water must be evaporated to the atmosphere. The quantity represents the required gallons of make-up water per ton of capacity per hour of operation. An electric driven compression system has a factor of 3.2. An absorption system has a factor of 6.2. These are typical values reported by ASHRAE in the Handbook of Fundamentals. The default is 6.2.

Coefficient of Performance: This is the coefficient of performance of the chiller system, and should always be expressed as a decimal. This information is available from the manufacturer or may be included with the equipment literature.

Design Wet Bulb Temperature:

Condensation will occur on a cold surface if the

temperature is below the dew point. The design wet bulb temperature and the relative humidity are used to determine the design dew point. If the cold line is outside, then the design wet bulb can be considerably above the annual average temperature that was used to determine the annual heat loss. The design wet bulb temperature should be a worst case condition whose annual occurrence rate is relatively infrequent while the annual average temperature is representative of an average of what happens over the entire year. For cold lines located indoors, the design wet bulb may or may not be the same as the annual average ambient temperature. It may be necessary to consider a worst case

situation for which the design wet bulb is greater than the annual average ambient temperature.

Design Relative Humidity: The design relative humidity along with the design wet bulb temperature is used to determine the design dew point. Typical data for the relative humidity and design temperatures are available in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals or from the National Weather Service publications on monthly weather information by state.

SCREEN 5 - OPERATING INFORMATION

This screen is used to indicate fixed conditions concerning the operation of the job. The user can accept the default numbers or type in new information.

OPERATING INFORMATION Ambient temperature = 75 F

Emittance of outer jacketing = 0.10

Wind =

0 mph

Emittance of existing surface = 0.80

Annual hours of operation = 8320 hours Reference thickness for

payback calculations =

0.0 inches

Ambient Temperature: The average annual temperature on the exterior of the insulated pipe or surface. For outdoor applications, this information is available from a variety of sources, such as the National Weather Service, or sometimes the local Chamber of Commerce. This variable has a moderate effect on the calculated heat losses, and a small effect on the economic thickness. The default is 75 o F representing indoor conditions.

Average Annual Wind Speed: This influences the convective heat loss from the insulation surface that is exposed to the air. For indoor applications where natural convection is prevalent, use zero. The item has a moderate effect on the calculated heat losses and a large effect on the surface temperatures. The wind speed has a small effect on the economic thickness. The default is 0 mph representing indoor conditions.

Emittance of Surfaces: This data is required to calculate the surface heat transfer film coefficient. Typical values are available by pressing the F1 function key to get HELP. For the best accuracy, data should be obtained from the manufacturer of the external jacket. This data has a large effect on the insulation surface temperature but only a small effect on the calculated heat losses. The emittance has a very small effect on the economic thickness. The default is 0.1 representing an average of reported values for aluminum jacket.

Some typical emittance values include:

Aluminum, new, bright

0.04

Aluminum, oxidized, in service

0.1

Stainless Steel, new, cleaned

0.13

Stainless Steel, dull, in service

0.3

Iron or Steel

0.8

Painted metal

0.8

Galvanized steel, new, bright

0.1

Galvanized steel, dipped or dull

0.28

All Service Jacket

0.9

Aluminum Paint

0.5

Canvas

0.9

Roofing felt and black mastic

0.9

Colored mastic

0.9

Plastic pipe or jacket (PVC or FRP) 0.9 Sources: Mark's Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 8th Edition Malloy, J.F., Thermal Insulations, 1969

Reference Thickness: This number specifies the starting thickness used for calculating the reference heat loss which is in turn used to calculate the energy savings for the discounted payback period. The most common case is zero indicating a bare pipe or surface as the reference condition. This option might be used when a company's

insulation thickness specification is smaller than the economic thickness, and the discounted payback period of the economic thickness in relation to the specification thickness is desired. For this situation, the discounted payback period is the time required

for the present value of the energy savings to exactly balance the present value of the cost differential between the economic thickness and the company specification. The default

is zero representing a bare surface.

Annual Hours of Operation: The time in hours that the system is in operation each year. The default is 8320. This represents 90% of the number of hours in a year.

SCREEN 4 - REPORT FORMAT

The program is designed to produce one of two styles of reports. The majority of the time, the summary table report will be the most useful. It generates a table of economic thicknesses for a range of operating temperatures and a range of pipe sizes. This is useful in developing insulation standards for a particular job. The other style is for those situations where the user is more interested in detailed financial and engineering data. This option prints an individual table for each surface and each temperature. If the job has many surfaces and many different operating temperatures, this option will require a large amount of printer time and paper. The default is a summary table style report.

Summary Table Detailed Report

Depending on the user choice, one or two questions will be displayed. If the user selects

a Detailed Report, then one question will be displayed, the operating temperature. For a

Summary Report, the user will be asked to type the starting temperature and temperature step size.

For the economic thickness summary table report, this is the

temperature in the first column of the table. There will be 5 columns in the table. The starting temperature must be at least 25 o F above or below the ambient temperature.

Starting Temperature:

Temperature Step: For the tables report, this is the step size between each of the columns in the table. The program will not allow the table to go from below ambient to above ambient due to the calculation technique. For cold surfaces, it is best to use a negative step size to avoid the problem. It the user attempts to cross the ambient, the step size will be reduced automatically.

Operating Temperature: For the detailed report, this is the operating temperature of the hot or cold surface. In either case, the operating temperature must be at least 25 o F above or below the ambient temperature.

