Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 215

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования


«НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ
ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Л.В. Надеина, Л.П. Рихванов

INTRODUCTION TO RADIOECOLOGY

Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением по образованию


в области лингвистики Министерства образования и науки
Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия по английскому языку
для магистрантов, специализирующихся в области геоэкологии,
радиоэкологии и освоения месторождений радиоактивного сырья

Издательство
Томского политехнического университета
2014
1
УДК 539.19(075.8)
ББК 22.383я73
Н 17

Надеина Л.В., Рихванов Л.П.


Н 17 Introduction to radioecology: Учебное пособие по профессионально-
му английскому языку для магистрантов ИПР. – Томск: Изд-во
Томского политехнического университета, 2014. – 356 с.
Учебное пособие «Введение в радиоэкологию» предназначено для ма-
гистрантов ИПР, специализирующихся в области геоэкологии, радиоэкологии
и освоения месторождений радиоактивного сырья. Цель пособия – подгото-
вить магистрантов к активному общению на профессионально-
ориентированные темы в рамках направления подготовки. Большое внимание в
пособии уделяется развитию умений и навыков говорения и аудирования на
темы, связанные с историей изучения радиоактивности, с проблемой распро-
странения радионуклидов и радиологическим состоянием окружающей среды.
Пособие может использоваться как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной
работы магистрантов с уровнем языковой подготовки Intermediate. Тексты со-
ставлены на основе аутентичной учебной и научной литературы.

УДК 539.19(075.8)
ББК 22.383я73

Рецензенты
Доктор философских наук, доцент ТГУ
В.М. Смокотин
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент ТГПУ
Е.А. Крюкова
Доктор технических наук, профессор ТПУ
В.И Косинцев

© ФГБОУ ВПО НИ ТПУ, 2014


© Надеина Л.В., Рихванов Л.П., 2014
© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2014

2
UNIT I

INTRODUCTION TO RADIOECOLOGY

I. WARMING-UP

Look at the picture and answer the following questions:

The interest in radioecology increased after the Chernobyl accident in


1986 when large parts of some countries were contaminated with radioactive
fallout.
a) What is the man doing now?
b) Why is he doing this?
c) How often does he do this?

Fig. 1 Collecting water for testing in laboratory

II. PRE-READING TASK

3
1. Guess the meaning of the words and remember the pronunciation:

ecology [ı:ĸɔǀəʤı] radioactive [̗reıdıəu´æĸtıv]


substance [´sʌbst₍ə₎ns] migration [maı´greıʃ₍ə₎n]
ecosystem [͵ı:kəu´sıstəm] aspect [´æspekt]

concept [´kɔnsept] radiation [͵reıdı´eıʃ₍ə₎n]


protection [prə´tekʃ₍ə₎n] dose [dəus]
human [´hju:mən] radionuclide [ˏreıdıəu´nju:klaıd]
ion [´aıən] discipline [´dısəplın]
effect [ı´fekt] risk [rısk]
bomb [bɔm] stratosphere [´strætə͵sfıə]

2. Match the English word combinations to the Russian equivalents

1. key event a) взаимодействовать с природой


2. to interact with nature b) перемещение веществ
3. huge amounts of с) прогнозирующая имитационная мо-
radionuclides дель
4. substances migration d) основные, традиционные области
5. the first test of nuclear bombs е) радиационная защита
6. the predictive simulation f) основание для оценки доз
model
7. to be concerned with g) последствия радиоактивного
загрязнения
8. basic traditional fields h )взаимодействие
организмов с радионуклидами
9. risk assessment i) источники ионизирующего
излучения
10. radiation protection j) влияние радиации
11. man-made radioactive к) радиоактивное загрязнение
pollution среды, вызванное деятельностью чело-
века
12. basis for estimating doses l) оценка риска
13. impacts of radiation m) иметь дело с чем-либо
14. the consequences of n) первое испытание атомных бомб
4
radioactive pollution
15. sources of ionizing radiation о) огромные количества радионукли-
дов
16. interaction of organisms p) ключевое событие
with radionuclides

3. Read the text «What is radioecology»? and pay attention to the terms in
bold.
What is radioecology?
Radioecology is a branch of ecology which studies how radioactive
substances interact with nature, how different mechanisms affect the sub-
stances migration and uptake in food chain and ecosystems.
Investigations in radioecology might include aspects of field sampling,
designed field and laboratory experiments and the development of predictive
simulation models. This science combines techniques from some of the more
basic traditional fields, such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology and
ecology, with applied concepts in radiation protection. Radioecological stud-
ies form the basis for estimating doses and assessing the consequences of ra-
dioactive pollution for human health and the environment.
This particular branch of ecology studies interactions of organisms and
ecosystems with radionuclides and ionizing radiation. Such a study focuses
on pathways of radionuclides in the environment and it also investigates
sources and strength of ionizing radiation in natural ecosystems.
So this scientific discipline includes everything that matters as to envi-
ronmental and biological impacts of radiation. The fields of application are
broad; they range from natural radiation to man-made radioactive pollution.
The study of natural processes, such as the incorporation of radionuclides in-
to body mass, community webs and community food chains, and technolog-
ical applications, such as those that deals with radioprotection and risk as-
sessment are both important for the development of the field.
Radioecology is related to radiobiology. But in radiobiology one stud-
ies the biological effects of radiation on organisms.
The ecosystem concept suggests that radioecologists should be con-
cerned with that affect whole ecosystems. Their concern is not only with
risks for human health. They are searching for protection in a broader sense,
considering whole ecosystems. Radioecology is a science that came up after
the first tests of nuclear bombs. One wanted to know how this discharge of
huge amounts of radionuclides into the stratosphere would affect ecosystems

5
and their communities and food chains. The Chernobyl Disaster 1986 was
another key event that sparked new studies in the field of radioecology.
(Wikipedia. The free encyclopedia.
http://www.wikipedia.org/)

III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.

1) radioactive substances interact _____ nature; 2) the consequences ___ ra-


dioactive pollution _____ human health; 3) study focuses _____ pathways of
radionuclides; 4) sources and strength _____ ionizing radiation ______ natu-
ral ecosystems; 5) range ______ natural radiation _____ man-made radioac-
tive pollution; 6) the incorporation ______ radionuclides _____ body mass; 7)
deals ______ radioprotection and risk assessment; 8) the biological effects
_____ radiation ______ organisms; 9) be concerned ______; 10) important
______ the development _____ the field; 11) this discharge ______ huge
amounts _____ radionuclides _____ the stratosphere; 12) new studies
_______ the field _____ radioecology;

2. Match the definition with the following terms.

1. radioactive wastes a) is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive ma-


terial in a given environment
2. acute radiation ex- b) is the distribution of radioactive contamination by
posure a nuclear explosion
3. chronic exposure c) is a form of damage to organ tissue due to exces-
sive exposure to ionizing radiation
4. radioecology d) is the study of the biological effects of radiation
on organisms
5. internal exposure e) is a unit of absorbed radiation dose defined in
terms of the energy actually deposited in the tissue
6. external exposure f) is exposure which occurs when the radioactive
source is outside the organism which is exposed
7. rad g) is when the radioactive material enters the organ-
ism, and the radioactive atoms become incorporated
into the organism
8. radiobiology h) is the study of the pathways of radionuclides in
the environment and their impact on biota
9. radiation poisoning i) is exposure to ionizing radiation over an extended
6
period of time
10. nuclear fallout j) is an exposure to ionizing radiation which occurs
during a short period of time
11. radioactive con- k) are waste products containing radioactive
tamination materials

3. Read the following text and fill in the missing words and word combina-
tions.

approximately; global scale; contamination; radioactive isotopes; rotation of


radionuclides; radiosensitivity; irradiated populations; agriculture, cardinal
principles; natural background; long-lived radionuclides; stock-breeding;

Radiation ecology is a branch from two independent scientific discipline,


such as general radiobiology and ecology. This is rather a young scientific
direction, which has gained particular relevance after mass testing of atomic
weapons. By then it was become comprehensible, that 1)________ by radio-
nuclides was occurring not on the local level (nuclear test areas, industrial
places of atomic industry enterprises), but brings to consequences of
2) ________ . By this, basically, are defined 3)_____________ of the given
science, which is considered in studying of distribution, migration and
4)____________ in the biosphere as well as by influence of ionization radia-
tion on ecological systems.
Certainly, in natural conditions organisms are irradiated for the account
of natural background of ionization radiation, which is caused by radiation of
5) ____________ in lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, and by cosmic
radiation. Radiation rate is determined by the 6) ___________ in the bio-
sphere, so it is rather small, 7)___________ 0,1 rad an year, and in most cas-
es it does not produce an observable influence upon alive organisms. As a re-
sult of appearance additional amount of radionuclides in the biosphere (radia-
tion sources) alive organisms were subjected both to irradiation, caused by
the natural radioactive background and to artificial radioactive nuclides (not
only external but also internal exposure from incorporated radionuclides).
Because of different 8) ____________ of plant and animal species irra-
diation of natural biocenoses can bring to change ones species by others, to
change of interspecific and intraspecific relations. Radiation and genetic
changes appear in 9) _____________, natural mutative rate increases, it is
occurring radiostability deviance on population level.
Contamination of extensive territory by artificial radionuclides, both in
Ukraine (Chernobyl exclusion zone and zone of the unconditional (obligato-
7
ry) eviction, Kiev, Zhitomir, Rovno region), and abroad (Belorus, Russia,
Sweden, Finland etc) has attracted attention of radioecologists to study the
ways of radionuclide migration in the biosphere. Radioactive materials, in-
cluding 10)______________ of strontium and caesium are moving by certain
biological chains, for instance soil - plant - animal - person. Study of artificial
radioactive nuclide migration in biocenoses and in food chains is required for
evaluation of their accumulation in separate sections of biological chains and
for possible consequences of additional irradiation created by them in plant,
animal and person. Practical interest are presented radioecological studies
that were carried out on these territory, which have allowed to realize regu-
larities of radionuclide accumulation in cultural plant and in animal organ-
ism, as 11) _____________ and 12)____________ products are sources of
radionuclide fluxes in organism of person.

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text again. Which paragraphs contain the answers to these
questions?

1) What does radioecology study?


2) What techniques does this science combine?
3) What do radioecological studies form?
4) What does such study focus on?
5) How is radioecology related to radiobiology?
6) What does this particular branch of ecology investigate?
7) What do the fields of application of this scientific discipline range
from?
8) What does the ecosystem concept suggest?
9) What did radioecologists want to know after the first tests of nuclear
bombs?
10) What sparked new studies in the field of radioecology?

2. Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?

8
TRUE………………… if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE…………. if the statement contradicts with the information
NOT GIVEN……………. if there is no information on this

1. Investigations in radioecology might include


aspects of field sampling, designed field and la-
boratory experiments.

2. As a result of appearance additional amount


of radionuclides in the biosphere, alive organ-
isms were subjected both to irradiation, caused
by the natural radioactive background and to ar-
tificial radioactive nuclides.

3. The study of natural processes and technolog-


ical applications are both important for the de-
velopment of the field.

4. The ecosystem concept suggests that radio-


ecologists shouldn’t be concerned with that af-
fect whole ecosystems, because their concern is
only with risks for human health.

5. Study of artificial radioactive nuclide migra-


tion in food chains is required for evaluation of
their accumulation in separate sections of bio-
logical chains.

6. Radioecology is a branch of ecology which


studies how different mechanisms uptake in
food chain and ecosystems.

9
3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian
into English

1. Говоря о проблемах радиоэкологии, мы, прежде всего, имеем вви-


ду последние 60 лет существования человеческого общества, когда
масштабы распространения радиоактивных элементов существенно
увеличились, особенно за счет деятельности человека. 2. Появились
новые элементы, раннее неизвестные или встречающиеся в столь ни-
чтожно малых количествах, что они не обнаруживались имевшимися
аналитическими методами. 3. Их наличие в природе в значительных
количествах, включение техногенных радионуклидов в биосферный
круговорот поставили человечество перед необходимостью объек-
тивно оценить не только природу радиационной опасности, но и ее
масштабы. 4. Хорошо известно, что радиоактивное излучение явля-
ется не единственной опасностью, которой подвергается человек, но,
как и всякий другой вид опасности, оно требует тщательного изуче-
ния и самого открытого обсуждения. 5. Радиационную опасность
следует оценивать наряду с определенными выгодами, являющимися
результатом практического использования открытия радиоактивно-
сти и радиоактивных элементов. 6. Опасения по поводу радиацион-
ной опасности в обществе сосредоточились, главным образом, на
атомной энергетике, хотя реальный фактор риска здесь значительно
меньше, чем при курении, употреблении спиртных напитков и т.д. 7.
Европейский комитет по радиационному риску (ECRR) отмечает, что
глобальные радиоактивные осадки от испытаний ядерного оружия
оказывают существенное воздействие на человеческое здоровье. 8.
Эффект действия высоких доз ионизирующего излучения на биоло-
гические объекты подтвержден многочисленными исследованиями.

(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и


проблемы радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009)

10
V. LISTENING

1. You will hear the information about radiation effects.


a) In the recording you will hear the following words. Find out their mean-
ings, and then discuss how they are connected with radiation effects.

● survival ● post-nuclear attack conditions ● ecological lethality ● physio-


logical lethality ● wing feather growth ● reproduction ● radiation-sensitive
species ● grasslands ● gamma radiation stress

b) Now listen to the recording again. For questions 1-8, fill the gaps with a
word or short phrase.

1. Because of its early association with 1

radioecology was initially focused 2

usually under the umbrella of concern for survival under post-nuclear attack
conditions.

2. However, the amount of radiation exposure required to produce mortality

3 in the field (ecological lethality) may often be


substantially less than that required to cause physiological lethality when the

organism is held under 4 in the laboratory.

3. In the case of 5 , for example, exposure of


radiation levels as low as 800-900 roentgens (R) causes the stunting of wing

feather growth, which would reduce the bird’s ability to fly and escape preda-
tors.
4. When birds are hand-raised and protected from 6
in the laboratory, however, exposure to as much as 2500 R would be required
to produce 50% mortality.

5. These responses to 7 have consequences for


both the individual organism and for the population, community, or
ecosystem of which it is a part.

11
6. Such changes have been documented by studies in which natural ecologi-
cal systems, including grasslands, 8 , were ex-
posed to varying levels of controlled gamma radiation stress.

VI. INFORMATIVE READING

1. Read the following texts about Famous Incidents of Radioactive Pollu-


tion and do the tasks.

Part 1. Hiroshima Catastrophe

Fig. 2 Hiroshima Explosion


At 8:15 am on August 6, 1945, an American B-29 bomber nicknamed
Enola Gay appeared on skyline over Hiroshima. It was a bright summer
morning and the city lay in the sloping rays of rising sun, unaware of the
doom that was to befall it. Forty three seconds later a 10000 lb atomic bomb
exploded on human civilization for the first time in the history of man. A ball
of fire with a temperature of around 100 million degree centigrade at its core
spread the landscape and much of Hiroshima was turned into an oven. After
three days, it was the fate of Nagasaki to suffer the ravages of a nuclear at-
tack. Over 100000 people died in the immediate aftermath of the two bomb-
ings. In the years that followed many more perished from the effects of radia-
tion.

12
Fig. 3 Remains of Hiroshima

There are many survivor stories. This is one of them. It is a story of Francis
Mitsuo Tomosawa. When it happened he was 15 years old.

It's a bright, clear day. Mitsuo leaves his house around 7:30 a.m. and
walks to work. He gets there about 8 a.m. He and his friends gather out-
side, waiting for their supervisor to give today’s pep talk.

Mitsuo’s mother leaves for work. Every day, she takes the same street-
car. But today she realizes she has forgotten some papers. She runs back
into the house to get them. Mitsuo’s mother misses her usual streetcar,
and has to wait for the next one.

It's nearly 8:15 a.m. American B-29 bombers appear overhead. The si-
rens wail, but Mitsuo and his coworkers ignore them, as usual. The
planes are headed in the direction of Tokyo. Then, for the first time ever,
Mitsuo sees the planes reappear over Hiroshima. They’re in position
now. Looking in the sky, Mitsuo sees an object. In the instant it takes for
the bomb to drop, he feels no fear, only curiosity about this thing that
glistens in the sun.

Mitsuo watches the object fall behind a mountain, Mount Hiji. The exact
spot where the bomb explodes is called «ground zero». Mitsuo is about
two miles away, with the mountain in between. At the moment of explo-
sion, he sees a blinding flash of light. Then the shock wave hits. Mitsuo
is blown several feet into the air and knocked briefly unconscious. He
awakens to see a giant mushroom cloud rising into the air. Mitsuo is a

13
witness to the first atomic bombing in history. And Mount Hiji, which
shields him from the radiation, will help him live to tell about it.

Mitsuo’s mother is outside when the bomb explodes. She is about three
miles from ground zero. She is not injured except for a burn on her neck.
In another 20 years, cancer will develop in that spot, and she'll die from it
in 1969. Still, Mitsuo’s mother is luckier than the people on the street car
that she missed. They all died in the blast.

Shock wave that knocks Mitsuo unconscious collapses the wooden build-
ings around the concrete warehouse. There are people injured and dead
inside those buildings. Mitsuo helps as best he can, but then is told to go
home.

It is ghostly quiet everywhere. The only people Mitsuo passes are a


young woman with a child. The woman’s clothes are in shreds. The child
has an ugly wound in her cheek. Neither makes a sound. Mitsuo is
frightened. Where is everyone? Are they all dead, except for himself and
this woman and child?

Joyfully, Mitsuo finds his mother waiting for him at home. Though the
roof of their house is practically gone and the walls are damaged, the
frame is standing. They are both alive and they still have a house. Mitsuo
and his mother are truly among the fortunate ones.

As the day goes on, the quiet ends. There is a hospital near Mitsuo’s
house. Soon the neighborhood is filled with cries of agony as the injured
are brought in. Mitsuo and his mother volunteer at the hospital. There,
Mitsuo discovers a good friend. He is so badly burned, Mitsuo only rec-
ognizes him by his voice. The military has taken most medicines to care
for wounded soldiers, so the hospital has only homemade ointment to
soothe the burn victims. It does little good. Mitsuo’s friend, and thou-
sands and thousands of others, die from radiation exposure and other in-
juries.

Unable to sleep that night, Mitsuo climbs to the top of a milk factory
across the street from his home. From there, he can look out over Hiro-
shima. In the dark, he sees fires raging. The next morning, he again
climbs to the top of the factory. Now, in the light of day, Mitsuo scarcely

14
believes his eyes. What the bomb didn’t flatten, fire has destroyed. Ex-
cept for a few shells of concrete buildings, there is nothing left of Hiro-
shima.
(Environmental Pollution, Health and Toxicology. Oxford, UK, 2007)

1.1 You are a television reporter. Continue a list of questions that you will
ask when you interview Francis Mitsuo Tomosawa 67 years after Hiroshi-
ma Catastrophe.

1. Did you get any radiation sickness or medical problems from the bomb
blast?
2. How long did it take before the people of Hiroshima found out what had
actually happened to them?
3. What was it like living in Hiroshima after bombing?
4. …………………………………………
5. …………………………………………
6. …………………………………………
7. …………………………………………
8. …………………………………………
9. …………………………………………
10. ……………………………………..
11. .……………………………………
12. …………………………………….
13. …………………………………….

Part 2. Three Mile Island Episode


A few miles southeast of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania (USA) on an island in
the Susquehanna River were situated two nuclear reactors designated as TMI-
1 and TMI-2. On March 28, 1979, a local radio-station first broadcasted the
story of TMI accident. High radiation levels (30000 mR/hour) were recorded
by the hovering helicopters. It was declared as the worst commercial nuclear
accident in American history. Though the danger of meltdown was contained
within five days, radioactive emissions might have caused subtle, undetecta-
ble damage to infants such as birth defects and mental retardation. The near-
by area of the plant was declared hazardous.

15
Fig. 4 Three Mile Island

The accident left the containment and auxiliary buildings filled with
some 3 to 4 million liters of highly radioactive water that might have taken
years to decontaminate using special resin filters. The accident also left a siz-
able amount of krypton-85 gas trapped in the containment building which
was vented through special filters in 1980. Air and groundwater samplings
have been conducted more or less continuously by EPA and effluent moni-
tors at the site had been set to sound an alarm anytime radioactivity exceeds
certain levels.
Several epidemiological studies in the years since the accident have sup-
ported the conclusion that radiation released from the accident had no percep-
tible effect on cancer incidence in residents near the plant, though these find-
ings are contested by one team of researchers.

Fig.5 The reactor TMI-2 (Source: Fig. 6 President Jimmy Carter touring the TMI-2
Available at http://ca.wikipedia. room on July 9th, 1979. (Source: Available at
org/wiki/Fitxer:Three_Mile_Island http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carter_TMI-
2.jpg) _(color)-2.jpg)

16
Cleanup started in August 1979 and officially ended in December 1993,
with a total cleanup cost of about $1 billion. The incident was rated a five on
the seven-point International Nuclear Event Scale: Accident With Wider
Consequences. Communications from officials during the initial phases of the
accident were confusing. There was an evacuation of 140,000 pregnant wom-
en and pre-school age children from the area. The accident crystallized anti-
nuclear safety concerns among activists and the general public, resulted in
new regulations for the nuclear industry, and has been cited as a contributor
to the decline of new reactor construction that was already underway in the
1970s.
(Environmental Pollution, Health and Toxicology. Oxford, UK, 2007)

1.2. Use the following conjunctions to join two sentences together.


but and because so that though

1. A main water pump stopped running ……………………..


2. Intense radiation was released inside the plant …….………..
3. By the third day after the accident, radiation levels near the site were high
enough ………………………………………………….
4. Several epidemiological studies in the years since the accident have sup-
ported the conclusion that radiation released from the accident had no percep-
tible effect on cancer incidence in residents near the plant ……………. .

a) …………… these findings are contested by one team of researchers.


b) …………… the radiation dose a person there would have received would
be six times as much as the average American receives in a year from natural
radiation.
c) …………… some escaped into the atmosphere.
d) …………. then a valve that opened to reduce pressure failed to close after
the pressure was relieved, and cooling water poured out.

Part 3. Chernobyl Accident


Electricity is all around us – in thunder storms, in our bodies, in all
things alive or dead. However, it is not easy to make and control electricity
for us to use in our homes and in industry. Nuclear power is a way of making
electricity that seems to be cheap and clean.
Chernobyl was a nuclear power station in the Ukraine (which used to be
part of the former USSR). The power station in Chernobyl was made in a
way that has not been accepted in other parts of the world. British scientists
17
had looked at the design but they decided that it was dangerous, because the
reactor did not have enough protection in case anything went wrong.

Fig. 7 The Chernobyl power station (Source: Available at http://www.global se-


curiy.org/wmd/world/Russia/images/rbmk_chornobyl_003.jpg)

In the middle of a nuclear power station are one or more reactors, which
get extremely hot. If they get too hot, the reactors blow up.
Very late at night on Friday 25-th April 1986, some of the scientists at
the Chernobyl power station decided to try a dangerous experiment. They
changed the pressure in one reactor, which caused the temperature to rise.
The reactor blew up.

18
Fig. 8 The Chernobyl nuclear reactor 4 damaged by its explosion. The center of the
building in the foreground blew up and burnt as a result of the nuclear reaction
malfunction.

Twenty people were working there at the time. One person was killed
immediately, and his body has never been found. Several other people were
killed soon after – some of them were fire-fighters who were helping to put
out the fire. Other fire-fighters succeeded in putting out the fire before it
reached the other three reactors at Chernobyl. At first, the scientists and the
government did not want to say that a really serious accident had happened.
However, in the next days and weeks after accident, the government of the
Ukraine agreed that the air, food and water around Chernobyl were radioac-
tive, and that it was dangerous for people to stay there. During the next few
weeks, people in the city Kiev, a hundred kilometers south of Chernobyl,
wondered why there were no buses in their city! In fact, 1200 buses from Ki-
ev and other towns were being used to take people to a safer place. Later,
135000 people were moved from around Chernobyl.
The rest of Europe first heard about Chernobyl accident not from the
USSR, but from Sweden where radioactivity was noticed at the Forsmark nu-
clear power station. Denmark and Norway also reported an increase in radio-
activity, and the scientists of Western Europe finally realized that the radioac-
tivity must be coming from near Kiev in the USSR.
19
The government of the USSR, however, said nothing to the world for
two days after the accident. Because there was no hard information from the
USSR, many wild stories began to be told, about thousands of deaths and cit-
ies living in fear. It was eighteen days before President Mikhail Gorbachev
finally told the people of the USSR about the accident. There is no doubt that
Chernobyl disaster was caused by human mistakes. The power station was
not safe, and scientists at the power station were experimenting in dangerous
ways. To make matters worse, the workers at the power station had no idea
what to do in an emergency, and the government was extremely secretive.
The Chernobyl disaster had many effects on the electricity industry eve-
rywhere in the world.

Fig. 9 Chernobyl is a ghost town now

There had been nuclear accidents before, and many people had said for
years that nuclear power was dangerous. This was the first really big accident
that proved their warnings were right. Soon after the accident, many crowds
of people met together in European cities. They held up notices with messag-
es such as «Chernobyl is everywhere». Nuclear power was suddenly very un-
popular, and governments had to look seriously for other ways of making
electricity. That is why there is so much interest now in wind power and
power from the heat of the sun.
(Disaster! Mary McIntosh, Oxford Bookworms Fact files, Oxford University
Press, 2001)

20
1. Look at the following questions. As you read «Part 3», underline the
words or phrases which answer these questions.
1) Why were thousands of people moved from around Chernobyl after the
accident?
2) Why did the deadly chemical methyl isocyanate escape into the air?
3) Name the two most important causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
4) Why do you think the government of the USSR said nothing about the
Chernobyl accident for two days?
5) Why did British scientists decide that the power station in Chernobyl was
very dangerous?
6) Why did the reactor blow up?
7) What were the health effects of Chernobyl?
8) Could such an accident happen again?
9) Why do many people believe now that nuclear power will never be safe?
10) Did the workers at the power station have ideas what to do in an emer-
gency?

2. Complete each sentence with the correct ending or beginning. The miss-
ing parts A-J are below.
1. It is not easy to make and control electricity for us ………………………to
use in our homes and in industry.
2. ………………….. that has not been accepted in other parts of the world.
3. In the middle of a nuclear power station are ………………………… .
4. …………………………… which caused the temperature to rise.
5. Several other people were killed soon after – …………………………… .
6. ………………………… that the air, food and water around Chernobyl
were radioactive, and that it was dangerous for people to stay there.
7. Denmark and Norway also reported an increase in radioactivity,
and ……………………… .
8. ………………….. and scientists at the power station were experimenting
in dangerous ways.
9. This was the first really big accident …………………………………… .
10. ……………………………….. , and governments had to look seriously
for other ways of making electricity.

A) one or more reactors, which get extremely hot


B) some of them were fire-fighters who were helping to put out the fire
C) the power station in Chernobyl was made in a way
D) to use in our homes and in industry
21
E) they changed the pressure in one reactor
F) however, in the next days and weeks after accident, the government of the
Ukraine agreed
H) the scientists of Western Europe finally realized that the radioactivity
must be coming from near Kiev in the USSR
I) the power station was not safe
G) that proved their warnings were right
J) nuclear power was suddenly very unpopular,

VII. DISCUSSION

1. You will hear the information about radioactive contamination. For


questions 1-6 choose the best answer (A, B or C) according to what you
hear.

Fig. 10 (Source: Available at http://sbes.stir.ac.uk)

1. According to the information, an important component of radioecology is


closely related to the study of
A) radionuclides.
B) radioactive contaminants.
C) radioactive tracers.

2. Primary concern of radioecology is focused on


A) industrial pathways.
B) agricultural pathways.
C) geological pathways.
22
3. In high alpine regions and arctic tundra the concentration of radioactive
contaminants in species may be
A) insignificant.
B) particular severe.
C) undetectable

4. The Chernobyl accident is also important for radioecology because


A) it demonstrated the potential for global transport of radioactive
contaminants.
B) it is a way of making electricity that seems to be cheap and
clean.
C) it crystallized anti-nuclear safety concerns among activists
and the general public.

5. The results of studies in radioecology is


A) unexpected
B) predicted
C) known

6. New information about some of the ecological mechanisms for


contaminant uptake can help to provide
A) understanding all aspects of the basic ecology and natural his-
tory of organisms.
B) better understanding of the environmental behavior of other
forms of contaminants.
C) looking for other ways of making electricity.

2. Discuss the following topic- «Radiation effects».


a) Listen to the recording again. Take notes.
b) Use the diagram (Fig. 11, p. 24 ) below and the following communi-
cative formulas.
c) State types of radiation effects, levels and symptoms.

Communicative formulas
At the initial stage of … It seems to affect smth.
At the next stage It may help to determine …behavior
Furthermore, In my case …
Thus, This diagram (map, plan) shows the
dependence of … an …
23
In addition to … This means that …
What happens to …? They fall into …
In its turn … It will direct to …
As far as I understand As is known
As for I’d like to say a few words about …
It should be noted that … As a rule
Generally speaking As far as I know
In short By contrast

Fig. 11 (Source: Available at


http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/26/world/asia/26japan.html?_r=1)

VIII. GRAMMAR REVISION: PASSIVE VOICE

Read the text «Radioactive contamination of river Periyar» and in


brackets choose the correct form of the verb in Passive Voice. (See the
table «PassiveVoice», Appendix 1 ).

24
Radioactive contamination of river Periyar

An Indian Rare Earth (IRE) Limited in Kerala is a part of DAE ambitious


plan to increase ten fold expansion of nuclear power generated by the year
2000. At IRE monazite (separated and obtained from sand along the coastal
belt of Kerala) (is being processed / is processed) to produce thorium hy-
droxide, trisodium phosphate (TSP) and rare earth chloride. While rare earth
chloride (was exported / is exported), thorium hydroxide (has been stored /
is stored) for future use in the fast breeding reactors.

Fig.12. This was taken from a boat ride in the river Periyar in Kerala, In-
dia. (Source: Available at http://www.flickr.com by abhishekparab)

TSP is a general purpose detergent supplied to a few soap manufacturers.


5000 RCC barrels containing thorium hydroxide (have been stored / are
stored) in a silo (go-down) about 2 meters from the bank of the river Periyar.
Over 400 RCC barrels of radioactive waste (are buried / have been buried)
within the IRE premises. Most of these barrels when broken leak and con-
taminate the underground water. Moreover, radioactive effluents from the
processing water used to wash the floor, is regularly discharged into the river.
According to estimates 1500 kg of thorium and 15 kg of uranium go into the
25
river every day. An epidemiological study has revealed that the incidence of
cancer among IRE workers is abnormally high. Eleven workers have died of
cancer so far. Seventeen cases of genetic disorders (were being traced /
have been traced) among the children of the workers. People whose daily
lives (have been touched / are touched) by the river are in a state of panic.
Water and food are not safe for human consumption. A severe distortion of
human, animal and plant life for scores of generations await at the river Peri-
yar.

