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Донецк 2011

(для студентов ІІІ курса направлений 45.03.01 «Филология» профиль
«Зарубежная филология (английский язык и литература)», 45.03.03
«Лингвистика» профиль «Теория и методика преподавания иностранных
языков и культур»)

Утверждено на заседании
Ученого совета факультета
иностранных языков ДонНУ.
Протокол № 4 от 27.10.2011г.

Донецк ДонНУ 2011

УДК 378.147:811.111
Практикум по грамматике «Синтаксис. Простое и сложное
предложение» для студентов ІІІ курса направлений 45.03.01 «Филология»
профиль «Зарубежная филология (английский язык и литература)»,
45.03.03 «Лингвистика» профиль «Теория и методика преподавания
иностранных языков и культур» / А.В. Чигирѐва, Л.Д. Щѐкина,
О.В. Волосюк. – Донецк: ДонНУ, 2011. – 146 с.

Пособие разработано в соответствии с программой по английскому

языку для университетов / институтов (Curriculum for English Language
Development in Universities and Institutes, 2001) и соответствует
содержанию рабочей программы по основному иностранному языку,
разработанной на кафедре английской филологии ДонНУ.
Предназначено для студентов III курса направлений 45.03.01
«Филология» профиль «Зарубежная филология (английский язык и
литература)», 45.03.03 «Лингвистика» профиль «Теория и методика
преподавания иностранных языков и культур». Также может быть
рекомендовано для студентов, изучающих английский язык как второй

Авторы: А.В.Чигирева, канд. филол. наук, доц.

О.В. Волосюк, ст. преп.
Л.Д. Щѐкина, преп.

Отв. за издание: О.Л. Бессонова, д-р филол.наук, проф.

© Чигирѐва А.В., 2011

© Щѐкина Л.Д., 2011
© Волосюк О.В., 2011
© ДонНУ, 2011
1. Structural Classification of Simple Sentences 7
2. Classification of Simple Sentences from the point of view of
Communicative Value
2.1. Interrogative Sentences 9
2.2. Imperative Sentences 14
2.3. Exclamatory Sentences 15
3. Ways of Expressing Negation in a Sentence 16
4. Divisible and Indivisible Phrases both Semantically and 18
5. Principal Parts of the Sentence 19
5.1. The Subject 19
5.2. The Predicate 26
6. Agreement 30
7. Secondary Parts of the Sentence 34
7.1. The Object 34
7.2. The Attribute .The Apposition 41
7.3. The Adverbial Modifier 48
8. Word Order 58
1. The Compound Sentence

2. The Complex Sentence 71

2.1. Complex Sentences with Subject Clauses 71
2.2. Complex Sentences with Predicative Clauses 75
2.3. Complex Sentences with Object Clauses 78
2.4. Complex Sentences with Attributive Clauses 84
2.5. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Place 88
2.6. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Time 89
2.7. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Cause 93
2.8. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Result 94
2.9. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Purpose 96
2.10. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Comparison and 99
2.11. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Condition 102
2.12. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Concession 106
Self-Study Assignments 110
Appendix 1 130
Appendix 2 131
Appendix 3 133
Appendix 4 135
Appendix 5 137
Appendix 6 140
References 145

1. Structural Classification of Simple Sentences
Exercise 1. Point out unexpanded and expanded sentences. State the part-
of-speech characteristics and the syntactic function of the basic and
expanding elements
1. Some wall tiling was loose. 2. His connection has long been broken. 3.
Without turning Jim gave a light chuckle. 4. I‘ll show you out. 5. The man was
full of paternal goodwill. 6. But something has been happening. 7. The next
instant she had recognized him. 8. This seems a problem. 9. The electric torch
went out. 10. Do you attach importance to this discovery? 11. Why, Mary is in
excellent spirits! 12. The newcomer rose obediently. 13. No one gives him
credit for his achievement. 14. Did the second door have a key in the lock? 15.
My dear fellow, you are pretty near the truth this time.

Exercise 2. Decide if the following sentences are syntactically complete or

incomplete. Fill in the vacant positions of the incomplete sentences. Translate
them into Russian
1. The ball fell. The man fell over a boulder. The prices have fallen. 2. There
was a whistle. There came a whistle. There sounded a sharp whistle. 3. The
friends sat. The two women sat chatting. 4. He was looking intently. You look
pale. Sounders looked in. Look out! 5. Are you feeling? The handle felt moist. I
felt disgust. 6. Who will put the book? He put the receiver. We‘ll have to put
up. Will you put it down for me? 7. Mary has given her mother. Don‘t give it.
They have given up. Larry was given a piece of good advice. 8. Why hurry?
Hurry up. Don‘t hurry me. I can‘t hurry with this work. 9. The sun was setting.
They have set free. The prisoner was set free. I‘ve set the clock. 10. She sent
away. We sent out. The latter was sent by air-mail. I‘m sending my nephew. 11.
She stared. What are you staring in. 12. Who has answered? Can you answer
my question? Try to answer yourself. 13. Translate into English. Let‘s translate
it on the spot. Be careful when translating. She translated for the Company. 14.
He told his story again. Tell your father. Who has been telling it?

Exercise 3. Classify the sentences according to their structure

1. a) We study. b) We study English. 2. a) To err is human. b) It is human to
err. 3. a) John left. b) John left for Paris. c) John left for Paris yesterday. 4. a)
Mary and John went to Paris. b) They went to Paris by sea. 5. John booked
tickets and they both went to Paris. 6. I learnt that they have left to Paris. 7.
―Have they left?‖ ―Yes.‖ ―When?‖ ―A couple of days ago.‖ ―What a pity!‖

Exercise 4. Point out one-member and elliptical sentences

1. a) Stop! b) Stop being funny. 2. Hello! Glad to see you. 3. ―In a hurry?‖
―Rather.‖ 4. ―How are the boys?‖ ―Fine.‖ 5. ―I wish a nice weekend.‖ ―Thanks.
The same to you.‖ 6. ―Did you see the film?‖ ―Yes.‖ ―Like it?‖ ―No.‖ 7. No
smoking! 8. Arrived yesterday. Letter following. 9. Glass. Handle with care. 10.
Ten Killed in Accident. 11. A very quiet night. 12. A beautiful day, quite
warm… 13. My school days! The silent gliding on of my existence – the
unseen, unfelt progress of my life – from childhood up to youth! 14. A distant
flash, a low rumble, and large drops of rain spattered on the thatch above him.
15. ―All right,‖ said Tarrel. 16. Overhead the sky sapphire, with a western blaze
of gold: the breeze rustling in the palm leaves; a goat‘s bell tinkling a scent of
burning wood, the croaking of frogs. 17. ―How‘s your wife?‖ – ―Thanks,‖ said
Soames coldly, ―well enough.‖ 18. Long burning days on the beach, days when
the cicadas shrill incessantly in the trees. Darkness and the cool shock of the
water at night while they waded in the shallows at the lake‘s edge with their
lantern and prawning nets. 19. He, who was so good and wise, to ask me
whether he was right! 20. Night, Midnight. Still she worked.

Exercise 5. Point out two-member sentences (say whether they are

complete or elliptical) and one-member sentences
1. He stared amazed at the calmness of her answer. (Galsworthy) 2. We must
go to meet the bus. Wouldn‘t do to miss it. (Cronin) 3. Obedient little trees,
fulfilling their duty. (Kahler) 4. Lucretuis knew very little about what was going
on in the world. Lived like a mole in a burrow. Lived on his own fat like a bear
in winter. (Douglas) 5. He wants to write a play for me. One act. One man.
Decides to commit suicide. (Mansfield) 6. A beautiful day, quite warm.
(Galsworthy) 7. ―What do you want?‖ ―Bandages, staff for wounded.‖ (Heym)
8. ―How did he look?‖ ―Grey but otherwise much the same.‖ ―And the
daughter?‖ ―Pretty.‖ (Galsworthy) 9. And then the silence and the beauty of this
camp at night. The stars. The mystic shadow water. The wonder and glory of all
this. (Dreiser) 10. ―I‘ll see nobody for half an hour, Macey,‖ said the boss.
―Understand? Nobody at all.‖ (Mansfield) 11. ―Mother, a man‘s been killed.‖
―Not in the garden?‖ interrupted her mother. (Mansfield) 12. Garden in the
Manor House. A flight of grey stone steps leads up to the house. The garden, an
old-fashioned one, full of roses. Time of year, July. Basket chairs, and a table
covered with books, are set under a large yewtree. (Wilde)

Exercise 6. Underline the elliptical sentences. State what part of the

sentence is missing
1. Waiting for the bus?
(Subject; auxiliary verb.)
2. The Boss in?
3. – Are you angry with me?
– I‘m not.

1. It‘s a wonderful picture, Mr. Green. What a type! 2. ―Can‘t kick my heels
here for ever,‖ thought Soames. 3. ―Can‘t possibly,‖ said Stephen to the back of
George‘s head. 4. Have I got many today? – Thirty one, sir. 5. I‘m sure Dr.
Sheppard‘ll see me. He must. 6. ―Any more new patients?‖ called Nurse Lake.
7. Tell Nurse you‘re a new patient. – But I‘m not. 8. Why didn‘t you tell the
Nurse? Can‘t expect the girl to know by instinct. 9. I got a right to go in next.
Got a double-decker to take over to Barnet. 10. He‘s a London man, you know.
Comes down here specially once a week. 11. ―Yes, we are both well, thank you,
Frith. Rather tired from the drive, and wanting our tea.‖ 12. ―Glad to see you
home, and hope you have been keeping well.‖ 13. ―Got a cigar, Root?‖ – ―No.‖
14. It was near the end of their stay, and the April sun hot. 15. ―Sorry to be late
again,‖ he said… 6. The thunder was faint now, the flashes imperceptible. 7.
Nobody was at home – Soames in London, Annette at a garden party. 18. The
sky was of purplish hue – the poplars black. 19. ―How are you?‖ he asked me. –
―Fine,‖ I said. 20. ―Just at sunset, the air turned cold and the sky cloudy…‖

Exercise 7. Translate into English. Pay attention to the structure of

elliptical sentences
1. А ты у менеджера был? – Ну был. 2. У нас еще одна новость. –
Какая? 3. Не верите? – Да нет, верю. 4. Я только что встретил Фреда. –
Где? – У входа в метро. 5. Вы обращались к лесничему? – Нет. Не подумал
об этом. 6. Значит, наш драмкружок распускается? – Вот именно. 7. Еще
чашечку кофе? – Если позволите. Сахару больше не нужно, спасибо. 8.
Кто это вам наговорил таких вещей? – Как кто? Все говорят об этом. 9. Вы
там были один? – Почему один? И мистер Финч был. И Мэри тоже. 10.
Бумаги собрали? – Еще не все. 11. Вы меня хорошо слышите? – Не очень.
– Может, мне перезвонить? – Да, пожалуйста. 12. Сколько еще ждать? –
Не больше получаса, я думаю. 13. Сколько весит эта упаковка? – Что-то
около восьми килограммов. 14. Давайте поскорее встретимся снова. –
Когда и где? 15. Вам еще многому нужно поучиться. – Например? –
Например, вежливости. 16. Вы согласны с предложением господина
Медникова? – Не совсем. 17. Значит, она не придет? – Да нет, придет. Она
передумала. 18. Итак, решение принято. – Наконец-то!

2. Classification of Simple Sentences from the point of view of

Communicative Value
2.1. Interrogative Sentences
Exercise 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the
a) Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder,
she said to a woman standing by, "Is this Mrs. Scott's house?" and the woman,
smiling queerly, said, "It is, my lass.‖ Oh, to be away from this! She actually
said, "Help me God!" as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away
from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in anything one of those women's
shawls even! I'll just leave the basket and go, she decided I shan't even wait for
it to be emptied.
Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom.
Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?" But to her horror the worn an answered,
"Walk in, please, miss," and she was shut in the passage. "No," said Laura, "I
don't want to come in. I only want to leave this basket."
The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. "Step this
way, please, miss," she said in an oily voice, am Laura followed her.
b) 1. Shall I start from the very beginning? 2. He always comes in time. 3.
He is never late. 4. What a lovely day! 5. All aboard! 6. Is he living or is he
dead? 7. I'm right, aren't I? 8. Come to see me tonight. 9. You try and do it. 10.
Stop talking, please.

Exercise 2. State the types of the following questions. Translate them

1. Can you fly this aircraft and land it? 2. What does he have to say? 3.
Wasn‘t it an adventure? 4. So, they did take part in the reception, after all? 5.
Will you do it alone, or will you have someone to help you? 6. Do we read a
book for the book‘s sake? 7. A good deal has been written about the importance
of practice, hasn‘t it? 8. Has it been a monotonous day, or have you come
across some diversions? 9. At what range will the plane show on the radar? 10.
Do you care to comment or don‘t you? 11. Is it all over, or do we have to go
through the ordeal from the start? 12 Isn‘t it a lovely bit of jewelry? 13. ―Who is
he?‖ I said. ―And why does he sit always alone with his back to us too?‖ 14.
―Did she have a chill?‖ he asked, his eyes upon the floor. 15. You have Mr.
Eden‘s address, haven‘t you, Mr. Ends? 16. Is literature less human than the
architecture and sculpture of Egypt? 17. We shall be having some sort of
celebration for the bride, shan‘t we, Mr. Crawley? 18. ―Can I see the manager?‖
I said, and added politely, ―alone‖. 19. When had the carriage been back from
taking Miss June to the station? 20. What is the meaning of that? She is going to
live in the house, isn‘t she? 21. He couldn‘t understand what Irene found wrong
with him: it was not as if he drank. Did he run into debt, or gamble or swear?
22. Were you talking about the house? I haven‘t seen it yet, you know. Shall we
all go on Sunday? 23. Don‘t you realize it‘s quite against the rules to have him?
24. How will you carry the bill into effect? Can you commit a whole country to
their own prisons? 25. ―Do you like that?‖ – ―No…‖

Exercise 3. Put questions to the following sentences and state their types
1. Seated in his chair, pipe in mouth, while I sat on the floor in my
stockinged feet, he fiddled about with a key, trying to adjust the smallest pair of
Acme skates to fit my boots. My disappointment was great when I saw he could
not succeed. But, when everything seemed lost, he found at the bottom of the
box a pair of wooden skates which had been Kate‘s when she was a child. What
joy! Screwed into my boot-heels they fitted exactly. We had no straps, it is true,
but Grandpa had plenty of strong string which would serve equally. He
unscrewed the skates. I put on my boots, and we set out, with animation, for the
pond. 2. The show didn‘t amuse us very much. 3. The grandmother was
mending as usual. 4. Margaret cannot keep a secret. 5. We went out trough a
side door into the dark street. 6. Maria stood in the doorway with a large tray. 7.
Anyone would think I was cruel to them. 8. I watched her fasten green leaves in
her hair. 9. There was something important in the paper. 10. The dinner was
quite a substantial affair. 11. The stewardess opened the door to the passenger
deck. 12. The captain was pacing the narrow cabin nervously. 13. You should
try to relax as much as you can.

Exercise 4a. Complete the following sentences, forming disjunctive

1. ―Well, if I meet some one by accident in the street I can‘t help it, –?‖
Sophia‘s voice shook. (Bennett) 2. ―You couldn‘t possibly see her, –?‖ (Hardy)
3. ―Ah, you‘re fine and strong, –?‖ said Silas… (Eliot) 4. ―She‘s a very pretty,
nice girl, –?‖ (Eliot) 5. ―Never mind!‖ Cyril mockingly comforted his mother.
―You‘d rather be twenty minutes too soon than one minute too late, –?‖
(Bennett) 6. ―It‘s very late, –?‖ (Cronin) 7. ―You believe very much in her, –?‖
(Galsworthy) 8. ―It is a beautiful night –?‖ she said. (Galsworthy) 9. ―It would
be a very god match for you, –?‖ (Dickens) 10. ―And now I must go. You won‘t
forget to speak to your husband, –?‖ (Gordon)

Exercise 4b. Complete each question with an appropriate question tag

1. You‘ll be able to watch the children for half an hour while I fetch from
work, ……………? 2. ―I hope you‘re not doing anything tonight. I‘ve just
booked tickets for the circus.‖ ―Oh, there were tickets left, ……………? I
thought it would have sold out.‖ 3. The Consul had been quite cooperative up to
this point, ……………? 4. We needn‘t register before the first talk,
……………? 5. Be a good girl and pop to the shops for me, …………….?
We‘re completely out of cheese. 6. How can you think of marrying her? You‘ve
hardly known her five minutes, ……………? 7. No one was staffing the west
turnstile at the time of the accident, …………..? 8. Put some decent trousers on,
……………? They won‘t let into the restaurant in those old jeans. 9. It seems to
me, Minister, that the Government has broken all its pre-election promises
regarding the Health Service, …………….? 10. ―I‘ll help you with your
homework if you want.‖ ―Oh, you can do calculus, ……………, Dad?‖ 11.
Mrs. Allison did say that we could take dictionaries into the exam with us,
……………? 12. ―Ryan didn‘t go to work yesterday because he was ill.‖ ―Oh,
he was ill, ……………? I thought he was watching the football.‖

Exercise 5. Translate into English
1. a) Вы знаете этого человека? б) Разве вы не знаете этого человека?
в) Вы ведь знаете человека, не так ли? 2. Вы не узнаете меня, да? – Нет,
узнаю. 3. Он не сдал экзамен? – Да, не сдал. 4. а) Какой чудесный день! б)
Какая чудесная погода! 5. Как быстро вы ходите! 6. а) Я дважды
напоминал ему об этом. б) Я ведь дважды напоминал ему об этом. 7. а)
Кто знает правильный ответ на этот вопрос? б) Кто же знает правильный
ответ? 8. а) Поверьте же мне. 9. а) Не верьте этому. б) Да не верьте вы
этому. Это ложь. 10. а) Пойдемте же. 11. Ну, расскажите же мне всю
правду. 12. Попробуйте-ка достать билеты на этот спектакль! 13. Я прав,
разве нет? 14. Я не виноват, не так ли? 15. Я гораздо старше вас, не так ли?
16. Каждый знает это, не так ли? 17. Все об этом знают, разве нет? 18. Не
может же каждый получать только отличные оценки, правда? 19. Только
пять студентов получили отличные оценки, не так ли? 20. На собрании
присутствовало мало студентов, да? 21. На собрании присутствовало
несколько студентов, не так ли? 22. Он сделал мало успехов в английском,
да? 23. Он уже сделал небольшие успехи, не так ли? 24. Мало кто из
студентов решил задачу правильно, да? 25. Несколько студентов решили
задачу правильно, не так ли? 26. Вы редко встречаетесь с ними теперь, да?
27. Она едва ли помнит об этом, не так ли?

Exercise 6. Make up an alternative question out of each of the given

pairs of statements
1. These decisions were based on ignorance. These decisions were based on
competence. 2. This satellite can be seen with a naked eye. This satellite can't be seen
with a naked eye. 3. The liner will take off in half an hour. The liner will be taking
off in a few moments. 4. She felt quite secure. She felt somewhat insecure. 5.
Anybody can say so. Nobody can say so. 6. Those people desire possessions. Those
people desire the well-being of others. 7. The truth is always beautiful. The truth
may sometimes be very ugly. 8. They drove back with the car radio playing. They
drove back with the car radio turned off. 9. The nurse tucked in her blanket and
fetched her a hot-water bottle. The nurse passed by without paying attention to
her. 10. The information came from the Colonial Office files. The information
came from the Ministry of Defence.

Exercise 7. Make up questions of various kinds to suit the following answers

1. Well, it depends. 2. It‘s hard to say. 3. Not me. 4. Sure I will. 5. Wise of him.
6. So do I. 7. Next door. 8. Not in the least. 9. Nothing of the kind. 10. You may
take my word for it. 11. Some other time. 12. Why not? 13. What nonsense! 14. I
think Id do. 15. Hardly so. 16. Of course not. 17. Who else could it be! 18. None.
19. Neither of them. 20. Not yet. 21. By all means. 22. I believe you are right. 23.
Yes, I think so. 24. That‘s too bad. 25. Why should he? 26. More or less.

Exercise 8. Complete B's questions with appropriate verbs and/or
question words as necessary. The questions should ask about the
underlined parts of A's sentences
0A: Come on! I've been waiting out in the cold for ages!
В: Oh, really? ............. How long…………..exactly have you been waiting?
1A: Someone told me that you've decided to give up the course.
B: Oh ................ that?
2A: Do you like tabbouleh? I've got some here.
B: Do I ................? I've never even heard of it!
3 A: The new Mayor of London has decided to charge cars to go into the
B: ............... ? Good. I thought he'd never do anything about the
4 A: I've just been offered two jobs!
В: That's great! ....... to take?
5A: We went to a comedy night at the local pub yesterday, and saw some
really good comedians.
B: Oh ................ see?
6A: It seems that I can't apply for a course at the management college after
B: But why............? I thought anyone could apply, regardless of
7A: I've just had a letter from Ana
B: Oh, what does she say?
8 A: Well, everything's going OK. She's got a job and her mother's
recovering well from the operation.
B: That's good. What……does she say about her family?
9A: Have you seen my new toy? Look.
В: What............. is it? I've never seen anything like that before!

Exercise 9. Nine of these questions contain mistakes of grammar or

formality. Tick the correct questions, then find and correct the mistakes
What did you buy else at the shops?
What else did you buy at the shops?
1. What means 'heliotrope'? I can't find it in the dictionary.
......................................... ……………………………………..
2. How long you had been living there before the war broke out?
............................................ ……………………………………
3. According to the recipe, what time should turn the oven off?
.................................... ………………………………………….
4.'There was an awful explosion in town yesterday. - Really? What did
happen?' "

5. Who exactly presents the certificates at the graduation ceremony?
6. How on earth will you get there? The buses have all been on strike for a
........................................................................ ……………………..
7. 'I didn't think much of that film, did you?'
'Yes. I thought it was terrible.'
.................................................................. ……………………..
8. Let‘s give the evening class a miss tonight and stay in, don't we?
9. 'I'm going to have to cancel this evening. I'm still at
work.' 'Oh, things are still really hectic, are they?'
10. Can you let me know what time does the train from
Croydon arrive?
11. Could you possibly let us know if or not the tree roots will affect the

2.2. Imperative Sentences

Exercise 1. Distinguish between commands, requests of various kinds, and
wishes. Translate the sentences into Russian
1. Have a lovely time. 2. Don't for goodness sake, let us interrupt the
singing. 3. Get back to your seat, won't you? 4. Will you have a look into
my notes? 5. Keep calling. She may come any time. 6. May their travel be
safe and happy. 7. Tell him to report to the assistant manager. 8. Have a
cigarette, will you? 9. Hear him play this piece, Nellie! 10. Pray, believe me.
11. Do understand the course of events if you are a man! 12. You had better
take a little time to think, darling. 13. Let them join us tomorrow, too. 14
Do be quiet, Jane. 15. Let's not start our discussion anew. I've had
enough of arguing. 16. You should do your duty.

Exercise 2. Translate into English. Pay attention to imperative sentences

1. Огонь очень опасен для леса, поэтому, когда вы гуляете или
работаете в лесу, не бросайте горящих спичек на землю. Сначала погасите
спичку, потом бросайте. Не оставляйте горящих костров. Раскладывайте
костер подальше от деревьев, предварительно расчистив для него участок
земли. Если вы заметили огонь в лесу, немедленно сделайте все, чтобы
погасить его. Выкопайте канаву на пути огня, пустите встречный огонь,
созовите людей.
2. Это упражнение нужно делать, поставив ноги на ширину плеч.
Положите руки на талию, отведите локти в стороны. Наклоны начали!
Наклоняйтесь влево, так. Теперь выпрямитесь. Наклоняйтесь вправо, так.
Теперь выпрямитесь. То же самое вперед. То же самое назад.
Продолжайте. Так. Ускорьте темп. Хорошо. Теперь еще быстрее: влево,
вправо, вперед, назад. Продолжайте не останавливаясь. Ну, достаточно.

Exercise 3. State what kind of stimulus communication (statement,

question, request) is presupposed by each of the following responses
1. I can't do what you are asking me. 2. This is a strange idea. 3. Why do you
think so? 4. Unfortunately, I am not informed. 5. The film is still showing
here. 6. Oh, I'm so glad she is aboard! 7. But he is not a judge in such matters.
8. As you say. 9. It won't be very easy. 10. I did meet him, though I forget when
and where. 11. Go ahead, we are listening carefully. 12. I'd give plenty to be
together with them at this moment. 13. It's been a pleasure. 14. Are you quite sure?
15. Just a moment. 16. Personally, I don't approve of the scheme. 17.
Naturally, there is some risk in the attempt. 18. Are you determined to defend
your point? 19. No, I don't mean that. 20. You may, if this is your intention. 21.I
am at a loss. 22. Oh, impossible! 23. I am not afraid at all! 24. Something must be
done, no doubt about it.

2.3. Exclamatory Sentences

Exercise 1. Form exclamatory sentences
1. This task is difficult. 2. We had a long active day. 3. She reads fluently. 4.
He has made good progress in his studies. 5. He looks healthy after his
vacation. 6. He is a skilled worker. 7. You are absent-minded. 8. It is freezing
hard. 9. It was a clear, cold winter day. 10. The storm is approaching quickly.
11. It is a most extraordinary thing. 12. The machine moved noiselessly.

Exercise 2. Distinguish between exclamatory and non-exclamatory

sentences of different communicative purposes. Translate into Russian
1. What a nuisance he is! 2. How can I know about her intentions! 3. Oh,
stop it! Please, stop it! 4. Oh, that Jane were not so touchy! 5. Do believe me,
Madam. 6. You did want to ask me something, didn‘t you? 7. How do you
know? 8. How very clever you‘ve become! And so unexpected, too! 9. How
kind of her! 10. No more of that, pray! 11. Phil? That early! 12. Can‘t stand his
provocations any longer. 13. I‘m so sorry, Jack! 14. If only I could speak to her
now! 15. Just fancy this happening to the Old Man! 16. Oh, what a beautiful
day! 17. How wonderfully she dances! 18. That was a crazy idea from the very
start. 19. God forbid, I didn‘t mean to offend them! 20. But Tommy is such a

Exercise 3. Transform the following sentences into emphatic statements,
questions and requests using the auxiliary “do”
1. I know it. 2. I reminded him of that. 3. Who knows the right answer? 4.
Who told you this nonsense? 5. Come with me. 6. Come and help me. 7. Let us
go. 8. Let‘s not quarrel. 9. Tell me more about it.

3. Ways of Expressing Negation in a Sentence

Exercise 1. Rewrite the underlined part of each sentence to make a
meaningful negative alternative. There may be more than one way of
rewriting some sentences
0. I'll accept interruptions from you or anyone else while I'm speaking.
....... I’ll accept no interruptions .........................................
Or: ...I won’t accept any interruptions .............................
1. We hope that the soldiers experience a lot of resistance when they
enter the city.
2. After the images of the famine, Celdof urged the nation to turn their
TVs off.
3. In English, the subjunctive is usually different from the past tense.
4. My brother's only just started his electronics degree, so he tried to
repair the TV himself when it went wrong last week. .
5. A great number of songbirds are seen these days, owing to the
erosion of their natural habitats.
6. In this modern city you get an impression of life in the pre-Capitalist
7. I was willing to help the children, as they had to take responsibility
for the schoolwork they brought home.
8. War crimes should be both commonplace and accepted in times of
9. The estimated fee for the project was unreasonable, but I decided to
negotiate further
10. I think that our company will be offering aid to the disaster zone
this time.
11. Sarah has only had a few lessons on the guitar so she's a good
12. The new twin-turbo engine generates a lot of noise but is especially

Exercise 2. For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence

as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, but using
the word given. This word must not be altered in any way. The
exercise begins with an example (0)
0. Sending someone to prison for defending their own property isn't fair.

injustice ……….sending someone to prison for defending their own
property is an injustice.
1. Phil claimed that he had no involvement in the pensions scam.
denied ....................................................................................
2. If no payment is forthcoming, we will be obliged to remove
your connection to the electricity supply.
3. Hardly anyone from the housing cooperative showed any interest
in joining the Neighbourhood Watch scheme.
4. The fundamental values of the two religions are fairly similar.
dissimilar ........................................................................
5. It isn't really possible to capture true colours with this type of video
hardly ...............................................................................
6. It appears that the director deliberately gave the investigators incorrect
7. It's best not to talk about topics like politics or religion on a first
avoid .................................................................................
8. The fact that a great area of trees in the Brazilian rainforests has been
cut down has had a devastating effect on the ecosystem.
deforestation ..................................................................
9. It isn't often that pop stars make it as actors, but Madonna has
achieved this.
rarely ...............................................................................
10. Applications in which we are unable to read the writing will be
automatically rejected.
illegible ............................................................................

Exercise 3. Change the following affirmative sentences into negative ones

(give different versions where possible)
1. Some of them have already been there. 2. It was so strange! 3. There is
some reason in her words. 4. But she does know Norman. 5. Now the
explanation makes sense. 6. The topic will lose its significance by that time. 7.
This certainly will be great fun. 8. Then he sounded very cheerful, too. 9.
Everyone seemed quite perturbed. 10. We were lucky to have caught the five
o‘clock liner. 11. The text is to be revised, of course. 12. Ann will be coming, too.
13. A ball-pen like this can be found anywhere. 14. I was puzzled by many things.

4. Divisible and Indivisible Phrases both Semantically and Syntactically
Exercise 1. Point out the nominal phrases in the following sentences
1. The non-stop train arrived on time. 2. John was wearing a casual corduroy
jacket. 3. Referees time runners. 4. Another sob shook her. 5. There was
something altogether young about the tall man. 6. Wishes father thought. 7. The
plane‘s landing wheels touched on the concrete runway. 8. The practical-
minded uncle did not understand her attraction towards the adventurous and
thrilling. 9. Paper the walls and carpet the floor!

Exercise 2. State the structure of the following nominal phrases and

identify the functional words in them
A radio, the watch-strap, half the time, his three papers, the brilliant answer,
every other day, a lot of jam, double the portion, much more sugar, many more
flats, one more coffee, all my chores, quite an interesting paper-back, no such
thing, my own one, neither of them, plenty of exercise, most of the words, much
practice, a certain Tom Grey, heavy clouds, steep cliffs, self-propelled
harvesters, quite a company, such a hopeless liar, some ten days, all my three
best friends, all the three of us, any one of the five presented papers, the very

Exercise 3. Make a list of the nominal phrases used in following passage

and describe the structure of each
After taking her elderly cousin across, Fleur did not land at once, but pulled
in among the reeds, into the sunshine. The peaceful beauty of the afternoon
seduced for a little one not much given to the vague and poetic. In the field
beyond the bank where her skiff lay up, a machine drawn up by a grey horse
was turning an early field of hay. She watched the grass cascading over and
behind the light wheels with fascination – it looked so cool and fresh. The click
and swish blended with the rustle of the willows and the poplars, and the cooing
of a woodpigeon, in a true river song. Alongside, in the deep green water,
weeds, like yellow snakes, were writhing and nosing with the current; pied
cattle on the farther side stood in the shade lazily swishing their tails. It was an
afternoon to dream. And she took out Jon‘s letters – not flowery effusions, but
haunted in their recital of things seen and done by a longing very agreeable to
her and all ending ―Your devoted J.‖ (J. Galsworthy)

Exercise 4. Comment on the relations between the components of the

following noun adjunct groups. Translate them into Russian
Winter night, factory-gate meeting, bottom stair, log cabin, cotton dress,
coffee machine, fishing grounds, meeting place, income tax, freedom fighters,
ticket collector, sonata form, tea leaves, pajama jacket, pencil note, morning
paper, ceiling lamp, wax candles, lemon juice, railroad ticket, ballet production,
button eyes, mulatto woman, telephone call, toe dancer, drum beater, tension

test, tank oil, glass wool, guard ring, newspaper accounts, pay claim, ice-cream
woman, milk man stone terrace, birth control, girlfriend, cocoa tins, travel book,
tomato soup, gravity difference, cyclone construction, nickel content, sea
fisheries, island home, bomb victims.

Exercise 5. Translate the following noun-adjunct groups into Russian

Home linguists, home trade, Home office, home address, home letter, home
journey; air passage, air service, air transport, air travel, air bath.

Exercise 6. Give comments on the adverbial use of nouns in the following

patterns (point out the adverbial relations of comparison, the adverbial
relations of time, different degree or quality)
A shade darker, a bit louder, sky blue, age long, snow white, life long, ankle
deep, stone deaf, lots better, heaps better, a bit longer, iron hard, ash blond,
paper white.

Exercise 7. Give comments on the structure of adjectival phrases in the

following sentences
1. She was proud of her father having been a staff officer. (S. Maugham) 2.
I‘ll be happy to wait. (G. Elliot) 3. She was busy writing out sums upon the
blackboard. (A. Cronin) 4. Speech was always easy with her. (J. London) 5. It
begins with an incredibly beautiful line… (K. Mansfield) 6. Mrs. Septimus was
the tallest of the four sisters. (J. Galsworthy) 7. Certain nooks were curiously
rich with wild flowers… (D. Aldington)

5. Principal Parts of the Sentence

5.1. The Subject
Exercise 1. Point out the subject and say by what it is expressed.
Translate into Russian
1. At that moment the postman, looking like a German army officer, came
in with the mail. (Mansfield) 2. The clock struck eight. There was no sign
of any of the other guests. (Huxley) 3. Now, there is something peculiarly
intimate in sharing an umbrella. (Mansfield) 4. Together we walked through
the mud and slush. (Mansfield) 5. Something impersonal and humble in that
action seemed to reassure the Consul. (Cronin) 6. The sight of them, so intent
and so quick, gave Bertha a curious shiver. (Mansflied) 7. Eight o'clock in the
morning. Miss Ada Moss lay in a black iron bedstead, staring up at the
ceiling. (Mansfield) 8. Still, the good of mankind was worth working for.
(Galsworthy) 9. Sometimes the past injects itself into the present with a
peculiar force. (Heym) 10. Forgetting some things is a difficult matter.
(Voynich) 11. To cross from one end to the other was difficult because of the
water. (Heym) 12. ―A person doesn‘t have to be rich to be clean,‖ Charles
said. (Braine) 13. There was an eagerness and excitement in the faces of the
men. (Heym) 14. … and Timothy‘s was but one of hundreds of such homes in
this City of London… (Galsworthy) 15. Let's get out quick. It's no good
wasting time. (Maugham) 16. "Very well," said Soames, "then we know
where we are." (Galsworthy) 17. Now, to go through a stormy night and
with wet clothes, and, in addition, to be i l l nourished and not to have
tasted meat for a week or a month, is about as severe a hardship as a
man can undergo. (London) 18. She did not know. The "No" was
stronger than her craving to be in Frisco's arms and forget this dreary
existence. (Prichard) 19. The mining industry might make wealth and power
for a few men and women. But the many would always be smashed and
battered beneath its giant treads. (Prichard) 20. Yes, that did sound rather
far-fetched and absurd. (Mansfield) 21. This, of course, in her present
mood, was so incredibly beautiful... She began to laugh. (Mansfield) 22 .
To live on good terms with people one must share their work and
interests. (Prichard) 23. These three deemed themselves the queens of the
school. (Ch. Bronte) 24. Who were these people? What are they?
(Galsworthy) 25. His was the harsh world of reality. No one could walk
around his drawing. (Stone) 26. Governing the district of Cremmen
wasn't turning out to be an easy and pleasant job. (Heym) 27. The firing
increased in volume. (Heym) 28. High and low all made fun of him.
(Thackeray) 29. For a woman to look at her best is a point of discipline.
(James) 30. Your coming home has made me as foolish as a young girl
of nineteen. (Abrahams) 31. And now his heir and nephew, Thomas
Esmond, began to bid for his uncle's favour. (Thackeray)

Exercise 2. Analyse the subjects in the following sentences

1. How funny it w i l l seem if I f a l l right through the earth and come
among the antipodes. 2. It was all dark overhead and in front of her there
was a long passage. 3. There was nothing on the table except a tiny golden
key. 4. There's an animal in the middle of the desert with a long leek and
long legs. 5. Five weeks later it was very hot on the shores of the Red Sea
and everybody took off all the clothes they had. 6. This is Whitehall. There
used to be a palace here once. Now it is just a street, leading to the Houses
of Parliament. 7. A member of Parliament speaking in the House is not
supposed to step beyond his strip of carpet in front of the members'
benches. 8. Strange as it may seem, the shouting "Who goes home?" is still
heard in the House after a night debate. 9. It was nice to be back in the
sunshine. 10. Toy wooden soldiers are the favourite toys of our children at
home. These seem to be the favourites of the English children. 11. Office girls
and businessmen can be seen taking tea side by side. 12. A cinema star
happened to be taking her five black poodles on an airing. 13. Pink is
definitely not your colour. Nobody over twenty should dream of wearing
pink. 14. Two is enough, May. And the ones with whipped cream are much
too rich for my liver. 15. I t'll be nice for her to have someone her own age
to play with. 16. Just talking about diets and exercising won't help you
lose weight. 17. The man's staring so made me drop things and t a l k in an
unnatural high voice. 18 For a girl her age to have a novel accepted by a
noted publishing house was an unsurpassed achievement. 19. The pictures
were in water-colours. The first represented clouds rolling over a sullen sea.
20. Some like it this way. Others prefer them boiled. 21. The worst is yet to

Exercise 3. State by what predicative complex the subject is expressed

in the following sentences
Model: The plan was generally believed to have been stolen.
The plan — to have been stolen.
The nominative with the infinitive.
1. Your carrying on in this way won't mend matters. 2. It was not pleasant
for me to pretend to know nothing. 3. It's no good your saying this when you
have no proof whatever. 4. The safe was supposed to have been left open by
negligence. 5. She was left penniless after her father's death. 6. Is it all right for
me to go and tell him? 7. It was bound to happen one of these days. 8. They
were heard discussing something in whisper on the landing. 9. The matter was
considered closed. 10. Mother's taking my part made me all the more eager
to go on with the adventure. 11. For her to praise one of us was a most
unusual thing. 12. The car was found later slightly damaged. 13. With so many
people concerned at least some information was bound to leak out. 14. From
time to time they were seen dancing in some hot spot or other. 15. She was
appointed secretary to the head of the department.