SCREEN 5 - INSULATION TYPE

The user will be given a choice of selecting an insulation material that has been stored in the program, or be allowed to enter a new insulation material.

Thermal Conductivity Insulation File New Material That Has Not Been Previously Saved

The default is to use the Thermal Conductivity Insulation File. This contains default insulation choices plus any other insulation materials that have been previously entered.

The default file provided with the program includes several generic insulation materials and the thermal conductivity curves of those materials as provided by the ASTM material specification. Notice in the table below, the material is listed and also the ASTM specification number, class (if any), and the specification date.

If the choice was to enter a new material then the user can type the thermal performance characteristics for a new material. If the user selects to use a material that is already in the program, a list of those materials will be displayed in the next screen.

SCREEN 6 - INSULATION MATERIAL

Insulation Type:

the selection from the previous menu is Thermal Conductivity

Insulation File then the user can select from a list of materials maintained by the program. Use the arrow keys to select the material, then press ENTER. The materials and their respective thermal conductivity equations are shown in Appendix D. The thermal conductivity equations are derived from ASTM material specifications.

If

1800F MIN.FIBR BLOCK ASTM C612-93 1200F MIN.FIBER BORD ASTM C612-93 850F MIN.FIBER BOARD ASTM C612-93 450F MIN.FIBER BOARD ASTM C612-93 CALCIUM SIL PIPE+BLK ASTM C533-95 PERLITE PIPE & BLOCK ASTM C610-95 CELLULAR GLASS BLOCK ASTM C552-91 1200F MIN.FIBER PIPE ASTM C547-95 850F MIN. FIBER PIPE ASTM C547-95

Up to this point, all the information types is fixed for the entire analysis. The program will allow the user to analyze 25 surfaces. The surfaces will be numbered from 1 to 25. For each surface, the programs will redisplay screens 7 and 8 until the user has completed typing all the information.

SCREEN 7 - SURFACE TYPE The program will display a list of typical surface types. Select a surface type that best represents the major type of surface. Pipe and tank diameters larger than 36 inches are considered flat surfaces for this program.

Horizontal Pipe Vertical Pipe Vertical Flat Surface Top of Tank or Duct Bottom of Tank or Duct

Use the arrow keys to select the most appropriate choice for each surface to be analyzed, then press ENTER.

SCREEN 8 - INSTALLED COST DATA

If the user selected, a horizontal or vertical pipe, then the program will prompt for the pipe size. If the user selected a flat surface, then skip the next question.

Pipe Size: If a horizontal or vertical pipe was selected above, then the program will prompt for the diameter of the pipe. Type a valid US Iron Pipe size from 0.5 to 36 inches.

A. Previous data

B. F.E.A. default costs

C. Type data in each column

Next the user will be prompted for thickness and cost data. The program will display a menu prompting the user about the source of the cost data. An explanation will be shown under the three choices. For choice A, the program remembers the last time the user entered data for the chosen pipe size and the chosen insulation material. If the user has not selected the pipe size or insulation material before, then the data will all be zeros. For the FEA procedure (choice B), the user will need to supply the installed cost of a piece of 2 inch thick insulation on a 2 inch pipe and a piece of 2 inch thick block measuring 1 square foot. This cost includes jacketing. The FEA procedure is an alternate procedure developed by the Federal Energy Administration in 1970. This is a ratio method and should be used only as a last resort. If the user has a limited number of installed cost values, one suggestion would be to request estimated cost data, then change the individual values to use the correct data.

Then a table that represents single, double, and triple layer construction will be displayed. The program allows the user to type up to a maximum of 18 pairs of thickness and cost data for each particular surface. Generally there are fewer than 18 thicknesses available. If the thickness is typed, then a price will be required. The price should be the installed cost including jacket, bands, butt straps, etc. The installed cost data has the largest effect on the program output. The user should strive to provide data as accurate as possible. When the cost data for the surface has been typed, press the Page Down key to go to the next surface or the Page Up key to return to a previous surface.

There are two basic cost elements that determine the installed insulation prices:

1. Material prices

2. Labor to install the material.

Material prices are directly related to the volume and cost of insulation, jacket securement, finishing, and structural support material required to meet the specification. Also included are the costs to the contractor for storage, shipping, and handling these materials. Although material prices vary with geographic area, the ratio of material price for a given insulation thickness and pipe size to that for another thickness and pipe size does not change appreciably from contractor to contractor.

Material price ratios have been included in the program to provide the user a method to estimate unit material prices. Included are tables for each of the following materials finished with 0.016 Aluminum jacket:

Mineral Fiber Pipe and Block Calcium Silicate Pipe and Block Cellular Glass Pipe and Block

To use the FEA estimating procedure, obtain a material price for 2 inch insulation for a 2 inch pipe, and 2 inches of insulation for flat surfaces, both including 0.016 Aluminum jacket. Material prices for other pipe sizes and thicknesses can be estimated from the factors provided in the program. Where possible, obtain several prices from different contractors and use the average of these prices. Another good source of insulation cost data is the Means Construction Cost File. The defaults for the estimating procedure were obtained from the 1991 Means file. Since this is an estimating technique, the user should be aware that individual prices can vary significantly from those supplied by the program. To check the accuracy of the procedure, the user can get installed estimates from contractors covering several pipe sizes and insulation thicknesses. Compare these with the estimates supplied by the program. Where possible, use quotes supplied by contractors or distributors instead of estimated prices.