(Source: Available at http://www.kerala2dolist.blogspot.com )


(Environmental Pollution, Health and Toxicology. Oxford, UK, 2007)

IX. WRITING
Write an essay on the discussed topic.

26
WORDLIST

ENGLISH RUSSIAN
accident катастрофа, авария
artificial radionuclide искусственный радионуклид
accumulation накопление
birth defect врожденный дефект
blow up взрываться
cleanup cost стоимость очистки
contaminant загрязняющее вещество
contamination загрязнение
cancer рак (болезнь)
damage вред, ущерб
decontaminate дезактивировать, обеззараживать
dose доза
ecosystem экосистема
exposure облучение, воздействие
external exposure внешнее облучение
field sampling отбор проб в естественных или по-
левых условиях
food chain пищевая цепь, цепь питания
generations поколения
genetic disorders генетические нарушения
grassland пастбище
human health здоровье человека
interaction взаимодействие
internal exposure внутреннее облучение
leakage утечка
lethality смертность
long-lived radionuclides долгоживущие радионуклиды
migration миграция, перемещение
meltdown расплавление ядерных топливных
элементов реактора, авария на
АЭС
mental retardation олигофрения, врожденное слабо-
умие
natural background естественный фон
nuclear bomb атомная бомба

27
nuclear industry атомная промышленность
nuclear power station атомная станция
pathway of radionuclides путь, траектория радионуклидов
pregnant women беременные
protection защита
rad рад, внесистемная единица погло-
щенной дозы излучения
radiation излучение, радиация
radiation-sensitive species виды, чувствительные к облуче-
нию
radioactive fallout радиоактивные осадки
radioactive pollution радиоактивное загрязнение
radioactive waste радиоактивные отходы
radionuclide радионуклид
reactor реактор
risk assessment оценка риска
simulation model имитационная модель
substance вещество, материал
survival выживание

28
UNIT II

HISTORY OF RADIOACTIVITY

I. WARMING-UP

1.1 Do you know that …?

History of the Radioactivity Warning Symbol

Fig.1 Original radiation warning symbol

Did you know the original radiation warning symbol that was devised
in 1946 at that University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory was
magenta on a blue background?
☀ The colours were changed to a black trefoil on a yellow back-
ground, with specific attributes regarding the relative diameter of
the blades and their orientation.

☀ The central circle has radius R, with the inner section extending
for a radius of 1.5 R.

☀ The fan blades are 5 R, separated from each other by 60°.

(www:History of the Radioactivity warning symbol-Did you know.htm)


29
1.2 This is a collection of radiation warning symbols and radioactivity
warning signs. What do the symbols and signs warn about?
II.

A B D
C

E F G H

L
J K
I

Fig.2 A collection of radiation warning symbols and radioactivity warning signs

1.3 Match the radiation warning symbols and radioactivity warning signs
(A-L) with their description (1-12).

1) This radiation symbol is a little fancier than your standard trefoil, but it is
easy to recognize the significance of the symbol.
2) This is the warning symbol for non-ionizing radiation.
3) This symbol warns of a radiation hazard.
4) This symbol warns of the risk of exposure to laser beams or coherent radi-
ation.
5) This sign warns of a radiation hazard.
6) The original radiation warning symbol was devised in 1946 at the Univer-
sity of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. Unlike the modern black

30
on yellow symbol, the original radiation symbol featured a magenta trefoil on
a blue background.
7) This trefoil is the hazard symbol for radioactive material.
8) This symbol indicates the presence of an optical radiation hazard.
9) The radiation symbol warning of an ionizing radiation hazard.
10) This is the US Army symbol for a radiation WDM or nuclear weapon.
11) This sign warns of laser radiation.
12) This is the IAEA ionizing radiation warning symbol.

II.PRE-READING TASK

1. Remember the pronunciation of these words:

warning [´wƆ:niŋ] specific [spe´sıf ık]


magenta [mə´ʤentə] discrete [dı´skrı:t]
trefoil [´trefɔil] microwave [´maıkrəweıv]
diameter [dai´æmitə] sufficient [sə´fıʃ₍ə₎nt]
radius [´reidiəs] infrared [ˏınfrə´red]
sign [sain] tissue [´tıʃu:]
ionize [´aıənaiz] spontaneous [spɔn´teınıəs]
coherent [kə(u)´hiər(ə)nt] spectrum [´spektrəm]
hazard [´hæzəd] intensity [ın´tensətı]
penetrate [´penitreit] luminous [´lu:mınəs]
undergo [ˏʌndə´gəu] quasi [´kwa:zı]

subatomic [ˏsʌbə´tɔmık] muon [´mju: ɔn]


electromagnetic [ıˏlektrəumæg´netık] accretion [æ´krı:ʃ₍ə₎n]
decay [dı´kei] altitude [´æltıtju:d]
neutron [´nju:trɔn] phosphorescence [ˏfɔsf₍ə₎´res₍ə₎ns]

31
2. Match the English word combinations to the Russian equivalents

1. natural environment a) заряженные частицы


2. human activity b) обыкновенная батарея отопле-
ния
3. non-ionizing radiation c) видимый спектр
4. living tissue d) частота волны
5. induced nuclear fission e) самораспространяющиеся волны
6. self-propagating waves f) исскуственное деление ядра
7. frequency of the wave g) живая ткань
8. visible spectrum h) неионизирующее излучение
9. common household radiator i) деятельность человека
10. charged particles j) естественная окружающая среда
11. black-body radiation k) годовая доза ионизирующего
излучения
12. man-made sources l) современный подход
13. smoke detector m) защитное покрытие
14. outer space n) квазизвездный объект
15. remnant neutrinos o) светящийся объект
16. luminous object p) остаточные нейтрины
17. quasi-stellar object q) космическое пространство
18.protective covering r) индикатор задымленности
19. sophisticated approach s) источники, созданные руками
человека
20. annual radiation dose t) излучение черного тела

3. Read the text «Three types of radioactivity» and pay attention to the
terms in bold.

Three Types of Radioactivity

There are three types of radioactivity. Gamma rays come from the nu-
cleus of the atom of a radioactive isotope. They are the most energetic and
most penetrating of all radiation. Some radiation travel as particles not
waves and is also emitted by the radioactive isotope. One is alpha particles
that lose energy quickly. A hand or thin piece of paper stops it. Beta parti-
cles are high speed electrons that travel close to the speed of light and can
penetrate a hand but not concrete.

32
When an atom undergoes radioactive decay, it emits one or more
forms of radiation with sufficient energy to ionize the atoms with which it in-
teracts. Ionizing radiation can consist of high speed subatomic particles
ejected from the nucleus or electromagnetic radiation (gamma-rays) emitted
by either the nucleus or orbital electrons.

Alpha Particles
Certain radionuclides of high atomic mass (Ra226, U238, Pu239) decay by
the emission of alpha particles. These alpha particles are tightly bound units
of two neutrons and two protons each (He4 nucleus) and have a positive
charge. Emission of an alpha particle from the nucleus results in a decrease
of two units of atomic number (Z) and four units of mass number (A). Alpha
particles are emitted with discrete energies characteristic of the particular
transformation from which they originate. All alpha particles from a particu-
lar radionuclide transformation will have identical energies.

33
Fig.3 The penetrating power of radiation.

Beta Particles
A nucleus with an unstable ratio of neutrons to protons may decay
through the emission of a high speed electron called a beta particle. This re-
sults in a net change of one unit of atomic number (Z). Beta particles have a
negative charge and the beta particles emitted by a specific radionuclide will
range in energy from near zero up to a maximum value, which is characteris-
tic of the particular transformation.
Gamma-rays
A nucleus which is in an excited state may emit one or more photons (packets
of electromagnetic radiation) of discrete energies. The emission of gamma
rays does not alter the number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus but in-
stead has the effect of moving the nucleus from a higher to a lower energy
state (unstable to stable). Gamma ray emission frequently follows beta decay,
alpha decay, and other nuclear decay processes.
(www:radiography/physics/gamma.htm)

34
III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.

1) the effect of moving the nucleus _____ a higher ___ a lower energy state;
2) the beta particles emitted ___ a specific radionuclide; 3) a nucleus ___ an
unstable ratio of neutrons to protons may decay ___ the emission __ a high
speed electron; 4) emission of an alpha particle ____ the nucleus results __ a
decrease of two units; 5) ionizing radiation can consist ___ high speed suba-
tomic particles; 6) gamma rays come ____ the nucleus of the atom.

2. Match the definition with the following terms.


1. ionizing radiation a) a positively charged particle (a He-
lium-4 nucleus) made up of two neu-
trons and two protons.
2. electromagnetic radiation b) radiation that is capable of produc-
ing ions either directly or indirectly.
3. decay c) the spontaneous decay of disinte-
gration of an unstable atomic nucleus
accompanied by the emission of radi-
ation.
4. radioactivity d) the change of one radioactive nu-
clide into a different nuclide by the
spontaneous emission of alpha, beta,
or gamma rays, or by electron cap-
ture.
5. nuclide e) radiation consisting of electric and
magnetic waves that travel at the
speed of light.
6. beta particles f) a highly penetrating type of nuclear
radiation, similar to x-radiation, ex-
cept that it comes from within the nu-
cleus of an atom, and, in general, has
a shorter wavelength.
7. gamma ray g) any species of atom that exists for
a measurable length of time; it can be
distinguished by its atomic weight,
atomic number, and energy state.
35
8. alpha particle h) an electron of either positive
charge (ß+) or negative charge (ß-),
which has been emitted by an atomic
nucleus or neutron in the process of a
transformation.

3. Read the following text and fill in the missing words and word combina-
tions.

ozone layer; skin cancer; in space without the protection; «radiation shield»;
magnetic fields; higher energy particles; muons; black-hole accretion disks;
luminous objects; cosmic microwave background radiation; many different
types of radiation; outer space and the sun; our natural environment

Cosmic radiation is part of 1) ………….. , and we are constantly ex-


posed to a certain amount of ionizing radiation. Radiation originating from 2)
…………….. is called cosmic radiation and contributes about 13% of the
background radiation level on Earth (a greater part is due to radon).
Cosmic radiation is a collection of 3) ……………… from many differ-
ent types of sources. When people speak simply of 'cosmic radiation' they are
usually referring specifically to the 4) …………….. . This consists of very,
very low energy photons (energy of about 2.78 Kelvin) whose spectrum is
peaked in the microwave region and which are remnants from the time when
the universe was only about 200,000 years old.

36
Fig. 4. Radiation and radioactivity occur naturally in the physical world

There are also very old remnant neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Neu-
trinos pass through just about everything with no effect so they are harmless.
The photons are too low in energy to be dangerous.
On top of these there are higher energy particles that are being created con-
stantly by all 5) ………… in the universe. Photons of all different ener-
gies/wavelengths are being created by our sun, other stars, quasi-stellar ob-
jects, 6) ……….. , gamma-ray bursts and so on. These objects also produce
high-energy massive particles such as electrons, 7) ………., protons and anti-
protons. These 8) ……….. are potentially dangerous, but most of these parti-
cles never make it to the earth. They are deflected by 9) ………… between
us and the source, or they interact with other particles, or they decay in flight.
The particles that do make it to the earth interact with our atmosphere,
which acts as a 10) ………….. . The high-energy cosmic rays bombard us
all the time, but they interact quickly, producing particles of much lower en-
ergy which impact the earth harmlessly. If this was dangerous to us, we
wouldn’t be here to discuss these things! Some particles, like neutrinos and
high energy muons, are passing through us all the time, but they interact so
37
weakly that they have no effect on our bodies. Of course, if we were 11)
…………. of our atmosphere then we would need some other type of shield-
ing from the radiation (spacesuits and protective covering on our space-
crafts).
The radiation to worry about, of course, is the «cosmic» radiation pro-
duced by our sun. There is only one type of cosmic radiation known to ad-
versely affect us and that’s UV radiation from our sun, which causes 12)
………. in millions of people every year. Again, our atmosphere serves as a
shield, but ultraviolet photons do make it through – and without that
а tecttive 13) ………. which blocks these photons we’re all going to need
a lot more sunscreen!

4. Translate the following text paying attention to italicized grammar con-


structions. (See Appendix 1)

The Electromagnetic Spectrum


X-rays and gamma rays differ only in their source of origin. X-rays are
produced by an x-ray generator and gamma radiation is the product of radio-
active atoms. They are both part of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are
waveforms, as are light rays, microwaves, and radio waves. X-rays and
gamma rays cannot be seen, felt, or heard. They possess no charge and no
mass and, therefore, are not influenced by electrical and magnetic fields and
will generally travel in straight lines. However, they can be diffracted (bent)
in a manner similar to light.
Both X-rays and gamma rays can be characterized by frequency, wave-
length, and velocity. However, they act somewhat like a particle at times in
that they occur as small «packets» of energy and are referred to as «pho-
tons». Due to their short wavelength they have more energy to pass through
matter than do the other forms of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum. As
they pass through matter, they are scattered and absorbed and the degree of
penetration depends on the kind of matter and the energy of the rays.
Properties of X-Rays and Gamma Rays.
They are not detected by human senses (cannot be seen, heard, felt, etc.).
• They travel in straight lines at the speed of light.
• Their paths cannot be changed by electrical or magnetic fields.
• They can be diffracted to a small degree at interfaces between two dif-
ferent materials.
• They pass through matter until they have a chance encounter with an
atomic particle.

38
• Their degree of penetration depends on their energy and the matter
they are traveling through.
• They have enough energy to ionize matter and can damage or destroy
living cells.
(http://www.envimed.com/emb08.shtml )

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text again. Which paragraphs contain the answers to these
questions?

1) How many types of radioactivity do you know?


2) Where do gamma rays come from?
3) What can stop alpha particles?
4) What kind of particles travels close to the speed of light?
5) Do alpha particles have a positive charge?
6) What is called a beta particle?
7) What particles have a negative charge?
8) What kind of energy may a nucleus which is in excited stay emit?
9) Does the emission of gamma rays alter the number of protons or neu-
trons in the nucleus?
10) What are the most energetic and most penetrating of all radiation?

2. Read the text «Three types of radioactivity» again and for questions 1-9
choose the best answer: A, B or C.

1. They are the most energetic and most penetrating of all radiation.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

2. They are emitted with discrete energies characteristic of the particular


transformation from which they originate.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

3. They have a negative charge and they emitted by a specific radionuclide


will range in energy from near zero up to a maximum value, which is charac-
teristic of the particular transformation.

39
A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

4. Gamma rays come from the nucleus of the atom of a radioactive isotope.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

5. They are tightly bound units of two neutrons and two protons each and
have a positive charge.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

6. A hand or thin piece of paper stops them.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

7. All of them from a particular radionuclide transformation will have identi-


cal energies.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

8. The emission of them does not alter the number of protons or neutrons in
the nucleus but instead has the effect of moving the nucleus from a higher to
a lower energy state.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

9. They are high speed electrons that travel close to the speed of light and can
penetrate a hand but not concrete.

A) Alpha particles B) Gamma rays C) Beta particles

3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian into
English.

1. Радоактивность как физическое явление – это способность самопро-


извольного превращения неустойчивого изотопа химического элемента
в устойчивый. 2. Такое превращение сопровождается испусканием эле-
ментарных частиц (альфа-, бета-) и излучения (гамма-кванты). 3. В при-
роде установлено более 230 радиоактивных ядер естественного проис-

40
хождения, и их количество дополняется техногенными (искусственны-
ми) радионуклидами практически всех элементов таблицы Д.И. Менде-
леева. 4. Таким образом, все известные радиоактивные элементы следу-
ет разделить на две группы: естественные и искусственные. 5. Среди
естественных радиоактивных элементов выделяют долгоживущие, ко-
роткоживущие продукты распада долгоживущих изотопов и нуклиды,
постоянно образующиеся в природной среде за счет ядерных реакций. 6.
Радиоизотопы искусственных нуклидов обладают разными видами ра-
диоактивности: среди них могут преобладать гамма-излучатели (цезий-
137, барий-137 и др.), бета-излучатели (стронций и др.) и альфа-
излучатели (плутоний-239 и др.).
(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и проблемы ра-
диоэкологии», Томск, 2009)

V. LISTENING

1. You will hear the short information about radioactivity.


a) Before you listen, discuss the following questions.

■ What do nuclear power stations use to produce electricity?


■ What can you do with used nuclear fuel?
■ Can radiation save lives?
■ What kind of waste do nuclear power stations produce?

b) Now listen to the recording again. For questions 1-7, fill in the gaps with
a word or short phrase.

1. Power stations in countries with 1


use a lot of fuel to clean up their smoke and gases.
2. Nuclear power does not produce 2 or acid
rain.
3. About 95% of radioactive waste is not dangerous, and you can destroy
it 3 and cheaply.

4. You can keep it under water in 4 , or


bury it deep under the ground.
5. His wife and 5 died of radiation poi-
soning.

41
6. Workmen had to destroy 6 and
kill all the farm animals.
7. On farms hundreds of kilometers from Chernobyl cows still give
7 , and people are still getting ill from
radiation poisoning.

1. What information is connected with these numbers:


1/6; 3/4; 200000; 95; 1987; 1986; 600000; 10000

VI. DETAILED READING

1. Read the text «Radiation» paying attention to the terms in bold.

Radiation
Radiation is energy in motion. Not only does radiation come from ele-
ments in the form of radioactivity, some come from our natural environment,
others from human activities and vices.

Fig.5 Radiation
Non-ionizing radiation: Non-ionizing radiation, by contrast, refers to
any type of radiation that does not carry enough energy per photon to ionize
atoms or molecules. Most especially, it refers to the lower energy forms of
electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radia-
42
tion, infrared light, and visible light). The effects of these forms of radia-
tion on living tissue have only recently been studied. Instead of producing
charged ions when passing through matter, the electromagnetic radiation has
sufficient energy only for excitation, the movement of an electron to a higher
energy state. Nevertheless, different biological effects are observed for dif-
ferent types of non-ionizing radiation.

Neutron radiation: Neutron radiation is a kind of non-ionizing radia-


tion that consists of free neutrons. These neutrons may be emitted during ei-
ther spontaneous or induced nuclear fission, nuclear fusion processes, or
from other nuclear reactions. It does not ionize atoms in the same way that
charged particles such as protons and electrons do (exciting an electron), be-
cause neutrons have no charge. However, neutron interactions are largely
ionizing, for example when neutron absorption results in gamma emission
and the gamma subsequently removes an electron from an atom, or a nucleus
recoiling from a neutron interaction is ionized and causes more traditional
subsequent ionization in other atoms.

Electromagnetic radiation: Electromagnetic radiation (sometimes ab-


breviated EMR) takes the form of self-propagating waves in a vacuum or in
matter. EMR has an electric and magnetic field component which oscillate in
phase perpendicular to each other and to the direction of energy propagation.
Electromagnetic radiation is classified into types according to the frequency
of the wave, these types include (in order of increasing frequency): radio
waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible light, ul-
traviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Of these, radio waves have the
longest wavelengths and gamma rays have the shortest. A small window of
frequencies, called visible spectrum or light, is sensed by the eye of various
organisms, with variations of the limits of this narrow spectrum. EMR carries
energy and momentum, which may be imparted when it interacts with matter.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic ra-
diation frequencies. The electromagnetic spectrum of an object is the charac-
teristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted by, or absorbed by,
that particular object.

Light: Light, or visible light, is electromagnetic radiation of a wave-


length that is visible to the human eye (about 400–700 nm), or up to 380–
750 nm. More broadly, physicists refer to light as electromagnetic radiation
of all wavelengths, whether visible or not.

43
Thermal radiation: Thermal radiation is the process by which the sur-
face of an object radiates its thermal energy in the form of electromagnetic
waves. Infrared radiation from a common household radiator or electric heat-
er is an example of thermal radiation, as is the light emitted by a glowing in-
candescent light bulb. Thermal radiation is generated when heat from the
movement of charged particles within atoms is converted to electromagnetic
radiation. The emitted wave frequency of the thermal radiation is a probabil-
ity distribution depending only on temperature and for a genuine black body
is given by Planck’s law of radiation. Wien's law gives the most likely fre-
quency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan-Boltzmann law gives the heat
intensity.

Black-body radiation: Black-body radiation is a common synonym for


thermal radiation (see above). It is so-called because the ideal radiator of
thermal energy would also be an ideal absorber of thermal energy: It would
not reflect any light, and thus would appear to be absolutely black.
In addition, people are exposed to radiation from man-made sources
such as color televisions, smoke detectors, computer monitors, and X-rays.
These sources account for less than one-fifth of our total radiation exposure.
There is no difference between natural radiation and its effects and man-
made radiation and its effects.
(Merril Eisenbud, Thomas F.Gesell, Environmental radioactivity: from natural, in-
dustrial, and military sources. Academic Press, 1997)

44
2. Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?

TRUE………………… if the statement agrees with the information


FALSE…………. if the statement contradicts with the information
NOT GIVEN……………. if there is no information on this

Statement True False Not given


1. A small window of frequencies, called visible
spectrum or light, is sensed by the eye of vari-
ous organisms, with variations of the limits of
this narrow spectrum.
2. Neutrinos pass through just about everything
with no effect so they are harmless.
3. There is difference between natural radiation
and its effects and man-made radiation and its
effects.
4. The photons are too low in energy to be dan-
gerous.
5. Infrared radiation from a common household
radiator or electric heater is an example of ther-
mal radiation, as is the light emitted by a glow-
ing incandescent light bulb.
6. The high-energy cosmic rays bombard us all
the time, but they interact quickly, producing
particles of much lower energy which impact
the earth harmlessly.
7. The electromagnetic spectrum of an object is
the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic
radiation emitted by, or absorbed by, that partic-
ular object.
8. Non-ionizing radiation refers to any type of
radiation that carries enough energy per photon
to ionize atoms or molecules.
9. Black-body radiation is a common synonym
for thermal radiation.
10. These neutrons may be emitted during either
spontaneous or induced nuclear fission, nuclear
fusion processes, or from other nuclear reac-
tions.

45
3. Give the English equivalents to the Russian words:
1. The effects of (этих форм радиации) on living tissue have only re-
cently been studied.
2. It does not ionize atoms in the same way that (заряженные частицы)
(такие как) protons and electrons do (exciting an electron), because neutrons
have no charge.
3. A small window of frequencies, called (видимый спектр) or light,
(улавливается) by the eye of various organisms, with variations of the limits
of this narrow spectrum.
4. Thermal radiation is generated when heat from the (движение заря-
женных частиц) within atoms (преобразовывается) to electromagnetic ra-
diation.
5. These sources account for (менее 1/5) of our total radiation exposure.
6. Neutrinos (проходят почти через все) with no effect so they are
harmless.
7. These higher energy particles are (потенциально опасны), but most
of these particles never make it to the earth.
8. The high-energy cosmic rays bombard us all the time, but they
(быстро взаимодействуют), producing particles of much lower energy
which impact the earth harmlessly.
9. The radiation (которая нас беспокоит), of course, is the «cosmic»
radiation produced by our sun.
10. Our atmosphere serves (как щит), but ultraviolet photons do make
it through – and without that protective (озоновый слой) which blocks these
photons we’re all going to need a lot more sunscreen.
11. This (сложность) also leads to (трудностям) in (измерении доз
радиации) from cosmic radiation, but physicists have developed sophisticat-
ed approaches to deal with this situation.
12. The actual radiation level is influenced by (ряд факторов), most
importantly through the shielding provided by (атмосфера Земли).
13. Cosmic radiation is a (сложная смесь заряженных и) neutral parti-
cles, some of them generated when primary particles from space interact with
the earth’s atmosphere.
14. Of course, (если бы мы были в космосе) without the protection of
our atmosphere then we would need some other type of shielding from the
radiation (spacesuits and protective covering on our spacecrafts).
15. (Если бы это было опасно для нас), we wouldn’t be here to dis-
cuss these things!

46
4. Work in pairs. Without looking at the text again, see how much you can
remember.

1. Why does not neutron radiation ionize atoms in the same way that charged
particles such as protons and electrons do?

2. When is thermal radiation generated?

3. Why is black-body radiation a common synonym for thermal radiation?

4. Why have the effects of the forms of electromagnetic radiation on living


tissue only recently been studied?

VI. DISSCUSSION

1. Read the information about radioactivity and guess the missing words
and word combinations. Then, listen to the tape and fill in the gaps.

Fig.6 (Source: Available at http://www.uglyrumors.wordpress.com)

The earth has always been radioactive. Everyone and everything that has ever
lived has been radioactive. In fact, the 1) __________ in the environment is
47
just about the same today as it was at the beginning of the Neolithic Age,
more than 10,000 years ago. During our 2) _________ our bodies harbor
measurable amounts (billions) of radioactive atoms. About half of the radio-
activity in our bodies comes from Potassium-40, a 3) __________of potassi-
um. Potassium is a vital nutrient and is especially important for the
4) _________ and muscles. Most of the rest of our bodies' radioactivity is
from radioactive 5) _________ and hydrogen. We have about 120,000 pico-
curies of radioactivity in our bodies. These naturally-occurring radioactive
substances expose our bodies to about 25 "millirem" per year, abbreviated as
"mrem/yr". Most radioactive substances enter our bodies as part of
6) _________, water or air. Our bodies use the radioactive as well as the non-
radioactive forms of 7) ________ such as iodine and sodium. Radioactivity
can be found in all foods. As we said before, it is even in our drinking water.
In a few areas of the United States, the naturally-occurring radioactivity in
8) ____________ can result in a dose of more than 1,000 millirem in one
year. Another type of natural radiation is 9) _______________ given off by
the sun and stars in outer space. Because the earth's atmosphere absorbs some
of this radiation, people living at 10) __________ receive a greater dose than
those at lower altitudes. In Ohio, for example, the average 11) __________
receives a dose of about 40 millirem in one year from cosmic radiation. In
Colorado, it is about 180 millirem in one year. Generally, for each 100-foot
increase in altitude, there is an increased dose of one (1) millirem per year.
Flying in an airplane increases our 12) ___________ to cosmic radiation. A
coast-to-coast round trip gives us a dose of about six millirem. In Ohio, radia-
tion in 13) ___________ and rocks contributes about 60 millirem in one year
to our exposure. In Colorado, it is about 105 millirem per year. In Kerala, In-
dia, this radioactivity from soil and 14) __________ can be 3,000 millirem
per year, and at a beach in Guarapari, Brazil, it is over 5 millirem in a single
hour. Some of the residents who use that beach receive doses approaching
1,000 millirem per year. If you live in a 15)____________, the natural radio-
activity in the building materials gives you a dose of 30 to 50 millirem per
year. In a brick house, the dose is 50 to 100 millirem per year. And, if your
home is so tightly sealed that the leakage of outside air into the home is small,
16) __________________ (radon) can be trapped for a longer period of time
and thus increase your dose.

48
2. a) Listen to the recording again. Take notes.
b) Use the diagram (Fig. 6 ) below and the following communicative
formulas.
c) State the ways of natural radioactivity.

Communicative formulas
According to On the one hand
At the next stage It may help to determine …behavior
On the other hand In my case …
Nevertheless This diagram (map, plan) shows the
dependence of … an …
In addition to … This means that …
I think For example
By the way … It will direct to …
As far as I know Especially
In the same way I’d like to say a few words about …
It should be noted that … As a rule
Generally speaking As far as I remember
In short By contrast

Fig.6 (Source: Available at http://www.hamaoka.chuden.jp)


49
2. Here some key phrases and words to do the presentation. Choose one of
four subjects below and give a presentation. To get the additional infor-
mation read Appendix 7.

Let me start by saying just a few words about my own background. I am


………….
I’m going to inform you about ……..
We are here today to decide \ agree \ learn about……
I shall only take ( ) minutes of your time.
I have divided my presentation into X sections......
In the first section I will \ am going to describe.............
Then I will \ am going to go on to .........
After that I will am going to look at.........
Finally I will \ am going to..........
If we can now look at……….
If you have a look at this figure here.......
As you can see from the table.......
This particular slide shows.......
The main explanation for this is……
This is \ can be explained by two factors. First…. Second………..
Some of you may be wondering how can this be done?
This means that...........
As a result............
Are there any questions so far?
I welcome questions if at any point you don’t understand something.
So, we have looked at…. and we’ve seen that……
To summarize, I’d like to……..
I would like to thank you for your interest and attention
If you have any questions please I’m ready to answer them.

1) Greek philosopher Anaxagoras states that matter cannot be created nor


destroyed.
2) Democritus and Leucippus of Greece postulate that all matter is made of
indivisible units they call «atomos».
3) First therapeutic applications of X-rays.
4) First known use of uranium.

50
VII. WORD FORMATION

1. Read the following pairs of derivatives and pay attention to the stress in
the words.

Noun Adjective
͵radioac'tivity radio'active
'energy ͵ener´getic
'orbit 'orbital
'atom a'tomic
'nature 'natural
bi'ology ͵bio'logical
'difference 'different
tra'dition tra'ditional
e͵lec'tricity e'lectric
'magnet mag'netic
length long
'vision 'visible
va'riety 'various
͵possi'bility 'possible
'character ͵characte'ristic
'frequency 'frequent
'danger 'dangerous
mass 'massive
pro'tection pro'tective
com'plexity 'complex
'difficulty 'difficult
im'portance im'portant
ge'ography geo'graphical
pre'diction pre'dictable
'practice 'practical

2. Choose between the alternatives to complete these sentences.

1. The electromagnetic spectrum of an object is the characteris-


tic/character distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted by, or ab-
sorbed by, that particular object.
51
2. For the human exposure situation one feature of cosmic radiation is of
particular important/importance: a large percentage of the effective radia-
tion dose from cosmic radiation is due to neutrons of different energy levels.
3. The photons are too low in energetic/energy to be dangerous.
4. Cosmic radiation is a collection of many difference/different types
of radiation from many different/difference types of sources.
5. Electromagnetic radiation is classified into types according to the
frequent/frequency of the wave, these types include: radio waves, micro-
waves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible/vision light, ultraviolet
radiation, X-rays and gamma rays.
6. Ionizing radiation can consist of high speed subatomic particles eject-
ed from the nucleus or electromagnetic radiation (gamma-rays) emitted by
either the nucleus or orbital/orbit electrons.
7. Neutron interactions are largely ionizing, for example when neutron
absorption results in gamma emission and the gamma subsequently removes
an electron from an atomic/atom or a nucleus recoiling from a neutron inter-
action is ionized and causes more traditional/tradition subsequent ioniza-
tion in other atoms.
8. These objects also produce high-energy massive/mass particles such
as electrons, muons, protons and anti-protons.
9. These isotropic «tracers» are currently used for practical/practice di-
agnosis of disease as well as in research.
10. Not only does radiation come from elements in the form of radioac-
tive/radioactivity, some come from our natural environment, others from
human activities and vices.

3. Choose the right preposition to the following verbs. Some prepositions


can be used twice.

1. to consist a) with
2. to result b) from
3. to come c) on
4. to refer d) into
5. to pass e) to
6. to be classified f) through
7. to interact g) in
8. to depend h) of
9. to originate j) up
10. to deal

52
3.1 Put a preposition in each of the numbered spaces.

1. Most of the particles passed 1) _____ the foil undisturbed, suggesting


that the foil was made up mostly of empty space rather than of a sheet of sol-
id atoms.
2. Atomic particles, Rutherford's work showed, consisted 2) ___ empty
space surrounding a well-defined central core called a nucleus.
3. As they pass 3) _____ matter, they are scattered and absorbed and the
degree of penetration depends 4) ___ the kind of matter and the energy of the
rays.
4. A single interaction event between a primary x-ray photon and a par-
ticle of matter does not usually result 5) ____ the photon changing to some
other form of energy and effectively disappearing.
5. The event is also known as incoherent scattering because the photon
energy change resulting 6) _____ an interaction is not always orderly and
consistent.
6. The energy shift depends 7) ___ the angle of scattering and not on the
nature of the scattering medium.
7. Radioecology is a branch of ecology which studies how radioactive
substances interact 8) ____ nature, how different mechanisms affect the sub-
stances migration and uptake in food chain and ecosystems.
8. Fallout commonly refers 9) ____ the radioactive dust created when a
nuclear weapon explodes.
9. Radioecology is a science that came 10) ___ after the first tests of nu-
clear bombs.
10. The radiation sickness is generally used to refer 11) ___ acute prob-
lems caused by a large dosage of radiation in a short period, though this also
has occurred with long term exposure.

4. Read the text «Isotopes», fill in the gaps using the word formations (in
brackets) and tell the text.
Isotopes
Isotopes are used in modern medicine for research purposes and diag-
nose diseases. In this picture a researcher is working with a 1)
______________ (radiation; radioactive; radioactivity) isotope in a labora-
tory. A number of precautions are required to 2) _________ (protective; pro-
tect; protection) the person from too large a dose of the radioactive material.