Exercise 4. State the nature of “it”. Translate the sentences into

1. It was dusky in the dining-room and quite chilly. (Mansfield) 2.
The bell rang. It was lean, pale Eddie Warren in a state of acute
distress. (Mansfield) 3. Oh! Oh! Oh! It was a little house. It was a little
pink house. (Mansfield) 4. But in her bosom there was still that bright
glowing place. It was almost unbearable. (Mansfield) 5. She sat up, but
she felt quite dizzy, quite drunk. It must have been the spring.
(Mansfield) 6. It was marvellous to be made love to like that. (Prichard) 7. It
is the moon that makes you talk to yourself in that silly way. (Shaw) 8. It
is very distressing to me, Sir, to give this information. (Dickens) 9. He
took the path through the fields: it was pleasanter than the road. (Huxley)
10. If this is liberty, it isn't going to mean a thing. (Heym) 11. It was
now almost four-thirty in the afternoon. (Dreiser) 12. I took a good
room. It was very big and light and looked out on the lake. (Hemingway)

Exercise 5. Insert the impersonal “it” or the introductory “there”
in place of the blanks
1. — was no wind... (Galsworthy) 2. — were clouds over the lake and over
the valley. (Hemingway) 3. — stormed all day. (Hemingway) 4.— was
suddenly a great increase of noise from the other end of the corridor.
(Huxley) 5. — was nearly bedtime... (Maugham) 6. — had stopped raining but
— was a mist. (Hemingway) 7. — was a long silence. (Maurier) 8. — was
getting dark. (Hemingway) 9. — was a tray of empty glasses on the table.
(Maurier) 10. — was a moment of silence... (Maugham) 11. "— is a cold
wind this morning..." (Maurier) 12. George pulled out his watch and looked
at it: — was five minutes to nine. (Jerome) 13. "Tomorrow — will be skiing."
he said. (Hemingway) 14. — was raining too hard to hear the car.
(Maurier) 15. — was too wet and slushy to go out. (Hemingway) 16. "Is —
anything else I can do?" (Maurier) 17. — had been short thaws when the
wind blew warm and the snow softened and the air felt like spring...
(Hemingway) 18. — was a scent of new-mown grass. (Galsworthy) 19. "—
is only our farm near, sir." (Galsworthy) 20. — was nobody there. (Maurier)
21. — was still raining as we drove through the streets... (Hemingway)
22.—was a little clearing too, between the bushes, like a miniature lawn...
(Maurier) 23. — was a splendid morning... (Galsworthy) 24. — was
blowing and snowing wildly. (Hemingway) 25. " — is a train a little after
five." (Hemingway) 26. Before daylight — started to drizzle. (Hemingway)
27. — were many fishing boats along the quay and nets were spread on racks.
(Hemingway) 28. — was cold and wintry and the wind was blowing.

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with 'it' or 'there'. Analyse all the
cases of 'it' and state whether 'it' is a noun-pronoun substitute, a formal
subject or an anticipatory subject
1. — was nothing more to be said on the subject. 2. — was my only
hope. After all — was just possible that he would notice nothing. 3. — is
no going back now. We have burned our ships. So — is no use wondering
and sighing. 4. — had been raining in the night and — were pools of brown
water in the road. 5. — was nothing grave. Just a slight irritation of the
throat caused by too much smoking. But — made her uneasy. 6. — was
a strip of sandy ground behind the house with a couple of starved looking
apple trees. — was called the garden. 7. A nice brisk walk! Of a l l the
crazy ideas! — was freezing cold out of doors and — was snow in the air.
8. 1 looked for the cottage and — was there right enough. With a s t r i p of
crazy pavement running from the gate to the door. — even was a well in
the back-yard.

Exercise 7. Analyse the subjects in the following sentences. State how the
part introduced by the anticipatory “it” is expressed
1. It was clearly no use waiting any longer. 2. It will be arranged that
every child should undergo a medical examination before taking part in the
contest. 3. It will be difficult for them to cross the river. 4. It was no good
my trying to explain that the action had been entirely unintentional. 5. Is it
necessary for me to write a formal application? 6. It is so nice to see you
again, old man. 7. It's no good, I suppose, going into all this again. 8. It's very
important that somebody should be right there to supervise the packing. 9. It
was not at all pleasant to tell her so. 10. It won't be easy for me to explain it
to them.

Exercise 8. Make the following sentences emphatic by using an

anticipatory 'it' introducing a subject clause. Emphasize the words in
bold type
M o d e l : 1. He told me about it.
It was he who told me about it.
2. The storm began at eight o'clock.
It was at eight o'clock that the storm began.
3. They hid the guns somewhere here.
It was somewhere here that they hid the guns.
1. Mother told me this herself. 2. She told me this only yesterday. 3. We
discussed all the details in the garden. 4. The worst part of the storm began in
the second half of the day. 5. The dog attacked him without any provocation.
6. They buried the papers under one of the elms. 7. I saw him for the first
time only yesterday. 8. She likes you best. 9. That boy started the fight. 10.
We noticed this only in the morning.

Exercise 9. Translate into English. Pay attention to the expression of the

1. Очень важно поставить их в известность сейчас же. 2. Здесь так
темно, включите свет, пожалуйста. 3. Лететь на самолете над горами в
хорошую погоду — огромное удовольствие. 4. Пора начинать. 5. Не
отставать от моды — вот все, к чему она стремилась. 6. В их предложении
есть смысл. 7. Этого будет достаточно. 8. Кто же будет победителем? 9.
Трудно в это поверить! 10. Четырежды четыре — шестнадцать. 11.
Смотреть в бинокль на взлетающие самолеты было для Фреда большим
развлечением. 12. Что это за люди? 13. «Нет» в его взгляде выражалось
настолько ясно, что мы не стали повторять свою просьбу. 14. Курение —
враг здоровья. 15. Говорят, что в тех лесах есть медведи. 16. Запуск
каждого нового спутника Земли — событие мирового значения. 17. В его
взгляде была надежда. 18. Ходьба на лыжах принесет вам гораздо больше
пользы, чем эти лекарства. 19. Управлять моим семейством не так-то
легко! 20. Снова гремит гром. Сейчас начнется дождь, поспешим. 21.
Смотри, кто-то машет нам рукой с платформы. Это Джон? 22. Ее не было
видно среди гостей. 23. Ваши сомнения для меня непонятны. 24. Никогда
не знаешь, что принесет тебе завтрашний день. 25. Чтобы дружить с
людьми, нужно прежде всего их уважать. 26. Что еще я могу сделать для
вас? 27. Именно он мне сейчас нужен. 28. Имеются ли возражения? 29.
Бесполезно чинить ваши часы, лучше купить новые. 30. Это Мэри
придумала, а вовсе не Ник. 31. Разгрузка началась.

Exercise 10. Complete the sentence with “it” or “there” (and a suitable
form of “be” if necessary)
In the state of Texas alone there are thought to be more than thirty prisoners
on death row. She found it strange that he never talked about his childhood.
1. Once upon a time ……… an old woman who lived in a shoe.
2. During tomorrow‘s show ……… an interval of fifteen minutes.
3. Luckily, ……… not any difficulty finding the shop yesterday.
4. ……… a long way to the beach from here.
5. ‗Which street is it?‘ ‗……… the first one on the left.‘
6. ……… seems to be something wrong with my modem.
7. Strange weather for June; ……… freezing today!
8. ……… hardly any fuel left in the car.
9. The army doesn‘t anticipate ……… much opposition from the rebel
10.……… looks as though our team‘s going to win, after all.
11.……… supposed to be several ticket machines outside the station.
12. Given the right monetary conditions, ……… theoretically possible
to achieve zero inflation.
13.From the swirling mist ……… emerged a mysterious cloaked figure.
14. If the reorganization goes ahead ……… sure to be a lot of
opposition from the sales force.
15.I leave ……… to your conscience to decide whether to report the matter.
16.Frankly, ……… not surprising that they were expelled.
17. We would appreciate ……… if you wouldn‘t say anything about
this to the children.
18. Well, Mr. Green, ……… nothing wrong with the heating element
so perhaps we‘d better look at the pump.
19. Hello, ……… Azco Market Research here; I wonder if you‘d have
a few minutes to take part in our telephone poll?
20. The ministry didn‘t expect ……… quite such a negative reaction
from farmers.

Exercise 11. The words “it” or “there” are missing from eleven of these
sentences. Tick the sentences which are correct and rewrite the others with
“it” or “there” in the correct place
1. She found strange that he'd never heard of such a famous historical
2. Was really such a long wait between trains?
3. We always have lots of visitors but tend to be more in the summer
4. Rarely were such extreme methods required.
5. The director leaves to the viewer to decide who is guilty and who is
6. They assured us that would be no trouble getting a refund if the goods
were faulty.
7. It wasn't their behaviour that annoyed me, but their attitude.
8. You know really gets on my nerves when she talks like that.
9. Commonly believed myths are not necessarily true.
10. What's incredible is that might have been so many more fatalities.
11. I find impossible to conceive that someone with his track record
would be so careless.
12. In 1666 was a fire which destroyed a large part of London.
13. We would appreciate if you submitted your estimate to our head
14. Getting to the airport on time is the least of our worries.
15. Grandpa loves when the children ask for his advice.

Exercise 12. This text can be improved by rewriting one sentence from
each paragraph with impersonal/introductory “it”. Underline the sentences
that can be improved and rewrite them. The first one has been done as an
The Beach
by Alex Garland
Now a movie starring Leonardo DiCaprio.
People say that somewhere in the tropical waters of Asia there is a
perfect beach on an uninhabited island. Rich in animal and plant life,
surrounded by virgin jungle and watered by sweet underground springs, the
each could be the setting for an idyllic and easy life.
The Beach is the story of a young man who yearns for, seeks out and
eventually finds just such a place. But to discover that far from being the
source of contentment and inner fulfillment that he expects, the beach turns
out to be a place of savage violence, terror and death, comes as a shock.
Alex Garland takes the reader on an exotic journey from the steaming
tourist-packed dives of the Khao San Road in Bangkok to the drug-infested
islands of the remote seas around Thailand. Not to be impressed by the
author's skill in describing the unfamiliar oriental locations and his ability to
empathise with the obsessions of today‘s young backpacking 'new-age'
travellers is difficult.
Taking in illegal drug plantations, memories of the Vietnam War, sexual
jealousy, shark-infested waters, the psychological dynamics of communal
living and the clash of cultures, Garland spins a tale which both seduces and
shocks the reader. What gives the novel its haunting sense of unease and
horror is the author's unique blend of these disparate elements.
It is a thriller with all the traditional ingredients, an exotic location, a
central mystery, good versus evil, and dangers around every corner. There is
a strong sense of good and evil in the book, but to decide who is right and
who is wrong Garland leaves to the reader. There are few moral certainties
in this exotic corner of the world.
Events unfold at great speed, and be warned, to put this book down once
you have started it is impossible. With an international cast of well-observed
characters Garland creates a nail-biting narrative that keeps the reader
hooked until the final bloody climax.
It is said that somewhere in the tropical waters of Asia is a perfect beach on an
uninhabited island………………………………………………………………..
5.2. The Predicate

Exercise 1.
a) Point out the predicate and say to what type it belongs
1. Presently she grew tired of that and looked across at her sister.
(Galsworthy) 2. You shall have as many dances as you like. I shan‘t dance with
anyone except you and Maxim. (Du Maurier) 3. Well, d‘you feel any better
now? (Priestley) 4. Harry was enjoying his dinner. (Mansfield) 5. Alice went
on, he ought to stop doing nothing and criticizing everybody. (Lindsay) 6.
Everything is being taken down and used against you. (Lindsay) 7. The story
will only get repeated and exaggerated. (Du Maurier) 8. But I‘ve got to have a
word with him. We got to do something about it. (Prichard) 9. She became
bitter and unapproachable. (Thorne) 10. Her marriage was more or less fixed
for the twenty-eight of the month. They were to sail for India on September the
fifth. (Lawrence) 11. Leila‘s partner gave a little gasping laugh. (Mansfield) 12.
You are to go straight to your room. You are to say nothing of this to anyone.
(De la Roche) 13. He was a country doctor. He died young. (Sanborn) 14. I
began to stammer my apologies. He would not listen to me. (Du Maurier) 15.
To talk in this way behind him seemed to Annette already a sufficient marvel.
(Murdoch) 16. A ship – the Vestris – is reported to be arriving at New York.
(Douglas) 17. Led was having a little new sort of weeping fit daily or every
other day. (Wescott) 18. Even now he was able to find a thin excuse for that
young idiot. (Kahler) 19. Do not delay, there is no time. Teacher Williams lies
dead already. (Buck) 20. The grey house had ceased to be a home for family
life. (Buck) 21. Kit had been told to do nothing in particular. (Lindsay) 22.
Lately he‘d made efforts to bring the matter up with Brian or Colin. (Lindsay)
23. The sky shone pale. (Mansfield) 24. These days are finished. They are
blotted out. I must begin living all over again. (DU Maurier) 25. Next day, by
noon, I was up and dressed, and sat wrapped in a shawl by the nursery hearth.
(Ch. Bronte) 26. And all the while he felt the presence of Pat and had to keep on
resisting the impulse to turn round. (Lindsay) 27. But Abramovici remained
quiet. (Heym) 28. Morning broke quiet and hushed, subdued as if holding its
breath. (Abrahams) 29. There were a number of people out this afternoon. And
the band sounded louder and gayer. (Mansfield) 30. This has proved
surprisingly difficult. (Murdoch)
b) Point out the predicate and state its type
1. All birds sang. 2. The birds were singing beautifully. 3. This bird is a
good singer. 4. She grew fine roses in her garden. 5. The children grew
troublesome. 6. The boy grew a fine young man. 7. The explanation sounds
false. 8. They were enjoying the game. 9. I believe it the truth. 10. He seemed
an interesting chap. 11. She gave a little laugh. 12. The snow fell soft on his
face and hair. 13. The policeman made a careful search. 14. They made him the
scapegoat. 15. It is unlikely to happen. 16. The cry resounded loud and clear.
17. The leading man acted very well. 18. He acted insane. 19. We live to learn.
20. We‘ll wait and see. 21. Ann may have left for Paris. 22. I‘d rather go for a
walk after dinner. 23. They went on arguing. 24. Nobody took notice of his
remark. 25. I happened to meet him a week later. 26. The dog went running
after its master. 27. a) The sun rose bright. b) The sun was shining brightly. 28.
She began to feel nervous. 29. The detective had to begin reconstructing the
whole scheme. 30. I cannot help feeling that you have let me down.

Exercise 2. Analyse the following predicates. State how the predicative is

1. That‘s enough now. You were born a fool and a fool you will remain. 2.
Who is this? 3. She married young. She was only nineteen. 4. The story sounds
a little strange. 5. It is nothing to me whether she is a liar or a wronged angel. 6.
The town was astir with the news. 7. He seemed out of breath with the efforts.
8. I‘ve always been against taking Nan in our confidence. 9. She was deeply
concerned about Father‘s health. 10. The main thing is to keep your head.
Carson is the best man for heart operations. 11. You‘ve come back a different
woman. You are years younger and you look the picture of health. 12. She
sounded rather out of temper over the telephone so I told her you were still too
weak to be called. 13. And there she lived for a long time forgotten by her rich
relatives. 14. That part of Aunt Celia‘s address was finally over. I felt a little
dazed by the possibilities just opened to me. 15. The wind continued rough but
the sea was noticeably smoother. The long promised treat was becoming more
real and I was the first to mention it.

Exercise 3. Point out the predicate and state its type. Translate the
sentences into Russian
1. On her going to his house to thank him, he happened to see her through a
window. (Dickens) 2. To describe one's character is difficult and not necessarily
illuminating. (Murdoch) 3. The three on the sofa rise and chat with Hawkins.
(Shaw) 4. Nothing seemed to matter. (London) 5. To be wanted is always good.
(Stone)6. Seeing you there will open up a new world. (Murdoch) 7. There- after
I read everything on the subject. I came to know many Negroes, men and
women. (Buck) 8. Elaine, this ill-advised behaviour of yours is beginning to
have results. (Erskine) 9. Presently all was silent. They must have gone through
the service doors into the kitchen quarters. (Du Maurier) 10. The citizens of
occupied countries were to be subjugated individually. (Wescott) 11. It was all
wrong this situation. It ought not to be happening at all. (Du Maurier) 12. "My
way is not theirs, it is no use trying to un away from them. (Lindsay) 13. No
one got the better of her, never, never. (Du Maurier) 14. Lewisham stopped
dead at the corner, staring in blank astonishment after these two figures. (Wells)
15. ... We and all the people have been waiting patient or many an hour.
(Jerome K. Jerome) 16. One cannot help admiring the fellow. (Dickens) 17.
Then he [Tom] gave a low distinct whistle. It was answered from under the
bluff. (Ticain) 18. The girl [Aileen] was really beautiful and much above the
average intelligence and force. (Dreiser) 19. This religion did give promise of
creating a new society. There all men could be equally valuable as human
being. 20. We must begin here and now to show. Thus we might prove our
difference from those white men. (Buck)

Exercise 4. Use the adjective or adverb given in brackets

1. She could turn her head (slow, slowly). 2. The air smelled (sweet,
sweetly), larks sang. 3. Alex's eyes flashed (angry, angrily). 4. Nicola looked
(quick, quickly) at Lawrie. But Lawrie, to her relieved surprise, was looking
(high, highly) entertained. 6. Somehow she felt (hopeful, hopefully). 6. Maurice
flashed a smile at Ralph who slid (easy, easily) into the water. 7. She sounded
so (furious, furiously) that Rowan looked quite startled. 8. His face fell, and in
bitter disappointment he sank (heavy, heavily) into a chair. 9. He looked
(happy, happily) at the line of fires, with people grouped about them, and the
colour of the flames against the night. 10. The phrase sounded (strange,
strangely), I was mystified. 11. He walked round (slow, slowly). He felt (hot,
hotly), and the rain did him good. 12. Tom Lewis appeared (quiet, quietly)
beside Аlan. 13. She turned the handle, and the door came (open, openly). 14.
Conversation did not go very (easy, easily) for she did not seem to have much
to say. 15. Alex went (cold, coldly). 16. The clouds hung (heavy, heavily), and
there was a rawness in the air that suggested snow.

Exercise 5. Say where the reflexive pronoun is part of the predicate and
where it is an object or a predicative
1. On my estate, we pride ourselves on other thing besides hay. (Erskine)
2. She paused, her eyes never leaving my face. ―I shall always blame myself
for the accident.‖ (Du Maurier) 3. She raised herself suddenly in the tall
chair, and looked straight at him. (Erskine) 4. Dick found himself walking in
the direction of his friend Mike‘s place. (Lindsay) 5. It was a Tuesday. My
lady wasn‘t quite herself that afternoon. (Mansfield) 6. He felt himself
unusually on edge, unable to maintain the impersonally smug tone of
Stephenson. (Lindsay) 7. Mrs. Danvers showed herself at last. (Du Maurier)

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the proper link-verbs choosing them from
the list below:
to be, to become, to get, to turn, to grow, to prove, to remain, to keep, to fall, to
go, to look, to sеет, to appear, to blush, to taste, to smell, to sound, to feel
1. It has been said that Mr. Jonas ... pale when the behaviour of the old clerk
attracted general attention. 2. "I'll do it," I resolved, and having framed this
determination, I ... calm, and ... asleep. 3. He did not... so bad that he could not
go on working. 4. He ...scarlet as he thought of her laughing up her sleeve.
5. The face ... familiar to me, but I don't know the man. 6. It ... very good
with mineral water. 7. Inside the floating cloak he ... tall, thin, and bony;
and his hair ... red beneath the black cap. 8. He was taken aback and ..,
silent. 9. Pearson ... uncomfortable in that chair. 10. She knew she ... good
tonight; she had dressed well and made up carefully. 11. Oh, Ashley, don't talk
like that. You ……so sad. 12. The stable ... dry and pleasant in the rain.

Exercise 7. Analyse the finite forms of the verb and state whether they
are link-verbs or simple predicates
M o d e l : 1. She tasted the soup and added a little water.
Simple predicate. An action is named
2. The water tasted sweet.
Link-verb. A state or quality is meant.
1. All my dreams will come true. 2. I have come to say good-bye. 3. She felt
in her pockets for a dime. 4. The cat's fur felt soft and warm. 5. She appeared
dull and listless. 6. A tall untidy woman with a duster in her hand appeared in
the doorway. 7. She keeps a Pekinese and two cats. S. The children kept
suspiciously silent. 9. She made a very good wife and a superlative mother. 10.
Mother made me this dress. 11. She fell and tore her stockings. 12. You'll fall

asleep, see, if you don't. 13. I went there early one morning. 14. Is anyone in?
15. He is blind.

Exercise 8. Consider the double predicate in the following sentences.

Translate into Russian
1. The day broke grey and dull. 2. The dust lay thick on the country road. 3.
The door slammed shut behind the newcomers. 4. The morning of the
Handicap dawned clear and bright. 5. The moon rose red over the silent
valley. 6. But Alex, when he was alone, sat silent, thoughtful. 7. If by any
chance one of the servants heard her she could say that she had awakened
hungry and had gone down to see if she could find something to eat. 8. He
was lying flat on his back looking up into the eternal blue of the sky. 9. That
night, Martha lay awake with her mind in turmoil. 10. He came home pale
and puzzled, and called his wife into his study.

Exercise 9. Translate into English using constructions with a double

1. Солнце всходило яркое над снежной равниной. 2. Борис вбежал в
комнату возбужденный, и мы притихли, ожидая новостей. 3. Человек
стоял неподвижно на пристани, вглядываясь в морскую даль. 4. Старик
сидел в своем кресле прямой и молчаливый. 5. Ребята смеялись,
счастливые. 6. Их сын вернулся из экспедиции взрослым мужчиной. 7.
Дым над лесом поднимался черный и тяжелый. 8. Они смотрели на эту
сцену глубоко потрясенные. 9. Сосна на холме стояла высокая и одинокая.
10. Дети пришли промокшие до нитки.

6. Agreement

Exercise 1. Explain why the predicate-verb is used in the

singular or in the plural
1. The family were still at table, but they had finished breakfast. (Twain) 2.
There was a crowd of soldiers along the fence in the infield. (Hemingway) 3.
... the band was stopped, the crowd were partially quieted, and Horatio Fizkin,
Esquire, was permitted to proceed. (Dickens) 4. Down by the Embankment...a
band of unemployed were trailing dismally with money-boxes. (Galsworthy) 5.
The multitude have something else to do than to read hearts and interpret dark
sayings. (Ch. Bronte) 6. The newly married pair on their arrival in Harley
Street, Cavendish Square, London were received by the chief butler. (Dickens)
7. There was dreaminess a preoccupation, exaltation, in the maternal look
which the girl could not understand. (Hardy) 8. The company are cool and
calm. (Dickens) 9. As of old, nineteen hours of labour a day was all too little to
suit him. (London) 10. There were still two hours of daylight before them.
(Aldington) 11. At last they came into a maze of dust, where a quantity of
people were tumbling over one another... (Dickens) 12. Tom's whole class
were of a pattern-restless, noisy and troublesome. (Twain) 13. A group of men
were standing guarded by carabineers. (Hemingway) 14. The loving couple
were no longer happy. (Reade)

Exercise 2. Mind the agreement of the predicate with the subject and
use the proper form of the verb
1. The newspaper and the dictionary (to be) over there, on the desk. 2.
There (to be) a large desk and an armchair at the window. On the desk (to
be) a dictionary and several notebooks. 3. There (to be) a dictionary and a
few books on the shelf. 4. Bread and butter (to be) good for breakfast. 5.
Here (to be) bread and butter for breakfast. 6. Our only guide (to be) stars.
7. Stars (to be) our only guide. 8. A number of new books (to be) displayed
at the book show in the library. 9. The number of new books in our library
(to be) ever growing. 10. There (to be) a number of accidents on this road
last year. 11. The number of road accidents (to have) decreased this year.
12. There (to be) one or two things I'd like to talk over with you. 13. You
don't have to say much; a word or two (to be) sufficient. 14. "Five Little
Pigs" (to be) written by A. Christie. 15. Five pounds (to be) a small sum.
16. Five miles (to be) a long distance to walk. 17. Two pounds of coffee (to
cost) about eight shillings. 18. Twenty years (to be) not a long period of
time in human history. 19. Two plus two (to be) four. 20. Twice two
(make) four. 21. Three-fifths of the population (to be) employed in
industry. 22. Two-thirds of the members (to be) present. 23. Three-fifths of
the roof (to be) fresh painted. 24. Two-thirds of the work (to have) been
done. 25. The news published (to be) very brief. 26. The headquarters (to
be) across the road. 27. Economics (to be) not in my line. 28. Tactics (to
be) the science of war. 29. Your tactics (to be) wrong. 30. The audience
(to be) carried away by the play. 31. The audience (to be) applauding
noisily and shouting loudly for an encore. 32. The family (to have) been
helping me all along. 33. The family (to have) been quarrelling since my
return. 34. The police (to be) still looking for him. 35. The cattle (to be)
being driven home.

Exercise 3. Translate into English. Mind the agreement of the

predicate with the subject
1. Статья и словарь — на письменном столе. 2. На столе словарь,
журнал и несколько листов бумаги. 3. Яичница с ветчиной на столе.
4. На небе не было ни луны, ни звезд. 5. Это я виноват, не так ли? 6.
Ведь ни ты, ни я не виноваты, правда? 7. Когда были опубликованы
«Большие ожидания»? 8. На конференции присутствует ряд известных
ученых. 9. Число высших учебных заведений в нашей стране растет из
года в год. 10. Опубликованные сведения недостаточны для доклада. 11.
Семья все еще спорит о том, как провести лето. 12. Где находится штаб
батальона? 13. Полиция разыскивает его уже вторую неделю. 14.
Генерал сказал, что политика — не по его части. 15. а) Два плюс два —
четыре. б) Пятью пять — двадцать пять. 16. Три четверти населения этой
страны заняты в сельском хозяйстве. 17. Две трети забора уже
покрашено. 18. 30 лет — не очень большой период времени. 19. Десять
миль — слишком далекое расстояние, чтобы идти пешком. 20. И тот и
другой ответ правилен. 21. Ни один из этих двух планов неприемлем.
22. Ни одна из проблем еще не решена. 23. Никто из туристов не
собирается оставаться здесь на ночь. 24. Ни Джон, ни его старший брат
не женаты. 25. Мой брат, так же как и я, готов помочь вам. 26. Профессор
Браун, так же как и его ассистенты, продолжают эксперимент. 27. Я, так
же как и вы, очень обеспокоен этим. 28. Премьер-министр с супругой и
детьми выезжают завтра в Париж.

Exercise 4. Add one of these verbs to each of the sentences

does doesn't has have is isn't are aren't was wasn't won't
Example: Excuse me, but does this train stop at Croydon?
1. To get an A in every class be easy.
2. Lord of the Flies the name of the book we had to read last year?
3. My new pair of jeans pockets on the side of the legs.
4. What they're doing in Parliament interest me.
5. Being absent from class a lot going to improve his chances of passing.
6. Jan got really angry with us and screamed, 'None of you my friends any
7. Never I had to listen to so many boring people!
8. I watched Dances with Wolves, which about dancing at all.
9. Statistics more difficult than Economics?
10.These new sunglasses made of glass or plastic or anything like that.

Exercise 5. Use the proper form of the verb instead of the infinitives in
1. The bread and the butter (to be put) on the table. 2. The horse as well as
the rider (to be hurt) by the fall. 3. Not only the flowers, but even the grass (to
be withered). 4. Two hours‘ study (to be) not enough. 5. (to have) either of the
boys gone? 6. Neither of them (to be) at fault. 7. Not only the teacher, but the
students themselves (to do) it. 8. Either he or I (to be going) to do it. 9. Neither
he nor he comrades (to be) present. 10. His last sixpence (to be lost). 11. I as
well as they (to be) highly satisfied with the report. 12. Not only the earth but
also the planets (to move) round the sun. 13. The company (to be entering) the
hall by different doors. 14. Our party (to be) soon on (its – their) feet. 15. My
family (to be) early risers. 16. That hundred roubles (to be) here. 17. Mine (to
be) a large family. 18. The meeting (to be) large. 19. Every man and every
woman (to be) to take part in the elections. 20. Neither John nor Emma (to be)
at home. 21. (to be) either of you ready to help me? 22. The Two Gentlemen of
Verona (to be) a play by Shakespeare. 23. Every one of these pencils (to be)
mine. 24. The cattle (to be) up in the hills. 25. The director and the secretary (to
come). 26. The council (to be divided) in (its – their) opinion. 27. The
Committee (to consist) of five members. 28. Bread and butter (to be) a good
kind of food at tea time. 29. My aim and object (to be) to make English
grammar clear to all… 30. Every one of the letters (to be written). 31. (to have)
anyone forgotten t sign his name? 32. I can write; four weeks (to bee) not so
long ago. 33. The grey and blue blanket (to be washed) today. 34. The white
and feathery blossoms (to be) on the table. 35 A variety of questions (to be
put) to the lecturer. 36. The number of books which we have to read for this
examination (to be) considerable. 37. A great number of students (to be)
present at the conference. 38. Each of us (to be) ready to help you. 39. "The
great majority of architects, painters, or writers (to have) no principles, like any
other Forsytes." (Galsworthy) 40. "1 feel that the jury already (to think) that
you were out to side something." (Gordon)

Exercise 6.Choose the correct alternative in these sentences. Both

alternatives are possible in two sentences
1. All of my choices is/are connected to the subject of ‗memory‘.
2. Hardly anyone is/are prepared to help her.
3. My family is/are very good at making plans.
4. None of these films has/have been a major success.
5. The police has/have asked for help from the public in finding a missing
6. Two years is/are a long time to be unemployed.
7. The news is/are much the same as it was last night.
8. Politics was/were my main sublet at university.
9. These jeans is/are similar to my old ones.
10. Our local football team need/needs to practise more.
11. Scissors is/are not allowed on the plane.
12. The United States is/are the home of baseball.

Exercise 7. Read this extract from the email message. Complete each
gap with one word
I‘m afraid my news _______________not very exciting at the moment –
everything ____________much the same as usual. I‘m working hard on all my
courses – difficult subject but the staff__________been very helpful. One
professor has been giving extra tutorials for anyone
who______________questions. Even so, almost nobody I know they're going to
pass the end-of-term exams!
Did I tell you that our house was broken into? The police____________great
and came round straight away but is not a lot they can do. Can you believe it my
Gucci sunglasses________________taken? I was so upset. They cost me nearly
£100! And 100 ______ a lot of money to me at the moment.

7. Secondary Parts of the Sentence

7.1. The Object
Exercise 1. Point out all the objects and state of what kind they are
1. Tom gave up the brush with reluctance in his face. (Twain) 2. "...she will
be glad of your company." (Bronte) 3. He presently took from the drawer a
carefully tied bundle of letters... (Hardy) 4. Mary opened the door for me...
(Bronte) 5. Anthony looked forward eagerly to his mother‘s letters. (Gordon) 6.
Roger was busy with term exams. (Cisack) 7. I am sorry to have kept you all
waiting. (Shaw) 8. He gave her his arm and solemnly they went. (Galsworthy)
9. ...and then Peggotty opened a little door and showed me my bedroom.
(Dickens) 10. She was rather sorry for him. (Lawrence) 11. ...he threw his
window up and gazed out across the park. (Galsworthy) 12. ...the valley was
full of shadow. (Lawrence) 13. Mr. Pickwick paused, considered, pulled off his
gloves and put them in his hat. (Dickens) 14. She was very proud of her son.
(Lawrence) 15. ...I deem it my duty to call a special meeting of the
shareholders. (Galsworthy) 16. He watched the two of them...(Galsworthy) 17.
There was a wind like ice. (Mansfield) 18. "I wanted to show you my fancy
dress..." (Galsworthy.) 19. ...I looked at some pictures on the walls... (Bronte)
20. Agnes was glad to see me...(Dickens) 21. "I ordered it (dinner) at my
place..." (Voynich) 22. ...one or two of the elder girls stretched out their hands
to the baby... (Galsworthy) 23. Certain nooks were curiously rich with wild-
flowers mixed with deep rich-red clover and marguerite-daisies. (Aldington)
24. She had promised to come down next Sunday and play to him again...
(Galsworthy) 25. Diana offered to teach me German. (Bronte) 26. ...he insisted
on our looking round the room and out into the garden. (Snow) 27. He was
conscious of a faint rustling behind him. (Galsworthy.) 28. A sudden thought
struck him. (Kingsley) 29. "You must forgive me coming at such an hour."
(Galsworthy) 30. I am in debt to Miss Betsey for having been born on a Friday.
(Dickens) 31. ...I remembered descending that hill at twilight... (Bronte) 32. "I'll
call you Mr. Lampton if you like," she said, "but I'd rather call you Joe."
(Braine) 33. This evening he had found it impossible to talk. (Galsworthy) 34.
"...I want you to come to the stores with me..." (Galsworthy) 35. ...I was
awakened by hearing my own name spoken in a whisper. (Dickens)

Exercise 2. Consider the nouns, gerunds and infinitives used as objects

to adjectives in the following sentences. Translate into Russian
1. We were aware of strange activity going on around us. 2. The new
method is worthy of the closest consideration. 3. The letter had no signature,
and the handwriting was quite strange to Nellie. 4. She was invariably patient
with her pupils, even with the most backward of them. 5. Why is he afraid to
take the responsibility upon himself? 6. Persuading is always preferable to
compelling. 7. The young inspector was proud of having resolved the mystery
upon so little evidence. 8. A sleeping pill would be very useful to her now. 9.
His pictures are not .only true to life, their chief merit lies in their
concentration on the typical. 10. The chief is much pleased with your report,
only he doesn't want to show it. 11. Aren't they tired of listening to his
endless complaints? 12. I am so glad to be of service to you? 13. She is
certainly fond of art in all its manifestations. 14. At last the river is free from
ice, so we may get the motor boat ready for launching.

Exercise 3. Translate into English. Pay attention to the use of

prepositions with objects both to verbs and adjectives
1. Окончательное решение вопроса зависит от администрации. 2. Почему вы
боитесь встречаться с этим человеком? 3. Я устал слушать обещания, которые
вы не выполняете! 4. Постарайтесь сосредоточиться на содержании задания.
5. Лицо женщины на фотографии было мне совершенно незнакомо. 6. Неужели
Кристина не любит стихов? 7. Мы очень благодарны вам за переданную
информацию. 8. Эту пьесу стоит посмотреть. 9. Пусть они вникнут в дело
поглубже. 10. Разве ты не видишь — они сами огорчены, что не могут
помочь нам? 11. Портрет действительно соответствует оригиналу. 12.
Почему они удивлены нашим предложением? 13. Вы закончили курс
обучения и теперь способны решать такие вопросы сами. 14. Такая
завязка типична для художественного метода романиста. 15. Эта улица
идет параллельно Кутузовскому проспекту. 16. С чем же мне их
поздравлять? 17. Для вас будет полезно познакомиться с проектом
заранее. 18. Еще несколько девушек включились в беседу. 19. Советую
вам всегда считаться с советами этого мудрого человека. 20. Наша
страна богата природными ресурсами, но главное ее богатство —
прекрасные люди. 21. Все были заняты подготовкой к уборочной
кампании. 22. А я все мечтаю о встрече с Таней.