Labor for Installation

The labor cost for installing insulation varies considerably nationally and is influenced by

1. Local labor wage rate ($/man-hour)

2. Worker productivity (man-hours per linear foot or square foot of insulation)

3. Job size support force costs.

The local labor rate has a significant effect on determining the level of labor prices for various insulation thicknesses and pipe sizes. Labor rates are dictated by such factors as local labor availability, whether or not union labor is employed, and whether overtime work in involved. The labor rate includes the base labor wage, fringe benefits, per diem and travel expenses, and may also include elements of the job size support force costs.

Worker productivity is the most variable element comprising unit labor price. The man- hours required to insulate increases with large pipe sizes, inaccessibility to piping, and equipment and job complexity. Other factors which are known to influence worker productivity are:

1.

Type of material used,

2. Working conditions,

3. Local worker productivity,

4. Overtime loss of worker efficiency.

The job size support force costs is the third element of the fixed final unit labor costs. Job size support force costs increase with the magnitude of the job. Although each contractor may treat this cost differently, some of the major factors it includes are:

1. Preparation costs such as scaffolding, etc.

2. Clean-up and tear-down costs,

3. Supervision costs,

4. General overhead.

Average worker productivity factors for insulating piping and flat surfaces are included in the program. The factors are expressed in man-hours per 100 linear feet of piping or 100 square feet of flat surface. These were derived from a large sampling of insulation productivity across the United States and Eastern Canada. The data was published in Reference 1.

REGIONAL LABOR PRODUCTIVITY FACTORS

City

City

City

or State

or State

or State

Alabama

80

Kentucky

100

Ohio

100

Alaska

140

Louisiana

90

Oklahoma

90

Arizona

110

Maine

110

Oregon

120

Arkansas

90

Maryland

120

Pennsylvania

100

California

100

Massachusetts

110

Rhode Island

110

Colorado

100

Michigan

100

Carolina

100

Connecticut

110

Minnesota

100

S. Dakota

100

Delaware

90

Mississippi

90

Tennessee

100

Florida

90

Missouri

100

Texas

80

Miami

100

St. Louis

120

Utah

100

Georgia

80

Montana

120

Vermont

110

Atlanta

100

Nebraska

100

Virginia

90

Hawaii

120

Nevada

120

Washington

120

Idaho

100

New Hampshire

110

Washington DC

120

Illinois

110

New Jersey

100

W. Virginia

100

Chicago

120

New Mexico

80

Wisconsin

100

Indiana

110

New York

110

Wyoming

100

Iowa

100

New York City

120

Ontario

120

Kansas

100

N. Carolina

100

Maritime

 

N. Dakota

100

Provinces

140

The user can change the complexity factor for each surface if required. Use the function keys to select a new complexity factor or service performance factor.

Complexity Factor: The complexity factor is a multiplier used to escalate the input cost data. The program will display a menu of choices. Use the arrow keys to select the appropriate description. An example of the use of this factor might be when there are two lines that have the same diameter and number of fittings per foot but one line is at ground level and the other is 50 feet off the ground. If the actual installed costs are determined for the ground level line, then the piping complexity factor for the line would be VERY SIMPLE. One way of obtaining an estimate of the installed cost for the raised line might be to use the same basic cost data as for the ground level line and use a piping complexity factor that is more complex. The program users should be cautioned that the above approach is certainly not as desirable or accurate as determining the actual installed cost data for the specific job at hand. The default is AVERAGE. The definitions are:

COMPLEX - 30-40 flanged fittings every 100 feet of pipe AVERAGE - 15-20 flanged fittings every 100 feet of pipe SIMPLE - 10-15 flanged fittings every 100 feet of pipe

The factors above apply only to welded piping with flanged valves and line flanges. For welded piping with no flanges, use VERY SIMPLE as the complexity factor. If the flanges and valves are not to be insulated, then use VERY SIMPLE.

The cost multipliers in the program are:

Pipe Size, in

COMPLEX

AVERAGE

SIMPLE

½ to 1 ½

1.60

1.30

1.20

2

to 3

1.35

1.20

1.15

4

to 6

1.25

1.15

1.10

8

to 12

1.28

1.15

1.12

14 and above

1.30

1.20

1.15

If the user is going to type cost data, be sure to set the complexity factor correctly. Since the program defaults to AVERAGE, it could effect the results without the knowledge of the user. If the data you are typing is a typical selling price, then AVERAGE would be an appropriate choice. But if the user has specific cost data that takes the installation into account, then select VERY SIMPLE so the program will not change the data you typed.

When the cost data for the surface has been typed, press the Page Down key to go to the next surface or the Page Up key to return to a previous surface.

Once all the cost and thickness information has been typed, press the F3 function key to proceed with the analysis. The program is designed to save the cost and thickness information and update it's cost files for future reference. As the user types information for different materials.

