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Правительство Москвы

Департамент образования города Москвы


Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Московский городской педагогический университет

Learning to Write in English


Учебное пособие
по практике письменной речи английского языка
для студентов 1-го курса
филологических факультетов
и факультетов иностранных языков
педагогических вузов

Москва

2008
3
Предисловие
УДК 803
ББК 81.432.1я73 Пособие "Learning to Write in English" предназначено для
L-44 студентов 1-го курса филологических факультетов и
Печатается по решению факультетов иностранных языков педагогических
Редакционно-издательского совета ГОУ ВПО МГПУ университетов. Оно ставит своей целью помочь изучающим
английский язык выработать умение грамотно излагать свои
Авторы-составители: мысли на письме, передавать содержание услышанного или
д.ф.н., проф. О.В.Афанасьева, прочитанного текстов. Работа над выработкой умения
к.ф.н., проф. И.В.Михеева, грамотного письма начинается на 1-ом курсе. При этом
к.ф.н., проф. К.М.Баранова, студентов приучают, прежде всего, писать диктанты и
к.ф.н., доц. О.В.Вострикова, изложения. Оба эти вида письменной речи оказываются весьма
к.ф.н., доц. Т.А.Симонян значимыми для учащихся, так как они способствуют созданию
навыка грамотного орфографического письма. Для изучающих
английский язык это особенно важно. Как известно,
Ответственный редактор: произношение слова и его написание зачастую сильно
доктор филологических наук, профессор О.В.Афанасьева различаются. Классическим примером в этом отношении
является слово daughter, состоящее из восьми букв и только
четырех звуков ['dO:tq]. Орфография английских слов
Рецензенты:
оказывается весьма сложной для изучающих английский язык в
доктор филологических наук, профессор Е.А.Дюжикова
силу наличия в нем многочисленных дифтонгов ch, sh, ow, ou,
кандидат филологических наук, профессор Ю.Е.Ваулина
oi, ai, которые часто не дифференцируются учащимися.
Помимо этого в английском языке широко представлена
лексическая омонимия. Звучащие одинаково, но отличающиеся
L-44 Learning to Write in English: Учебное пособие
друг от друга своим написанием слова (there/their; plane/plain;
по практике письменной речи английского языка для
son/sun и т.д.), вызывают значительные затруднения у
студентов 1-го курса филологических факультетов и
студентов.
факультетов иностранных языков педагогических вузов /
Снять эти трудности в большой степени помогает
Авторы-сост.: О.В.Афанасьева, И.В.Михеева,
регулярное написание диктантов и изложений, тексты для
К.М.Баранова, О.В.Вострикова, Т.А.Симонян. – М.: МГПУ,
которых и представлены в данном пособии. Структурно оно
2008. – 86с.
состоит из двух частей, каждая из которых, в свою очередь,
содержат два раздела (sections).

 МГПУ, 2008. 4
Первая часть пособия DICTATIONS включает в себя две Четвёртый раздел представлен семью текстами, в основе
разновидности диктантов (Section One: Topical Dictations; Section которых лежат сказочные сюжеты. Практически все они (за
Two: Narrative Dictations). исключением отрывка How the Tiger Got His Stripes из книги
Вторая часть RENDERINGS предлагает повествования для Р.Киплинга The Jungle Book), – английские народные сказки в
написания изложений. С одной стороны, это небольшие рассказы с современной обработке. В большинстве текстов есть
яркими, запоминающимися сюжетами (Section Three: Stories for значительные вкрапления, передающие непосредственно речь
Rendering), а с другой – английские сказки (Section Four: Fairy героев. Так как перевод прямой речи в косвенную является
Tales for Rendering). одним из самых сложных феноменов грамматики английского
Первый раздел пособия Topical Dictations содержит 35 языка, особенно, если это сопровождается согласованием
небольших диктантов, которые соотнесены с 14 темами (учебными времен, то выполнение заданий из третьего и четвёртого
ситуациями), являющимися базисными для изучающих разделов пособия поможет учащимся сформировать также и
английский язык. К последним можно отнести следующие: данный важный грамматический навык на письме.
1. Meeting People Данное пособие может быть использовано двояко. Во-
2. Your Health первых, в качестве самоучителя, когда студенты готовятся к
3. Family Life написанию диктантов дома. Они читают заданный им
4. Jobs and Occupations преподавателем текст, обращая внимание на незнакомые и
5. Schooling сложные с орфографической точки зрения слова, затем
6. Place to Live in несколько раз прописывают сложные для них единицы (они
7. Meals and Food могут быть различными для разных студентов), а затем, слушая
8. Daily Routine аудиозапись, пытаются написать тот или иной диктант, таким
9. Climate and Weather образом, подготавливая себя к этой работе в аудитории.
10. Pastimes Во-вторых, это пособие может быть использовано
11. Town Life преподавателями английского языка в качестве реальных
12. Shopping материалов для написания диктантов и изложений в классе с
13. Theatre предварительной подготовкой или без нее в зависимости от
14. Appearance уровня владения английским языком студентов той или иной
Во втором разделе пособия, состоящем из 20 диктантов, группы.
собраны короткие повествования на самые различные темы, а Помимо основной цели – обучение грамотной письменной
также легенды Британских островов в кратком изложении, речи – использование данного пособия, безусловно, расширяет
представляющие собой аутентичные тексты, содержащие и обогащает вокабуляр студентов и способствует более
определенное количество географических наименований, названий глубокому их проникновению в структуру и систему
весьма сложных для написания. изучаемого языка.
Третий раздел содержит 7 текстов повествовательного
характера, преимущественно основанных на рассказах английских
и американских авторов.
5
SECTION 1
TOPICAL DICTATIONS

Topic One: Meeting People

Dictation 1
Things People Say
Being polite in your own language is natural to you, and you don't
usually need to think about it. But how you are polite in one
language can be very different from how you are polite in another,
and you may need to think about this when you are in Britain.
The most important thing to remember is that people will expect
you to be polite in the way that is normal to them. Words and
phrases such as "please", "thank you" and "excuse me" are used very
often in Britain.
Learning about intonation will also help you to sound authentic
Dictations when you are talking to people in English. Intonation is the different
ways you make your voice rise and fall as you speak. It can show as
much about your attitude – happy, bored, angry etc. – as the words
you use, so it needs to be suitable for what you are saying. A useful
way to learn about intonation is to listen to people in various
situations and try to copy them in similar ones.
You might find it interesting to look for differences between
your language and English. And it could help you not to make
mistakes. Sometimes you may expect that you should say something
but find that this is not normally done; when someone thanks you,
for example, it's often not necessary to make any reply. In other
cases a translation of what you would rather say in your own
language may not be the right thing in English... An occasion when
you want to speak to a stranger may be an example. The English
words "Mr" and "Miss" can't be used without the person's surname.
"Sir" and "Madam", however, are only referred to a customer in
places like shops and restaurants. So what they often do instead is
get someone's attention by saying "Excuse me".

7 8
The words "Hello" and "Goodbye" don't usually cause problems, near the woods might be called Wood, or if he lived near the village
but there are some variations here, too. In the evening and at night green he might be called John Green.
people don't use "Goodnight" to greet each other. It's a way of saying And then, of course, the work that a person did was a good way
"Goodbye". You may also notice that British people don't shake hands to identify him. So we have surnames like Smith, Taylor, and
or kiss when they meet as frequently as people do in many countries, Wright ("wright" means someone who does mechanical work) and
though they regularly shake hands when they're introduced. Quite often many others.
you'll find that you already have enough English to sound perfect.
Just as it's easier to visit a foreign country if you know something
about the language, it's also an advantage to be aware of things people Topic Two: Your Health
do there. It will help, therefore, if you are ready to tell the customs in
your country from those in Britain. Dictation 3
Various Diseases
Dictation 2 As medicine has progressed, many vaccines and cures have been
How Long Have People Been Using Surnames? developed for some of the diseases the world has encountered.
"Hey, Shorty!" "Hi, Skinny." "Here comes Blondie." Does it sound However, because the evolution of disease organisms is very rapid,
familiar to you? It's a perfectly natural way to call people – give them a even with vaccines we have difficulty providing full immunity to
name that describes them. And that's exactly how names were given many illnesses, and finding the proper treatment remains extremely
originally. A golden-haired girl might be called Blanch (French for tough.
"white"); a boy may be named David because it means "beloved". Diseases can be classified into three general groups. There are
A first name was all anybody had for thousands of years. Then, conditions that are infectious meaning that they are caused by an
about the time the Normans conquered England in 1066, last names or infection through which a virus or other parasite enters the body.
surnames, were added to identify people better. The first name wasn't Hereditary diseases are genetic, meaning that they are passed
enough to tell one person from another. For example, there might be down from generation to generation. Heredity is not a "cause," and
two Davids in town, and one of them was quite lazy. So people began some of the diseases of unknown origin may be transmitted from
to call this one "David do little". And this became David Doolittle. parent to offspring.
The surnames were originally called "ekenames". The word ''eke" Finally, there are diseases for which there is no known reason.
meant "also". And by the way the word "nickname" came from this old In some cases, it is possible that heredity, diet, or some other aspect
word. When people got into the habit of giving a person two names of human existence is vital, but it is not certain.
they thought of many ways of creating this second name. In spite of the great number of various diseases people always
For example, one way was to mention the father's name. If John try to take care of their health and hope that in future the scientists
had a father called William, he might be called John Williamson, or will find unique remedies for all of them.
John Williams, or John Wilson (Will's son), or John Wills.
Another good way to identify people with second names was to
mention the place where they lived or came from. A person who lived