Exercise 4. Point out the kind of object and say by what it is expressed.
Translate into Russian
1. What have you got there? (Cronin) 2. She pretended to hear.
(Mansfield) 3. Marcellus found the luggage packed strapped for the journey.
(Douglas) 4. I know all about it, my son. (Douglas) 5. I have to show Dr.
French his room. (Shaw)6. I never heard you express that opinion before,
sir. (Douglas) 7. Halting, he waited for the Roman to speak first.
(Douglas) 8. He was with you at the banquet. (Douglas) 9. They don‘t
want anything from us —not even our respect. (Douglas) 10. I beg your
pardon for calling you by your name. (Shaw) 11. I found myself pitying
the Baron. (Mansfield) 12. I've got it framed with Gilly to drive him
anywhere. (Kahler) 13. He smiled upon the young men a smile at once
personal and presidential. (Kahler) 14. Gallio didn't know how to talk
with Marcellus about it. (Douglas) 15. Laura helped her mother with the
good-byes. (Mansfield) 16. Why did you not want him to come back and
see today? (Mansfield) 17. Mr. Jinks, not exactly knowing what to do,
smiled a dependant's smile. (Dickens) 18. He found it impossible to utter
the next word. (Kahler) 19. Marcellus issued сrisp orders and insisted
upon absolute obedience. (Douglas) 20. He‘s going to live his own life and
stop letting his mother boss him around like a baby. (Kahler) 21. I will
suffer no priest to interfere in my business. (Shaw) 22. Papa will never
consent to my being absolutely dependent on you. (Shaw) 23. Do you know
anything more about this dreadful place? (Douglas) 24. She hated Frisco and
hated herself for having yielded to his kisses. (Prichard) 25. They had been
very hard to please. Harry would demand the impossible. (Mansfield) 26. His
part in the conversation consisted chiefly of yesses and noes. (Kahler) 27.
Michelangelo could not remember having seen a painting or sculpture of the
simplest nature in a Buanarrotti house. (Stone)

Exercise 5. Comment upon the position of the objects

1. Titus fetches Judith her things from the rack. (Shaw) 2. What did you say
to him? (Douglas) 3. I hope, contrary to your prediction that we may meet
again: though I shall certainly not offer you my company in the foreseeable
future, nor of course will I expect any answer to this communication.
(Murdoch) 4. Beppe told him of some sculpture and then gave it to him.
(Stone) 5. He tore a leaf from his pocket-book, wrote a few words and gave
it to me. (Ch. Bronte) 6. She pitied the poor young gentleman for having no
one to look after him. (Mansfield) 7. The other candle I gave to Mr. Bruff...
(Collins) 8. She gave him her hand. (Dickens) 9. To them it was the most
enduring material in the world. (Stone) 10. Blanche, I can smell the sea air.
The rest of my time I'm going to spend on the sea. (Murdoch) 11. He
bought with his wife's money, a fairly large house in the new redbrick part of
Beidover. (Lawrence) 12. A word about Palmer is necessary; and this I find
difficult. (Murdoch) 13. With the wet weather Lorenzo had forbidden
Contessina to leave the place. To Michelangelo she did not seem frail. (Stone)
14. For me, the watches of that long night passed in ghastly wakefulness. (Ch.
Bronte) 15. Curious joy she had of her lectures. (Lawrence) 16. Helen she held
a little longer than me. (Ch. Bronte) 17. With one hand Bodkin preferred the
picture to the foreign market, with the other he formed a list of private British
collectors. (Galsworthy) 18. To him perpetual thought of death was a sin.
(Priestley) 19. Of Mrs. Bret-ton 1 had long lost sight. (Ch. Bronte) 20. To kicks
and curses, to hurry and dislike, it closed a hard stone veil around its soft inner
nature. (Stone) 21. Why he had selected that as an excuse, he had no idea.

Exercise 6. Translate into English. Analyse the objects

Model: Я покажу вам его.
I‘ll point him out to you.
(him – direct object; to you – prepositional indirect object)
1. Я объясню вам как это делать. 2. Мне дважды повторили
объяснение. 3. Она мне это не посоветовала. 4. Я познакомил его с моей
сестрой. 5. Продиктуйте мне, пожалуйста, это стихотворение. 6. Она
объявила, что немедленно уезжает. 7. Все мои ошибки были мне
указаны. 8. Мне повторили, что мне нужно отдохнуть. 9. Мне
продиктовали несколько писем. 10. Мне его представили на
конференции. 11. Нам это вчера объявили. 12. Нам предложили
попробовать сделать это самим.

Exercise 7. Use the required prepositions (thus making prepositional

objects). See Appendix 2
1. "You may rely —me —this matter." (Galsworthy) 2. I reminded him —
the fact. (Doyle) 3. When he saw him next morning he was surprised — his
appearance. (Maugham) 4. ..she knew I was fond — painting. (Maurier) 5. I
was looking forward — our excursion with all my heart. (Cronin) 6. "I
don't mind organising the ball if Maxim has no objection — giving it.
(Maurier) 7. ...the air smelled — wood — smoke from the kitchen fire.
(Galsworthy) 8. I smiled — her to show my sympathy. (Maurier) 9. She... was
weak — mathematics; while I ...was good — them. (Cronin) 10. "We were so
pleased — the picture post-card Mr. de Winter sent." (Maurier) 11. ...she was
proud — Alison's talent and bent — developing it. (Cronin) 12. Beatrice
shook hands — her and introduced me. (Maurier) 13. "Tell me, were you
interested — those books I sent you?" (Maurier) 14. I was not angry —
them... (Dickens) 15. "Well, my dear, ho ware you?" she said, her telephone
voice typical — herself, brisk, rather masculine... (Maurier) 16. ...he was
always a little ahead — me. I could not keep up — him. (Maurier) 17. ...when
I glanced — my clock 1 saw the hands had scarcely moved. (Maurier) 18. Mr.
Carker smiled, and said he was sure — it. (Dickens) 19. She stared —me
curiously. (Maurier) 20. ...the air was full — butterflies. (Galsworthy) 21. I
did not wait —the lift, I climbed the stairs, three at a time, up to the third
floor. (Maurier) 22. She looked — me for a moment. (Maugham) 23. He
picked up his spoon again and helped himself — marmalade. (Maurier) 24.
She was at the station, standing just a little apart — everybody else...
(Mansfield) 25. "I have been looking everywhere — you." (Snow) 26. "Wait
till I run upstairs — my coat." (Maurier) 27. Mr. Mell never said much — me,
but he was never harsh — me. (Dickens) 28. I was uncertain which way to go.
The plan of the rooms was not familiar — me. (Maurier) 29. He approved —
Dick Povey... (Bennett) 30. I felt— the electric light switch on the wall and
turned it on. (Maurier) 31. I was not surprised when nobody agreed —
her...(Maurier) 32. The dogs... barked — him as he passed (Irving) 33. It
had always been characteristic — Soames... to keep the fact carefully hidden.
(Galsworthy) 34. ...he explained — me that a great deal might depend — my
being able to answer, without confusion, a few questions that he wished to ask
me. (Dickens) 35. The boys met at the Museum, and were soon engaged —
examining its extensive collection of curiosities... Ben and Lambert had often
visited the British Museum, but that did not prevent them — being surprised
— the richness of the Leyden collection. (Dodge)

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences using the given pairs of words and phrases
as objects. After that permute the objects if possible. Then replace them with
pronouns-substitutes changing the word order where necessary and introducing
the required prepositions
Model: I promised: a new bike, Jimmy.  I promised Jimmy a new bike. I
promised a new bike to Jimmy.  I promised it to him.
1. The shift master has explained: the worker, the procedure. 2. We offered: all
the necessary assistance, the delegation. 3. The consulting specialist suggested:
the management, a different approach to the problem. 4. This time I'll excuse:
little Pete, his misbehaviour. 5. The employers sometimes deny: the elementary
rights, the workers, 6. Can we do: what else, Mr. and Mrs. Smith? 7. Mr.
Prokhorov himself will tell: the whole story, the Chief Justice. 8. The collision
caused: a fatal leak, the tanker. 9. I want to ask: another question, the office
representative. 10. She meant to do: a favour, the newly married couple. 11.
James hurried to fetch: a bottle of sherry, the company. 12. The advice has saved:
the publishers, much spending. 13. The aides will make: the Commander-in-Chief, a
summary report.

Exercise 9. Choose suitable verbs with prepositions out of the given list to
complete the following sentences. Justify your choice. Make possible additions to
the fillers relying on your own resources. See Appendix 2
Ask about, for; appeal to; appear to; believe in; belong to; care about, for;
choose between; complain of, about; congratulate on; count on, with; consist
of, in; depend on; differ from; do for; dream of, about; expect from, of; happen
to; hear of, about, from; let into, out of; look at, after, for, into; make for, of,
from; rely on; sit by, over, down to; speak to, about; succeed in; suffer from,
for; supply to, with; talk of, about, with; think of, about.
1. You must ... the advice of your seniors. 2. What are you ... so carefully? 3.
All of us should ... this great man. 4. Is your friend ... a severe cold? 5. That kind
of music ... me. 6. The novel... many chapters. 7. Shall I... the matter? 8. My pupils
... me. 9. This cloth ... the samples in the show-case. 10. Whom is Mary ... so

Exercise 10. Consider the sentences with cognate objects and translate
them into Russian. Replace the cognate objects with single verbs, making
other changes in the sentences if necessary
1. The old couple have lived a long and happy life. 2. King Alfred the Great
fought many battles with the invaders before giving himself up to literature and
education. 3. Let's play a game of chess, we‘ve got still time before the session.
4. The hostess smiled a welcoming smile to the entering guests. 5. What fine
tales the grandmother is telling to her grandchildren! 6. You must sleep a sound
sleep, and your headache will cease without taking medicine. 7. If you've got a
question, ask it! 8. Will Jenny sing a song? 9. The commander fired three shots
in the air. 10. See, she will dance now some folk dances, it will be an excellent
performance. 11. The writer was fond of going lonely walks in the fields. 12.
You may laugh your laugh, only don't do it so loudly, mind the sleeping
children! 13. I dreamed such a strange dream last night! It was like living
through it, not just seeing a vision. 14. Micky is at his usual occupation: running
a race with Jerry round the big flower-bed.

Exercise 11. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to

the use of objects of all types
1. Вас будут учить всему, что должен знать квалифицированный
преподаватель-лингвист. 2. Но на мой вопрос мне не ответили. 3. Ну
как, пройдемся немного пешком? 4. Не спорьте с ней, ведь у нее
профессиональное знание предмета. 5. В чем состоит их предложение?
6. Мне хочется занять место у левого борта. 7. Разрешите взглянуть на
вашу газету, если вы ее прочли. 8. Не боитесь проиграть партию? 9.
Они были заняты проверкой двигателя перед стартом. 10. Я очень рад,
что сумел дать вам хороший совет. 11. Закончила она, наконец, свои
тренировки? 12. Положитесь на него, он вас не подведет. 13. Этому
человеку есть чем гордиться: он прожил жизнь борца за правду. 14.
Опять она здесь хозяйничает! 15. Штурман сосредоточенно следил за
показаниями приборов. 16. Вы удовлетворены принятым решением?
17. Некоторые детали нужно заменить новыми. 18. Пора приниматься
за работу! 19. Кто будет оперировать больного? 20. Давайте
искупаемся, этот автобус довезет нас до самого пляжа. 21. С этим
решением придется примириться. 22. Попроси тетю Полю присмотреть
за детьми. 23. Кто распорядился отложить собрание? 24. Он
почувствовал, что за ним кто-то следит. 25. Если работа слишком
трудна для вас, можете передать ее кому-нибудь другому. 26. Не лучше
ли будет обменять билет на послезавтра? 27. Ударьте хорошенько по

Exercise 12. Point out the Complex Object and say by what it is expressed.
Translate into Russian
1. He could see the man and Great Beaver talking together. (London) 2.
She had lied about the scullery door being open on the night of the
disappearance of the bank-notes. (Bennett) 3. Each woman thought herself
triumphant and the other altogether vanquished. (Buck) 4. Thus these two
waited with impatience for the three years to be over. (Buck) 5. Sammy
watched Mr. Cheviot slowly take the receiver from the girl. (Priestley) 6.
He hated her to work in the boarding house. (Prichard) 7. The Consul felt
his legs give way. (Cronin) 8. Mother objected to Aimée being taken away
from her game with the boys. (Prichard) 9. They had never heard him
speak with such urgency, his eyes glowing like amber coals in the fading
light. (Stone)

Exercise 13. Thirteen of these sentences contain mistakes. Tick the correct
sentences, then find and correct the mistakes
Example: The primary purpose of the police is to protect people of criminals
1. The supervisor said I shouldn't have shouted at the client so I had to
apologise to.
2. I never really know whether I should insist on sit at the top table or not.
3. The waiter was quite amazed at our eating everything so quickly.
4. All my friends agree to the government's new policy on third world debt.
5. Sylvia was astonished at that her boyfriend had behaved so atrociously.
6. You know I'm really not that interested in if he's coming with us or not.
7. David's quarrelled his wife over selling the house.
8. Please make an effort. The children are really depending on you their party
9. Can you tell us if the minister has stopped the by-pass from going ahead?
10. I blame my parents for my bad habits.
11. The old persons' home will provide Sam for a room.
12. Don't worry, the guide's going to fully explain me all the details.
13. He succeeded in winning the first round but I'm afraid he didn't have any
success in beating his second opponent.
14. The auditors initially issued a demand for full repayment but then changed
their minds and simply demanded for a token contribution.
15. Lack of nutrients caused serious damage to growing.
16. Wendy‘s sarcastic comments made me curious about her motives.
17. We were absolutely furious by their outrageous prices.
18. I don't mind driving but I'm really scared by flying.
19. I'd prefer somewhere else; I'm not too keen on Thai food.
20. Apparently Donna's angry with her boss; he's given her the late shift yet

Exercise 14. Editing. Correct the mistakes in this text

During the psychology class, one student reported us her experiment. She
explained us that it was about communication between husbands and wives.
The researcher gave the following information half of the husbands. 'Your
wife has described you a holiday trip to China. One of her friends told to her
about it. You think sounds like a really good idea, so you ask to her some
questions about the cost. The other group of husbands heard the following
information. 'Your wife has suggested you a holiday trip to China. You don't
like. You believe is a really bad idea, so you ask some questions her about the
cost.' The researcher didn't tell to the wives she said to the husbands. She asked
the wives to listen to the tape recording of their husbands' questions and
decide the husbands thought it was a good idea or not. A significant number
of the wives couldn't decide. That was very surprising.

7.2. The Attribute. The Apposition

Exercise 1. Analyse the attributes in the following sentences and say by

what they are expressed
A. 1. Have I done anything to annoy your mother? 2. And the silken sad
uncertain rustling of each purple curtain thrilled me – filled me with fantastic
terrors never felt before. 3. She lay down on the living-room davenport, and
pressed her thin hand against her dull brown hair. 4. It was a lively little narrative
with carefully chosen amusing phrases of description. 5. It was an off night for
news — a long speech of somebody's, a plan for a garbage dump, a four-day-old
murder mystery. 6. Some men cannot pass a book shop. 7. My friend here and
myself merely happened to wonder how much are those pearls in your window. 8.
It is the second time it happens this week. 9. The large white monkey with its
brown haunting eyes impressed her at once. 10. A brown knitted frock with little
clear yellow buttons — unsoiled, uncreased. How could anybody spare a thing
like that?
B. 1. The first day's journey from Gaza to Ascalon was intolerably tedious.
(Douglas) 2. What do you say to a stroll through the garden, Mr. Cockane?
(Shaw) 3. It was such a cruel thing to have happened to that gentle, helpless
creature. (Prichard) 4. He was the last to leave. (Mansfield) 5. Sally hated the
idea of borrowing and living on credit. (Prichard) 6. The two men faced each
other silently. (Douglas) 7. It was an easy go-as-you-please existence. (Prichard)
8. I am not in the habit of reading other people's letters. (Shaw) 9. He thrust
his hands deep into his overcoat pockets. (Galsworthy) 10. It was not a matter
to be discussed even with a guide, philosopher and friend so near and trusted
as the Professor. (Kahler) 11. Ethel, the youngest, married a good-for-nothing
little waiter. (Mansfield) 12. He pointed to a house on a near-by shady knoll.
(Douglas) 13. It was just one little sheet of glass between her and the great wet
world outside. (Mansfield) 14. She had a pair of immense bare arms to match,
and a quantity of mottled hair arranged in a sort of bow. (Mansfield) 15.
Dicky heard right enough. A clear, ringing little laugh was his only reply.

Exercise 2. Point out the apposition and say whether it is close or loose
A) 1. Maria, the mother, had not taken off her shawl. (Cronin) 2. One of
our numbers, a round-faced, curly-haired little man of about forty, glared at
him aggressively. (Braddon) 3. There are plenty of dogs in the town of
Oxford. (Jerome K. Jerome) 4. You look all right, Uncle Soames. (Galsworthy)
5. James, a slow and thorough eater, stopped the process of mastication.
(Galswarthy) 6. He felt lost, alone there in the room with that pale spirit of
a woman. (London) 7. But the doctor — a family physician well past middle
age — was not impressed. (Carter) 8. They, the professors, were right in their
literary judgement (London) 9. In consequence neither Oscar nor his sister
Martha had had any too much education or decent social experience of any
kind. (Dreiser) 10. But now he had seen that world, possible and real, with a
flower of a woman... (London)
B) 1. And now her mother, a woman of sense, is also getting bored? 2. The
boy, a natural model, fitted into the black ground of rock and sea as inevitably as
the pillars of the temple. 3. Here was I, Lucy Waring, being asked into the water
for a play. 4. There was the dolphin Jack who saw the ships through Cook
Straight for twenty years. Far below us I could still catch a glimpse of the sea, a
silvery ribbon, between overhanging cliffs. 6. Old Mother Hubbard went to the
cupboard, to get her poor dog a bone. 7. Tell him to bring his note of Colonel
Saxley‘s instructions.8. The kitchen, a windowless little room was very clean.
9. The child, a pretty little thing of eight, was considered delicate. 10. Cousin
Sally was considered the beauty of the family. 11. She trusted no one except
Doctor Barlow. 12. Nurse Attwood, you will come to my study after tea.

Exercise 3. Extend the following sentences by filling the blanks with loose
appositions. Use nouns with or without attributes
1. We were ushered in by his secretary ________. 2. She was very fond of her
cat _______. 3. She brought her sister ________. 4. We met in the city park
_______. 5. She showed us the way to the beach. 6. The school house _____
stood at the bottom of the hill. 7. He introduced us to his mother ______. 8.
There he was _____.

Exercise 4. Point out the attribute, state its type and say by what it is
1. Great talkers are little doer. 2. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 3. Two
much of a good thing is good for nothing. 4. The third time is always lucky. 5.
The next day‘s journey was a long one. 6. The new visitor was a fine tall man
with a pleasant open face. 7. The ex-chemistry professor was a small, dreamy-
looking man, gentle and kindly in manner, and usually completely absent-
minded. 8. That was a very different and a very much more difficult thing. 9. He
pointed to the dog looking at me hopefully. 10. The methods used proved to be
very effective. 11. He asked her to give him a few books to read. 12. He never
kept his promise to come back. 13. He knew there was no chance of succeeding.
14. There was little hope of the mail being delivered in time. 15. They had no
difficulty in identifying the picture stolen from the museum. 16. Why can‘t you
give up that wild idea of yours? 17. He was engaged by the government on the
matter of great importance. 18. There are plenty of dogs in the town of Oxford.
19. His only daughter Edna, a teacher of French at Franklin High School,
kept house for him. 20. Many of the old houses, round about, speak very
plainly of those days when Kingston was a royal borough. 21. Austin, the
capital of Texas, is one of wealthiest towns in the United States. 22. There is,
of course, one easy explanation for his behaviour; he is in love. 23. Three
animals: a horse, a camel and a bear, were led across the stage. 24. Accustomed
to rely on his instincts, he was perfectly sure in his own mind. 25. We have
here an example of the "program teaching", so common in the high school
these days.

Exercise 5. Point out the attributes and appositions, state their kinds, explain
the semantic relations expressed by them. Translate into Russian
1. On the third day there was sudden excitement down at the bend. 2. The
landscape class, with stools and easels and sketch-boxes, tramped off twice a
week to some vantage point to indulge in plein-air painting. 3. Those were
golden days in my life; it was more than twenty years ago. 4. The evening
beauty of the river with a soft mist rising from its glassy surface stirred her out
of her state of suspended animation. 5. Their next season's crop was threatened
too, for the pumping plant could not operate. 6. Beyond the half-drawn curtains
at the French windows the summer sun beat down upon the green lawn. 7. A
gaunt woman in a black dress, long apron and sun-bonnet came out, and rather
grudgingly filled her can with three-pennorth of milk. 8. Oh, that never-to-be-
forgotten summer in the Golden Valley! 9. The only piece of furniture worthy
of note was a large grandfather chair standing in front of the fireplace. 10. We
have many questions to discuss before we part, my friends. 11. A few more
objections of the same sort were raised, but all of them were overruled as
irrelevant. 12. All the people present were deeply shocked by the nature of the crime
the defendant was charged with. 13. Everything imaginable had been done for the
capture of the fugitives, but with no avail. 14. Samuel Ghealy, the then
President of the firm, was definitely against the dubious deal. 15. Is there any
purpose in trying to by-pass these problems? 16. The final decision, in accord
with the unshakable law of the family, rested with Aunt Agatha. 17.1 doubt
whether Major Bell will approve of the plan, so casually outlined. 18. The letter
from the Carstaire Publishers lay unsealed on the desk. 19. The second plane, a
huge Boeing, was about to touch the concrete runway brightly lit by spotlights.
20. I'm afraid there is nothing to safely rely on in his account of the case.

Exercise 6. Change the following sentences into the corresponding noun-

phrases with attributes
Model: 1. The answer was prepared. —» A prepared answer.
2. The water is for drinking. —» Drinking water.
3. The room had a low ceiling. —» A room with a low ceiling.
1. The day was rainy. 2. The remark is very clever. 3. Her heart was kind. 4. The
bowl is for sugar. 5. The mountains were covered with snow. 6. The noises were
muffled. 7. The catch is abundant. 8. The desk is for writing. 9. The room is for
reception. 10. The train was approaching. 11. The coat was made of wool. 12. The
country house is in good taste. 13. The place is for hiding. 14. The girl was like a
butterfly. 15. His nose resembled a button. 16. The problem had a difficulty. 17.
The man was in trouble. 18. The school is for flying. 19. The machine is for
calculating. 20. The planning is efficient. 21. The Pedagogical Institute is in
Moscow. 22. The novel is of adventure. 23. The story is gripping. 24. The birds are
singing. 25. The trees rustled. 26. The woman smiled. 27. The waves were
thundering. 28. The snow was falling. 29. The doctor arrived. 30. The scholar has
a famous name.

Exercise 7. Consider the pairs of noun-phrases with attributes. Explain

the difference in meaning between the members of each pair. Translate into
1. A dancing girl — a dancing hall. 2. A catching tune — a catching net. 3.
Boiling water — a boiling kettle. 4. A flying bird — flying weather. 5. A
calculating mind — a calculating machine. 6. A waiting patient — a waiting
room. 7. A climbing plant – a climbing rocket. 8. A boxing match – a boxing
glove. 9. Racing sportsmen – racing tracks. 10. A mixing device – mixing
substance. 11. A drinking horse – drinking water. 12. A smoking chimney –
smoking carriage. 13. A swimming dolphin – a swimming pool. 14. A walking
man – a walking stick. 15. A bathing girl – a bathing suit. 16. An examining
look – an examining machine. 17. Skating children – skating shoes. 18. Skiing
sportsmen – skiing sticks. 19. A working man – a working day. 20. A painting
artist – painting mastery. 21. A running dog – running water. 22. A sleeping
child – a sleeping powder.

Exercise 8. Translate into English paying attention to the structure and

meaning of various noun-phrases with attributes
A) 1. Михаил окончил летную школу под Иркутском. 2.
Необычайная красота тех мест поразила нас. 3. Посетители выставки
любовались полотнами Айвазовского. 4. Женщина в красном была
королевой бала. 5. Боюсь, что эта романтическая история выдумана им
самим. 6. Как можно есть такое недожаренное мясо! 7. Ученикам было
трудно делать упражнение, содержащее много незнакомых слов. 8. В
комнату вошла девушка с копной золотистых волос. 9. Окончательный
текст договора включал поправки, внесенные обеими сторонами. 10.
Обращение с этим прибором требует специальных знаний и большой
осторожности. 11. Наша ферма славится своими особыми сортами
душистых дынь. 12. Все были очарованы изумительной игрой
талантливой актрисы. 13. Замена изношенного двигателя оказалась делом
получаса. 14. Неожиданное препятствие было устранено общими
усилиями. 15. Обещанная гроза так и не пришла. 16. Ракетный
автомобиль становится осязаемой реальностью. 17. Плавание с
аквалангом — увлекательный вид спорта. 18. Боря, ты можешь
выкрутить из люстры перегоревшую лампу? 19. Разве теперь выпускают
трехколесные велосипеды для взрослых? 20. Высокий торшер с
зеленым абажуром разливал по комнате мягкий свет.
B) 1. Женщина с ребенком на руках. 2. Бессодержательный роман. 3.
Варенье из клубники. 4. Картина Репина. 5. Элегантно сшитый костюм. 6.
Свежевыкрашенный забор. 7. Пьеса, поставленная известным режиссером.
8. Всем знакомая мелодия. 9. Цветы, собранные девушкой.
10. Переработанное издание книги. 11. Солнце, садящееся за лесом.
12. Городской пейзаж, написанный маслом. 13. Включенный двигатель.
14. Две чашки чая с лимоном. 15. Контрольная работа, проверенная
учителем. 16. Заново перепечатанные страницы. 17. Бассейн с водой,
искрящейся на солнце. 18. Приближающийся поезд. 19. Автомобиль,
несущийся по ночному шоссе. 20. Девочка, похожая на птичку. 21. Письмо,
оставленное без ответа. 22. Свежезамороженные овощи. 23. Бутылки с
яркими наклейками. 24. Домик в четыре окна. 25. Приключенческая

Exercise 9. Translate into English. Pay attention to the types of attributive

connection of words
1. Прибор высокой точности. 2. Счетная машина. 3. Беспосадочные
полеты. 4. Школа плавания. 5. Двухмоторный самолет. 6. Скоростной
автомобиль. 7. Армейский патруль. 8. Доставка тяжелых грузов. 9.
Шестнадцатиэтажный дом. 10. Нож для нарезания сыра. 11. Легко
запоминающаяся песня. 12. Давно забытая мелодия. 13. Чайник для
кипячения. 14. Пушечное ядро. 15. Пятидолларовая банкнота. 16.
Артиллерийский огонь. 17. Соображения безопасности. 18. Рабочая
неделя. 19. Горные лыжи. 20. Переговоры о перемирии. 21. Пожарная
команда. 22. Морское путешествие. 23. Счетная комиссия. 24.
Экзаменационная комиссия. 25. Склон горы. 26. Транзисторный приемник.
27. Актеры кино. 28. Четырехколесный экипаж. 29. Начальник станции. 30.
Инспекционная группа.
Exercise 10. Explain the semantic relations expressed by the appositions of
various kinds in the following phrases
1. Colonel Pollard. 2. Inspector Craddock, of Scotland Yard. 3. William the
Conqueror. 4. Edward the Confessor. 5. Peter the Great. 6. John the Baptist. 7.
The River Mississippi. 8. The Black Sea. 9. The hotel "Majestic". 10. The City of
London. 11. The village of Otradnoye. 12. Gorky Street. 13. Piccadilly Circus. 14.
The newspaper "Morning Star". 15. The ship "Queen Mary". 16. Byron, the great
English poet. 17. The Rocky Mountains. 18. Mount Elbrus. 19. Miss Tilda, the
Head Waitress. 20. Stewardess Jane. 21. Lake Ontario. 22. Regent Street. 23. The
Anderson brothers. 24. Mr. Smith, Editor-in-Chief, "Journal of Forestry". 25.
Ronald F. Carster, a mining engineer. 26. The Moskva River.

Exercise 11. All these sentences contain mistakes. Find the mistakes and
rewrite the sentences correctly. In some cases you may need to add, remove
or change words; in others, you may need to change the word order. See
Appendix 3
0. The house was draughty and damp cold. The house was draughty, damp and
1. Sylvia had a warm, gentle but friendly personality.
2. They've just bought a little Persian beautiful cat.
3. That documentary about racism was truly horrified.
4. This was the taken route by the original explorers.
5. The wealthies seem to have all the power in our capitalist societies.
6. The book is bound to appeal to fascinated by crime readers.
7. We comforted the afraid children after their terrifying ordeal.
8. On many questions my father and I have opinions opposite.
9. They've chosen a blue yellow colour scheme for their kitchen.
10. The injured bird appeared to have a breaking wing.
11. The boat has an aluminium and glass-fibre unique hull.
12. I'm afraid the city was noisy though overcrowded.
13. A new form of licensing is the proposed by parliament solution.
14. No punishment is severe enough for the responsible person for these crimes.
15. We are an action group acting on behalf of parents who are lone.
16. It was difficult because we had to choose between two alike alternatives.
17. Tall anyone will find these seats cripplingly uncomfortable.
18. Living in Scotland viewers may experience poor reception due to weather
19. Karen found her new job to be well-paid and challenged.
20.The movie is a moving fast account of events during the Gulf War.

Exercise 12. Indicate the correct position for the adjective or phrase in
brackets, as in the example. The word the adjective/phrase describes is
0. There was nothing in the book. (original)
1. Many of the portraits are in the Prado Museum. (painted by El Greco)
2. There was something about her behaviour. (inexplicable)
3. They gave an explanation which simply served to confuse the jury.
4. I‘m afraid six o‘clock is the only appointment. (available)
5. The state of affairs is unlikely to continue for much longer. (present)
6. I‘m afraid the person is on holiday at the moment. (responsible for
7. They‘ve started having late night parties in the apartment. (opposite)
8. Anyone would be deeply offended by that harrowing documentary.
9. Don‘t worry about getting receipts, the amounts are very small. (concerned)
10. Flower buds often turn black and rot away. (damaged by frost)

Exercise13. Comment upon the position and the order of the attributes
and say where it can be changed. See Appendix 3
1. In the rich brown atmosphere peculiar to back rooms in the mansion of a
Forsyte the Rembrandtesque effect... was spoiled by the moustache...
(Galsworthy) 2. In front of her on a low mosaic table was the tray of drinks
and three glasses. (Murdoch) 3. We simply couldn't conduct our business, my
dear young man, without scrupulous honesty in everybody. (Galsworthy) 4.
When her cry was over Dulcie got up and took off her best dress, and put on
her old blue kimono. (O. Henry) 5. On the third finger, set in a gold ring,
was the great white sapphire. (Murdoch) 6. Henry Ogden wore finger-rings and
a big gold watch and careful neckties. (O. Henry) 7. He looked in at a place on
the way. "H'm! In perfect order of the eighties, with a sort of yellow oilskin
paper on the walls." (Galsworthy) 8. Ting-a-ling gave it a slight lick with his
curly blackish tongue. (Galsworthy) 9. Now and then Liz hummed bars of
foolish little songs. (O. Henry) Sensitive, imaginative, affectionate boys get a
bad time at school... (Galsworthy) 11. A little unsteadily but with watchful
and brilliant eyes Liz walked up the avenue. (O. Henry) 12. Her mother was
speaking in her low, pleasing, slightly metallic voice — one word she caught:
„Demain". (Galsworthy) 13. He put his packet of easy vegetables very
deliberately on the new violet tablecloth, removed his hat carefully, and
dabbled his brow, and wiped out his hat brim with an abundant crimson and
yellow pocket handkerchief. (Wells) 14. Then there was a moment of absolute
silence. (Douglas) 15. Antonia stood on the thick black rug by the fire.

Exercise 14. Arrange the attributes in their proper order. See

Appendix 3
1. Alongside, in the… water, weeds, like yellow snakes were writhing and
nosing with the ______ current. (green, deep) (Galsworthy) 2. The marqueterie
cabinet was lined with __________ plush, full of family relics, (red, dim)
(Galsworthy) 3. In ________ slippers and an ________ coat Keith Darrant sits
sleep. (red, Turkish; old, velvet, brown) (Galsworthy) 4. He, alone, perhaps, of
painters would have done justice to Annette in her ______ dress. (lacy, black)
(Galsworthy) 5. Ting-a-ling did not stir. ―You take me for a _____ dog, sir!‖
his silence seemed to say. (English, common) (Galsworthy) 6. This letter, with
a _______ border and seal, was accordingly dispatched by Sir Pitt Crawley to
his brother the Colonel in London. (huge, black) (Thackeray) 7. Behrman in
his _____ shirt, took his seat as the hermit miner on an upturned kettle for a
rock. (blue, old) (O. Henry) 8. The next day came the ______ bull, drawling
the cart to the office door. (red, little) (O. Henry) 9. He was naked and
painted blue and yellow in stripes a ______ chap. (jolly, little) (Galsworthy)
10. ―You and I,‖ the little dog seemed saying with his ______ stare ―object.‖
(little, Chinese) (Galsworthy)

7.3. The Adverbial Modifier

Exercise 1. Point out all the adverbial modifiers; state their types and
the way they are expressed
Model: 1. She turned to give a hard look to her enemy.
(to give a look – adv. mod. of purpose, infinitive)
2. Again unwillingly his mind returned to Maria Estragon.
(again – adv. mod. of frequency, adverb; unwillingly – adv.
mod. of manner, adverb)
3. Her disappointment was too acute for her to proceed further.
(for her to proceed further– adv. mod. of result, for-
A) 1. Under the shadow of the plane trees, in the lamp-light he passed
slowly along the railings of the Green Park. (Galsworthy) 2. Upon the Doctor's
door-steps one day, Paul stood with a fluttering heart, and with his small right
hand in his father's. (Dickens) 3. The three young ladies laughed in musical
echo to his pleasantry... (Joyce) 4. ...and, all about, the meadows shine in purple
gold of buttercups. (Gissing) 5. The sun climbed to the top of the sky. (London)
6. He began to walk with measured steps... (Conrad) 7. Half an hour later they
had started. (Galsworthy) 8. Her hair flowed like a plume after her. (Gordon) 9.
It was pitch-black outside, with the moon not yet up. (Galsworthy) 10. Fleur
rose from her chair — swiftly, restlessly, and flung herself down at a writing-
table. (Galsworthy) 11. All the way home I walked slowly with my nose in that
book, devouring its contents. (Seton-Thompson) 12. He walked rapidly, his
head bent, looking neither to the right nor left. (Galsworthy) 13. Clarice could
hardly contain herself for excitement. (Maurier) 14. High in the cloudless
sunshine a solitary bird, all black, hovered, dropping and soaring above the
same spot with a slight rocking motion of the wings. (Conrad) 15. ...I sat at
work in the school room with the window open. (Bronte)
B) 1. We've never met before, have we? 2. It's bitterly cold outside. 3. They
booked tickets well in advance. 4. The bus went on at full speed without
stopping. 5. I arrived at three o'clock in the afternoon. 6. We were to meet at
Victoria Station the next day. 7. That very evening I came across her at a party
in my friend's house. 8. I stepped aside so as to let her pass. 9. By half past nine
I was at home again. 10. Some time ago Mr. Sherlock Holmes and I spent a few
weeks in one of our great university towns. 11. New stations were set up at the
pole to study meteorological conditions. 12. She stopped to look at the shop
window. 13. I asked the question out of curiosity. 14. With all her faults, she
was quite charming. 15. He can't have left without saying good-bye.