53
Fig.7. A researcher, working with a radioactive isotope in a lab

Scientists can now 3) ________ (creation, creative; create) radioactive


forms of common elements, called isotopes. Each isotope has a fixed rate of
decay which can be 4) ___________ (character; characterized;
characteristic) by its half-life, or the length of time that it takes half of the
radioactive atoms in a sample to decay. Because each isotope decays at a
unique and 5) ___________ (predict; prediction; predictable) rate, different
isotopes can be used for a variety of purposes. For example, isotopes play an
___________ 6) (importance; importantly; important) role in modern medi-
cine. They can be ingested and traced in their path through the body, reveal-
ing biochemical and metabolic processes with precision. These isotropic
«tracers» are currently used for practical diagnosis of disease as well as in re-
search.
The dating of 7) ____________ (radiation; radioactivity; radioactive)
carbon has helped to define the history of life on this planet. Any living or-
ganism takes in both radioactive and non-radioactive carbon, either through
the process of photosynthesis or by eating plants or eating animals that have
eaten plants. When the animal dies, however, uptake of carbon stops. As a
result, radioactive carbon atoms are not replaced as they decay, and the
amount of this material decreases over time. The rate of decrease is 8)
____________ (predict; prediction; predictable) and can be described with
accuracy, vastly increasing our ability to date the biological events of our
planet.

VII. WRITING
Write an essay on the discussed topic.

54
WORDLIST

ENGLISH RUSSIAN
accretion разрастание, увеличение
altitude высота
coherent сцепленный, связанный
convert преобразовывать, превращать
decay распадаться, угасать, гнить
diameter диаметр
discrete отдельный, обособленный
electromagnetic электромагнитный
emit испускать, выделять
emission выделение, распространение
excitation активизация, возбуждение
hazard риск, опасность
impact влиять, ударять
impart придавать, наделять
infrared инфракрасный
ingest глотать, проглатывать
ionize ионизировать
intensity интенсивность, мощность, энергия
luminous светящийся, световой
magenta маджента, пурпурный цвет
microwave микроволна, микроволновый
muon мю-мезон, мюон
neutrino нейтрино
outer space открытый космос, космическое про-
странство
oscillate генерировать, вибрировать, колебаться
peak достигать максимума
penetrate проникать внутрь, проходить сквозь,
пропитывать
phosphorescence фосфоресценция, свечение
propagation распространение, размножение
quasi как бы, якобы, как будто, почти
radius радиус
recoil ответная реакция, отскочить, отпрыгнуть

55
refer направлять, отсылать, обращаться
remnant оставшийся, выживший
sign признак, симптом
shield щит, экран, защитная штрма
spacecraft космический аппарат
spectrum спектр
specific характерный, особенный, специфический
spontaneous самопроизвольный, стихийный, неподго-
товленный
subatomic субатомный, внутриатомный
sufficient достаточный, обоснованный
sunscreen солнцезащитный экран
tissue ткань
trefoil клевер, трилистник
undergo испытывать, подвергаться, претерпевать
uptake поглощать, усваивать
warning предупреждение, предостережение

56
UNIT III

LIVES DEVOTED TO RESEARCH

I. WARMING-UP

Look at the portraits of two well-known scientists, read the infor-


mation about them, match the information with the portraits and answer
the following questions:
a) Can you name these scientists?
b) Is their research connected with the topic of this unit?
c) Whose film of hand do you think it was? (Photo A)

A
Fig. 1

57
B
Fig. 2

1) He was born into a family of scientists. His grandfather had made


important contributions in the field of electrochemistry while his father had
investigated the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence. He not on-
ly inherited their interest in science, he also inherited the minerals and com-
pounds studied by his father. The material he chose to work with was potas-
sium uranyl sulfate, which he exposed to sunlight and placed on photographic
plates wrapped in black paper. When developed, the plates revealed an image
of the uranium crystals. Initially he believed that the sun’s energy was being
absorbed by the uranium which then emitted X-rays. Further investigation, on
the 26th and 27th of February, was delayed because the skies over Paris were
overcast and the uranium-covered plates he intended to expose to the sun
were returned to a drawer. On the first of March, he developed the photo-
graphic plates expecting only faint images to appear. To his surprise, the im-
ages were clear and strong. This meant that the uranium emitted radiation
without an external source of energy such as the sun. He had discovered radi-
oactivity, the spontaneous emission of radiation by a material.
For his discovery of radioactivity, he was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize
for physics.
2) He was a Professor at Würzburg University in Germany. Working
with a cathode-ray tube in his laboratory, he observed a fluorescent glow of
crystals on a table near his tube. The tube that he was working with consisted
of a glass envelope (bulb) with positive and negative electrodes encapsulated
in it. The air in the tube was evacuated, and when a high voltage was applied,
58
the tube produced a fluorescent glow. He shielded the tube with heavy black
paper, and discovered a green colored fluorescent light generated by a mate-
rial located a few feet away from the tube. He concluded that a new type of
ray was being emitted from the tube. This ray was capable of passing through
the heavy paper covering and exciting the phosphorescent materials in the
room. He found that the new ray could pass through most substances casting
shadows of solid objects. He also discovered that the ray could pass through
the tissue of humans, but not bones and metal objects.
(www:history.htm)

II. PRE-READING TASK

1. Remember the pronunciation of these words:

reaction
attenuation
penetrating
͵
[rı´ækʃ₍ə₎n]
[ə tenju´eiʃ(ə)n]
[´penitreitiŋ]
electron
angle
significant
[ı'lektrɔn]
[´æŋgl]
[sig´nifikənt]
subordinate
approximation
element
͵
[sə'bɔ:d(ə)nət]
[ə prɔksi´meiʃ(ə)n]
['elı mənt]
physicist
annihilation
skeleton
͵
['fızısıst]
[ə naiə´leiʃ(ə)n]
['skelıt(ə)n]
atom [´ætəm] cathode ['kæθəud]
origin ['ɔrı ʤın] accident ['æksıd(ə)nt]
method
coefficient
ejection
͵
[´meθəd]
[ kəui´fiʃ(ə)nt]
[i´ʤekʃ(ə)n]
phenomena

negligible
[fı'nɔmınə]
circumstance [´sə:kəmstæn(t)s]
[´negliʤəbl]
subsequent [´sʌbsikwənt] applet [´æplit]
function ['fʌŋkʃ₍ə₎n] fluorescen [flɔ:'res₍ə₎n(t)s]
nature [' neıtʃə] experiment [ık'sperımənt]
group [gru:p] medicine ['medısın]
uranium [juə´reiniəm] career [kə'rıə]
destructive [dı´strʌĸtıv] determination [dıˏtə: mı'neıʃ₍ə₎n]
neutral
incoherent ͵[´nju:tr(ə)l]
[ inkəu´hiər(ə)nt]
anthropological [ˏænθre(u)pe'Ơɔʤıkəl]
vault
nucleus
[vɔ:lt]
[´nju:kliəs]
archaeological [ˏa: kıə'Ơɔʤık(ə)l]
reality [r'ælıtı] modern ['mɔd(ə)n]

59
2. Match the English word combinations with the Russian equivalents.

1) driven by curiosity a) человеческая любознательность


2) development of new methods and b) невероятная сила атома
tools
3) the building blocks of matter c) планетарная модель атома
4) the existence of the atom d) выдающаяся деятельность
5) the predicted particle e) серия экспериментов
6) set of postulates f) современная медицина
7) a subordinate player in chemical g) невидимое, скрытое излучение
reactions
8) scattered electrons h) явления флюоресценции
9) to be familiar with i) на пути рентгеновского излуче-
ния
10) in the path of X-rays j) владеть, знать, быть знакомым с
11) phenomena of fluorescence k) разрозненные электроны
12) invisible emanations l) управляемый игрок в химиче-
ской реакции
13) modern medicine m) система постулатов
14) a series of experiments o) предсказанная частица
15) distinguished career p) существование атома
16) the planetary model of the atom q) кирпичики материи
17) splitting the atom r) разработка новых методов и ин-
струментария
18) the incredible power of the atom s) расщепление атома
19) human curiosity t) движимые любопытством

3. Read the text «The Discovery of Radioactivity» and pay attention to


the terms in bold.

The Discovery of Radioactivity


One hundred years ago, a group of scientists unknowingly ushered in
the Atomic Age. Driven by curiosity, these men and women explored the na-
ture and functioning of atoms. Their work initiated paths of research which
changed our understanding of the building blocks of matter; their discover-
ies prepared the way for development of new methods and tools used to ex-
plore our origins, the functioning of our bodies both in sickness and in
health, and much more.
Elements are the building blocks of matter. The smallest particle of an
element that still retains the identity of that element is the atom. All atoms
60
of a given element are identical to one another, but differ from the atoms of
other elements. Ancient Greeks first predicted the existence of the atom
around 500 BC. They named the predicted particle «atomos», meaning «in-
divisible».

Fig. 3 John Dalton


(Source: Available at http://www.kadimdostlar.com/)

In 1803, John Dalton (1766-1844) proposed a systematic set of postu-


lates to describe the atom. Dalton's work paved the way for modern day ac-
ceptance of the atom. But scientists of his day considered the atom to be
merely a subordinate player in chemical reactions, an uninteresting, homo-
geneous, positively charged «glob» that contained scattered electrons. That
premise remained unchallenged until the end of the nineteenth century, when
a series of brilliant discoveries opened the door on the atomic science of
the twentieth century. Working concurrently and often collaboratively, three
pioneering scientists helped release the genie of the atom.
Becquerel, a French physicist, was the son and grandson of physicists.
Becquerel was familiar with the work of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen on De-
cember 22 1895, «photographed» his wife's hand, revealing the unmistaka-
ble image of her skeleton, complete with wedding ring. Roentgen's wife had
placed her hand in the path of X-rays which Roentgen created by beaming an
electron ray energy source onto a cathode tube. Roentgen’s discovery of
these «mysterious» rays capable of producing an image on a photographic
plate excited scientists of his day including Becquerel. Becquerel chose the
study related phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence. In March
of 1896, quite by accident, he made a remarkable discovery. Becquerel found
that, while the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence had many
similarities to each other and to X-rays, they also had important differences.
While fluorescence and X-rays stopped when the initiating energy source was
61
halted, phosphorescence continued to emit rays some time after the initiating
energy source was removed. However, in all three cases, the energy was de-
rived initially from an outside source. In March of 1896, during a time of
overcast weather, Becquerel found he couldn’t use the sun as an initiating en-
ergy source for his experiments. He put his wrapped photographic plates
away in a darkened drawer, along with some crystals containing uranium.
Much to his Becquerel’s surprise, the plates were exposed during storage by
invisible emanations from the uranium. The emanations did not require the
presence of an initiating energy source – the crystals emitted rays on their
own! Although Becquerel did not pursue his discovery of radioactivity, oth-
ers did and, in so doing, changed the face of both modern medicine and mod-
ern science.

Fig. 4 Ernest Rutherford


(Source: Available at http://www.graycell.ru)

In 1911, Rutherford conducted a series of experiments in which he


bombarded a piece of gold foil with positively charged (alpha) particles
emitted by radioactive material. Most of the particles passed through the foil
undisturbed, suggesting that the foil was made up mostly of empty space ra-
ther than of a sheet of solid atoms. Some alpha particles, however, «bounced
back», indicating the presence of solid matter. Atomic particles, Rutherford’s
work showed, consisted primarily of empty space surrounding a well-defined
central core called a nucleus.
In a long and distinguished career, Rutherford laid the groundwork for
the determination of atomic structure.

62
Fig. 5
In addition to defining the planetary model of the atom, he showed that
radioactive elements undergo a process of decay over time. And, in experi-
ments which involved what newspapers of his day called «splitting of the at-
om», Rutherford was the first to artificially transmute one element into an-
other-unleashing the incredible power of the atom which would eventually be
harnessed for both beneficial and destructive purposes. Taken together, the
work of Becquerel, the Curies, Rutherford and others, made modern medical
and scientific research more than a dream. They made it a reality with many
applications. A look at the use of isotopes reveals just some of the ways in
which the pioneering work of these scientists has been utilized. Radiation is a
two edged sword: its usefulness in both medicine and anthropological and
archaeological studies is undisputed, yet the same materials can be used for
destruction. Human curiosity drove inquiring scientists to harness the power
of the atom. Now humankind must accept the responsibility for the appro-
priate and beneficial uses of this very powerful tool.
(www: The Discovery of Radioactivity The dawn of the nuclear
Age.htm )

III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.


1) the atom to be merely a subordinate player ____ chemical reactions;
2) a series of brilliant discoveries opened the door _____ the atomic science;
3) Becquerel was familiar _____ the work; 4) the unmistakable image of her
skeleton complete _____ wedding ring; 5) the path of X-rays which Roent-
gen created ____ beaming an electron ray energy source; 6) their discoveries
prepared the way _____ development of new methods and tools; 7) quite
_____ accident; 8) the energy was derived initially ____ an outside source;
63
9) the crystals emitted rays _____ their own; 10) he bombarded a piece of
gold foil _____ positively charged (alpha) particles; 11) most of the particles
passed ______ the foil undisturbed; 12) atomic particles, consisted primarily
_____ empty space; 13) the same materials can be used _____ destruction;

2. Match the terms (1-7) with the definitions (A-G).

1. Source A. A particle of matter indivisible by chemical means. It


is the fundamental building block of elements.

2. Alpha particle B. An elementary particle with a unit electrical charge


and a mass 1/1837 that of the proton. Electrons sur-
round the atom's positively charged nucleus and deter-
mine the atom's chemical properties.

3. Nucleus C. Isotopes of a given element have the same atomic


number (same number of protons in their nuclei) but dif-
ferent atomic weights (different number of neutrons in
their nuclei). Uranium-238 and uranium-235 are iso-
topes of uranium.

4. Decay D. The change of one radioactive nuclide into a differ-


ent nuclide by the spontaneous emission of alpha, beta,
or gamma rays, or by electron capture. The end product
is a less energetic, more stable nucleus.

5. Isotope E. The core of the atom, where most of its mass and all
of its positive charge is concentrated. Except for hydro-
gen, it consists of protons and neutrons.

6. Electron F. A positively charged particle made up of two neu-


trons and two protons. It is the least penetrating of the
three common forms of radiation, being stopped by a
sheet of paper.

7. Atom G. A radioactive material that produces radiation for


experimental or industrial use.

64
3. Match the adjectives to the nouns to form collocations.

A B
beneficial science
human set
anthropological player
scientific reaction
destructive discovery
incredible rays
radioactive plate
modern differences
invisible emanation
important medicine
photographic material
mysterious power
brilliant purpose
chemical research
subordinate study
systematic curiosity
atomic use

4. Read the texts and fill in the missing words (the verbs in Passive Voice,
see Appendix 1).

A) to be observed, to be recognized, to be known, to be discovered, not to


be understood, not to be recognized, not to be appreciated, to be
awarded

Although radiation 1)_____________ in late 19th century, the dangers


of radioactivity and of radiation 2) _______ immediately _______ . Acute
effects of radiation 3) ________ first _______ in the use of X-rays when the
Serbo-Croatian-American electric engineer Nikola Tesla intentionally sub-
jected his fingers to X-rays in 1896. He published his observations concern-
ing the burns that developed, though he attributed them to ozone rather than
to X-rays. His injuries healed later. The genetic effects of radiation, including
the effects on cancer risk, 4) __________ much later. In 1927 Hermann Jo-
65
seph Muller published research showing genetic effects, and in 1946 5)
________ the Nobel prize for his findings.
Before the biological effects of radiation 6) __________ , many physi-
cians and corporations had begun marketing radioactive substances as patent
medicine and radioactive quackery. Examples were radium enema treat-
ments, and radium-containing waters to be drunk as tonics. Marie Curie
spoke out against this sort of treatment, warning that the effects of radiation
on the human body 7)________ well ________ . Curie later died of aplastic
anemia due to radiation poisoning. Eben Byers, a famous American socialite,
died in 1932 after consuming large quantities of radium over several years;
his death drew public attention to dangers of radiation. By the 1930s, after a
number of cases of bone necrosis and death in enthusiasts, radium-containing
medical products had nearly vanished from the market.
Nevertheless, dangers of radiation 8) ___________ fully __________ by
scientists until later. In 1945 and 1946, two U.S. scientists died from acute
radiation exposure in separate criticality accidents. In both cases, victims
were working with large quantities of fissile materials without any shielding
or protection. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulted in a
large number of incidents of radiation poisoning, allowing for greater insight
into its symptoms and dangers.

B) to be surprised, to be seized, to be emitted, to be established, to be


extracted, to be found, to be accompanied, to be overcast, to be known

Knowledge concerning atomic nuclei began as early as 1896 with dis-


covery of radioactivity.
In 1895, Roentgen discovered the X-rays. The French scientist Becque-
rel got interested in Roentgen’s work. Becquerel 1) __________ of the fact
that the production of X-rays 2) ________ always _________ by fluores-
cence from the material of the X-ray tube (glass). He thought that X-rays ex-
isted whenever there was fluorescence. To investigate this problem, Becque-
rel took uranium sulphate, which fluoresces under the action of sunlight. He
found that fluorescent uranium sulphate did give out rays, which could affect
a photographic plate even when wrapped in thick black paper. Becquerel ar-
gued that the fluorescent salt had given rise to X-rays, which had penetrated
the black paper and affected the photographic plate.
But he soon saw that he was mistaken. During one such experiment the
sky happened 3) ___________ and uranium salt was hardly fluorescent. On
developing the photographic plate, Becquerel 4) ____________ to see a dark
spot on it, as before. He had obviously stumbled on some new kind of rays
66
(1896) which could penetrate the thick wrapper and affect the photographic
plate. It 5) ________ soon _________ that any salt of uranium emits Bec-
querel rays. Unlike the X-rays, which appear in an X-ray tube only under
special conditions, the Becquerel rays 6) ___________ in a spontaneous
manner.
Is uranium the only substance emitting Becquerel rays? Marie Curie
found the pitchblende, the ore from which uranium 7) _____________ emits
Becquerel rays with a much stronger intensity than what its uranium content
would. After a long and laborious process of chemical separation, Marie Cu-
rie and her husband Pierre Curie discovered two new elements, polonium and
radium, which emitted Becquerel rays. They gave the name «radioactive» to
all substances capable of emitting Becquerel rays and the phenomenon itself
came to 8) ______________ as it 9) _______________ . To be about a mil-
lion times more radioactive than uranium. This power of radium radiation
made it possible to study radioactivity systematically.

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text «The Discovery of Radioactivity» again and discuss the fol-
lowing questions.

1. How did our conceptions of atomic properties change?


2. How has that change affected our lives and our knowledge of the world?
3. What did the predicted particle «atomos» mean?
4. Who first predicted the existence of the atom around 500 BC?
5. How many pioneering scientists working concurrently and often collabora-
tively helped release the genie of the atom?
6. Who chose the study of fluorescence and phosphorescence phenomena?
7. When did Becquerel find that he couldn't use the sun as an initiating ener-
gy source for his experiments?
8. What did Rutherford’s work show?
9. What did Rutherford show in addition to defining the planetary model of
the atom?
10. What drove inquiring scientists to harness the power of the atom?

67
2. Complete the following summary (The Discovery of Radioactivity) using
the list of words.

Atomic Age started when (1) _______ of scientists driven by


(2) _______ explored (3) ______ and functioning of atoms. Ancient Greeks
first predicted (4) _______ of the atom and named the predicted particle
(5) ______ . The scientists of Dalton’s day considered (6) ______ to be mere-
ly a subordinate (7) ________ in chemical reactions. Becquerel was familiar
with Roentgen’s discovery of (8) _________ rays capable of producing an
image on (9) _________ plate. He chose the study related phenomena of
(10) _______ and (11) ________ and found these (12) _______ to have both
(13) _________ to each other and to X-rays, and also important
(14) _______ . And although Becquerel did not pursue his discovery of
(15) ________ , he changed the face of both modern (16) ______ and modern
(17) _______ . As for Rutherford, he conducted a series of experiments bom-
barding a piece of gold (18) ______ with positively charged (19) ________ .
His work showed that atomic particles consisted primarily of empty
(20) ________ surrounding a well-defined central (21) ______ called
(22) _________ and in addition to defining the planetary (23) _______ of the
atom that radioactive elements undergo a process of (24) _______ over time.
The work of Rutherford and others made modern medical and scientific
(25) ________ more than (26) _______ .

68
The list of words

dream Space
group Mysterious
curiosity Particles
research Photographic
nature foil
decay fluorescence
existence medicine
model phosphorescence
atomos science
nucleus phenomena
atom radioactivity
core similarities
player differences

3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian


into English

1. В имеющихся обзорах по истории развития учения о радиоак-


тивности, как правило, обсуждаются достижения ученых Европы и Ев-
ропейской части России, тогда как имеющиеся в Томске архивные ма-
териалы позволяют утверждать (Рихванов, Лозовский и др., 1991; Ха-
халкин, 1991), что и в Азиатской части России, особенно в центре со-
средоточения научной мысли – Томске, исследования этого явления
проводились не менее активно, чем в столичных городах России. 2.
Этому способствовало то, что первые сибирские вузы (Томский госу-

69
дарственный университет с его медицинским факультетом и Томский
политехнический институт) укомплектовывались научными кадрами
Московского и Санкт-Петербургского университетов, имеющих проч-
ные связи с научными кругами Европы. 3. Так, один из ректоров ТГУ,
профессор Н.А. Гезехус, был выходцем из Санкт-Петербургского тех-
нологического института и занимался изучением теплового действия
лучей радия. 4. Выпускниками европейских вузов России были и другие
первые исследователи радиоактивности и радиоактивных элементов в
Сибири (П.П. Орлов, В.С. Титов, Д.В. Алексеев, П.П. Пилипенко, П.П.
Гудков, М.Н. Соболев, В.А. Обручев). 5. Хаос Гражданской войны раз-
метал и уничтожил многие архивные материалы тех лет, а то, что оста-
лось нетронутым, частично или полностью было изъято из открытого
пользования и помещено в спецхранилища (материалы П.П. Орлова),
либо уничтожено в годы репрессий. 6. Сегодня эти материалы собира-
ются по крупицам из различных разрозненных, не систематизирован-
ных источников, средств массовой информации.
(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и
проблемы радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009)

70
V. LISTENING

1. You are going to hear the following information about radioactive


nuclides. For questions 1 to 8, decide whether the statements are true (T) or
false (F).

Fig. 6

71
Statement T F
1. The nuclides have relatively long half-lives, and occur only be-
cause they are being produced by natural and anthropogenic nuclear
reactions or because they are the intermediate unstable daughters of
long-lived naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of uranium and
thorium.
2. The nuclear reaction, consisting of alpha particles, beta particles,
and gamma rays, emitted by these nuclides does not constitute a po-
tential health hazard to humans.
3. Several nuclides in this group are used for measuring the rates of
deposition of sediment in lakes and in the oceans and for dating
calcium carbonate precipitated inorganically or in the skeletons of
corals, mollusks, and other organisms.
4. The third group includes hydrogen-3 (tritium), beryllium-10,
carbon-14, aluminum-26, splpcon-32, chlorine-36, iron-55, and
others.
5. The radioactive fission products and transuranium elements that
accumulate in the fuel rods of nuclear reactors must be isolated in
underground repositories because of their intense radiation which is
harmful to humans and all other forms of life.
6. The dispersion of these radionuclides as a result of accidental
explosions of nuclear reactors or during the testing of nuclear
weapons creates a health hazard, especially when the radionuclides
occur in food, drinking water, and air.
7. Some of the radionuclides produced in nuclear reactors decay
sufficiently slowly to be useful for geochemical research, including
strontium-19, secium-136, iodine-128, and isotopes of plutonium.
8. The explosion of nuclear devices in the atmosphere has also con-
tributed to the abundances of certain radionuclides that are pro-
duced by cosmic rays such as tritium and carbon-14.

72
VI. DETAILED READING

1. Read the following text «The Curies» and do the tasks.

Fig 7 Wedding photo of Pierre and Marie Curie, 1895.

A) Polish-French chemist and physicist famous for discovering radioac-


tivity Marie Sklodowska was born in Warsaw in 1867. She was a brilliant
student and dreamed of studying at the Sorbonne in Paris but it took eight
years of saving before she could afford to go. Despite very poor living condi-
tions, and a lack of French, she graduated in physics in 1893 and mathemat-
ics in 1894. While looking for a laboratory in Paris to continue with her ex-
periments she was introduced to Pierre Curie, a highly regarded professor at
the School of Physics. They married and joined forces in the laboratory to
astonishing effect - they soon made the fantastic discovery of radium and ra-
dioactivity.

73
Fig. 8 Marie Curie and her daughter Irène in the laboratory at the Radium Institute
in Paris, France, 1921.

During her studies Marie had heard about Henri Becquerel’s discovery
of some sort of radiation emitting from uranium salts and decided to investi-
gate these mysterious «uranium rays» for her doctoral thesis. She soon dis-
covered that the intensity of the rays was in direct proportion to the amount
of uranium in her sample. Nothing she did to the uranium affected the rays.
This, she said «shows that radioactivity is an atomic property». She also
found that two minerals, pitchblende and calcite, were much more radioactive
than uranium itself, and realized that they must contain a new radioactive el-
ement.

74
Fig. 9 Marie Curie and her daughter Irène at the Hoogstade Hospital in Belgium,
1915. Radiographic equipment is installed.

B) Pierre Curie met Marie Sklodowska when he was 35 years old and
already an internationally recognized physicist. With his brother Paul-
Jacques, he discovered piezo-electricity: the fact that crystals under pressure
produce electric currents. He also studied crystal symmetries and the magnet-
ic properties of bodies at different temperatures. His papers had been well re-
ceived by distinguished colleagues but he was still an outsider in the French
academic community. Like Marie he did not care for outward distinctions or
a career. When they married in July 1895 Pierre followed his wife’s work
closely and he and his brother made her an electrometer which measured
weak electrical currents, based on the piezo-electric effect. After the exciting
results of Marie’s early experiments Pierre abandoned his passionate study of
crystals to join her in her search for new substances.
He continued to construct pieces of laboratory equipment such as the
ionisation chamber. Together they laboured Marie carrying out the chemical
separations and Pierre taking the measurements. Together they discovered
polonium and radium and used the word ‘radioactivity’ for the first time.
This sensitive device was developed by Pierre Curie for investigations
into radioactivity. The chamber consists of a positive and negative plate con-
nected by an electrometer. Radiation ionises the air in the chamber. The
75
breakdown of air molecules into positive and negative ion pairs allows them
to act as carriers of electric current. The negative ions migrate to the positive
plate and the positive ions to the negative plate. This causes a weak electric
current to flow which can be measured on the electrometer. The level of radi-
oactivity will determine the strength of the current. He abandoned his re-
search on crystals to join Marie in her work. In July 1898, using basic chemi-
cal refining methods, they isolated a product from pitchblende about 400
times more active than uranium. They named this – polonium in honour of
Marie’s native Poland.

Fig. 10 Marie Curie and four of her students.


(Photo taken between 1910 and 1915.)

At a Royal Institution Lecture in London in 1903, Pierre described the


amazing properties of radium and the medical tests he had been carrying out
on himself. He had tied a piece of radium to his arm for ten hours and then
studied the burn-like wound that left a permanent scar. Because of this, Pierre
observed the potential of radium in treating cancer.

76
Fig. 11 Pierre and Marie Curie in the «hangar» at l’Ecole de physique et
chimie industrielles in Paris, France, where they made their discovery.
(Photo taken 1898.)

C) In 1903 Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in
Physics ‘in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by
their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor
Henri Becquerel’. Pierre was tragically killed in 1906, leaving Marie with
two daughters: Irène aged 9 and Eve aged 2. Marie was determined to con-
tinue their work. She became the first ever woman professor at the Sorbonne
and as well as teaching, she discovered how to isolate radium in metallic
form.
D) In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the dis-
covery of the elements radium and polonium. This she achieved by the isola-
tion of radium and also from her study of the nature and compounds of this
remarkable element. Marie met Albert Einstein at the first Solvay Conference
of the world’s leading physicists. They became friends and in 1913 went on a
walking holiday together with their children. Einstein said of Marie «[she
was] the only person not corrupted by fame». During World War One she es-
tablished a front-line X-ray service in the battlefields of Belgium and France,
tirelessly fundraising, training staff and driving the X-ray vans. After the war,

77
along with her research, Marie continued to fund raise, this time for her Insti-
tutes and for a hospital and laboratory devoted to radiology.
She eventually died in 1934 from the cumulative effects of radiation ex-
posure.

Fig. 12 Marie Curie in her chemistry laboratory at the Radium Institute in France,
April 1921.

E) Irene Joliot-Curie was born in the stirring days of radioactivity when


her parents (Marie and Pierre Curie) were making great discoveries, she grew
up with radioactivity, and all her life was devoted to its study.
In 1926 she married Frédéric Joliot and there began a collaboration of
husband and wife in scientific work rivaling in productive genius even that of
her parents. The most outstanding of their joint papers were published in the
years 1932-1934.
This was followed by a systematic study of the radiations emitted from
the lighter chemical elements under the impact of alpha-particles, which
through the light of intuition - and good technique - led them, in early 1934,
to their beautiful discovery of artificial radioactivity. Then, after studying the
conditions of excitation of neutrons by the impact of alpha-particles on vari-

78
ous elements, they turned for a time to the «materialization» of positive elec-
trons through the action of gamma-rays of high energy.
An interesting feature of this discovery is that it was not so long in com-
ing; the phenomenon of artificial activity had been expected, and sought for,
since the earliest days of radioactivity. For this discovery the Joliot-Curies
were awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1935.
Marie Curie, her husband Pierre and their daughter Irène were responsi-
ble for the discovery of radioactivity and subsequent research work.
(www: Marie Curie and the history of radioactivity Marie Curie’s blog.htm)

2. The text «The Curies» is divided into 5 sections which have been la-
beled A-E. Below there is a list of sentences that summarize the infor-
mation in each of these sections. Match each of the sentences with the ap-
propriate letter. There may be one or more answers.

1. She grew up with radioactivity.


2. Albert Einstein and Marie Curie became friends.
3. Marie Curie became the first woman professor at the Sorbonne.
4. Piezo-electricity was discovered by him and his brother.
5. She wanted uranium rays to be investigated for her doctoral thesis.
6. Marie dreamed about Sorbonne.
7. They discovered artificial radioactivity.
8. She was the only person not corrupted by fame.
9. She discovered how to isolate radium in metallic form.
10. An electrometer was made by him and his brother to measure weak
electrical currents.
11. She found pitchblende and calcite to be much more radioactive than
uranium.
12. Polonium and radium were discovered.
13. They were responsible for the discovery of radioactivity and
subsequent research work.
14. She died from the cumulative effects of radiation exposure.
15. Ionization chamber was constructed.

3. Match the years with the events.

Years Events
1) 1935 a) Marie Curie died.
2) 1867 b) The Joliot-Curies were awarded the Nobel Prize for
Chemistry.
79
3) 1934 c) Irene married Frédéric Joliot.
4) 1893 d) Marie Sklodowska was born.
5) 1911 e) Pierre was tragically killed.
6) 1895 f) Marie graduated in physics.
7) 1906 g) Pierre and Marie married.
8) 1903 h) The most outstanding of Irene and Frédéric’s joint papers
were published.
9) 1894 i) Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
10) 1926 j) Polonium was discovered.
11) 1898 k) Marie graduated in mathematics.
12) 1932 l) Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize
in Physics.