9 10
Dictation 4* that with the development of modern medicine some way out will be
Diseases and Common Ailments found.
Nowadays because of quite a number of reasons people often fall ill and
get various diseases when the normal structure or function of the body
is harmed or weakened. A disease may last a brief or a long time and Topic Three: Family Life
may be mild or severe. Some of them such as a common cold may
disappear after a few days without any treatment. Others require Dictation 5
medical interference to be cured. And some even may need a lifetime The Adams Family
supervision. The Adams live in the suburbs of Glasgow. They are an extended
Favourable standards of living help promote health. Also the body family: a mother, a father, five children, grandparents and their
itself has defenses against any ailment. But now and then they give way domestic animals. Mr Adams is a farmer as both of his parents. Old
and an illness occurs as the germs break through. Something goes Mr and Mrs Adams, are always on the farm. They like their cows,
wrong with certain chemical reactions in the body. sheep, horses and geese and are responsible for feeding them.
How do people know they are ill? Often they have symptoms such The Adams' children don't go to school as they are little. Polly
as pain, nausea, a sore throat, lack of appetite, fatigue, or fever. and Sam are four-year-old twins. Fred is five. Ann is three and Alice
However, a disease may be present without a person knowing it. is just a toddler. They are all good friends and enjoy playing with
Sometimes it is discovered during a routine health examination. their dog. The dog's name is Jake. He loves running and jumping.
Illnesses, that can be passed along by an infected person either The boys enjoy riding their bikes. Fred is fond of watching
directly or indirectly are called infectious or communicable. In previous television but Sam hates doing it because he thinks this pastime
centuries they were a serious problem. Today as a result of improved boring.
hygiene and living conditions, new drugs as well as widespread Mrs Adams is a school teacher. She teaches music to boys and
vaccines, the picture has changed. Malaria, yellow fever, scarlet fever, girls. She has a lot of talented pupils though some of them are rather
small pox and diphtheria have been almost wiped out. Though, they naughty. Many of them can play the piano, guitar or violin
still pose problems in certain areas of the world. wonderfully and enjoy singing Scottish folk songs. They like to
A cold is the most common ailment. So far, scientists have listen to Mrs Adams who plays various musical instruments greatly.
identified more than 100 different viruses capable of causing it. For this
reason, no vaccine exists to immunize against colds. Dictation 6
Some diseases are not the result of harmful microorganisms.They My Aunt Emily
cannot be passed from person to person. No immunity can be produced Of all my relatives, I like my Aunt Emily best. She's my mother's
for them and they are called noncommunicable. Among them are most youngest sister. She has never been married, and she lives alone in a
diseases of the heart, allergy and a lot of others. So, there is still a hope small village near Bath. She is in her late fifties, but quite young in
spirit. She has a fair complexion, thick brown hair which she wears
11 in a bun, and shrewd hazel eyes. She has a kind face, and when you
meet her, the first thing you notice is her lovely, radiant smile. Her
*
Данные тексты ориентированы на студентов с высоким уровнем
12
владения английского языка.
face is a little wrinkled now, but I think she is still attractive. She is the for six months and couldn't find the problem. David solved it in five
sort of person you can always turn to if you have a problem. days' time.
She likes reading and gardening, and she goes for long walks over How could David reach such success? He himself answers this
the hills with her dog, Spot. Aunt Emily is a very active person. Either question: "You have to be ambitious, efficient, and versatile and
she's constantly making or repairing something or helping others. She believe that you are the best."
does shopping for old-aged pensioners in the village. She is extremely
generous, but a bit quarrelsome with the people who don't agree with Dictation 8
her. I hope that I will be cheerful and contented as she is when I am her Choosing an Occupation
age. One of the most difficult problems a young person faces is deciding
what to do for a career. There are individuals, of course, who from
the time they are six years old know that they want to be either
Topic Four: Jobs and Occupations surgeons, or pilots, or fire fighters. But the majority of us do not get
around to making a decision about our future until somebody or
Dictation 7 something forces us.
David the Teenage Tycoon. Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things
Teenager David Bolton has just put eight thousand pounds in the bank you have to think about as you try to make up your mind what you
– after only six months of part-time work as a computer consultant. He would like to do. You may find that you will have to take special
is an electronics expert from South London who has fast established a courses to qualify for a particular kind of work, or you will need to
reputation as one of the country's top troubleshooters – the person to get some actual experience to gain enough knowledge about a
turn to if no one else can manage. certain job.
David is in his late teens. His first steps to fame and fortune he Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice
began being only nine when his parents bought him a computer. He and help while realizing your ambition. At most schools, there are
soon learned to program it and started saving money to buy a better career advisors who are professionally qualified to counsel you and
one. However, only a year ago he decided to get serious about to give detailed information about the right qualifications. And you
computing. He went to a night school to study how to write business can talk over your ideas with family members and friends who are
programmes, and did a correspondence course with an American always ready to listen and to give suggestions. But even if you get
college. other people involved in helping you make the necessary decision.
David got in touch with computer sellers, who were so impressed Self-evaluation is also an important part of the process. In the end,
by his knowledge that gave him software worth more than three it's your own future and it's up to you to make the final choice.
thousand pounds. In return he has to send them a monthly report saying
what he has done and what his plans are. He helps companies by Dictation 9*
suggesting which computers they should buy, and by writing individual Job Resume
programmes for them. An excellent resume may help you get the job of your dream and a
He can work more quickly than many older professionals. In one poor one may mean a lost opportunity. Since this is the first piece of
case, he went to a foreign firm where their programmers had worked information an employer will receive about you, it is critically
13 14
important that your Curriculum Vitae or CV is well written. It should Topic Five: Schooling
be presented at the beginning of any interview that you have with a
company. Ideally, a resume must not be longer than one page. The Dictation 10
contents are to be brief. Any CV begins with personal data, name, My New School
address, and telephone number centered at the top. My name is Mary Barker. This is my new school. I like it very
After it, a statement of intent or job objective must be written. It much. We have fifteen classrooms and a hall. The rooms are big.
has to be properly thought over, as it will influence how you will Eight of them are upstairs. The hall and the restrooms are
compile the rest of the resume. Think about your job search and career downstairs. Our school garden is very beautiful. We have a lot of
goals carefully, write them down in a way that shows you have given flowers such as asters, daffodils, lilies, chrysanthemums and some
this much thought. Then describe your education. List the universities, trees in it. We like to sit on the green lawns under the oak trees
institutes and colleges you have attended in reverse chronological order. when our classes are over. At twelve o'clock we always have lunch
Any studying you have done abroad is to be included and courses that together; sometimes we have it in the school yard.
you have taken are relevant. If you graduated with honours, state this My classroom is near the gym. The desks there are arranged in a
fact definitely. A "red diploma" can be called "graduated with high horseshoe, so we can discuss everything. We have a lot of
honours" in English. cupboards with different stationery in our classroom. We have a big
Your working experience is the next section. Enumerate it starting green three-part blackboard, an overhead projector, a video and tape
with your most recent place of employment and work backwards. Spell recorders and a television. You can also notice potted plants on the
out the exact dates, your position, and the name of the company you windowsills. Our classroom is spacious, cosy and light. We enjoy
were employed for. Provide information about your responsibilities. studying there very much.
Give them in short statements that do not include the words "my" or
"I". Do not use complete sentences! Dictation 11
Your language skills, computer abilities, and any other talent may My School
follow after that. Extracurricular activities such as student or My school is famous for its high-quality education and strict
professional organizations you belong to, travel, sports and hobbies can discipline. It is very well-equipped as on the ground floor there is a
be of some benefit. gym, a canteen, a library and workshops. On the first floor there is a
The last part of your resume is the reference section. Name at least large assembly hall, a home economics room, a computer class and a
two people, not related to you, who can describe your qualification for language laboratory. On the second floor there are physics,
the job. Write their names, titles, places of work, and telephone chemistry and biology labs.
numbers. If you do not have space on your CV for this, write "available Classes begin at nine o'clock in the morning. Each of them lasts
upon request." You will then be expected to provide all this to a forty minutes. After three or four lessons there is a thirty minute
prospective employer when necessary. break. During it pupils go to the canteen to have lunch. The classes
Mind the style and format are of significant importance. Your are over at four o'clock in the afternoon and out-of-class activities
resume must be typed, preferably on a computer in order to organize it begin. The social and cultural life in the school is well-organized.
most effectively. A neat and precise resume with no spelling mistakes For example, there is an orchestra, a choir, an art studio and an
will give the impression that you are accurate and take care of details. International Friendship Club.
15 16
According to the curriculum we study Russian, literature, know that occasionally this really can occur, but very often it is
mathematics, biology, geography, physics, chemistry, English, history, difficult to find evidence of such cases. A great many experiments
computer programming. We also have classes of music, physical have been made but the existence of ESP is still controversial.
education, arts and crafts.
My favourite subject is English. I like to learn irregular verbs, to
act out dialogues and discuss something interesting. Sometimes we are Topic Six: Place to Live in
asked to write compositions, to make a report or learn poems by heart.
On the contrary I am not very good at sciences. I always fail to Dictation 13
memorize formulas and terms properly. What's more some of the The Remarkable Suite
teachers are not imaginative enough and the lessons are a little bit dull. The suite at Claridge's was not at all large, but it was very
I like my class. Everybody is so friendly and easy to get along comfortable, and the sitting room was one of the most charming I'd
with. I am on good terms with my classmates and we often spend our ever seen, reminding you of the Victorian period.
free time together. What made it so unusual and special was the fireplace that
really worked and the baby cot that stood in a corner near the tall
Dictation 12* windows. These were dressed with plum-coloured velvet draperies,
What Do We Know about ESP? while an oriental carpet spread its rich colour underfoot.
How do we know what is going on in the world around us? We use our A big sofa covered in silk and matching armchairs, along with
senses. Through them we can see, hear, feel, smell and taste. an antique coffee table, were arranged in front of the white marble
But there are some scientists who suppose that man can get fireplace; here an eye-catching mirror hung over the mantel.
information without the use of the senses. They think that human mind Adding to the mood created by the elegant background were
has quite enough powers that have not yet been understood, and so it is such things as a remarkable desk, a china cabinet filled with antique
possible to get information that has not passed through the senses. plates, and various small occasional tables made of mahogany. In
The process is called "extrasensory perception", or ESP. fact, so authentic was the decorative scheme that I felt as if I had
"Extrasensory" means "beyond understanding". Many of the research been whisked back into another era.
workers who have studied it are psychologists, and their subject is Vases of flowers, a bowl of fruit, a tray of drinks, newspapers
called "parapsychology". and magazines all helped to make the room seem even more homey
They believe that there are three kinds of extrasensory perception. and inviting. It was especially cosy that November night, with the
An example of one is when somebody is able to read the thoughts in the fire burning merrily in the grate and the pink-shaded lamps turned
mind of another person or it seems so. The second kind of ESP is on.
illustrated by a following example: a woman living in the suburbs
dreams that her daughter, who lives downtown, was hurt in a road Dictation 14*
accident. The next day she learns that a car really hit her daughter the My Room
night before. As one walks into my room a large black and white spot catches his
The third type of ESP is when people seem to be able to look into eye. This tapestry reveals itself to be a skin of a zebra whitch I
the future and know what will happen and it is called clairvoyance. We
17 18
acquired on my trip through Southern Africa. Turning to the right the walls were cracked and they had to be replastered. The broken
visitor sees other things from far away lands mounted on the wall. They chimney pots were taken down and new ones were fixed in their
range from Greek swords to a unique lion-hunting arrow. places. The old whitewash had to be washed off and the old paper
Below this array of seemingly ancient subjects is a large Sony was scraped off the walls. The air was full of the sounds of
stereo system I received for my birthday this year. A turn to the left hammering and sawing, the ringing of trowels, the rattle of pails, the
now unveils a shelf containing hardback books, an alarm clock, my splashing of water brushes, and the scraping of the stripping knives
trophies, ribbons, CDs and tapes. This storage space is really an used by those who were working…
unnecessary extra but it does help keep my room from being messy.
Up against this same wall is my bed. It was handed down from my Dictation 16*
great grandmother and has been kept because of its value and A Tudor Mansion
sentiment. I believe this to be almost a mirror of my personality The mansion was built in 1563 and was typically Tudor in style. A
because I rarely change from my happy, reliable self and this bed has solid, stone house, square in shape yet graceful with many windows
not changed in over a century. The reverse side of it shows off a twin to and a tower built onto each of its four corners. The windows created
the first shelf. Unlike its companion, it holds some more prized a highly dramatic effect and filled the tower rooms with
possessions such as: a magazine collection, many artistic creations and extraordinary light. Diana, the hostess, called it a typical country
various instruments. Along the wall is my desk. It is divided into five dwelling, and protested that for all its historical significance it was
main parts: the surface, mechanical and scholastic things, as well as by no means a grand house any more and this was true. It was
assorted odds and ends. extremely well-designed, skillfully planned, even somewhat
compact for this type of a Tudor manor, and in comparison to some
Dictation 15* of the great homes in Yorkshire, it was small. Despite its size Diana
A New House found it difficult to run. It was kept with the help of Joe and Edith
It was a large old-fashioned three-storeyed building standing on an acre Parkinson, who had lived and worked there for over forty years.
of ground and situated about a mile outside the town of Mugsborough. They took care of all the interiors, and did laundry and cooking.
It stood back nearly two hundred yards from the main road and was The kitchen was as old as the building itself, and it had altered
reached by means of a by-road or lane, on each side of which was a very little within the years. Painted cool white it was long in shape.
hedge formed of hawthorn trees and blackberry bushes. This house had The fireplace at the far end of it was high to the ceiling, made of
been unoccupied for many years and it was now being altered and brick and mortar. It had a great hearth, an overhanging mantelshelf
renovated for its new owner. and old-fashioned ovens.
There were, altogether, about twenty-five men working there — The butler's pantry adjacent to the kitchen, had been updated
carpenters, plumbers, plasterers, bricklayers and painters, besides and remodelled by Diana, so that it better served her. She had put a
unskilled labourers. New floors were installed where the old ones were double-sized refrigerator, two dishwashers, and counters for food
destroyed, and upstairs two of the rooms were joined into one by preparation; above which hung lots of cabinets for china and all
demolishing the wall and substituting an iron girder. Some of the other kitchen utensils. The chief peculiarity of the room was a
window frames were so rotten that they were replaced. The ceilings and collection of wood and brass candlesticks. And everywhere was a

19 20
sparkle of copper in such things as pots and pans hanging from the Dictation 18
rack, and in ladles, spoons and measuring scoops on a side table. The Peculiarities of Russian Cooking.
Diana's acquaintances loved this kitchen and thought it one of the In Russia cooking is characterized by its wide assortment of
most welcoming; it was not only cheerful and spacious but comfortable ingredients and preparation process. A Russian stove was
as well. As Diana said, it was the hub of the house, a room you could constructed to allow a dish to be stewed, baked, poached or boiled.
easily live in. It also defined specific ways of cooking geese, duck and chicken. At
the same time meat and fowl are also roasted on a grill over an open
flame.
Topic Seven: Meals and Food Porridge cooked in a stove acquires a specific taste. That is why
nowadays many dishes made with grain and semolina are prepared
Dictation 17 not on stove tops, but rather in ovens. Buckwheat served in this way
Meals in Britain is especially tasty when accompanied by milk.
A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal – sausages, bacon, Russian cooking has borrowed ingredients from other nations.
eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms.... But nowadays many people just have The Greek settlements on the Black Sea coast, for example,
cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade or honey. contributed the secret of dough made with yeast, while trade with
Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges Italy enriched Russian cuisine with spices, herbs and rice. Tea and
and jam is made from other fruit. The usual drink is juice. But some dumplings came from Asia. Peppers, aubergines and zucchini were
prefer coffee, often instant, which is made with just hot water. Many delivered from Bulgaria.
visitors to Britain find it disgusting! Russia's western neighbours also influenced the style of cooking
For a great number of people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there introducing appliances such as pots, pans and slotted spoons.
are a lot of bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread Thanks to them, the list of dishes prepared on frying pans was
they want – rye, white, or a roll – and then all sorts of salad to go in a substantially extended to include beefsteaks, roast mutton and the
sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. School like.
children can have a meal at school, but many just take a snack from French cuisine came to Russia in the nineteenth century. It was
home – a chocolate bar, some fruit and crisps. most noticeable in restaurant cooking, as professional chefs brought
People have afternoon tea with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a from France recipes for sauces and delicate dishes made with
cup of tea. They may also have scones with cream. poultry, fish and vegetables.
The evening meal is the main one of the day for the British. They, Since ancient times, the traditional order of serving has
as a rule, have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00 p.m., and often remained unchanged: first – appetizers, second – soup, third – the
families eat together. They have roast beef, lamb, chicken, or pork with main course, accompanied by gravy and lastly follows dessert –
potatoes, vegetables and gravy which is a sauce made from meat juices. pastries and sweets.
Britons like food from other countries too, especially Italian,
French, Chinese, Taiwanese and Indian. People regularly get take-away
meals – you buy food at a restaurant and then bring it home. So you can
see that eating in Britain is really international!
21 22
Dictation 19 must choose. In addition, people can buy foods that are fresh,
The Wilsons' Party frozen, canned and cooked. Currently, all stores have an array of
Mr and Mrs Wilson invited all their friends to a party last night. They stuff especially prepared to be heated in a microwave oven which
stayed at home all day yesterday and prepared for the occasion. has changed the preparation of meals. It, along with the
In the morning the Wilsons worked outside. Their daughter, supermarket, where you can buy almost anything, makes the process
Margaret, cleaned the yard with a broom. Their son, Bob, cut the grass of cooking the most time-efficient in the world. A family can
with the help of the lawnmower. Mrs Wilson planted flowers such as experience only one trip a week to a hypermarket to purchase food
lilies, asters, tulips, etc. in the garden, and Mr Wilson fixed their for an entire week. Americans already have access to computer-
broken banisters using various tools. In the afternoon the Wilsons based shopping enabling them to make their buying decisions at
worked inside the house. Margaret washed the floors with a mop and home and picking up the needed things at the shop or having them
hoovered the Persian beige carpet with the vacuum cleaner. Bob dusted delivered to their homes, so no efforts are actually required.
the antique furniture and cleaned the window panes. Since the nineteen fifties fast-food and take-out restaurants have
Mr and Mrs Wilson stayed in the kitchen all afternoon. He cooked had a phenomenal spread, first in the US, and more recently
roast chicken with sauce and rice for dinner, and she baked cream throughout the world. The chains like McDonalds, Burger King and
cakes and scones for dessert. The Wilsons finished all their work at six Wendy's which offer sandwiches, hamburgers, French-fried
o'clock sharp. Their house looked wonderful! potatoes, hot dogs, pizzas, pancakes and grilled chicken, have been
The Wilsons' guests arrived at about seven thirty and were joined by those with Mexican, Chinese and other ethnic meals. The
immediately shown into the living room. For the starter they ate Swiss prices in such places are relatively cheaper than if one were to
cheese with Dutch biscuits, drank sweet Portuguese wine, and talked prepare similar food in the kitchen. Consequently, families may
about their children, weather and the Wilsons' house. often go out for convenience and economy.
Dinner was served in the dinning room. Everybody enjoyed the The latest development in the American food industry has been
meal very much. They liked the delicious chicken and cream cakes. In the demand for healthier things. It has made a variety of low-fat
fact everybody asked for seconds. dairy and meat products. The second demand is for foods grown and
After dinner all of them went to the drawing room. First, Bob produced free of fertilizers and pesticides. This has led to the
Wilson played the grand piano and his sister, Margaret, sang some folk boosting of an "organic food" industry. Of course, the cost of it is
songs. Then Mr and Mrs Wilson showed the photos of their trip to substantially higher than for nonorganic food. But still the market
Lisbon. Later they turned on the stereo and danced. As you see, the for the first is expanding, though it remains debatable!
guests enjoyed the party greatly. In fact, nobody wanted to go home.