Exercise 2. Point out all the adverbial modifiers; state their types and
the way they are expressed. Translate into Russian
A. 1. Gallio slowly nodded his head. (Douglas) 2. He‘s coming Saturday at
one o‘clock. (Cronin) 3. Lucia stopped them in their tracks with a stern
command. (Douglas) 4. Sally was sitting on the front seat of the buggy, dumb
and unhappy at being ignored. (Prichard) 5. I feel my own deficiencies too
keenly to presume so far. (Shaw) 6. A few miners hung on, hoping the mines
would reopen. (Prichard) 7. The first bar of gold raised hopes sky high.
(Prichard) 8. She had to talk because of her desire to laugh. (Mansfield) 9.
Gallio pushed back his huge chair and rose to his full height as if preparing to
deliver an address. (Douglas) 10. He takes a glass and holds it to Essie to be
filled. (Shaw) 11. Morris was walking too quickly for Sally to keep up with
him. (Prichard) 12. The poor woman was annoyed with Morris for dumping his
wife on her. (Prichard) 13. It was quite a long narrative. (Douglas) 14. Of
course Laura and Jose were far too grown-up to really care about such things.
(Mansfield) 15. Now and then Gavin would stop to point out silently some
rarity. (Cronin)
B. 1. At the top of the stairs she paused to wave to him. (Douglas) 2.
Marcellus accepted this information without betraying his amazement.
(Douglas) 3. Having knocked on his door, she firmly entered Grandpa's room.
(Cronin) 4. After waiting for a few minutes, he marched up the steps, closely
followed by Demetrius. (Douglas) 5. Why do you always look at things with
such dreadfully practical eyes? (London) 6. David appeared in the open door,
one hand clutching a sheaf of bills, under his other arm an account book.
(Stone) 7. That night I could scarcely sleep for thinking of it. (Cronin) 8. She
did feel silly holding Moon's hand like that. (Mansfield) 9. Then Gallio cleared
his throat, and faced his son with troubled eyes. (Douglas) 10. We have some
exceptionally fine roses this year. (Douglas)

Exercise 3. Analyse the adverbial modifiers

1. Lucian and his brothers were waiting in the courtyard to receive him, the
sun shining on their bare heads. 2. The guest embraced Lucian warmly and
turned to be presented to the brothers. 3. An hour later she met him on the
terrace. 4. She put her hands before her eyes, rose slowly and tremblingly and
walked out of the open French window on to the lawn outside. 5. She walked
across the lawn without looking back at the house. 6. At that moment she saw
him standing at a little distance under one of the trees, the back turned towards
her. 7. They had got the boat out shortly before midnight. 8. She frowned
considering the question. 9. The night was too black and thick for them to notice
much. 10. It all happened very fast. 11. The owners of the house had moved out,
leaving the doors and windows unlocked. 12. He ate his food slowly,
mechanically, still thinking of Angie's words. 13. If warned in time Louis would
not be dangerous. 14. Angel looked at him steadily, trying to make him drop
his eyes. 15. The others looked at him pityingly, understanding that he was
Charley's only friend. 16. He was leaning against the wall as though waiting for
a friend to come. 17. He stepped back immediately, stammering an apology. 18. I
could easily swim a mile in this calm warm sea. 19. She continued to stare in
silence as if too astonished to speak. 20. Alter Bart's coming things became
more lively. 21. Having no place to go he drove home. 22. The boy was visible
below, the younger child still trotting behind him. 23. He was still sitting there
with the newspaper raised like a shield between him and the world. 24. The path
being very narrow and slippery, we were forced to dismount. 25. Having
changed her mind once, she could not be trusted not to do it again.
Exercise 4. Expand the following simple sentences by choosing adverbial
modifiers from the given lists. Supply as many versions of expansion for
each sentence as you can. Think of your own adverbial expansions for the
Place: through the forest, by the open window, all over the world, high
up in the sky, in the mountains, over there, down the hill, along the quay, up
and down the lane, under the poplars. Time: until the end of the
performance, on that memorable day, after the wedding party, in a moment,
on arrival, from that time on, while in town, before long, last month, next year,
in the past, in the future, only then. Manner and comparison: in a
different way, laughing heartily, as if asking for permission, with a happy
smile, in a friendly planner, unlike herself, as never before, as if in passing,
unequivocally, as cautiously as possible, not so comfortable as expected, as
though, as frightened by something, as clumsily as could be imagined,
relying on one's own resources, abruptly, thoroughly. Attendant
circumstances: unexpectedly, with a loud laugh, smoking a pipe, with an
outstretched hand, without a greeting, chatting uninterruptedly, without
noticing him, in desperate conditions, without any outside help, with all that
noise going on around them, with his face turned to the east. Condition: in
case of his refusal, if prepared beforehand, in the event of failure, if driven
by circumstances, but for your help, in case of missing the train, given the
necessary knowledge, without their permission, but for Captain Brown, but
for the stormy sea, in case of emergency. Concession: in spite of their
objections, for all his remonstrances, whatever the decision, even if so,
even in case of their disagreement, no matter how late, notwithstanding the
differences of opinion, though temporarily, if but superficially, however
clumsily, if no quite distinctly. Cause: with your excellent knowledge of
people, for want of competent advice, because of her wish to get there, just
because of that, in default of the document, remembering the note,
submitting to her insistence, for that reason, having spent a sleepless night.
Purpose: in order to demonstrate its use, to be freed from the obligation, so
as not to show one‘s disappointment, in order to help them with their
training, so as to give him a good example, to get there ahead of the others,
in order to defend themselves, not to be mocked by the mob. Result: to
tiresome to be entertaining, strong enough to be his rival, clever enough to
understand their predicament, sufficient to make one cry, not comfortable
enough to give us pleasure, too rude to be funny, not so lucky as to catch the
morning train, too abstract to be convincing, too quarrelsome to inspire
1. Tell them the whole story. 2. I would join in the conversation. .3.
They will be back by the weekend. 4. I shall be with you. 5. You may do it.
6. She must consult an eye specialist. 7. The idea may seem original. 8. Mr.
Stone changed the subject. 9. There will be much fun. 10. We would have
been drowned. 11. The picture was fixed on the wall. 12. The plane will take
off. 13. The street is entirely reconstructed. 14. Ned will return, too. 15.
She will be allowed to stay. 16. The answer was in the negative. 17. They
would have accepted the invitation. 18. It makes no difference. 19. The
teacher will be talking to us. 20. I'll need your advice. 21. The scene is set.
22. We heard voices. 23. Let him check the engine. 24. The letter was not
sent. 25. Jacob told me so. 26. This style will become her. 27. Do as I ask
you. 28. The lecture notes will be left unfinished. 29. John wouldn't know
what to answer. 30. They strolled along the lane.

Exercise 5. Comment upon the position of the adverbials. Say whether

they can be placed differently
1. She turned away and pulled off her overcoat with a sudden gesture
and went to the side table where the drinks and the glasses stood.
(Murdoch) 2. She flattered me and lavishly displayed for my pleasure
all her-charms and accomplishments. (Eliot) 3. I want to get away from
home for a time for a certain reason. (Dreiser) 4. How long do you
remain in town? (Wilde) 5. Once inside the prison yard, Zanders turned
to the left into a small office. (Dreiser) 6. In the driving-seat, with his
head fallen sideways so that he was almost toppling out on to the road,
was Calvin Blick. (Murdoch) 7. He looked at her more than once, not
stealthily or humbly, but with a movement of hardy, open observation.
(Ch. Bronte) 8. Aileen blazed at once to a furious heat. (Dreiser) 9. She
[Savina] had just arrived home. (Wilson) 10. Wear i l y he dropped off his
horse, made his way to his workshop, saddlebag over his shoulder.
(Slone) 11. Stanley, not once did you pull any wool over this boy's eyes.
(Murdoch) 12. His face for the moment was flushed and swollen with
anger. (Dreiser) 13. Only sometimes in dreams did I experience certain
horrors, glimpses of a punishment which would perhaps yet find its
hour. (Murdoch) 14. Every afternoon he discovered afresh that life was
beastly. (Wells) 15. Then the heart of Polly leapt, and the world b lazed
up to wonder and splendour. (Wells) 16. And for all his attempts at self-
reproach and self-discipline he felt at bottom guiltless. (Wells) 17.
Johnson was off duty that morning, and devoted the time very
generously to the admonitory discussion of Mr. Polly's worldly outlook.
(Wells) 18. Never had she experienced such a profound satisfaction of
anger and hatred. (Murdoch) 19. To know a man we must know his guts
and blood. Never have I seen the inside of a man. (Stone)

Exercise 6a. Put the adverbs given in brackets in their proper place
1. You are walking for me (too fast). 2. He thinks he is right
(always). 3. She misses her lessons (rarely). 4. We work by day (generally).
5. I go there (sometimes). 6. You may take my books (always). 7. We are
late (seldom). 8. I have met such people (often). I have heard of that
accident (never). 10. Are you in time (always)? 11. Have you spoken to
the secretary (already)? 12. Do you go there (sometimes)? 13. Would you
have recognized me (ever)? 14. The weather looks promising (today). 15. It
was bitterly cold (yesterday). 16. I believed my ears (hardly). 17. He is
ready (quite). 18. He has studied the subject (deeply). 19. At last he was
silent knowing what to answer (hardly). 20. I told you to speak about it
(never). 21. We left (immediately, there). 22. He came (very early,
here). 23. I can understand what he says (never). 24. I told him my opinion
(frankly). 25. We felt at home (soon, entirely). 26. Do you read the daily
papers (always)? 27. You will find him at work (often, late, at night).
Exercise 6b. Rewrite the following sentences, putting the adverbs in
brackets in the correct position
Example: She has got a place in the shortlist. (definitely)
She has definitely got a place in the shortlist.
1. I thought his performance was good. (pretty)
2. The patient‘s body is now entirely free of symptoms. (almost)
3. These days I take my health much more seriously. (probably)
4. She‘s my worst enemy and I don‘t like her. (really)
5. Rejected, Harriet turned to food for comfort. (emotionally)
6. I bumped into your brother at the supermarket. (incidentally)
7. I understood everything because the teacher answered the question.

Exercise 7. Insert the required prepositions (making prepositional

adverbial modifiers)
1. The summer night was hot, so hot and still that — every open window
came in but hotter air. (Galsworthy) 2. — the top of the third flight she paused
— breath, and holding on —the banister, stood listening. (Galsworthy) 3.
Sabina got — the taxi and he followed her. (M. Wilsоn) 4. Larry came — lunch
— the appointed time... (Maugham) 5. She was sitting idly — the corner of the
sofa, her favourite seat. (Galsworthy) 6. "Won't you sit down —a minute?"
(Maugham) 7. "When I came back — France they all wanted me to go —
college." (Maugham) 8. Young Jolyon took his seat there, too, — the pear-tree
that bore no fruit. (Ga1swоrthy) 9. — a transparent blue evening — early April,
he was riding home—the laboratory. (M. Wilson) 10. There was nothing the
boy could do but run — the shelter of an old oak that stood — the edge of the
river. (Jerome) 11. It rained — three days. (Hemingway) 12. The storm died —
the distance and the boys returned — the camp a good deal frightened. (Jerome)
13. The sunlight still lowered — the plane-trees, and — the breeze their broad
leaves shone and swung... (Galsworthy) 14. One week's end Jude was as usual
walking — his aunt's — Marygreen... (Hardy) 15. — a long and dangerous
illness, he had been ordered to avoid the English winter... (Galsworthy) 16. — a
few days I had so far recovered my health that I could sit up all day, and walk
out sometimes. (Bronte) 17. ...he rose, and stood — the window looking down
— the little walled strip of garden... (Galsworthy) 18. "Then I will say nothing,
and you shall judge — yourself, sir." (Bronte) 19. Philip drew a large miniature-
case — his pocket, and opened it. (E1iоt) 20. Adele was leading me — the hand
— the room. (Bronte)

Exercise 8. Translate into English paying attention to adverbial modifiers

of different types
1. В ту же секунду прозвучал выстрел. 2. Вещи лежат вон в том углу
около этажерки. 3. В случае отказа обратитесь к заведующему. 4. Если не
завтра, то встретимся в пятницу. 5. Докладчик замолчал совершенно
неожиданно. 6. Приготовьте все приборы согласно инструкции. 7.
Несмотря на трудности, задание было выполнено в срок. 8. Именно там я
и встретил Николая. 9. Для этого он и вызвал нас. 10. Если бы не Сережа,
я бы не догадался. 11. При необходимости справься по таблице. 12. Из-за
дождя игру пришлось прервать. 13. Володя слишком ленив, чтобы стать
отличником. 14. Сразу же по приезду она позвонила Алексею. 15. Его
лицо потемнело, как туча. 16. При шторме держите дверь рубки запертой.
17. Тропа извивалась, как змея. 18. Мяч пролетел мимо ворот, хоть и
близко к штанге. 19. Именно так и должен был поступить честный
человек. 20. Помня наш уговор, я не стал возражать ему.

Exercise 9. Expand the following noun-phrases by adverbs of degree listed

Very, perfectly, quite, fairly, astonishingly, awfully, rather, more or less,
surprisingly, entirely, completely, greatly, hardly, intolerably, considerably,
comparatively, sufficiently, absolutely.
1. An easy excuse, 2. a lively talk, 3. a devoted friend, 4. shabby clothes,
5. a friendly smile, 6. a masterly stroke, 7. a tall poplar, 8. vast fields, 9. a
plump woman, 10. an unperturbed expression, 11. a beaming face, 12. wise
words, 13. good advice, 14. a strange behaviour, 15. a far-fetched excuse,
16. a mad idea, 17. an accurate calculation, 18. a catchy tune, 19.
encouraging news, 20. powerful engines, 21. a lame explanation, 22. expert
cooking, 23. abundant crops, 24. worn-out trousers, 25. a dull face, 26. an
overcast sky, 27. stormy weather, 28. her neat handwriting, 29. our past
pleasures, 30. an innocent smile, 31. an enthusiastic approval, 32. a
voluntary act, 33. profound satisfaction, 34. an unruly child, 35. a fine

Exercise 10. Translate the following sentences into English. Make up 15

Place: где-то вблизи, очень далеко отсюда, где мы никогда не бывали,
на перекрестке, везде, через дорогу, по ту сторону площади, на четвертой
полке снизу, откуда-то, за облаками, не доходя до озера, в самом углу, в
музее истории, на той же странице, через парадную дверь, в вагоне
курьерского поезда, над головами собравшихся, среди снегов Антарктиды,
в бурных водах океана.
Time: очень давно, позавчера, через две недели, с того самого вечера,
сию секунду, никогда, до бесконечности, всегда, через неделю в это же
время, в древности, никогда ранее, только тогда, по приходе, по прибытии
к месту назначения, в этот миг, в течение всего года, каждые три дня, с
самого начала, с тех самых пор.
Manner: громким голосом, по инструкции, хором, украдкой, нежно,
привычным способом, как никогда, согласно вашим указаниям, как
скрипка, совсем не так, подобно буре, с грохотом, устало, как будто
примирившись с неизбежным, вне себя от счастья.
Comparison: как цветок, как будто нехотя, как на войне, как в
самолете, как будто в приключенческом фильме, как будто по
принуждению, как в темном лесу, как после тяжѐлого рабочего дня, как
будто в пустыне, как будто нарочно; не так любезно, как прежде; удобнее,
чем на поезде; словно во сне.
Attendant circumstances: широко раскрыв глаза, одновременно
поправляя прическу, не поднимая глаз, переходя улицу, стоя на ветру,
держа оружие наготове, перебирая струны, с добродушной улыбкой, с
изменившимся лицом, со слезами на глазах, не переставая разговаривать,
широко расставив ноги, вздохнув, с книгой на коленях.
Condition: в случае опасности, при необходимости, если бы не эта
встреча, при его помощи, в. вашем присутствии, при таком условии, если
бы не Надя, если так, допуская вашу заинтересованность, .если бы не их
Concession: несмотря ни на что, вопреки их советам, хоть и издалека,
пусть изредка, при всех его удачах, при всем том, тем не менее, пусть и
нехотя, хотя и не совсем точно, несмотря на их возражения, вопреки
предсказаниям, при всей вашей осмотрительности, волей-неволей, как бы
то ни было.
Cause: из-за его упрямства, в силу обстоятельств, перед лицом
опасности, понимая необходимость, подчиняясь уговорам товарищей, из
уважения к вам, не имея при себе денег, вспомнив о свидании, помня это
правило, с его сноровкой, по этой причине, усвоив правила.
Purpose: чтобы не опоздать на самолет, для удовольствия, чтобы
увидеть этого актера, для развития навыков речи, для быстрого разведения
огня, чтобы погреться, чтобы не вызвать ее раздражения чтобы
помириться с ними, для нашего общего блага, для мира на земле.
Result: достаточно долго, чтобы утомиться; слишком хорошо, чтобы
было правдой; слишком ветрено, чтобы выйти под парусом; именно такой,
чтобы удовлетворить покупателя; достаточно, чтобы понять; чересчур
громко, чтобы было приятно.

Exercise 11. Underline the correct form in italics

Example: I haven‘t seen that much of them late/lately.
1. You‘re bound to be promoted; the boss thinks very high/highly of you.
2. The elephant trek took us deep/deeply into the rainforest.
3. In our school fifty roughly/ roughly fifty students have mobile phones.
4. As we descended the hill the car began to go more fast/faster.
5. I‘ve had a lot of insomnia recently. I only slept yesterday/Yesterday I only
slept four hours.
6. Weekly I get paid/I get paid weekly, so I can pay the rent on Saturday.
7. Here lies the tomb/The tomb here lies of Sir Jasper Willoughby.
8. The train strike won‘t affect her, she arrives usually/usually arrives by

9. Liz isn‘t our most punctual member of staff, she is often/often is late for
10. I‘m afraid that we still don’t/don’t still know his name.
11. You‘ll never get your money back because the company isn‘t trading
any longer/any longer trading.
12. My parents aren‘t very sociable, in fact they go out hardly ever/hardly
ever go out.
13. I‘m sorry that the kids badly behaved/behaved badly while you were
14. He slapped him friendly/in a friendly way on the back.
15. Does that night go direct/directly or is there a stopover?
16. Many of the senior staff are right/rightly concerned about their pensions.
17. There‘s been a lot of talk about European integration late/lately.
18. Our new cellphone fits easy/easily into the average-sized pocket.
19. The path leads straight/ straightly to the front door.
20. Healthy/Healthwise, stress is probably the most serious problem facing
people today.

Exercise 12. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning
to the first sentence. You must use between three and six words, including the
word given in bold. This word must not be altered in any way. The exercise
begins with an example (0)
0 Karen did really well in the test.
highly Karen was highly successful in the test.
1. The car started to accelerate as we turned the corner.
go As we turned the corner the car ……………………………………… .
2. She really didn‘t expect to win so much money.
quite Winning so much money came ……………………………………… .
3. Evolution is slower during periods of climatic stability.
happens Evolution ………………………... during periods of climatic stability.
4. We didn‘t get there in time to hear the overture.
soon We wanted to hear the overture but we didn‘t get …………………... .
5. More or less three-quarters of our students are fee-paying these days.
roughly These days …………………………………….. our students pay fees.
6. In the USA only a few people have heard of our products.
entirely Our products are ………………………………………… in the USA.
7. She gave such a moving performance that we were virtually in tears.
so She performed …………………………… we were virtually in tears.
8. Mr Skidmore had a deeper involvement than any of the other directors.
most Of all the directors, Mr. Skidmore was ………………………………. .
9. In terms of politics, I felt most of the participants were biased.
politically In my opinion most of the participants ………………………………
10. I couldn‘t have made my answers to the questionnaire any more honest
than I did.
as I answered the questionnaire ………………………………… I could.

Exercise 13. Tick (√) all those adverbs which can complete the sentences
and cross (x) those that cannot. In rare case none of the adverbs will fit
1. Clarice ……………… opened the door to the secret compartment.
A) slowly, B) last week, C) probably.
2. We don‘t ………. know the identity of the masked stranger.
A) still, B) really, C) certainly.
3. You can ………. see the coast from this point.
A) definitely, B) just, C) as well.
4. Our next door neighbours go there.
A) as well, B) hardly ever, C) a lot.
5. …….. the boss gives me a hard time.
A) Every day, B) Daily, C) Sometimes.
6. I get the feeling you haven‘t ………… understood my point.
A) entirely, B) really, C) probably.
7. The public don‘t ………….. respond in the ways advertisers expect them
A) sometimes, B) any longer, C) always.
8.I haven‘t been to the cinema ……………………………………………….
A) yet, B) often, C) very often.
9. Alarming signs of radiation leakage have been ………….. reported
around the power station.
A) often, B) this week, C) always.
10. ………. have I been subjected to such outrageous demands.
A) Never, B) Rarely, C) Frequently.
11. I‘m afraid the bank does not ………….. permit such large overdrafts.
A) generally, B) any longer, C) any more.
12. The patient ……….. reacts to any kind of bright light.
A) badly, B) immediately, C) usually.
13. He plays the saxophone …………………………………………………
A) too, B) quite rarely, C) never.
14. The data from those sensors isn‘t …………………. reliable.
A) absolutely, B) sometimes, C) always.
15. She treats her children …………………………………………………...
A) carefully, B) well, C) badly.

Exercise 14. Rewrite these sentences putting the words and phrases in
brackets in the best order. Note that none of these sentences are emphatic.
The exercise begins with an example (0)
0. My parents (allowed/hardly ever) us to (late/on weekdays/stay up).
My parents hardly ever allowed us to stay up late on weekdays.
1. Taking advantage of a gap between the players. Owen kicked the ball
(into the net/just before half time/skillfully)……………………………………..
2. Foxes (often/be seen/can) scavenging (on the streets of London/at night).
3. David (well/behaves/quite) when he is at home but he (at school/causes
4. The post (arrive/sometimes/on time/doesn‘t) in this part of the city.
5. Jennifer (immediately/didn‘t/recognize) the man waving (at the end of the
show/frantically/from the balcony)………………………………………………

8. Word Order

Exercise 1. Comment on the word order and explain the cases of inversion
1. Martin Eden had been mastered by curiosity all his days. (London) 2.
―What did the master say exactly?‖ ―Well, of course, I wasn‘t supposed to
hear.‖ (Christie) 3. Well, come on, shall I go, or shan‘t I? Half past three – it‘s a
good time. (Christie) 4. ―Is Mrs. Oliver at home?‖ asked Rhoda. (Christie) 5.
There was a curious expression on her face – a mingling of grim determination
and of strange indecision. (Christie) 6. Yes, here he was, without Savina, on his
way to total disillusion about the biggest research development of his time.
(Wilson) 7. Suddenly the door opened and admitted the Baron. Followed a
complete and deathlike silence. (Mansfield) 8. But never, never could he have
anticipated that evening, some months after the birth of their child. (Cronin) 9.
However, not for the world would he be different from the others. (Cronin) 10.
Not often did he unbend to his servants, but as the butler tucked the rug round
his knees he spoke to him. (Cronin) 11. This morning, however, he was scarcely
in the mood for one of those long conversations which so often beguiled the
tedious hours. Nor could he bring himself to glance at the lesson books.
(Cronin) 12. Jose did not answer. Fretfully the Consul shifted his position.
(Cronin) 13. So immersed was the little boy that he did not hear the car.
(Cronin) 14. No sooner had they disappeared than Nicholas heard the sound of
clattering footsteps. (Cronin) 15. Not for an instant did he believe that Nicholas
spoke the truth. (Cronin) 16. On they went. Once Alvin let out a sharp
exclamation. (Cronin) 17. He‘d been one of those fair babies that everybody
took for a girl. Silvery fair curls he had, blue eyes and a little freckle like a
diamond on one side of his nose. (Mansfield) 18. Outside, waiting at the back
entrance, was a tall, well-proportioned youth of 19years old. (Cronin) 19. Up
the staircase he went, falling down, picking himself up again, feeling no hurt.
(Cronin) 20. Yet not for the world would he have revealed the strange
inexplicable bitterness which ranked within his breast. (Cronin)

Exercise 2. Translate into English paying attention to specific patterns of

word order
1. Никогда в жизни я не буду брать на себя подобную ответственность
без твоего совета. 2. Только тогда они поняли подлинный смысл всего, что
произошло. 3. В дверях стоял Петр, приветствуя нас всех своей
неотразимой улыбкой. 4. Вот описание тех картин, о которых вы мне
говорили. 5. Вы должны перечитать эту главу с самого начала. – Так я и
сделаю. 6. Налево в углу стоял высокий торшер, а на стене прямо перед
нами висел чудесный персидский ковер. 7. Вон идет управляющий.
Поговорите с ним о вашем деле. 8. Вверх взмыла ракета и рассыпалась
сверкающими звездами в темнеющем небе. 9. Я бы предпочел бифштекс и
чашку кофе. – И я тоже. 10. Не пора ли отказаться от вашей затеи? – А
зачем нам от нее отказываться? 11. Я бы посоветовал рассказать эту
историю Павлику. – Мы ему ее уже рассказали. 12. Вдали, за рядами скал,
было море, сверкающее на утреннем солнце. 13. Лишь в романах можно
встретиться с подобными совпадениями. 14. Я не хочу тратить время на
эту игру. – Я тоже. Пойдем лучше погуляем по набережной.

Exercise 3. Rewrite the jumbled phrases to make sentences with the correct
word order
1. named/Samantha/their first daughter/the couple
2. to stand/when he arrives/visitors/expects/His Excellency
3. to stay/a legal assistant/wouldn‘t like/for long
4. brought/to the team/Amanda/all her expertise
5. has become/a very inexperienced salesman/the Sales Manager
6. into the box/sparkling, diamond encrusted/he placed/18-carat gold
ring/carefully wrapped/the
7. provided/all rubbish/please/in the bins/put
8. let/to/your parents/all-night parties/do/go/you/?
9. the grenade/removed/the paratrooper/the pin/from/carefully
10. so her daughter/the bracelet/bought/for her/Susan liked/it
11. all day long/their resistance/stand/the prisoners/they/to/made/reduce
12. of destruction/all sick/the scenes/us/made/in the film
13. an easy programme/trying/first/recommended/the trainer

Exercise 4. The words in brackets are in the wrong order. Rewrite them in
the correct order
Example When we won the lottery last year,
…we bought our parents a new house……………………………………………
1. In the play, [the/Princess/Duke/really/the/loves], but unfortunately his
love isn‘t reciprocated……………………………………………………………
2. [quote/you/could/provide/a/formal]? If you put it in writing, we‘ll accept
it. ...………………………………………………………………………………
3. [secret/kept/Duncan/to/her/Katharine/marriage/a] for several months
before she dared to tell her parents...……………………………..........................
4. [Bettina/yacht/named/John/the] after his wife, who had recently passed
5. The arrival of the Shakespearean actor
6. The Millers are just leaving.
[will/show/motorway/them/the/you/way/to/the]? You go past the slip road,
don‘t you?...............................................................................................................
7. The children at the party were delighted when
8. The warden told [that/want/see/visitors/prisoner/the/didn‘t/them/the/to].
9. [machine/me/use/show/can/you/how/to/this]? I‘m useless with anything
10. We have to take on the third applicant; [enough/she/well-
11. The new design of the magazine
12. The play was a total disaster! [left/first/act/we/as soon as/over/the/was].

Exercise 5. Put the adverb at the head of the sentence

A. Model: The ball fell down. Down fell the ball.
It fell down. Down it fell.
1. Tom came in. 2. A number of pears fell down. 3. The kittens jumped up.
4. He batted the balloon. It flew off – purple and extravagant. 5. Eliza said good
night and walked quickly away. 6. The rocket flew up. 7. They went out. 8. She
went off into peals of laughter. 9. A shattering peal of thunder blundered
overhead; and the rain came down, slashing and sluicing. 10. They came in,
laughing and shouting.
Put the adverb at the head of the sentence.
B. Model: Tom is there. There is Tom.
He is there. There he is.
1. ―She goes there,‖ said Martin. 2. Her own house was there, at the top the
hill. 3. Ah! And she was here! 4. The morning of his news came then. 5. The
rest of the monkeys came here. 6. Our bus comes now! 7. My brother comes
here. 8. ―He comes here,‖ I said.

Exercise 6. Put the negative or restrictive adverbs at the head of the

A. For example: I have never heard such beautiful music.
Never have I heard such beautiful music.
1. I had hardly finished my translation when the bell rang. 2. He had no
sooner opened the window than a gust of wind scattered his papers on the floor.
3. I have never seen anything like this picture. 4. He had scarcely time to finish
his dinner. 5. He knew little about the conditions of life in that remote region.
B. For example: The children rushed in.
In rushed the children.
1. A bell rang, and the elevator went up to the fourteenth floor. 2. The stone
fell down with a crash. 3. He rushed out.4. The heavy trucks rolled out. 5. They
went in. 6. She went off without waiting for my answer.7. A brook comes now,
and we have to cross it. 8. Your place is there. 9. The secretary of the
commission is here. 10. Our stop comes now. 11. The post office is there. 12. I
am here.

Exercise 7. Put the adverbial group at the head of the sentence

For example: A little house with a flower garden in front of it stood at the
corner of the street.
At the corner of the street stood a little house with a flower garden in front
of it.
1. The singing of the birds could be heard in the growing stillness. 2. A
mountain river, deep and foaming yellow, rushed at the bottom of the valley. 3.
The whistling of a steam engine was heard in the far distance. 4. The sound of a
piano issued from one window. 5. Three cottages with cheerful red windows
stood in an open place amidst the big trees.

Exercise 8. Apply the following statements to new subjects

Model: Arnold‘s father arrived last night. – So did we.
I told her that he was not alone. – Nor was she.
1. She‘s really been wonderful. 2. He used to come to his mother‘s every
day. 3. She was so gay and so natural. 4. I haven‘t seen him yet. 5. We met him
on the stairs. 6. I shall do anything in the world for you. 7. I never saw such a
lot of people. 8. Luke was a man of action. 9. I have still had no word from
them. 10. I shall be all right when I‘ve had something to eat. 11. She‘s only
been here two days. 12. She doesn‘t remember anything about it. 13. She has
not finished her work yet. 14. I was satisfied with his answer. 15. I shall go to
the country tomorrow. 16. She is working hard at her English. 17. They are
organizing a library. 18. She has not spoken to the secretary.19. I have not
understood the rule. 20. He does not speak English.

Exercise 9. Apply the following statements to the same subject

Model: I‘m sure you want to help us to get at the truth. – So do I.
I have no right to ask you anything. – No more you have.
1. I thought he was a very nice dentist. 2. You never thought of meeting him
again. 3. You don‘t want to play with me. 4. My father used to say he was the
ablest man in the party. 5. I hope you had a pleasant journey down from
London. 6. I think he might have done that. 7. You‘ll be leaving us soon, I
suppose. 8. I think he is a very serious person. 9. You don‘t care what he thinks.
10. You might have said that before. 11. You must do exactly what you think
fit. 12. I‘m afraid you didn‘t eat a thing.

Exercise 10. Make the sentences emphatic by using full or partial

inversion if possible
A) 1. He walked round so slowly that it was clear he was seriously ill. 2. He
talked so quickly that nobody could understand him. 3. The radio was turned on
so softly that we couldn‘t hear anything. 4. He spoke to her so coolly that she
got offended. 5. He plays so badly and he looks so wretched.
B) 1. Philip was so irritated that I decided to leave him alone. 2. He felt so
tired that he had to stop a taxi. 3. His voice was so sad that she felt sorry for
him. 4. I‘m so frightfully nervous that I can‘t do anything now. 5. She sounded
so furious that Rowan looked quite startled.
C) 1. As he was brave, as he was full of life, he was not stoical. 2. As June
looked soft, there must be strength in her somewhere. 3. As Scarlett was weak,
she was going home to Tara. 4. She has more sense than June, though she was a
child; more wisdom. 5. The journey next day, though it was short, and the visit
to his lawyer‘s, tired him. 6. Ralph moaned faintly. Though he was tired, he
could not relax.
D) 1. Miss Smith was small and slight and angry. 2. He looked very ill. 3.
Everyone looked so young. 4. He felt extraordinarily helpless. 5. She looked
different and smoother, thought Nicola instantly. 6. She seemed happy, almost
breathless. 7. At the sides and back of his head his hair was thick and grey. 8.
Nora felt indignant at the suggestion that she needed a nurse. 9. He looked
terribly ill, I thought. 10. Aunt Ann turned her old eyes from one to the other.
Her look was indulgent and severe.

Exercise 11. Translate into English

1. Когда уходит поезд в Киев? 2. Разногласия у них были только по
одному пункту. 3. Больше ни одного слова не сказала она по дороге
домой. 4. Он всегда был очень терпелив с детьми. 5. Не успели мы войти в
комнату, как начался дождь. 6. Когда я подошла к опушке леса, я увидела
огромный зеленый луг. Никогда я не видела такого чудесного зрелища. 7.
Как ни трудна была книга, мы читали ее с удовольствием. 8. Я так устала
после экскурсии, что не могла идти в театр. Напрасно сестра пыталась
уговорить меня, я не соглашалась. 9. Вот идет мой автобус. До свидания.
10. Такой интересный был спектакль, что мы жалели, когда он кончился.
11. Было бы у меня больше времени, я бы стала изучать итальянский язык.
12. Только когда она была уже в поезде, она вспомнила, что оставила
зонтик дома.

Exercise 12. Make these sentences more emphatic by “fronting” part of

them. Do not use any additional words
0. I can‘t stand hypocrisy………………...… Hypocrisy I can’t stand!...........
1. Though he was exhausted, he managed to reach the finishing line.
2. My life‘s ambition is to make the pilgrimage to
3. The ninth symphony is his most sublime
4. I really can‘t accept that proposal.
5. An enormous gold Buddha was placed on the altar.
6. The Cresta Run is much more challenging for the dedicated skier.
7. Several sharp criticisms of ministerial conduct were also included in the
8. An old man was lying in the shop doorway.
9. It proved impossible to get to the bottom of the mystery.
10. The pilot couldn‘t regain control because the damage was so severe.

Exercise 13. In twelve of the following sentences there are mistakes with
word order and missing auxiliaries. Tick (v) the correct sentences and then
find the mistakes and correct them
1. They‘re going to complain about this and so are we.
2. Little we knew the full extent of his involvement in the fraud.
3. The sales director is resigning and so most of the marketing team are.
4. I tried to get there by nine, only was there a traffic jam on the motorway.
5. Over there stood the three-meter tall statue of Lenin.
6. The embassy refuses to intervene. Well, so it be.
7. Tomorrow the first day is of the rest of your life.
8. Long live the glorious republic!
9. No way is the boss treating me like that and getting away with it!
10. Under no circumstances latecomers will be admitted to the auditorium.
11. Armando and Josepha are quite destitute and such the condition is of
many of the refugees.
12. Now the time is for wise investors to think seriously about buying
Treasury Bonds.
13. Rarely had we encountered such friendly and positive attitudes.
14. On look – here comes the procession at last.
15. Not since Kubrick‘s 2001 a direction has made such an intellectually
challenging sci-fi movie.
16. The government‘s proposals are unrealistic, as those are of the
17. Opposite this house ran the old city walls.
18. Only with the greatest of luck he managed to escape from the rising
flood waters.
19. May John and Carol have a long and happy life together.
20. No doubt didn‘t he realize the consequences of his actions.

Exercise 14. Rewrite the replies in these mini-dialogues to make them

more emphatic by using suitable structures (cleft sentences, fronting or
inversion) to emphasize the underlined items. The exercise begins with two
examples (0) and (00)
0. ―That dress looks expensive.‖
―No, the shoes were expensive, not the dress.‖
………―No, it’s the shoes that were expensive, not the dress.”………………
00. ―Did Darren help you with the decorating?‖
― No, he did the wallpapering, nothing else.‖
………..―No, the only thing he did was the wallpapering.”…………………
1. ―Jerry says Liz is going to quit her job at the bank.‖
―I find that really hard to believe.‖
2. ―You look as though you‘re destroying that rose bush.‖
―No, I‘m just cutting off the dead flower heads.‖
3. ―Are you sure you brought everything with you?‖
―We left the personal stereo behind, that‘s all.‖
4. ―Didn‘t you own a Volkswagen Golf once?‘
―No, my brother owned one.‖
5. ―He said the speech would shake them up a bit.‖
―And it certainly did shake them up.‖
6. ―I thought the car chase and the scene in the airport were brilliant.‖
―But the explosion on the jumbo jet was best of all.‖
7. ―I think we should try to give them first aid.‖
―No, we should wait for the ambulance to arrive.‖
8. ―So what was so awful about the view from your hotel room?‖
―Well, a huge electricity pylon was standing right outside the bedroom
9. ―You‘ve always wanted to buy a cottage in the country, haven‘t you?‖
―Yes, my greatest ambition has always been to own a cottage.‖
10. ―You‘re all leaving on Saturday, aren‘t you?‖
―No, we‘re going on Friday.‖

Exercise 15. Use an appropriate word to complete the inversions in a-h

a) No sooner………………the firemen extinguished one forest fire than
another started.
b) Never before …………..I been so petrified as when I did a parachute jump.
c) I suspect that only much later from now……………………..we find out the
cause of the explosion.
d) Little…………………we know at the moment where the ability to clone
humans might lead.
e) Under no circumstances……………………….passengers permitted to
smoke on the flight.
f) At no time ………………you leave your luggage unattended at airports.
g) Rarely…………………….anyone have witnessed such an amazing sight as
the view from space.
h) Not until they were sure that everyone was safe…………………the soldiers
leave the building.