4. Tell the text «The Curies» using these phrases:


to be born – родиться
to be responsible for smth – быть ответственным за что-л.
to be famous for – быть известным
to be introduced to – быть представленным кому-л.
to be awarded smth for – быть награжденным за что-л.
to be tragically killed in – трагически погибнуть в
to be enshrined in – бережно сохраняться
to be honoured in – заслужить
to be received by – приниматься (восприниматься)
to be developed by – создаваться, разрабатываться
to be measured on – измеряться
to be devoted to – посвящаться
to be published in – публиковаться
to be followed by – следовать
to be observed through – наблюдать
to be known for – быть известным

5. This ten question multiple choice quiz tests your understanding of nucle-
onics. It covers alpha, beta and gamma radiation, radioactive dating, fis-
sion and fusion.

1. Uranium isotopes have different


a) atomic numbers b) atomic masses
c) numbers of protons d) numbers of electrons
2. Marie and Pierre Curie discovered
a) chlorine b) hydrogen
80
c) radium d) uranium
3. The combination of two atomic nuclei into one, accompanied by a release
of energy, is called
a) fission b) fusion
c) radioactive decay d) chain reaction
4. Nuclear changes differ from normal chemical changes in that all nuclear
changes
a) absorb energy b) release energy c) produce explosions
d) involve the protons and/or neutrons (nucleus) of an atom
5. An alpha particle is a
a) helium nucleus b) fast electron
c) high energy photon d) neutron
6. Carbon-14 dating could be used to estimate the age of all of the following
except
a) fossils b) petrified wood
c) ancient scrolls d) medieval tapestries
7. Whether or not a nuclear fission reaction becomes self-sustaining depends
on the release of
a) alpha particles b) protons
c) neutrons d) electrons
8. Atoms of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 differ by three
a) protons b) neutrons c) electrons
d) photons e) isotopes
9. The hydrogen in a hydrogen bomb is converted into
a) helium b) tritium
c) plutonium d) uranium
10. A beta particle is
a) a proton b) a neutron c) an electron
d) a photon e) a helium nucleus

81
6. Match the terms with the definition:

1. radioactivity a) A «speculative» chemical system originating in China.


It includes the conversion (transmutation) of reactive
metals to gold and the discovery of the philosopher’s
stone. It also provides single cures to diseases and a way
to prolong life indefinitely.
2. proton b) Charged particles emitted from a radioactive atom.
Each charged particle consists of two protons and two
neutrons.
3. polonium c) This is the smallest unit of an element. It contains a
nucleus with neutrons and protons, surrounded by orbit-
ing electrons.
4. phosphores- d) The mass of an atom usually expressed as atomic
cence mass unit (amu).
5. piezoelectricity e) Charged particles emitted from a radioactive atom.
These particles are identical except for their charge. The
charge is classified as positive (positron) or negative
(electrons or negatron).
6. pernicious f) Electrons originating at the cathodes of gaseous dis-
anemia charge devices. These electrons are often focused in a
small area such as a tube and intensified on a surface.
The most familiar form of a cathode-ray tube is the tele-
vision picture tube.
7. patents g) It is the constant C in the equation (I=I0e-ct) to deter-
mine the half life of radioactive material.
8. nuclear physics h) The science dealing with the chemical changes ac-
companying the passage of an electric current or the
source of energy to produce an electrical current. One
example is the battery.
9. neutron i) A negative charged particle that orbits the nucleus of
an atom. It is lighter in weight than a proton or neutron.
10. naval shell j) An element is a substance made up of atoms with the
same atomic number. 75% of the elements are metals and
the others are nonmetals. A few examples are oxygen,
iron, gold, chlorine, and uranium.
11. magnetic field k) Electrons absorb energetic radiation (for example ul-
traviolet light) raising an electron to a higher «Bohr» or-
bit. The energized electron soon drops down in a series
of steps through lower energy states and in the process
82
releases photons at lower energy states corresponding to
visible light. The bright color occurs because the photons
are concentrated in a narrow range of wavelengths.
12. half-life l) The period of time it takes for half the nuclei of a radi-
oactive element to undergo decay to another nuclear
form.
13. fluorescence m) All magnetic fields are created by moving electric
charge. The single moving electron around a nucleus is a
tiny electric current. These orbiting electrons create
magnetic fields and their net effect is to provide the atom
with a magnetic field.
14. elements n) Refers to a bullet from a gun
15. electron o) A particle with no charge that is located in the nucleus
of an atom.
16. electrochem- p) A branch of physics that includes the study of the nu-
istry clei of atoms, their interactions with each other, and with
constituent particles.
17. decay con- q) A certificate granted by a government given one(s)
stant exclusive right to an invention for a limited period of
time. Often during this time others can not make, use, or
sell the invention.
18. cathode rays r) A severe blood disease where there is a decrease in
number and increase in size of red blood cells. The ill-
ness is characterized by pallor, weakness and the inabil-
ity to absorb vitamin B12.
19. beta particle s) Electricity resulting from the application of mechani-
cal pressure on a dielectric (a substance with a steady
electric field) crystal, for example quartz.
20. atomic mass t) Luminescence that persists after a light source has
been removed. Materials such as phosphors or phospho-
rogens are activated from a light source to emit the light
in the form of photons of light.
21. atom u) A chemical element, atomic number 84. It is used in
photographic film to reduce the static charge.
22. alpha particle v) A positively charged particle that is located in the nu-
cleus of an atom.
23. alchemy w) A behavior of an element in which nuclei are under-
going change and emitting particles. This occurs natural-
ly in approximately fifty elements. It can be produced ar-
tificially.
83
24. X rays x) A chemical element, Ra, that has an atomic number
88. It is used as a source of neutrons and makes lightning
rods more effective.
25. uranium y) A chemical element, Th, that has an atomic number
90. It is used in the manufacturing of sun lamps.
26. thorium z) A chemical element, U, that has an atomic number 92.
It reactive with nearly all nonmetals and is used as fuel
for nuclear reactors.

VII. INFORMATIVE READING

1. Read the text «Sources of Attenuation» and do the tasks.

Sources of Attenuation
The attenuation that results due to the interaction between penetrating
radiation and matter is not a simple process. A single interaction event be-
tween a primary x-ray photon and a particle of matter does not usually result
in the photon changing to some other form of energy and effectively disap-
pearing. Several interaction events are usually involved and the total attenua-
tion is the sum of the attenuation due to different types of interactions. These
interactions include the photoelectric effect, scattering, and pair production.
The figure below shows an approximation of the total absorption coefficient,
(µ), in red, for iron plotted as a function of radiation energy. The four radia-
tion-matter interactions that contribute to the total absorption are shown in
black. The four types of interactions are: photoelectric (PE), Compton scat-
tering (C), pair production (PP), and Thomson or Rayleigh scattering (R).
Since most industrial radiography is done in the 0.1 to 1.5 MeV range, it can
be seen from the plot that photoelectric and Compton scattering account for
the majority of attenuation encountered.
Photoelectric (PE) absorption of x-rays occurs when the x-ray photon
is absorbed, resulting in the ejection of electrons from the outer shell of the
atom, and hence the ionization of the atom. Subsequently, the ionized atom
returns to the neutral state with the emission of an x-ray characteristic of the
atom. This subsequent emission of lower energy photons is generally ab-
sorbed and does not contribute to (or hinder) the image making process. Pho-
toelectron absorption is the dominant process for x-ray absorption up to ener-
gies of about 500 KeV. Photoelectron absorption is also dominant for atoms
of high atomic numbers.

84
Compton scattering (C) occurs when the incident x-ray photon is de-
flected from its original path by an interaction with an electron. The electron
gains energy and is ejected from its orbital position. The x-ray photon loses
energy due to the interaction but continues to travel through the material
along an altered path. Since the scattered x-ray photon has less energy, it,
therefore, has a longer wavelength than the incident photon. The event is also
known as incoherent scattering because the photon energy change resulting
from an interaction is not always orderly and consistent. The energy shift
depends on the angle of scattering and not on the nature of the scattering me-
dium.
Pair production (PP) can occur when the x-ray photon energy is great-
er than 1.02 MeV, but really only becomes significant at energies around 10
MeV. Pair production occurs when an electron and positron are created with
the annihilation of the x-ray photon. Positrons are very short lived and disap-
pear (positron annihilation) with the formation of two photons of 0.51 MeV
energy. Pair production is of particular importance when high-energy pho-
tons pass through materials of a high atomic number.
Below are other interaction phenomenon that can occur. Under special
circumstances these may need to be considered, but are generally negligible.
Thomson scattering (R), also known as Rayleigh, coherent, or classi-
cal scattering, occurs when the x-ray photon interacts with the whole atom so
that the photon is scattered with no change in internal energy to the scattering
atom, nor to the x-ray photon. Thomson scattering is never more than a minor
contributor to the absorption coefficient. The scattering occurs without the
loss of energy. Scattering is mainly in the forward direction.
Photodisintegration (PD) is the process by which the x-ray photon is
captured by the nucleus of the atom with the ejection of a particle from the
nucleus when all the energy of the x-ray is given to the nucleus. Because of
the enormously high energies involved, this process may be neglected for the
energies of x-rays used in radiography.
(http://www.envimed.com/emb08.shtml )

2. Find the answers to the following questions.

1) What types of interactions do you know?


2) What do the interactions include?
3) Does the subsequent emission of lower energy photons contribute to the
image making process?
4) Why does the x-ray photon lose energy?
5) What does the x-ray photon continue to do after losing energy?
85
6) What does the energy shift depend on?
7) Does scattering occur without the loss of energy?
8) Why may photodisintegration be neglected for the energies of X-rays used
in radiography?

3. Join the parts of sentences.

Pair production ∎ when the x-ray photon interacts with


the whole atom so that the photon is
Photoelectric absorp- scattered with no change in internal en-
tion of x-rays ergy to the scattering atom, nor to the x-
ray photon.
∎ when the x-ray photon is absorbed,
resulting in the ejection of electrons
Thomson scattering occur(s) from the outer shell of the atom, and
is hence the ionization of the atom.
∎ the process by which the x-ray pho-
ton is captured by the nucleus of the at-
Compton scattering om with the ejection of a particle from
the nucleus when all the energy of the x-
ray is given to the nucleus.
∎ when an electron and positron are
Photodisintegration created with the annihilation of the x-ray
photon.
∎ when the incident x-ray photon is de-
flected from its original path by an in-
teraction with an electron.

4. Choose the correct answer.

1. Who is given credit for the discovery of X-ray?


a) Henri Becquerel
b) Wilhelm Roentgen
c) Marie Curie
d) Pierre Curie

2. After traveling through two half-value layers, the incident radiation has
been reduced to
a) 50%
b) 35%
86
c) 20 %
d) None of the above

3. Who is given credit for the discovery of radioactive materials?


a) Henri Becquerel
b) Wilhelm Roentgen
c) Marie Curie
d) Pierre Curie

4. Stationary lab or shop X-ray systems usually rely on what to limit expo-
sure to the radiation?
a) Distance controls
b) Time limits
c) Shielding
c) All of the above

5. X-rays and Gamma rays are a form of


a) Light
b) Particle radiation
c) Electromagnetic radiation
d) Both B and C

6. X-rays and Gamma rays have significant penetrating power due to their
a) Short wavelength
b) Medium wavelength
c) Long wavelength
d) Wide range of wavelengths

7. A specific radioactive source will always produce gamma rays at the same
a) Intensity
b) Activity
c) Energy levels
d) None of the above

8. Ionizing radiation can be used in industrial radiography because the health


hazards
a) Have been eliminated with controls and procedures
b) Are minimized through controls and procedures
c) Are worth the risk
d) Are being ignored
87
9. Higher energy radiation will have more
a) Speed
b) Incident intensity
c) Penetrating power
d) Both B and C

10. Radiographic contrast describe


a) The sharpness of lines in a radiograph
b) The differences in photographic density in a radiograph
c) The average photographic density in a radiograph
d) The difference in density between two different radiographs

11. There are four types of radiation-matter interactions that can contribute to
the total attenuation. These are
a) Compton scattering, pair production, photoelectric absorption,
rayleigh scattering
b) Compton scattering, electron exchange, photoelectric absorption,
rayleigh scattering
c) Electron exchange, pair production, photoelectric absorption, rayleigh
scattering
d) None of the above

12. X-rays and Gamma rays are often referred to as photons because
a) They possess a charge
b) They have mass
c) They occur as small packets of energy
d) None of the above

13. Which of the following does not affect radiographic contrast?


a) Attenuation differences in the component being inspected
b) The wavelength of the radiation used
c) The amount of scattered radiation
d) The level of current used for the exposure

14. In comparison with lower-voltage radiographs, high voltage radiographic


images have
a) Less contrast sensitivity
b) Greater contrast sensitivity
c) Greater amounts of scatter radiation relative to primary beam
intensity
88
d) Less latitude

15. Film contrast is determined by


a) The type of film used
b) The process by which the film was developed
c) The radiation energy used
d) Both A and B

16. Which two types of radiation-matter interactions account for the majority
of attenuation in typical industrial radiography?
a) Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption
b) Compton scattering and pair production
c) Pair production and photoelectric absorption
d) None of the above

17. A radiograph made with an exposure of 8mAm produces a density of 1.8.


The sensitometric curve shows a difference in relative exposure between a
density of 1.8 and the target density of 2.5 is 4. What must the new exposure
time be to produce a radiograph with a density of 2.5?
a) 4 mAminutes
b) 2 mAminutes
c) 32 mAminutes
d) None of the above

18. When using geometric magnification to produce a radiograph, the pe-


numbra will be reduced by
a) A longer exposure
b) A faster film speed
c) A smaller source spot size
d) More X-ray energy

19. When flaws are in unknown locations, radiography is best suited for the
detection of
a) Volumetric defects such as porosity
b) Tight linear defects such as cracks
c) Material delaminations
d) The flaw type does not matter

89
20. X-rays and Gamma rays present a health risk because they are a form of
ionizing radiation, which means that the radiation has enough energy to
a) Vibrate water molecules and generate heat
b) Break chemical bonds
c) Break physical bonds
d) None of the above

VIII. WRITING

1. Write an essay on one of these topics.

1) Discovery of radioactivity of thorium by G. Schmidt.


2) Thomas Edison reports eye injuries from X-rays.
3) Uranium is first used in homeopathic medicine for treatment of diabetes.
4) Nicola Tesla cautions experimenters not to get too close to X-ray tubes.

90
WORDLIST

English Russian
absorption поглощение, абсорбция
achieve добиваться, достигать
afford приносить, доставлять
angle угол, ракурс
annihilation (полное) уничтожении, аннигиляция
approximation приблизительное значение, приближение
astonishing ошеломительный, изумительный
attenuation затухание, ослабление, истощение
artificial искусственный
breakdown распад, разрушение
cancer рак (болезнь)
circumstance условие, обстоятельство, случай
clue ключ (к разгадке чего-л.)
coefficient коэффициент, показатель
contribute способствовать, содействовать
cumulative совокупный, накопленный
current поток, течение
distinguished выдающийся, знаменитый
ejection выброс, эжекция
electron электрон
emit испускать, выделять
establish устанавливать
event случай, факт, явление
exposure внешнее воздействие
excitation возбуждение, воздействие
fame известность, слава
fund запас, резерв
genius гений
incoherent непоследовательный, некогерентный
involve включать, вовлекать, втягивать
interaction взаимодействие, взаимосвязь
impact сильное воздействие, влияние
intensity мощность, энергия
investigation исследование, изучение
91
isolate изолировать, выделять
lack нехватка, потеря, недостаток
majority большая часть, большинство
minor несущественный, незначительный
neglect пренебрегать
negligible незначительный, неважный
neutral нейтральный
nucleus ядро, центр
occur происходить, случаться
outward наружный, внешний
penetrating проникающий
photon фотон
piezoelectricity пьезоэлектричество
pitchblende уранинит, урановая смолка
polonium полоний
radium радий
radiotherapy радиотерапия, рентгенотерапия
regard внимание, забота
scattering рассеивание
scintillation вспышка люминесценции
significant значительный
spinthariscope спинтарископ
source источник, причина
subsequent последующий, следующий
substance вещество
sum сумма, величина, количество
stirring побуждение, стимул
thallium таллий
vault свод
wavelength длина волны

92
UNIT IV

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT:


HOT PARTICLES
I. WARMING-UP

Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so


named because it «falls out» of the atmosphere into which it is spread during
the explosion. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nu-
clear weapon explodes. This radioactive dust, consisting of hot particles, is a
kind of radioactive contamination.

Fig. 1 A nuclear explosion

93
Look at Fig.2 and answer the questions:

This is a photo of a «hot particle» (in this case it is a 1 micron particle of


plutonium, and it shows the alpha tracks emitted from that particle in one
year).
a) What does the dark, star-like image in this photograph show?
b) Can alpha radiation from plutonium and other alpha-emitting radio
nuclides be blocked by skin or even a piece of paper?
c) Is it the most biologically destructive form of ionizing radiation
when the alpha-emitting substance is deposited in the soft tissue of
internal organs like the lung?
d) How do you think what period of time the alpha tracks shown in Fig.
2 were captured?

Fig. 2 «Hot» or radioactive particle in lung tissue»


photo by Del Tredici, Burdens of Proof by Tim Connor,
Energy Research Foundation (1997)

II. PRE-READING TASK

1. Pay attention to the pronunciation these chemical elements.

plutonium [plu: 'təuniəm] nickel ['nikl]


aluminum [ə'lu:minəm] chromium ['krəumiəm]
potassium [pə´tæsiəm] cobalt ['kəubɔ:lt]
calcium ['kælsiəm] carbonate ['ka:b(ə)neit]
iron ['aiən] chlorine ['klɔ:ri:n]
94
uranium [juə'reiniəm] lead [led]
neptunium [nep'tj:niəm] americium [ˏæmə'risiəm]
manganese ['mæŋgəni: z] titanium [tai'teiniəm]

2. Match the English word combinations to the Russian equivalents

1) concentrations of certain a) роль, которую играют горячие ча-


radionuclides стицы при оценивании радиационных
рисков
2) tiny bits of materials contain- b) те же современные аналитические
ing radioactive chemical ele- технологии, используемые для
ments исследования «горячих частиц»
3) further separation of the con- c) явления, ведущие к образованию
densate «горячих частиц»
4) because of the influence of d) крошечные частицы вещества, со-
wind, gravity and the turbulence держащие радиоактивные химические
of the atomic cloud элементы
5) analysis of radioactive materi- e) из-за воздействия ветра, плотности
al deposited on the ground и турбулентности атомного облака
6) ingestion of contaminated f) дальнейшее отделение конденсата
food
7) the nature and concentrations g) морфологические свойства «горячих
of radionuclides частиц» и их поведение в естественной
среде
8) the major elements identified h) информация о «горячих
частицах», полученная посредством
радиохимического, химического и фи-
зического анализов обломков
9) the detonation point i) анализ осажденного в почве радио-
активного материала
10) the contamination of consid- j) прием зараженной пищи
erable portions of land
11) the behaviour of the core of k) характер и концентрация радио-
nuclear devices under simulated нуклидов
faulty detonation conditions
12) the information on hot parti- l) поведение активной зоны ядерного
cles obtained through radio- устройства в условиях искусственного
chemical, chemical and взрыва
physical analyses of debris
95
13) morphological properties of m) загрязнение значительной части
hot particles and their behaviour территории
in the natural environment
14) the phenomena leading to n) начало детонации
the formation of hot particles
15) the same modern analytical o) большинство установленных эле-
techniques used to investigate ментов
hot particles
16) the role that hot particles p) концентрации некоторых
play in evaluating radiation haz- радионуклидов
ards

3. Read the text «Investigating fallout from nuclear testing» and


pay attention to the terms in bold.

Investigating fallout from nuclear testing

Entering the next century, more than 2000 nuclear test explosions of
various sizes and varieties will have been recorded. Nearly all of them were
conducted during the Cold War period ending in the 1990s. Atmospheric
nuclear tests dispersed radioactive residues into the environment. They are
partitioned between the local ground (or water surface) and the tropospheric
and stratospheric regions, depending on the type of test, location, and yield.
The subsequent precipitation carrying the residues leads to both local and
global fallout. Concentrations of certain radionuclides can result in formation
of «hot particles» — tiny bits of materials containing radioactive chemical
elements. Local fallout includes large radioactive aerosols, particles which
are generally deposited within about 100 kilometers of the test site. Local
radioactive contamination at nuclear weapon test sites additionally is at-
tributed to safety trials of nuclear devices that often dispersed fissile mate-
rial. This material is released in various forms, including plutonium vapour,
plutonium aerosols of various sizes, plutonium oxide particulates, plutoni-
um-coated particles, and sizeable lumps of plutonium-contaminated struc-
tural material destroyed by the test explosion. Global fallout encompasses
both tropospheric and stratospheric fallout. The first consists of aerosols that
are not carried across the tropopause and that deposit with a mean residence
time of up to 30 days. During this time, the residues become dispersed in the
latitude band of injection, following trajectories governed by wind patterns.
Stratospheric fallout arises from particles that later give rise to widespread
global fallout, most of which is in the hemisphere where the nuclear test was
96
conducted. It accounts for most of the residues of long-lived fission prod-
ucts. Nuclear fallout results in the exposure of people to radioactivity through
internal irradiation (due to inhalation of radioactive materials in air or in-
gestion of contaminated food) and external irradiation (by radioactive ma-
terials present in surface air or deposited on the ground). Extensive studies in
these areas have been done. In the case of nuclear testing, evaluations of the
nature of the primary event typically include analyses of radioactive material
deposited on the ground. Such studies are problematical, however, because
there can be significant alteration of radionuclide composition between the
time of a nuclear detonation and the time samples are collected for radio-
chemical analysis. A process called fractionation causes samples of radio-
active residues to be unrepresentative of the detonation products. Fractiona-
tion begins with the condensation of radioactive and inert material from the
fireball. The mixture may begin to separate while condensation is still in
progress because of the influence of wind, gravity and the turbulence of the
atomic cloud. Further separation of the condensate occurs through various
processes, including contact of the residues with inert material. When the
atomic cloud is formed, the processes of cooling, condensation, coagulation,
mixing, and separation take place simultaneously but to different extents in
different regions of the cloud. Furthermore, the initial radioactive products
change in elemental form through processes of radioactive decay.
Scientific understanding of the fractionation phenomena is important for
interpreting global fallout and the nuclear chemistry of the detonation pro-
cess. It is also useful for evaluating contamination and ingestion hazards.
Variations in size and type of particles are accompanied by variations in radi-
ochemical composition, according to fractionation patterns. The nature and
concentrations of radionuclides, together with the size and shape of particles,
are in turn the factors determining the inhalation or ingestion hazard. Other
important scientific information concerns the chemical form in which radio-
nuclides are present in the particles. The radionuclides present in hot particles
are in general relatively inert compared to ions, atoms and low molecular
mass species that are more mobile and easily available. To assess short- and
long term consequences of atmospheric fallout — and in particular the leak-
age of radionuclides from hot particles — detailed physicochemical infor-
mation on this source term is essential. Usually, characteristics of source
terms have been restricted to inventory estimates, activity levels, or activity
concentrations of deposited radionuclides. Information on the physicochemi-
cal form is limited. After deposition, particles are subject to weathering and
the associated radionuclides are mobilized over time. The particle composi-
tion, possible structural changes, and the chemical conditions at the deposi-
97
tion site will influence the weathering rate. Moreover, the mobilized radio-
nuclides can also interact with soil and sediments. Most models assessing the
transfer and consequences of radionuclide contamination assume that the
radionuclides are present as ionic or low molecular weight species. This may
easily lead to an overestimation of the short term consequences of the radio-
logical contamination. On the other hand, if the particles are rather inert, as
often the case, the transfer of radionuclides will be delayed until weathering
occurs. Consequently, the assessment of the long-term consequences of radi-
ological contamination can be underestimated. It is then apparent that unless
the role of hot particles is taken into account, model predictions can be af-
fected by significant uncertainties. The presence of hot particles may also
render invalid some assumptions made when dealing with soil and sediment
contamination.

(Pier Roberto Danesi «Investigating fallout from nuclear testing. Hot particles and
the Cold War», IAEA Bulletin, 40/4/1998)

III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.


of(×16), in (×7), across, with(×2), about, on(×2), out(×2), at, by(×2)
near, from, besides, to

1) The first consists _____ aerosols that are not carried _______ the tropo-
pause and that deposit ______ a mean residence time of up to 30 days.
2) The mixture may begin to separate while condensation is still _____ pro-
gress because ______ the influence ______ wind, gravity and the turbulence
_____ the atomic cloud.
3) Results showed that the greatest mass was generally associated _____ the
250-500 micrometers fraction; however, most ______ the activity ( _____
41%) was concentrated ______ the fraction below 45 micrometers, which
contained only 5% _____ the total mass.
4) _______ these particles, which were several hundred _______ microns
______ diameter, plutonium and uranium were found homogeneously dis-
tributed ______ the surface.
5) _____ addition _____ plutonium, the particles were found to contain other
elements.
6) The investigation ______ hot particles is highly relevant to correct evalua-
tions ______ radiation hazards _____ sites which were contaminated ______
nuclear-weapon testing.
98
7) Therefore, the complex phenomena which control the formation, the
chemical and radiochemical composition, and the physical and morphologi-
cal properties ______ hot particles and their behaviour ______ the natural
environment are still not fully understood.
8) It also must be pointed ______ that hot particles _______ various sizes
and composition containing actinides, fission or activation products are re-
leased to the environment _______ other sources _______ nuclear testing.
9) Hopefully _______ years ahead, more studies ______ hot particles will be
carried ______ _______ sites that have been contaminated ______ nuclear-
weapon testing and various types _______ nuclear accidents, and ______
sites ______ nuclear installations.
10) Concentrations _____ certain radionuclides can result ______ formation
______ «hot particles» — tiny bits _______ materials containing radioactive
chemical elements.

2. Read the following text and fill in the missing words and word combina-
tions.

the activity of each particle; roughly avoid in shape; the presence of zirco-
nium; local mineral origin; the presence of thorium; was sampled to; only
two alpha-emitting particles; speculative and highly uncertain; ‘undis-
turbed’ pasture

Evidence of 1) _____________ was found in grass samples collected


from 2) _______________ . One particle was found to be of 3)
________________ , the alpha-activity being due to 4) _______________ .
It was not possible to definitively characterise the other particle, but 5)
_____________ raises the possibility of it being a fragment of nuclear fuel
cladding. The particles were both 6) ___________ and measured ca. 20 µm
along their long axes and 5 to 10 µm across. An upper limit for 7)
____________ was estimated to be of the order of 1 × 10-3 Bq.
The frequency of each type of particle, based upon a ratio of the area
that 8) ____________ the total area encompassed by the sampling pro-
gramme, was estimated to be one particle per 14 m2 (or 0.07 m-2). However,
this estimate must be regarded as 9) _____________ since it is based on two
single observations only.

3. Read the following word combinations and give the Russian equivalents.
~ a person exposed to radiation –
~ radioactive contamination –
99
~ radiation exposure –
~ a contaminated person –
~ released into the environment –
~ external contamination –
~ comes into contact with a person's skin –
~ enter the body through an open wound –
~ internal contamination –
~ swallow or breathe in radioactive materials –
~ are deposited in different body organs –
~ give off a form of energy –
~ for a person to be contaminated –
~ other people or surfaces that they touch –
~ hug other people –
~ the body fluids (blood, sweat, urine) –
~ decrease the risk of internal contamination –
~ reduce the length of time –
~ to avoid getting radioactive material –
~ using lots of soap and lukewarm water –

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text «Investigating fallout from nuclear testing» again.


Which paragraphs contain the answers to these questions?

1. Where do atmospheric nuclear tests usually disperse radioactive residues?


2. What are hot particles?
3. What does local fallout include?
4. What does tropospheric fallout consist of?
5. How does fractionation begin?
6. Why is condensation in progress when the mixture begins to separate?
7. Why is scientific understanding of the fractionation phenomena so
important and useful?
8. What are particles subjected to after deposition?
9. How do initial radioactive products change in elemental form?
10. How many kilometers of the test site are particles generally deposited?

100
2. Complete each sentence with the correct ending or beginning. The miss-
ing parts A-J are below.

1. Nuclear fallout results in the exposure of people to radioactivity


through …………………..………………………….. .
2. ……………………………. can also interact with soil and sediments.
3. ……………………………………. leads to both local and global fallout.
4. Other important scientific information concerns the chemical form in
which ……………………………… .
5. ………………………………… radioactive residues into the environment.
6. A process called fractionation causes samples of radioactive
dues ……………………………………. .
7. Concentrations of certain radionuclides can result in formation of hot par-
ticles — ………………………………………… .
8. ………………………………….. elemental form through processes of ra-
dioactive decay.
9. After deposition, particles are subject to weathering
and …………………………………………………. .
10. ……………………………………….. , particles which are generally de-
posited within about 100 kilometers of the test site.

A) atmospheric nuclear tests dispersed


B) the mobilized radionuclides
C) tiny bits of materials containing radioactive chemical elements
D) the associated radionuclides are mobilized over time
E) internal irradiation and external irradiation
F) local fallout includes large radioactive aerosols
G) the initial radioactive products change in
H) the subsequent precipitation carrying the residues
I)) to be unrepresentative of the detonation products
J) radionuclides are present in the particles

3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian into
English

1. В организм человека «горячие частицы» поступают пероральным и


ингаляционным путем. Они, прежде всего, осаждаются в трахеях и
бронхах, легочной ткани, а также в желудочно-кишечном тракте.
2. Частицы с высокой активностью образуют подвижные (например, в
макрофагах, скоплениях слизи) и неподвижные (в рубцах) «горячие

101
точки». 3. Альфа-частицы действуют на организм на небольшом
расстоянии от источника (0,05 миллиметра) и приводят к гибели клеток,
через которые они проходят. 4. Вся их энергия полностью поглощается
тканью в точечной области. 5. Поэтому в результате вдыхания этих
частиц может появиться «дыра» в легких. 6. Известно, что риск
возникновения рака легких при ингалировании нерастворимых
соединений плутония в 2-3 раза выше, чем от растворимых, что можно
интерпретировать как эффект «горячих частиц». 7. Наименьшая доза,
при которой происходит канцерогенез, оценивается в 24000 Рад. 8.
Сложность оценки поглощенных доз от «горячих частиц» для
близлежащих клеток состоит в том, что «горячие частицы»
перемещаются. 9. Например, легочная ткань старается вытолкнуть
инородные частицы в горло, откуда они могут попасть в пищевод или
лимфоузлы. 10. Клетки-макрофаги также перемещают частицы с места
на место. 11. По своим параметрам эти образования являются
классическими «горячими частицами». Кроме бета-излучателей, в них
находятся альфа-излучатели, такие как уран-235, плутоний-239,
америций-241 и т.д., что может кратно увеличить данную расчетную
дозу. 12. Аналогичная ситуация может наблюдаться на урановорудных
предприятиях.
(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и
проблемы радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009)

V. LISTENING

1. Listen to the information about hot particles. For questions 1-8, com-
plete the sentences. You will hear the piece twice.

Fig.4 Source: Available at http://www.decommission. sanonofre


102
1. Studies so far, however, have led to 1)
than final answers.
2. It is apparent that the phenomena leading to the formation of hot

particles and 2) in the ecosystems are


complex.
3. It is believed that further progress in this area will require
of scientists.
3)
4. It also must be pointed out that hot particles
of containing actinides, fission or
4)
activation products are released to the environment from other sources
besides nuclear testing.
5. Hot particles have also been released to the environment at
contributing to the production
5)
of fissile material for nuclear-weapon programmes.

6. The same modern analytical techniques used to investigate hot


particles from nuclear testing can be applied to studying other sources
of
6) .
7. Hopefully in years ahead, more studies on hot particles will be carried
out at sites that have been contaminated by
7)
and various types of nuclear accidents, and at sites near nuclear installa-
tions.
8. It will further lead to greater understanding of the role that hot particles
play in evaluating radiation hazards, and in providing information on the
of the facilities that generated them.
8)

103
VI. DISCUSSION

1. You will hear the short information about the hot particles studies in
French Polynesia. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer A, B, or C.