Dictation 20* Topic Eight: Daily Routine


American Food
In the USA people have a wider choice of foods than consumers in any Dictation 21
other country. Meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, nuts are available during A Typical English Day
any season of the year. Frequently, the problem for a person is not the An Englishman's day begins when he sits down to breakfast with
lack of brands, but rather the bewildering assortment from which one his morning newspaper. As he looks through the headlines there is
23 24
nothing he likes better than his favourite cornflakes with milk and There is a tradition in England that women do their laundry on
sugar (porridge if he lives in the North), fried bacon and eggs, Mondays when the bed linen is washed. Kitty laughs and says that
marmalade on toast and tea or instant coffee. After breakfast, except she and a good many other females don't follow it. "I do my
on Saturdays and Sundays which are holidays, he goes to work by washing when I have time," – she says. We ask Kitty if her children
train, tube, bus, car, motor scooter or bike. He leaves home at about help her about the house. She says that if parents are sensible, kids
seven forty. help a great deal with the household. For instance, her sons make
At offices or factories there is a short break at eleven. Then at their beds, tidy and vacuum the rooms and lay the table. The girls
midday everything stops for lunch. Most shops close for an hour from look after the babies and that is a good help to Kitty. Her husband is
1 to 2 p.m. Englishmen are fond of good plain food, and they usually also good at assisting her in housekeeping. He saves a lot of money
want to know what they eat. They like beefsteaks, chops, roast lamb by putting right anything that goes wrong, repairing such things as
and Yorkshire pudding, fried fish and chipped potatoes. There are the microwave oven, the lawnmower, the sewing machine. But Kitty
usually two courses in the afternoon – a meat course with a lot of tries to keep the evenings apart from getting the family meal for
vegetables and a sweet dish to follow, perhaps sundae and custards anything Fred (her husband) wants to do.
with hot beverages to finish. Then back to work again with another Twice a month she goes to the cinema with him, sometimes to a
break in the middle of the day, for tea or coffee, sometimes with a concert, getting an unmarried friend to come and babysit. Frequently
scone or biscuits. they go along to the public house for a drink and Fred plays a game
The working day finishes at six. When an Englishman gets home of chess or draughts and discusses the latest news or TV programme
he likes to inspect his orchard before the evening meal called high with his friends and colleagues.
tea, dinner or supper depending on its size. When his meal is over, he
may do a little gardening and then have a walk to the "local" (the
nearest beerhouse) for a drink. There are a lot of people at the pub Topic Nine: Climate and Weather
and he can play darts, dominoes, billiards and draughts or discuss the
weather and current events. But if an Englishman stays at home, he Dictation 23
listens to the radio or watches TV. Then at any time between 10 and Weather in New York
12 p.m. he is ready to go to bed. The only thing you can rely on is that New York weather is entirely
unreliable. A temperature change of as much as 40ºF (degrees
Dictation 22 Fahrenheit) within a single day is not uncommon. It may be freezing
Everyday Life in a British Family cold one afternoon, and bright, warm and sunny the very next
Let's see how Kitty, an English woman, passes her day. In the morning morning or unfortunately vice versa. According to the US Weather
she cleans up the house, and it includes doing the beds, dusting the Bureau, New York City has a modified continental climate.
furniture, sweeping the floor, airing the flat, washing the dishes, New Yorkers live in a relatively damp climate of cold winters
brushing her children's clothes, doing shopping and cooking dinner. Her and warm, humid summers. Hot spells can be difficult to bear.
afternoon she devotes to sewing, ironing and two or three times a week During the summer months there are brief but intense
to social work. thunderstorms. Showers which continue for a few days are not rare.
On an average it will rain or snow 120 days out of a year. New York
25 26
has many beautiful sunny days, especially during autumn. July is the Topic Ten: Pastimes
hottest month of a year, with a temperature of 73.9 ºF (degrees
Fahrenheit) and the coldest months are January and February when Dictation 25
people can experience a temperature of 30.8º (degrees). Most of the A Sunday Picnic
bitterly cold winds that come to New York are from the northwest. Organizing and hosting a picnic for the family and friends is a great
way to bring everyone together for outdoor activities, food and fun.
Dictation 24* All you need is a little planning, packing and sunshine to create a
The British Climate memorable day.
The weather on the British Isles frequently changes but at the same Last Sunday we went picnicking. It was such a spur of the
time it is rather mild. In winter months Britain is affected by polar air. moment decision, but it turned out to be a perfect afternoon. Isn't it
Then a cold, biting wind springs up and brings frosts. January and strange how the most special moments in life are also often the most
February are the months with most snow though it can fall as late as random? So we drove to the bay and found a splendid picnic spot.
June in the Scottish Highlands. Mom spread a buffet table with glorious amounts of food piled high
Spring is the driest season. The sky is calm and clear, sometimes it in metal bowls, straw baskets and the like. The younger children
drizzles. Thunderstorms are common in summer and the counties in the cruised down it and were tempted by the barbecued chicken being
east get most rain, which is heavier in the hills and later great floods made by Dad. It turned out to
come. In early autumn, especially after a fine summer, the air is damp be delicious and we managed it rather quickly and then had Mother's
as the sun sinks lower. And strong winds bring stormy weather and fabulous salad, with pasta, raisins and broccoli dressed with
gales. The moods of British weather are really surprising. It is true there mayonnaise.
are a lot of showers in London but the constant dense fog belongs more After the meal we decided to entertain ourselves. Dad
to fiction than to reality. constructed a raft and we dived off it splashing about with our feet.
Droughts occur, but crops are never a complete loss, nor do Then my younger brother Sam nearly got drowned as he had a
animals perish. Sometimes a little whirlwind (a "twister") can destroy mouthful of water. My elder brother Tim hurt his leg on a rock
houses, heavy snowfalls and icy roads can stop traffic but fog is the while jumping into the water. Dad thought it would be safer for us if
greatest disaster that can happen, causing accidents. These events fill we played some games. So we played badminton and volleyball
the newspapers, but in contrast with the heatwaves in New York, while Mother was having a nap.
blizzards on the prairies or hurricanes in Florida and tornadoes in All of a sudden the sun went in and the sky was overcast so we
Kansas, British weather seems indeed favourable. had to look for a shelter immediately. Fortunately the rain didn't last
long and we didn't get a soaking. When the clouds lifted it was time
for us to go home. All in all, the picnic was superb and relaxing and
definitely a great way to spend a Sunday afternoon together.

27 28
Dictation 26* more modern Pest, the business and shopping centre. From Buda
Pastimes there are wonderful views of Pest and the river.
The way a man spends leisure time can tell more about his character For nearly a thousand years Buda and Pest were two towns.
than his work. For most men work is a necessity in order to earn a Then in 1873 they joined and became one city, Budapest.
living. A great number of people have not even been able to choose the Budapest is very unusual because it has two completely
occupation, but have been forced by economic reasons to take the first different parts. You can choose the peace and quiet of Buda's woods
job that came their way. But in free time they do what they desire and or the excitement of Pest, where there are exquisite theatres,
their real selves are reflected in the activities. restaurants, bars, and luxurious expensive boutiques. The public
Some people are completely passive. They go to a place of transport system in Budapest is one of the best and cheapest in the
entertainment where no effort is required: a cinema or a dancing hall. world. You can travel easily by underground, bus, tram, and taxi,
And if the latter is chosen, they do not dance but simply sit and watch but driving a car in Budapest is not a good idea as there are a lot of
others. junctions, complicated crossroads and a lot of traffic jams. Moreover
A different type of person hurries home from work full of there are not many parking lots and the streets are crooked and
eagerness to begin some scheme which they have been planning for narrow. So in the daytime it's tough to find a space to park. Most
spare time. Perhaps their hobby is carpentry or model engineering and cars are old, so the level of pollution is very bad.
gardening or they might wish to write a book, or to study some subject The healthiest thing to do in the city is to visit one of the thirty
in which they are interested. This is a creative type of personality and spa baths and swimming pools. The mineral waters of Budapest are
their free hours are full of promise and they can look back on them with famous and a very popular way to relax.
satisfaction when they review what they have achieved.
Leisure should refresh and help people to battle with the problems Dictation 28
of life. Frequently this freshness comes not from doing anything, but Prague
from filling one's mind with springs of beauty. A man gets full value In the heart of Europe there is a small country the Czech Republic.
from contemplating nature, listening to music or reading highbrow Its capital Prague has a population of over one million people. It is
literature. By this a person can form his own source of inspiration. That not an immense city, but it attracts thousands of tourists annually as
is a wonderful pastime. it is certainly one of the most picturesque cities. It is built on seven
hills on the banks of the River Vltava. Fifteen bridges cross the
winding river. The most famous is Charles Bridge, which joins
Topic Eleven: Town Life Prague castle and the old town. The view of it from the river is
simply gorgeous.
Dictation 27 Some people say Prague is the most beautiful city in the world!
Budapest They call it "The Golden City" because it still has many statues and
Budapest has a population of over two million people. One in every medieval buildings. Perhaps the most popular of them is the Old
five Hungarians lives there. The River Danube divides the city into two Town Hall with its amazing 15th century astronomical clock. The
parts. Six bridges join them. On the west bank there are the woods and chief peculiarity of the city is the quay paved with stones where
hills of Buda and the old town. On the east bank there is the bigger and pedestrians can stroll enjoying the scenery.
29 30
People also call Prague "Europe's School of Music". There are service is supplied by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. It
many concert halls and every May there is a unique festival "Prague is impossible to find public conveniences in America in the British
Spring". Visitors can enjoy not only spiritual advantages of the city but sense of the word because a lavatory turns out to be a strictly private
can experience the joys of life as well. There are more than twenty enterprise, well hidden from the public eye.
fashionable theatres, many old pubs, luxurious bars and exquisite Whatever you buy, it may be exchanged later for something else
restaurants. in the same store. This seems to be a wonderful pastime with the
In spite of the size of the city the public transport service is rather Americans. It is not unusual at all to see a lady bringing back a hat
rapid and extended. There is now a modern underground, but traffic is with a lot of fruit on it and exchanging it either for real fruit or a real
still a real problem caused by different reasons: first of all a great hat; or to see somebody bringing back a refrigerator with the remark
number of traffic lights in the city centre slow down the streams of cars. that he "made a mistake and now he wants to subscribe to the
Secondly there are a lot of walking areas especially in the ancient part Reader's Digest instead". So to buy the things you really need, you
of the city. Lastly the streets are rather narrow. So it is often better to should be actually very careful, or there are chances you'll join the
walk and feel the atmosphere of the city with its pretty little streets. majority wishing to exchange the things you have for some you
don't.