1. The Compound Sentence

Exercise 1. Consider the following compound sentences. Comment on

their structure and meaning. Distinguish between syndetic and asyndetic
connection. Translate into Russian
1. His idea was to ease the tension, but Mrs Clemence threw him a glance of
reproach. 2. Her step was more dancing than walking and, in spite of her black
dress, there was nothing but joy in her whole attitude. 3. There's something
awfully consoling about you, you make things so simple. 4. There was nothing
offensive in her words, but he put his own construction on her change of tone.
5. He had no children or near relations to be spared, so he did not fear publicity.
6. I quite agree with you, the villain ought to be punished, but the cost has got
to be reckoned. 7. He ripped open the envelope, and a thick enclosure fell out
on the table. 8. Either he had recovered from his panic of the night, or he
pretended to have. 9. The blue upholstery won't go with the yellow stair-carpet,
nor will it go with the brown woodwork. 10. I offered him my handkerchief and
he accepted it with fervent protestations of thanks. 11. A shadow of a grin
showed itself on the man's lips, however he remained silent. 12. His remarks
were witty, or so they seemed to us. 13. You don't seem to remember anybody's
name, it is so irritating sometimes. 14. Either he didn't read the document
carefully, or he didn't see the implication of it. 15. There were a few moments
of suspense, then he turned round, saw me and came straight over. 16. The
dancing pairs paid no attention to Beatrice sitting with her aunts and uncles, nor
did it matter, to her. 17. The period secretaire wanted repolishing, and so did the
bookstand in the corner. 18. He tapped his forehead significantly, so we
changed the topic at once. 19. I didn't go into all the particulars of the case,
neither did they want me to. 20. She might have invited us to sit, but she didn't.

Exercise 2. Point out the coordinate clauses (mark the elliptical ones) and
comment on the way they are joined
1. It was high summer, and the hay harvest was almost over. (Lawrence) 2.
All the rooms were brightly lighted, but there seemed to be complete silence in
the house. (Murdoch) 3. One small group was playing cards, another sat about a
table and drank, or, tiring of that, adjourned to a large room to dance to the
music of the victrola or player-piano. (Dreiser) 4. His eyes were bloodshot and
heavy, his face a deadly white, and his body bent as if with age. (Dickens) 5.
He only smiled, however, and there was comfort in his hearty rejoinder, for
there seemed to be a whole sensible world behind it. (Priestley) 6. You'll either
sail this boat correctly or you'll never go out with me again. (Dreiser) 7. Time
passed, and she came to no conclusion, nor did any opportunities come her way
for making a closer study of Mischa. (Murdoch) 8. She often enjoyed Annette‘s
company, yet the child made her nervous. (Murdoch) 9. She ran through
another set of rooms, breathless, her feet scarcely touching the surface of the
soft carpets; then a final doorway suddenly and unexpectedly let her out into the
street. (Murdoch) 10. It was early afternoon, but very dark outside, and the
lamps had already been turned on. (Murdoch) 11. A large number of expensive
Christmas cards were arrayed on the piano; while upon the walls dark
evergreens, tied into various clever swags of red and silver ribbon, further
proclaimed the season. (Murdoch) 12. Brangwen never smoked cigarettes, yet
he took the one offered, fumbling painfully with thick fingers, blushing to the
roots of his hair. (Lawrence)

Exercise 3. Analyse the means of connecting coordinate clauses in the

following compound sentences
1. Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune, but
Forsyte girls had become engaged to such before, and had actually married
them. (Glsw.) 2. She drew the curtain back, and the room was flooded with
gold. 3. I want to go very much, still I do not care to go out in the rain. 4. The
moon went down, the stars grew pale, the cold day broke; the sun rose. (Ch.D.)
5. Not all the necessary things were bought for the trip, therefore we had to
postpone our departure for several days. 6. A little nervous and depressed he
turned to retrace his steps, for all at once he felt himself very much of a nobody.
(Th.D.) 7. How glad I am to have met you then, otherwise we might have lost
sight of each other. 8. Trench, either you travel as a gentleman, or you travel
alone. (B.Sh.) 9. To know things by name is one thing; to know them by seeing
them, quite another. (H.W.) 10. She never wrote to Dick, nor did he write to
her. (W.M.)

Exercise 4. Define the meaning of the connectives used to join the clauses
in the compound sentences and write them out under the following
headings. Describe the semantic relations between the clauses joined
asyndetically in the same terms

Number Connectives Asyndetic

of coordination
sentence copulative disjunctive adversative causal- (semantic
consecutive relations)

1. In due season the harness began to break once every five minutes, and
the driver vowed that the wheels would give way also. (Kipling) 2. A few
lads hung about old Thomas' fish shop at the top end, but otherwise the street
was deserted. (Cronin) 3. Either you travel as a gentleman or you travel
alone. (B. Shaw) 4. Usually David was uncommunicative about his work, but
today this reserve had gone; he was gay and open. (Cronin) 5. He had all the
ordinary routine of the practice on his hands, yet somehow he got through
with it, then turned exultantly to his typhoid cases. (Cronin) 6. Besides, winter
was coming, the papers were announcing hardships, and there was a general
feeling of hard times in the air or, at least, he thought so. (Dreiser) 7. I
must have told him about it sixty times at least, and still he doesn't bring it.
(Mansfield) 8. He stood at the hall door turning the ring upon his little finger
while his glance travelled cooly, deliberately over the round table and basket-
chairs scattered about the glassed verandah. (Mansfield) 9. Not only did he
speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily, and there were many new
words in his vocabulary. (London) 10. Miss Fulton did not look at her; but
then she seldom did look at people directly. (Mansfield) 11. Round his neck he
wore a silk scarf; his head, with his hair brushed back, was bare. (Mansfield)
12. We cannot go upstairs, we are too tired. (Mansfield) 13. But most of all he
would miss Celia, for they had done many things together, shared so much
fun and excitement. (Abrahams) 14. The grass was drenching wet, so he
descended to the road. (Galsworthy) 15. There was no news, nevertheless
she went on hoping. (Hornby)

Exercise 5. Combine the simple sentences into compound sentences

using various connectives as suggested in brackets
1. The boat seemed likely to sink. He did not lose courage. He brought the
boat safely to land (однако, все же, и). 2. She must have been away. Nobody
answered the bell (поскольку, поэтому). 3. At first he intended walking
home. Then, because of the late hour, he decided to take the tram (но). 4. He is
not persevering enough. He is not bright. He failed at the examination (также
не, следовательно, поэтому). 5. We urged him to take her advice. He
persisted in doing things in his own way (тем не менее). 6. The weather was
bad. It threatened to become worse. We stayed at home. We had no desire to
be drenched by the rain (более того, поэтому, так как). 7. The proposed
resolution could not be agreed upon. It had to be dropped (следовательно).
8. You are not acquainted with the facts. You would have changed your mind
(иначе). 9. He is seventy years old. His eyesight is excellent (однако, все
же). 10. He uses the laboratory. He has a good pronunciation (поэтому). 11.
There were three men against him. He kept his courage to the last (однако).
12. The younger brother is always playing with his toys. The elder is busy
working about the house (в то время как).

Exercise 6. Join the following pairs of simple sentences to make them
clauses of a compound sentence
1. In the morning Henry cooked the breakfast. Bill was still sleeping. 2. It is
getting dark and windy. We had better return home. 3. Take a lantern. We shall
not be able to find our way. 4. Be careful. You may slip and injure yourself. 5. I
looked in all directions. No house was to be seen. 6. It was b it t e r l y cold. We
did not go out. 7. Take your raincoat with you. It may rain. 8. Your arguments are
strong. They do not convince me. 9. He is a good scientist. He is also a good

Exercise 7. Make up compound sentences according to the patterns

Pattern I

otherwise oblique mood forms of the

or type should/would do (should/
or else would have done)

e.g. He must have followed the doctor‘s prescriptions carefully otherwise he

would not have recovered so soon.
1. She must still be away, otherwise she… 2. The lecture has been
cancelled, otherwise ... 3 . They are at the conference at present, or ... 4. We
were too busy last week, or else… . 5. Probably he did not know about the
meeting, otherwise I ' m sure ... . 6. He described the way very accurately, or
else ... could not have ... .7. I have been to the Tretyakov Gallery quite recently,
otherwise ... . 8. New evidence was supplied before the trial, or else ... . 9.
The number of students attending the seminar is quite considerable,
otherwise ... . 10. ... , or he would have failed at the exam. 11. It is good the
operation was performed without delay, or else ... . 12. ... , or else you
may catch the flu.

Pattern II

a) oblique mood forms of the type but..........

should/would do (should/would have only…….
b) could, might +non-perfect or perfect

e.g. He would have seen us off but unfortunately he was busy.

1. The teacher would have corrected our test, but unfortunately... . 2.
She ... , but quite unexpectedly she must visit her sick aunt. 3. The
student ... , but he was called away that very moment. 4. ... , but
unfortunately he is out. 5. She would be glad to see you, but ... . 6. The
team…, but I regret to say, that the referee was not always fair. 7. The
patient…, only he did not observe the diet. 8. The student could ... , but he
was very nervous and made a few minor mistakes. 9 ... , but he was
delayed in his office. 10. The boy might have taken the first place at the
competition, but it happened ... .

Exercise 8. Translate the text into English paying attention to the use
of connectives in the compound sentences. Retell the text using the same
Перси Биши Шелли (Percy Bysshe Shelley), великий английский поэт-
романтик, родился в 1792 году в Сассексе (Sussex). Он происходил из
богатой аристократической семьи и получил образование в Итоне и
Оксфорде (Eton, Oxford); несмотря на это, с ранних лет он сочувствовал
угнетенным и защищал свободу. Он проучился в Оксфорде недолго, так как
вскоре его исключили за то, что он написал атеистический памфлет
«Неизбежность атеизма» (Necessity of Atheism). Его взгляды и поступки
вызывали возмущение его отца-аристократа: он не только писал
атеистические брошюры, но вдруг в возрасте 19 лет женился на 16-
летней дочери трактирщика, чтобы спасти ее от тирании отца.
Шелли пытался распространять свои радикальные политические взгляды
в речах и памфлетах, а позже стал выражать их в стихах. В королях и
священниках Шелли видел главные препятствия на пути к счастью и
прогрессу и потому страстно поддерживал революционное движение в
разных странах. В «Восстании Ислама» (The Revolt of Islam) он дал
аллегорическую картину французской революции, в то время как в
«Освобожденном Прометее» (Prometheus Unbound) он воспел победу
человека над ложными богами.
Шелли не мог жить в Англии. Власти и общество изгнали его из родной
страны (как раньше изгнали Байрона). Не мог он также воспитывать
своих детей, поскольку его лишили этого права за атеистические
взгляды. Смерть Шелли (1822) была вызвана трагической случайностью: он
утонул во время бури у берегов Италии. Он умер очень молодым, иначе он,
наверное, написал бы еще много прекрасных стихов.
Подобно Байрону, Шелли был предан делу свободы. Но, в
противоположность Байрону, он верил в то, что наступит новый мир, в
котором исчезнет ненависть и восторжествует любовь. Шелли был одним из
немногих поэтов-оптимистов в истории английской литературы. Более
того, он является одним из немногих лириков-оптимистов в мировой
литературе. При жизни Шелли его поэзия не была столь популярна, как

поэзия Байрона; позже, однако, она приобрела не меньшее значение как
для английской, так и для мировой литературы.

2. The Complex Sentence

2.1. Complex Sentences with Subject Clauses

Exercise 1. Analyse the connectives used to join the subject clauses and
write them out under the following headings

Number Connectives Asyndetic

of subordination
sentence conjunctions conjunctive conjunctive
pronouns adverbs

Answer the following questions

1. What is the position of the subject clause in the complex sentence? 2.
What does the sentence begin with in case the subject clause follows the

1. It is probable that you will very shortly hear from us again. (Doyle) 2.
Where he was going was home, and yet he would have to learn the ways of
home. (Abrahams) 3. It was a pity Celia couldn't understand because he did
want her to. (Abrahams) 4. One day after her first week's rehearsal, what she
expected came openly to the surface. (Dreiser) 5. It's funny how anxious
these women are to get on the stage. (Dreiser) 6. It's doubtful whether they
had ever realised that an ending was bound to come. (Galsworthy) 7. Whatever
she has told you is true, sir. (Galsworthy) 8. It 's all a mystery why our
attempts have been unsuccessful. (Hornby) 9. Who her mother was, and how
she came to die in that forlornness, were questions that often pressed on
Eppie's mind. (Eliot) 10. It's a grand thing when you see the working class in
action. (Lindsay) 11. It is the face of a woman with dark hair and eyes and
certainly a pale face; but whether she is pretty or ugly as sin, is more than I can
say. (Greenwood) 12. Always a poor sleeper, it was doubtful if, altogether, he
had more than half a dozen hours of rest. (Cronin) 13. Whoever was last
there had either not had the time, or had forgotten to shut it. (Haggard)
14. It seemed to me I stood by the iron gate leading to the drive. (Du

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences adding subject clauses
M o d e l 1: Why you haven't done it is beyond me.
1. Where ... was not quite clear. 2. What ... is sea air. 3. Which ... is for
you to decide. 4. That ... was quite evident. 5. Whether ... is quite another
matter. 6. Why ... is not known to me. 7. How ... should be settled at
once. 8. Who ... was a question that interested me most. 9. When ... has not
been settled yet. 10. Whoever ... will be welcome.

M о d e 1 2: It is clear that he is going to join us.

1. It is evident why .... 2. It was doubtful whether ... . 3. It is a moot
question if ... . 4 . It was of no importance when ... . 5. It is not decided yet
who... 6. It has been arranged that ... . 7. When will it be announced
where. . . 8. It was very lucky that ... . 9. It is a matter of doubt how . . . .
10. It is not known what ... .11. It is of no consequence whatever ... . 12. It
has been proved that .... .

Exercise 3. Make up complex sentences with subject clauses according to

the patterns

Pattern I

Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

predicate of a) indicative mood

"qualifying" meaning (that) b) should + non-perfect
or perfect infinitive

e. g. a) It is strange that he knows it.

It was strange that he knew it.
b) It is (was) strange that he should know (should have known) it.

1. It is surprising ... . 2. Isn't it curious ... . 3. It seems remarkable . . . . 4. It

is proper .... 5. It seemed right (wrong) ... . 6. Is it natural (unnatural) ... . 7.
Isn't it fortunate (unfortunate) ... .8 It was most usual (unusual) ... .9. It
looked funny ... . 10. It is quite evident ... . 11. Isn't it wonderful ... 12. It
is doubtful ... . 13. It is (was) a pity ... . 14. It was a shame ... . 15. It
seemed a surprise ... . 16. Isn't it a pity ... . 17. It surprises me ... . 18. It
annoyed him ... . 19. It amazed her ... . 20 Did it strike her as unusual ... .
21. It appeared odd ... didn't it?

P a t t e r n II

Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

predicate expressing possibility or a) indicative mood

impossibility (except in b) should +non-perfect or perfect
affirmative sentences shown in infinitive
Pattern I I I below)

e. g. a) Is it possible that he knows it?

Was it possible that he knew it?
b) Is (was) it possible that he should know (should have known)

1. Is it probable ...? 2 Was it likely ..? 3 It was not possible ... . 4. It is highly
improbable ... 5. It seems unlikely ... . 6 It was not probable ... . 7. It is
absolutely impossible ... .8 Is it really possible ..? 9. It is most unlikely ... .

P a t t e r n III

Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

predicate expressing possibility indicative mood

(in affirmative sentences only)

e. g. It is possible that he will come (may come).

It was possible that he would come (might come).

1. It is quite probable … . 2. It was likely ... . 3. It is possible ... . 4 It seemed

probable to them ... . 5. It is most likely ... . 6. I believe it is very likely ... .

P a t t e r n IV

Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

predicate expressing a) should +non-perfect infinitive
o r der, proposal, request, b) oblique mood forms of the type
arrangement be, speak

e. g. a) It is (was) necessary that he should go there.
b) It is (was) necessary that he go there.

1. It is important ... . 2. It was most vital ... . 3. Isn't it advisable .. .4. It was
imperative ... . 5. It is highly desirable ... . 6. It is suggested ... . 7. It was
proposed .. . 8 Was it required ... . 3. Isn't it demanded ... . 10. It was requested
... . 11. Wasn't it ordered ... 12. It was recommended ... . 13. Was it agreed at the
conference ... . 14. It is arranged ... . 15. It was decided ... . 16. It is his
proposal… . 17. It was her suggestion ... . 18. Is it your request … . 19. It was
the director's order ... . 20 It is my father's will ... .

Pattern V

Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

It is time oblique mood forms of the type were,


e. g. . It is (was) time he were here.

1. It is time . ... 2. Isn't it high time … . 3. Was it about time ... . 4. Suddenly
the visitor rose and said it was time ... . 5. It is about time the children ... .

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using subject clauses

1. Было решено, что вся группа поедет путешествовать вместе. 2.
Вполне вероятно, что вы вскоре получите от нас известие. 3. Странно, что
он хочет присоединиться к нам, он все время нас избегал. 4. Вам уже пора
уходить. 5. Сомнительно, чтобы он вчера туда ходил. 6.То, что я
сказала,— правда. 7. Не может быть, чтобы он прибыл в Ленинград
раньше сестры. Она ведь выехала раньше. 8. То, что иногда прощается
ребенку, нельзя простить взрослому человеку. 9. Очень важно, чтобы
торговля основывалась на принципах взаимной выгоды и полного
уважения национального суверенитета. (Паркер) 10. Проповедник
откашлялся и закурил трубку. — Бог сотворил белых, цветных и негров,
Мако. Его господня воля, чтобы цветные жили и работали и учились
среди своих. Если бы не так, он бы всех сотворил одинаковыми. —
Значит, это тоже его воля, чтобы у белых было все, а мы, негры, работали
на них? (Абрахаме) 11. После того как Рикардо и Галли рассказали им об
Оводе, было решено, что Рикардо напишет Оводу письмо, приглашая его
приехать в Италию.
2.2. Complex Sentences with Predicative Clauses

Exercise 1. Analyse the connectives used to join the predicative

clauses and write them out under the following headings

Number Connectives Asyndetic

of subordinati
sentence conjunctions conjunctive conjunctive on
pronouns adverbs

Answer the following question:

What link-verbs are used with predicative clauses?

1. Work is what keeps life going. (Heym) 2. But the fact is that the
Indian Ocean and everything that it has has lost its charm for me. (Cronin) 3.
She sounded as if she had completely forgotten their last conversation.
(Wilson) 4. One of her first thoughts that came to her now was where her
husband was. (Dreiser) 5. And the question was how was the matter to be
kept quiet until after election which was still three weeks away. (Dreiser) 6.
He felt as if he were not wholly useless—indeed, in such a stress of weather,
quite worthwhile about the house. (Dreiser) 7 Her nose, defiant of time,
looked as though it had been moulded by a sculptor. (Mazo de la Roche) 8 She
seemed as if she could not understand why Laura was there. (Mansfield) 9.
My only terror was lest my father should follow me. (Eliot) 10. "I understand
all that," he broke in. "But what I want to know is whether or not you have
lost faith in one." (London) 11. I said I ' d knock his block off next time I
met him. Probably that is why he welshed on you today. (Cronin) 12. The
fact is, the old lady believed Rebecca to be the meekest creature in the
world. (Thackeray) 13. The problem is who will do it. (Daily Worker) 14
All he wanted to know was if he wrote letters to his wife. (Mitchell) 15. It was
as though each saw himself in a distorting mirror, while the voices might
have been one voice with its echo. (Sayers) 16. He looked just as he had
looked ten years before. (Snow) 17. What I want to know is when you're
going to get married. (London) 18 "And why couldn't he have a voice too?"
asked Freddy Malins sharply. "Is it because he's only a black?" (Joyce)

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate connectives to join

the predicative clauses
1. He says Lowell did that during the twenty minutes she was there.
That is ... she was so upset by Lavinia. (Ford) 2. The result is … it is very
difficult to induce the English public to buy and read plays. (B. Shaw) 3. The
fundamental trouble is ... men and women are different creatures, with
different minds and different paths in life. (Leacock) 4. That is ... makes
Englishmen unpopular on the continent . (B. Shaw) 5. It was ... we had
been unconsciously driving towards danger instead of away from it. (G.
Greene) 6. His arms felt ... they would come out of their sockets. (Abrahams)
7. Well, that's ... it was. (Ford) 8. All she wanted to know was ... he wrote
letters to his wife. (Mitchell) 9. All I can say is ... Mako's brain seems to be
crammed full of knowledge. (Abrahams) 10. The reason he wanted to be
alone was ... he was very popular. (Macken) 11. And this is ... Ashley
meant when he wrote that war was not glory but dirt and misery. (Mitchell)
12. It's exactly ... I felt an hour before Crafts made his revelations. (B.
Shaw) 13. And I think it's ... this generation is just wise enough to know
that it is sick. (Mansfield)

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences adding predicative clauses

Model: The trouble is that he has lost your address.
1. The difficulty is that ... . 2. The matter was that ... . 3. The thing is that ... .
4. The question was why (where, when) … . 5. The problem was how (what,
who, which) ... . 6. The reason is that ... . 7. The result was that ... . 8. The
trouble was how ... . 9. What worried her most was ... . 10. The fact is ... . 11.
The fact of the matter is ... .

Exercise 4. Make up complex sentences with predicative clauses

according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

subject expressing o r der, should +non-perfect infinitive

proposal, request, arrangement,
desire, etc.

e. g. His suggestion is (was) that the discussion should be postponed.

1. Our proposal is that ... 2. The order ... . 3. Their demand was ... . 4. The
chairman's decision is ... . 5. Her request is ... . 6. The teacher's recommendation
is ... . 7. The plan was ... . 8. Our wish ... . 9. The commander's order was ... .
10. The arrangement was ... . 11. Our common desire is....

P a t t e r n II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

subject expressing fear that a)indicative mood

(often may)
lest b)should + non-
perfect infinitive

e.g. Our fear is that he will (may) misunderstand the order.

Our fear was that he would (might) misunderstand the order.
Our fear is (was) lest he should misunderstand the order.

1. The parents‘ fear was… . 2. Our apprehension is… . 3. The old man‘s fear
was lest… . 4. My fear is… .

P a t t e r n III
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

as if oblique mood forms

as though of the type were,
spoke (had been, had

e.g. He looks (looked) as if he were ill.

He looks (looked) as if he had been ill.

1. She sounded as though … . 2. Doesn‘t he look as if… ? 3. It seemed … .

4. It was… . 5. His voice sounded… . 6. It looks … . 7. I feel … . 8. The girl
does not look … . 9. Do you feel… ? 10. The old man looked …. .

Exercise 5. Open the brackets using the required form of the verb
1. And honestly the kindest thing you could say about her was that she
(to have) nice hair. (Macken) 2. She looked as if she (can) take very good
care of herself now. (Wilson) 3. And as to the crew, all they knew was that I
(to be appointed) to take the ship home. (Conrad) 4. Cape Town? It was far
away now. It seemed as though it (to be) in another world. (Abrahams) 5. In the
colleges of Canada and the United States the lectures are supposed to be a
really necessary and useful part of the student's training. Other
judgements were that the lectures (to be) of no importance. (Leacock) 6.
"Oh, I nearly forgot Fieta has been in here a number of times tonight. She
sounded as though it (to be) really something important, Lanny."
(Abrahams) 7. Her mind was as if a cyclone (to go) through it. (Mitchell) 8.
He was spreading a report that I was a humbug, and tnat the reason I didn't
accommodate the people with a miracle (to be) because I (cannot). (Twain)
9. Sometimes when his fever was bad his face ran with sweat, but he
never lost the clarity of his thoughts. It was as though his illness (to be
happening) to another person's body. (Q. Greene) 10. His suggestion was
that colleges of education (to extend) the college day and improvise more
accommodation. (Daily Worker)

Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into English using predicative

1.У девочки был такой вид, как будто бы она что-то знает, но не
говорит. (Джером) 2. Вот это мы и хотим знать. (Б. Шоу) 3. Сейчас у меня
такое чувство, как будто не существует ничего, чего я не мог бы сделать.
(Б. Шоу) 4. Он чувствовал себя так, как будто заболевает. (Драйзер) 5. Вот
это меня и удивляет. (Б. Шоу) 6 У него был такой тон, как будто он сам не
верил своим словам и только искал подтверждения. (Уилсон)

2.3. Complex Sentences with Object Clauses

Exercise 1. Analyse the connectives used to join the object clauses and
write them out under the following headings

Number Connectives Asyndetic

of subordination
sentence conjunctions conjunctive conjunctive
pronouns adverbs

1. I don't deny that this is clever enough in its way. (Voynich) 2 I think
a man like that's a real artist. (Parker) 3. I don't know whether she's pretty
or not. (Parker) 4. I began nervously to reflect on what I should do.
(Greenwood) 5. He seemed, nervous lest, in thus announcing his intentions,
he should be setting his granddaughter a bad example. (Galsworthy) 6 I was
nervous of what I did not know. (Snow) 7 I want to see how the system
works. (Cronin) 8 What I suffer in that way no tongue can tell. (Jerome) 9.
The fire destroyed whatever lay in its path. (Wilson) 10. I ' l l make a call and
see if they'll cooperate. (Carter) 11. Carrie could not help wondering where
she was drifting. (Dreiser) 12. We seem to interfere in what is not our
business. (Abrahams) 13 I wondered when the ultimatum would expire. (G.
Greene) 14. I listened to what you said. (Wilson) 15. He wondered why he
should look back. (Wilson) 16. Take whichever comes first. (Hornby) 17.
And finally, they must consider who had dragged the body towards the
house, and why the person had chosen to do so. (Sayers) 18. Do you
recollect whether any letters came by the same post for any of the other
members of the party? Can you say to whom they were addressed? (Sayers) 19.
He is suspicious and jealous for fear anyone else might want to share in his
power. (Lawrence)

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate connectives to join

the object clauses
1. I don't care to talk ... I've been. (Dreiser) 2. I don't know… I said so in
my letter. (Cronin) 3 "Thank you," Lanny said "You have been really kind.
It makes me feel terribly ashamed… I said to you earlier this evening."
(Abrahams) 4. I want to see … I can get a place. (Dreiser) 5. I was
wondering … you and your lady would step across and join my table. (G.
Greene) 6. He feared … the disguise would be too thin and … would
penetrate it. (Carter) 7. I know now … I was quite right in … I fancied about
him. His life is dreadful. (Wilde) 8. "You don't mean it," pleaded Roberta,
fearful… this sudden contact should take too intimate and sentimental a turn
too quickly. (Dreiser) 9. I thought I was tied … was left of a Bloomsbury
square. (G. Greene) 10. Of course, Kennar did not believe…he was writing.
(Parker) 11. After his meal Leonard felt quite inspired, ready… the afternoon
might bring. (Cronin) 12. I began nervously to reflect…I should do.
(Greenwood) 13. She must depend… odd jobs she could find. (Parker) 14. I
found it hard to keep my mind … the colonel was saying. (G. Greene) 15. I
have been uneasy all the afternoon … they must think of us . (Wells) 16.
I took my eyes away; we didn't want to be reminded … little we counted. (G.

Exercise 3. Make up complex sentences with object clauses according to

the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

the verb to wish a)oblique mood forms of the type were, spoke (had
been, had spoken)
b)would +non-perfect infinitive
c) could/ might +non-perfect or perfect infinitive

e. g. I wish (wished) she were (could be) in Moscow now.

I wish (wished) she had been (could have been) in Moscow then.
1. The children wished ... now. 2. My parents wish ... last summer. 3.
The father wished the boy could ... . 4. The patient wished he could have ... .
5. She wishes they might ... . 6. I wish the girl might have ... . 7. We wish
you would ... . 8. I wish I could ... 9. Do you wish ... ? 10. You don't wish
..., do you? 11. The parents wish that their son ... . 12. Don't you wish
you could… ? 13. Oh how she wished she had not…….

P a t t e r n II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

predicate expressing a)should +non-perfect infinitive

order, proposal, b) oblique mood forms of the type be, speak
desire, etc.

e. g. He suggests (suggested) that they should accompany (accompany)

him there.

1. We suggest ... . 2. He was anxious ... . 3. The director insisted ... . 4.

The girl desired .. . 5 . Did the chief demand . . ? 6. We arranged ... 7. Does
he really request ... ? 8. He proposed that the meeting ... .9. Do you
recommend that the patient ... ? 10. My mother ordered that ... at home before
dark. 11. The general commanded ... . 12. He didn't suggest we should ..., did

Pattern III
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

predicate expressing a) (that +) indicative mood (often may)

fear b) lest + should + non- perfect infinitive

e. g. I'm afraid (that) they will (may) be late.

I was afraid (that) they would be (might be) late.
I am (was) afraid lest they should be late.

1. The boy was nervous that .... 2. I was afraid the boy might . . . . 3. My
daughter is afraid that . . . . 4. I fear that the lecture ... . 5. The child feared
that his grandfather ... . 6. The girl was afraid .. . 7. The woman was

terrified lest ... . 8. I worried that ... . 9. You were not afraid we ..., were
you? 10. Do you fear ... ? 11. The girl was frightened that by any chance ... .

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using object clauses (for
the verb forms see the patterns in Exercise 3)
1. Я бы хотел, чтобы вы могли поехать с нами за город. 2. Жаль, что я не
видела этого фильма. 3. Хотелось бы, чтобы вы не делали таких грубых
ошибок. 4. Напрасно вы купили этот учебник: мы не будем им
пользоваться. 5. Хорошо бы вы пошли с нами в театр. 6. К сожалению,
они уже уехали. 7. Жаль, что вы не могли принять участие в
соревновании. 8. Хочется, чтобы вы прочли эту книгу на этой неделе 9.
Жаль, что я не смогу поехать в Ленинград на каникулы. 10. Он сожалел,
что потратил так много времени зря. 11 Они настаивали на том, чтобы
отложили рассмотрение этого вопроса. 12. Мы договорились, что билеты
доставят к вам домой. 13. Он очень хотел, чтобы вся группа пришла на
новогодний вечер. 14. Он боялся, как бы дети не заблудились в лесу 15.
Они опасались, как бы ребенок не заразился скарлатиной. 16. Директор
приказал в последний день семестра убрать все классы.

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Make a list of verbs and
phrases requiring the use of the anticipatory it before the object clauses
1. But I'll see to it that you get a fair shake. (Wilson) 2. Then I may take
it that you're ready to swear there's been nothing. (Galsworthy) 3. Parsons
would have it that freedom of soul and body were quite different things.
(Galsworthy) 4 You're used to different women. Perhaps you like it when
they give you a bad time. (Bellow) 5. They've got it that Kirby appeared at
the house simply to have the Commie lawyer and witnesses testify that he was
there. (Carter) 6. He'd take a bet on it that if someone else had met him she
would have gone away without so much as letting him know that she had
come. (Cusack) 7. I made it clear that I was offering it (the package of
cigarettes) to these six men yearning for tobacco. (Parker) 8 We took it for
granted I ' d go in for law. (Carter) 9. Oh, you remembered it all the time,
though you hadn't given any thought to it. Now I put it to you that you had
not remembered about it at all till it was suggested to you by Mr. Murbles.
(Sayers) 10. "May we take it that he was in exceptionally lively spirits?"
suggested Counsel. (Sayers) 11. She thought it an admirable suggestion
that he should undertake her daughter's case. (Cronin)

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences adding object clauses

1. See to it that ... . 2. May I take it that ... ? 3. Her uncle will have it
that ... . 4. I don't like it that ... . 5. Her sister made it quite clear ... . 6. She
took it for granted ... 7 John thinks it possible . . . 8 The girls found it
strange... . 9. The man thought it unlikely ... . 10. We considered it curious
... . 11. They deemed it urgent ... . 12. The committee considers it necessary
... . 13. We found it unfortunate ... . 14. I think it a pity ... . 15. They
considered it desirable ... . 16. Don't you think it queer ... ?

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English using object clauses with
the anticipatory it
1. Денни подарил Эндрю свой микроскоп, так как считал
маловероятным, что сам когда-нибудь будет им пользоваться. (Кронин) 2.
Эндрю показалось странным, что один и тот же мужской голос отвечал, что
инспектора нет дома. (Кронин) 3. Пайл совершенно ясно заявил Фуонг, что
готов жениться на ней, если она предпочтет его Фаулеру. (Г. Грин) 4. Кону
нравилось, когда вся его семья могла выезжать в собственной машине.
(Кронин) 5. Сомес считал необходимым, чтобы члены акционерного
общества знали эту горькую правду. (Голсуорси) 6. Эндрю сказал даме,
что позаботится о том, чтобы ее дочь была помещена в одну из лучших
больниц Лондона. (Кронин)

Exercise 8. Translate the extracts into English using object clauses

1. Все присутствовавшие на собрании считали, что необходимо бороться
с цензурой, но предлагали различные методы борьбы, такие как петиции и
политические памфлеты. Галли предложил начать организованную
пропаганду против иезуитов и поднять против них народ. Синьора
Болла поддержала это предложение, добавив, что самое смертельное
оружие, известное ей — это насмешка и что их цель — заставить
народ смеяться над иезуитами. Она рекомендовала выпустить ряд
небольших иллюстрированных сатирических листовок и спросила, не
знает ли кто-либо хорошего сатирика. Доктор Рикардо сказал, что
хорошо бы пригласить Овода; он знает его уже несколько лет и
уверен, что Овод согласился бы работать в одном направлении с ними.
После того как Рикардо и Галли рассказали, что им известно об Оводе,
все согласились, что его следует пригласить работать с ними и
предложили Рикардо написать ему. (Войнич)
2. 27 января в столице Уругвая, Монтевидео, началась II латино-
американская конференция за амнистию политическим заключенным
Испании и Португалии. В Москве состоялся митинг испанских
политэмигрантов в поддержку этой конференции. На митинге выступила
Консуэло Фернандес, испанская девочка, живущая в Советском Союзе.
Она сказала, что ее отца убили франкистские фашисты. Она плохо
помнила отца, но ее мать рассказывала ей, что он был храбрый и добрый
человек. «Мне бы очень хотелось, — сказала она, — чтобы у меня был
отец — живой, а не на портрете. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы я могла ждать
каждый день, когда он придет с работы. Я бы очень хотела, чтобы он был
сейчас с нами на этом митинге. Мне немного лет, но я хочу, чтобы мои
слова услышали фашистские убийцы. Я не хочу, чтобы другие дети
плакали из-за того, что их отцов убили и замучили в тюрьмах. Мы должны
требовать, чтобы перед политическими заключенными открылись двери
тюрем. Я стремлюсь к тому, чтобы радость вернулась ко всем испанским
детям, которые, как и я, живут далеко от родины, и чтобы мы могли
вернуться домой». («Известия»)

Exercise 9. Define the type of the subordinate clause (subject, object and
predicative). Translate into Russian
1. Miss Casement stopped what she was doing and stared at Rainsborough.
(Murdoch) 2. What you saw tonight was an ending. (Murdoch) 3. About what
was to come she reflected not at all. (Murdoch) 4. It's odd how it hurts at these
times not to be part of your proper family. (Murdoch) 5. The trouble with you,
Martin, is that you are always looking for a master. (Murdoch) 6. Suddenly
realizing what had happened, she sprang to her feet. (Caldwell) 7. "It looks as
though spring will never come," she remarked. (Caldwell) 8. I want you to sit
here beside me and listen to what I have to say. (Caldwell) 9. Who and what he
was, Martin never learned. (London) 10. That I am hungry and you are aware of
it are only ordinary phenomena, and there's no disgrace. (London) 11. What he
would do next he did not know. (London) 12. It was only then that I realized
that she was travelling too. (Murdoch) 13. What I want is to be paid for what I
do. (London) 14. I cannot help thinking there is something wrong about that
closet. (Dickens) 15. And what is puzzling me is why they want me now.
(London) 16. That was what I came to find out. (London) 17. What I want to
know is when you're going to get married. (London) 18. Her fear was lest they
should stay for tea. (Ch. Bronte) 19. That they were justified in this she could
not but admit. (London) 20. What was certain was that I could not now sleep
again. (Murdoch) 21. What vast wound that catastrophe had perhaps made in
Georgie's proud and upright spirit I did not know. (Murdoch) 22. After several
weeks what he had been waiting for happened. (London) 23. And let me say to
you in the profoundest and most faithful seriousness that what you saw tonight
will have no sequel. (Murdoch) 24. I understand all that, but what I want to
know is whether or not you have lost faith in me? (London) 25. He could recall
with startling clarity what previously had been dim and evasive recollections of
childhood incidents, early schooling and young manhood. (Caldwell)

Exercise 10. State whether the subordinate clauses are subject, predicative,
object or appositive attributive clauses
1. The drawback was, that I was often sleepy at night, or out of spirits and
indisposed to resume the story...(Dickens) 2. Whether he talked or not made little
difference to my mood. (Maurier) 3. ...Tom had been found guilty of running
after a peacock, with an illusory idea that fright would make one of its feathers
drop off. (Eliot) .4. "Do you know that in Holland they grow tulips by the
square mile?" (Cronin) 5. This was what I wished for. (Defoe) 6. Jude was
absolutely indifferent to what she said... (Hardy) 7. The peasant girls in their
blue linen skirts were already gathering, into bundles what the men had scythed.
(Galsworthy) 8. ...whether she ever tried or no lay hidden in her own closed
heart. (Dicke ns) 9. ...Miss Helstone was slow to make fresh acquaintance.
She was always held back by the idea that people could not want her — that she
could not amuse them... (Bronte) 10. "May I ask how you heard this?" inquired
Walter. (Dickens) 11. The secret of the matter is, that John has a great
disposition to protect and patronize. (Irving) 12. That in his new capacity he
displayed great talents, and obtained great success, is unquestionable.
(Macaulay) 13. It was with some difficulty that he found his way to his own
house... ( Irving) 14. This was exactly what the housekeeper was waiting in the
hall to do. (Collins) 15. "I suppose you have no idea what our master is going to
occupy us with?" (Snow) 16. The thought instantly occurred to me that the
paper was a note from Augustus... (Рое) 17. What you need is what every
working girl needs, a holiday, that is a rest. 18. Now what you need is plenty of
exercise and plenty of sun. (Gusack) 19. There wasn't any reason why I haven't
been consulted. That's what I don't understand. (M. Wilson)

2.4. Complex Sentences with Attributive Clauses

Exercise 1. Analyse the connectives used to join the relative attributive

clauses and write them out under the following headings

Number Connectives Asyndetic

of subordination
sentence relative pronouns relative adverbs

Classify the clauses into restrictive and non-restrictive and answer the
following question.
Which type of relative attributive clauses can be joined asyndetically?