Fig.3 Source: Available at http://www.eutimes.net

1. From July 1966 to September 1974, forty-one atmospheric nuclear tests


A) were planned there.
B) were conducted there.
C) were canceled there.
2. The core was destroyed by a conventional explosive detonation with the
consequential dispersion during each test of about
A) 3.5 kg of plutonium-239.
B) 3.5 kg of radium-226.
C) 3.5 kg of polonium-210.
3. As part of the international study, the residual contamination in the terres
trial environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa, including the Colette region,
was assessed by
A) a famous scientist.
B) a team of scientists.
C) the IAEA’s Seiberdorf Laboratories.
4. The analysis of the residual contamination in the Colette region identified
the presence of
A) plutonium-containing hot particles.
B) polonium-containing hot particles.

104
C) iodine-containing hot particles.
5. Six of these hot particles, with diameters ranging from 200 to 500
micrometers, were also studied by optical microscopy and
A) micro X-ray fluorescence.
B) X-ray radiography.
C) X-ray
6. To estimate the distribution of plutonium in coral debris, a 1053-gram
sample was also sieved in
A) seventeen size fractions.
B) seven size fractions.
C) seventy size fractions.
7. The results showed that 99.9% of the mass and 95.8% of the activity were
present in particles larger than
A) 250 micrometers.
B) 215 micrometers.
C) 205 micrometers.

2. Discuss the following topic «Hot particles».


a) Listen to the recording again. Take notes.
b) State types of radioactive elements and sizes of particles.

VII. GRAMMAR REVISION: GERUND AND PARTICIPLE

1. Analyse these sentences with ING-forms. (See the tables «Forms of Ger-
und» and «Forms of Participle», Appendix 2 ).

1. Further separation of the condensate occurs through various processes, in-


cluding contact of the residues with inert material.
2. During this time, the residues become dispersed in the latitude band of in-
jection, following trajectories governed by wind patterns.
3. Concentrations of certain radionuclides can result in formation of «hot
particles» - tiny bits of materials containing radioactive chemical elements.
4. Scientific understanding of the fractionation phenomena is important for
interpreting global fallout and the nuclear chemistry of the detonation process.
5. Entering the next century, more than 2000 nuclear test explosions of vari-
ous sizes and varieties will have been recorded.
105
6. The lowest fraction was further fractionated into seven aerodynamic sizes
ranging from 45 micrometers to less than three micrometers.
7. Nearly all of them were conducted during the Cold War period ending in
the 1990s.
8. The Australian Radiation Laboratory identified plutonium in basically
three forms - as superficially coated on materials such as pieces of metals,
plastic, wire, and lead bricks that were part of the experimental assemblies; as
tiny fragments or particles, not always visible to the eye but easily detectable
by a gamma monitor; and as very finely dispersed material consisting of con-
taminated soil particles and recondensed plutonium articles in the same size
range as the soil itself.
9. They are partitioned between the local ground (or water surface) and the
tropospheric and stratospheric regions, depending on the type of test, location,
and yield.
10. It will further lead to greater understanding of the role that hot particles
play in evaluating radiation hazards, and in providing information on the type
and purpose of the facilities that generated them.
11. It also must be pointed out that hot particles of various sizes and compo-
sition containing actinides, fission or activation products are released to the
environment from other sources besides nuclear testing.
12. The same modern analytical techniques used to investigate hot particles
from nuclear testing can be applied to studying other sources of environmen-
tal radioactivity.
13. Hot particles have also been released to the environment at nuclear facili-
ties contributing to the production of fissile material for nuclear-weapon pro-
grammes.
14. The subsequent precipitation carrying the residues leads to both local and
global fallout.

2. Give the English equivalents to the Russian words:

1) At Maralinga and Emu in South Australia, now (полностью восста-


новленных), nine nuclear explosions and several hundred smaller scale trials
were performed.
2) The most significant plutonium contamination at Maralinga (про-
изошедших вследствие) a series of twelve safety trials in which 22 kg of
plutonium (and a similar quantity of uranium-235) were released into the en-
vironment.
3) The Australian Radiation Laboratory identified plutonium in basical-
ly three forms — as superficially coated on materials such as pieces of metals,
106
plastic, wire, and lead bricks that were part of the experimental assemblies; as
tiny fragments or particles, not always visible to the eye but easily detectable
by a gamma monitor; and as very finely (рассеянный) material consisting of
(загрязненных частиц почвы) and (реконденсируемых частиц плутония)
in the same size range as the soil itself.
4) The lowest fraction was further fractionated into seven aerodynamic
sizes (изменяющийся от 45 микрометров до) less than three micrometers.
5) Particles were also identified in an 800-gram sample of soil (имею-
щей радиоактивность) of 25 Bq of americium-241), (разрушенном в ре-
зультате процесса) of binary separations into discrete particles.
6) Five sub-millimeter particles with activities (изменяющийся от 30
Bq до) 5 kBq were also analysed by proton-induced X-ray emission spec-
troscopy to gain information on their elemental composition and homogenei-
ty.
7) In these particles, which were several hundreds of microns in diame-
ter, plutonium and uranium were found homogeneously (распределенными
на поверхности).
8) (Значительная часть установленных элементов) were aluminum
(1.8%), potassium (2.3%), calcium (1%), iron (23%), lead (1.9% to 35%),
uranium (2.9% to 0.8%) and plutonium (19%).
9) Dissolution studies in (имитационной легочной жидкости) indicat-
ed that the particles had no significant solubility.

107
WORDLIST

English Russian
altitude высота
binary бинарный, двойной
caution предостережение, предупреждение
coagulation свертывание, коагуляция
contamination загрязнение, заражение
debris осколки, обломки, руины
detectable обнаруживаемый
detonation детонация, взрыв
discrete дискретный
disperse рассеивать
eject извергать, выбрасывать
encompass охватывать
explosion взрыв, вспышка
fallout радиоактивные осадки
fireball ядерный гриб, ядерное облако
fissile делящийся, расщепляющийся
fission деление атома ядра при цепной реакции
hazard риск, опасность
homogeneity однородность, гомогенность
ingestion всасывание
inhalation вдыхание
irradiation иррадиация, излучение
leakage утечка
measure измерять
mixture смесь, смешение
precipitation выпадение, осаждение
residue остаток, осадок
restrict ограничивать
tiny крошечный, очень маленький
trial испытание
tropopause тропопауза
yield выход, отдача
vapour пар, пары, испарения
weapon оружие
weathering выветривание, эрозия
108
UNIT V

RADON AS A RADIATION FACTOR IN THE


ENVIRONMENT

I. WARMING-UP

Radon was identified as a health problem when scientists noted that


underground uranium miners who were exposed to it died of lung cancer at
high rates. The results of miner studies have been confirmed by experi-
mental animal studies, which show higher rates of lung tumors among ro-
dents exposed to high radon levels.

Fig.1 Radon

109
1.1 Fill in the spidergram with the words associated with «Radon».

Radon

Explain your associations.

1.2 How much do you know about the element radon? You will hear
information about this element. For statements 1-9 choose the best answer
A, B, C or D. You will hear the recording twice.

1. Radon is element number


A) 36 B) 54 C) 86 D) 118
2. Radon is a member of ________ group.
A) halogen B) noble gas C) lanthanide D) actinide
3. Radon became the official name for element 86 in:
A) 1898 B) 1900 C) 1923 D) 1945
4. At standard temperature and pressure, radon is:
A) solid B) liquid C) gas D) plasma
5. Liquid radon displays a ________ phosphorescence near the temperature
of liquid air.
A) red B) blue C) green D) violet
6. Radon has _______ stable isotope(s).
A) one B) two C) three D) no
7. The isotope Rn-222 is also called:
A) niton B) thoron C) action D) akton
8. It is estimated that every square mile of soil to a depth of six inches con
tains ________ of radium which releases radon into the atmosphere.
110
A) 1 gram B) 1 kilogram C) 50 grams D) 1 milligram
9. Radon has been identified as the ______ most frequent cause of lung
cancer.
A) single B) second C) third D) fourth

II. PRE-READING TASK

1. Remember the pronunciation of these words:


radon ['reidɔn] frequent ['frı:wkənt]
halogen ['hæləʤen] depth [depθ]
lanthanide ['lænθəˏnaid] ubiquitous [ju:'bıkwıtəs]
actinide ['æktiˏnaid] inert [ı'nə:t]
pressure ['pre ʃə] interior [ın'tıərıə]
plasma ['plæzmə] respiratory [rı'spırət(ə)rı]
niton ['naitɔn] allergy ['æləʤı]
thoron ['θɔ:rɔn] detector [di'tektə]
extent [ek'stent] alleviate [ə'lı:vıeıt]
community [kə'mju:nətı] basement ['beismənt]
average ['æv₍ə₎rıʤ] granite ['grænıt]
municipal [mju:'nısıp(ə)l] phosphate ['fɔsfeıt]
dust [dʌst] agitate [´æʤıteıt]
emanation [ˏemə'neiʃ(ə)n] escape [ıs'keıp]

2. Match the English word combinations with the Russian equivalents

1. medical community a) прилипать к аэрозолям и пыли


2. radon decay products b) излучение радия
3. noble gas с) вода, накаченная из-под земли
4. healing affect d) цепочка распада урана-238
5. average indoor radon concen- е) маленькие герметичные стеклянные
tration трубки
6. through cracks in the founda- f) уровень радона в помещении
tion or slab
7. own well g) сотрудник атомной электростанции

111
8. municipal water system h) собственный колодец
9. high radium soil content i) медицинское сообщество
10. to cling to aerosols and dust j) через трещины в фундаменте или
плите
11. water pumped from the к) продукты распада радона
ground
12. small sealed glass tubes l) средняя концентрация радона в по-
мещении
13. uranium-238 decay chain m) благородный, инертный газ
14. indoor radon level n) регенерирующий эффект
15. radium emanation о) муниципальная система водоснаб-
жения
16. nuclear plant worker p) высокое содержание радона в почве

3. Read the text «Basic sources of radon in the environment» and pay
attention to the terms in bold.

Basic sources of radon in the environment

Fig.2 Radon in the environment

The German chemist Friedrich E. Dorn discovered radon-222 in 1900,


and called it radium emanation. However, a scarce isotope, radon-220, was
112
actually observed first in 1899 by the British scientist R.B. Owens, and the
New Zealand scientist Ernest Rutherford. The medical community nation-
wide became aware of the possible extent of a radon problem in 1984. That
year a nuclear plant worker in Pennsylvania discovered radioactivity on his
clothing while exiting his place of work through the radiation detectors. The
source of the radiation was determined to be radon decay products on his
clothing originating from his home.

Radon-222 is the decay product of radium-226. Radon-222 and its par-


ent, radium-226, are part of the long decay chain for uranium-238. Since
uranium is essentially ubiquitous in the earth's crust, radium-226 and radon-
222 are present in almost all rock and all soil and water.

Radon is a noble gas, which means it is basically inert (does not com-
bine with other chemicals). Radon is a heavy gas and tends to collect in
basements or other low places in housing. It has no color, odor, or taste. Ra-
don-222 is produced by the decay of radium, has a half-life of 3.8 days, and
emits an alpha particle as it decays to polonium-218, and eventually to stable
lead. Radon-220, is the decay product of thorium – it is sometimes called
thoron, has a half-life of 54.5 seconds and emits an alpha particle in its decay
to polonium-216.

The illustration below provides an overview of the uranium-238 decay


chain. Radon is part of that decay chain and is produced by the radioactive
decay of radium.

Radon has little practical use. Some medical treatments have employed
radon in small sealed glass tubes, called seeds that are specially manufac-
tured to contain the exact amount of radioactivity needed for the application.
113
Fig.3 Radon bath (Source: Available at http://www.34.ua)

Radon spas are used extensively in Russia and Central Europe to treat a
number of conditions. For example, the Healing Gallery in Gastein, Gasteiner
Heilstollen, in the Hohe Tauern has attracted visitors from all over the world
for the past 50 years.

Fig.4 Radon therapy in the Gastein (Source: Available at http://www. pension-


gruber.com)

The secret of the interior of the Tauern mountains is a noble gas, the so-
called radon. Scientists certify the healing effect and the effectiveness of ra-
don. Respiratory illnesses, skin conditions, allergies and arthrosis can be
114
alleviated with hyperthermal radon treatments. Radon-222 is the radioactive
decay product of radium-226, which is found at low concentrations in almost
all rock and soil. Radon is generated in rock and soil, and it creeps through
cracks or spaces between particles up to the outside air. Although outdoor
concentrations of radon are typically low, about 0.4 picocuries per liter
(pCi/l) of air, it can seep into buildings through foundation cracks or open-
ings and build up to much higher concentrations indoors, if the sources are
large enough.

Fig.5 Basic sources of radon

The average indoor radon concentration is about 1.3 pCi/l of air. It is


not uncommon, though, for indoor radon levels to be found in the range of 5 -
50 pCi/l, and they have been found as high as 2,000 pCi/l. The concentration
of radon measured in a house depends on many factors, including the design
of the house, local geology and soil conditions, and the weather. Radon's de-
cay products are all metallic solids, and when radon decay occurs in air, the
decay products can cling to aerosols and dust, which makes them available
for inhalation into the lungs. Radon easily dissolves in water in areas of the
country that have high radium content in soils and rocks, local ground water
may contain high concentrations of radon. For example, underlying rock such
as granite, or phosphate rock, typically have increased uranium and radium,
and therefore radon. While radon easily dissolves into water, it also easily es-
capes from water when exposed to the atmosphere, especially if it is stirred or

115
agitated. Consequently, radon concentrations are very low in rivers and lakes,
but could still be high in water pumped from the ground. Some natural
springs, such as those at Hot Springs, Arkansas contain radon, and were once
considered healthful. Because radon is a chemically inert (unreactive) gas, it
can move easily through rock and soil and arrive at the surface. The half-life
of radon-222 is 3.8 days. As it undergoes radioactive decay, radon-222 re-
leases alpha radiation and changes to polonium-218, a short-lived radioac-
tive solid. After several more transformations (loss of particles or electro-
magnetic radiation from the nucleus) the series ends at lead-206, which is
stable. Radon dissolves in water, and easily leaves water that is exposed to
the atmosphere, especially if the water is agitated. Radon that decays in water,
leaves only solid decay products which will remain in the water as they decay
to stable lead. Most of the public's exposure to natural radiation comes
from radon which can be found in homes, schools, and office buildings. Most
radon in homes comes from radon in the soil that seeps into homes through
cracks in the foundation or slab. The amount of radon in the soil varies wide-
ly and depends on the chemical make up of the soil. There can be a large dif-
ference in radon concentrations in the soil from house to house. The only way
to know is to test.

Fig.6 How radon enters a house

116
Radon is also found in the water in homes, in particular, homes that
have their own well rather than municipal water. When the water is agitated,
as when showering or washing dishes, radon escapes into the air. However,
radon from water in the home generally contributes only a small proportion
(less than 5%) of the total radon in indoor air in most housing. Municipal wa-
ter systems hold and treat water, which helps to release radon, so that levels
are very low by the time the water reaches our homes. But, people who have
private wells, particularly in areas of high radium soil content, may be ex-
posed to higher levels of radon.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the national av-


erage indoor radon level in homes is about 1.3 pCi/l of air. We also estimate
that about 1 in 15 homes nationwide have levels at or above the level of 4
pCi/l, the level at which EPA recommends taking action to reduce concentra-
tions. Levels greater than 2,000 pCi/l of air have been measured in some
homes. The only way you can know if there is radon in your home is to test
for it.

(http://www.A citizen’s to radon.htm)

III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the correct prepositions then choose any three word combinations
and make up sentences.

1) discovered radioactivity on his clothing while exiting his place of work


_____ the radiation detectors; 2) is produced _______ the decay of radium;
3) the exact amount of radioactivity needed ______ the application; 4) to
creep ______ cracks or spaces; 5) radon concentrations ___ the soil _____
house __ house; 6) to escape ____ the air; 7) to seep _____ buildings _____
foundation cracks or openings; 8) a small proportion ____ the total radon; 9)
in areas ___ high radium soil content; 10) radon measured in a house depends
___ many factors.

2. For numbers 1-26 fill in the missing part of speech. Work individually
and compare your answers with a partner.

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE


1 discover
117
2 radiation
3 determine
4 decay
5 original
6 present
7 mean
8 producible
9 illustration
10 practical
11 use
12 application
13 treat
14 attractive
15 certify
16 concentration
17 generate
18 measurable
19 depend
20 transformation
21 different
22 contribute
23 private
24 estimate
25 recommend
26 reduce

3. Read the following text and fill in the missing words and word combina-
tions.
How to test your home.
You can’t see radon, but it’s not hard to find out if you have a radon
problem in your home. All you need to do is test for radon. Testing is easy
and should only take a few minutes of your time.
The amount of radon in the air is measured in 1) ………… or «pCi/L».
There are many kinds of low-cost «do it yourself» radon test kits you can get
through the mail and in some hardware stores and other retail outlets. If you
prefer or if you are buying or selling a home, you can hire 2) ………. to do
the testing for you. You should first contact your state radon office about ob-
taining a list of qualified testers. You can also contact 3) ……….. for lists of
privately certified radon professionals serving your area.

118
There are two general ways to test for radon:

SHORT-TERM TESTING:

The quickest way to test is with short-term tests.


Short-term tests remain in your home for two days to
90 days, depending on the device. «Charcoal canis-
ters», «alpha track», «electret ion chamber», «contin-
uous monitors», and «charcoal liquid scintillation» de-
tectors are most commonly used for short-term testing. Because radon levels
tend 4) ………….. , a short-term test is less likely than a long-term test to tell
you your year-round average radon level. If you need results quickly, howev-
er, a short-term test followed by a second short-term test may be used to de-
cide whether 5) ………….. .

LONG-TERM TESTING:
Long-term tests remain in your home for more
than 90 days. «Alpha track» and «electrets» de-
tectors are commonly used for this type of testing.
A long-term test will give you a reading that is
more likely to tell you 6) ……… than a short-
term test.

How to use a test kit:


Follow the instructions that come with your test kit. If you are doing a
short-term test, close your windows and outside doors and 7) ……… during
the test.

119
Fig.7 Radon test kit (Source: Available at http://www. healthyhomestraining.org)

Heating and air conditioning system fans that re-circulate air may be op-
erated. Do not operate fans or other machines which bring in air from outside.
Fans that are 8) …………. or small exhaust fans operating only for short pe-
riods of time may run during the test.
If you are doing a short-term test lasting just 2 or 3 days, be sure to close
your windows and outside doors 9)…….. , too. You should not conduct
short-term tests lasting just 2 or 3 days during unusually severe storms or pe-
riods of unusually high winds. The test kit should be placed in 10) ………
(for example, the basement if it is frequently used, otherwise the first floor).
It should be put in a room that is used regularly (like a living room, playroom,
den, or bedroom) but not your kitchen or bathroom. Place the kit at least 20
inches above the floor in a location where it won’t be disturbed – away from
drafts, high heat, high humidity, and exterior walls. Leave the kit in place for
as long as the package says.
Once you’ve finished the test, 11) ……… and send it to the lab speci-
fied on the package right away for analysis. You should receive your test re-
sults within a few weeks.

120
What your test results mean:
The average indoor radon level is estimated to be about 1.3 pCi/L, and
about 0.4 pCi/L of radon is normally found in the outside air. The U.S. Con-
gress has set a long-term goal that 12) ………. be no more than outdoor lev-
els. While this goal is not yet technologically achievable in all cases, most
homes today can be reduced to 2 pCi/L or below.
Sometimes short-term tests are less definitive about whether or not your
home is above 4 pCi/L. This can happen when your results are close to 4
pCi/L. For example, if the average of 13) ……….. is 4.1 pCi/L, there is about
a 50% chance that your year-round average is somewhat below 4 pCi/L.
However, EPA believes that any radon exposure carries some risk – no level
of radon is safe. Even radon levels below 4 pCi/L pose some risk, and you
can reduce your 14) ………….. by lowering your radon level.
If your living patterns change and you begin occupying a lower level of
your home (such as a basement) you should retest your home on that level.
Even if your test result is below 4 pCi/L, you may want to test again some-
time in the future.

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text «Basic sources of radon in the environment» again.


Which paragraphs contain the answers to these questions?

1. Who discovered radon?


2. When does radon come from?
3. What are the properties of radon?
4. Does radon have any practical uses?
5. How does radon get into the environment?
6. How does radon change in the environment?
7. How does radon get into your home?
8. What is radon spa used for?
9. What kind of illnesses can be alleviated with radon treatments?
10. What factors does the concentration of radon in a house depend on?

2. Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?

TRUE………………… if the statement agrees with the information


FALSE…………. if the statement contradicts with the information
121
NOT GIVEN……………. if there is no information on this

1. There is some risk from drinking water with


elevated radon, because radioactive decay can
occur within the body where tissues, such as the
stomach lining, would be exposed.

2. Radon that decays in water leaves only solid


decay products which will remain in the water
as they decay to stable lead.

3. Several decay products can be detected in


urine, blood, and lung and bone tissue.

4. While radon dissolves into water hard, it al-


so hard escapes from water when exposed to the
atmosphere, especially if it is stirred or agitated.

5. Consequently, radon concentrations are not


very low in rivers and lakes, but could still be
low in water pumped from the ground.

122
6. Municipal water systems hold and treat wa-
ter, which helps to release radon, so that levels
are very low by the time the water reaches our
homes.

3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian


into English

1. Основными источниками радона и продуктов его распада в


воздухе являются: горные породы, почвы, воды, природный газ. 2.
Концентрация радона в используемой воде чрезвычайно мала, но вода
из некоторых источников, особенно из глубоких колодцев или
артезианских скважин, содержит очень много радона. 3. При кипячении
воды или приготовлении горячих блюд радон в значительной степени
улетучивается, и поэтому он поступает в организм в основном с
некипяченой водой. 4. Большую опасность представляет попадание в
легкие паров воды с высоким содержанием радона в ванной комнате. 5.
Радон поступает также в природный газ под землей. 6. Много радона,
улетучившегося из природного газа в процессе предварительной
переработки, попадает в сжиженный газ – побочный продукт этой
переработки. 7. Основным источником радона и продуктов его распада
в воздухе помещений являются строительные материалы, из которых
сооружены здания. 8. Во всех исследованиях радона отмечаются
сезонные изменения его содержания в помещениях. 9. Последние
исследования показали, что предположительно 5 тысяч смертей от рака
легких среди некурящей части населения и около 15 тысяч смертей от
рака легких среди курильщиков в США связаны с содержанием радона
в помещениях.
(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и проблемы
радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009).

V. LISTENING

1. Read the following sentences, then listen to the tape and fill in the
missing parts.

123
But the risk can be reduced in your
home.
This system 2 does not require major chang-
es to your home.
Similar systems can also be installed in 3 .
The right system depends on 4 and other fac-
tors.
Most homes 5 as other common home repairs.
The cost is much less if 6 during construction.
A qualified contractor can 7 in your home and
help 8
.
You should also test your home again after it is fixed 9 have
been reduced.
In addition, it’s a good idea to retest your home 10 to be
sure radon levels remain low.

2. Discuss the following topic «Any home may have a radon problem».
a) Listen to the recording again. Take notes.
b) Use the diagram (Fig. 9) below and the following communicative
formulas.
c) State types of radon effects, levels and symptoms.

Communicative formulas
At the next stage It may help to determine …behavior
Thus, This diagram shows the dependence
of … an …
In addition to … This means that …
What happens to …? They fall into …
As for I’d like to say a few words about …
It should be noted that … As a rule
Generally speaking As far as I know
In short By contrast

124
Fig.9 Radon effect

3. Prepare a short presentation on a subject you know well («Radon and


home sales»; «Radon in water»; «Health effects of radon»; «Protecting
people from radon»). Be prepared to answer any questions your group-
mates may have. Use this flowchart to help you.
Introduction
I’d like to talk (to you) today about …..
I’m going to present the recent ……
inform you about ……
explain our position on ……
The subject of my presentation
topic speech (usually to public audience)
focus paper (academic)

Outline

I’ve divided my presentation into three (four) parts / sections.


125
The subject can be looked at under the following headings: ……..
We can break this area down into the following fields:
Firstly / first of all …..
Secondly / then / next …..
Finally / lastly / last of all ……

Questions

I’d be glad to answer any questions at the end of my talk.


If you have any questions, please …….
Please interrupt me if there’s something which needs clarifying.
Otherwise, there’ll be time for discussion at the end.

Let’s start with ……

Part 1

So that covers ……

Part 2

That brings me to ……..


Let’s leave that there ………

Part 3 / 4 etc
126
……. and turn to ……

Summary

To sum up ………..
I’ll briefly summarize the main issues.
Let me just run over the key points again.
Briefly ……..

Conclusion

In conclusion ……
As you can see, there are some very good reasons …..

VI. INFORMATIVE READING

1. Read the text «The risk of living with radon» paying attention to the
terms in bold and do the tasks.

The risk of living with radon

Most of the radon gas that you inhale is also exhaled. However, some of
radon decay products attach to dusts and aerosols in the air and are then
readily deposited in the lungs. Some of these are cleared by the lung natural
defense system, and swallowed or coughed out. Those particles that are re-
tained long enough release radiation damaging surrounding lung tissues. A
small amount of radon decay products in the lung are absorbed into the blood.
Most of the radon ingested in water is excreted within hours. There is some
risk from drinking water with elevated radon, because radioactive decay can
occur within the body where tissues, such as the stomach lining, would be
exposed. However, alpha particles emitted by radon and its decay product in

127
water prior to drinking quickly lose their energy and are taken up by other
compounds in water, and do not themselves pose a health concern.

Almost all risk from radon comes from breathing air containing radon
and its decay products. The health risk of ingesting (swallowing) radon, in
water for example, is much smaller than the risk of inhaling radon and its de-
cay products. When radon is inhaled, the alpha particles from its radioactive
decay directly strike sensitive lung tissue causing damage that can lead to
lung cancer. However, since radon is a gas, most of it is exhaled. The radia-
tion dose comes largely from radon decay products. They enter the lungs on
dust particles that lodge in the airways of the lungs. These radionuclides de-
cay quickly, exposing lung tissue to damage and producing other radionu-
clides that continue damaging the lung tissue.

Fig.8 Lung tissue exposed by radionuclide decay

There is no safe level of radon any exposure poses some risk of cancer.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) studied and reported on the causes
of lung cancer in two 1999 reports. They concluded that radon in indoor air is
the second leading cause of lung cancer in the U.S. after cigarette smoking.

The NAS estimated that 15,000-22,000 Americans die every year from
radon-related lung cancer. When people who smoke are exposed to radon as
well, the risk of developing lung cancer is significantly higher than the risk of

128
smoking alone. The chart at right compares lung cancer cases caused by ra-
don to the incidence of other forms of cancer.

The NAS also estimated that radon in drinking water causes an addi-
tional 180 cancer deaths per year. However, almost 90% of those deaths were
from lung cancer caused by inhaling radon released to the indoor air from
water. Only about 10% of the deaths were from cancers of internal organs,
mostly the stomach, caused by ingesting radon in water.

Fig.8 Radon health risk

Several decay products can be detected in urine, blood, and lung and
bone tissue. However, these tests are not generally available through typical
medical facilities. Also, they cannot be used to determine accurate exposure
levels, since most radon decay products deliver their dose and decay within a
few hours. The best way to assess exposure to radon is by measuring concen-
trations of radon (or radon decay products) in the air you breathe at home.
Smoking combined with radon is an especially serious health risk. Stop
smoking and lower your radon level to reduce your lung cancer risk.

129
Radon risk if you smoke
Radon level 1000 people who The risk of cancer What to do:
smoked exposed to from radon Stop smoking
this level over a and …
lifetime
20 pCi/L About 260 people 250 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer drowning
10 pCi/L About 150 people 200 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer dying in a home fire
8 pCi/L About 120 people 30 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer dying in a fall
4 pCi/L About 62 people 5 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer dying in a car crash
2 pCi/L About 32 people 6 times the risk of
Consider fixing
could get lung cancer dying from poisonbetween 2 and 4
pCi/L
1.3 pCi/L About 20 people Average indoor radon Reducing radon lev-
could get lung cancer level els below 2 pCi/L is
difficult
0.4 pCi/L About 3 people could Average outdoor ra- Reducing radon lev-
get lung cancer don level els below 2 pCi/L is
difficult

Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. The Envi-


ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that about 20,000 lung can-
cer deaths each year in the U.S. are radon-related. Exposure to radon is the
second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking.
Radon risk if you never smoke
Radon level 1000 people who The risk of cancer What to do:
never smoked were from radon
exposed to this lev-
el over a lifetime
20 pCi/L About 36 people 35 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer drowning
10 pCi/L About 18 people 20 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer dying in a home fire
8 pCi/L About 15 people 4 times the risk of Fix your home
could get lung cancer dying in a fall
4 pCi/L About 7 people could the risk of dying in a Fix your home
get lung cancer car crash
2 pCi/L About 4 people could the risk of dying from Consider fixing
130
get lung cancer poison between 2 and 4
pCi/L
1.3 pCi/L About 2 people could Average indoor radon Reducing radon lev-
get lung cancer level els below 2 pCi/L is
difficult
0.4 pCi/L Average outdoor ra- Reducing radon lev-
don level els below 2 pCi/L is
difficult
You know now that radon is an odorless, tasteless and invisible gas pro-
duced by the decay of naturally occurring uranium in soil and water. Radon is
a form of ionizing radiation and a proven carcinogen. Lung cancer is the on-
ly known effect on human health from exposure to radon in air. Thus far,
there is no evidence that children are at greater risk of lung cancer than are
adults.
(http://www.Consumer’s guide to radon reduction.htm)

2. Answer the following questions:

1. What does radon do once it gets into the body?


2. Where are a small amount of radon decay products absorbed into?
3. How can radon affect people’s health?
4. Where does the radiation dose come largely from?
5. Is there a medical test to determine exposure to radon?
6. Where can several decay products be detected?
7. What is the best way to assess exposure to radon?
8. What should you do to reduce your lung cancer risk?

3. Read statements 1-15, then mark them as T (true) or F (false). If the


statements are false make them right, if true give additional information on
the subject.

№ Statements T F
1 Your greatest radon exposure is most likely your home.
2 Radon gas has a sulfur odour.
3 Testing your home is the only way to know if you and your
family are at risk for high radon.
4 Radon is a carcinogen.
5 A small child may breathe higher levels of radon than a 6-
foot-tall adult.
6 Homes with high radon levels should be condemned.
7 Smoking has nothing to do with the health effects of radon.
131
8 Radon is the only known radioactive gas.
9 An older home is expected to have higher levels of radon
than a newer home.
10 Even indoor pets can be exposed to high radon.
11 A neighbour’s radon test result is a reliable indication of
whether your home has a radon problem.
12 Granite rock can be a source of radon.
13 Radon is responsible for more deaths each year than drunk
driving deaths.
14 Radon can enter a home through hairline cracks in the foun-
dation.
15 If your home has elevated radon 4.0 pCi/L or above, you
should also have your well water tested for radon.

4. Translate these phrases into English.

~ частицы пыли –

~ установленный канцерогенный фактор –

~ форма ионизирующей радиации –

~ измерение концентрации радона –

~ медицинская аппаратура –

~ моча, кровь и костная ткань –

~ внутренние органы –

~ питьевая вода –

~ рак легких –

~ поражать чувствительные ткани легкого –

~ причины рака легких –

~ продукты распада радона –

~ риск для здоровья –


132
~ курящие и некурящие –

~ воздух, содержащий радон –

~ поражая окружающие легкое ткани –

~ легко оседают в легких –

5. Translate the text «The risk of living with radon» paying attention to at-
tributive groups.

VIII. SELF-TESTING

1. Match the radon myths (1-9) with radon facts (a-i).

1. Scientists aren’t sure 5. A neighbor’s


radon really is a problem. test result is a
good indication of
whether your
home has a prob-
lem.
f) House construction can affect
radon levels. However, radon
can be problem in homes of all
types: old homes, new homes, 2. Radon testing is dif-
drafty homes, insulated homes, ficult, time consuming
homes with basements, homes and expensive.
without basements. Local geol-
ogy, construction materials, and
how the home was built are
among the factors that can af-
fect radon levels in homes.

d) Although radon gets into some


homes through water, it is im-
portant to first test the air in the
home for radon. If your water
comes from a public water system
6. Everyone
that uses ground water, call your
should test their
water supplier.
water for radon.