Topic Twelve: Shopping Dictation 30*


Some Hints on Smart Shopping for Clothes
Dictation 29 For most of us clothes are the expression of our personality and
How to Shop in America. individuality in the styles and colours we pick. We also use them to
In America, just as in England, you can see stores with the same show our membership in special groups. You can see that clothes
counters and windows in every town and village. Shopping, however, serve several important purposes. None of us can really afford to
happens to be an art of its own and you have to learn slowly where to neglect our appearance. Just as we use clothes to identify ourselves,
buy various things. If you are hungry, no matter how strange it may other people use them as a way to find out what kind of people we
sound, you go to the chemist's which is called a drug store in the United are.
States. In larger ones you are likely to get drugs, too, but their main To be well dressed, we need something more than various
business consists of selling stationery, candies, toys, belts, fountain collections of slacks, sweaters, skirts, and shoes, so a wardrobe must
pens, furniture and imitation jewellery. There is a food counter with be planned in relation to the kinds of things we do and places we go.
high stools in front of it and they serve juices, coffee, sundaes, ice- We must always consider the activities and clothes we need for
cream, sandwiches, omelettes and other egg dishes there. each. For example, an outfit for school usually is also suitable for
If you want cigarettes, you are expected to go to the grocer's; if you informal parties; the one for dress-up social occasions may be
wish to have your shoes cleaned, start for the barber's; if you need a appropriate for church. Most of us can afford to buy only a few new
radio, go to a man's shop; if you desire a suitcase, head for the items each year. This is why it is vital to make every choice count.
chemist's. On the other hand if you want to send a telegram, avoid the There are, however, some buying techniques that can help
post office, because they are sure to be handled by private companies. anyone stretch a limited budget. First of all, you must choose
Nor has the post office anything to do with the telephone either, as this versatile items, which have several uses. They may be ideal for more
31 32
than one season of the year – an example is a raincoat with a zip-in of the last act. Book your seat beforehand, either at the box-office of
lining for nippy weather. Or they can be worn for different events – like itself or at one of the agencies.
a basic dress, which can be changed by wearing accessories.
Many clothing items are discarded long before they are torn out Dictation 32
because they look out-of-date. So choose styles that remain in fashion The History of Entertainment
for several years especially when you acquire expensive articles of Nearly everyone enjoys entertainment. The beginning of it goes
clothing such as a sports jacket or a smart dress. Simpler, less extreme back to prehistoric times, when dance, music and story-telling were
designs can be counted on to be in good taste and attractive for several very important. Its traditions rise to ancient Greece about two and a
years. half thousand years ago with the development of drama. In those
It is also significant to take into account fiber and fabrics, as well days festivals were organized to celebrate Dionysus, the Greek god
as durability and ease of care. So we advise you to select your clothes of wine and new life. Later poets began to write stories for a large
based on the principles stated above. group of performers (a chorus and an actor to recite). Then another
actor was introduced which made a dialogue between characters
possible. There were two forms of classical drama – tragedy and
Topic Thirteen: Theatre comedy.
The Romans continued the traditions of Greece and developed
Dictation 31 other kinds of pastime as well. The appearance of the circus is
Theatres in Britain connected with gladiators fighting in public arenas.
Theatres are much the same in London as anywhere else. The main and In the Middle Ages the church considered it wrong to go to the
amateur theaters, musichalls and cinemas are located in the West End. theatre, but by and by it reappeared in the time of Renaissance with
If you are staying in London for a few days, you'll have no religious and moral plays. But common people preferred comedies
difficulty in finding somewhere to spend a remarkable evening. You performed by a travelling group of actors, which were called miracle
can enjoy an opera, a ballet, a comedy, a drama, a review, a musical plays.
and a variety show. The best seats at the theatres are those in the stalls, The Golden Age of Theatre began in the seventeenth century.
dress circle and upper circle. Then comes the pit, and last of all the The first one was opened in London in 1652. Soon a few others
gallery or the gods which are cheapest. Boxes, of course, are the most including the famous Globe Theatre started functioning. Among the
expensive. The majority of halls have good orchestras with popular writers who worked for these theatres was William Shakespeare,
conductors. You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least one of the greatest playwrights. He gave his audience not only great
once during the season, if you can. As you get the best of everything – literature but popular entertainment as well.
excellent scenery, celebrated singers and a well-dressed audience. But,
of course, if you're not fond of music and singing, opera won't interest Dictation 33
you. At the West-End theatres you can see most of the outstanding A Visit to the Bolshoi Theatre
English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently Last autumn my cousin invited me to the Bolshoi Theatre. I had
staged, everything being done on the most lavish scale. Choose a good never been there before and was extremely excited when Alec told
play, and you'll get a thrill from the moment the curtain rises to the end
33 34
me we were going to see "Swan Lake", the famous ballet by She was not quite as tall as my mother. Diana's appeal was in her
P.I.Tchaikovsky. warm looks; she was a handsome woman by any standard, who like
When we arrived at the theatre, we left our coats in the cloakroom. my mother, carried her sixty-one years well, seeming years younger.
Our seats were in the pit stalls. I had a look at the tickets. They were Their characters and personalities were totally unlike. Diana
not very expensive but we could see the stage very well. Alec bought was a much more serious woman than my mother was, more
me a programme and gave me his opera-glasses. studious and intellectually inclined. And the worlds they occupied,
Soon the lights dimmed and the curtain was raised. The scenery the lives they lived, were not remotely similar. Diana was something
was fantastic. Its red and golden interior impressed me very much. of a workaholic, running her antique business and loving every
During the interval we walked around the foyer. I told Alec how minute of it. My mother was a social butterfly who did not care to
much I liked the ballet. It was really splendid. I said I would love to see work, and who fortunately did not have to. She was actually
another ballet some day. So we went to the box-office and bought two somewhat quiet and shy. My aunt was much more spontaneous and
tickets for "The Nutcracker". Then we had ice-cream and coffee in the outgoing, filled with joys of life that were infectious. I always felt
refreshment room. happy when Diana was around, as she had that effect on everyone.
When at last the ballet was over, there was a storm of applause. I All of a sudden Diana's eye caught the sight of me, she cried
applauded loudly as I had enjoyed it greatly. out, sprang to her feet and rushed towards me. The mystery of the
moment had gone but an overwhelming feeling of happiness came
instead…
Topic Fourteen: Appearance
Dictation 35
Dictation 34 The Engagement
Returning Home This was the occasion of celebrating the engagement of Miss June
I spent two years of my life in Portugal, in Lisbon. I worked in the Forsyte, old Joylon's granddaughter, to Mr Philip Bosinney. In the
embassy and finally the expiry date of my contract came… I landed bravery of light gloves, feathers and frocks, the family were present
safely at Heathrow airport and forty minutes later I stood facing the – even Aunt Ann, who now but seldom left the corner of her brother
house of my childhood. When I entered the drawing room I saw two Timothy's green drawing room.
women sitting in the dim light of the fireplace. They were my Mom and Against the piano a man of bulk and stature was wearing a
Aunt Diana. Unnoticed I studied them as they talked. How different waistcoat on his wide chest and a ruby pin instead of a diamond one
they were in appearance, these two women of middle age. of more usual event, and his shaven, square, old face, the colour of
Mom was all blonde curls and fair skin, with delicate, perfectly pale leather, had its most dignified look. This was Swithin Forsyte.
sculptured features. She was a very pretty woman, a cool Nordic type, Close to the window the other twin, like the bulky Swithin, over six
slim and lissome with some special kind of elegance. feet in height, but very skinny, as though destined from his birth to
Diana was much darker in colouring, with a lovely golden strike a balance and maintain an average, brooded over the scene
complexion and straight silky auburn hair, pulled back in a ponytail. with his permanent stoop. Not far off, listening to a lady in brown,
Her face was broader, features more boldly defined, and large luminous his only son Soames, dark-haired, rather bald, poked his chin up
eyes were blue so pale and transparent that they seemed almost grey. sideways.
35 36
Seated in a row close to one another were the three ladies — Aunts the work. But suddenly he remembered that he had the lawyer's
Ann, Hester (the two Forsyte maids) and Julia. With her elder and advice. He took the paper and read: "Never put off till tomorrow
younger sister she lived now in the house of Timothy, her sixth and what you can do today." "All right, let's gather the hay," said the
youngest brother, on the Bayswater Road. farmer and all his family began working. In the evening it started
In the centre of the room, under the chandelier, as if a host, was the raining heavily.
head of the family, old Joylon himself. Eighty years of age, with fine
white hair, dome-like forehead, little dark grey eyes and an immense Dictation 2
moustache, which drooped and spread below the level of his strong jaw, The Witty Farmer
he had a patriarchal look, and in spite of hollows at his temples, seemed Sam was an old farmer. He was born on his farm and lived on it all
master of perennial youth. his life. He married his neighbour's daughter, and they grew fruit
Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune, but and vegetables. Sam got up at five o'clock every morning to gather
Forsyte girls had become engaged to such before, and had actually them and take a load off to the market in his truck. There were few
married them… vehicles on the country roads at that time of the morning, and Sam
knew how to get to the market perfectly well, so as he was going
along, he was always thinking about everything except his driving.
SECTION 2 One morning his mind was engaged with the ideas what crops
NARRATIVE DICTATIONS to plant for the next year's harvest, and whether to try something
else. A lot of other farmers were cultivating the same things which
Dictation 1 he produced, so the prices in the market were coming down and he
Good Advice was getting less money.
Once early in the morning a farmer arrived at the nearest town to sell After a few kilometres, Sam came to a place where a small road
some eggs and butter. He stayed at a small hotel. The charge for a which went in the direction of the market crossed a bigger one, and
single room was not very high. It suited the farmer as he was planning he continued over it without stopping. He always crossed the place
to stay in the town only for two days. like that, because there was never any traffic on. So there was no
In the afternoon when he sold his goods he decided to have lunch fear of having an accident, and anyway he was regularly in a hurry,
at a café, where people were talking about a lawyer who was very because he wanted to get to the market in time for its opening.
clever and gave everybody good advice. The farmer decided to go and But that morning a young policeman whom he had never seen
see him. "I've heard a lot about you. Could you advise me anything?" before signalled to him to stop a hundred metres beyond the
said the farmer. "What advice would you like to have?" "Any," replied crossroads. Sam stopped beside the man, and the latter enquired,
the farmer. The lawyer smiled, took a piece of paper and wrote "Didn't you know that there was a sign telling you to stop at the
something on it. The farmer thanked him and left his office. The next crossroads before going over the main road?"
day he went to purchase some presents for his family. When he bought "Oh, yes, «answered Sam, "I knew that it was there, because I
everything he went to the station, got on the train and came back home. go to the market along this road every morning. But what I
It was broad noon. He was going to read a newspaper, but his wife told unfortunately was not aware of was the fact that you were hiding
him to gather the hay. The farmer was exhausted and desired to put off there".
37 38
Dictation 3 the old woman was very happy to have such a nice present. But she
Dutch Cigarettes didn't know what to do with it as she had never purchased tea
One day a Frenchman went abroad for his holiday. He had an before. She thought it was a vegetable. She told her friends about the
opportunity of visiting some countries and stayed a few weeks in tea and invited them to try it with her. At last the day of the tea-party
Holland. He went sightseeing a lot and liked Dutch towns very much. came. The woman called her guests to the dining-room and put a big
The country impressed him immensely. Although the weather was not dish of tea leaves on the table. The guests began to eat them with
very good, as it often rained, he enjoyed his stay. He lived in one of the salt. Nobody liked them but didn't tell the woman about that. Some
best hotels and was satisfied with everything. time later the sailor came into the room. When he saw everybody
Once he met a man who knew Dutch meals very well, so he was eating leaves, he smiled.
invited to a restaurant where they served national dishes. The "What are you doing? Why are you eating them? Where is the
Frenchman liked them very much and they spent an unforgettable time tea?"
there. But what he liked best of all were Dutch cigarettes. He smoked "Here it is, my son," answered the old woman.
them daily. After a fortnight he went back to France. He bought a lot of "And where is the water in which you have boiled the leaves?"
cigarettes for his own use and put them into his suitcase. When he asked the man laughing.
arrived at the border, he was to go through the Customs. He found out "I threw it away, of course," answered the woman.
that cigarettes were liable to duty, but he didn't want to pay, so he took
some of them and put them into his hat, which he had on. He thought Dictation 5
that nobody would notice that and asked the porter to take his luggage Does It Make Any Difference?
to the Customs House, where the clerk was to inspect it. The Once our friend John was walking down the beach at sunset, when
Frenchman was about to go through the Customs when he learned that he saw another man in the distance. Our friend noticed the man lean
the Director of the Customs House was his old friend whom he had not down, pick something up and throw it into the water. In a few
seen for ages. The Frenchman went to him, and they were very glad to minutes the man leaned down again, picked something up and threw
see each other. They had a nice talk and drank a few toasts to their it again into the ocean.
companions. As John came nearer, he noticed that the man was picking up
Some time later they went up to the Customs officer, and the starfish that had been washed up on the beach and then throwing
Director said, "Let this gentleman pass. Don't examine his luggage." them back into the water. John came up to the man and said, "Good
The Frenchman was so excited that he took off his hat to thank his evening, friend. I was wondering what you are doing."
friend forgetting about the cigarettes, which fell on the floor. "I'm throwing these starfish back into the ocean. If I don't throw
them back into the sea, they will die up here."
Dictation 4 "I understand," John answered, "but there must be thousands of
A Present from the Son starfish on this beach. You can't possibly get to all of them. There
Long ago there lived an old woman in England. She had a son who was are simply too many. Can't you see that you can't make a
a sailor. He went to different countries and always brought gifts for his difference?"
old mother. Once he went to China and bought some tea. At that time The other man smiled, picked up another starfish, and as he
tea was very expensive and only rich people could buy and drink it. So threw it back into the sea, he said, "Made a difference to that one!"
39 40
Dictation 6 much of the Japanese culture react to these tales with astonishment
Little Rose and disbelief. "A Bedtime Story" is one of these "unbelievable"
Two months before Christmas our nine-year –old daughter Rose told us tales.
that she wanted a bicycle. As Christmas got nearer she seemed to forget Once upon a time, an old Japanese legend goes as told by Papa,
about her wish. And we bought her a beautiful doll. Then, much to our an old woman travelled through many small villages. She was
surprise, on December 23d, Rose said that she really wanted a bike looking for some place where she could spend the night. Each door
more than anything else. opened a little in answer to her knock, then closed. She was not able
It was just too late with all the details of preparing Christmas to walk any further. With a lot of difficulty she climbed a hill, found
dinner and buying last-minute gifts, to take the time to choose the "right a clearing and there lay down to rest a few moments to catch her
bike" for our little girl. So, here we were – Christmas Eve around 9 breath.
o'clock p.m., with Rose sleeping happily in her beds. We could now The village town below lay asleep except for a few starlike
think only of the bicycle, we felt that we were bad parents. lights. Suddenly the clouds opened and a full moon came into view
"What if I make a little bicycle out of wood and write a note that over the town. The old woman sat up, turned toward the village
she could exchange it for a real bike?" her dad asked. His idea was that town and called out: "Thank you people of the village. You have
as she was "such a big girl", it should be much better for her to pick it been kind to me in refusing me a bed for the night. Now I can see
out herself. So he spent the next several hours at night working with a this wonderful sight."
piece of wood to create a very small model bike. Papa paused. I waited. In the comfort of our home in Seattle
On Christmas morning Rose opened the little yellow box with the overlooking the valley, I shouted: "That's the end?"
beautiful red and white bike and the note in it. She read the note aloud.
"Does it mean that I must exchange this little bike that Daddy made for Dictation 8
me for a real one?" she asked. "Yes," I answered. The Dinner Party
Rose had tears in her eyes when she said, "I will never exchange It all happened in India. At a large dinner party the guests were
this beautiful bicycle that Daddy made for me. I'd rather keep this than discussing a typical behaviour of people when they were in some
get a real bike." crisis. One of the guests, an officer, said: "A woman's reaction will
We were rather surprised but at that moment we could move differ from a man's behaviour. A typical woman's reaction in any
heaven and earth to buy her every bicycle on the planet. crisis is to scream. A man has much more nerve control. And that is
what counts."
Dictation 7 One of the guests, an American naturalist, did not join in the
A Bedtime Story argument. He watched the other guests. Suddenly he saw that the
(An Old Japanese Legend) hostess changed in the face and whispered something to a servant.
Many of the Japanese legends fall into the category of morality tales. The servant came back very soon and placed a bowl of milk on the
They often praise some things and criticize others. When these tales veranda just outside the open doors.
come into another culture they often take on some ironic or The American naturalist understood everything. In India, milk
unbelievable aspect. American and European children who do not know in a bowl means only one thing. It is a bait for a snake. He realized
that there must be a cobra under the table.
41 42
The American's first impulse was to jump back and warn the Marie Curie was the only person in the world who received the
others. But he knew that would frighten the cobra and it would attack Nobel Prize twice.
somebody. He then spoke quickly but loudly: "I want to know just what
control everyone at this table has. I will count three hundred – that's Dictation 10
five minutes – and not one of you must move. Those who move will The Story of Uncle Theo
pay fifty rupees. Ready? Go!" The twenty people sat like stone images Uncle Theo, my favourite uncle, is a quiet, gentle absent-minded
while he was counting. When he was saying "two hundred and eighty", man. Once he wanted to get a job at a university. It was a very good
out of the corner of his eye, he saw the cobra crawling for the bowl of post and there were a lot of candidates. As a result of the interview
milk. In a minute it was on the veranda. The American made a huge only Uncle Theo and his friend Adams were left. The committee
jump and shut the glass doors. The guests began screaming, when they didn't know which of the two to choose and asked each candidate to
understood what had just happened. give a lecture.
After a few moments the host said: "You were right, Officer. A Uncle Theo didn't leave his room for three days. He wrote his
man has just shown us an example of perfect control." lecture and memorized it. Adams, who was his roommate, didn't
"Just a minute," cried the American, turning to his hostess. "Mrs seem to prepare for his lecture at all. He spent his time mainly in
White, how did you know that there was a cobra in the room?" bars.
A little smile appeared on the woman's face as she answered: The day of the lecture came. Theo and Adams took their place
"I knew it because it was crawling across my foot." on the stage. Then Theo discovered with horror that the papers of
his lecture had disappeared. Great was his surprise and despair when
Dictation 9 he saw Adams take the stolen speech out of his pocket. Adams read
Marie Cure, the Greatest Woman-Scientist it brilliantly. When Theo's turn came he could do nothing but repeat
Madam Curie was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1867. Her mother died the same lecture word for word, in a low dull voice. There was
when she was still a child and her father, who was a teacher of physics hardly any applause when he sat down.
and mathematics, brought her up alone. When the committee chose Uncle Theo everybody was greatly
While other girls were playing with dolls she was helping her surprised. The Dean explained: "We were impressed by Mr Adams
father with his experiments. At the age of 16 she graduated from a but Mr Theo Hobdell has such an excellent memory as he repeated
college with high honours. The only job she could find was that of a the lecture word for word. A fine memory is necessary for this job."
governess. But several years later she went to Paris to get a better Later in the evening the Dean came up to Uncle Theo, shook his
education and to study chemistry. She also wanted to find a job in a hand and said: "Congratulations! But, my dear fellow, be careful
scientific laboratory. The answer was everywhere the same: "Science is while choosing friends and don't leave important papers lying about
a man's job. A laboratory is no place for a woman." Finally she was in the future."
lucky: Professor Lippman pitied her and she began working in
Research Laboratories at Sorbonne University. Dictation 11
Soon she married Pierre Curie and they began working together. In The King and the Tortoise
1898 their hard work was rewarded. They got some substance called There was once a king in the Animal Kingdom who thought he was
radium. The discovery brought them the Nobel Prize in 1903. the cleverest animal in the world. To prove this, he ordered the rest
43 44
of the animals to make a dress of mist for the King. "If someone can do The making of strange little noises is typical of fairy behaviour.
it, then he is cleverer than me," the King said. In the 17th century a Mr Lilly met what he took to be a fairy, and
The tortoise was the first to try. He promised to have the dress asked if it was a good spirit or a bad one. He said there was no reply,
ready in seven days. A week later, however, he came to the King but that the "fairy" disappeared with a curious perfume and "most
empty-handed. melodious twang".
The King laughed in triumph. He felt very clever indeed that he The last place where the "red-clothed"' fairies were seen is a
had thought up such an impossible task. "Well," said the King, "you are short distance from the Black Down Hills.
not clever enough to make a dress of mist for the King. The task is too
difficult for you." Dictation 13*
"You need not worry, Your Majesty. You'll soon have your dress. The King and the Witch
The only thing I need is thread." More than 2000 years ago a king set out with his army to
"If that's all you need," said the King in good humour, "you can conquer England. At some place, on the borders of Oxfordshire and
have all the thread in the world." And at the King's order a lot of balls Warwickshire, he met a witch who told him that if he could see
of different thread were put before the tortoise. Long Compton after taking seven striders, he would be King of
"No," cried the tortoise. "This will never do. I don't want ordinary England.
thread to finish the dress of mist. I need thread made from the sun's Knowing Long Compton to be just over the brow of the hill, the
rays." king strode forward confidently. But a mound rose up in front of
For a shocked moment the King stared speechless at the tortoise. him and the witch exclaimed:
Twice his mouth opened, but no words came. Then he smiled and said, "You will all become stones, you and your men."
"I can easily give you what you need. But what's the use? I don't want Stones they instantly became – and stones they remain. The
to have this silly dress. You have proved to me that you're clever mound (much reduced by ploughing) can still be seen in front of the
enough to make one. This is all I wanted to know". The King closed his "King Stone". There are said to be 72 stones in the circle, but legend
eyes and said with deep pleasure, "Oh, how happy it makes me to know maintains that no one shall live who counts the stones three times
that in my kingdom are the world's two cleverest animals – you and I!" and finds the number the same.
Nearby stand the Whispering Knights, a smaller group of the
Dictation 12* king's men also turned to stone. They are now regarded as oracles
The Fairy Haunts and will occasionally "whisper" the future to visitors.
A long time ago, the fairies used to hold a fair on the Black Down Hills.
They also appeared there at other times, but their activities were seldom Dictation 14*
witnessed by mortals – because they never showed themselves to those Gilbert and Mahaut.
who went in search of them. Over Becket's tomb in Canterbury Cathedral is a gilt crescent –
However, a school master who was once walking on the Black traditionally, a symbol of Islam. One story is that the saint's father,
Down Hills at twilight, happened on a fairy ring by chance. He said he Gilbert Becket, went on a crusade to the Holy Land and was taken
had seen a number of fairies going round and round, singing and prisoner by an Arab prince.
"making all sorts of small odd noises".
45 46
The prince's daughter, Mahaut, fell in love with him and helped Dictation 16*
him to escape. In return, he promised to send for her when he reached The Knight and the Dragon
England. But once safely in his own land again, Gilbert forgot his There was a fearsome dragon who lived in a bottomless pool near
promise. the church. It ravaged the countryside and devoured cattle, men and
Mahaut waited for years and then, realizing he would never come, maidens. Particularly maidens, for they were his favourite fare.
set out to find him. She knew only two words of English, her lover's Soon there were nearly no young girls left in the region, and
name and the name of the city in which he lived. However, by repeating those bachelors who had not already been eaten marched to the
the words "Gilbert" and "London" she eventually found him, married palace and complained to the King of Sussex. The King had an
him and became a Christian. Gilbert and Mahaut were buried in Old St attractive daughter, and because of the dragon's enormous appetite
Paul's churchyard, London. he had kept her locked up in the castle. Now he offered her in
marriage to anyone who could kill the dragon.
Dictation 15* A passing knight took up the challenge. He was not
Princess Pocahontas exceptionally brave, but he wanted to give up travelling and settle in
In 1608, Captain John Smith was captured by Indians and brought one place. So he killed the dragon, married the princess and stayed
before a native American chief, who sentenced him to death. Smith was happily at home in the palace.
the founding father of American's first permanent English colony in Some folk reported that the dragon had fought ferociously, but a
Virginia and Princess Pocahontas, the chief's daughter, pleaded for his more unkind version hinted that the knight paid a local baker to
life. But her father refused the plea. make a leaden cake which he fed to the dragon; the beast was then
Just as the executioner's blow was about to fall, the young princess unable to rise to its feet.
threw herself across John Smith's body and saved him. Her brave deed A medieval tombstone, now inside the church, once marked the
caused her father relent, and the prisoner was released. He eventually knight's grave.
returned to England, wounded, and Pocahontas was heartbroken.
She remained with the English settlers – who may have held her Dictation 17*
against her will – and in 1613 became a Christian. The following year Piers and the Dragon
she married John Rolfe, an English tobacco trader, and two years A dragon lived in a small place in England in the 11th century, and
afterwards accompanied him to England. he was a servant to the Devil. Many dragons were, of course, but the
Her visit was a great success – she was even received at court. But Devil was particularly fond of this one. It had its lair under a yew
before long she became ill and it was decided she should return to tree and, in the manner of all dragons, it was very fierce and
Virginia. terrorized the district.
She did not make the journey, however, but died at Gravesend Piers, the lord of the manor, decided that it was his duty to
where she is buried – the first American to be buried in England. Her destroy the beast. So he put on his full armour, took up his sword
statue now stands outside St George's church, in the Princess and spear and called his three huge hounds to heel. Then he set off
Pocahontas Gardens. for the yew tree.
After a fierce battle with the dragon Piers thrust his sword down
its throat and destroyed it. Immediately, the Devil appeared –
47 48
furious at the loss of his servant – and swore to have the lord's soul Exactly when this happened is not known, but her presence is
whether he was buried within the church or without. still very active in the shop – and she does not take kindly to having
The lord managed to cheat the Devil, however. Before he died he it doubted. A tourist from the United States expressed the opinion
shot an arrow at the church, to strike the wall north of the nave. There that ghost stories were "rubbish", and moments later was pushed
his tomb was built – neither within the church nor without – and there headlong down the stairs by an unseen hand.
it can still be seen today. Sarah may not wish to be reminded of her unhappy love affair,
either. Heart-shaped boxes of chocolates on display for St
Dictation 18* Valentine's Day have been found mysteriously scattered about the
King Canute shop.
Canute, a Danish King of England, was thought to be able to stop the A burglar who once broke into the shop overnight and pocketed
sea rising by ordering it, but he shwed that it was impossible. Once he the day's takings, fled unaccountably, leaving behind all this tools
went fishing by himself. He was still in his boat, when dusk fell. and a clear set of fingerprints. Was Sarah responsible? If so, the
He sought shelter at a monastery, but the drunken monks turned police are very grateful to her!
him away – and he found refuge in the hut of a poor fisherman.
The fisherman told him that many years before his wife had been Dictation 20
killed at the same monastery, and when he went to her aid he had been The Quarrelsome Giants
beaten too within an inch of his life. His wife had died shortly The Wrekin Hill was said to have been made by two quarrelsome
afterwards, and every year, on the anniversary of her death, the giants. They dug the earth from the River Severn, and when they
fisherman had killed a monk. had made the Wrekin Hill they both lived inside it. But being
Canute decided that one monk a year was insufficient retribution, quarrelsome, they each wanted the bigger part.
so the following morning he ordered his fleet to attack the monastery. A At first they shouted abuse at each other – which caused some
great many of the monks were killed, and those who escaped death uncommonly high winds to blow round the Wrekin at the time.
were forced to build a new fishing village. Soon, however, they came to blows. One struck at the other with his
In return for his kindness to the king, the poor fisherman was made spade, missed, and split the rock now called the Needle's Eye.
its first mayor. Today the village is known as Littleport. He was about to strike a second blow, but a raven prevented
him by pecking at his eye. The enormous tear the giant shed formed
Dictation 19* the pool known as the Raven's Bowl, which never dries up, even in
The Invisible Ghost mid-summer.
Chester's most famous ghost has never been seen – but invisibility has The quarrel continued, the giant with the spade chasing his
not stopped her activities. She is known as Sarah, and haunts a shop in companion round and round the Wrekin until both were dizzy, and
Eastgate Street that now sells chocolates. the whole neighbourhood shook. Then, with a final blow, he
She was said to be a charming young woman who fell in love with knocked the other giant unconscious and quickly imprisoned him in
a rascal. He left her on her wedding day, and Sarah was so heartbroken the Hill.
that she returned to her home in Eastgate Street and hanged herself. If you should pass that way at midnight, you may still hear the
captured giant groan.
49
SECTION 3
STORIES FOR RENDERING