EXAMPLE 2 - FILE EX2.ETI

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

NAIMA 3EPLUS ECONOMIC THICKNESS ANALYSIS REPORT, Version 2.12

Project Name = Example #2 Project Number = 23L-7-0 System = Storage Tank Tops Location = Date = 12-01-1995 Engineer = Corporate Engineering Contact = Phone =

All the information printed in this report is based on the given input information. Actual values will vary depending on the actual service conditions. The system of mathematical heat flux equations used in this analysis has been accepted by ASTM as applicable for most systems normally insulated with bulk-type insulations. The thermal performance equations are based on laboratory conditions and may not represent actual system performance. NAIMA makes no warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to performance of the actual system and expressly disclaims any and all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX2.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page

1

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Fuel Type = Electricity First Year Price = 0.05 $ per kwh Annual Fuel Inflation Rate = 6.0% Annual hours of operation = 8320 hours

ECONOMIC DATA Interest rate or Return on investment = 12.0% Effective Income Tax Rate = 30% Physical Plant Depreciation Period = 12 years New Insulation Depreciation Period = 11 years

Incremental Equipment Investment Rate = 0.00 $/MMBtu/hr Percent of New Insulation Cost for Annual Insulation Maintenance = 2% Percent of Annual Fuel Bill for Physical Plant Maintenance = 1% Ambient temperature = 60 F Emittance of outer jacketing = 0.10

Wind speed =

0 mph

Emittance of existing surface = 0.80 Reference thickness for payback calculations = 0.0 inches

Insulation material = CALCIUM SIL PIPE+BLK ASTM C533-95

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX2.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page

2

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 1 Top of Tank - Steel Complexity factor = 1.00 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.88 $/ln ft

1.90 $/sqft

Operating Temperatures

 

200

300

400

500

600

700 F

ECONOMIC

THICKNESS

4.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0 in

HEAT LOSS

13

16

24

34

33

41 Btu/sqft/hr

SURF TEMP

77

81

89

97

97

104 F

PAYBACK

0.32

0.23

0.14

0.10

0.10

0.10 yr

ANNUAL COST

3.55

4.93

6.10

7.39

8.51

9.68 $/sqft/yr

TOTAL SAVINGS

45

95

161

244

349

480 $/sqft/yr

CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION

431

911

1522

2298

3287

4506 Lbs/sqft/yr

The economic thickness is the thickest insulation you supplied data for. The true ETI may be greater.

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX2.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 3

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 2 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 2

inch

Complexity factor = 1.00 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.88 $/ln ft

1.90 $/sqft

Operating Temperatures

 

200

300

400

500

600

700 F

ECONOMIC

THICKNESS

1.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0 in

HEAT LOSS

35

39

51

70

90

113 Btu/ft/hr

SURF TEMP

100

88

90

99

108

117 F

PAYBACK

0.99

0.67

0.48

0.29

0.19

0.13 yr

ANNUAL COST

5.06

7.91

10.47

13.16

16.11

19.32 $/ft/yr

TOTAL SAVINGS

12

29

55

92

142

208 $/ft/yr

CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION

110

291

541

883

1349

1965 Lbs/lnft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX2.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 4

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 3 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 12

inch

Complexity factor = 1.00 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.88 $/ln ft

1.90 $/sqft

Operating Temperatures

 

200

300

400

500

600

700 F

ECONOMIC

THICKNESS

4.0

4.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0 in

HEAT LOSS

54

98

115

157

204

254 Btu/ft/hr

SURF TEMP

80

93

93

102

112

122 F

PAYBACK

0.50

0.23

0.23

0.15

0.10

0.10 yr

ANNUAL COST

14.13

20.55

27.68

33.75

40.39

47.63 $/ft/yr

TOTAL SAVINGS

108

237

413

650

958

1353 $/ft/yr

CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION

1065

2267

3954

6157

9028

12708 Lbs/lnft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX2.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 5

EXAMPLE 3 - File EX3.ETI COLD SURFACE

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

NAIMA 3EPLUS ECONOMIC THICKNESS ANALYSIS REPORT, Version 2.12

Project Name = Example #3 Project Number = 1233-4 System = Cold Storage Location = Date = 12-01-1995 Engineer = RSL - Field Service Contact = Phone =

All the information printed in this report is based on the given input information. Actual values will vary depending on the actual service conditions. The system of mathematical heat flux equations used in this analysis has been accepted by ASTM as applicable for most systems normally insulated with bulk-type insulations. The thermal performance equations are based on laboratory conditions and may not represent actual system performance. NAIMA makes no warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to performance of the actual system and expressly disclaims any and all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX3.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page

1

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Fuel Type = Electricity First Year Price = 0.05 $ per kwh Annual Fuel Inflation Rate = 6.0% Cost of make-up water = 0.001 $ per gallon Inflation rate of make-up water = 1% Annual hours of operation = 8320 hours

ECONOMIC DATA Interest rate or Return on investment = 15.0% Effective Income Tax Rate = 33% Physical Plant Depreciation Period = 7 years New Insulation Depreciation Period = 20 years

Incremental Equipment Investment Rate = 0.00 $/MMBtu/hr Percent of New Insulation Cost for Annual Insulation Maintenance = 2% Percent of Annual Fuel Bill for Physical Plant Maintenance = 1% Water Operated Condenser Factor = 6.20 Coefficient of Performance = 0.60 Design Wet-Bulb Temperature = 80 F Design Relative Humidity = 95% Ambient temperature = 80 F Emittance of outer jacketing = 0.10

Wind speed =

0 mph

Emittance of existing surface = 0.80 Reference thickness for payback calculations = 0.0 inches

Insulation material = CELLULAR GLASS BLOCK ASTM C552-91

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX3.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page

2

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 1 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 12

inch

Average Installation Complexity factor = 1.15 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.63 $/ln ft