133
c) Where radon problems have been
fixed, home sales have not blocked of
3. Homes with radon prob-
frustrated. The added protection is
lems can’t be fixed.
sometimes a good selling point.

b) You will reduce


your risk of lung can- a) A short-term test fol-
cer when you reduce lowed by a second short-term
radon levels, even if test can be used to decide
you’ve lived with a whether to fix your home.
radon problem for a However, the closer the aver-
long time. age of your two short-term
tests is to 4 pCi/L, the less
certain you can be about
whether your year-round av-
erage is above or below that
level. Keep in mind that ra-
don levels below 4 pCi/L still
pose some risk. Radon levels
9. Short-term tests can be reduced in most
can’t be used for homes to 2 pCi/L or below.
making a decision
about whether to fix
your home.

4. Radon
only affects
certain
e) It is not. Radon lev- kinds of
els can vary greatly home.
from home to home.
The only way to know
if your home has a ra-
don problem is to test
it.

134
7. It is difficult to
sell homes where ra-
don problems have
been discovered.

i) Although some scientists dis-


pute the precise number of
deaths due to radon, all major
health organizations agree with
estimates that radon causes thou-
sands of preventable lung cancer
deaths every year. This is espe-
cially true among smokers, since
the risk to smokers is much
greater than to non-smokers.
g) There are simple solutions to
radon problems in homes. Hun-
dreds of thousands of homeown-
ers have already fixed radon prob-
lems in their homes. Most homes
can be fixed for about the same
cost as other common home re-
pairs; check with one or more
qualified mitigators.

8. I’ve lived in my
home for so long it
doesn’t make sense to h) Radon testing is easy.
take action now. You can test your home
yourself or hire a qualified
radon test company. Either
approach takes only a small
amount of time and effort.

135
2. Choose the correct variant
The Indoor Radon Quiz

1. Which is true about radon?


A) Colorless
B) Gas
C) Odorless
D) All of the above
2. How is radon formed?
A) Automobile pollution
B) From radium in the soil
C) Microwave ovens
D) All of the above
3. How does most radon enter the house?
A) Comes in from outside air
B) From the heating system
C) From building materials
D) Through cracks in the foundation
4. Which part of a house typically contains in the highest indoor radon
level?
A) Basement
B) Attic
C) Kitchen
D) Garage
5. Who says radon is harmful?
A) U.S. Surgeon General
B) American Lung Association
C) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
D) All of the above
6. Which organ is affected by radon?
A) Heart
B) Lung
C) Kidney
D) Brain
7. What is the best way of determining if your home has elevated radon?
A) Conduct a measurement
B) Ask a neighbor
C) Look at the soil
D) Smell the basement air
8. Which is true about radon?
136
A) Old homes have more radon
B) Radon can penetrate a concrete block
C) Diet and exercise can reverse the effects
D) Some people are immune to the effects
9. Which group does not certify radon mitigation contractors?
A) Environmental Protection Agency
B) National Radon Safety Board
C) National Environmental Health Association
D) All of the above
10. Which is true about radon?
A) Testing is easy and inexpensive
B) Radon problems can be fixed
C) Houses can be built radon-resistant
D) All of the above
11. What is the recommended action level for indoor radon (pico Curies
per Liter; pCi/L)?
A) 1 pCi/L
B) 10 pCi/L
C) 4 pCi/L
D) 20 pCi/L
12. Each year in the USA, how many lung-cancer deaths are attributed
radon expose?
A) 210
B) 2100
C) 21000
D) 210000

IX. WRITING
Write an essay on the discussed topic.

137
WORDLIST

English Russian
accurate верный, правильный, точный
agitate перемешивать, взбалтывать, встряхивать
allergy аллергия, повышенная чувствительность
alleviate облегчать, смягчать
arthrosis артроз
assess оценивать, давать оценку, определять
aware осведомленный, знающий
basement фундамент, цоколь, цокольный этаж
blood кровь
bone кость
breathe дышать, вдыхать
carcinogen канцероген, канцерогенный фактор
charcoal древесный уголь
cling цепляться, прилипать
compound образование, смесь, соединение
content содержание, содержимое
cough кашлять
crack трещина, расселина, щель
defense защита
definitive окончательный, решающий
den укрытие, убежище
disturb тревожить, беспокоить
dissolve растворять, подвергаться распаду
dust пыль, пылевидный порошок
emanation излучение, испускание, эманация
escape улетучиваться, истекать
estimate оценивать, подсчитывать
granite гранит
healing исцеление, излечение
inhalation вдыхание, ингаляция
interior внутренняя часть
lodge небольшой дом, сторожка, хатка, хижина
lung легкое (орган)
manufacture производство, изготовление
miner горняк, шахтер, горнорабочий
municipal муниципальный
138
nationwide народный, общенациональный
pose ориентировать
private частный, личный, собственный
proven доказанный, испытанный, проверенный
range простираться, ранжировать
reduce ослаблять, понижать, уменьшать
remain оставаться, находиться
retest повторно испытывать
require нуждаться, требовать
respiratory дыхательный, респираторный
rodent грызун
scintillation вспышка, мерцание
seep протекать, просачиваться
severe строгий, серьезный
slab плита, лист, пластина
scarce недостаточный, скудный
swallow глоток, глотать, проглатывать
treatment лечение, обработка
tumor новообразование, опухоль
ubiquitous повсеместный
urine моча
well колодец, источник, скважина

139
UNIT VI

PLUTONIUM AS ONE OF THE BASIC DOSE FORMING


ANTHROPOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES

I. WARMING-UP

1.1 Do you know that …?

Origin of the name Plutonium

The elements uranium and neptuni-


um, discovered before plutonium,
owe their names to the planets Ura-
nus and Neptune. By analogy, pluto-
nium acquired its name in 1942 in
reference to Pluto, the next planet in
our solar system after Uranus.

«Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological functions»,


Mark Jensen, of the Argonne National Laboratory, and his colleagues wrote
in a new paper, published online June 26 in Nature Chemical Biology.

140
Fig. 1 Source: Available at http://www.fukushima311watchdogs.org

1.2 What comes to your mind if you see or hear the word «plutonium»?
Complete the following chart with your ideas.

Plutonium

Explain your associations.

141
II. PRE-READING TASK

1. Remember the meaning of the following words and word combinations


and transcribe them.

Russian English Transcription


изначальный, базовый primordial
самопроизвольно spontaneously
водородистое соединение hydride
элемента
окисел, окись oxide
космический аппарат spacecraft
согласие consent
опыт, эксперимент experiment
оружие weapon
устранять влияние яда detoxify
печень liver
костный мозг bone marrow
накапливать, собирать accumulate
везде, повсюду, на всем throughout
протяжении
ткань tissue
напряжение, натяжение tension
вязкость, тягучесть viscosity
плотность, густота, кон- density
центрация
металлоид metalloid
щелочной alkaline
галоген halogen
кровоток, ток крови blood stream
удельное сопротивление resistivity
лимфа lymph
побочный продукт by-product
разрастание путем ново- proliferation
образований
активная зона реактора reactor core
захват нейтронов neutron capture
непредсказуемый unpredictable
дальнейшее обогащение further enrichment
142
запас, резерв stockpile
разоружение disarmament
желудочно-кишечный gastro-intestinal tract
тракт
вдыхание inhalation

2. How much do you know about plutonium? Here’s an eight question quiz
you can take to test your knowledge of plutonium facts.

1. Plutonium is a metal with high resistivity or opposition to the flow of elec-


tric current. The resistivity of plutonium increases as temperature increases.
A) True
B) False
2. Plutonium is
A) a halogen
B) an alkaline
C) a metal
D) a metalloid or semimetal
3. As it melts
A) the density of plutonium decreases
B) the density of plutonium increases
C) plutonium develops a low viscosity, compared to other metals
D) plutonium develops a low surface tension, compared to other metals
4. Radioactive plutonium
A) does not react with human tissue
B) distributes itself uniformly throughout the human body
C) accumulates in bone marrow
D) is readily detoxified by the liver
5. The isotope of plutonium most useful for nuclear weapons is
A) plutonium – 238
B) plutonium – 239
C) plutonium – 240
D) plutonium – 241
6. All of the following are true of plutonium except:
A) Plutonium was used to make the bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki.
B) Experiments on the effects of plutonium were conducted on people
without their consent.
C) Plutonium is used to make power supplies for some spacecraft.
D) Plutonium is easily machined compared with other metals.

143
7. Plutonium reacts with water in air to form oxides and hydrides that can
expand the size of the sample up to 70%. These compounds can
spontaneously ignite.
A) True
B) False
8. Plutonium is the heaviest primordial or naturally occurring element.
A) True
B) False

3. Read the text «What is plutonium?» and match the headings to the
paragraphs, then explain the words in bold.

What is plutonium?

Fig. 2 Radioactive metal – plutonium

1) Plutonium toxicity ……………...


2) It is released during testing of nuclear weapons ………………
3) It is produced in nuclear power plants and it is
used in nuclear weapons and batteries ………………
4) Plutonium is not stable ………………
5) It exists in various forms called isotopes ………………
6) Radioactive metal ………………

144
Plutonium (Pu) is a hard white metal that looks like iron. It
melts at 640° C, turns into plutonium oxide when exposed
to air and can catch fire. Plutonium is called a «radioele-
ment» because it is radioactive. Like all other atoms, it
consists of a nucleus made of neutrons and protons and of
electrons. Since the plutonium nucleus has 94 protons, plu-
tonium occupies the 94th position on the periodic chart of
1 universal elements. Most plutonium is found combined
with other substances, for example, plutonium dioxide
(plutonium with oxygen) or plutonium nitrate (plutonium
with nitrogen and oxygen). Plutonium is usually measured
in terms of its radioactivity (curies or becquerels). Both the
curie (Ci) and the becquerel (Bq) tell us how much a radi-
oactive material decays every second.
The most common plutonium isotope is plutonium-239.
The plutonium isotopes most widely used in the commer-
2 cial nuclear industry are plutonium 239, 240 and 241.
Due to excess material, the plutonium nucleus is unstable.
Equilibrium is restored through a reaction that releases
particles and emits rays. This reaction is called radioactivi-
ty.
Each radioactive isotope of an element constantly gives off
radiation, which changes it into an isotope of a different
element or a different isotope of the same element. This
process is called radioactive decay. Plutonium-238 and
plutonium-239 give off alpha particles (sometimes referred
3 to as alpha radiation) and transform into uranium-234 and
uranium-235, respectively. The half-life is the time it
takes for half of the atoms of a radionuclide to undergo ra-
dioactive decay and change it into a different isotope. The
half-life of plutonium-238 is 87.7 years. The half-life of
plutonium-239 is 24,100 years. The half-life of plutonium-
240 is 6,560 years.
Very small amounts of plutonium occur naturally. Plutoni-
um-239 and plutonium-240 are formed in nuclear power
4 plants when uranium-238 captures neutrons. Plutonium is
used to produce nuclear weapons. Plutonium-238 is used
as a heat source in nuclear batteries to produce electricity
in devices such as unmanned spacecraft and interplane-
tary probes.
145
Plutonium released during atmospheric testing of nuclear
weapons, which ended in 1980, is the source of most of the
plutonium in the environment worldwide. The plutonium
released during these tests was deposited on land and wa-
ter. The small amount that remains in the atmosphere con-
tinues to be deposited as it slowly settles out. Plutonium is
also released to the environment from research facilities,
waste disposal, nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, nuclear
5 weapons production facilities, and accidents at facilities
where plutonium is used.
Plutonium is a heavy metal. Therefore, it does not disperse
easily in air or water. The plutonium found in the envi-
ronment has three main sources: fallout from nuclear
weapons testing conducted before 1973, when the treaty
banning atmospheric testing was signed; the return to earth
of failed plutonium-powered satellites; and, to a much
lesser extent, the commercial nuclear power industry. Once
deposited on the ground, plutonium does not migrate easily
into the food chain. Humans are therefore rarely exposed
to its toxicity.
The main source of plutonium toxicity is its radioactivity.
Radioactivity is caused by the release of alpha particles
and neutrons, and it varies by isotope. When plutonium en-
ters the body, it irradiates contaminated organs. In an ac-
cident involving plutonium, the radioelement can be in-
haled or ingested through a wound or enter the blood
stream and spread to the lungs, liver and bones. Depending
6 on its chemical form (oxide, nitrate), plutonium remains in
these organs for some time before being eliminated in the
urine. Extreme safety measures are employed for plutoni-
um handling (glove boxes, leak-proof cells, etc.), making
internal contamination highly improbable. Very few
people have ever been contaminated, and no significant
side effects were observed in scientific studies of such cas-
es. However, cancer has been observed in animals after in-
gestion of large doses of plutonium.

146
III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.

1) it consists _____ a nucleus; 2) plutonium is found combined _____ other


substances; 3) equilibrium is restored ________ a reaction; 4) radiation,
which changes it ______ an isotope; 5) plutonium released ______ atmos-
pheric testing ___ nuclear weapons; 6) plutonium was deposited _____ land
and water; 7) plutonium is released to the environment ______ research facil-
ities and accidents _____ facilities; 8) plutonium does not migrate easily
_____ the food chain; 9) radioelement can be inhaled _______ a wound; 10)
depending ___ its chemical form; 11) cancer has been observed ____ ani-
mals _____ ingestion of large doses ___ plutonium
2. Match the terms (1-10) with the definitions (A-J).

1. Carcinogen A. Radioactive material deposited or dispersed in ma-


terials or places where it is not wanted.

2. Acute Exposure B. Any material that stops ionizing radiation.

3. Chronic exposure C. The removal of radioactive contaminants by clean-


ing and washing with chemicals.

4. Contamination D. Exposure to a chemical for 365 days or more, as


specified in the Toxicological Profiles.

5. Decontamination E. The time in which half the atoms of a particular


radioactive nuclide disintegrate. It is a characteristic
property of each radioactive isotope.

6. Half-life F. A chemical capable of inducing cancer.

7. Absorber G. Exposure to a chemical for duration of 14 days or


less, as specified in the Toxicological Profiles.

8. Mutagen H. The chain of foundries, uranium enrichment


plants, reactors, chemical separation plants, factories,
laboratories, assembly plants, and test sites that pro-
147
duces nuclear weapons.

9. Nuclear weapon I. A radionuclide that decays to another nuclide


complex which may be either radioactive or stable.

10. Parent J. A substance that causes mutations. A mutation is a


change in the DNA sequence of a cell’s DNA. Muta-
tions can lead to birth defects, miscarriages, or can-
cer.

3. Fill in the words from the list, then read the text bellow and fill in the
completed phrases (1-20).
hemosiderin, insoluble, carcinogenic, intact, trabecular, blood, bone, lymph,
tissue, systemic, filter, gastrointestinal, scavenger, air, respirable, tiniest,
mucus, human, lung, bronchial

1. …………… deposits 11. ……………… forms


2. …………… risk 12. the ………….. tract
3. …………… bone 13. the ………….. burden
4. …………… tissues 14. ……………… nodes
5. …………… fluids 15. the ………….. circulation
6. the ……….. system 16. ……………… skin
7. …………… cells 17. ……………… sacs
8. the ……….. airways 18. ……………… hair
9. …………… clearance 19. ……………… tubes
10. the ………. layer 20. ……………… particles

Fig.3(Sources: Available at http://www. barryonenergy.wordpres; at http://www.


lbl.gov)

The ease with which plutonium is absorbed in the body depends signifi-
cantly on two factors – the means of entry and the type of plutonium com-
pound that has entered the body. In general, soluble forms such as nitrates,
148
citrates, and certain oxides are absorbed more readily by the body’s fluids
than 1) ________ . Absorption of plutonium through 2) ________ is very
low. But puncture wounds, cuts, and to a lesser extent, skin burns contami-
nated with plutonium favor deposition of the element into tissues within and
below the skin. The amount of plutonium picked up in 3) ________ depends
on the chemical form of the plutonium. Soluble forms start being distributed
throughout the body within minutes or hours of the uptake. Some of the plu-
tonium may be transferred to 4) _________ near the wound, where it may
stay for years. Even some insoluble forms of plutonium are taken up into the
blood circulation quickly, but most remain at the site and are slowly mobi-
lized over weeks and months.

Fig.4 (Source: Available at http://www.theconversation.edu.au)

The plutonium absorbed in the blood circulation is called 5) _________


because it gets redistributed throughout the body. Urine, produced in the kid-
neys, reflects the concentration of the plutonium circulating in the blood. Plu-
tonium measurements from urine are therefore the major source of data about
the overall systemic plutonium deposition in the body over time. Ingesting
plutonium is perhaps the least likely means for plutonium to enter the body.
But even if plutonium is ingested, 6) _________ provides a natural barrier,
and in adults only about 0.05 percent of the soluble plutonium compounds
and a mere 0.001 % of the insoluble ones enter the blood stream. The rest of
the plutonium simply moves out of the body in feces. In babies under 1 year
of age, however, the plutonium uptake may be as much as 10 times greater
than in adults. It is the inhalation of plutonium dust that is the most likely
149
way for plutonium to enter the body. The size of the inhaled particles affects
the ease with which plutonium is absorbed: the smaller the particle, the high-
er its likelihood to be retained. Most particles over 10 micrometers in diame-
ter are filtered out in the nose and upper respiratory region, then swallowed,
and eventually passed out of the gastrointestinal tract in feces. Particles less
than 10 micrometers in diameter are called 7) __________ . When inhaled,
some of them are deposited on 8) _____ of 9) _______ , whose lining con-
tains numerous hair-like structures called celia. The natural wave motion of
the celia transports the mucus layer and its dust particles up to the throat.
This process, known as 10) _______ , removes much of the foreign material
deposited in the bronchial tubes. Even smaller particles, especially those un-
der 1 micrometer in diameter, or about one-tenth the thickness of a typical
11) ________ , are carried down into 12) _________ of the lung and into al-
veoli (also known as 13) ________ ). Because all these structures have no ce-
lia on their surfaces and no effective lung-clearance mechanisms,
14) ________ called phagocytes move in on the inhaled plutonium particles,
engulf them, and transport them into lymph nodes or into lung tissues, which
are sites of longer-term retention. The plutonium particles retained in lung
tissues might increase a person’s risk for developing lung cancer.
An oxide produced at high temperatures is not very soluble and remains
for very long periods in the lung tissue or the lymph nodes, 15) _________
around the lung. In tissue samples taken during autopsy from three plutonium
workers known to have inhaled plutonium dust, 35 to 60 % of the plutonium
in the body at the time of death was in the lung or the tracheobronchial lymph
nodes. The plutonium remained there for about 40 years after inhalation. Sol-
uble forms of plutonium in wounds or lungs dissolve into surrounding 16)
________ , are picked up in the bloodstream, and will then be circulated
around the body. About 90 % of the plutonium picked up from the lung is
deposited about equally into the liver and bones. The remaining 10 % or so is
quite uniformly deposited in soft tissues, and a small fraction of it is excreted
in urine and feces. Autopsy studies reveal that, initially, plutonium is not de-
posited throughout 17) _________ . Instead, it is mostly deposited on the
bone surfaces and, in particular, on the interlaced surfaces of the so-called
18) _________ . Less than 5% of the plutonium is typically found within the
bone marrow, the soft material that is the site of the blood-forming cells. The
primary 19) _________ from plutonium in the skeleton is bone cancer.

150
Fig.5 Theoretically bone cancer can be located in any bone in the body
(Source: Available at http://www.doctortipster.com)

There is no conclusive evidence that plutonium increases the risk for


leukemia, which is the unchecked proliferation of certain blood cells pro-
duced in the bone marrow. Once sequestered in the bone, plutonium remains
there for a very long time. Normal remodeling of the bone structure results in
plutonium being gradually redistributed more uniformly throughout the bone.
Current models estimate a half time of about 50 years for plutonium retention
– that is, 50 years after it was initially deposited, half of the plutonium would
still remain in the bone. A small fraction is excreted. The plutonium deposit-
ed in the liver is eventually transformed from relatively soluble forms in he-
patic cells into insoluble forms (20) _________ ), which are sequestered in
the cells that form the linings of liver ducts (reticuloendothelial cells). The
retention half time for the plutonium deposited in the liver is approximately
20 years.
(Toxicological profile for plutonium. U.S. Department of Health and
Human services. Public Health service. November 2010)

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text «What is plutonium»? again. Which paragraphs contain


the answers to these questions?

1. What position on the periodic chart of universal elements does plutonium


occupy?
2. What do Ci and Bq tell us about?

151
3. What kind of plutonium isotopes most widely uses in the commercial nu-
clear industry?
4. Where are plutonium-239 and plutonium-240 formed?
5. What is plutonium used for?
6. Where was plutonium released during the tests deposited?
7. What is plutonium also released to the environment from?
8. Does plutonium disperse easily in air or water?
9. When does plutonium irradiate contaminated organs?
10. Does plutonium migrate easily into the food chain?
11. How can the radioelement be inhaled or ingested?
12. How has cancer been observed in animals?

2. Scan the text and find all examples of the following lexical patterns.
Translate these lexical patterns.

1) Noun + Noun

2) Adjective + Noun

3) Participle I + Noun

4 )Participle II + Noun

152
3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian
into English.

1. Плутоний используется в производстве ядерного оружия как ядерное


топливо и как компактный источник энергии. 2. Биологическая опас-
ность плутония связана с тем, что большинство изотопов плутония име-
ет длительный период полураспада. 3. Попадая в биосферу, плутоний
мигрирует по поверхности, включаясь в биохимические циклы. 4. В ор-
ганизме человека плутоний депонируется в легких, печени, костях и
других тканях и выводится очень плохо. 5. Изучение вечных полярных
льдов, выполненное в разных странах и в разное время, показало, что
уровень выпадения существенно зависел от широты местности, на ко-
торой производился отбор проб. 6. Необходимо помнить, что природ-
ный плутоний рассеян, тогда как искусственный локально сосредоточен
в биосфере или сконцентрирован в верхнем 30-сантиметровом слое
почвы. 7. На сегодняшний день известно 15 изотопов плутония. 9. Плу-
тоний – второй искусственно полученный элемент. 8. Истинные мас-
штабы производства плутония на сегодняшний день оценить трудно. 9.
Основная масса плутония поступила в природную среду при его произ-
водстве и испытаниях ядерного оружия на полигонах. 10. Удельная ак-
тивность плутония в 200000 раз выше, чем у урана.

(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и проблемы


радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009)

153
V. LISTENING

1. Listen to the information about one of the famous scientist Glenn


Theodore Seaborg. For questions 1-6 choose the best answer (A, B or C).
You will hear it twice.

Fig. 6 Glenn Seaborg at the Geiger Counter, 301 Gilman Hall, Berkeley,
California, where he discovered plutonium. (Source: Available at
http://purpleopurple.com/inventions-and-inventors/plutonium.jpg)

1. Is Glenn Seaborg best known for


A) He shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Edwin Mattison
McMillon.
B) He isolated and identified transuranium elements.
C) Seaborgium was named in his honour.
2. Why was so important for Glenn Seaborg to isolate one of radioactive
isotopes – iodine-131?
A) He did it working together with physicist Jack Livingood.
B) Iodine-131 is now used for treatment of thyroid disorders.
C) Isolating of iodine-131 saved his mother’s life.
3. Why is Room 307 of Gilman Hall now a National Historic Landmark?
A) McMillan discovered the first transuranium element - neptunium - there.
154
B) G. Seaborg served as Berkeley’s chancellor.
C) G. Seaborg together with Arthur Wahl and Joseph Kennedy produced and
identified the second known transuranium element - plutonium.
4. Where did G. Seaborg work during World War II?
A) He worked as the personal laboratory assistant of Gilbert Lewis.
B) He worked as a section chief at the University of Chicago Metallurgical
Laboratory.
C) He worked as an instructor and assistant professor at Berkeley.
5. What was one of the most significant changes in the periodic table since
Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev’s original conception in 1869?
A) G. Seaborg first announced the discovery of elements 95 and 96.
B) G. Seaborg enunciated an important organizing principle known as the
actinide concept.
C) G. Seaborg collaborated with physicist Jack Livingood to isolate a num-
ber of radioactive isotopes.
6. Why was G. Seaborg cited in the Guinnes Book of World Records?
A) He was a member of the National Commission on Excellence in Educa-
tion.
B) He was the first scientist named chairman of the Atomic Energy Com-
mission.
C) He had the longest entry in Who is Who in America.

2. Read the short text, then listen to the tape and fill in the missing
words. Finally read the questions below, listen to the tape again and answer
them.
The health risks of plutonium
Much of our early understanding of the health risks of plutonium comes from
knowledge of the effects of radium, a radioactive element discovered by
1) ___________ in 1899. Having a half-life of 1620 years, radium-226 re-
mains a relatively intense and 2) ____________ of radiation for hundreds of
years. These features triggered its use in the treatment of cancer as early as
1906. Applicators that contained 3) _____________ would be placed on the
surface of tumors to shrink or eliminate them. When scientists later discov-
ered that the 4) ______________________ was primarily composed of
gamma rays from the daughter nuclei of radium decay, other gamma-emitting
radioisotopes replaced radium in this application. The new radioisotopes be-
came available from nuclear reactors during the 1960s. But the use of radium
as a cure for cancer was so much publicized in the press at the time that peo-
ple thought its 5) ___________ had no limits. Radium became known as the
6) _____________ and a cure for every ailment. Even when stories surfaced
155
about the dangers of radium’s «emanations», people would still hail the new
element as a «miracle», Radium-laced water, radium baths, or radium-
containing 7) ______________ were the latest fashion throughout Europe
and the United States in the first decades of the 20th century. Thousands of
people were exposed to this element before 1932. Whatever the
8) ____________ of low doses of radium, the tragic effects of high-dose ex-
posures became evident after only a few years. Acute cases of radium poison-
ing ended in rapid death, whereas other cases followed a much slower course:
victims suffered from infections of the 9) ____________ , pathological bone
fractures, or cancers of the bone. The stories of those who had been exposed
to radium made a deep impression on the scientists and contributed to
10) _____________ the public to the dangers of radium. Radium was consid-
ered so dangerous that the National Bureau of Standards formed a
11) ____________ to come up with an occupational standard for radium. On
May 2, 1941, the standard for radium-226 was adopted – only two months
before the discovery of plutonium. The 12) _____________ regarding the
new standard alerted scientists on the Manhattan Project to the potential haz-
ards of plutonium, a radioisotope 13) ____________ to radium. Gram for
gram, plutonium would be roughly as dangerous as radium. By
14) ____________ , the scientists were able to draw conclusions about the
risks of plutonium.
(Los Alamos Science Number 26, 2000)

156
1. Who discovered radium?
2. Where were applicators that contained radium placed?
3. Why did people think that radium’s healing powers had no
limits?
4. What were the latest fashion throughout Europe and the
USA in the first decades of the 20-th century?
5. What did victims suffer from?
6. What did the National Bureau of Standards form?
7. When was the standard for radium-226 adopted?
8. What alerted scientists on Manhattan Project to the potential
hazards of plutonium?

VI. INFORMATIVE READING

1. Read the text «The likelihood of exposure to plutonium» and do the


tasks.
The likelihood of exposure to plutonium
The largest amount of plutonium that has entered the environment is
from radioactive fallout caused by aboveground nuclear weapons tests. From
the Trinity Test in 1945 until atmospheric testing was banned in 1963, over 5
tons of plutonium were dispersed in the atmosphere in the form of small par-
ticles blown around the globe by the wind. Most of this plutonium dust fell
into the oceans, and approximately 96 percent of that amount simply sank as
sediment onto the ocean floors because plutonium is not readily soluble in
seawater. The fact that plutonium is dissolved very slowly in water also ex-
plains why the plutonium concentration in our oceans is low and will contin-
ue to be so. The rest of the plutonium dust fell on land. At present, surface
soils everywhere contain minute quantities of plutonium. Plutonium attaches
itself to soil particles through ion-exchange processes - minerals in the soil
can be exchanged for plutonium, which will stick to the soil and move only
when the soil does. This chemical property of plutonium restricts its move-
ment through soil and limits its uptake into most plants. The highest plutoni-
um contamination on leafy vegetables or grains comes from wind-blown dust
157
and rain splash. People are exposed to plutonium mainly when they inhale
small particles from the top soil kicked up by the wind or by some human ac-
tivity. On average, the committed effective dose from the plutonium content
of a person living in the northern hemisphere is an insignificant 0.00006 sie-
vert compared with the background radiation dose, which can be as high as
0.21 sievert. The omitted effective dose is the estimated amount of radiation a
person in the general population receives from a given source, in this case
plutonium, over a 70-year period. Involved in this study were primarily peo-
ple who lived in the 1950s and 1960s, decades during which radioactive fall-
out was being generated from atmospheric weapons testing. But fallout from
weapons testing is not the only possible source of plutonium dust in the envi-
ronment. Nuclear accidents, such as the 1986 Chernobyl accident, may cause
plutonium dust to enter the environment. And yet, although the meltdown of
the Chernobyl reactor was a potentially large source of plutonium dust, scien-
tific data indicate that cesium-137 and iodine-131, rather than plutonium,
were the major sources of hazard following that accident. Scientists who
work with plutonium and are familiar with its properties will argue that, alt-
hough highly dangerous, plutonium is handled safely. In terms of the general
public, barring serious accidents and nuclear war, another way in which peo-
ple in the United States or elsewhere could possibly increase their levels of
plutonium would be by eating dirt! And there are people who suffer from an
eating disorder called pica, or the compulsive ingestion of large quantities of
dirt. While eating dirt, these people will ingest greater than normal plutonium
quantities. However, they are significantly protected because the human gas-
trointestinal tract absorbs only about 1 part of plutonium out of 5000 to
10,000 parts swallowed. None of the above should detract from the fact that
plutonium is a very hazardous material. Great attention is paid to providing
safe workplaces and work practices for plutonium operations.
Plutonium Entry Routes into the Body
(a) Inhalation is the most likely and
dangerous entry route for plutonium
particles. Approximately 5% to 25%
of the inhaled particles are retained
by the body. Depending on particle
size (the smaller the particle, the
higher its risk to be retained) and
chemical form (soluble forms are
more easily absorbed by the blood),
inhaled plutonium will remain lodged
in the lung or lymph system, or it will a)
158
be absorbed by the blood and deliv-
ered mainly to the liver or bones.

(b) Ingestion of plutonium is the least


likely entry route for plutonium parti-
cles.
In adults, only about 0.05% of the
ingested soluble plutonium com-
pounds and a mere 0.001% of the in-
gested insoluble ones enter the blood
stream. The rest passes through the
gastrointestinal tract and is excreted.
b)
(c) Absorption of plutonium through
skin cuts is a serious risk but mainly
for workers who handle highly con-
taminated items in glove boxes. Up to
100% of the plutonium absorbed in
this way will be retained by the body.
c)
(Casey Burns. Overview of plutonium and its health effects. April, 2002)

2. Match the adjectives with the nouns to form collocations.

A B
serious nuclear weapons
soluble property
dangerous hemisphere
hazardous fallout
industrial weapon testing
scientific data
atmospheric toxins
radioactive material
northern metal
chemical forms
aboveground risk

159
3. Now use some of the collocations to complete the sentences.
1. The _______________ are more easily absorbed by the blood.
2. Experience with this ______________ proves that people can be protect-
ed.
3. Plutonium appears to be a very _______________ when it was discov-
ered.
4. Scientists who are familiar with properties of plutonium will argue that it
is no more of a hazard than other _________________ .
5. After nuclear accidents ________________ indicate that Sc-137 and I-
131, rather than plutonium were the major sources of hazard following that
accident.
6. Absorption of plutonium through skin cuts is a ____________ but mainly
for workers who handle highly contaminated items in glove
7. Plutonium attaches itself to soil particles through ion-exchange processes
and this ______________ of plutonium restricts its movement through soil.
8. The largest amount of plutonium is from _______________ .
9. The committed effective dose for those who live in the _____________ is
0.00006 sievert.
10. Plutonium that has entered the environment is caused by__________
tests.
11. Radioactive fallout was being generated from _______________ .