Rendering 1
The Reader of Books (after R. Dahl)
By the time she was three, Matilda had taught herself to read by
studying newspapers and magazines that lay around the house. At
the age of four, she could read fast and well. The only book in the
whole of this enlightened household was something called Easy
Cooking belonging to her mother, and when she had read this from
cover to cover and had learnt all the recipes by heart, she decided
she wanted something more interesting.
"Daddy", she said, "do you think you could buy me a book?"
"A book?" he said. "What'd you want a book for?"
"To read, Daddy".
"What's wrong with the television, for heaven's sake? We've got
Renderings a lovely telly with a twelve-inch screen and now you come asking
for a book! You're getting spoiled, my girl!"
Nearly every weekday afternoon Matilda was left alone in the
house. Her brother (five years older than her) went to school. Her
father went to work and her mother went out playing bingo in a
town eight miles away. In the afternoon of the day when her father
had refused to buy her a book, Matilda set out all by herself to walk
to the public library in the village. When she arrived, she introduced
herself to the librarian, Mrs Phelps. She asked if she might sit awhile
and read a book. Mrs Phelps, slightly taken aback at the arrival of
such a tiny girl unaccompanied by a parent, nevertheless told her she
was very welcome.
"Where are the children's books please?" Matilda asked.
"They're over there on those lower shelves," Mrs Phelps told
her. "Would you like me to help you find a nice one with lots of
pictures in it?"
"No, thank you," Matilda said. "I'm sure I can manage."
From then, every afternoon, as soon as her mother had left for
bingo, Matilda would toddle down to the library. The walk took
51 52
only ten minutes and this allowed her two glorious hours sitting quietly far end of the room with the book on her lap. It was necessary to rest
by herself in a cosy corner devouring one book after another. When she it on her lap because it was too heavy for her to hold up, which
had read every single children's book in the place, she started meant she had to sit leaning forward in order to read. And a strange
wandering round in search of something else. sight it was, this tiny dark-haired person sitting there with her feet
Mrs Phelps, who had been watching her with fascination for the nowhere near touching the floor, totally absorbed in the wonderful
past few weeks, now got up from her desk and went over to her. "Can I adventures of Pip and old Miss Havisham and her cobwebbed house
help you, Matilda?" she asked. and by the spell of magic that Dickens the great story-teller, had
"I'm wondering what to read next," Matilda said. "I've finished all woven with his words. The only movement from the reader was the
the children's books." lifting of the hand every now and then to turn over a page, and Mrs
"You mean you've looked at the pictures?" Phelps always felt sad when the time came for her to cross the floor
"Yes, but I've read the books as well." and say, "It's ten to five, Matilda, time to go home."
Mrs Phelps looked down at Matilda from her great height and
Matilda looked right back at her. Rendering 2
"I thought some were very poor," Matilda said, "but others were An Alternative Cinderella
lovely. I liked The Secret Garden best of all. It was full of mystery." Once upon a time there were three sisters who lived with their
Mrs Phelps was more stunned than ever, but she had the sense not widowed father. The two eldest ran a beauty parlour and a clothes
to show it to the four-year-old girl. "What sort of a book would you like shop. They were both interested in finding a rich husband. The
to read next?" she asked. youngest daughter, whose name was Cinderella, looked after the
Matilda said, "I would like a really good one that grown-ups read. house. Her father had refused to set her up in business as he wanted
A famous one. I don't know any names." someone to look after him. Cinderella did not mind too much as she
Mrs Phelps looked along the shelves, taking her time. She didn't was doing a correspondence course in accountancy and marketing.
quite know what to bring out. How, she asked herself, does one choose One day Cinderella decided to enter a competition in a woman's
a famous grown-up book for a four-year-old girl? Her first thought was magazine because it offered some good cash prizes. If she won one
to pick a young teenager's romance of the kind that is written for of them, it would help her finance the setting up of her оwn
fifteen-year-old schoolgirls, but for some reason she found herself hamburger restaurant.
instinctively walking past that particular shelf. Around that time the newspapers were full of stories about a big
"Try this", she said at last. "It's very famous and very good. If it's party that was going to be held at the palace. It was said that the
too long for you, just let me know and I'll find something shorter and a prince, a real playboy, wanted to find a wife and settle down. From
bit easier." " the moment they heard about the ball, the two eldest sisters spent
"Great Expectations", Matilda read, "by Charles Dickens. I'd love days and days trying to make themselves look beautiful. As for
to try it". Cinderella, she wondered, what all the fuss was about and didn't
I must be mad, Mrs Phelps told herself, but to Matilda she said, "Of have the slightest interest in going to the ball.
course you may try it." One morning, while she was doing some work for her
Over the next afternoon Mrs Phelps could hardly take her eyes accountancy course, there was a knock at the door. She opened it
from the small girl sitting for hour after hour in the big armchair at the and saw an extraordinary woman standing there with a ridiculous
53 54
looking tiara on her head. The woman, who called herself Fairy prince because she started work at the palace as financial adviser. In
Godmother or FG for short, told Cinderella that she'd won first prize in no time at all the palace was making a profit again. Naturally,
the magazine competition she'd entered. Cinderella refused to marry the prince but she did help him to mend
The prize was a "Charm course" worth hundreds of pounds as well his ways and involved him into useful social work.
as books and records. Cinderella wasn't really that keen on doing the
course but she realized she could probably make a small profit if she Rendering 3
sold the prizes. However, in return for the prizes she would have to Two Loaves of Bread (after O'Henry)
dress up in lots of fine clothes and be driven to the palace where she'd Miss Martha Meacham kept the little bakery on the corner.
spend the night at the ball and be photographed for the woman's Miss Martha was forty, her bank-book showed a credit of two
magazine. thousand dollars, and she possessed two false teeth and a
The big day arrived and a shiny Rolls Royce came to pick her up. sympathetic heart. Many people have married who had fewer
The man from the car hire firm said he was only on duty until midnight. chances to do so than Miss Martha.
Moments later a woman arrived bringing a fur coat and a diamond Two or three times a week a customer in whom she began to
necklace which would be Cinderella's just for the evening. When she take an interest came to her bakery. He was a middle-aged man,
turned up at the palace, she noticed that one of the servants was stealing wearing spectacles and a brown pointed beard. His clothes were
food from the buffet tables. The palace itself was cold and draughty, worn, but he looked neat and had very good manners.
and the king himself was a man with a sad smile. Cinderella felt sorry He always bought two loaves of stale bread. He never bought
for the man and told him why the food was disappearing so fast. The anything but stale bread.
king then told her about his financial problems. He was almost Once Miss Martha saw a red and brown stain on his fingers. She
bankrupt and he had organized the party in the hope that he might find was sure then that he was an artist and very poor. No doubt he lived
a millionaire's daughter for his son. Cinderella suggested lots of ways in a little room, where he painted pictures and ate stale bread and
of making money: reorganizing the kitchens, opening the palace to the thought of the good things in Miss Martha's bakery.
public and so on. Often when Miss Martha sat down to her chops and jam and tea
By this time it had turned midnight. The car hire man drove away she thought about the poor artist and wanted him to share her meal
and the woman came to collect her fur coat and necklace. The king instead of eating his stale bread. Miss Martha's heart, as you have
showed Cinderella around the palace and they eventually came back to been told, was a sympathetic one.
the ballroom where the party was still going on. The prince, took one But he kept on buying stale bread, never a cake, never a pie.
look at Cinderella and asked her to dance. She kicked off her glass She thought he began to look thinner. She wanted to add something
slippers, which were killing her, and joined him on the dance floor. good to eat to his stale bread, but she had no courage to do it. She
Soon afterwards, she left the palace and walked home. knew the pride of artists.
The following day the newspapers were full of the big story about One day the customer came in as usual, and asked for his stale
the prince who had fallen for a beautiful and mysterious woman who loaves. While Miss Martha was reaching for them there was a great
had disappeared. Her glass slippers, which she had left behind, were the noise in the street. The customer hurried to the door to look.
only clues that would lead him to her. When Cinderella read the news Suddenly inspired, Miss Martha seized the opportunity.
she was absolutely furious. Nevertheless, she saw quite a bit of the
55 56
With a bread-knife Miss Martha made a deep cut in each of stale Rendering 4*
loaves, put a big piece of butter there, and pressed the loaves tight The Pendulum (after О’Henry)
again. John Perkins walked slowly toward his flat. There are no surprises
When he had gone, after an unusually pleasant little talk, Miss awaiting a man who has been married two years and lives in a flat.
Martha smiled to herself. She imagined the scene when he would As he walked John Perkins was thinking about the end of his
discover her little deception. He would prepare for his lunch of stale monotonous day.
bread and water. He would take a loaf – ah! Katy would meet him at the door with a kiss. He would take off
Miss Martha blushed. Would he think of the hand that had put it his coat, sit in the old arm-chair and read his evening paper. For
there as he ate? Would he?.. dinner there would be cold mutton, a salad and a bottle of mineral
The front door bell rang loudly. Somebody was coming in, making water. After dinner Katy would show him her sewing. At half past
a great deal of noise. Miss Martha hurried to the front door. Two men seven they would spread newspapers over the furniture to catch the
were there. One was a young man she had never seen before, the other pieces of plastering that fell when the fat man in the flat overhead
was her artist. His face was very red, his hat was on the back of his began to take his physical exercises. Exactly at eight they would
head, his hair was in disorder. He shook his two fists angrily at Miss hear the family next door quarrelling – and the evening routine
Martha. would be under way.
"Fool!" he shouted very loudly. John Perkins knew these things would happen. And he knew
The young man tried to draw him away. that at a quarter past eight he would reach for his hat, and that his
"I shall not go," he said angrily, "before I tell her." wife would make a speech in an angry tone:
"You have spoilt my work," he cried. "You are a meddlesome old "Now, where are you going, I'd like to know, John Perkins?"
cat!" "I thought I'd drop up to McCloskey's," he would answer, "and
"I think I must explain to you, ma'am," the other man said, "why he play a game or two of pool with the fellows."
is so angry. That is Blumberger. He is an architectural draughtsman. I Of late such had been John Perkins' habit. At ten or eleven he
work in the same office with him. He has been working hard for three would return. Sometimes Katy would be asleep; sometimes waiting
months drawing a plan for a new city hall. It was a prize competition. up for him.
He finished it yesterday. You know, a draughtsman always makes his Tonight John Perkins didn't find Katy at the door. The three
drawing in pencil first. When it is finished he rubs out the pencil lines rooms were in disorder. Katy's things lay about in confusion – this
with stale bread. This is better than Indian rubber. was not Katy's way. With a sinking heart John saw Katy's comb
Blumberger has been buying the bread here. Well, today – well, which had always been neatly put away. It was clear that she had
you know, ma'am, that butter wasn't – well, Bamberger's plan isn't good been in some unusual hurry. Soon John Perkins saw a folded sheet
for anything now." of paper. It was a note from his wife. He read:
Miss Martha went into the back room. She took off the blue silk Dear John,
blouse she had begun to wear recently and put on the old brown one she I just had a telegram saying mother is very sick. I am going to
used to wear. take the 4.30 train. Brother Sam is going to meet me at the station.
There is cold mutton in the ice-box. Pay the milkman 60 cents, and