1.92 $/sqft

Operating Temperature -30 F

Insulation

Annual

Payback

Pres Value

Heat

Surf

Thick

Cost

Cost

Period

Heat Saved

Gain

Temp

Inches

$/ft

$/ft

Years

$/ft

Btu/ft

F

Bare

124.08

483

-30

1.5

24.79

20.29

0.7

287.12

61

53

2.0

29.06

18.47

0.8

294.07

51

58

2.5

32.87

17.42

0.9

298.74

44

61

3.0

36.67

16.86

1.0

302.11

39

64

4.0

44.28

16.57

1.2

306.66

32

67

Double layer

3.0

41.99

17.86

1.2

302.11

39

64

4.0

54.21

18.44

1.5

306.66

32

67

5.0

66.43

19.62

1.8

309.63

28

69

6.0

78.65

21.20

2.2

311.53

25

71

Triple layer

6.0

114.90

28.01

3.3

311.53

25

71

7.0

126.65

29.63

3.7

313.10

23

72

8.0

138.41

31.38

4.1

314.32

21

73

The Economic Thickness is single layer 4.0 inches.

The savings for the economic thickness is 107.51 $/ln ft/yr and the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions

is

601 lbs/ln ft/yr

The Condensation Control Thickness for this surface is 1 inches.

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX3.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 3

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 2 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 2

inch

Average Installation Complexity factor = 1.15 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.63 $/ln ft

1.92 $/sqft

Operating Temperature -30 F

Insulation

Annual

Payback

Pres Value

Heat

Surf

Thick

Cost

Cost

Period

Heat Saved

Gain

Temp

Inches

$/ft

$/ft

Years

$/ft

Btu/ft

F

Bare

14.83

58

-30

1.0

9.71

7.32

3.6

24.72

21

53

1.5

11.57

6.64

3.9

27.42

17

60

2.0

13.70

6.47

4.5

28.94

15

65

2.5

15.46

6.43

5.0

29.93

14

67

3.0

17.28

6.49

5.6

30.66

13

69

4.0

22.93

7.16

7.8

31.72

11

72

Double layer

3.0

21.57

7.30

7.5

30.66

13

69

4.0

28.66

8.23

10.9

31.72

11

72

5.0

35.81

9.33

16.1

32.37

10

73

6.0

42.76

10.48

25.4

32.78

10

74

Triple layer

The Economic Thickness is single layer 2.5 inches.

The savings for the economic thickness is 8.40 $/ln ft/yr and the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions

is

59 lbs/ln ft/yr

The Condensation Control thickness exceeded the maximum thickness entered by the user. The dew point temperature is 78.4

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX3.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 4

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 3 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 24

inch

Average Installation Complexity factor = 1.15 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.63 $/ln ft

1.92 $/sqft

Operating Temperature -30 F

Insulation

Annual

Payback

Pres Value

Heat

Surf

Thick

Cost

Cost

Period

Heat Saved

Gain

Temp

Inches

$/ft

$/ft

Years

$/ft

Btu/ft

F

Bare

292.03

1138

-30

1.5

42.27

36.71

0.5

696.97

112

50

2.0

48.52

32.56

0.6

711.06

91

55

2.5

55.28

30.31

0.6

720.38

78

59

3.0

62.04

29.08

0.7

727.02

68

62

4.0

75.56

27.97

0.8

736.69

54

66

Double layer

3.0

73.90

31.31

0.8

727.02

68

62

4.0

92.63

31.18

1.0

736.69

54

66

5.0

111.35

32.90

1.3

741.46

47

68

6.0

129.46

34.72

1.5

745.64

40

70

Triple layer

6.0

194.50

46.96

2.3

745.64

40

70

7.0

215.54

49.82

2.5

748.52

36

71

8.0

235.66

52.76

2.8

750.75

33

72

The Economic Thickness is single layer 4.0 inches.

The savings for the economic thickness is 264.06 $/ln ft/yr and the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions is 1443 lbs/ln ft/yr

The Condensation Control thickness exceeded the maximum thickness entered by the user. The dew point temperature is 78.4

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX3.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 5

PROGRAM OUTPUT

After the user has completed typing the cost data for all the surfaces, press the F3 function key to start the calculations and prepare the report. If the user has just typed new information, the information will be saved in a JOB FILE for future retrieval. If the user has retrieved a previous job and made any changes, the program will allow the information to be saved under a different name.

The user is presented with a screen asking where to send the report. The options are P for printer and D for disk. The default is "P" for printer. To save the job and print the results of the calculations on the system printer, press the ENTER key.

The other option is to print the report to a disk file that can be imported by a word processor such as WordPerfect or Microsoft Word. To use this option, type the letter D. The job file containing all the information the user typed will be saved for future retrieval. The program will save the results of the calculations in an ASCII file. The file name will be the same as the job name, with the extension .PRN. In either case, the job file will be saved with the user's information.

To abandon the program and return to the Main Menu, press the Escape key. CAUTION, this causes the program to lose all the information typed by the user.

The program generates a report based on the information typed by the operator. Examples 1 and 3 demonstrate the difference between the detailed report and the summary report.

The first two pages are a synopsis of the information typed by the operator. Each following page details the results of the calculations. The report shows the heat loss or gain and the surface temperature. Also listed are the discounted payback period and annual cost. The use of the discounted payback period is discussed in Chapter 5. The annual cost includes not only the cost of energy, but also all the costs associated with owning the insulation. The economic thickness is the thickness with the lowest annual cost.