4. Match the terms with the definitions

Terms Definitions
1) Target organ toxicity a) A substance that causes mutations. A mutation
is a change in the DNA sequence of a cell’s DNA.
Mutations can lead to birth defects, miscarriages,
or cancer.
2) Mutagen b) This term covers a broad range of adverse ef-
fects on target organs or physiological systems
(e.g., renal, cardiovascular) extending from those
arising through a single limited exposure to those
assumed over a lifetime of exposure to a chemi-
cal.
3) Teratogen c) Death; mortality rate is a measure of the num-
ber of deaths in a population during a specified
interval of time.
4) Mortality d) A chemical that causes structural defects that
160
affect the development of an organism.
5) Risk factor e) The possibility or chance that some adverse ef-
fect will result from a given exposure to a chemi-
cal.
6) Risk f) An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, an
environmental exposure, or an inborn or inherited
characteristic that is associated with an increased
occurrence of disease or other health-related event
or condition.
7) Lymphoreticular g) The occurrence of adverse effects on the nerv-
effects ous system following exposure to a chemical.
8) Neurotoxicity h) Represent morphological effects involving
lymphatic tissues such as the lymph nodes,
spleen, and thymus.
9) Immunological i) The gross examination of the organs and tissues
effects of a dead body to determine the cause of death or
pathological conditions.
10) Necropsy j) Functional changes in the immune response.
11) Cancer effect level k) A chemical capable of inducing cancer.
12) Carcinogen l) The lowest dose of chemical in a study, or
group of studies, that produces significant in-
creases in the incidence of cancer (or tumors) be-
tween the exposed population and its appropriate
control.

VII. DISCUSSION

1. Complete the description of the method by which plutonium enters the


body using the following chart.

Because of the fact that plutonium is primarily an alpha-emitter and so


must enter the body in order to cause significant damage, we are concerned
with the routes it takes into the body. Plutonium can enter the body through
……….

161
Air
Food and
Water

Respiratory
Tract GI Tract

Wounds Blood

Excretion

Internal organs and


tissues

2. Re-read the texts «The likelihood of exposure to plutonium» and «The


health risks of plutonium». Discuss with your partner the plutonium entry
routes into the body. Use the diagram (Fig.7) below.

Fig.7 (Source: Available at http://www. japanfocus.org)


162
VIII. DETAILED READING

1. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold.

Growing health fears as plutonium discovered at Fukushima

As plutonium radiation is discovered outside Japan's Fukushima


plant, Channel 4 News explains the long-term health risks of the fallout for
generations to come.

Fig.8 Fukushima-Daiichi plant


Plutonium traces have been found in soil around the Fukushima-
Daiichi plant, according to the Tokyo Electrical Power Company (Tepco).
The presence of plutonium was found at a number of sites across the Fuku-
sima-Daiichi plant in samples taken a week ago. Plutonium is a highly dan-
gerous form of radioactive material, rarely found in nature, but created in
mass quantities for military and commercial use. Despite this discovery in
five different places around the plant, Tepco have confirmed workers will
continue their battle to control the nuclear event. Prolonged exposure can
result in damage to the surface of the skeletal bones. It can be ingested by air
or in food, and the discovery of its presence heightens the fears of long-term
damage caused by the explosions at the plant. De-contamination of the sur-
rounding farm land, if also affected by plutonium fallout, would be costly
and raise fears in Japan that they are eating already-infected food.

163
Fig.9 Crisis at Fukushima nuclear plant

The crisis at the Fukushima nuclear plant took a dramatic turn on Sun-
day, as Tepco released radiation readings 10 million times higher than the
normal recommended levels and removed workers from the plant. These fig-
ures were later retracted as a mistake but the incident raised yet more ques-
tions about the disaster-hit plant. Despite the lack of accuracy over these
figures, more problems were confirmed over the weekend at the plant. Dan-
gerously-high levels of radiation had accrued in a turbine housing unit,
forcing workers to be removed from the station. In addition, high-level traces
of radioactive iodine-131, which can lead to lymph cancer and is particularly
dangerous to foetuses and young children, have been found in sea water
300m away from the plant – 1,250 times above the benchmark considered to
be safe. Nuclear and environmental scientists in the United States darkened
their assessment of the risks markedly on Monday after operators at the Fu-
kushima Daiichi power plant said that highly radioactive water had entered
underground concrete tunnels extending beyond the reactor. Sea water and
fresh water used to cool the reactors, critically damaged by Japan's March 11
earthquake and tsunami, and spent fuel pools at the plant have been put in
storage tanks there. Sea contamination is a concern for the Japanese, who
consume about 9 million tons of seafood a year, second behind China.

164
Fig.10 Sea water radiation
Iodine-131 is what has been found in the sea water off the coast around
Fukushima. The half life of this is about 8 days, it radioactively decays to in-
nocuous levels over, say, 15 half lives and so will be (radio) actively present
for up to 6 months. If you respire Iodine-131 or it contaminates milk or wa-
ter, its uptake into the human body gives rise to risk of thyroid cancer where
the radioactive iodine re-concentrates. However, Iodine131 in a marine en-
vironment is a long way from the human environment and it has to transfer
through several paths before it is available for human uptake.
The Radiation Regulations of 2004 states that UK nuclear plants which
have had a major incident will have a zone of 1.5 km with other automatic
evacuations and other counter-measures. That could extend to 3 km, and gen-
erally be capable of extending to 10. Generally it is unnecessary to imple-
ment counter-measures entirely around the plant beyond 3 km, the reason is
by the time you get out to 10, 20, 30 km the radiation will have formed a dis-
tinctive plume, like a teardrop, not the erratic swirling that could take place
in the close vicinity of the plant. As the tear drop develops it will do so
roughly at a 30 degree taper so the density at the front is dropping down in
relation to its radial length. At 10 km and beyond you chase the plume and
see where it is going, under the plume, going from radial approach to a sector
approach. If the wind starts swinging around, the people under the next sector
start from scratch, so you have time to evacuate them according to their ex-
posure which runs from the time that the plume changed direction to drift
165
over them. For an urban conurbation like Tokyo, firstly, from the overhead
radiation cloud you get shine - gamma rays, that will result in external body
dose. If the plume descends, depending on atmospheric conditions, on the
buoyancy of individual pieces of radium, caesium, plutonium and many oth-
er species of radioactive particle in the release, then it can be breathed in. If
you take a radionuclide into your body it will pass through your lungs and in-
to your blood system. Iodine can effect your thyroid, plutonium the surface of
the skeletal bones, caesium in tissue, strontium in lungs, and so on. Once in
your system these forms of radiation can take years to decay. This indicates
how difficult it is to see how many people, over the years, will die as a causal
link to the radiation they are exposed to. A figure cannot be given but an in-
creased risk to a huge population (35 million people in Tokyo) is clear.

Fig.11 The plant workers

The people working at the plant may be subject to acute levels of radia-
tion that are so high they may cause bodily malfunction quickly. Workers
have received beta burning on site for example. A worker in the plant would
normally work to a maximum annual exposure level of 12 millisieverts a
year (mSv/y), a firefighter can be exposed to 50 mSv/y, females are not al-
lowed to attend radiation-related incidents whilst lifesavers can be subjected
to 100 milisieverts. In the Fukushima plant the level was raised to 250
mSv/y, at that level you then get irrecoverable changes in your blood system.
If you are subject to up to 1000 mSv you start to have immediate problems:
166
cough, vomit, balance. Up to 5 to 10 sieverts and you'd expect to see death in
the first few weeks, 15-20 sieverts would be certain fatality.
(March nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant)

2. Look at the following questions. As you read «Growing health fears as


plutonium discovered at Fukushima», underline the words or phrases
which answer these questions.

1. According to the Tokyo Electrical Power Company (Tepco) what has been
found in soil around the Fukushima-Daiichi plant?
2. What does plutonium in mass quantities create for?
3. Why readings were later retracted as a mistake?
4. Where had dangerously-high levels of radiation accrued forcing workers to
be removed from the station?
5. What has been found in sea water 300m away from the plant?
6. Where does radioactive iodine re-concentrate?
7. Where may people be subject to acute levels of radiation?
8. How many mSv/y was the level raised in the Fukushima plant?
9. How many sieverts would be certain fatality?
10. Why is sea contamination a concern for the Japanese?

3. What information is connected with these numbers: 50; 10, 20, 30; 15-
20; 3; 1000; 8; 250; 35; 12; 100; 1.5; 15; 300? Use the information from
the text.

4. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.
Then make up sentences using these word combinations.

immediate; human; already-infected;


increased; highly radioactive; skeletal;
blood; nuclear and environmental; nuclear;
overhead radiation; high-level; highly dangerous;
radial; dramatic;

1. …………….. form;
2. …………….. event;
3. …………….. bones;
4. …………….. food;
5. ……………... turn;
6. ……………... traces;
7. ……………… scientists;
167
8. ……………… water;
9. ……………… environment;
10. …………….. length;
11. …………….. cloud;
12. …………….. system;
13. …………….. risk;
14. …………….. problems;

5. In most of the lines in the following text, there is an unnecessary word.


For questions 1-41, find the unnecessary words and write them on the lines
provided. If you think a line contains no unnecessary words, put a tick (√)
next to it.

Children are not small adults. They differ from the adults in their 0 th
exposures and may differ in their susceptibility to hazardous chem- 00 e
icals. Children’s such unique physiology and behavior can influ- 1 √
ence the extent of their exposure. Children sometimes differ them 2 …
from adults in their susceptibility to hazardous chemicals, but 3 …
whether there is a difference to depends on the chemical. Children 4 ..
may be more or less susceptible than as adults to health effects, and 5 …
the relationship may change with developmental age. Vulnerability 6 …
often it depends on developmental stage. There are critical periods 7 ..
of structural and functional development during their both prenatal 8 …
and postnatal life, and a particular the structure or function will be 9 …
most sensitive to disruption during its critical period. Damage may 10 ..
not be evident until a most later stage of development. There are 11 …
often differences in pharmacokinetics and metabolism between 12 …
children and adults. For example, an absorption may be different in 13 ..
neonates because of the immaturity of their gastrointestinal children 14 …
tract and their larger skin surface area in proportion to body weight; 15 …
the gastrointestinal absorption of lead is greatest in it infants and 16 ..
young children. There may also be differences in excretion, particu- 17 …
larly in newborns who all have been a low glomerular filtration 18 …
rate. Children and adults may be differ in their capacity to repair 19 ..
damage from chemical insults. Children also have a longer remain- 20 …
ing lifetime in which to express damage from out chemicals; this 21 …
potential is particularly relevant to cancer. Certain all characteris- 22 ..
tics of the developing human may increase neither exposure or sus- 23 …
ceptibility, whereas others may decrease susceptibility to the same 24 …
of chemical. For example, although infants breathe more air per in 25 ..
168
kilogram of body weight than adults breathe them, this difference 26 …
might be somewhat counterbalanced by their alveoli being as less 27 …
developed, which results in a disproportionately smaller than sur- 28 ..
face area for alveolar absorption. Numerous epidemiological stud- 29 …
ies of ionizing radiation exposures have been found higher cancer 30 …
risks associated with exposures of infants and children infancy and 31 ..
childhood, compared to the adults. Although there is no direct evi- 32 …
dence for increased by susceptibility of children to toxicity from 33 …
plutonium, several kinds of observations made in animals suggest 34 ..
that immature animals may be the more vulnerable to plutonium as 35 …
a result of higher deposition of absorbed plutonium on them bone 36 …
surfaces and higher turn-over of bone. High bone turn-over in juve- 37 ..
niles may be also contribute to more of rapid distribution of pluto- 38 …
nium from bone surface to bone volume as such a result of burial of 39 …
surface deposits, uncovering buried deposits, and over recycling of 40 ..
the plutonium between marrow, bone, and blood. 41 …

IX. GRAMMAR REVISION: CONDITIONALS

1. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense then identify the
type of conditional (See the table «Conditionals», Appendix 3).

1. For example, if soil (to contain) 10,000 parts of plutonium, approximately


1 part would be taken up by a plant.
2. If the inhaled plutonium particles are in a relatively insoluble chemical
form, most (to remain) in the lung tissue or the lymph nodes around the
lungs.
3. If plutonium is ingested, the gastrointestinal tract (to provide) a natural
barrier, and in adults only about 0.05 percent of the soluble plutonium com-
pounds and a mere 0.001 % of the insoluble ones (to enter ) the blood stream.
4. If only few individuals can be analyzed, those studies (to be hampered).
5. If plutonium is harmful at these low levels, its health risks (to be) so small
that, given the small number of workers involved, epidemiological methods
cannot differentiate between effects triggered by plutonium radiation and var-
iations in a group of people unexposed to such radiation.
6. If release (to occur) from waste containers, buried radioactive wastes may
migrate or seep into groundwater.
7. If you (to be subjected) to up to 1000 mSv you start to have immediate
problems: cough, vomit, balance.
169
8. If other factors were added into the calculation, staying indoors, moving
around in different radiation levels, then this exposure (to be markedly re-
duced).
9. If somebody inhales plutonium dust, he (not to notice) anything special.
10. If plutonium (to be ingested), they can cause genetic damage.
11. If the plutonium (to be extracted) from used reactor fuel it can be used as
a direct substitute for U-235 in the usual fuel.
12. If radiation levels rise, they (to follow) the radiation protection instruc-
tions given by site personnel.

170
WORDLIST

English Russian
aboveground наземный
autopsy паталогоанатомическое вскрытие
ban налагать запрет, запрещать
benchmark стандарт, мерило, образец
buoyancy плавучесть, способность держаться на по-
верхности воды
compulsive навязчивый, непреодолимый
consume уничтожать, поглощать, расходовать
conurbation большой город с пригородами, городская
агломерация
detract принижать, приуменьшать
dirt грязь, отбросы
disintegrate делиться, распадаться, разлагаться
disorder нарушение, расстройство какой-либо функ-
ции организма
disperse рассеиваться, распространяться
dissolve растворять(ся), разлагать(ся)
duration длительность, продолжительность, срок
действия
enrichment обогащение (при разделении изотопов)
equilibrium равновесие, баланс
excrete выделять, выводить шлаки из организма
fatality беда, бедствие, летальный исход
fear страх, боязнь, сметение
foetus (утробный) плод
gastrointestinal tract желудочно-кишечный тракт
grain зерно, зерновые злаки
hemosiderin гемосидерин (нерастворимый белок)
heighten преувеличивать, повышать, усиливать
immaturity незрелость, недоразвитие
ingestion прием пищи, всасывание
inhale вдыхать, втягивать
innocuous безвредный, безопасный, нетоксичный
in terms of на языке, с точки зрения, исходя, глазами
infancy раннее детство, младенчество
ion-exchange process процесс ионообмена
171
interplanetary межпланетный
juvenile молодой, юный, подросток, юноша
leafy vegetables листовые овощи
leukemia лейкоз, лейкемия, белокровие
liver печень
malfunction неисправная работа, сбой, нарушение функ-
ционирования
meltdown авария на АЭС
metabolism метаболизм, обмен веществ
minute мелкий, мельчайший
mucus слизь
ocean floor дно океана
pica извращенный аппетит, пищевое расстрой-
ство, выражаемое в тяге к несъедобным ве-
щам (земле, мелу, штукатурке)
plume факел (выбросов)
prenatal внутриутробный, предродовой
puncture пункция, прокол, прокалывать
readings данные (в таблице)
readily быстро, без задержки, легко
rest остаток
restrict ограничивать
retention задержка, удержание
route маршрут, дорога, путь
scavenger падальщик
sink опускаться
soluble растворимый
stick приклеиваться
susceptibility восприимчивость, чувствительность
swallow глотать, проглатывать
teardrop слеза, слезинка
trabecular трабекулярный
uptake поглощение, потребление, усвоение
unmanned управляемый автоматически, беспилотный
vicinity близость, окрестность
vomit рвота, извергать рвотные массы
vulnerability восприимчивость, чувствительность

172
UNIT VII

RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AND RADIATION


EXPOSURE
I. WARMING-UP

1.1 Do you know that …?


Glowing trucks, mutated animals, black rain, and the ghost town «Pri-
pyat». Such haunting images are etched into the memories of Ukrainians who
survived the 1986 nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station.
Residents were exposed to an unprecedented amount of radioactive contami-
nation that posed serious consequences. Affecting individual health, the envi-
ronment, the economy and political relationships, daily life for these people
has been assaulted on multiple fronts. While some of the immediate dangers
have transitioned into painful memories, many residents continue to live on
contaminated land. Due to a lack of reliable information, many young fami-
lies are defenseless against the invisible dangers of radioactive contamination.

Fig.1 Chernobyl Matryoshka

173
The matryoshka doll (nesting Russian doll) is a well-known phenomenon. In
this particular example, the doll is used to make a statement about the radio-
active contamination from the Chernobyl disaster.

1.2 Look at the picture (Fig.2) and answer the questions.

☀ What does RCT do?


☀ What role do radioactive control technicians play in ensuring the
health and safety of employees working in radiation areas?

Fig.2 Radiation Control Technician (RCT )

1.3 Look at the pictures 1(Fig.3) and 2 (Fig.4) and answer the questions.

☀ Do you know that uranium is the principle fuel for nuclear reactors and
the main raw material for fission nuclear weapons?
☀ Is uranium already radioactive when it is dug out of the ground?

174
☀What processes does uranium ore need to go through in order to concen-
trate the radioactivity by 2-3% to become nuclear reactor grade fuel, and by
80% to become weapons grade?
☀ Do you know in what countries over half of the world’s uranium is?

Fig. 3

Fig.4
Uranium mining

☀ Uranium is mined in 18 countries. Which ones?


☀ What is the most prevalent isotope in uranium ore which has a half-life of
about 4.5 billion years; that is, only half the atoms will decay in that amount
of time?
☀ Are uranium miners exposed to radioactive radon gas?
☀ Why does uranium mining require a great deal of water?
☀ Where is water which becomes radioactive waste placed?
☀Are evaporation ponds always adequately secured from leaking and flood-
ing?
☀Do you know that contaminated rainwater can enter the soil and, eventual-
ly, the food chain, endangering health?

175
II. PRE-READING TASK

1. Remember the pronunciation of these words.

Word Pronunciation
poisoning ['pɔiz(ƽ)niŋ]
tissue ['tiʃu:]
acute [ƽ'kju:t]
syndrome ['sindrəum]
disease [di'zi:z]
chronic ['krɔnik]
tumor ['tju:mə]
stochastic [stɒ´kæstik]
joule [ʤu:l]
sievert ['si:vət]
gray [grei]
genetic [ʤi'netik]
dosage ['dəusiʤ]
excessive [ik'sesiv]
deliberate [di'lib(ə)rit]

2. Match the English word combinations with the Russian equivalents

1. as the result of an act of ter- a) находиться слишком близко к радио-


rorism активным материалам или зараженному
человеку
2. personal property b) крепко обнимать других людей
3. in the form of dust or powder с) снизить риск внутреннего заражения

4. be too close to radioactive d) предотвратить заражение других


material or a contaminated per- членов семьи
son
5. nuclear power plant accident е) личная собственность
6. nuclear weapons testing f) так как радиацию нельзя увидеть или
почувствовать

176
7. prevent contamination of oth- g) ближайшее безопасное здание (со-
er people in the household оружение)

8. hug other people h ) в форме пыли или порошка

9. the nearest safe building i) авария на атомной электростанции

10. decrease the risk of internal j) ограничить заражение


contamination
11. avoid spreading contamina- к) в результате террористического акта
tion

12. since radiation cannot be l) глотать или вдыхать радиоактивные


seen or felt элементы
13. limit contamination m) избегать распространения зараже-
ния
14. swallow or breathe in radio- n) испытание ядерного оружия
active materials

3. Read the text «Radioactive Contamination and Radiation Exposure»


and pay attention to the terms in bold.

Radioactive Contamination and Radiation Exposure


Radioactive contamination and radiation exposure can occur if radioac-
tive materials are released into the environment as the result of an accident,
an event in nature, or an act of terrorism. Such a release can expose people
and contaminate their surroundings and personal property.

177
Fig. 5(Source: Available at http://www.radiation-scott.org)

Radioactive contamination occurs when radioactive material is depos-


ited on or in an object or a person. Radioactive materials released into the en-
vironment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or an-
imals to become contaminated. A contaminated person has radioactive ma-
terials on or inside their body.
External contamination occurs when radioactive material, in the form
of dust, powder, or liquid, comes into contact with a person's skin, hair, or
clothing. In other words, the contact is external to a person’s body. People
who are externally contaminated can become internally contaminated if radi-
oactive material gets into their bodies.
Internal contamination occurs when people swallow or breathe in ra-
dioactive materials, or when radioactive materials enter the body through an
open wound or are absorbed through the skin. Some types of radioactive ma-
terials stay in the body and are deposited in different body organs. Other
types are eliminated from the body in blood, sweat, urine, and feces.
Radioactive materials give off a form of energy that travels in waves or
particles. This energy is called radiation. When a person is exposed to radia-
tion, the energy penetrates the body. For example, when a person has an X-
ray, he or she is exposed to radiation.

178
Fig. 6 (Source: Available at http://www.articles.businessinsid)

A person exposed to radiation is not necessarily contaminated with radi-


oactive material. A person who has been exposed to radiation has had radio-
active waves or particles penetrate the body, like having an X-ray. For a per-
son to be contaminated, radioactive material must be on or inside of his or
her body. A contaminated person is exposed to radiation released by the radi-
oactive material on or inside the body. An uncontaminated person can be
exposed by being too close to radioactive material or a contaminated person,
place, or thing.
Radioactive materials could be released into the environment in the fol-
lowing ways:
① A nuclear power plant accident
② An atomic bomb explosion
③ An accidental release from a medical or industrial device
④ Nuclear weapons testing
⑤ An intentional release of radioactive material as an act of terrorism

179
Fig. 7 (Source: Available at http://www.hunter.cuny.edu)

People who are externally contaminated with radioactive material can


contaminate other people or surfaces that they touch. For example, people
who have radioactive dust on their clothing may spread the radioactive dust
when they sit in chairs or hug other people. People who are internally con-
taminated can expose people near them to radiation from the radioactive ma-
terial inside their bodies. The body fluids (blood, sweat, urine) of an internal-
ly contaminated person can contain radioactive materials. Coming in contact
with these body fluids can result in contamination and/or exposure.
People who are externally contaminated can spread the contamination
by touching surfaces, sitting in a chair, or even walking through a house.
Contaminants can easily fall from clothing and contaminate other surfaces.
Homes can also become contaminated with radioactive materials in body flu-
ids from internally contaminated people. Making sure that others do not
come in contact with body fluids from a contaminated person will help pre-
vent contamination of other people in the household.
Since radiation cannot be seen, smelled, felt, or tasted, people at the site
of an incident will not know whether radioactive materials were involved.
You can take the following steps to limit your contamination.

180
Fig 8 (Source: Available at http://www.wikihow.com)

1. Get out of the immediate area quickly. Go inside the nearest safe
building or to an area to which you are directed by law enforcement or
health officials.
2. Remove the outer layer of your clothing. If radioactive material is on
your clothes, getting it away from you will reduce the external contamina-
tion and decrease the risk of internal contamination. It will also reduce the
length of time that you are exposed to radiation.
3. If possible, place the clothing in a plastic bag or leave it in an out-of-
the-way area, such as the corner of a room. Keep people away from it to re-
duce their exposure to radiation. Keep cuts and abrasions covered when
handling contaminated items to avoid getting radioactive material in them.
4. Wash all of the exposed parts of your body using lots of soap and
lukewarm water to remove contamination. This process is called decontam-
ination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of the body that may
not be contaminated, such as areas that were clothed.
5. After authorities determine that internal contamination may have oc-
curred, you may be able to take medication to reduce the radioactive mate-
rial in your body.

(http://www. Health effects of radiation exposure and radioactive contamination.mht)

181
III. TERMINOLOGY DEVELOPMEMT

1. Fill in the correct word from the list then make up sentences using them.
contaminated, personal protective, pediatric thyroid, chemical, x-ray, biolog-
ical, longer-lived, tiny, every living, cosmic, zero, power, inevitable, uncon-
trolled, radioactive, nuclear

1………………………medicine
2 ……………………...contamination
3 ………………………distribution
4 ……………………… result
5 ……………………… plant
6 ……………………… radioactivity
7 ……………………… rays
8 ……………………… creature
9 ……………………… levels
10 ………………………isotopes
11 ………………………effects
12 …………………….. .machines
13 ………………………toxicity
14 ……………………… cancer
15 ……………………….equipment
16 ……………………….plants and animals

2. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.

1. swallow and breathe ___ radioactive material; 2. radioactive materials en-


ter the body _____ an open wound; 3. people who have radioactive dust ___
their clothing; 4. the hazards to people _____ radioactive contamination de-
pend ____ the nature ____ radioactive contaminant; 5. Radionuclides may
be distributed __________ the body; 6. it was a major component ____ the
radiation; 7. drinking contaminated milk _______ exposed animals; 8. a short
exposure can result ____ acute radiation syndrome.

3. Put words in order, form sentences and translate them.


1. Risk, pose, radioactive, of, contamination, levels, but, low, little,
still, can, by, detected, instrumentation, radiation, be.
2. Contamination, enter, body, ingestion, absorption, injection, radioac-
tive, can, the, through, inhalation, or.

182
3. May, on, volumes, or, material, or, radioactive, of, contamination, ex-
ist, air, surfaces, in.
4. Occur, contamination, radioactive, may, gases, from, or, liquids, par-
ticles.
5. Term, source, the, called, accident, is, an, released, in, material,
of, amount, the, radioactive.
6. Body, the, instance, for, enters, the, gland, thyroid, up, a, any, of,
that, iodine, takes, percentage, large.
7. Radioactivity, in, is, zero, as, no, thing, such, practice, there.
8. Concentrations, safe, to, be, it, cannot, be, material, cases, that, dilut-
ed, contained, may, in, radioactive.
9. Sunlight, than, any, not, more, of, harmful, these, levels, tiny, are, ra-
diation.
10. Contamination, usually, in, of, per, of, surface, is, expressed, units,
radioactivity, unit, area.

IV. READING FOCUS

1. Read the text «Radioactive Contamination and Radiation Exposure»


again. Which paragraphs contain the answers to these questions?

1) What is radioactive contamination?


2) What is external contamination?
3) What is internal contamination?
4) What is radiation exposure?
5) How does contamination differ from exposure?
6) How can exposure or contamination happen?
7) How is radioactive contamination spread?
8) How could your home become contaminated?
9) How can you limit contamination?
10) Is a person exposed to radiation necessarily contaminated with
radioactive material?

2. Some of the statements are not true, correct them.

a) The body fluids (blood, sweat, urine) of an externally contaminated


person can contain radioactive materials.
b) People who are externally contaminated can’t spread the contamina-
tion by touching surfaces, sitting in a chair, or even walking through a house.

183
c) Radioactive contamination and radiation exposure could occur if ra-
dioactive materials are released into the environment as the result of only an
accident, and not an event in nature.
d) People who are externally contaminated can expose people near
them to radiation from the radioactive material inside their bodies.
e) Since radiation can be seen, smelled, felt, or tasted, people at the site
of an incident will know whether radioactive materials were involved.
f) A contaminated person can be exposed by not being too close to radi-
oactive material or a contaminated person, place, or thing.
g) Radioactive materials give off a form of energy that travels in protons
or neutrons.

3. Based on the information translate the following test from Russian into
English

1. Радиоактивное загрязнение почвы и атмосферы значительно изменяет


параметры атмосферного электрического поля (АПЭ), искажая при этом
естественный электромагнитный фон. 2. Аномалии АПЭ, возникающие
в зонах радиоактивного загрязнения, могут быть тем дополнительным
нерадиационным фактором, который вызывает наблюдаемое несоответ-
ствие между заболеваемостью людей и реальной радиоэкологической
ситуацией. 3. Радиоактивное загрязнение окружающей среды и связан-
ные с ним аномалии АЭП будут воздействовать на организм человека
одновременно. 4. Даже если биологические эффекты от каждого из этих
воздействий будут небольшими, то эффекты от их суммарного воздей-
ствия могут быть весьма значительными. 5. Есть основания полагать,
что результат комбинированного воздействия малых доз радиации и
аномальных электрических полей может превосходить сумму эффектов
от каждого фактора в отдельности. 6. У детей, проживающих вблизи ра-
диоактивных зон, отмечена резко повышенная частота заболеваемости
лейкозами, хотя и сами дети, и их родители не получали опасных доз
радиации, а также такие явления как раннее старение, ослабление зре-
ния, угнетение реактивности иммунной системы, чрезмерная психоло-
гическая возбудимость, изменение в составе крови и др. 7. По мнению
исследователей, они могут быть связаны с дополнительным воздействи-
ем аномалий АЭП, возникающих в результате радиоактивного загряз-
нения окружающей среды, которое само по себе не вызывает наблюда-
емых эффектов. 8. Действие малых доз радиации может быть также
усилено присутствием тех или иных химических элементов и их соеди-
нений.

184
(Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и проблемы
радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009)

V. WORD FORMATION

1. Read the following word formations and remember their pronunciation.


con'trolled – ˏuncon'trolled
'type – 'typical – 'typically
'stable – un'stable
'evitable – i'nevitable
con'taminated – conˏtami'nation – con'taminant
radio'active – ˏradioac'tivity – radi'ation
en'vironment – enˏviron'mental
'nature – 'natural – 'naturally
bi'ology – ˏbio'logical – bio'logically
'toxic – to'xicity
treat – 'treatment
pro'tect – pro'tective – pro'tection

2. Choose between the alternatives to complete these sentences.

1. There are three types of radiation/ radioactive/radioactivity.


2. Gamma rays come from the nucleus of the atom of a radiation/ radi-
oactive/radioactivity isotope.
3. They are the most energetic and most penetrating of all radiation/ ra-
dioactive/radioactivity.
4. Contaminated/contamination/contaminant may occur from radioac-
tive gases, liquids or particles.
5. On the other hand, radiation/ radioactive/radioactivity iodine is used
in the diagnosis and treatment/treat of many diseases of the thyroid precisely
because of the thyroid's selective uptake of iodine.
6. The hazards to people and the environment/environmental from radi-
oactive contaminated/contamination/contaminant depend on the nature of the
radioactive contaminated/contamination/contaminant, the level of contami-
nated/contamination/contaminant, and the extent of the contaminat-
ed/contamination/contaminant.

VI. LISTENING
185
1. Read the following summary of the text, then listen to the tape and fill
in the gaps. You will hear it twice.