1. I reluctantly asked her to sit down. We had never been friends since the
night she was taken ill. (G. Greene) 2. He is a person who is easily deceived.
(Carter) 3. Pa's job was gone, even the turrent lathes on which he had worked
were gone. (Carter) 4. I speak as one who has led a sheltered, privileged life.
(G. Greene) 5. In the window, whose curtains were not drawn, I saw the
Park prematurely grey. (B. Shaw) 6. I remembered back to the day when a
skinny young man had helped to carry their furniture back into the house
after the eviction. (Carter) 7. All she had done was slam the door in his face.
(Carter) 8. This was the moment you'd been looking forward to. (G. Greene)
9. He began to cough and under his pyjama jacket, which had lost two
buttons, the tight skin twanged like a drum. (G. Greene) 10. Ellen sat
listening, which she did so very well. (Crane) 11. There was a feeling in the
air and a look on the faces that he did not like. (Galsworthy) 12. I'm used to
London, you see, where people live pretty thick on the ground. (Sayers) 13.
As I was going through the book department, I was surprised to meet an old
friend of mine, whom I hadn't seen for years. (Linclater) 14. But such
conclusions as I have come to have drifted about my mind like the wreckage of
a foundered ship on a restless sea. (Maugham) 15. Everything that I did that
evening took a long time. (G. Greene) 16. He occasionally had toothache,
which made him restless. (Sayers) 17. We should merely place what
information we hold in the hands of the police, who would then act as they
thought fit. (Sayers) 18. I tell you these things to show you that you are not
in the house of ignorant country folk who would kill you the moment they
saw your Servian uniform but among civilized people. (B Shaw) 19. But
there was something about him that got me down. (Ford) 20. Leonardo da
Vinci is among the most complete men who had ever lived. (Cox)

Exercise 2. Leave out the relative pronouns wherever possible. Explain

why in some sentences the relative pronouns cannot be dropped, taking into
account the type of attributive clause (restrictive or non-restrictive) and the
syntactical function of the pronoun
1. She went to the ladies for whom she had worked. (Parker) 2. Mrs. Fairfax
wished she could find a little girl who would come and stay with her.
(Bullett) 3. Boon answered that he would try to get her the information which
she wanted. (Lindsay) 4. Pyle was very earnest and I had suffered from his
lectures on the Far East, which he had known for as many months as I had
years. (G. Greene) 5. Gorky prepared the way for a new culture which was
bound to come with the establishment of Socialism. (Fox) 6. Julia's room
was set at the end of a corridor, at whose farther end Mrs. Ponsouby slept.
(Gilbert) 7. He stepped across the threshold, and took up his stand just inside
the door, which she quietly shut. (Bullett) 8. The policeman who had stopped
me moved to one side to let it (the ambulance) through. (G. Greene) 9. He
handed her the carefully folded sheets on which he had written Michael's
"thousand words." (Carter) 10. There are some men whose names are always
shortened. (G. Greene)

Exercise 3. Make up complex sentences with relative attributive clauses

according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

antecedent introduced by that or asyndetic subordination


e. g. I wondered at everything (that) he told me.

All (that) he said was clear

1. The students have learned all… . 2. I have seen at the exhibition

something... 3 The mother gave the children all ... . 4. Everything ...
produced a great impression upon us. 5. I recalled that all ... had already been
told to us before. 6. Could you supply us with everything ... ? 7. Can you tell me
anything ... ? 8 Nothing ... could be of any use under the circumstances. 9. This
is all ... .

Pattern II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

antecedent introduced by that

only noun or asyndetic
any subordination
adjective in the
superlative degree

e.g. It is the best way out (that) we can think of.

Write out any imperative sentence (that) you'll come across.

1. They chose the shortest way ... . 2. This is the only chance ... . 3.
Find any quotation ... . 4 His lecture contained the most interesting
information ... . 5. Bring me any book ... . 6 That was the only place ... . 7.
Wasn't it the best solution ... ? 8 I can meet them any time ... 9 The most
important subject ... is mathematics.

Pattern III
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
such introduced by as
the same noun

e.g. He gave away such books as he could spare.

Is this the same magazine as you got last year?
The village was the same as it used to be.

1. He despised such people ... 2. The hometask is the same . . . . 3 Is it
the same book ... ? 4. Send her such postcards ... . 5. The house was the
same ... 6. It is not the same rule ... . 7. The girl played the piano with
such feeling ... .8. I was sure I would get the same answer ...

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate connectives or join

the attributive clauses asyndetically, giving variants wherever possible
1. The village ... their families lived had been captured 2. I saved such
equipment ... could not be replaced. 3. There were times ... he half fancied that
he had talent for painting 4. He was the most impartial critic ... could be
found. 5 My aim had been to write about the less accessible islands ... charms
are not so widely known. 6. I didn't hear all ... he said, for my mind was
elsewhere. 7. Everything ... I d i d that evening took a long time. 8. He, ...
carried out a daily inspection, gave vent to his fury. 9 The man of science
surveys the results of earlier students and applies his energies at the point ..
they left off. 10. The plan was the best ... could be adopted. 11. Along the
passage, ... walls are bare as those of a tube went mother with children. 12. It
is bad enough to have an afternoon nap disturbed by such a passage ... I've
been forced to hear. 13. It is better than most medicines ... come in battles. 14.
The man offered him a Vit Health sandwich, ... he refused politely. 15. He
had a dog at his house .. had a far better ear for music than he had 16. The
child stared out of the window, murmuring to himself, to the automobiles,
cows, trees, houses, and people ... floated past. 17 I remembered the night
... I had gone down to the mortuary with him. 18. She told me that she
missed me, .., of course, was what I wanted to hear. 19. She looked to him
much the same child … he had met six years ago.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences adding attributive clauses with the

connectives suggested in brackets. Give variants wherever possible,
changing the place of the preposition and joining the clauses asyndetically
1. He had to defend his views before his colleagues (многие из которых)
… . 2. They had an arrangement (по которому) ... . 3 The travellers arrived
at the town (о котором)... . 4. The old man returned to the village (в
которой) ... . 5. In the provincial museum (в котором) ... they saw many
relics of the Patriotic War of 1812. 6. The textbook (о которой) ... has at last
been published. 7. He is not the kind of man (на которого) ... . 8. Give me the
name of the student (с которым)... . 9. Here is the book (за которой) ... . 10.
We have done the best (что) ... . 11. I'll go anywhere, (куда) ... . 12. By
the time (когда) ... . 13. His room was in the corridor (в дальнем конце
которого) ... . 14. Не came very late (что) ... . 15. I remember the day (когда)
... . 16. The secretary spoke very rudely (что)... . 17. This is the same moot
problem (по поводу которой)... .

Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into English using attributive clauses
1. Тогда он собрал всю энергию, какая еще теплилась в нем. (Сергеев-
Ценский) 2. Через два дня она дошла до станции, где она узнала, что утром
этого дня началась война. (Паустовский) 3. Бойцы завидовали неизвестному
человеку, которого ищет девушка. (Паустовский) 4. Герои и героини
мои делают иногда такие штуки, каких я не желал бы. (Паустовский) 5.
Поэт Асеев, живший рядом, писал стихи о героической Испании.
(Паустовский) 6. Я начал читать все, что относилось к Петровскому заводу.
(Паустовский) 7. Вот как они думают и делают! (Сергеев-Ценский) 8. Как-
то пришлось ему оперировать бродячую собаку, попавшую под
автомобиль. (Сергеев-Ценский) 9. Дом, в котором они жили, и очень
долго жили, около двадцати лет, стоял на горке. (Сергеев-Ценский) 10.
Иногда дикие гуси, прилетевшие в этом году слишком рано, садятся на
воду и кричат. (Паустовский) 11. Кстати, в то время я понял, что писать о
машинах нужно так же, как мы пишем о людях. (Паустовский) 12. Та
картина, которую вы видели вчера, была снята во время войны. 13. Он
решил, что уйдет из дому, как только она приедет. 14. Я заснул, едва
добравшись до постели.

2.5. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Place

Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial

clauses of place together with the prepositions, if any
1. We were invited to go back where he came from. (Hughes) 2. From
where he sat he could see a cluster of apple-trees in blossom. (Galsworthy) 3.
Take us to where we can work on this thing without being disturbed.
(Murdoch) 4. Taking the advantage of having in their hands weapons which
no other state had the equivalent of at that time the U. S. were testing
atomic bombs whenever and wherever they liked without paying heed to
what the peoples thought or spoke about. (Daily Worker) 5. I am quite
comfortable where I am. (Wilde) 6. And as soon as the messenger was gone
he took a chair whence he could see the street. (Galsworthy)

Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial

clauses of place
1. Оставайся там, где ты есть! 2. Мы решили в конце концов оставить
вещи там, где они были. 3. Ученик смотрел куда угодно, но только не туда,
куда показывал учитель. 4. Я оставил тебе записку там, где мы
договорились 5. Тетя Полли сказала Тому: «Иди туда, куда я тебе
говорю, и не останавливайся ни с кем поболтать». 6. Туристы сложили свои
вещи в таком месте, где они не могли намокнуть. 7. Я люблю проводить
отпуск там, где можно купаться. 8. Возвращайся туда, откуда ты пришел,
и продолжай свою работу.

Exercise 3. Define the type of the subordinate clauses joined by “where”
and state whether “where” is a conjunction, a conjunctive adverb or a relative
1. The car which had passed him and lost him and then returned was just
where it should have been, just where the player had desired it to be. (Grimm)
2. No one knew where the fighting was. (Mitchell) 3. Turning to the right she
ran down the side garden path to where she had seen the face. (Christie) 4. The
doctor mopped his brow and cast a quizzical glance at the corner, where his
wife sat among the chaperons. (Mitchell) 5. But he isn't where she thinks he is.
(Christie) 6. Tuppence had intended taking her for a walk, but it was
raining hard, so the two of them adjourned to the bedroom where Betty led
the way to the bottom drawer of the bureau where her playthings were kept.
(Christie) 7. Dear Raymond knows that if only I know where he is or where
he's going I don't worry quite so much. (Christie) 8. That was where they
walked up the sleighsmoothered road. (Hemingway) 9. Where the conference
would be held didn't matter much. (Morning Star)

2.6. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Time

Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses
of time
1. The earth floor shook a little as they passed. (G. Greene) 2. When he
entered the house she greeted him with a bright face. (Gordon) 3. Well, put
your other shoe on while Ted's reading to Sue. (Carter) 4. I must get a shine
before I see the minister. (G. Greene) 5. After I had met her she told me
about her past. (Daily Worker) 6. Roy looked over the northern country until
he saw what he expected to see. (Aldridge) 7. He'll stay till I come out.
(Aldridge) 8. She hangs up on me as soon as she recognises my voice. (Bellow)
9. Don't reckon I'll ever get back to Albany as long as I live. (Saxton) 10. I
haven't thought of any one or anything else since I saw you last. (Dreiser) 11.
He kissed her first on one cheek and then on the other whilst she stood
helpless with the roasting-tin, protesting. (Greenwood) 12. It was some while
since the pain had returned, now that I was lying still and holding my breath.
(G. Greene) 13. For some days afterwards he had an uncomfortable sensation
of guiltiness whenever he was in Miss Mason's presence. (London) 14. No
sooner had the first stepped into the clearing than all the lights went out as
if by magic. (Tolkien) 15. Hong Kong is all hill except when the fog shuts
out everything except the sea. (Kipling) 16. I had hardly finished when
Holmes returned with the news that the boy was putting in the horse. (Doyle)
17. But the door had scarcely closed behind her before it opened again, and
she came in to announce: "Dr Colpus." (Bennett)
Exercise 2. Classify the subordinate clauses introduced by “when” into
object clauses, attributive clauses and adverbial clauses of time. Account
for the use of the tense-forms
1. I'll give you a call when I see Sommerville. (Carter) 2. He thought it best
to be clean-shaven when Will arrived. (Bellow) 3. The doctor had better give
you a sedative and we will talk tomorrow, when you have had a night's sleep.
(Voynich) 4. We never knew when they'd break in and arrest us all.
(Saxton) 5. "Tell them to start," he said, "tell them I don't know when I ' l l
be back." (Du Maurier) 6. When she's done reading it, ask a question.
(Carter) 7. Did I really believe that I would die when thinking stopped?
(Bellow) 8. The day will come when you will know why I am silent even to
you. (Collins)

Exercise 3. Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of time

according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
a)past indefinite
It is… since b)present perfect
(non-continuous or

e.g. (a) It is two hours since I saw them last.

(b) It is two hours since she has been in the room.

1. It is ten months since ... . 2. It is over a year since . . . 3. It is ages

since . . . . 4. It is eight hours since ... . 5 It is twenty minutes since ... . 6.
You've changed a lot. It is five years since ... . 7. How time flies! It ...
since we have been living in this new district. 8. It ... since she .. in
hospital. She is taking treatment and is slowly getting better.

Pattern II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
a)past perfect
It was… since b) past indefinite

e.g. (a) It was eight hours since the children had left.
(b) It was a long time since we discussed the matter.

1. It was ages since ... 2. It was a long while since ... 3. It was over
twenty years since ... . 4. It was some time since . . . . 5. It was nine hours
since ... 6. The house was empty and cold. It was no less than ... since ... . 7.
The boy had grown into a young man and we could hardly recognise him: it
was over three years since ... . 8. What a pleasure it was to be out in the
fresh air again! It was four months since ... . 9. It ... since we moved to our
new flat 10. ... since he had returned from his last expedition to the Arctic.

Exercise 4. Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of time

according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
past perfect hardly when past indefinite

e.g. He had scarcely entered the room when the bell rang.
Scarcely had he entered the room when the bell rang.

1. Mary had hardly seen her mother enter when ... . 2. ... when she
cried. 3. The doctor had scarcely examined the patient ... . 4. ... when the
train arrived. 5. Scarcely had ... .6. The postman had barely knocked at the
door … 7. Hardly had the day broken ... 8 ... when the door was flung
open. 9. We had hardly unfastened the parcel ... 10 ... when the boy

Pattern II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

no sooner + past perfect than past indefinite

e.g. He had no sooner entered the room than the bell rang.

1. She had no sooner left the house ... . 2. ... than they rushed out of the
room 3. No sooner had the teacher asked the question ... . 4. No sooner ...
than the icicle fell on the pavement. That was really a narrow escape! 5.
The singer had no sooner appeared on the stage ... . 6. ... than the pupils
burst out laughing. 7. ... than the child went to sleep.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences adding the principal clause or an
adverbial clause of time
1. ... as he sat alone at table. 2. Don't leave till . . . . 3. ... as long as
he stays here. 4. Start making the translation after ... . 5. ... before he had
entered. 6. We were busy preparing the report while ... . 7. ...while they are
discussing the problem. 8. She has stayed at my parents' since ... . 9. ...
when he stops making such bad mistakes 10. You can travel now that ... . 11.
... when he had read the assignment 12. It was some time since ... . 13. She
wept as ... . 14. ... as she was putting on her coat. 15. They were still waiting
for the girl while ... . 16. He said he would return as soon as ... . 17. She
hadn't been there two weeks before ... . 18. … after they had left. 19. We've
known each other since ... .20. ... before we knew where we were. 21. ... since
she has been ill. 22. You can ask him any question you like now that ... .

Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial

clauses of time. Give variants with different conjunctions and verb forms
1. Как поживает Аня? — He знаю. Я ее не видела, с тех пор как
вернулась из Крыма. 2. Нам нет смысла сейчас обсуждать работу. Когда я
напишу вторую часть, мы встретимся и обсудим обе части вместе 3. Он
очень устал и после того как поужинал, лег спать. 4. Мы едва узнали друг
друга. Я не видела ее, с тех пор как кончила школу. А у нее уже большие
дети. Уже пять лет, как ее сын ходит в школу. 5. Они уже ушли, когда мы
вернулись. 6. Машинистка сказала, что только когда она кончит печатать
статью, она сможет напечатать упражнения. 7. Отец был расстроен. Он
чувствовал себя гораздо хуже, с тех пор как начал принимать это лекарство.
8. Пока он ел, он рассказывал им о том, что произошло. 9. Его жена вошла
в комнату, когда он еще не закончил бриться. 10. Мальчик жил у бабушки
все то время, что мать была в отъезде. 11. Они не разговаривали, в то
время как шли по дороге, так как сердились друг на друга. 12. Только
посмотрите, кто пришел, — сказала тетя, когда мы входили. 13. Я очень
волнуюсь. Уже три часа как она ушла и до сих пор не вернулась. 14. Ее
подруга писала, что вот уже три года как она вышла замуж, что муж ее
врач и у нее есть сын. 15. Женщина выглядела старой, потому что она
очень много работала, с тех пор как умер ее муж: ей нужно было
прокормить пятерых детей. 16. Я знала, что они побеседовали, до того как
началось собрание. 17. Дети прекрасно говорили по-французски, потому
что уже несколько лет занимались языком. 18. На ней было то же синее
платье, в котором она была, когда мы познакомились. 19. Мы были
озадачены. Снова и снова мы вспоминали, что он нам сказал, когда мы
вместе ехали в поезде. 20. Прошло пятнадцать или шестнадцать лет, с тех
пор как Смиты переехали в Лондон? — Думаю, что пятнадцать. 2 1 .
Казалось, ничего в комнате не изменилось, хотя она не была в ней уже
четыре месяца.

2.7. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Cause

Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses
of cause and translate sentences 6—10 into Russian
1. "Oh! I dare say she is crying because she could not go out with
Missis in the carriage," interposed Bessie. (Ch. Bronte) 2. Write that you
decline to support this scheme of hers as you hold it to be a dishonest scheme.
(Wilde) 3. I think he saw the effect he had produced on me for some days
afterwards he wrote and asked me to come and see him. (Wilde) 4. We took our
umbrellas, because we were afraid it would rain; for the barometer had been
falling for some time. (Sweet) 5. Mrs. Popply, since you express your regret
I suppose there is nothing more to be said. (B. Shaw) 6. But I won't allow
that, seeing that it would never suit my case. (Bronte) 7. Some of old
Forsyte's pictures are going to be lent. Considering he died saving them, they
owe it to him. (Galsworthy) 8. He took in Irene on the ground that he had not
entertained her since she was a bride. (Galsworthy) 9. On this occasion
the preparations were of a more elaborate nature than usual, owing to the
fact that for the past four days Mr. Samuel Griffiths, the husband and
father, had been absent. (Dreiser) 10. Don't say: "I arrived in Chicago ..."
Note "arrived at" is correct, for the reason that the city is regarded for the
time being, as a mere point. (Baker)

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the conjunctions “because”, “for”,

“since” and “as”
1. He refused to take money ... he couldn't give any guarantees that
the treatment would help. (Carter) 2. And ... I am married and childless, I
wish to adopt her during my life and bequeath her at my death whatever I
may have' to leave. (Сh. Bronte) 3. If the black Man had come alone, they
would have protested and made loud remarks, but ... there was a white man
with him they did not know how to react. (Abrahams) 4. They had come
straight from the plants, ... the hands that carried the roses were grimed with
toil. (Carter) 5. Her father, indeed, was always telling her that she only drank
China tea ... it was a fashion. (Galsworthy) 6. All Chenkin's relations — and
they were numerous, ... marriage was common in the valleys — had become
welded into a hostile unit. (Cronin) 7. She had walked some distance, ... her
shoes were worn to pieces. (Ch. Dickens) 8. "Why," thought I, "does she not
explain that she could neither clean her nails nor wash her face, ... the
water was frozen?" (Ch. Bronte) 9. He watched and waited, until he
feigned a wild rush, which he stopped midway, ... he had seen the glint of
metal. (London) 10. Never had there been so full an assembly, ...
mysteriously united in spite of all their differences, they had taken arms
against a common peril. (Galsworthy)

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial
clauses of cause
1. Я все эти дни не записывал впечатления, потому что писать не
хотелось. 2. Раз уж вы настаиваете, мне придется подчиниться. 3. Девочка,
должно быть, серьезно болела: она очень бледна. 4. Андрей решил,
поскольку он находится здесь, он может, по крайней мере, зайти и
договориться о встрече. 5. Возьмите с собой плащ, так как барометр падает
и небо покрыто тучами. 6. Ребенка надо отдать в музыкальную школу, так
как у него хороший слух.

2.8. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Result

Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial

clauses of result and point out the sentences with asyndetic subordination.
Answer the following questions
1. With which words in the principal clause can the conjunction that be
correlated? 2. With which conjunction is the adverbial clause of result
usually separated by a comma?

1. When they reached the front it was dark, and the shutters were closed,
so that nothing of the interior could be seen. (Hardy)2. So heavy was the
stress of the storm just at this place that I had the hardest task to win my
way up the hill. (Wells) 3. They replied in such a voice that he no longer
pretended ignorance. (Galsworthy) 4. Roses on the veranda were still in
bloom, and the hedges evergreen, so that there was almost nothing of
middle-aged autumn to chill the mood. (Galsworthy) 5. So great was the
shortage of paper in the Confederacy now that Gerald's note was written
between the lines of her last letter to him. (Mitchell) 6. I ' m so crazy about
music I don't care what colour he is. (Parker) 7. Several shots were fired; but
such was the hurry of the Marksmen that no one appeared to have taken effect.

Exercise 2. Use inverted word order in the complex sentences with

adverbial clauses of result according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause
so + predicative + subject expressed by a noun
e. g. Her joy was so great that she stood fascinated.
So great was her joy that she stood fascinated.

1. The summer night was so hot and still that through every opened
window came in but hot air. (Galsworthy) 2. His remarks were so strong that
she, startled, relapsed into silence. (Mitchell) 3. Her Dutch is so rusty she can
no longer speak it. (Parker) 4. After an hour Scarlett's hands were so
swollen and bruised she could hardly flex them. (Mitchell)

P a t t e r n II
Principal Clause
so + predicative + subject expressed by a pronoun
e. g She was so glad that she could not utter a word.
So glad was she that she could not utter a word. Or:
So glad she was that she could not utter a word.

1. She was so amused by his bland impudence that she laughed and
overlooked his past misdeeds. (Mitchell) 2. He was so intent upon his
reflections that he was unconscious of my approach. (Ch Dickens) 3. He was
so friendly I was beginning to think he was struck on me. (Dreiser) 4. He
is so talented and so loved in society that I believe he is a general favourite.
(Ch. Bronte) 5. They were so high that the breeze did not bring them the
grumble of the surf below. (Gordon)

P a t t e r n III
Principal Clause
so + adverbial modifier + subject expressed by a noun or pronoun
e. g He (the man) spoke so excitedly that we could hardly understand
So excitedly did he (the man) speak that we could hardly understand

1. He ran so quickly that I couldn't catch him. (Hornby) 2. Marigny

looked at him so fixedly that he waited to hear what the others had to say.
(Tracy) 3. He worries so much about his position that he cannot sleep at
night. (Hornby) 4. He ran so quickly that I couldn't catch him. (Hornby) 5.
Sir Wigmore started so violently that he knocked his brief over upon the
head of the Clerk to the House of Lords sitting below him. (Sayers)

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial

clauses of result. Give variants with inverted word order wherever possible
1. Девочка была так напугана, что не могла двинуться с места. 2.
Лектор говорил так убедительно, что никто не сомневался в правильности
его утверждений. 3. Она смотрела на меня так пристально, что я не могла не
обернуться. 4. Всю ночь море сильно бушевало, так что пароходы не могли
подойти к берегу. 5. Кинофильм произвел на учеников такое сильное
впечатление, что они говорили о нем целую неделю. 6. Результаты
эксперимента были вполне удовлетворительными, так что молодые ученые
могли продолжать работу в том же направлении. 7. Море успокаивалось,
так что рыбаки надеялись, что они смогут отправиться рыбачить утром. 8.
День был такой солнечный и морозный, что никому не хотелось сидеть
дома и в лесу было много лыжников.

2.9. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Purpose

Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial clauses
of purpose. Translate the sentences with the conjunctions of negative
meaning into Russian
1. She got up and fixed the latch on the wicket at the landing so that
Philip could not get in. (Maugham) 2. As you go, leave the door open so that
the light from the lamp may show you some of the way down. (O'Casey) 3
Perhaps I had been wrong and Roy had invited me only that we might idly chat
of Shakespeare and the musical classes. (Maugham) 4. An access of joy made
him shut his eyes, lest tears should flow from them. (Cronin) 5. She strained
herself painfully to talk so he could hear. (Maltz) 6. He held a very guarded
conversation with her on his way home, for fear that she would take
additional offence. (Dreiser) 7. His brother had stayed behind preparing the
vessel for the voyage which was to be made on the tide in order that
advantage might be taken of the weather. (Herbert) 8. I turned away so that
Frith should not see my face. (Du Maurier)

Exercise 2. Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of

purpose according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
present or future tense so that may + non-perfect infinitive
forms should
future tense

e.g. He will come early so that we can (may, will) discuss the matter
with him.
He will come early so that we should not worry.

1. ... so that he can ... . 2. Mary is going to accompany you so that ... 3.
... so that they should not ... . 4. The mother told the children to stay
indoors so that ... . 5. ... so that they will ... . 6. The teacher will give you a
consultation so that ... . 7. ... so that we may ... 8. I am warning you about

the danger so that ... . 9. ... so that the students should not ... . 10. The
students must work in the library tomorrow so that ... .

Pattern II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
past tense forms so that might + non-perfect infinitive
future in the past

e.g. He came early so that we could (might, would) discuss the matter
with him.
He came early so that we should not worry.

1. ... so that we could .... 2. He decided to leave the place at 10 a. m. so

that ... . 3. ... so that you should not ... . 4. I asked the women to come to
my place so that ... . 5. ... so that they would ... . 6. They hurried to the
office so that ... . 7. ... so that we might ... .8. The teacher told them the
marks so that ... . 9. ...so that the children should not ... . 10. He went to
see the doctor in the morning so that ... .

Exercise 3. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the verb
1. They left it in the hall, so that it (not to seem) that they wanted to be
asked to play or sing. (Maugham) 2. And if necessary, strike a light blow so
as to stun her—no more— so that, falling in the water, she (to drown) the more
easily. (Dreiser) 3. What do you say, De Levis? D'you want everybody in the
house knocked up so that their keys (to be tried)? (Galsworthy) 4. Judge not
that ye (to be) not judged. (Carter) 5. At your age I looked for hardship,
danger, horror and death, that I (to feel) the life in me more intensely.
(B Shaw) 6. Miss Osyth turned and ran, she ran lest she (to be seen).
(Bennett) 7. Of course, there may not be a vacancy, and I don't want to put
another person out of her place that I (to step) into it. (Mulhollard) 8.
Now here's a form of receipt I've made out and you must get her to sign that
so that there (to be) no possible mistake. (Priestley) 9. Roberta finally
arranged with her mother to leave in order that she (to help) her more
directly with her wages. (Dreiser) 10. All insisted on refilling the glasses so
that everybody (to drink) to Mrs. Cough's health, happiness and prosperity on
the fields. (Pritchard)

Exercise 4. Replace the conjunctions “lest” and “for fear” by “so

that” making all the necessary changes in the adverbial clauses of

M o d e l : The information is kept secret lest the enemy should get hold of
The information is kept secret so that the enemy may not
(cannot, should not, will not) get hold of it.
The information was kept secret lest the enemy should get hold
of it.
The information was kept secret so that the enemy might not
(could not, should not, would not) get hold of it.
1. The irises restrained their perfume lest it should whip his senses.
(Galsworthy) 2. They set a strong guard lest anyone should escape.
(Poutsma) 3. I will not make a noise lest I should disturb you. (Poutsma)
4. She clasped her hands together lest their trembling betray her.
(Bromfield) 5. She had set the doors that divided her from the hall wide
open, lest she should be taken unawares by Cesare. (Hichens) 6. And he told
me that he found it in her pocket and took charge of it for fear it might
disappear or be opened before I got there. (Dreiser) 7. Say as little as
possible about it to Sybil lest she should repeat my account to anyone.

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial

clauses of purpose
1. Я отказалась от приглашения, чтобы провести воскресенье с вами.
2. Они ехали с закрытыми окнами, чтобы сын не простудился. 3. Он
отошел в сторону, чтобы всем было видно, что написано на доске. 4. Я
ушла в свою комнату, чтобы мне никто не мешал заниматься. 5. Займите
места в первом ряду, чтобы лучше слышать оратора. 6. Она сказала, что
будет сопровождать их обоих, чтобы ни у кого не было причины
жаловаться. (Драйзер) 7. Позже, чтобы Клайд мог сделать несколько
снимков, они пристали к берегу. (Драйзер) 8. Купите другую, новую
шляпу, а эту оставьте на воде. Вы могли бы даже спороть подкладку, чтобы
по ней нельзя было установить, кому она принадлежала. (Драйзер) 9.
План Сомса заключается в том, чтобы подождать немного, а затем
построить действительно хороший дом, чтобы нам не пришлось потом
строить заново. (Голсуорси)

Exercise 6. Classify the subordinate clauses joined by the conjunctions

“that” or “so that” into adverbial clauses of purpose or result. Translate the
sentences into Russian
1. I put on my hat so that I should not have to come up again.
(Maurier) 2. "I wish to God, she'd say something. really cheeky," he
raged to himself, "so that I could report her and get her sacked."
(Maugham) 3. Shall we ring so that Thomas can clear these things?
(Priestley) 4. He wished Hayward had been there so that he could ask him
what he thought she meant, and what he had better do next. (Maugham) 5. I
got one of the bags of flour full in my face so that it burst all over my head.
By the time I ' d cleaned myself up mother was sitting in a corner. (Walsh)
6. I want you to understand that I didn't install her there so that I could
make love to her. (Priestley) 7. Oh, if it were only another night so that she
could take his hands in hers... (Dreiser) 8. A pair of knee duck trousers and
an old sweater made him a presentable wheel costume, so that he could go
with Ruth on afternoon rides. (London) 9. "I sit alone that I may eat
more," said the Baron peering into the dusk. "My stomach requires a great
deal of food." (Mansfield) 10. Swithin was so long over this course that he
caused a block in the progress of the dinner. (Galsworthy) 11. There came
such a loud hissing from the engine that people looked dazed as they
scurried to and fro. (Mansfield) 12. The thought came to him that an
accident would be a piece of luck, so that he could be taken to a hospital
and lie there, in a clean bed, for weeks. (Maugham)

Exercise 7. Classify the subordinate clauses joined by the conjunctions

“lest” and “for fear” into adverbial clauses of purpose and object clauses.
Translate the sentences into Russian
1. He was stricken and withdrew his eyes lest she should read them.
(Cronin) 2. He trembled daily lest he should hear that she was proclaimed his
second mother-in-law. (Thackeray) 3. She feared lest she should be blamed.
(Smith) 4. Let us leave the house this instant for fear he should ask
further questions. (Poutsma) 5. I was getting a little worried for fear you
didn't like your son. (Smith) 6. At last he turned away, hastening for fear
he should be late. (Cronin) 7. He seemed nervous lest, in thus announcing
his intention, he should be setting his granddaughter a bad example.
(Galsworthy) 8. He might have been a sick man whom it was advisable to
humour lest his illness should get the better of him. (Bennett)

2.10. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Comparison and


Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial

clauses of comparison and manner
1 The intervals were never as long as they had seemed. (G. Greene) 2.
Roy was as sick as he expected to be. (Aldridge) 3 It proved more difficult
to get out of the Phat Diem area than it had been to get in. (G. Greene) 4.
Roy watched these two men as he had never watched them before. (Aldridge) 5.
Roy was stretched to his full length moaning sometimes as if he were in pain.
(Aldridge) 6. "He will not be long," she said as though I needed comfort for
his absence. (G Greene)
Exercise 2. Classify the subordinate clauses joined by “as” into
adverbial clauses (of comparison, manner, time, cause) or attributive
clauses. State whether “as” is a conjunction or a relative pronoun
1. Roy did as he was told, and as he felt the weight taken off his back he
found it more difficult to stand. (Aldridge) 2. Write that you decline to
support this scheme of hers, as you hold it to be a dishonest scheme. (Wilde)
3. The Coroner himself had had business relations with French persons in
his capacity as a solicitor, and could assure such of the jury as had never
been in France that they ought to allow for these different standards.
(Sayers) 4. Scotty had liked Andy just as they had all liked him, but it was
clear that he liked Andy no more. (Aldridge) 5. I never saw such luck as
that fellow had! (Cronin) 6. Roy was so tired as he walked in the night
that sleep seemed all the ultimate good that man could require. (Aldridge) 7.
I want you in my room and as Helen Burns is with you, she may come too.
(Ch. Bronte)

Exercise 3. Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of

comparison according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
as if oblique mood forms of
as though the type were, spoke
(had been, had spoken)

e.g. She speaks (spoke) English so well as if she were a native.

She looks (looked) so pale as though she had been i l l for some time.

1. He dances so well as if ... 2. Why do you keep whispering as if . . . 3.

He treated me so badly as though ... . 4. ... as if he really thought so. 5.
... as if she had never seen me. 6. ... as though he were sick. 7. She ran so
fast as if . . . . 8. ... as if nothing could induce her to. 9. The little girl
behaved as if… . 10. ... as though I were a stranger. 11. I will act as if . . . .
12. The boy was stammering as if .... .

Pattern II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
as if indicative mood
as though

e.g. He acts as if he is a coward.