The savings is also listed. The savings is the difference between the annual cost of the reference thickness and the annual cost at the economic thickness condition. This savings includes more than the cost of saved energy. It also includes all the other factors included in the annual cost. Since the reference cost is usually the bare surface, the annual cost represents the inflating cost of the lost heat over the life of the project. If the operator types a reference thickness, then the annual cost of this thickness is used to determine the savings.

Depending on the fuel choice, the program can estimate the reduction in the Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. This applies to all fuel types except OTHER. The program uses US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data to calculate the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions. The basic data was supplied by the Global Change Division of EPA to NAIMA in a private letter. The data is:

Natural Gas

113 lbs per million Btu

Oil

173

Coal

215

Electricity

1.6 lbs per KWhr

The mathematics are shown in Appendix E.

The report may also contain error messages about maximum use temperature. The program checks all surface temperatures against the material maximum use temperature. If the hot surface on any underlayer temperature exceeds the maximum, the program alerts the operator and puts a warning message on the report. The program will also print warning messages if the mean temperature used in any calculation exceeds the limits of the data used to determine the thermal conductivity equation. If the program has to extrapolate the mean temperature more than 50 o F, then it will print a warning message.

Another instance where the program may issue a warning is when it can not calculate the heat loss or gain properly. As the operating temperature approaches the ambient temperature, the heat loss calculation requires increasingly more iterations to calculate the heat flow. When the temperature difference is less than 25 o F, the number of iterations may exceed the maximum number allowed by the program. Calculations for this surface will be suspended and a message is displayed and printed on the report. To correct the problem, change the operating temperature such that it is more than 25 o away from the ambient.

Other warnings are issued when the user has not entered sufficient thermal conductivity to cover the range of temperatures used by the operator. It the user specifies a temperature and thickness combination that exceeds or falls below the mean temperature range used to generate the thermal conductivity curve, then an error message will be printed on the report.

EXAMPLE 4 RETROFIT APPLICATION

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

NAIMA 3EPLUS ECONOMIC THICKNESS ANALYSIS REPORT, Version 2.12

Project Name = Example #4 Project Number = Retrofit System = Main Boiler Header Location = Date = 12-01-1995 Engineer = Plant Maint. Dept Contact = Phone =

All the information printed in this report is based on the given input information. Actual values will vary depending on the actual service conditions. The system of mathematical heat flux equations used in this analysis has been accepted by ASTM as applicable for most systems normally insulated with bulk-type insulations. The thermal performance equations are based on laboratory conditions and may not represent actual system performance. NAIMA makes no warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to performance of the actual system and expressly disclaims any and all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX4.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page

1

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Fuel Type = Gas

3.36 $ per mcf

Heating Value = 1000 Btu per cf Efficiency = 75.0% Annual Fuel Inflation Rate = 6.0% Annual hours of operation = 8760 hours

First Year Price =

ECONOMIC DATA Interest rate or Return on investment = 15.0% Effective Income Tax Rate = 30% Physical Plant Depreciation Period = 7 years New Insulation Depreciation Period = 7 years

Incremental Equipment Investment Rate = 0.00 $/MMBtu/hr Percent of New Insulation Cost for Annual Insulation Maintenance = 2% Percent of Annual Fuel Bill for Physical Plant Maintenance = 1% Ambient temperature = 82 F Emittance of outer jacketing = 0.10

Wind speed =

0 mph

Emittance of existing surface = 0.80 Reference thickness for payback calculations = 0.0 inches

Existing insulation material = 1200F MIN.FIBER PIPE ASTM C547-95 Existing insulation thickness = 2.0 Retrofit / New Insulation material = 1200F MIN.FIBER PIPE ASTM C547-95

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX4.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page

2

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 1 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 4

inch

Average Installation Complexity factor = 1.20 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.97 $/ln ft

1.71 $/sqft

Operating Temperature 1050 F

Insulation

Annual

Payback

Pres Value

Heat

Surf

Thick

Cost

Cost

Period

Heat Saved

Loss

Temp

Inches

$/ft

$/ft

Years

$/ft

Btu/ft

F

Do Nothing

16.13

472

286

1.5

15.37

15.38

5.7

96.79

334

209

2.0

18.55

15.36

5.8

113.94

310

195

2.5

21.44

15.44

6.1

127.70

290

184

3.0

24.43

15.58

6.3

140.50

272

174

4.0

29.86

16.15

7.0

157.68

248

160

Double layer

 

3.0

27.92

16.49

7.5

140.50

272

174

4.0

35.96

17.72

9.0

157.68

248

160

5.0

43.75

19.03

10.4

171.93

227

149

6.0

51.79

20.72

12.7

179.79

216

143

Triple layer

 

6.0

81.38

28.35

9.8

179.79

216

143

7.0

93.29

31.01

10.5

188.11

204

137

8.0 104.14

33.47

11.0

194.96

194

132

The Economic Thickness is single layer 2.0 inches.