57 58
your good socks are in the top drawer. I will write tomorrow. Rendering 5
Katy. The Story of Othello
Never during their two years of married life had he and Katy been Othello is a tragedy about the power of jealousy. Shakespeare wrote
separated for the night. John read the note over and over. Everything in it in 1604. The action takes place in the late 1400s in Cyprus which
the room spoke of a loss and John Perkins had a strange feeling of was conquered bу Venice.
loneliness in his heart. He had never thought what life would be like Othello is a Moor who was stolen from his home when he was a
without Katy. She had become like the air he breathed – necessary but child. When the story begins, Othello is a well respected soldier who
not noticed. Now she was gone. Of course it would be only for a few has risen to the rank of General in the Venetian Army. He has been
days, but it was awful! sent to govern the island of Cyprus. Othello's wife Desdemona is a
John dragged the cold mutton from the ice-box, made coffee and beautiful Venetian lady who defied her father in order to marry
sat down to a lonely meal. Behind the window the city roared and Othello. They are passionately in love. The other important
called him to join in the dance of pleasure. The night was his. He could characters are the villainous Iago, his wife Emilia, and Cassio, one
do what he wanted, and Katy wasn't there to scold him. Katy was gone. of Othello's soldiers.
John Perkins was not used to analysing his emotions. But he knew Iago is an ambitious, evil man who believes he deserves to be
now that Katy was necessary to his happiness. Othello's lieutenant (second in command). Instead, Othello gives the
"Bloody idiot," said John Perkins to himself, "the way I have been job to Cassio. Iago pretends to be a loyal friend, but secretly he
treating Katy. Away every night playing pool with the boys instead of despises Othello. Iago gets into motion a plot to bring down both
staying home with her. The poor girl here all alone with nothing to Cassio and Othello.
amuse her. I'm going to make it up for Katy. I'll take her out and let her It so happens that in celebration of their victorious battle against
have some entertainment." Tears – yes, tears came into John Perkins' the Turks, the soldiers enjoy a huge party where the wine flows
eyes. freely. Iago knows that Cassio gets drunk easily, and he arranges for
The door opened. Katy walked in carrying a bag. John stared at her him to have more wine than he can handle. Iago then sends a soldier
stupidly. to pick a fight with Cassio. When Othello runs in to stop the
"My! I'm glad to get back," said Katy. "Ma wasn't badly sick. Sam violence, Iago blames the chaos on Cassio. Othello is furious with
was at the station and said she was all right. So I took the next train Cassio and dismisses him saying, "You are no longer my
back. I'm just dying for a cup of coffee." lieutenant." Iago has accomplished the first step of his plan.
John Perkins looked at the clock. It was 8.15. He reached for his The next day Iago tells Cassio he should go plead his case with
hat and walked to the door. Desdemona and she will ask Othello to forgive him. Othello enters
"Now, where are you going, I'd like to know, John Perkins?" asked the hall just as Cassio leaves Desdemona after talking to her. Othello
Katy angrily. sees them together and Iago gives him to understand that there was
"I thought I'd drop up to McCloskey's," said John, "and play a something romantic about the encounter. Othello is driven into a
game or two of pool with the fellows." jealous rage.
Then Desdemona sees her husband, the first thing she does is
innocently beg Othello to forgive Cassio. Othello's jealousy steadily
increases. Desdemona sees that Othello is very upset, but she has no
59 60
idea why, and she offers him her handkerchief to wipe his forehead. Rendering 6*
Othello rejects the handkerchief, and it falls to the floor where Emilia, The Oval Portrait (after E.A.Poe)
Iago's wife and a servant to Desdemona, picks it up. Iago argues with I was badly wounded and my servant couldn't let me pass a night in
Emilia, then grabs the handkerchief from her and hides it in his shirt. the open air. We came across a gloomy and grand castle among the
Later Iago tells his next big lie, claiming that he heard Cassio talking in Apennines. To all appearance it had been temporarily and very
his sleep about being in love with Desdemona. Iago then asks Othello lately abandoned, so we broke into it.
about Desdemona's handkerchief. "Well," says Iago, (knowing the We established ourselves in one of the smallest and least
handkerchief is hidden in his own shirt), "I have seen it in Cassio's furnished apartments lying in a remote small tower of the building.
hand” The furious Othello now wishes Cassio had many lives, since Its decorations were rich and antique. Its walls were hung with an
killing him once is not enough punishment. unusually great number of paintings in rich golden frames. In these
Later, Othello calls Desdemona to him and tries to trick her into paintings my fever caused me to take a deep interest; so that I bade
admitting that she has been unfaithful. Othello asks her to show him her the servant to light the candles of a tall chandelier which stood by
handkerchief. She says she doesn't have it, but will find it later. Once the head of my bed. I wished, all this done, to go to bed and reflect
more she asks him to forgive Cassio. Bу now Othello has nearly lost his on these pictures and read a small volume which had been found
mind with jealousy, and he openly accuses her of unfaithfulness. She is upon the pillow, and which criticized and described them.
shocked and denies everything. Iago makes it look as if Cassio got the Long, long I read and attentively, attentively I gazed. Rapidly
handkerchief from Desdemona. the hours flew by and the deep midnight came. The position of the
Desdemona has retired to her bedroom. She falls to her knees to chandelier displeased me, and with difficulty, rather than disturb
say her evening prayers. She is asleep when Othello comes into the my dreaming servant, I placed it so as to throw its rays more fully
room. He approaches the bed and kisses Desdemona three times. upon the book.
Then she awakens. Othello tells her if she has anything to confess But the action produced an effect altogether unexpected. The
to Cod, she should do it now. With horror Desdemona realises that rays of the numerous candles now fell within a niche of the room
Othello is planning to kill her. Othello stifles her pleas for mercy and which had been in deep shade. I thus saw in vivid light a picture all
strangles her. unnoticed before. It was the portrait of a young girl just entering
Emilia knocks on the door, and Othello lets her in. With her dying womanhood. I glanced at the painting hurriedly, and then closed
breath Desdemona tells Emilia that she has killed herself. Emilia calls my eyes to make sure that my vision had not deceived me.
for help, Iago, Cassio and other soldiers come running in, horrified to The portrait was a mere head and shoulders. The arms, the
find Desdemona murdered. Then Emilia accuses her husband Iago of bosom, and even the ends of the radiant hair melted into the vague
lying, explaining how he took the handkerchief from her. Iago races yet deep shadow which formed the background. The frame was
from the room and the soldiers go after him to arrest him. Othello is left oval, richly gilded. As a thing of art nothing could be more
with the reality of what he has done to his innocent wife. Before the admirable than the painting itself. But it wasn't the execution of the
others can stop him, he pulls a dagger from his shirt and stabs himself. work, nor the beauty of the girl, which had so suddenly and so
strongly moved me. I remained, for an hour perhaps, half sitting
and half lying, with my eyes upon the portrait. At length, I found
the cause of my deep agitation in an absolute life-likeliness of
61 62
expression. I replaced the chandelier in its former position. Turning to Rendering 7*
the number in the volume which dealt with the oval portrait, I read The Poet (After W.S.Maugham)
these quaint words: I am not much interested in the celebrated and I have never had
"She was a maiden of rarest beauty, full of joy, all light and smiles. passion to shake hands with the great ones of the earth. When it is
And evil was the hour when she saw, and loved, and married the proposed to me to meet some distinguished person, I seek for a civil
painter. He was passionate, grave, stern, and had already a bride in his excuse that might let me avoid the honour, and when my friend
Art. She, loving and cherishing all things, hated only the Art which was suggested giving me an introduction to Santa Ana, I declined. But
her rival; dreading only the paints and brushes and other instruments the excuse I made this time was sincere. Santa Ana was not only a
which deprived her of her lover. It was thus a terrible thing for this lady great poet but also a romantic figure whose adventures (in Spain at
to hear the painter speak of his desire to portray her. But she was least) were legendary; but I knew that he was old and ill and I could
humble and obedient, and sat meekly for many weeks in the dark, high not believe that it would be anything but a nuisance to him to meet a
tower-chamber where the light dripped upon the pale canvas only from stranger and a foreigner. Calisto de Santa Ana was the last of
overhead. But the painter took glory in his work, which went on from byronists and had narrated his life in the poems that had brought him
hour to hour, and from day to day. And being a passionate, and wild, a fame unknown to his contemporaries. They had a passion and a
and moody man, he did not see that the light which fell so frightening heroic arrogance that swept me off my feet. I couldn't read them
in that lone tower took the health and the spirits of his bride, who grew without a beating heart. His verses used to be on the lips of all
feeble visibly to all but him. Yet she smiled on, uncomplainingly, young men and my friends would talk endlessly of his wild ways,
because she saw that the painter took a burning pleasure in his task, and his wit and his love affairs, for above all he was a lover. We knew
worked day and night to depict her who so loved him. And those who all about his passion for this great actress or that singer; we read till
saw the portrait spoke of its resemblance in low words, as of a wonder we knew them by heart the burning sonnets in which he described
and a proof of the power of the painter and of his deep love for her his love. The infant of Spain became a nun when he stopped loving
whom he depicted so astonishingly well. But at length, as the labour her. We applauded to the lady's romantic gesture.
drew nearer to its conclusion, no one was admitted into the tower; for But all this took place many years ago and now Don Calisto
the painter had grown so devoted to his work that hardly turned his eyes lived in isolation in his native town. I was spending there a week or
from the canvas, even to look at the face of his wife. And he did not see so. Suddenly I received a note from the great man himself. He said it
that the colours which he spread upon the canvas were drawn from the would give him great pleasure if I called on him. That's why I did
cheeks of her who sat beside him. Many weeks had passed, and little decide to visit him.
remained to do, except one brushstroke upon the mouth and one "What does he look like now?" I asked my friend. –
brushstroke upon the eye. And then the brushstrokes were given,; and, "Magnificent." – "Have you a photograph of him?" – "I wish I had.
for one moment, the painter stood fascinated before the work which he He refused to face the camera since he was thirty-five. He says he
had done; but the next moment he trembled and grew very pale, and does not wish posterity to know him other than young."
crying with a loud voice, "This is indeed Life itself!" turned to look at I confess that I found this suggestion of vanity not a little
his beloved. She was dead! touching. I know that in early manhood he was of extraordinary
beauty and that moving sonnet of his written when he grew
conscious that youth had for ever left him shows with what a bitter
63 64
and sardonic pang he must have watched the passing of those looks that I was embarrassed. It was fortunate for me that I had prepared
had been so fantastically admired. beforehand the phrase with which I meant to greet him. "It is a
The massive gateway to his house suited my impression of the wonderful honour, maestro, for a foreigner such as I to make
flamboyant poet. Though I heard the bell ring through the house, no acquaintance of so great a poet."
one answered it and I rang a second and than a third time. At last an old A flicker of amusement passed through those eyes and a smile
woman with a heavy moustache came to the gate. "What do you want?" for an instant curved the lines of that stern mouth. "I am not a poet,
she said. Senor, but a merchant. You have made a mistake. Don Calisto lives
She had fine black eyes but a sullen look and I supposed that it was next door."
she who took care of the old man. I gave her my card. "I have an I had come to the wrong house.
appointment with your master."
She opened the gateway and bade me enter. Asking me to wait she
left me and went upstairs. There was about everything an air of poverty. SECTION 4
I knew that Don Calisto was poor. Money had come to him easily at FAIRY TALES FOR RENDERING
times but he had never attached any importance to it and had spent it
profusely. In the middle of the room there was a table with a rocking Rendering 1
chair on each side of it, and on the table newspapers a fortnight old. I Lazy Jack
wondered what dreams occupied his fancy as he sat there on the warm Once upon a time there was a boy whose name was Jack, and he
summer nights smoking cigarettes. On the walls there were Spanish lived with his mother. They were very poor, and the old woman got
pictures dark and bad. By the side of a door hung a pair of pistols and I her living by spinning, but Jack was so lazy that he would do
had a pleasant fancy that they were the weapons he had used, when in nothing but bask in the sun in the hot weather, and sit by the corner
the most celebrated of his many duels – for the sake of a most charming of the hearth in the winter-time. So they called him Lazy Jack. His
dancer (now, I suppose, a toothless hag) – he killed the famous Duke. mother could not get him to do anything for her, and at last told him,
I had arrived rather cool and even somewhat bored, but now I got a one Monday, that if he did not begin to work for his porridge she
trifle nervous. I lit a cigarette. The silence was strangely disturbing. would turn him out to get his living as he could.
I heard a sound and my heart beat quickly. I was excited now and This roused Jack, and he went out and hired himself for the next
when at last I saw him coming slowly down the stairs I caught my day to a neighbouring farmer for a penny; but as he was coming
breath. He held my card in one hand and a broad-trimmed hat in the home, never having had any money before, he lost it in passing over
other and was dressed in black. He was a tall old man and exceedingly a brook. "You stupid boy," said his mother, "Why didn't you put it in
thin, with a skin the colour of old ivory; his hair was abundant and your pocket?" "I'll do so another time," replied Jack.
white, but his bushy eyebrows were dark still: they made his great eyes On Wednesday, Jack went out again and hired himself to a cow-
flash with a sombre fire. It was wonderful that at his age these black keeper, who gave him a jar of milk for his day's work. Jack took the
eyes still preserved their brilliance. His nose was aquiline, his mouth jar and put it into the large pocket of his jacket, spilling it all, long
close-set. His unsmiling eyes rested on me as he approached. There was before he got home. "Dear me!" said the old woman; "Why didn't
in his bearing assurance and dignity. As I watched him, I understood you carry it on your head?" "I'll do so another time," said Jack.
how he had touched men's hearts. He was very inch a poet.
65 66
So on Thursday, Jack hired himself again to a farmer, who agreed lived in a large house, and Jack's mother lived with them in great
to give him a cream cheese for his services. In the evening Jack took happiness until she died.
the cheese, and went home with it on his head. By the time he got home
the cheese was all spoilt, as part of it was lost, and part matted with his Rendering 2
hair. "You stupid idiot," said his mother, "Why didn't you carry it very St. George and the Dragon
carefully in your hands?" "I'll do so another time," replied Jack. Saint George is one of the most adored saints in Christianity. He is
On Friday, Lazy Jack again went out, and hired himself to a baker, the patron saint of Canada, Catalonia, England, Ethiopia, Georgia,
who would give him nothing for his work but a large tom-cat. Jack took Greece, Serbia, the cities of Ljubljana and Moscow. He is
the cat, and began carrying it very carefully in his hands, but in a short immortalized in the tale of George and the Dragon.
time the pussy scratched him so much that he had to let it go. When he The King of Selene, a city in Libya, had one daughter, named
got home, his mother said to him, "You silly fellow, why didn't you tie Cleodolinda. She was as sweet as a summer morning, and as brave
it with a string, and drag it along after you?" "I'll do so another time," as a winter sun. The King loved his daughter and she was dearer to
said Jack. him than anything else in the world.
So on Saturday, Jack hired himself to a butcher, who rewarded him One day, a huge dragon settled in the marshes in the
by the handsome present of a shoulder of mutton. Jack took the mutton, neighbourhood. It crawled on four twisted feet, it pushed itself with
tied it to a string, and trailed it along after him in the dirt, so that by the its black wings; and its eyes shone like red flames, and from its
time he had got home the meat was completely spoilt. His mother was nostrils came out a black flame which contained most poisonous
this time quite out of patience with him, for the next day was Sunday, deadly fumes. Its body was covered with strong thick scales. The
and they were obliged to do with only cabbage for their dinner. "You King gave orders that none should go outside the city walls till the
fool," said she to her son; "Why didn't you carry it on your shoulder." dragon had gone back whence it came.
"I'll do so another time," replied Jack. But the dragon crawled to the gates of the city and from its
On the next Monday, Lazy Jack went once more, and hired himself nostrils it poured terrible fumes, so that the people were about to die.
to a cattle-keeper, who gave him a donkey for his trouble. Jack found it The dragon demanded, by signs and hoarse noises, that it would
hard to lift the donkey on his shoulders, but at last he did it, and began only stop troubling the people of Selene, if it was granted two sheep
walking slowly home with his prize. Now it happened that in the course a day. The King ordered to obey him and the dragon devoured two
of his journey there lived a rich man with his only daughter, a beautiful sheep a day and crawled to the marshes to rest.
girl, but deaf and dumb. Now she had never laughed in her life, and the But when soon the sheep became few in number, the bravest
doctors said she would never speak till somebody made her laugh. This knights of Selene dared to go out and to battle with the dragon. And
young lady happened to be looking out of the window when Jack was the dragon breathed out its terrible poison on them, and beat them
passing with the donkey on his shoulders, with the legs sticking up in with its wings. And, since the knights couldn't pierce the scales with
the air, and the sight was so comical and strange that she burst out into which its body was covered, they were speedily overcome by the
a great fit of laughter, and immediately recovered her speech and fumes and perished, one and all.
hearing. Her father was overjoyed, and fulfilled his promise by When there were no longer any sheep left to offer to the dragon,
marrying her to Lazy Jack, who was thus made a rich gentleman. They it demanded by signs and noises: "Let me be granted one child a day
for my meal, and I will not trouble the people of Selene." Bitterly
67 68
wept the people of Selene. Nevertheless, because the poison from the asked Cleodonia to give him her belt. He bound it about the neck of
dragon was reaching everywhere, so that none could escape, they the dragon and gave the ends into the hand of the Princess that she
subdued, hoping that the dragon would return to its home before all the might lead the dragon toward the city. When they had reached the
children were devoured. And any child who was not yet fifteen years of city gates they were met with great joy by the people of Selene, who
age, on whom fell the lot, was sacrificed. had watched from the city this great fight.
Princess Cleodolinda was aged fourteen. A day came when the lot With his sword the knight killed the dragon. The King said:
fell upon her. The King and the people of the city mourned "What shall be given to this brave knight, who has saved us
Cleodolinda, for she was well beloved. But the Princess did not weep from our enemy?" And the people cried of honours, and wealth, that
and said: "I am ashamed to weep for myself, I who am a King's should be given to the knight. But he thus replied: "I desire only that
daughter; and I'll die gladly for the people of Selene." Women clad the you believe in the God who strengthened my hand to gain this
Princess in white clothes, and she was placed outside the city wall to victory, and be baptised." And when he had turned the city into the
await the coming of the dragon. Christian faith, he went on his way.
Shortly after that she heard upon the ground the noise of a horse's
hoofs, and her heart was filled with fear, for she saw a knight of a fairer Rendering 3
face and grace than any she had seen. This knight was an honorable How the Tiger Got His Stripes (after R. Kipling)
soldier of the Roman Emperor, who was passing through Libya to join It is an old tale. In the beginning of the Jungle, all the animals
his men. He stopped and asked the trembling, pale Princess what her walked together, having no fear of one another. In those days there
distress was. She cried out for him: "Press on your way before the was no drought, and all of them ate only leaves and flowers and
fearful dragon, which has been the death of many noble knights, rises grass and fruit and twigs and bark.
from those marshes!" But the knight replied: "I cannot leave you The Lord of the Jungle was Tha, the First of the Elephants. He
unprotected against the dragon." drew the Jungle out of deep waters with his trunk; and where he
And at that moment the dragon crawled from its hiding-place and made furrows in the ground with his tusks, there the rivers ran; and
the knight thrust him with his spear. The dragon looped the knight and where he struck with his foot, there rose ponds of good water.
his horse by its body and tail, and threw out the poison deadlier than In those days the Jungle Peoples lived in the Jungle together,
before, and cast lightning upon him from its eyes. But the soldier making one people. But presently they began to dispute over their
managed to stand and fight back. Through the deadly fumes that issued food, though there was enough of it for all. They were lazy. Tha, the
from the dragon the Princess could see his pale face lighted up by some First of the Elephants, was busy making new jungles. He could not
radiance that shone from within. As he fought the dragon, this radiance walk in all places; therefore he made the First of the Tigers the
grew greater, so that at last it was like the light of the sun. master and the judge of the Jungle. In those days the First of the
The fight lasted a long time. Then the knight noticed that the Tigers ate fruit and grass with the others. He was large, very
dragon tried always to protect one place in its body beneath its left beautiful and yellow all over. All the Jungle People came before him
wing. And with a great blow, the knight thrust his spear with a turn into without fear.
that place. Then he felt the dragon's clasp upon him loosen and the Yet upon a night there was a dispute between two deer. As the
smoke ceased to rise from its nostrils, and the great beast fell to the two spoke together before the First of the Tigers lying among the
ground. Now that the dragon was helpless, though not dead, the knight flowers, one of them pushed him with his horns, and the First of the
69 70
Tigers forgot that he was the master and judge of the Jungle, and broke Then the First of the Tigers said: "What have I done that this
his neck. comes to me?" Tha said, "You have killed the deer, and you have let
Till that night never one of the Jungle People had died, and the Death loose in the Jungle, and with that the people of the Jungle are
First of the Tigers, seeing what he had done, and mad at the scent of the afraid of one of the other." The First of the Tigers said, "They will
blood, ran away. The Jungle people, left without a judge, started never fear me, for I knew them since the beginning." Tha said, "Go
fighting among themselves and ran to and fro in circles, crying out and and see." And the First of the Tigers ran to and fro, calling aloud to
shaking their heads. the roe and the pig and the peacock and all the Jungle Peoples and
Tha heard the noise of it and came back and saw the killed deer and they all ran away from him who had been their judge, because they
gave an order to the trees that hung low: "Mark the murderer so that I were afraid.
should know him". Then the First of the Tigers came back, and his pride was
Then Tha said, "Who will now be the master of the Jungle broken in him, and, beating his head upon the ground, he tore up the
People?" Then up leaped the Grey Ape who lived in the branches, and earth with all his feet.
said, "I will now be the master of the Jungle." At this Tha laughed, and And those stripes his children wear to this day!
said, "So be it," and went away very angry.
At first the Grey Ape made a wise face for himself, but in a little Rendering 4
while he began to scratch and to leap up and down, and when Tha came Caporushes
back he found the Grey Ape hanging, head down, from a tree, mocking Once upon a time, a long, long while ago, when all the world was
those who stood below; and they mocked him in return. And so there young and all sorts of strange things happened, there lived a very
was no Law in the Jungle – only foolish talk and senseless words. Then rich gentlemen whose wife had died leaving him three lovely
Tha said: "The first of your masters has brought Death into the Jungle, daughters. They were as the apple of his eye, and he loved them
and the second Shame". exceedingly.
And the trees on the path of the First of the Tigers, remembering Now one day he wanted to find out if they loved him in return,
the order that Tha had given, let down their branches and marked him so he said to the eldest, "How much do you love me my dear?"
as he ran, drawing their fingers across his back and his forehead. And she answered, "As I love my life."
Wherever they touched him there was a mark and a stripe upon his "Very good, my dear", said he, and gave her a kiss. Then he
yellow back. The First of the Tigers was ashamed, and ran howling. said to the second girl, "How much do you love me, my dear?"
Tha heard him and said, "What is the sorrow?" And the First of the And she answered, "Better than all the world beside."
Tigers, lifting up his muzzle to the new-made sky, said: "O Tha. I am "Good!" he replied and patted her on the cheek. Then he turned
made ashamed before all the Jungle. I am smeared with the mud". to the youngest, who was also the prettiest.
"Swim, then, and roll on the wet grass, and if it is mud it will wash "And how much do you love me, my dearest?"
away," said Tha; and the First of the Tigers swam, and rolled and rolled Now the youngest daughter was not only pretty, she was clever.
upon the grass, till the Jungle ran round and round before his eyes, but So she thought a moment, then she said slowly: "I love you as fresh
not one little bar upon all his back was changed, and Tha, watching meat loves salt!" When her father heard this he was very angry,
him, laughed. because he really loved her more than the others and turned the poor