He acted as if he was a coward.
1. He teaches them so well as if .... 2. ... as if he knows me. 3. She is
reciting the poem in such a hurry as if .. 4. ... as though he has lived here
for ages. 5. They were packing so hastily as though .... 6. ... as if he is deaf.
7. ... as if she does not know me. 8. Don't run so fast as if ... . 9. She passed by
without greeting me as if ... .

Exercise 4. Open the brackets using the required form of the verb
1. I advise you to receive him as if nothing (to happen). (B. Shaw) 2. The
old man said nothing, but he folded the white square of paper as if it (to be)
the legal deed of land in itself. (Aldridge) 3. I lowered the boat more
carefully than I (to raise) it. (Aldridge) 4. I knew you better than you (to
know) me now. (Saxton) 5. I don't feel half as mean as I (to do). (G.
Greene) 6. But it was plain that he admired Judith immediately hanging over
her with a merry possessive look as though at any moment he (to pick her
up) and (to slip) her into his deep coat-pocket. (Walpole) 7. My mother was a
very poor woman who had no reasonable choice but to do as she (to do).
(B. Shaw) 8. Andrews turned around at her as if she just (to occur) to him in
his own mind. (Aldridge) 9. Knocking out his pipe on the heel of his boot,
Philip inspected it as though it (to demand) all his attention. (Cronin) 10.
Then he laughed as he never (to laugh) before. (Aldridge) 11. Come, my
child; you must not trifle with me as if I (to be) a stranger. (B. Shaw) 12.
She closed her eyes as though she too (to be) tired. (Du Maurier) 13. I had
to smile as though I (to know) all about it. (Du Maurier)

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial

clauses of comparison and manner. Give variants with different verb forms
wherever possible
1. Девочка говорит с матерью шѐпотом, как будто боится, что их кто-
нибудь услышит. 2. Молодой отец нес ребенка, как будто он боялся
уронить или ранить его. 3. Эта студентка будет хорошей
преподавательницей. Она уже сейчас ведет урок так, как будто преподает
уже несколько лет. 4. Он так тщательно готовит доклад, как будто он
должен представлять его не на занятиях, а на научной конференции. 5. Он
повторил свой ответ несколько раз, как будто повторение могло лучше
передать значение его слов. 6. Эндрю так хорошо провел операцию в
шахте, как будто он был опытным врачом, как будто у него и раньше уже
были подобные случаи. (Кронин) 7. Том красил забор так, как будто эта
работа действительно доставляла ему удовольствие. Когда мальчишки
попросили разрешить им помочь ему, он разговаривал с ними так, как
будто это было для него очень опасно и как будто тетя Полли запретила
ему делать это. (Твен) 8. Фаулер говорил Пайлу откровенно все, что думал
о нем. Он даже сказал ему, что он желал его смерти, когда тот приехал к
нему на линию фронта. Но несмотря на это, Пайл смотрел на него так,
как будто Фаулер шутит, и он не верит ни одному его слову. (Г. Грин)
9. Фаулер боялся потерять Фуонг. Он скрыл от нее, что жена отказала
ему в разводе. А в отношении Пайла он принял такое решение: «С ним я

буду вести себя так, как будто все уладилось. Тогда он оставит Фуонг в
покое.» (Г. Грин)

2.11. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Condition

Exercise 1. Write out the conjunctions used to join the adverbial

clauses of condition and point out the sentences with asyndetic
1. I don't know what'11 become of him if he goes on like this.
(Galsworthy) 2. I will leave the door ajar, in case you call me. (Voynich) 3.
Work's no use unless you believe in it. (Galsworthy) 4. For my part I was
very much against your having anything to do with him when he came
back; but my father, just at the last, consented to let him teach you, on
condition he never attempted to see your mother. (Voynich) 5. Supposing she
was the thief, why should she let out her secret to Mr. Franklin? (Collins) 6.
Had she been near Marlott she would have had less dread. (Hardy)7. Winter
is the great time for hunting (in England), provided the ground is not too
hard. (James) 8. Suppose you had done all this, how would you answer then
if you were asked whether you were a coward? (B. Shaw) 9. Once you
start, it won't be so easy to get off. (Cronin)

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences adding subject clauses, predicative

clauses, object clauses or adverbial clauses of time and condition joined by
“when” and “if”. Refer the action in the subordinate clauses to the future
1. We shall let you know about our plans when ... . We are not sure if our
plans ... . The problem is when .... 2. I wonder when the committee .... I
think that if all the members of the committee ... . 3. We were sure he would
get used to the place when ... . We wondered if his new surroundings ... . 4.
She will be a teacher of English when ... . I hope that if... . 5. They decided
that when their son ... . They wondered if he ... . 6. I'll be very much obliged
to you if ... . The question is if .... 7. It is not known as yet when ... and if
... . 8. He said he would take part in the discussion of the book if ... . 9. The
man inquired if... and when ... . 10. The chairman stated that if ... . 11. Was it
agreed when ... . If ... we can safely fix the day of our departure. 12. Ring me
up when ... and say if ... . 13. When ... has not been announced yet. If ... we
shall be at the airport to meet her.

Exercise 3. Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of

condition according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

oblique mood forms of the type oblique mood forms of the type
should /would + non-perfect were, spoke (had been, had spoken)

e. g I should (would) do the work now if I were free.

If I had been free (were free), I should have done it yesterday.
If I had read the article, I should know its contents.

1. If the boy had found the book, ... . 2. The horse would have won the
race if ... . 3. ... they would be free now. 4. If I were you, ... . 5. They
would have left long ago ... . 6. ...if you had called yesterday. 7. In case the
librarian were out... . 8. Suppose you had gone there yourself. 9. ... provided
they got the material. 10. Supposing we had all the information at our
disposal ... ? 11. I would not have ... unless ... . 12. If only ... , they would
not ... .

P a t t e r n II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

oblique mood forms of the type could, might + non-perfect or perfect

should /would + non-perfect or infinitive
perfect infinitive

e. g I should (would) help him if I could (might).

If he could (might) have helped you, he would have done it.

1. If they could have sent the telegram, …. .2. ... they would have
started in time. 3. ... if the girl might stay there for the week-end. 4. They
would be glad to ... . 5. ... if the doctor could have come in time. 6. ... the
students would have postponed the visit. 7. If the children could walk this
distance, ... .8. I should not have asked you for help if ... . 9. The woman
would like to speak to her sick husband if ... . 10.... if he might. 11. If only
we could begin the experiment once again, ... . 12. She wouldn't have
offered to type the letters unless ... . 13. Suppose we could arrange a
consultation tomorrow ... .

P a t t e r n III
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
could/might + non-perfect or perfect oblique mood forms of the type
infinitive were, spoke (had been, had spoken)
e. g He could (might) accompany you there if he were free.
He could (might) have accompanied you there if he had been (were)
1. If the girl were ready, ... . 2. ... the professor might have offered you
his help. 3. ... if the teacher had explained the new rule. 4. ... the man might
see you off. 5. If I had been introduced to the man, ... .6. He could have
rejected the proposal if ... . 7. Suppose ... , the accident might have been
avoided. 8. The work could be done without delay, if only ... . 9. He might
come yet if ... . 10. I could not resist the temptation if ... . 11. ... unless I
had heard it myself. 12. ... provided the data were reliable.

P a t t e r n IV
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

oblique mood forms of the type were to + non-perfect infinitive

should /would + non-perfect

e. g If I were to see her, I should speak to her

1. If I were to come across this book, ... . 2. I should be delighted if I

... . 3. ... she would let me know at once. 4. If the party were to arrive next
week, ... . 5. ... if you were to take part in the discussion. 6. ... we should
see all the places of interest. 7. Were I ... I should certainly join in. 8. The
doctor promised that if I were to ... . 9. Were you in my place ... 10. If I
were to arrange an evening party,… .

Pattern V
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

(a) oblique mood forms of should + non-perfect infinitive

the type should /would +
non-perfect infinitive
(b) indicative mood
(c) imperative mood

e. g If he should come, he would ring you up (will ring you up).

If he should come, ring me up

1. If the weather should be cold, ... . 2. In case ... we should stay here
for the night. 3. If he ..., he will reserve seats for you. 4. In case they should
pass through Pskov ... . 5. Ring me up if ... . 6. ... if you should come across
this dictionary. 7 . ... bring the books at once. 8. If the boys should return
soon, … . 9. Should he return earlier than we expected, ... . 10. Suppose the
library should be open on Sunday, ... . 11. ... send for the doctor at once.

12. ... he will revenge himself upon them without hesitation. 13. ... frankly
speaking, I would be at a loss.

Exercise 4. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the verb
1. If your Eminence (to know) what I and my assistants have put up with
from this man, you (to feel) differently about the matter. (Voynich) 2.
Martel told me he believed they never (to go) through the expedition at all
if it (not to be) for Rivares. (Voynich) 3. Her jealous reproaches (to act) on
his nerves if he (to be) to hear much of them tonight. (Voynich) 4. "I doubt
whether it could be managed," Marcone answered with a very grave face.
"But—if it (to be) possible—you (to do) it?" (Voynich) 5. She had some
jewelry— a diamond ring and pin and several other pieces. She (can, to get)
fifty dollars for those if she (to go) to a pawnbroker. (Dreiser) 6. Jim, dear, if
anger and passion (can, to save) Italy, she (to be) free long ago, it is not
hatred that she needs, it is love. (Voynich) 7. But I wish you could have
accepted the invitation of your English doctor friend; if you (to spend) a
month in his house, you (to be) more fit to study. (Voynich) 8. I (to talk) to
mother if I (to think) of it; but it went right out of my head. (Voynich) 9. If
I ever sincerely (to love) you, if I (to love) you still, I (not to loathe) so and
(to hate) myself for my weakness as I do now. (Hardy) 10. How you (to like)
it if we (to move) to New York? (Wilson) 11. It (to be) so much better if he (can,
to go) straight up to the house and (to walk) in, Lanny thought. (Abrahams)
12. If I (to have) a chance to save a while, I (can, to open) a place that would
give us plenty of money. (Dreiser) 13 Will you proceed or it (to help) you
if I (to be, to suggest) a word or two? (B. Shaw)

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to the

use of verb forms in the adverbial clauses of condition
1. Мейбл сказала, что, если бы она попыталась рассказать (рассказала
бы) кому-нибудь о своей любви к белому человеку, ее бы назвали
сумасшедшей. (Абрахамс) 2. Лэнни понимал, что, если бы он проявил
смирение и страх в разговоре с белым человеком, тот не ударил бы его.
(Абрахамс) 3. Герт предупредил Лэнни, что, если он сделает хоть один
неверный шаг, это будет стоить ему жизни. (Абрахамс) 4. Керри не
понимала, что, если бы она была одна, она должна была бы платить за
комнату и стол и не могла бы тратить весь свой заработок на одежду и
другие вещи. (Драйзер) 5. Друг Давида Копперфильда просил его не
думать о нем плохо, если бы их вдруг когда-либо разлучили. (Диккенс) 6.
Джейн сказала своей подруге Эллен, что, если бы она была на ее месте,
она бы возненавидела эту злую учительницу, которая постоянно мучила и
унижала ее. (Ш. Бронте) 7. Джемма сказала, что, если бы Овод
согласился переделать свой памфлет и исключить из него все личные
нападки, он (памфлет) мог бы стать очень полезным. (Войнич) 8.
Артур сказал Монтанелли, что, если бы он получил свободу, он
продолжал бы бороться против религии. (Войнич) 9. Как вы думаете, если
бы Монтанелли мог отказаться от религии, может быть, он мог бы спасти
Овода? (Войнич)

2.12. Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Concession

Exercise 1. Analyse the connectives used to join the adverbial clauses of

concession and write them out under the following headings

Number Connectives Asyndetic

of subordination
sentence conjunctions conjunctive conjunctive
pronouns adverbs

Answer the following question.

What is the position of the adverbial clause of concession in the complex
sentence in relation to the principal clause?

1. And though I had been to school in the cities and had come to Europe,
I was still a son of the tribe. (Abrahams) 2. However disagreeable Sam's
very close watch and great vigilance were to Mr. Winkle, he thought it
better to bear with them. (Ch Dickens) 3. Even though it was winter,
flowers were blooming on the rockery — a mist of small blue flowers
frailed over the marbled rocks. (O'Brien) 4. And I always want to be let do
as I like, no matter whether it is the will of gods or not. (B. Shaw) 5. Mr.
Gibson bowed, I much pleased at such a compliment from such a man, was
he lord or not. (Kruisinga) 6. Although the sun was sinking, the heat did not
seem to abate. (Bennett) 7. In a different tone he said firmly: "Surely you
will marry me even if we've got to wait, won't you, Mary?" (Cronin) 8.
Whatever happened now he would never quite get over this. (Galsworthy) 9.
She walked North-East towards the Meads, trying to soothe her own
anxiety by thinking that everyone she passed no matter how they looked had
anxieties of their own. (Galsworthy) 10. He does so in spite of the fact that
his own literary life is a surrender, or perhaps because of this. (Fox) 11. And
dimly as they saw each other, they could not have done that without the aid
of the fire. (Ch. Dickens) 12. It's a bad sign whichever it was. (Cronin) 13.
If that gentleman ever comes here again, Miss Raina will marry him: whether
he likes it or not. (B. Shaw) 14. They may attempt to break open the fortress
gates and take him out. They won't succeed, I'll take care of that, if I have to
sweep them from the gates with powder and shot. (Voynich) 15. Now,
wherever you go, you charm the world. (Wilde) 16. But at any rate, however
right or wrong these explanations were, one thing was certain — namely, that
the ship had vanished. (Cooke) 17. Do what I might, nothing could turn her
from me. (Doyle) 18. Notwithstanding it was enlivened by several exciting
incidents, I was very glad when it was over. (Lang) 19. Even had he been able
to make his lips move the man would not have understood him. (Sillitoe)

Exercise 2. Make up complex sentences with adverbial clauses of

concession according to the patterns

Pattern I
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
indicative mood any connective indicative mood

e.g. The boy plays chess well though he is only ten years old.

1. Although Belgium ... small it has a large population. 2. I won't do it

even if ... . 3. Though he has been warned ... .4. I am going to help the man
whatever mother ... . 5. No matter what your friend has written ... . 6. ...
whether he wanted it or not. 7. However ... she practised without a moment's
interruption. 8. I ' l l join them no matter how ... . 9. Even though he has.
asked you to do it .... 10. She has made that major mistake again in spite of
the fact that ... . 11. They reached the place of destination before dark though ...
Pattern II
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
indicative mood any connective (a) may (might) + non-
perfect or perfect
(b) should + non-perfect
e.g. (a) He will not succeed however hard he may try.
He did not succeed however hard he may have tried.
He knew he would not succeed however hard he might try.
(b) He will not succeed however hard he should try.

1. No matter how ... you can't make him stop. 2. We shall insist upon this
course of action whether they ... .3. Whoever they ... they could not get a
satisfactory answer. 4. She realized that whatever ... . 5. Even though he ...
he is determined to proceed. 6. However much the boy should work ... . 7.
Although the ship may have altered its course in the fog ... . 8. ... no
matter when the patient might recover. 9. Even though the plane may be
delayed ... . 10. No matter how hard he should ... . 11. Whatever the boy
may have done ... . 12. However late you should get the telegram ... 13. No
matter how well you should feel tomorrow the doctor's order is ... . 14. ...
though the results of the new experiment should be slightly different.

Pattern III
Principal Clause Subordinate Clause

oblique mood forms of even if oblique mood forms of

the type should/would even though the type were, spoke(had
speak (should/ would been, had spoken)
have spoken)

e.g. They would not come on time even though we warned them.
They would not have come on time even though we had warned them

1. Even though the trip had been more dangerous ... .2. I should never
play the piano as well as you do even if ... . 3. Even if ..., they would stay
there overnight. 4. The crew would have been rescued even though ... . 5.
The man ... even if you had not asked him for help. 6. Even though the
travellers were aware of the danger ... .7. ... even though you could not get
him on the phone. 8. ... it will reach the place of destination in time.

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English using adverbial

clauses of concession. Give variants with different connectives, moods, and
modal verbs
1. Что бы ты там ни говорил, я буду поступать так, как решила. 2.
Кто бы ни пришел, не мешайте мне. 3. Где бы он сейчас ни был,
немедленно найдите его и приведите сюда. 4. Когда бы вы ни пришли домой,
позвоните мне по телефону. 5. Как бы поздно он ни ложился спать, он всегда
встает в 6 часов утра. 6. Как бы рано вы ни встали, разбудите меня 7.
Каков бы ни был ответ, дайте мне знать сразу. 8. К кому бы я ни
обращался, никто не может решить эту задачу 9. Куда бы я ни пошла,
всюду встречаю знакомых. 10. Сколько бы я ни занимался, все мне кажется,
что я плохо знаю урок. 11. Кем бы вы ни хотели быть — переводчиком
или преподавателем, прежде всего вы должны хорошо знать язык. 12.
Пусть даже он не сможет довести работу до конца, он сделает большую
часть и облегчит этим нашу задачу. 13. Хотя бы даже было и очень холодно,
я бы с удовольствием пошел пешком. 14. Пускай бы даже его и не было
сейчас дома, все равно надо отнести ему книгу, как мы обещали. 15. Мы
всегда знали, — что бы ни случилось, мы могли обратиться к нашей старой
учительнице за советом и помощью.

Exercise 4. Classify the subordinate clauses joined by “as” into attributive
and adverbial. State whether “as” is a relative pronoun or a conjunction.
Translate the sentences into Russian
1. Roy did as he was told, and as he felt the weight taken off his back he
found it more difficult to stand. (Aldridge) 2. Of course we all felt that it
would never do to let Father stay home, especially as we knew he would
make trouble if he did. (Leacock) 3. I never saw such luck as that fellow
had! (Cronin) 4. As he went farther west, he decided to take a chance on
killing game to eat. (Aldridge) 5. Roy was so tired as he walked in the night
that sleep seemed all the ultimate good that man could require. (Aldridge) 6. I
want you in my room and as Helen Burns is with you, she may come too. (Ch.
Bronte) 7. Homely as it looks, this thing has some deadly story linked on to it.
(Doyle) 8. In the morning Miss Murdstone appeared as usual, and told me I
was going to school; which was not altogether such news to me as she
supposed. (Ch. Dickens) 9. It was too far for me to go, weak and ill as I was.
(Doyle) 10. Early as he was, another man was there before him. (Dreiser) 11.
This is not the place to say much about Saltoun, little as was known of him
and much as there was worth knowing. (Chesterton)



The Subject

Exercise 1. Point out the subject in the following sentences and state by
what part of speech it is expressed
1 . The boys took no notice of her. (Lawrence) 2. It was a windy,
whispering, moonless night. (Hardy) 3. To be old and hale was
remarkable. (Wells) 4. A cheerful fire was blazing on the hearth.
(Dickens) 5. There was not the faintest breeze to stir the warm, sleepy
air. (Galsworthy) 6. Tiny seagulls, like specks of spray, wheeled above
the line of surf. (Lawrence) 7. It was bitterly cold. The wind cut like a
knife. (Jerome) 8. "Whose boy are you?" said old Ma Parker...
( M a n s f i e l d ) 9. His was the student's mind... (London) 10. She nodded
her head in agreement... (London) 11. Here one may loiter and dream in
utter restfulness... ( G i s s i n g ) 12. The two walked in silence.
(Lawrence) 13. ...i t looked like r a in ... (Bennett) 14. "What did the
accused say?" (Gordon) 15. There was coolness in the wood, a scent of
leaves, of honeysuckle, and twilight. (Lawrence) 16. A l i t t l e band of
sparrows were squabbling and twittering noisily in the lilacs of one of the
gardens. ( A l d i n g t o n ) 17. One of the typists entered with a sheaf of
documents. (Gordon) 18. I touched the heath: it was dry and yet
warm with the' heat of the summer-day. (Bronte) 19. There came a
laugh, high, gay, sweet. (Galsworthy) 20. "It is in vain for a boy to
attempt to do it." (Dickens) 21. It was pleasant to observe the fresh
flowers in the room. (Dickens) 22. There was a long silence.
(Wodehouse) 23. Very soon one of the ladies returned... (Bronte) 24.
Cyril seemed to be made specially for school. (Bennett) 25. "Yes!" was
all he answered. (Galsworthy) 26. One would certainly suppose her to be
farther on in life than her seventeenth year... ( E l i o t ) 27. On the shore
there was a group of fishermen... ( H i t c h e n s ) 28. Rowing is my
favourite sport. (Maugham) 29. Her being so employed was, I must
say, a great relief to me... (Bronte)

Exercise 2. State in which of the following sentences „It‟ is an

anticipatory subject, a substitute for a noun or a demonstrative pronoun
or a formal subject
1. It's none of your business anyway. 2. It was warm and sunny, the sea
a strip of faintly wrinkled silk in the distance. 3. Was it really necessary to
mention it in front of Aunt Kate? 4. It will be so nice for Edna to have
somebody to talk to. 5. Is it really so late? 6. Is it your dog? 7. It was no
one I knew. 8 He made another step towards the door without taking his
eyes on the dog. It did not object. It was not even looking. If only it
were possible to reach that door in a sudden rush and bang it in the
animal's silly face! 9. Are you sure it is cats? It sounds like a baby crying.
10. It was only a mile or so to the river. 11. Andover, Miss? It is quite
close by. 12. It was already settled and it was no earthly use my objecting.
13. It was Monday and time to get up. 14. It was raining softly all the way
to London. 15. He felt in his pocket for the money. It was right there, safe
enough for the present.

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with “it” or “there” to suit the corresponding
meanings of the sentences
1. a) … was too windy. … was no use going to the beach. b) … was no
wind, though … was very cold. 2. a) … was day already. … was a ride in the
country to look forward to. b) … was still a day to spare. … was lucky. 3. a) …
wasn‘t light enough. … was difficult to read. b) … was light coming through
the trees. … was hope in it. 4. a) … was a great joy to get the news of our
team's victory, ... was a celebration ahead. b) ... was joy written all over his
face. ... was no sham. 5. a)... could be anybody. ... was difficult to see through
the mist. b) ... was nobody in the house. ...could be no mistake about it. 6. a) ...
was not much to be added, and ... was a relief. b) ... was too much to be said
about him, ... was felt by everyone present. 7. a) ... is another letter from
Polly, isn't ... fine? b) ... was another of his letters, and ... was a lot of
bitterness expressed there. 8. a) Is ... so serious? Is ... really much to be
worried about? b) ... is nothing serious about it. ... is no cause for anxiety
whatsoever. 9. a) ... is as ... should be. And from now on ... will be a steady
tendency for improvement. b)... should be another alternative still. ... is always
preferable to have more than one possibility to choose from. 10. a) ... is about
ten already. ... is time to start. b) ... is all the time we need. ... is no need to
be in a hurry.

The Predicate

Exercise 1. Point out the predicate and say to what type it belongs.
Translate into Russian
1. ―It‘s no use,‖ she said quietly. ―I am bound to Morris.‖ (Prichard) 2. Her
feet were never bound as the Chinese then bound the feet of their girls. (Buck)
3. ―I don‘t want to tell you,‖ said Galahad. ―But you are bound to have it.‖
(Erskine) 4. ―You are not bound to answer that question,‖ he said to Rachel.
(Collins) 5. One of them was later sent to board in a missionary school and she
was compelled to lose the foot bandages. (Buck) 6. When she was sixteen she
was a beauty. As the result she was compelled to go to the Emperor‘s palace.
(Buck) 7. I was compelled to idleness. I had to listen to her long monologues on
the Japanese. (Buck) 8. My mother was plainly fading. I was increasingly
anxious about her. (Buck) 9. We were anxious to cooperate. 10. My father gave
it to my mother. It is the only possession I was able to save. (Douglas)
Exercise 2. Consider the predicates in the following sentences. Distinguish
between the auxiliary, linking and notional verbs. Translate into Russian
1. You are absolutely wrong. 2. They are in the library now. 3. When the
famous actress appeared on the stage she was met with a tumultuous applause.
4. The man appeared outwardly calm. 5. She is getting restless. 6. Very soon he
will be getting promotion. 7. The remark sounded rude. 8. The doctor sounded
the patient carefully. 9. The old sailor grew red in the face. 10. The vegetables
grow very well on this rich soil. 11. All this will turn up trumps in the end. 12.
The car turned the corner and stopped.

Exercise 3. Point out the predicative in the following sentences and state
by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian
1. He looked young, erect, and well. 2. ―The young man,‖ said the general,
―seemed a decent fellow, I thought.‖ 3. It was he who persuaded them to meet
us at the station. 4. The chief was a friend of Christie‘s and she knew that she
was one of his favourites. 5. His first instinct was to pass on without a word, but
Lawson did not give him the opportunity. 6. The best thing is doing it at once.
7. Pearson sounded relieved. 8. My greatest wish in the world is that you should
be happy. 9. He could not believe the child was only six, for his voice had the
power of an eleven-year-old‘s. 10. Suddenly he felt afraid.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with link-verbs retaining their lexical

meaning: “to set”, “to stand”, “to lie”, “to leave”, “to return”, “to come
back”, “to live”, “to die”, “to be born”, “to fall”, “to get up”, so that they
should form a compound nominal predicate with the predicatives in bold type
Model: He – a new man.
He returned (came back) a new man.
1. The child – blind. 2. They – there for a long time respected by
everybody. 3. All through the night she – sleepless waiting for the telegram to
come. 4. The huge beast – motionless, his amber eyes were slits. 5. He – the
place determined never to go back. 6. The house still – there grey and
forbidding. 7. She – in the doorway listening ready to draw back at the
slightest noise. 8. The woman made two or three uncertain steps, clutched at her
throat and – dead, or so I thought at the moment. 9. The children – tired to
exhaustion. 10. We just – there too, frightened to move or call out. 11. The
woman – a little alarmed. 12. He – a helpless cripple.

Exercise 5. Translate into English using the compound nominal predicate

1. Она выбрала стул с прямой спинкой, и он оказался удобнее других.
2. В конце выступления его голос звучал странно. 3. Она оказалась на
несколько лет моложе меня. 4. Тишина стала гнетущей. 5. Яблоки были не
совсем спелые, но приятные на вкус. 6. Он старался казаться бодрым и
оживленным, но чувствовал себя совсем больным. 7. Софья оставалась
молчаливой весь вечер. 8. Заброшенный колодец совсем высох. 9. Дверь
распахнулась, и на пороге появился Майкл. 10. Сегодня вы выглядите на
десять лет моложе, чем обычно. 11. Сохраняйте спокойствие, господа,
ничего особенного не случилось. 12. Ткань была мягкой и шелковистой на
ощупь. 13. Становится сыро, пора возвращаться домой. 14. Мелодия
показалась ему знакомой, но он не мог припомнить, когда и где ее

Exercise 6. Expand the predicates of the following sentences by phasal

and modal verbs. Make the necessary changes and additions to justify the
1. All of them understood the purpose of the task. 2. It rains or it snows. 3.
Nora hesitated. 4. He was aware of somebody‘s presence. 5. The plan will be
fulfilled ahead of time. 6. The pictures are marvellous. 7. The tea-party is a
success. 8. Very soon Father will return from work. 9. The car moved faster. 10.
We saw behind his schemes. 11. The performance was over. 12. The air-liner
arrives in half an hour.

Exercise 7. Translate into English using the compound phasal or modal

1. Необходимо продолжать попытки наладить с ними прямую
радиосвязь. 2. Сергей, должно быть, знает этот вопрос лучше, чем я. 3. Он
начал колебаться в своем выборе. 4. Нам следует внимательно продумать
организацию занятий. 5. Я бы на вашем месте перестал волноваться. 6.
Соглашайтесь, пока не поздно; они могут передумать. 7. Позвоните ему,
если вам нужно срочно с ним посоветоваться; в это время он может не
быть занят. 8. Известие может показаться довольно странным. 9. Нам
приходится быть готовыми ко всему. 10. Мне это стало нравиться. 11. В
молодости он ведь был хорошим оратором. 12. Поэтом можешь ты не
быть, но гражданином быть обязан!

Exercise 8. Analyze the predicate in the following sentences

1. Lowering the lamp, he turned his face towards the fire. ( Galsworthy ) 2. I
had been reading to Peggotty about crocodiles. (Dickens) 3. ―I have been an
apprentice, and a workman.‖ (Dickens) 4. …the little clock on the mantelpiece
had just struck nine. (Gordon) 5. ―I don‘t want to explain that…‖ (Eliot) 6. All
the next day he remained at home… (Hardy) 7. He was of dark complexion…
(Hardy) 8. How dare you say such a thing? (Shaw) 9. ―You have grown.‖
(Gordon) 10. The path grew steep and the horses climbed slowly. (Gordon) 11.
―We‘d a deal of work to finish up last night,‖ replied the girl… (Dickens) 12.
Night had come. Here and there windows glowed yellow in the misty darkness.
(La Mure) 13. The man was trying to wind up his car…(Greene) 14. The
weather continued calm. (Defoe) 15. ―What am I to do?‖ (Bronte) 16. He was
very fond of his sister and meant always to take care of her… (Eliot) 17. I was
soon asleep. (Bronte) 18. He went on talking. (Maxwell) 19. The night had
seemed strangely silent. (Hardy) 20. ―You ought to take care of yourself.‖

Exercise 9. Translate into English paying attention to the predicate

1. У вашего велосипеда слишком высокое седло. 2. Новости были
ободряющими. 3. Больной начинает чувствовать себя лучше. 4. Народ на
площади ожидал появления главы государства. 5. Некоторые правила
могут показаться трудными для запоминания. 6. Роман оказался совсем не
скучным. 7. Он не будет против нашего предложения. 8. Не думаю, что им
будет трудно привыкнуть к новым порядкам. 9. Не пора ли приступить к
испытанию двигателя? 10. Консультации, если я не ошибаюсь, должны
были начаться в девять часов утра. 11. Ребята продолжали играть, как ни в
чем не бывало. 12. Саша вышел из кабинета директора бледный и
взволнованный. 13. Где моя трость и шляпа? 14. Молодая пара не
обращала внимания на то, что происходило вокруг. 15. Весь персонал
должен был собраться в актовом зале. 16. Вся их семья – художники и
архитекторы. 17. Ваши известия – новая надежда для меня. 18. Эти духи
удивительно приятно пахнут. 19. Он почувствовал, что начинает сходить с
ума. 20. Она бросила на него взгляд, полный любви и нежности. 21. Вы
должны перестать разговаривать друг с другом, когда к вам обращается

Exercise 10. Use the proper form of the verb in brackets paying attention
to its grammatical agreement with the subject
A) 1. Nobody (to pick) his parents. 2. There (to be) something in his eye that
(to be) unusual. 3. If there (to be) anything you need, give me a call. 4. Each
and every one of you (to be) good. 5. There (to be) a lot of children about and a
good many babies in the park. 6. At the top pf the stairs he hesitated between
four doors. Which of them (to be) Timothy‘s? 7. ―(to be) you crazy, or (to be)
I?‖ – ―Neither of us (to be), I trust.‖ 8. Presently all (to be) quiet again. 9. I
warned Val that neither of them (to be) to be spoken to about old matters.
B) 1. Neither of the examples (to be) good. 2. Either you or John (to have)
broken this cup. 3. It (to be) I who (to be) on duty today. 4. I (to be) afraid it (to
be) you, Tom, who (to be) in the way. 5. Three and a half dollars a day (to be)
not a lot of money. 6. Either of the books (to be) interesting. 7. There (to be)
lots of history and biography. 8. There (to be) a lot in what you say. 9. There (to
be) a lot good books in our library. 10. There (to be) plenty we can do. 11.
There (to be) a dozen people there. 12. A group of men (to be) standing on the
C) 1. The police, of course, (to be) helpless. 2. It (to be) a pity, Freemantle
thought, that the remainder of the crowd, who (to be) waiting downstairs, could
not have heard him up here. 3. The government (to have) got their eye on him.
4. His audience (to be) getting impatient. 5. The Berksfeld family (to be)
perpetually short of money.6. Most of the senior Barford staff (to be) already
there. 7. In a quiet bystreet a German band of five players in faded uniforms and
with battered brass instruments (to be) playing to an audience of street arabs
and leisurely messenger boys. 8. Their party (to be) divided into several groups,
each accompanied by two men.
D) 1. His eyes (to be) large and blue, but the blue (to be) very pale, and they
looked rather tired already. 2. The French (to see) these things differently from
us. 3. How foolish the old (to be), thinking they could tell what the young felt.
4. Some of the wounded (to be) noisy, but most (to be) quite. 5. Everybody (to
know) that the poor (to be) splendid to one another. 6. Now and again, the quiet
(to be) broken by the crack-cracking of musket fire in the last line of defences.
7. Every elector thinks his own good (to be) the good of the country.

The Object

Exercise 1. Consider different types of objects (direct, indirect,

prepositional). Translate into Russian
1. A red salvage truck engaged gear and roared away. 2. The doorway was
occupied by a bulky man with a brown attache case. 3. His mother held out his
jacket for him. 4. Why are you afraid of diving? 5. We must keep the tele-
phone line open to the office. 6. Spencer put out a hand to steady himself. 7.
He had been thankful for the chance to sleep. 8. The clerk nodded approval. 9.
Remind the newspaper office to cover the possible evacuation of houses. 10. He
couldn't think of a thing to say. 11. We shall depend only on you in this matter,
shan't we? 12. No worry, sir, the doctor will be attending to her presently. 13. The
inspector allowed himself a smile. 14. Do you want to have the printed records at
once? 15. I'm sorry to have disturbed you. 16. Clearly she I wasn't thought of the
possibility. 17. To go such a long way on foot — impossible! 18. The family were
busy packing for the trip. 19. We may offer to you three more of the same. 20.
He shook himself out another cigarette. 21. This slender girl will make an
excellent teacher.

Exercise 2. Point out the object, state its type and say by what it is
1. What have you got there to ask? 2. Who told you that? 3. I know all about
it. 4. We watched the cab drive away. 5. You must forgive me coming at such a
late hour. 6. She didn't know how to talk with him about it. 7. She smiled an
encouraging smile and said: "I wish you good luck." 8. He wanted not to
arrest a criminal red-handed, but to prevent a crime being committed. 9. Hang
sorrow, care" 11 kill a cat. 10. You must look into people as well as at them.
11. When you have nothing to say, say nothing. 12. Never take anything for
granted. 13. Ask me no questions, and I'll tell you no lies. 14. If you do not think
about the future, you cannot have one. 15. Modern poets mix too much water
with their ink. 16. We drink one another's healths and spoil our own. 17. It is
impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do. 18.
The best way to make the children good, is to make them happy. 19.
People ask you for criticism, but they only want praise. 20. When people
agree with me I always feel that I must be wrong. 21. Everybody talks about
the weather but nobody does anything about it. 22. Every quotation contributes
something to the stability or enlargement of the language.

Exercise 3. Extend the following sentences by adding indirect objects to the

verbs in bold type. Replace the indirect object by a prepositional indirect object
Model: I bought a box of chocolate creams.
I bought my little daughter a box of chocolate creams.
I bought a box of chocolate creams for my little daughter.
1. She walked about the room handing cups of tea and slices of seedcake with
a pretty smile. 2. Promise to send a telegram the moment you arrive. 3. She
brought a couple of folding chairs. 4. Only once did she tell the story of her life.
5. Intentionally or not you caused much anxiety. 6. She spent the morning baking
a chocolate layer cake. 7. I know a shortcut to the valley and I‘ll show it. 8. Can‘t
you offer anything more interesting than this? 9. I‘ll buy a good box of water
colours. 10. I have made some coffee.

Exercise 4. Translate into English paying attention to the objects of different

1. Он посвящал музыке все свободное время. 2. Объясните мне,
пожалуйста, значение новых слов. 3. Мы приписываем теплому течению
мягкий климат этого острова. 4. Он открыл нам секрет своего
изобретения. 5. Байрон посвятил одну из своих поэм Гете. 6. Вы
видели, чтобы кто-нибудь вышел из комнаты? 7. Она объявила нам о
своем желании уехать работать на целину. 8. Не приписывайте мне
того, чего я никогда не делал. 9. Он посвящает общественной работе все
свое свободное время. 10. Мне вчера не починили часы. 11. Я никогда не
слышал, чтобы об этом студенте плохо отзывались. 12. Я хочу перешить
свое пальто. 13. Войдя в картинную галерею, я увидела мою
приятельницу, стоявшую у окна. 14. Она хотела, чтобы ей сшили пальто
к Новому году. 15. Спойте нам. 16. Спойте нам еще одну арию из
«Евгения Онегина».