Fig. 9 (Source: Available at http://www.emfnews.org)

An injured patient with either 1) ……… or 2) ……….. radiation con-


tamination is one of the more difficult cases in radiation accident manage-
ment. Before decontamination efforts begin, it is important to survey the pa-
tient and document the 3) ………… along with their levels of contamination.
This survey helps guide the efforts during treatment and provides a legal rec-
ord of initial and final contamination levels.
External contamination is easily removed in most cases by 4) …………
affected clothing and jewelry and washing the skin. Wounds should be
cleaned with the agent that would normally be used in that situation, with 5)
…………. used first and harsh agents avoided. The suggested cleaning solu-
tion for skin and wound decontamination and their order of use are 6)
……….. and water or normal saline, 7) ……….. and water, 8) ………… and
water.
Internal contamination is more difficult to manage; therefore, 9) ………..
is performed before decontamination begins. For successful internal decon-
tamination, it is essential to know which isotopes are involved, their
10) …………. , and 11) ………….. . Internal contamination can be treated in
several ways, depending on the 12) ………… and 13) ………… properties
of the material. Dilution therapy is useful for isotopes that are excreted in the
14) ……… and distributed in the water space of the body. Contamination by
186
tritium, which behaves much like 15) ………. in the body, can be treated by
16) …………. .
Strontium, like calcium, is incorporated into the bone and is the basis for
the newly approved therapy for 17) ………. in bones. Radiostrontium con-
tamination may be treated by administering 18) …………. .
The final method of treating internal contamination is 19) ……… or
20) …………. the isotope and convert it to a form that is more easily excret-
ed.

VII. INFORMATIVE READING

1. Read the text and do the tasks.

Sources and measurement of contamination


Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive
material in a given environment. The amount of radioactive material released
in an accident is called the source term. Radioactive contamination is typical-
ly the result of a spill or accident during the production or use of radionu-
clides, an unstable nucleus which has excessive energy. Contamination may
occur from radioactive gases, liquids or particles. For example, if a radionu-
clide used in nuclear medicine is accidentally spilled, the material could be
spread by people as they walk around. Radioactive contamination may also
be an inevitable result of certain processes, such as the release of radioactive
xenon in nuclear fuel reprocessing. In cases that radioactive material cannot
be contained, it may be diluted to safe concentrations. Nuclear fallout is the
distribution of radioactive contamination by a nuclear explosion.
Radioactive contamination may exist on surfaces or in volumes of mate-
rial or air. In a nuclear power plant, detection and measurement of radioactiv-
ity and contamination is often. Surface contamination is usually expressed in
units of radioactivity per unit of area. For SI, this is becquerels per square
meter.
Hazards: low level contamination and high level contamination
In practice there is no such thing as zero radioactivity. Not only is the
entire world constantly bombarded by cosmic rays, but every living creature
on earth contains significant quantities of carbon-14 and most (including hu-
mans) contains significant quantities of potassium-40. These tiny levels of
radiation are not any more harmful than sunlight, but just as excessive quanti-
ties of sunlight can be dangerous, so too can excessive levels of radiation.

187
Fig 10 (Source: Available at http://www.articles.latimes.com)

The hazards to people and the environment from radioactive contamina-


tion depend on the nature of the radioactive contaminant, the level of contam-
ination, and the extent of the contamination. Low levels of radioactive con-
tamination pose little risk, but can still be detected by radiation instrumenta-
tion. In the case of low-level contamination by isotopes with a short half-life,
the best course of action may be to simply allow the material to naturally de-
cay. Longer-lived isotopes should be cleaned up and properly disposed of,
because even a very low level of radiation can be life-threatening when in
long exposure to it. Therefore, whenever there's any radiation in an area,
many people take extreme caution when approaching. High levels of contam-
ination may pose major risks to people and the environment. People can be
exposed to potentially lethal radiation levels, both externally and internally,
from the spread of contamination following an accident (or a deliberate ini-
tiation) involving large quantities of radioactive material. The biological ef-
fects of external exposure to radioactive contamination are generally the
same as those from an external radiation source not involving radioactive ma-
terials, such as x-ray machines, and are dependent on the absorbed dose.
Biological effects
The biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides depend
greatly on the activity and the biodistribution and removal rates of the radio-
nuclide, which in turn depends on its chemical form. The biological effects
may also depend on the chemical toxicity of the deposited material, inde-
pendent of its radioactivity. Some radionuclides may be generally distributed
throughout the body and rapidly removed, as is the case with tritiated water.
188
Some radionuclides may target specific organs and have much lower removal
rates. For instance, the thyroid gland takes up a large percentage of any io-
dine that enters the body. If large quantities of radioactive iodine are inhaled
or ingested, the thyroid may be impaired or destroyed, while other tissues are
affected to a lesser extent. Radioactive iodine is a common fission product; it
was a major component of the radiation released from the Chernobyl disaster,
leading to many cases of pediatric thyroid cancer and hypothyroidism. On the
other hand, radioactive iodine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of many
diseases of the thyroid precisely because of the thyroid's selective uptake of
iodine.

Fig 11 (Source: Available at http://www.waste-management-world.com)

Means of contamination
Radioactive contamination can enter the body through ingestion, inhala-
tion, absorption, or injection. For this reason, it is important to use personal
protective equipment when working with radioactive materials. Radioactive
contamination may also be ingested as the result of eating contaminated
plants and animals or drinking contaminated water or milk from exposed an-
imals. Following a major contamination incident, all potential pathways of
internal exposure should be considered.
(Robert E. Henkin. Treatment of radiation exposure and contamination, 2005)

2. Answer the following questions.


1. What may contamination occur from?
2. What is usually expressed in units of radioactivity per unit of area.
3. What do the hazards to people and the environment from radioactive con-
tamination depend on?
4. What can be detected by radiation instrumentation?
5. What may depend on the chemical toxicity of the deposited material?
189
6. How may any radionuclides be generally distributed?
7. Is radioactive iodine a common fission product?
8. Where is radioactive iodine used?
9. What can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injec-
tion?
10. What is it important to use when working with radioactive materials?

3. Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)?


1) Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radio-
active material in a given environment.
2) Radioactive contamination may also be an inevitable result of certain
processes, such as the release of radioactive xenon in nuclear fuel repro-
cessing.
3) In practice there is no such thing as zero radioactivity.
4) The hazards to people and the environment from radioactive contam-
ination depend on the nature of the radioactive contaminant, the level of con-
tamination, and the extent of the contamination.
5) Some radionuclides may be generally distributed throughout the
body and rapidly removed, as is the case with tritiated water.
6) If large quantities of radioactive iodine are inhaled or ingested, the
thyroid may be impaired or destroyed, while other tissues are affected to a
lesser extent.

4. Translate the following word groups.

nuclear medicine; nuclear power plant; surface contamination; longer-lived


isotopes; potentially lethal radiation levels; external radiation source; inter-
nally deposited radionuclides; much lower removal rates; common fission
product; pediatric thyroid cancer; personal protective equipment; contaminat-
ed plants; radioactive contamination

190
VIII. GRAMMAR REVISION: INFINITIVE

1. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Subjective In-


finitive Construction and Objective Infinitive Construction. (See the ta-
ble «Forms of Infinitive», Appendix 4).
a) They enable scientists to measure extremely small amounts of chemical
elements and isotopes present in released radioactive materials, thereby
providing information about the process which formed them.
b) All sample’s activity was found to be contained in the separated 54 hot
particles.
c) The activity of the individual particles was estimated to be in the range 0.1
to 2.0 Bq of americium- 241 and the average diameter was about 20 microm-
eters.
d) The safety trials were conducted to investigate the behaviour of the core of
nuclear devices under simulated faulty detonation conditions.
e) The activity of plutonium-239 was found to fall in the range 5 to 300 kBq,
although a particle with a level of about one MBq was also found.
f) In addition to plutonium, the particles were found to contain other elements.
g) In general, any facility for the processing of nuclear material is known to
release small, but detectable, amounts of radioactive and nonradioactive iso-
topes to the immediate environment.

2.1 Say what grammar the following sentences illustrate.

1. People who are externally contaminated can become internally con-


taminated if radioactive material gets into their bodies.
2. Radioactive contamination and radiation exposure could occur if ra-
dioactive materials are released into the environment as the result of an acci-
dent, an event in nature, or an act of terrorism.
3. If radioactive material is on your clothes, getting it away from you
will reduce the external contamination and decrease the risk of internal con-
tamination.
4. Radioactive contamination occurs when radioactive material is depos-
ited on or in an object or a person.
5.When a person is exposed to radiation, the energy penetrates the body.
6. Making sure that others do not come in contact with body fluids from
a contaminated person will help prevent contamination of other people in the
household.

191
IX. DETAILED READING

1. Read the text and do the tasks.

Radiation poisoning
Radiation poisoning, also called «radiation sickness» or a «creeping
dose», is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ion-
izing radiation. The term is generally used to refer to acute problems caused
by a large dosage of radiation in a short period, though this also has occurred
with long term exposure. The clinical name for «radiation sickness» is acute
radiation syndrome (ARS) as described by the CDC.

Fig. 12 (Source: Available at http://messybeast.com)

A chronic radiation syndrome does exist but is very uncommon; this has
been observed among workers in early radium source production sites and in
the early days of the nuclear program. A short exposure can result in acute
radiation syndrome; chronic radiation syndrome requires a prolonged high
level of exposure.
Radiation exposure can also increase the probability of contracting some
other diseases, mainly cancer, tumors, and genetic damage. These are re-
192
ferred to as the stochastic effects of radiation, and are not included in the
term radiation sickness.

Fig. 13 (Source: Available at http://atruthsolder.wordpress)

The use of radionuclides in science and industry is strictly regulated in


most countries. In the event of an accidental or deliberate release of radioac-
tive material, either evacuation or sheltering in place will be the recommend-
ed measures.
Measuring radiation dosage
The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose defined in terms of the ener-
gy actually deposited in the tissue. One rad is an absorbed dose of 0.01 joules
of energy per kilogram of tissue (or 100 ergs per gram). The more recent SI
unit is the gray, which is defined as 1 joule of deposited energy per kilogram
of tissue. Thus one gray is equal to 100 rad.
To accurately assess the risk of radiation, the absorbed dose energy in
rad is multiplied by the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation to get
the biological dose equivalent in rems. Rem stands for «Rontgen equivalent
in man». In SI units, the absorbed dose energy in grays is multiplied by the
same RBE to get a biological dose equivalent in sieverts (Sv). The sievert is
equal to 100 rem.

193
Fig. 14 (Source: Available at http://patrickcox.wordpress.co)

The RBE is a «quality factor», often denoted by the letter Q, which as-
sesses the damage to tissue caused by a particular type and energy of radia-
tion.

Fig. 15 (Source: Available at http://theknuckledraggers.blog)

For alpha particles Q may be as high as 20, so that one rad of alpha radi-
ation is equivalent to 20 rem. The Q of neutron radiation depends on their en-
ergy. However, for beta particles, x-rays, and gamma rays, Q is taken as one,
so that the rad and rem are equivalent for those radiation sources, as are the
gray and sievert.

194
Table of exposure levels and symptoms
Annual limit on intake is the derived limit for the amount of radioactive
material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a
year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by
the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent
of 5 rems (0.05 Sievert) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 Sie-
vert) to any individual organ or tissue. Dose-equivalents are presently stated
in sieverts (Sv):

Exposure level Symptoms


0.05–0.2 Sv No symptoms. A few researchers contend that low
(5–20 REM) dose radiation may be beneficial. 50 mSv is the yearly
federal limit for radiation workers in the United States.
In the UK the yearly limit for a classified radiation
worker is 20 mSv. In Canada and Brazil, the single-year
maximum is 50 mSv, but the maximum 5-year dose is
only 100 mSv. Company limits are usually stricter so as
not to violate federal limits.

0.2–0.5 Sv No noticeable symptoms. White blood cell count


(20–50 REM) decreases temporarily.

0.5–1 Sv Mild radiation sickness with headache and in-


(50–100 REM) creased risk of infection due to disruption of immunity
cells. Temporary male sterility is possible.

1–2 Sv Light radiation poisoning, 10% fatality after 30


(100–200 REM) days (LD 10/30). Typical symptoms include mild to
moderate nausea (50% probability at 2 Sv), with occa-
sional vomiting, beginning 3 to 6 hours after irradiation
and lasting for up to one day. This is followed by a 10 to
14 day latent phase, after which light symptoms like
general illness and fatigue appear (50% probability at 2
Sv). The immune system is depressed, with convales-
cence extended and increased risk of infection. Tempo-
rary male sterility is common. Spontaneous abortion or
stillbirth will occur in pregnant women.

2–3 Sv Moderate radiation poisoning, 35% fatality after 30


(200–300 REM) days (LD 35/30). Nausea is common (100% at 3 Sv),
195
with 50% risk of vomiting at 2.8 Sv. Symptoms onset at
1 to 6 hours after irradiation and last for 1 to 2 days. Af-
ter that, there is a 7 to 14 day latent phase, after which
the following symptoms appear: loss of hair all over the
body (50% probability at 3 Sv), fatigue and general ill-
ness. There is a massive loss of leukocytes (white blood
cells), greatly increasing the risk of infection. Perma-
nent female sterility is possible. Convalescence takes
one to several months.

3–4 Sv Severe radiation poisoning, 50% fatality after 30


(300–400 REM) days (LD 50/30). Other symptoms are similar to the 2–3
Sv dose, with uncontrollable bleeding in the mouth, un-
der the skin and in the kidneys (50% probability at 4 Sv)
after the latent phase.

4–6 Sv Acute radiation poisoning, 60% fatality after 30


(400–600 REM) days (LD 60/30). Fatality increases from 60% at 4.5 Sv
to 90% at 6 Sv (unless there is intense medical care).
Symptoms start half an hour to two hours after irradia-
tion and last for up to 2 days. After that, there is a 7 to
14 day latent phase, after which generally the same
symptoms appear as with 3-4 Sv irradiation, with in-
creased intensity. Female sterility is common at this
point. Convalescence takes several months to a year.
The primary causes of death (in general 2 to 12 weeks
after irradiation) are infections and internal bleeding.

6–10 Sv (600– Acute radiation poisoning, near 100% fatality after


1,000 REM) 14 days (LD 100/14). Survival depends on intense med-
ical care. Bone marrow is nearly or completely de-
stroyed, so a bone marrow transplant is required. Gastric
and intestinal tissue are severely damaged. Symptoms
start 15 to 30 minutes after irradiation and last for up to
2 days. Subsequently, there is a 5 to 10 day latent phase,
after which the person dies of infection or internal
bleeding. Recovery would take several years and proba-
bly would never be complete.

196
10–50 Sv Acute radiation poisoning, 100% fatality after 7
(1,000–5,000 days (LD 100/7). An exposure this high leads to sponta-
REM) neous symptoms after 5 to 30 minutes. After powerful
fatigue and immediate nausea caused by direct activa-
tion of chemical receptors in the brain by the irradiation,
there is a period of several days of comparative well-
being, called the latent (or "walking ghost") phase. After
that, cell death in the gastric and intestinal tissue, caus-
ing massive diarrhea, intestinal bleeding and loss of wa-
ter, leads to water-electrolyte imbalance. Death sets in
with delirium and coma due to breakdown of circula-
tion. Death is currently inevitable; the only treatment
that can be offered is pain management.

More than 50 A worker receiving 100 Sv (10,000 REM) in an


Sv (>5,000 accident at Wood River, Rhode Island, USA on 24 July
REM) 1964 survived for 49 hours after exposure, and an op-
erator named Cecil Kelley who received between 60 and
180 Sv (18,000 REM) to his upper body in an accident
at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA on 30 December
1958 survived for 36 hours; details of this accident can
be found in the journal "Los Alamos Science", Number
23 (1995).

(http://www. How to respond to a radiation threat.mht)

2. Translate these phrases into English.


Зараженный человек; в виде пыли, порошка; вдыхать
радиоактивные материалы; через открытую рану; осаждаться на разных
органах тела человека; всасываться через кожу; проникать в тело
человека; для того, чтобы человек подвергся заражению; удаляться из
тела человека через кровь, пот, мочу и испражнения; находясь слишком
близко к радиоактивным материалам; могут попадать в окружающую
среду следующими способами; авария на атомной станции; испытание
ядерного оружия; радиоактивная пыль; содержать радиоактивные
материалы; предотвращать заражение; другими словами; так как
радиацию нельзя увидеть или почувствовать; ограничение загрязнения;
снизить риск внутреннего заражения; сократить время воздействия;
избегать распространения заражения; принимать лекарственные
препараты.
197
3. Complete these sentences using the information from the text.
1. A short exposure can result in acute radiation syndrome; chronic radiation
syndrome …………………….. .
2. The clinical name for «radiation sickness» is …………………………….. .
3. The use of radionuclides in science and industry is …………………… .
4. To accurately assess the risk of radiation, the absorbed dose energy in rad
is multiplied by ……………………………………………………………… .
5. The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose defined in terms of ………… .
6. Thus one gray is equal …….. .
7. In the event of an accidental or deliberate release of radioactive material,
either evacuation or ……………………………………………………….. .
8. Radiation poisoning, also called «radiation sickness» or a «creeping dose»,
is a form of …………………………………………………………………. .
9. Dose-equivalents are presently stated …………………………………. .
10. One rad is an absorbed dose of ………………………………………….. .

4. Find the words to the following definitions and translate them into Rus-
sian.

1 a) is a unit of absorbed radiation dose defined in terms of the en-


ergy actually deposited in the tissue
2 b) is an absorbed dose of 0.01 joules of energy per kilogram of
tissue (or 100 ergs per gram)
3 c) is equal to 100 rad
4 d) is equal to 100 rem
5 e) is the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken
into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a
year
6 f) is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year
by the reference man that would result in a committed effective
dose equivalent of 5 rems or a committed dose equivalent of 50
rems to any individual organ or tissue
7 g) is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure
to ionizing radiation

198
X. WRITING

1. Read the following questions, then listen to the tape and answer them.
You may take notes while listening. Finally, write a report on this tragic
event.

Fig. 16 Soviet nuclear submarine

1. What was the first Soviet nuclear submarine K-19 equipped with?

2. Who was the captain of this nuclear submarine?

3. Where was the major leak developed?

4. When did it happen?

5. What had disabled the long-range radio system?

6. What did the captain do when a cooling back-up system had not been in-
stalled?

7. How many engineering officers worked in high-radiation areas?

8. Did the team know about the degree of risk?

199
9. How many people died of radiation exposure within a week?

Fig. 17 Surviving crew members of nuclear submarine K-19

10. Whom was the treatment of crew members devised by?

11. What was the official diagnosis?

12. Did the surviving crew members have problems in obtaining future em-
ployment?

2. Prepare the presentation «The Chernobyl accident» using key phrases


and words (see Appendix 7). Use the information «Chernobyl Matryoshka»
p. 174 (Unit VII). See Appendix 6 (Chernobyl Era).

200
WORD LIST

English Russian
poisoning отравление, заражение
tissue ткань
acute крайний, критический
syndrome синдром, совокупность симптомов
disease болезнь
chronic хронический, затяжной (о болезни)
cancer рак
tumor опухоль, новообразование
stochastic случайный, стохастический
joule джоуль
sievert зиверт (единица СИ эквивалентной дозы из-
лучения)
gray грей ( единица СИ поглощенной дозы излу-
чения)
radium радий
genetic генетический
dosage дозировка, дозирование
excessive непомерный, избыточный
deliberate взвешенный, тщательно спланированный

201
REFERENCES
1. Р.Н. Абрамова, Болсуновская Л.М. Геология и нефтегазовое дело.
Техническая и профессиональная коммуникация. Томск: Издательство
Томского политехнического университета, 2008. 136 с.
2. А.Н. Олейник, А.А. Демина Английский язык. Пособие для аспи-
рантов. Томск, 2000.
3. Л.П. Рихванов «Радиоактивные элементы в окружающей среде и
проблемы радиоэкологии», Томск, 2009 .
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005-05-20.
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.
5. Acute Radiation Syndrome, National Center for Environmental
Health/Radiation Studies Branch, 2002-04-09,
http://www.umt.edu/research/Eh/pdf/AcuteRadiationSyndrome.pdf
6. «Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Fact Sheet for Physicians». Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. 2005-03-18.
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/arsphysicianfactsheet.asp.
7. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, Revised ed. 1962, p. 578
8. Radiation sickness-overview, accessed on April 16, 2009,
www.umm.edu/ency/article/000026.htm.
9. Radiation sickness, Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia, accessed on
April 16, 2009, www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000026.htm.
10. «The Chernobyl Accident and Its Consequences». The International
Nuclear Safety Center. 1995. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10.
http://www.insc.anl.gov/neisb/neisb4/NEISB_3.3.A1.1.html. Retrieved on
2008-09-18.
11. «Ushering in the era of nuclear terrorism», by Patterson, Andrew J.
MD, PhD, Critical Care Medicine, v. 35, p.953-954, 2007.
12. http://www.envimed.com/emb08.shtml
13. Luckey, Thomas (1999-05). «Nature With Ionizing Radiation: A Pro-
vocative Hypothesis». Nutrition and Cancer 34 (1).
14. «10 CFR 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults». United States
Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1991-05-21. http://www.nrc.gov/reading-
rm/doc-collections/cfr/part020/part020-1201.html.
15. http://www.Marie Curie and the history of radioactivity. Marie Curie’s
blog.htm
16. http://www.Radioactivity Figures.htm
17. http://www.Radioactivity history for radioactivity century and 20 years
of LAPP.htm

202
18. http://www.The discovery of Radioactivity The Dawn of the Nuclear
Age.htm
19. Pier Roberto Danesi «Investigating fallout from nuclear testing. Hot
particles and the Cold War», IAEA Bulletin, 40/4/1998
20. http://www.Basic sources of radon in the environment.htm
21. http://www.A citizen’s to radon.htm
22. http://www.Consumer’s guide to radon reduction.htm
23. http://www.March nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear
power plant.blogs.scientificamerican.com
24.http://www.Growing health fears as plutonium discovered at Fukushima
(Monday 28 march 2011 japan).htm
25.Overview of plutonium and its health effects by Casey Burns April, 2002
26.Toxicological profile for plutonium U.S. Department of health and human
services. Public health service November, 2010
27.Robert E. Henkin. Treatment of radiation exposure and contamina-
tion,2005
28.http://www.How to respond to a radiation threat.mht
29.http://www.Health effects of radiation exposure and radioactive contami-
nation.mht

203
APPENDIX

204
APPENDIX 1

PASSIVE VOICE

Present Past Future


Simple Am (is, are)+ Part Was (were)+ Part Shall (will) be +
(to be + Part II) II (ed, V3 ) II (ed, V3 ) Part II (ed, V3 )
________________ ______________ ______________
{+} Radioecology is {+} Radioecology {+} Radioecology
related to radiobiolo- was related to ra- will be related to
gy. diobiology many radiobiology next
{?} Is radioecology years ago. century.
related to radiobiolo- {?} Was radioe- {?} Will radioe-
gy? cology related to cology be related
{–} Radioecology is radiobiology many to radiobiology
not related to radio- years ago? next century?
biology. {–} Radioecology {–} Radioecology
was not related to will not be related
radiobiology many to radiobiology
years ago. next century.
Continuous (Am (is, are) being Was (were) be-
(to be being + + Part II (ed, V3 ) ing + Part II (ed, –––––
Part II) V3 )
________________ ______________
{+} Radioecology is {+} Radioecology
being studied this was being studied
semester. last semester.
{?} Is radioecology {?} Was radioe-
being studied this cology being stud-
semester? ied last semester?
{–} Radioecology is {–} Radioecology
not being studied this was not being
semester. studied last semes-
ter.

205
Perfect Have (has) been + Had been + Part Shall (will) have
(to have been + Part II (ed, V3 ) II (ed, V3 ) been + Part II
Part II) (ed, V3 )
________________ ______________ ______________
{+} Radioecology {+} Radioecology {+} Radioecology
has already been had been studied will have been
studied. by December last studied by next
{?} Has radioecology year. year.
been studied yet? {?} Had radioe- {?} Will radioe-
{–} Radioecology cology been stud- cology have been
has not been studied ied? studied?
yet. {–} Radioecology {–} Radioecology
had not been stud- will not have been
ied. studied.

206
APPENDIX 2

FORMS OF GERUND

Forms of Gerund Active Voice Passive Voice


Simple Gerund contaminating being contaminated
Perfect Gerund having contaminated having been contaminated

FORMS OF PARTICIPLE

Forms Active Passive


of Participle Voice Voice
Present contaminating being contaminated
Participle I
Past –––––– contaminated
Participle II
Perfect having contaminated having been contaminated
Participle

207
APPENDIX 3

CONDITIONALS

Types of con- The conditional clause The main clause


ditionals
Zero condi- If + Present Simple Present Simple
tional
e.g. If you respire I-131 or it its uptake into the human
contaminates milk or water, body gives rise to risk of
thyroid cancer.
Type 1 Con- If + Present tenses Future/Present Continu-
ditional ous/Imperative
e.g. If you take a radionuclide it will pass through your
into your body, lungs and into your blood
system.
e.g. If you have time to evacu- do it as fast as you can.
ate people according to their
exposure,
Type 2 Con- If +Past Simple/Continuous would + bare infinitive
ditional
e.g. If decontamination of the it would raise fears in Ja-
surrounding farm land affect- pan.
ed by plutonium fallout were
costly,

Type 3 Con- If +Past Perfect would + have +past parti-


ditional ciple
e.g. If atmospheric testing had over 5 tons of plutonium
not been banned, would not have been dis-
persed in the atmosphere in
the form of small particles
blown around the globe by
the wind.

208
APPENDIX 4

FORMS OF INFINITIVE

Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous


Simultaneousness Priority
Active to contami- to be contami- to have con- to have been con-
nate nating taminated taminating
Passive To be con- –––– To have been –––––
taminated contaminated

COMPLEX OBJECT

Noun (Common case) } + Infinitive


Pronoun (Objective case) } + Infinitive

COMPLEX SUBJECT
Subject + Predicate + Infinitive
Noun (Common case) (Passive Voice)
Pronoun (Nominative case) or
(Active Voice)

Note: Active Voice ⇦ to seem, to appear – казаться;


to prove, to turn out – оказаться; to happen, to chance – случайно оказаться
to be likely – вероятно; to be unlikely – маловероятно;
to be sure – несомненно; to be certain – обязательно

209
Infinitive

At the At the end After the After last, After the


beginning of the subject first, predicate
of the sentence second
sentence

Function Function Function Function Function


of the of the ad- of the of the of the
subject verbial attribute attribute object
modifier

Перевод: Перевод: Перевод: Перевод: Перевод:


существи- для + сущ. придат. кто (что) неопреде-
тельным или предлож.: и глагол ленной
или не- чтобы + который в том же формой
опреде- неопреде- может, времени, глагола
ленной ленная который что и
формой форма будет глагол гл.
глагола глагола предлож.
210
APPENDIX 7

SPEECH PRESENTATION

Good morning. My name’s ……… Ladies and gentlemen, it’s a honor to


have the opportunity to address such a distinguished audience.
Good morning. Let me start by saying just a few words about my own
background. I am ………….(started out in ……..)
Welcome to……… I know I’ve met some of you, but just for the benefit
of those I haven’t, my name’s……………

Title \ subject (Introducing the subject)


I’d like to talk ( to you) today about……….
This morning I’m going to be talking about........
In my talk today I will be looking at.........
I’d like to start by giving you.................
I’m going to present the recent………..
to explain our position on………….
to brief you on ………….
to inform you about………….
to describe……………
The focus \ topic \ subject of my talk \ speech presentation\ pa-
per…………..
I’m here today to… consider describe
My purpose today is to review outline
………
What I want to do today is present discuss
to…
My objective today is introduce
to………
My main aim this afternoon is analyze
to…...
Purpose \ objective
We are here today to decide \ agree \ learn about……
211
The purpose of this talk is to update you on…… \ put you in the picture
about……. \ give you the background to………
This talk is designed to act as a springboard for discussion \ start the ball
rolling.

Length
I shall only take ( ) minutes of your time.
I plan to be brief
This should only take ( ) minutes.
Outline \ main parts
I have divided my presentation into X sections......
In the first section I will \ am going to describe.............
Then I will \ am going to go on to .........
After that I will am going to look at.........
Finally I will \ am going to..........
There are (2, 3 …..) points to consider. First I’ll talk about ….then….and
finally……
I am going to divide my talk into……sections.
I have divided the talk ( my report \ our findings \ this presentation) into
(three, four) sections \ parts
The subject can be looked at under the following headings
We can break this area down into the following trends….
Presenting, initially the talk’s organization
Firstly \ first of all I’d like to… talk about
Secondly \ then \ next I want to…. go over
Finally \ lastly\ last of all I’m going to….. consider
To start with….. I shall look at
analyze
discuss
review
I shall be talking about \ going over \ looking at \ reviewing \ analyzing
Closing a point or selection \ changing the subject
Well, I think that’s all I want to say on……..
I think that concludes what I have to say about……
Moving on now to……..
Let me turn now to……
If we can now look at……….
Having considered
discussed
212
gone over
looked at let’s now turn to…..
examined
reviewed
analyzed
Linking subjects in your talk \ referring back
As I said earlier……
As I mentioned earlier…….
As we saw earlier…….
I will be coming back to this later…….
I will return to this point later
Later, I will be talking about…….
If you have a look at this figure here.......
As you can see from the table.......
This particular slide shows.......
Giving examples
For example,
For instance,….
Such as……
X can be shown \ illustrated\ exemplified by
A case in point is...........
i. e. (pronounced “eye” and “ee” as in “see”

Revising
The main explanation for this is……
A key problem…..
There are two reasons \ explanations for this. First…Second……
This is \ can be explained by two factors. First…. Second………..
This is due to…… and also by…….
One reason for this is….. Another reason is………
Involving your audience \ checking that your listeners understand
(asking rhetorical questions)
As you all know
As I’m sure you are all aware (of)
Are you with me so far?
Is that clear?
Some of you may be wondering how can this be done?
Am I right in thinking that......?

213
So, just how can this be achieved?
You may be wondering how long will this take?
Drawing conclusions
This means that...........
Consequently........
As a result............
Therefore...........
Inviting questions and feedback from the audience
Are there any questions so far?
Feel free to ask if you have any questions.
I welcome questions if at any point you don’t understand something.
If you have any questions about this, please do \ask.
Signaling the end
Summarizing So, we have looked at…. and we’ve seen
that……
To put it in a nutshell…………
To put it briefly……..
To summarize, I’d like to……..
I would just like to finish by saying........
To finish I would just like to remind
you......
To recap.........
The main thing\s to remember is\are....
The point that I am making here is
that.....
Thanking the audience I would like to thank you for your inter-
est and attention
Thank you (very much) for your atten-
tion.
In conclusion, thank you.......
Questions I’d glad to answer any questions
If you have any questions please I’m
ready to answer them.
Do you have any questions?

(Абрамова Р.Н., Болсуновская Л.М. Геология и нефтегазовое дело. Техническая и


профессиональная коммуникацияю 2008. 136 с.)

214
CONTENTS

Unit I
INTRODUCTION TO RADIOECOLOGY ......................................................................... 3
Unit II
HISTORY OF RADIOACTIVITY .................................................................................... 29
Unit III
LIVES DEVOTED TO RESEARCH................................................................................. 57
Unit IV
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: HOT PARTICLES ............ 93
Unit V
RADON AS A RADIATION FACTOR IN THE ENVIRONMENT.............................. 109
Unit VI
PLUTONIUM AS ONE OF THE BASIC DOSE FORMING ANTHROPOGENIC
RADIONUCLIDES.......................................................................................................... 140
Unit VII
RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AND RADIATION EXPOSURE ..................... 173
References ........................................................................................................................ 202
APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................... 204
APPENDIX 1
Passive Voice ................................................................................................................... 205
APPENDIX 2
Forms of Gerund .............................................................................................................. 207
Forms of Participle ........................................................................................................... 207
APPENDIX 3
Conditionals...................................................................................................................... 208
APPENDIX 4
Forms of Infinitive............................................................................................................ 209
Complex Object ................................................................................................................ 209
Complex Subject .............................................................................................................. 209
APPENDIX 5
Glossary of Nuclear Science Terms ......................... Ошибка! Закладка не определена.
APPENDIX 6
A brief Chronology of Radiation and Protection ..... Ошибка! Закладка не определена.
APPENDIX 7
Speech Presentation .......................................................................................................... 211
APPENDIX 8
Keys and Tapescripts ................................................ Ошибка! Закладка не определена.

215

Оценить