71 72
girl out of the home where she had been born and bred, and shut the slipped away before the ball finished; so when her fellow-servants
door in her face. came to bed, there she was in hers in her cap and robe of rushes,
Not knowing where to go, she wandered on and she wandered on, pretending to be fast asleep. Next morning, however, the maids
till she came to a big lake where reeds grew tall and rushes swayed in could talk of nothing but the beautiful stranger.
the wind like a field of com. There she sat down and made herself an "You should have seen that lovely lady," they said. And
overall and a cap of rushes, so as to hide her fine clothes, and her Caporushes only smiled and said with a twinkle in her eye, "I
beautiful golden hair. For she was a wise girl and thought that in such a should like to see her, but I don't think I ever shall."
lonely country some robber might kill her to get her fine clothes and "Oh yes, you will," they replied, "for young master has ordered
jewels. In her new clothes she looked quite a common country girl. another ball tonight. He hopes she will come to dance again."
By the evening the girl came in a great house on the edge of the Once again Caporushes danced with the young master down the
forest. It had a fine front door to it; but mindful of her dress of rushes ballroom. It was a sight of sights! Never were such dancers! So
she went round to the back. And there she saw a fat maid washing pots young, so handsome, so fine, so happy! And once again the house
and pans with a very sulky face. So, being a clever girl, she guessed was full of stories of the beautiful young lady. On the third night the
what the maid was wanting and said: "If I may have a night's lodging I young man implored her to tell him who she was. But she only told
will scrub the pots and pans for you." The maid was very pleased, and him that she never, never, never would come to dance any more, and
went for a walk with her sweetheart telling the girl to scrub the pots that he must say goodbye. This time he held her hand so fast that his
clean. Now next morning the pots were scraped so clean that they ring came off his finger, and as she ran up to her bed there it was in
looked like new, and the saucepans were polished like silver. The cook her hand.
asked the maid who had done the job and she had to tell the truth. So The young man spent his whole time looking for his beautiful
Caporushes – for so they called her since she would give no other name dancer. And day by day he grew thinner and thinner, and paler and
– stayed in the house and cleaned the pots and scraped the saucepans. paler, until at last he took to his bed. One day the housekeeper came
Now it so happened that her master's son came of age, and to crying to the kitchen and said to the cook that the young master was
celebrate the occasion a ball was given to the neighbourhood, for the dying for love of the beautiful dancer. "Prepare some gruel for him.
young man was a great dancer and loved dancing more than anything. It And although he eats nothing, maybe he'd take that." So the cook
was a very fine party, and the servants were allowed to go and watch made the gruel, and Caporushes secretly slipped young master's ring
the guests from the gallery of the ballroom. But Caporushes refused to into it. The old butler who took the gruel, upstairs begged the young
go, for she also was a great dancer and she was afraid that when she man to taste it. So the young master took a silver spoon and stirred
heard the fiddles playing a merry jig, she might start dancing. But alas! the gruel; and he felt something hard at the bottom of the cup. And
The door of the ballroom had been left open, and as she lay in her bed he fished up his own ring! Now he knew where to look for his
she could hear the fiddles. So she upped and in a minute she was in the sweetheart. When Caporushes saw the young man so weak and
ballroom joining in the jig, and none was more beautiful or better worn with love for her, her heart melted and there she took off her
dressed than she – this time she had left her cap and robe of rushes cap and robe of rushes, and there she was as fine and tidy as ever,
behind. with her beautiful golden hair set with pearls. And the young man
Her master's son singled her out at once, and engaged her as his drew her to him and gave her a great big kiss.
partner for the rest of the night. So she danced to her heart's content and
73 74
So, of course, they were to be married in spite of her being only a robe of gold, but she still wouldn't take the old man and asked for a
kitchen-maid, for she told no one who she really was. Now everyone robe made of the feathers of all the birds of the air. And they gave
far and near was asked to the wedding. Among the invited guests was her such a robe and she asked for a robe of catskin; and she put it on,
Caporushes' father, who from grief at losing his favourite daughter, had and tied up her other robes into a bundle, and when it was night-time
lost his sight, and was very dull and miserable. However, as a friend of ran away with it into the woods.
the family, he had to come to the young master's wedding. Caporushes Now she went along, and went along, and went along, till at the
went to her friend the cook and said: "Dress every dish without one end of the wood she saw a fine castle. Then she hid her fine robes by
mite of salt." Now when the company sat down to table their faces were a crystal waterfall and went up to the castle-gates and asked for
full of smiles and content, for all the dishes looked so nice and tasty; work. They sent her into the kitchen and called her Catskin, because
but when the guests began to eat their faces fell, for nothing can be of her dress. Well, soon after that it happened that the young lord of
tasty without salt. the castle came home, and there was to be a grand ball in honour of
Then Caporushes' blind father, whom his daughter had seated next the occasion. And when they were speaking about it among the
to her, burst out crying. servants, "Dear me," said Catskin, "how much I should like to go!"
"What's matter?" she asked. "What! You dirty impudent slut," said the cook, who was very
Then the old man sobbed, "I had a daughter whom I loved dearly. cruel to the girl and made her life miserable, "you go among all the
And I asked her how much she loved me, and she replied, "As fresh fine lords and ladies with your filthy catskin? A fine figure you'd
meat loves salt." And I was angry with her and turned her out of the cut!" And with that she took a basin of water and dashed it into
house, for I thought she didn't love me at all. But now I see she loved Catskin's face. But Catskin only shook her head and said nothing.
me best of all." When the day of the ball arrived, Catskin slipped out of the
And as he said the words his eyes were opened, and there beside house and went to the edge of the forest where she had hidden her
him was his daughter lovelier than ever. other robes. She bathed herself in a crystal waterfall, and put on her
robe of silver cloth, and went to the ball. As soon as she entered all
Rendering 5 were overcome by her beauty and grace, while the young lord at
Catskin once lost his heart to her; and he would dance with none other the
Once upon a time there lived a gentleman who owned fine lands and livelong night. When it came to parting time the young lord said,
houses, and he very much wanted to have a son to be heir to them. So "Pray tell me, fair maid, where you live?"
when his wife brought him a daughter, though she was bonny as bonny But Catskin curtsied and said:
could be, he didn't care for her, and said: "Let me never see her face." "Kind sir, if the truth I must tell,
So she grew up to be a beautiful maiden and was ready to be At the sign of the "Basin of Water" I dwell."
married. Then her father said roughly, "She shall marry the first that Then she flew from the castle and put on her catskin robe again,
comes for her." Now when this became known there came a nasty, and slipped into the kitchen. The young lord went the very next day
horrid, old man. The girl didn't want to marry him and said, "I will not and searched for – the sign on the "Basin of Water"; but he couldn't
take him unless you give me a robe of silver cloth." Well, they gave her find it.
a robe of silver cloth, but she still wouldn't take the old man and said, "I Soon another ball was arranged in hope that the beautiful maid
will not take him unless you give me a robe of gold." They gave her a would appear again. So Catskin said to the cook, "Oh, how I should
75 76
like to go!" But the cook screamed at her in rage, took a ladle and broke daughter whom you didn't want to see?" And the miserable man said
it across Catskin's back. Catskin only shook her head, ran to the forest, with tears, "It's true. But I would give all my worldly goods if I
bathed, put on her robe of gold, and off she went to the ballroom. As could see her once before I die."
soon as she entered all eyes were upon her; and the young lord at once Then the young lord told him what had happened to Catskin,
recognized her. At the end of the ball he once again asked her where and afterwards brought his father-in-law to his own castle, where
she lived. But all that she would say was: they lived happily.
"Kind sir, if the truth I must tell,
At the sign of the "Broken Ladle" I dwell;" Rendering 6
and with that she curtsied and flew from the ball. The Baron and the Poor Man's Daughter.
The next day, when the young lord could not find where the sign of Once upon a time there lived a baron who was a great magician, and
the "Broken Ladle" was, he begged his mother to have another grand could tell by his arts and charms everything that was going to
ball, so that he might meet the beautiful maid once more. Then Catskin happen at any time. This great lord had a little son born to him as
said to the cook, "Oh, how I wish I could go to the ball!" The cook heir to all his castles and lands. When the little boy was about four
shouted "A fine figure you'd cut!" and broke the skimmer across her years old, the baron looked in his Book of Fate to see what the boy's
head. But Catskin said nothing, went off to the forest, where she first future would be.
bathed in the crystal spring, and then put on her coat of feathers. When The baron was horrified to find out that his much loved heir was
she entered the ballroom everyone was surprised at such a beautiful to marry a low-born maiden. The book also said that the girl had just
face and such a rich and rare robe, but the young lord at once been born in a very poor house. The baron called for his horse and
recognized his sweetheart and danced with none but her the whole rode away, and away, until he came to the poor man's house, and
evening. When the ball came to an end he pressed her to tell him where there he found the poor man sitting at his doorstep very sad. He told
she lived, but all she answered was: the baron that a little lass had just been born to their house; and they
"Kind sir, if the truth I must tell had five children already and he didn't have the bread to fill the six
At the sign of the "Broken Skimmer" I dwell"; mouths. The baron said he was looking for a little lass to companion
and with that she curtsied, and was off to the forest. But this time the his son and offered the poor man ten crowns for her.
young lord followed her, and watched her change her fine dress of Well! The man jumped for joy, since he was to get good money,
feathers for her catskin dress, and then he knew her for his own kitchen- and his daughter, so he thought, a good home. The baron took the
maid. babe and rode away. But when he got to the river he flung the little
Soon they were married and a little son was born to them. One day thing into the stream and said to himself as he galloped back to his
Catskin told her husband, the young lord, all about her father and castle: "There goes fate!" But, you see, he was badly mistaken.
begged him to go and find out what had become of her parents. So he For the little lass didn't sink. The stream was very swift, and her
set out in the lord's grand coach, and travelled through the forest till he long clothes kept her up till she was noticed by a fisherman who was
came to the house of Catskin's father. mending his nets.
Now her father had never had any other child, and his wife had Now the fisherman and his wife had no children, and they were
died; so he was all alone in the world. Catskin's husband came to visit just longing for a baby; so when the good man saw the little lass he
him alone and asked him, "Pray sir, is it true that once you had a young was overcome with joy, and took her home to his wife, who
77 78
received her with open arms. And there she grew up, the apple of their When the news was brought to the baron he was beside himself
eyes, into the most beautiful maiden that ever was seen. When she was with anger. He rode to his brother's and pretended to be quite
about fifteen years of age it so happened that baron and his friends went pleased. And then one day he asked the young bride to come for a
hunting along the banks of the river and stopped to get a drink of water walk with him, and when they were close to some cliffs, he took off
at the fisherman's hut. And it was the fisherman's daughter who brought his gold ring from his finger and flung it over the cliffs into the sea
the water out. and said: "Never dare to show me your face again till you can show
Now the young man of the party noticed her beauty and asked the me that ring, or I'll kill you."
baron to read them her fate. To cast her horoscope by the stars the And with that he let her go.
baron asked the girl when she was born. Well! The girl wandered on and she wandered on, until she
"That I cannot tell, sir," replied the girl, "for I was picked up in the came to a nobleman's castle; and there she stayed, as they needed a
river about fifteen years ago." kitchen girl. One day as she was cleaning a big fish, she looked out
Then the baron grew pale for he guessed at once that she was the of the kitchen window and saw the baron and his young son, her
little lass he had flung into the stream, and that the fate had been husband, driving up to dinner. At first, she thought that to keep her
stronger than he was. So he thought out another plan. promise, she must run away; but afterwards she remembered they
"I shall make your fortune," he said to the girl. "Take this letter to would not see her in the kitchen, so she went on with her cleaning of
my brother, who needs a good servant, and you will be settled for life." the big fish. And suddenly she saw something shine in its inside, and
The fisherman and his wife were growing old and needed help; so there, sure enough, was the baron's ring! She was very glad to see it,
the girl said she would go, and took the letter. And the baron rode back I can tell you; so she slipped it on to her thumb. But she went on
to his castle saying to himself once more: "There goes fate!" For what with her work, and dressed the fish as nicely as she could, and
he had written in the letter was this: served it up as pretty as may be, with parsley sauce and butter.
"Dear Brother – Take the bearer and put her to death immediately." Now when it came to table the guests liked it so well that they
But once again he was so mistaken; since on the way to the town asked the host who cooked it.
where his brother lived, the girl had to spend the night in a little inn. When the girl heard she was wanted she made herself ready,
And it so happened that that very night a gang of thieves broke into the and with that gold ring on her thumb, went boldly into the dining
inn. They searched the pockets of the guests, and found the letter which hall. And all the guests when they saw her were struck dumb by her
the girl carried. And when they read it, they agreed that it was a mean wonderful beauty. But the baron, recognizing her, jumped up angrily
trick and a shame. So their captain sat down, and taking pen and paper and looked as if he would kill her. So, without one word, the girl
wrote instead: held up her hand before his face and the gold ring shone and
"Dear Brother – Take the bearer and marry her to my son without glittered on it.
delay." Then the baron understood that fate had been too strong for
Soon the girl arrived at the brother's house with the letter. Though him; so he took her by the hand, and turned to the guests and said:
rather surprised, he gave orders for a wedding feast to be prepared. And "This is my son's wife. Let us drink a toast in her honour."
the baron's son, who was staying with his uncle, seeing the girl's great After dinner he took her and his son home to his castle, where
beauty, fell in love with her, so they were fast wedded. they all lived as happy as could be for ever afterwards.