The savings for the economic thickness is 0.77 $/ln ft/yr and the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions

is

161 lbs/ln ft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX4.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 3

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA)

Surface or Pipe Number 2 Horizontal Pipe - Steel

Pipe Size = 8

inch

Average Installation Complexity factor = 1.20 Performance Service factor = 1.00

Insulation costs estimated by FEA method

Labor rate =

Productivity factor = 100

Price of 2x2 pipe insulation =

Price of 2 inch block =

38.35 $/hr

4.97 $/ln ft

1.71 $/sqft

Operating Temperature 1050 F

Insulation

Annual

Payback

Pres Value

Heat

Surf

Thick

Cost

Cost

Period

Heat Saved

Loss

Temp

Inches

$/ft

$/ft

Years

$/ft

Btu/ft

F

Do Nothing

26.58

778

315

1.5

19.35

22.91

3.7

177.81

525

231

2.0

23.40

22.41

3.8

209.39

480

215

2.5

26.99

21.84

3.8

240.31

436

200

3.0

30.54

21.80

4.0

259.89

408

190

4.0

37.73

22.17

4.5

290.19

365

174

Double layer

 

3.0

34.61

22.85

4.6

259.89

408

190

4.0

44.37

23.89

5.4

290.19

365

174

5.0

53.88

25.23

6.2

312.91

332

163

6.0

63.40

26.95

7.2

327.87

311

154

Triple layer

 

6.0

96.99

35.61

13.3

327.87

311

154

7.0 109.73

38.19

15.4

342.20

291

146

8.0 122.97

41.04

18.3

353.93

274

140

The Economic Thickness is single layer 3.0 inches.

The savings for the economic thickness is 4.78 $/ln ft/yr and the reduction in Carbon Dioxide emissions

is

367 lbs/ln ft/yr

Entry date 12-01-1995 File Name = EX4.ETI

Report date 03-24-1995

Page 4

CHAPTER III THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS

This chapter describes the method used to change the thermal conductivity information stored by the program. This is the second option on the main menu. The user can add new insulation materials or delete an existing material. A menu will be displayed showing the default selection. To add a new material, press ENTER. Use the arrow keys to change the selection bar, then press ENTER.

ADD AN INSULATION MATERIAL

The program will ask for the name of the material. Type the name and press ENTER. The program will prompt for the information it needs. Type the maximum operating temperature of the material. Next the program will present a table to allow the user to type thermal conductivity data on the material. Be careful when typing the data. Type mean temperatures and thermal conductivities that span the temperature of interest. Do not expect the program to calculate reliable high temperature conductivities if the user only provides information for low temperatures. Type data that covers the entire temperature range of use. The program allows the user to type up to 10 pairs of mean temperature and conductivity data. The more pairs type by the user, the more accurate the calculations will be. After typing the data, the program will save the data for future reference.

REMOVE AN INSULATION MATERIAL

Select this option to delete an insulation material from the file. This option is useful to remove unused materials that the user never uses or to update the thermal conductivity of an existing material. To update the conductivity, delete the material and add it using the new data.

DISPLAY INSULATION MATERIALS

Select this option to display a list of materials in the program. This can be used to verify if an insulation material has been previously entered. Press any key to return when you are ready. Use the Up or Down or Page Up or Page Down keys to scroll through the complete list of materials.

PRINT INSULATION MATERIALS

Select this option to print a complete list of the insulation materials in the program. The printed report will also include the thermal conductivity equation and a brief table of comparative values.

CHAPTER IV STANDARD HEAT FLOW CALCULATIONS

This is the third option on the main 3EPLUS menu. The program will start by displaying a menu to allow the user to select from one of four calculation types. The default is the screen setup for the Maximum Surface Temperature Using 1 Insulation Material.

HELP

To get HELP on any question, press the F1 function key. A message box will display more information about the question. As you move the cursor around the screen, you can press F1 to get help on the input variable where the cursor is located. The user can request HELP at any time in the program. In some cases, typical values will be suggested. After reading the HELP screen, press ENTER to return to the original point of departure.

MAIN MENU

To display the main menu, press the F2 function key. A pulldown menu will appear. Use the left and right arrow keys to change menus. There are three topics on the top row of the menus, they are:

DO WHAT

REPORT

SURFACE TYPE

DO WHAT

The program will do four different types of calculations. The four types are:

Maximum Surface Temperature Using 1 Insulation Material Maximum Surface Temperature Using 2 Insulation Materials Standard Heat Loss or Gain Calculations Heat Loss or Gain Tables

Each type of calculation is explained briefly below. To choose a calculation type, use the Up or Down arrow key to move the selection bar, then press the ENTER key.

REPORT

When requested, the program will print a report on the printer unless the user changes the report location to a disk file. To select a disk file, use the Up or Down arrow keys to select Disk, then press the ENTER key. The program output will be written to a disk file that can be imported into a word processor. This allows the user to include the report in a proposal, bid, or other document.

SURFACE TYPE

The program will allow one of 5 surface types. The five types are:

Horizontal piping or tanks Vertical piping or tanks Vertical flat surface Top or bottom of tank or duct

The program assumes a horizontal pipe unless the user changes to another surface type. To choose a surface type, use the Up or Down arrow keys to move the selection bar, then press the ENTER key.

CALCULATION TYPES

This is a brief description of each of the 4 calculation types.

THICKNESS FOR MAXIMUM SURFACE TEMPERATURE OR THICKNESS FOR CONDENSATION CONTROL USING 1 INSULATION MATERIAL

Use this calculation type to determine the amount of insulation to use for personnel protection or any other specification requiring a maximum surface temperature or a condensation control thickness. The program will display a screen of questions. Answer any or all the questions depending on the applications. The program will display a table of insulation thicknesses from ½ inch to 10 inch and allow the user to quickly determine the amount of insulation required.