79 80
Rendering 7 And she told the cook that she would quickly lose her place if
Dick Whittington and His Cat she didn't treat him more kindly, for Dick had become quite a
More than five hundred years ago there was a little boy named Dick favourite with the family. After that the cook's behaviour was a little
Whittington, and this is true. His father and mother died when he was better, but Dick still had another hardship that he bore with
too young to work, and so poor Dick was very badly off and often had difficulty. For he slept in the attic with a lot of holes in the walls and
to go hungry. Now the country folk in those days thought that the the floor. Every night as he lay in bed the room was overrun with
people of London were all fine ladies and gentlemen, and that there was rats and mice, and sometimes he could hardly sleep a wink. One day
singing and dancing all the day long, and so rich were they there that he bought a cat that turned out to be an excellent mouser. In a little
even the streets, they said, were paved with gold. Dick used to sit by while Dick had no more bother with rats and mice. Puss took care of
and listen while all these strange tales of the wealth of London were that, and he slept sound every night.
told, and it made him eager to go and live there and have plenty to eat Soon after this Mr Fitzwarren had a ship ready to sail; and as it
and fine clothes to wear. was his custom, he asked all his servants what they would send out.
So one day when a great wagon with eight horses stopped on its They all had something that they were willing to sell except poor
way through the village, Dick made friends with the wagoner and Dick, who had neither money nor goods. All he had was his cat. His
begged to be taken with him to London. This is how Dick found master, Mr Fitzwarren advised Dick to send out the cat. There were
himself in the grand city. But oh! How disappointed he was, when he tears in the boy's eyes when he gave his puss to the captain. All the
got there. How dirty it was. And the people didn't look happy at all and company laughed at Dick's odd venture and miss Alice, who felt
paid no attention to the boy. Dick wandered and wandered up and down sorry for him, gave him some money to buy another cat.
the streets, until he was tired out. It was growing dark and at last he sat Now this, and other marks of kindness shown him by Miss
down in a corner and fell asleep. For two or three days he lived in the Alice, made the ill-tempered cook jealous of poor Dick and she
streets begging, only just able to keep himself alive. began to use him more cruelly then ever. At last poor Dick could
Once in his wanderings he lay down to rest in the doorway of the stand it no longer and ran away. He walked as far as Holloway, and
house of a rich merchant whose name was Fitzwarren. But here he was here he sat down to rest on a stone, which to this day is called
soon seen by the cook-maid who was an unkind, bad tempered woman. "Whittington's Stone", and began to think which road he should
She cried out to him to be off, and called him a lazy rouge. However, take. While he was thinking the bells of the old church began to
just then Mr Fitzwarren himself came home to dinner, and when he saw chime, and as they rang he fancied that they were singing over and
what was happening, he asked Dick why he was lying there. Dick told over again:
the kind man his story and the merchant gave orders for him to be taken "Turn again, Whittington, Lord Mayor of London."
into the house and gave him a good dinner. Dick stayed in Mr "Lord Mayor of London!" said he to himself. "Well, I'll go
Fitzwarren's house and helped in the kitchen. It was very unfortunate as back, and think nothing of the scolding of the cross old cook if I am
the ill-natured cook did her best to make his life a misery. Night and to be Lord Mayor of London at last." So back he went, and he was
morning she was forever scolding him. Nothing he did was good lucky enough to get into the house, and set about his work before the
enough. At last it came to the ears of Miss Alice, Mr Fitzwarren's cook came down.
daughter. Meanwhile the ship Unicorn that the cat was on put into harbour
on the coast of Barbary. The people of Barbary had never before
81 82
seen a ship from England. The King of Barbary sent the captain an СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
invitation to dinner. But as soon as they began eating, great numbers of
rats and mice rushed in helping themselves from all the good things Предисловие 3
there. This was when the captain remembered Dick's cat and told the
king that it would rid him of the unwelcome visitors. "Bring it to me at DICTATIONS 6
once," said the king. "I will load your ship with gold and jewels in SECTION 1. TOPICAL DICTATIONS 7
exchange for it." The cat was fetched and as soon so she saw the rats Topic One: Meeting People 7
and mice, she jumped out of the captain's arms, and in no time almost Dictation 1. Things People Say 7
all the rats and mice were dead at her feet. Dictation 2. How Long Have People Been Using Surnames? 8
The king was as good as his word and after a fair voyage the Topic Two: Your Health 9
Unicorn reached London with a precious load of gold and jewels. Dick Dictation 3. Various Diseases 9
Whittington became one of the richest people in England. He was far Dictation 4*. Diseases and Common Ailments 10
too kind-hearted to keep all the treasure to himself, so he made a Topic Three: Family Life 11
present to Mr Fitzwarren and Alice and the captain and all the servants; Dictation 5. The Adams Family 11
and even to his old enemy, the cross cook. After that he dressed like a Dictation 6. My Aunt Emily 11
gentleman. In a smart suit of clothes he was just as handsome and fine a Topic Four: Jobs and Occupations 12
young man as any who visited Mr Fitzwarren's house. Some time later Dictation 7. David the Teenage Tycoon 12
he married fair Alice Fitzwarren who had once been so kind to him. Dictation 8. Choosing an Occupation 13
History tells us that Mr Whittington and his lady lived in great Dictation 9*. Job Resume 13
splendours, and were very happy. Richard Whittington was Sheriff and Topic Five: Schooling 15
three times Lord Mayor of London, and received the honour of Dictation 10. My New School 15
knighthood from Henry V. Dictation 11. My School 15
Dictation 12*. What do We Know about ESP? 16
Topic Six: Place to Live in 17
Dictation 13. The Remarkable Suite 17
Dictation 14*. My Room 17
Dictation 15*. A New House 18
Dictation 16*. A Tudor Mansion 19
Topic Seven: Meals and Food 20
Dictation 17. Meals in Britain 20
Dictation 18. The Peculiarities of Russian Cooking 21
Dictation 19. The Wilsons' Party 22
Dictation 20*. American Food 22
Topic Eight: Daily Routine 23

83 84
Dictation 21. A Typical English Day 23 Dictation 13*. The King and the Witch 45
Dictation 22. Everyday Life in a British Family 24 Dictation 14*. Gilbert and Mahaut 45
Topic Nine: Climate and Weather 25 Dictation 15*. Princess Pocahontas 46
Dictation 23. Weather in New York 25 Dictation 16*. The Knight and the Dragon 47
Dictation 24*. The British Climate 26 Dictation 17*. Piers and the Dragon 47
Topic Ten: Pastimes 27 Dictation 18*. King Canute 48
Dictation 25. A Sunday Picnic 27 Dictation 19*. The Invisible Ghost 48
Dictation 26*. Pastimes 28 Dictation 20. The Quarrelsome Giants 49
Topic Eleven: Town Life 28 RENDERINGS 50
Dictation 27. Budapest 28 SECTION 3. STORIES FOR RENDERING 51
Dictation 28. Prague 29 Rendering 1. The Reader of Books 51
Topic Twelve: Shopping 30 Rendering 2. 2. An Alternative Cinderella 53
Dictation 29. How to Shop in America 30 Rendering 3. Two Loaves of Bread (after O’Henry) 55
Dictation 30*. Some Hints on Smart Shopping for Clothes 31 Rendering 4*. The Pendulum (after O’Henry) 57
Topic Thirteen: Theatre 32 Rendering 5. The Story of Othello 59
Dictation 31. Theatres in Britain 32 Rendering 6*. The Oval Portrait 61
Dictation 32. The History of Entertainment 33 Rendering 7*. The Poet 63
Dictation 33. A Visit to the Bolshoi Theatre 33 SECTION 4.FAIRY TALES FOR RENDERING 65
Topic Fourteen: Appearance 34 Rendering 1. Lazy Jack 65
Dictation 34. Returning Home 34 Rendering 2. St. George and the Dragon 67
Dictation 35. The Engagement 35 Rendering 3. How the Tiger Got His Stripes 69
SECTION 2. NARRATIVE DICTATIONS 36 Rendering 4. Caporushes 71
Dictation 1. Good Advice 36 Rendering 5. Catskin 74
Dictation 2. The Witty Farmer 37 Rendering 6. The Baron and the Poor Man's Daughter 77
Dictation 3. Dutch Cigarettes 38 Rendering 7. Dick Whittington and His Cat 80
Dictation 4. A Present from the Son 38
Dictation 5. Does It Make Any Difference? 39
Dictation 6. Little Rose 40
Dictation 7. A Bedtime Story 40
Dictation 8. The Dinner Party 41
Dictation 9. Marie Curie, the Greatest Woman Scientist 42
Dictation 10. The Story of Uncle Theo 43
Dictation 11. The King and the Tortoise 43
Dictation 12*. The Fairy Haunts 44

85
Learning to Write in English: Учебное пособие по
практике письменной речи английского языка для
студентов 1-го курса филологических факультетов и
факультетов иностранных языков педагогических вузов /
Авторы-сост.: О.В.Афанасьева, И.В.Михеева,
К.М.Баранова, О.В.Вострикова, Т.А.Симонян. – М.: МГПУ,
2008. – 86с.

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Н.А.Соломатина.

Редактор:
Н.А.Косаковская.

Компьютерная верстка:
О.Г.Арефьева.

Формат 6090/16. Усл. печ. л. 5.5.


Тираж 100 экз.

Московский городской педагогический университет


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