To change any value displayed on the screen, move the cursor to the question using the Up or Down arrow keys, then type a new value. You can use the arrow keys to move the cursor to any question on the screen. You may also press the ENTER key without typing any new information and the cursor will go to the next question without changing the information.

The first question is the process temperature. This may be above ambient for a hot surface or below ambient for a cold surface. The screen will change if you type a cold surface temperature. Type the process temperature in degrees Fahrenheit( o F). This should be an average temperature for normal calculations. To determine the heat loss and surface temperature for an abnormal situation, type an extreme temperature that represents the lowest or highest possible temperature the process could encounter.

Next type the ambient temperature. This should be the average ambient temperature for normal calculations. To see the possible variation from night to day or from month to

month, type different ambient temperatures representing the extreme conditions the process could be exposed to. Good sources of average temperatures are the US Weather Service or a local Chamber of Commerce. If the piping or equipment is indoors, then type an average temperature representing the indoor conditions. In some situations, such as underground piping, the ambient may be considerably different than expected. Changing the ambient temperature has a large effect on the calculated surface temperature and a smaller effect on the heat loss or gain.

Next type the emittance of the bare surface. This will be used to calculate the heat loss or gain of the uninsulated surface. This heat flow can be used as the basis for efficiency calculations. The default emittance represents a weathered steel surface. Press the HELP key to display other possible values. This number has a very large effect on the calculated heat losses and on the insulation efficiency calculation.

Type the surface emittance of the insulation outer surface. This value is very important and has a large effect on the calculated surface temperature. The default value of 0.1 represents Aluminum jacketing that has some oxidation and has been exposed to the weather for a few years. The type of outer jacketing should be carefully chosen depending on the application. For hot surface application, chose a material that has a higher emittance to reduce the surface temperature. This is illustrated in Examples 5 and 6.

If the operating temperature is above the ambient, then the next question is for the

maximum allowable surface temperature. At the time this manual was written, no actual government or consensus standard existed for a personnel protection standard. The number 140 o F is the most popular temperature used by manufacturing companies. The maximum surface temperature for personnel protection is largely dependent on the type of surface, such as metal or painted cloth. Type a new temperature or use the existing temperature by press an arrow key or pressing the ENTER key.

If the operating temperature is below the ambient, the next question displayed is the

relative humidity. This number is used to calculate the dew point temperature and will be used to calculate the condensation control thickness. Type a relative humidity that best represents the average for the summer months. To estimate the worst case situation, type

a number that represents the extreme humidity the insulation will be exposed to. The

relative humidity the insulation is exposed to may not necessarily be the relative humidity furnished by the weather service. If the equipment is below ground, the humidity may be different than expected, especially if the equipment is enclosed in an unheated space. The design relative humidity should be given some attention to prevent future insulation problems.

The last question is for the insulation material. To change the insulation material, locate the cursor on the insulation material displayed on the screen and press the ENTER key.

A list of insulation materials will be displayed. Select a new material by using the Up or Down arrow keys to move the selection bar then pressing ENTER. If you have many insulation materials stored in the program, you will need to use the Page Up or Page Down keys to display more materials.

The cursor will return to the top question. If you are satisfied with the information you have typed into the program and are ready to display the results, press the F3 function key to start the calculations. The screen will change to display the information you typed into the program and a table of heat flows and surface temperatures at different insulation thicknesses.

If the operating surface temperature was hotter than the ambient, then the display will also show the thickness required to meet the maximum surface temperature you typed. If the operating temperature was below the ambient, then the display will show the thickness of insulation required to keep the insulation surface temperature above the condensation temperature.

If your printer is ready, a message will appear at the bottom of the screen allowing you to make a printed report. To print the report, press the F3 key again. If the printer is not ready, then the message will tell the user to press any key to continue.

EXAMPLE 5 Emittance 0.1 (Aluminum)

NORTH AMERICAN INSULATION MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (NAIMA) NAIMA 3EPLUS HEAT LOSS (GAIN) AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE COMPUTER ANALYSIS, Ver2.12

Thickness for Maximum Surface Temperature for One Material

Horizontal Pipe

Steel Nominal pipe size =

4.0 in

Actual pipe diameter =

4.5 in

Process temperature =

350 F

Average ambient temperature =

75 F

Average wind velocity = 0.0 MPH Outside surface emittance = 0.10 Bare surface emittance = 0.80 Maximum Surface Temperature = 140 F

Heat Flow Calculations Performed According to the Method Described in ASTM C680

All the information printed in this report is based on the given input information. Actual values will vary depending on the actual service conditions. The system of mathematical heat flux equations used in this analysis has been accepted by ASTM as applicable for most systems normally insulated with bulk-type insulations. The thermal performance equations are based on laboratory conditions and may not represent actual system performance. NAIMA makes no warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to performance of the actual systems and expressly disclaims any and all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.

Page 1 of 2

Material = 850F MIN. FIBER PIPE ASTM C547-95

Thickness Surface

Heat

Efficiency

Temp (F)

Loss

%

Bare

350

686

0.5

190

156

77.2

1.0

146

100

85.4

1.5

128

78

88.7

2.0

117

65

90.5

2.5

110

57

91.7

3.0

104

50

92.7

3.5

101

46

93.3

4.0

98

43

93.8

4.5

95

40

94.2

5.0

93