Exercise 5. Complete each sentence in such a way that it is as similar as

possible in meaning to the sentence or sentences before it
Example: They had it. Now we have it.--> They gave it to us (OR They
gave us it)
1. She quietly wished him, 'Good luck.'
She whispered................................... …………………………
2. She was ordered by the judge to pay £500 for speeding.
The judge fined ................................. ………………………...
3. The farmer wouldn't give permission to us to walk across his field.
The farmer refused……………………………………………
4. James took Caroline's book. He told me.
James confessed……………………………………..……….

Exercise 6. Some of these sentences contain grammatical mistakes. Tick (v)

the correct sentences, then find and correct the mistakes
0. He was accused by fraud of the newspapers.
.. .......He was accused of fraud of the newspapers............ …………
1. The firing squad aimed at the condemned man their rifles.
2. Our accountant provided us with the end of year accounts.
3. The brilliant architect presented us to her imaginative proposals.
4 . My uncle blames on his hearing problems old age.
6. The Prime Minister disagreed with the cabinet over the new welfare scheme.
7. Do you agree about her with the corporate sponsorship deal?
8. The crippled patient was cured of the doctor's radical new treatment of
9. Why won't you even discuss her with it?
9. The plane was saved from disaster by the quick thinking of the crew
10. Gerald was accused of the court by lying under oath.

The Attribute

Exercise 1. Point out all the attributes and state in what way they are
1. The lilacs in full flower scented the air. (Galsworthy) 2. She touched the
white ruffles of the roses. Their fresh scent and cool, soft leaves reminded her
of the morning-time and sunshine. (Lawrence) 3. A window in his Uncle‘s old
home blazed like a jewel in the sun‘s last rays between the poplar trees.
(Galsworthy) 4. He could see the soft blue-grey-balloon-shaped oaks.
(Galsworthy) 5. Soft white clouds began to spread their wings over the woods.
(Galsworthy) 6. The room was hot, with a scent of new bread. Brown, crisp
loaves stood on the hearth. (Lawrence) 7. We could see a wild stone-walled
park. (Galsworthy) 8. The streets were filled with the rush-hour floods of
people. (Henry) 9. The studio was filled with the rich odour of
roses…(Galsworthy) 10. …he could see there… a sky grape-coloured, in the
mild, moist night. (Galsworthy) 11. It was a prettily furnished room, with a
piano and some lively furniture in red and green, and some flowers. (Dickens)
12. It was a very cold day, with cutting blasts of wind. (Dickens) 13. My aunt‘s
handmaid… put her rice in a little basket and walked out of the shop…
(Dickens) 14. But at dinner there were plans to be made. (Galsworthy) 15. The
stay-at-home mothers stood gossiping at the corners of the alley… (Lawrence)
16. From outside came the shrill distant notes of train whistles, rather silvery
and exquisite, bringing the yearning for travel… (Aldington) 17. He was a
beautiful child, with dark golden ringlets and dark-blue eyes… (Lawrence) 18.
…Soames put his catalogue before his face, and drawing his hat forward, gazed
through the slit between. (Galsworthy) 19. Soames rounded the last bend and
came in sight of his father‘s tall figure wrapped in a brown silk quilted gown,
stooping over the balustrade above. (Galsworthy) 20. The sun glinted on his
wind-blown hair and on the weather-tanned face. (Cusack)

Exercise 2. Analyse appositions in the following sentences

1. It was Saturday, so the boys were early home from school, quick, shy,
dark little rascals of seven and six… (Galsworthy) 2. Constance had a mind to
engage an errand-boy, a luxury against which Samuel had always set his face.
(Bennett) 3. The evening star, Venus. The brightest of our planets, twinkles in
the west. (Potter) 4. I always used to come that way to see Uncle Jolyon.
(Galsworthy) 5. And the girl who waited on them, the daughter of the
innkeeper, was herself a very agreeable thing to look at… (Chesterton) 6.
Dyke‘s house was close at hand, a very pleasant little cottage, painted white,
with green blinds and deep porches. (Norris) 7. Nurse Lloyd was openly and
bitterly his enemy. (Cronin) 8. A back attic on the second floor was now
transformed into a studio – an apartment, which smelt of oil and damp clay.
(Bennett) 9. Wolfe listened to the Colonel talking angrily to Major Williams,
and ordering cars and tents up. (Aldridge) 10. The first patient whom Martin
had in the new office… was Nils Crag, the carpenter. (L.Sinclair)

The Adverbial Modifier

Exercise 1. Point out adverbial modifiers in the following sentences. State

their types. Translate into Russian
1. A secretary came running with a frightened expression. 2. Mary
descended the slope very easily. 3. The people in the bus remained silent till the
end of the ride. 4. In spite of their lively talk each of them had something in
reserve. 5. Alfred returned presently with quite a creditable assortment of tools.
6. They were just passing in through a side door. 7. The lady lived in a large
gloomy house in one of London‘s higher class squares. 8. The fire that was
merrily burning in the grate attracted the newcomers as a magnet. 9. Bill was
much too exhausted from his night vigil to be of any further help. 10. The room
was empty save for a small boy playing with his toys in a corner. 11. But for
sheer coincidence, you would hardly be likely to run across him in this busy
place. 12. Caroline, not knowing what to say, looked questioningly at her
companion. 13. The village is large enough to organize a drama society for the
young folk. 14. Despite his easy smile, the man was woefully difficult to deal
with. 15. The woman cried out in spite of herself. 16. Whatever the
circumstances, you must be confident of your just cause, my friends. 17. The
motorcycle rushed past like a lightning leaving a cloud of smoke and a few
stunned passers-by behind. 18. In case of any emergency, press the knob on
your right.

Exercise 2. Point out the adverbial modifier, state its type and say by what
it is expressed
1. We‘ve never met before, have we? 2. It‘s bitterly cold outside. 3. They
booked tickets well in advance. 4. The bus went on at full speed without
stopping. 5. I arrived at three o‘clock in the afternoon. 6. We were to meet at
Victoria Station the next day. 7. That very evening I came across her at a party
in my friend‘s house. 8. I stepped aside so as to let her pass. 9. By half past nine
I was at home again. 10. Some time ago Mr. Sherlock Holmes and I spent a few
weeks in one of our great university towns. 11. New stations were set up at the
pole to study meteorological conditions. 12. She stopped to look at the shop
window. 13. I asked the question out of curiosity. 14. With all her faults, she
was quite charming. 15. He can‘t have left without saying good-bye. 16. To win
the world title the team had done a lot of training every day throughout the
winter. 17. Read the text thoroughly before trying to translate it. 18. Now you
can sleep quietly without worrying. 19. They parted never to meet again. 20. I
was too tired even to dream. 21. Most of my readers are too young to have
heard of the Reichstag fire at the time. 22. This is how I got out of the frying-
pan into the fire. 23. It is easy to be brave from a safe distance. 24. My honour
is dearer to me than my life. 25. People hate, as they love, unreasonably. 26.
Being very tired from his trip, he soon fell asleep. 27. Though terribly tired he
went on with the experiment. 28. It being a late hour, he hurried home. 29. He
walked rapidly, his head bent, looking neither to the right nor left. 30. ―Well,
where does that door lead to?‖ ―To my bedroom.‖ ―Have you been in it since
your adventure?‖ ―No, I came straight away for you.‖ ―I would like to have a
look at it. Perhaps you will kindly wait a minute, until I have examined the

Exercise 3. Point out the homogeneous parts in the following sentences.

State their structure and function. Translate into Russian
1. The ascent was long and tiring. 2. The smoke curled up over the chimneys
and melted in the morning air. 3. Your objection is interesting, but not
convincing. 4. They can, and do get their small supplies from Calcutta. 5. The
man looked worldly, and elegant, and confident of himself. 6. Poor Dicky had
no word of cheer either from his stepmother, or from his stepsister, or from the
nurse. 7. Both the coach and the boys will be delighted to see you in our team
again. 8. He felt neither defeated, nor discouraged in any way. 9. Have a
sandwich and a cup of tea with jam and biscuit and join us down in the hall. 10.
Once or twice the two envoys met on a neutral ground, but neither of them was
going to make or willing to accept a suggestion for an early resumption of talks
on the disputed matters. 11. The dancer returned to the stage, made a curtsey,
then kissed her hand to the audience and left amid a stormy applause. 12. Two
oval white clouds, silvery and golden at the edges, floated like twin fairy swans
over the crystal blue of the southern sky. 13. The proverbial, infinite, all-
embracing erudition of the professor has won him profound estimation not only
of his friends and colleagues, but also of his scientific opponents.

Exercise 4. Say what parts of the sentence are introduced by the

preposition “with” or “without”
1. Steger was beside himself with fear. (Dreiser) 2. Basil, let us have
something iced to drink, something with strawberries in it. (Wilde) 3. She
continued silent, leaning back, her smile now glowing with all its insolence.
(Murdoch) 4. His friend Francesco Granacci was a nineteen year-old youth, a
head taller than himself, with hay-coloured hair and alert blue eyes. (Stone) 5.
Without beauty of feature or elegance of form, she pleased. Without youth and
its gay graces, she cheered. (Ch. Bronte) 6. The real bourgeois Ruth, with all the
bourgeois failings and with he hopeless cramp of the bourgeois psychology in
her mind, he had never loved. (London) 7. Mr. Godfrey‘s fine eyes filled with
tears. (Collins) 8. The gravel paths were moist and the grass was wet and with
dew. (Hemingway) 9. There were villas with iron fences and big overgrown
gardens and ditches with water flowing and green vegetable gardens with dust
on the leaves. (Hemingway) 10. My Anna is worth two of her, with all her
beauty and talent. (Elliot) 11. He was standing now with the waves breaking at
his feet. (Lawrence)

Exercise 5. Analyze the prepositional phrases in the following sentences

and state in what syntactical functions they are used
1. The boat-house was a vast structure with a high roof lost in shadows. 2.
There was a window in the back of the boat-house. 3. I know nothing against
his way of life, madam. 4. She rose, yawned, nodded to us and went in to warn
her family of our arrival. 5. The members of my household, naturally, are above
suspicion. 6. Gregory agreed to this after a time. 7. He was strongly in favour of
starting at once. 8. I did not feel like going over all this again. 9. When you feel
up to talking of this you‘ll tell me everything. 10. Max pushed the damp hair off
his brow with a gesture almost of desperation. 11. Frightened of the man‘s
presence or hurt by our tugging and by the friction of sand and pebbles, the
animal began to struggle.
Exercise 6. Point out all the detached secondary parts of the sentence,
state by what they are expressed and define their functions
1. He ate little, quickly, watchfully. (Galsworthy) 2. Slowly, sleepily and
with almost monotonous regularity, the waves flopped on the sand. (Gordon) 3.
A leaf, golden yellow, drifted to her feet. (Cusack) 4. A blackbird broke in on
his reverie with an evening song – a great big fellow up in that acacia-tree.
(Galsworthy) 5. Down below, in the garden beds, the red and yellow tulips,
heavy with flowers, seemed to lean upon the dusk. (Mansfield) 6. Below me
spread a long reach of the lake, steel-grey between its dim colourless shores.
(Gissing) 7. On the landing, close to the open door, she stood still. (Galsworthy)
8. And, with a start, Jon looked up at her. (Galsworthy) 9. Naturally not abrupt,
except when nervously excited, Jolyon had become control incarnate.
(Galsworthy) 10. There, above rises the heath, yellow-mantled with gorse…
(Gissing) 11. On the branch hard by warbles a little bird, glad in his leafy
solitude. (Gissing) 12. In the night, as always, things looked unfamiliar…
(Galsworthy) 13. He was a bright boy… healthy and strong… (London) 14. In
spite of himself, something swelled in his breast. (Galsworthy) 15. Night came
wonderfully there, among the throng of dark tree-trunks. (Lawrence) 16. One
bird going to bed later than the others was uttering a half-hearted twitter, as
though surprised at the darkness. (Galsworthy) 17. It was the hour of sunset,
unnoticed in cities, so beautiful and solemn in the country. (La Mure) 18.
Round the broken top of the tower ivy bushed out, old and handsome.
(Lawrence) 19. As always, there were people in the park… (Maxwell) 20.
While skating along at full speed, they heard the cars from Amsterdam coming
close behind them. (Dodge)

Word Order

Exercise 1. Explain the instances of inversion in the following sentences

1. From a big house to our left came a blaze of light and music. (Braine) 2.
…and then down came the rain, with a force and fury that swept everything
before it. (Dickens) 3. Great was Mr. Tulliver‘s wonder… (Eliot) 4. There lay
his book open just as he had left it… (Hardy) 5. About a quarter of a mile off, in
a quiet, substantial-looking street, stood an old redbrick house with three steps
before the door… (Dickens) 6. She had hardly said a word since they left the
harbour. Neither had he. (Cusack) 7. I‘m going to swim. – So am I… (Saroyan)
8. Down jumped the driver, and out got Mr. Pickwick. (Dickens) 9. On the
cream-painted bookcase was a bowl of anemones… (Braine) 10. Never had I
seen a face so happy, sweet, and radiant… (Galsworthy) 11. Amid the green
pastures lie fields yellow with golden grain…

Exercise 2. Comment upon the position and the order of the attributes and
say where it can be changed
1. In the rich brown atmosphere peculiar to back rooms in the mansion of a
Forsyte the Rembrandtesque effect… was spoiled by the moustache…
(Galsworthy) 2. In front of her on a low mosaic table was the tray of drinks and
three glasses. (Murdoch) 3. We simply couldn‘t conduct our business, my dear
young man, without scrupulous honesty in everybody. (Galsworthy) 4. When
her cry was over Dulcie got up and took off her best dress, and put on her old
blue kimono. (O. Henry) 5. On the third finger, set in a gold ring, was the great
white sapphire. (Murdoch) 6. Henry Ogden wore finger-rings and a big gold
watch and careful neckties. (O. Henry) 7. He looked in at a place on the way.
―H‘m! in perfect order of the eighties, with a sort of yellow oilskin paper on the
walls.‖ (Galsworthy) 8. Ting-a-ling gave it a slight lick with his curly blackish
tongue. (Galsworthy) 9. Now and then Liz hummed bars of foolish little songs.
(O. Henry) 10. Sensitive, imaginative, affectionate boys get a bad time at
school… (Galsworthy) 11. A little unsteadily but with watchful and brilliant
eyes Liz walked up the avenue. (O. Henry) 12. Her mother was speaking in her
low, pleasing, slightly metallic voice – one word she caught: ―Demain.‖
(Galsworthy) 13. He put his packet of easy vegetables very deliberately on the
new violet tablecloth, removed his hat carefully, and dabbled his brow, and
wiped out his hat brim with an abundant crimson and yellow pocket
handkerchief. (Wells) 14. Then there was a moment of absolute silence.
(Douglas) 15. Antonia stood on the thick black rug by the fire. (Murdoch)

Exercise 3. Arrange the attributes in their proper order

1. Alongside, in the… water, weeds, like yellow snakes were writhing and
nosing with the_____ current. (green, deep) (Galsworthy) 2. The marqueterie
cabinet was lined with ____________ plush, full of family relics. (red, dim)
(Galsworthy) 3. In _____________ slippers and an ___________________ coat
Keith Darrant sits asleep. (red, Turkish; old, velvet, brown) (Galsworthy) 4. He,
alone, perhaps, of painters would have done justice to Annette in
her___________ dress. (lacy, black) (Galsworthy) 5. Ting-a-ling did not stir.
―You take me for a __________ dog, sir!‖ his silence seemed to say. (English,
common) (Galsworthy) 6. This letter, with a _____________ border and seal,
was accordingly dispatched by Sir Pitt Crawley to his brother the Colonel in
London. (huge, black) (Thackeray) 7. Behrman in his _________________
shirt, took his seat as the hermit miner on an upturned kettle for a rock. (blue,
old) (O. Henry) 8. The next day came the ____________ bull, drawing the cart
to the office door. (red, little) (O. Henry) 9. He was naked and painted blue ad
yellow in stripes a ___________ chap. (jolly, little) (Galsworthy) 10. ―You and
I,‖ the little dog seemed saying with his ______________ stare ―object.‖ (little,
Chinese) (Galsworthy)

Exercise 4. Comment upon the position of the adverbials. Say whether
they can be placed differently
1. She turned away and pulled off her overcoat with a sudden gesture and
went to the side table where the drinks and the glasses stood. (Murdoch) 2. She
flattered me and lavishly displayed for my pleasure all her charms and
accomplishments. (Eliot) 3. I want to get away from home for a time for a
certain reason. (Dreiser) 4. How long do you remain in town? (Wilde) 5. Once
inside the prison yard, Zanders turned to the left into a small office. (Dreiser) 6.
In the driving-seat, with his head fallen sideways so that he was almost toppling
out on to the road, was Calvin Blick. (Murdoch) 7. He looked at her more than
once, not stealthily or humbly, but with a movement of hardy, open
observation. (Ch. Bronte) 8. Aileen blazed at once to a furious heat. (Dreiser) 9.
She [Savina] had just arrived home. (Wilson) 10. Wearily he dropped off his
horse, made his way to his workshop, saddlebag over his shoulder. (Stone)

Exercise 5. Translate into English using inversion where necessary

1. Такова история этого знаменитого путешествия. 2. Так закончилось
это мое удивительное приключение. 3. Никогда я не видел более глупого
фильма. 4. Прошло пятнадцать секунд. И вот ракета взвилась вверх! 5. В
доме раздался взрыв. Выбежал человек, за ним другой… 6. Стены были
уставлены книжными полками. На полках стояли книги в ярких
переплетах. 7. Настолько важны были сведения, что разведчика
немедленно доставили в штаб. 8. На дорогу в аэропорт ушло полчаса.
Пока ехали, он не проронил ни слова. 9. В субботу в студенческом
общежитии состоится вечер на английском языке. Приглашаются все
студенты и преподаватели. 10. На Кубу прибыли гости из многих стран
мира, чтобы принять участие в праздновании 10-й годовщины кубинской
революции. Среди гостей – представители всех социалистических стран.
11. В Каире состоялась конференция, в которой приняли участие
представители большинства арабских стран. Ниже следует полный текст
резолюции, принятой участниками конференции.


Exercise 1. Fill In the blanks with the appropriate connectives and

define the type of clause they introduce (some connectives are suggested in
1. How would you like to live in Looking-glass House, Kitty? I wonder
... they'd give you milk in there. Oh, Kitty, how nice it would be ... we
could only get through into Looking-glass House! Let's pretend there's a
way of getting into it somehow, Kitty. Let's pretend ... the glass has got
soft like gauze, ... we can get through. She was up on the chimney-piece ...
she said this, (хотя) she hardly knew (как) she had got there.

2. In another moment Alice was through the glass, and had jumped lightly
down into the Looking-glass room. The first thing she did was to look ...
there was a fire in the fireplace and she was quite pleased to find ... there
was a real one blazing away as brightly as the one ... she had left behind.
Then she began looking about, and noticed … … could be seen from the old
room was quite common and uninteresting, (но ЧТО) all the rest was as
different as possible.
3. Just at this moment, somehow or other, they began to run. Alice never
could quite make out, in thinking over it afterwards, (как) it was ... they
began: all ... she remembers is, ... they were running hand in hand and the
Queen went so fast (что) it was all ... she could do to keep up with her; (и
все же) the Queen kept crying "Faster! Faster!" (но) Alice felt she
couldn't go faster, (хотя) she had no breath left to say so.
4. After a while the noise seemed gradually to die away, (до тех пор
пока) all was dead silence, (и) Alice lifted up her head in some alarm. There
was no one to be seen, and her first thought was ... she must have been
dreaming. (Однако) there was the great dish still lying at her feet (на
котором) she had tried to cut the plum-cake. "So I wasn't dreaming, after
all," she said to herself, "(если не) we're part of the same dream.''
5. "You're my prisoner!" the knight cried, ... he tumbled off the horse.
Startled ... she was, Alice was more frightened for him than for herself, and
watched him with some anxiety, ... he mounted again. (Как только) he was
comfortably in the saddle, he began once more: "You're my—"
6. The white knight remarked putting on his helmet: "You will observe
the rules of Battle, of course?" — "I always do," said the Red knight, ...
they begun banging away at each other with such fury ... Alice got behind a
tree to be out of the way of the blows. "I wonder, now ... the rules of
Battle are," she said to herself, ... she watched the fight, timidly peeping out
from her hiding-place: "One Rule seems to be ... (если) one knight hits the
other, he knocks him off his house, and ... he misses, he tumbles off himself
(a) another Rule seems to be ... they hold their clubs with their arms ...
they were Punch and Judy. What a noise they make ... they tumble. And
how quiet the horses are! They let them get on and off them just ... they were
tables (Carrol).

Exercise 2. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use subordinate clauses as

suggested in brackets paying attention to the use of the oblique moods
and modal verbs
M o d e l : The order was for all the things to be packed in forty minutes
(predicative clause).
The order was that all the things should be packed in forty
1. She wished to see her son a doctor, like his father (object clause). 2.
We were very sorry that they had not taken part in the New Year party
(object clause after "to wish"). 3. We have a long way to go, so it is high
time to start (subject clause). 4. What is the matter with you? You look ill
(predicative clause). 5. We were surprised at his being unaware of this
unpleasant fact (object clause). 6. What we want is to complete this series of
experiments by February (predicative clause). 7. The girl felt frightened that
she might betray her excitement (object clause with the conjunction "lest"). 8.
He made a proposal about postponing the discussion until a later date
(appositive attributive clause). 9. It is strange that he misunderstood the
meaning of her offer (subject clause). 10. My desire is for all the students
of the group to get a permit to attend this lecture (predicative clause). 11. It
is most urgent for the patient to be examined by a surgeon (subject clause).
12. I suggest reviewing all the material again (object clause). 13. He was
upset by the doctor's recommendation to change the climate for a milder
one (appositive attributive clause). 14. It looks like raining (predicative
clause). 15. Though shy and nervous, she went up straight to the chief and
flatly refused to obey (adverbial clause of concession). 16. But for the mist
we could have seen the building of the Moscow University quite clearly
(adverbial clause of condition). 17. The speaker coughed and stammered as if in
doubt how to proceed (adverbial clause of manner). 18. The doctor
promised to send a nurse if necessary (adverbial clause of condition).

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use different types of

subordinate clauses instead of the parts given in bold type
1. And I am so glad it has come in time for you to help me to choose the
things. (Molesworth) 2. He drank it slowly, holding the cup in both hands as
though to warm them. (Maltz) 3. "And you came down the river by yourself.
You are crazy." — "Oh, no, the only real danger was running aground.” (G.
Greene) 4. "Come in," he shouted, and I opened the door, repenting
already, my nerve failing me, for perhaps he had only just woken up, having
been late last night. (Du Maurier) 5. She forced down her upper lip, as if
afraid that to smile was not polite. (Galsworthy) 6. I'll arrange for you to
get a key. (Wilson) 7. Cec, however, having described his present trouble
said no more about it. (G Greene) 8. He laughed, he had reached the climax
of his argument and there was nothing more to dispute about. (G. Greene)
9. The man stood still for fully a minute as though debating with himself.
(London) 10. He gets off too easily. But for my money that woman would
have prosecuted him. (Galsworthy) 11. I call it a damn shame Max going up
to London and leaving you alone like this. (Du Maurier) 12. The flow of a
stream of lava is very slow. Thus there is no fear of people being
overwhelmed by it. (Wells) 13. And that's the hardest thing in the world for
an outsider to find out. (Strange) 14. All that was best in him he hid
away, as if ashamed of it. (Galsworthy) 15. He cordially extended one
forefinger for Erik to shake. (Wilson) 16 But isn't there something to be
done right now? (Wilson) 17 " I ' m very glad for our family to look up
again," said Olivia; "but to tell you the honest truth, papa, I wish there had
not been quite so much money." (Molesworth) 18. I made Pussy tell us her
thoughts so it's only fair for you to do the same. (Molesworth) 19. She was
not a girl to break her habits. (G. Greene) 20. He turned his back on the
others, as if about to do something tricky. (Conrad) 21. He would like to
discuss with her some of the work being done out at Cal Jeck. (Wilson) 22.
He began to question his own faith, to wonder if it were really possible for
a doctor in this out-of-the-way place to be anything more than a petty,
common hack. (Cronin) 23. Perhaps Hercule Poirot thought it well to
change the subject. (Christie) 24. He looked up as if for approval of his story.
(Galsworthy) 25. Herbert agreed that it was the right thing to do.
(Maugham) 26. "I am not very bad," he said apologetically, as if he
owed it to her to explain on this score. (Dreiser) 27. I softened considerably
what related to the three days of wandering and starvation because to have
told him all would have been to inflict unnecessary pain. (Ch. Bronte) 28. She
reached the end of the road, and although she seemed to have been out only
for a moment she knew that she had come far enough, that it was now time for
her to go back. (Cronin) 29 Here was Drouet pleading for her to remain.

Exercise 4. Make up complex sentences using subordinate clauses of

different types
M o d e l : where the man lived (subject clause, predicative clause, object
clause, attributive clause, adverbial clause of place).
1. Subject clause: it was not known where the man lived. (Also: Where
the man lived was not known).
2. Predicative clause: The question was where the man lived.
3. Object clause: The officer wanted to know where the man lived.
(Also: He told us about where the man came from and where he
4. Attributive clause: Soon we found the house where the man lived.
5. Adverbial clause of place: They went straightway to where the man
lived and asked him a few questions.
1. When the girl fell ill (subject clause, predicative clause, object clause,
attributive clause, adverbial clause of time); 2. as if nothing had happened
(predicative clause, adverbial clause of comparison and manner); 3. what the
young man intended to do (subject clause, predicative clause, object clause);
4. if they are going to take part in the discussion (subject clause, predicative
clause, object clause, adverbial clause of condition); 5. tired as he was
(adverbial clause of reason, adverbial clause of concession); 6. as he came up
to the house (adverbial clause of reason, adverbial clause of time); 7. that our
team has scored a victory (subject clause, object clause, appositive attributive
clause); 8. whatever you do (subject clause, object clause, adverbial clause of
concession); 9. whenever the teacher comes (adverbial clause of time,
adverbial clause of concession); 10. how important the problem was
(subject clause, predicative clause, object clause).

Exercise 5. Translate the text into English using compound sentences and
complex sentences with various subordinate clauses as suggested in brackets
Леонардо да Винчи (Leonardo da Vinci) (1452—1519), сын крестьянки
из деревни Винчи и богатого нотариуса из Флоренции (Florence), был, как
рассказывает Вазари (Vasari), Геркулесом, Аполлоном и Орфеем (Hercules,
Apollo, Orpheus) в одном лице. (Parenthetical clause) Вазари рассказывает,
что сила Леонардо была так велика, что он мог согнуть железное кольцо
или подкову между пальцами и что он был так хорош собой, что никто не
может описать его красоту. (Object clauses, adverbial clauses of result).
Леонардо да Винчи был одним из самых совершенных людей, которые
когда-либо жили на свете: он был художником, скульптором, поэтом,
музыкантом, философом, инженером и геологом. (Attributive clause) О
жизни Леонардо имеются лишь отрывочные сведения: мы твердо знаем, что
он служил в Милане при Чезаре Борджиа (Cesare Borgia), у которого он
работал инженером и организатором празднеств и зрелищ; далее мы знаем,
что его пригласил во Францию Франциск I (Francois I). (Object clauses,
attributive clause). Рассказывают, что он глубоко сочувствовал всему
живому. Когда он гулял по улицам Флоренции, он имел обыкновение
покупать птиц в клетках и выпускать их на волю. (Adverbial clause of time)
Он всегда был очень внимательным к страданию детей и протестовал
против тесных свивальников (swaddling clothes) для грудных.
Глубокий философ, Леонардо да Винчи изложил многие из своих
мыслей на бумаге, и его «Трактат о живописи» (Treatise on Painting), впервые
опубликованный в 1651 году, пользовался большой популярностью.
Его записные книжки также представляют собой огромный интерес и
могут соперничать с «Размышлениями» Паскаля (Pascal's Pensees). Однако,
если для Леонардо бесконечность мира была безмерным чудом, то для
Паскаля она была только источником ужаса; он признавался, что боится
вечного безмолвия бесконечного пространства. (Compound sentence, object
Имеются лишь 12 картин и несколько пачек рисунков, которые могут
быть с уверенностью приписаны Леонардо да Винчи. (Attributive clause). В
Эрмитаже находятся две картины великого мастера. «Мадонна с
младенцем», известная под названием «Мадонна Бенуа» (Madonna
Benois), была приобретена из частной коллекции г-жи Бенуа в Петербурге в
1913 году. Как и когда эта картина покинула родину и попала в Россию,
неизвестно. (Subject clause). Это одна из наиболее ранних сохранившихся
работ Леонардо да Винчи. Вторая картина «Мадонна Литта» (Madonna
Litta) была куплена у некоего герцога Литта из Милана в 1865 году. В то
время как в «Мадонне Бенуа» художника интересует чистота и счастье

девочки-матери, в «Мадонне Литта» он раскрывает другую сторону темы —
материнское достоинство. (Compound sentence).
Хотя Леонардо да Винчи был типичным примером образованности и
разносторонности эпохи возрождения, он не принадлежит ни к одному
историческому периоду. Подобно Шекспиру, он принадлежит всем векам и
всем народам (по книге Т. Кокса «Возрождение в Европе»).

Exercise 6. Analyse the clauses of the compound and complex

sentences and show the connections between them and the connectives used
by numbering the clauses
M о d e 1 1: (1) I wished (2) I had never heard the rumour about Phat
Diem or (3) that the rumour had dealt with any other town than the one
place in the North (4) where my friendship with a French naval officer
would allow me to slip in uncensored, uncontrolled. (G. Greene)
M o d e l 2: (1) It even occurred to me (2) that he had been pulling my leg,
and (3) that the conversation had been an elaborate and humourous disguise for
his real purpose, for (4) it was already the gossip of Saigon (5) that he was
engaged in one of those services so inaptly called secret. (G. Greene)

1. She inquired how long my parents had been dead, then how old I
was, what was my name whether I could read, write and sew a little; then
she touched my head gently with her forefinger and dismissed me. (Ch. Bronte)
2. The thing that struck me first was that Mark Twain was an elderly man yet,
after a minute's thought, I perceived that it was otherwise, and in five minutes,
the eyes looking at me, I saw that the grey hair was an accident of the most
trivial; he was young. (Kipling) 3. On the other hand, if you convince the
police authorities that there is no possible case against you, I do not know that
there is any reason that the details should find their way into the papers.
(Doyle) 4. James Ryder, the upper-attendant at the hotel, gave his evidence
to the effect that he had shown Horner up to the dressing-room upon the day of
the robbery, in order that he might solder the second bar of the grate, which was
loose. (Doyle) 5. These provisions laid in, we went on through a great noise and
uproar that confused my weary head beyond description, and over a bridge
which no doubt, was London Bridge, until we came to the poor person's
house, which was a part of some alms-houses. (Ch. Dickens) 6. Sherlock
Holmes was a man who when he had an unsolved problem upon his mind
would go for days and even for a week without rest, until he had either
fathomed it, or convinced himself that his data were insufficient. (Doyle) 7.
When we reached the landing all the old women turned their heads, and as soon
as we had passed, their voices rose and fell as though they were singing
together. (G. Greene) 8. Whether he had turned his head to look at me I do
not know, for I watched the road ahead with a blurred and steady stare, but
suddenly he put out his hand and took hold of mine, and kissed it, still
saying nothing, and then he threw his handkerchief on my lap, which I was
too ashamed to touch. (Du Maurier) 9. Money from the illegal fur which
Jean Andrew sold she kept for Roy; and she kept it tight so that he could
never get at it when he was drunk. (Aldridge) 10. I will never come to see
you when I am grown up; and if any one asks me how I liked you, and how
you treated me, I will say the very thought of you makes me sick, and that
you treated me with miserable cruelty. (Ch. Bronte)



The pronoun it has a demonstrative force when it is used to point out a

person or thing expressed in the sentence by a predicative noun:

e.g. It was his next-door neighbour Mr. Tandram… (Galsworthy) Having

crossed the marsh, I saw a trace of white over the moor… it was a road or a
track… (Bronte) It was a prettily furnished room… (Dickens)

Compare with the Russian where the demonstrative pronoun это is used in
similar constructions:

Это был его сосед… Это была дорога…



(Below, sb = somebody and sth = something.)
Prepositional verb + object + prepostion + object
agree about/over sth with sb depend on sb/sth
agree with sb about/over sth disagree with sb about/over sth
apologise to sb for sth quarrel with sb about/over sth
complain about sth to sb rely on sb/sth for sth
complain to sb about sth'
Verb + direct object + preposition + indirect object
(* These verbs can also follow the pattern: verb.+ direct object +
preposition + -ing form.)
accuse sb of sth* deprive sb of sth rid sb of sth
acquit sb of sth describe sth to sb rob sb of sth
advise sb against sth* discuss sth with sb save sb/sth from sth
aim sth at sb help sb with sth steal sth from sb
arrest sb for sth* lend sth to sb stop sb from –ing
beat sb at sth* make sth for sb strip sb of sth
blame sb for sth* persuade sb of sth supply sb with sth
blame sth on sb praise sb for sth* supply sth for/to sb
bother sb with sth present sb with sth suspect sb of sth
compensate sb for sth* present sth to sb throw sth at sb (= in order
congratulate sb for sth* prevent sb from –ing to hit them)

(US English) protect sb from sth throw sth to sb (= in order

congratulate sb on sth* provide sb with sth for them to catch it)

convict sb of sth* provide sth for sb warn sb about/against sth*

welcome sb to sth
convince sb of sth reassure sb of sth
criticise sb for sth release sb from sth
cure sb of sth rescue sb from sth

Noun + preposition + noun/-ing form

(* These nouns can only follow the pattern: noun + preposition + noun.)
advantage of/in effect of prelude to
aim of/in excitement about/at problem of/in
amazement at expense of proof of
anger about/at fear of prospect of/for
annoyance about/at gratitude for purpose of/in
answer to* hope of question about/of
anxiety about idea of reason for
apology for increase in relationship with
attack on increase of (+ quantity) satisfaction with
awareness of insistence on sequel to
belief in insurance against solution to
boredom with interest in success in
craving for job of surprise at
damage to* lack of task of
danger of/in matter of taste for
decrease of (+ quantity) matter with* thought of
decrease in* method of way of
delay in objection to work of
delay of (+ duration) pleasure of/in worry about
demand for* point of/in
difficulty in possibility of

We often use more than one adjective to describe a noun. The order of
adjectives generally follows this sequence of categories:
The 747’s refurbished interior features fantastic soft grey leather seats.

For sale: small, old, French carriage clock.

We always put the category which is most permanent or important (usually
'type' or 'purpose') next to the noun:
The builders took out the gas heating antiquated system.
• The builders took out the antiquated gas heating system.
And we put opinion adjectives before all others:
I‘ve just bought this new mobile fantastic phone.
I‘ve just bought this fantastic new mobile phone.
! We don't usually use more than three or four adjectives before a noun. If
we want to give more information we can use additional clauses:
[It's a charming small nineteenth-century French brass carriage clock]
It's a charming small French carriage clock, made of brass and dating from
the nineteenth century.

If two adjectives describe different parts of the same thing we put and
between them.

The chrome steel facade glinted in the sunlight.

The chrome and steel facade glinted in the sunlight. (= Some parts were
chrome. Some parts were steel.)
We always use and between two colours.
The players will be wearing blue red shirts for this match.
The players will be wearing blue and red shirts for this match.
We can use and between two adjectives which describe similar aspects of
She's looking for a stable and long-lasting relationship.
When two adjectives describe contrasting aspects of the same thing we put
but, yet or though between them:
The flat was located in a rundown but central part of town.
Croup therapy can be a simple yet effective solution to this sort of problem.

When there are several adjectives in predicative position we usually put and
before the last one:
I'm afraid the hotel was ancient, dirty and overpriced.
With longer lists of adjectives of the same category before a noun we can use
commas and put and before the last adjective, or we can simply list the
I found him a friendly, knowledgeable and dedicated guide.
I found him a friendly knowledgeable dedicated guide.
We don't use and before the last adjective when the adjectives are of
different categories:
We enjoyed sitting in the fantastic soft grey and-leather-seats.
We enjoyed sitting in the fantastic soft grey leather seats



In terms of the IC model (method of immediate constituents) prevalent in

structural linguistics, the sentence is represented not as a linear succession of
words but as a hierarchy of its IC, as a ―structure of structures‖.
Immediate constituent analysis analyzes linguistic units by determining
their component parts, their constituents. A constituent is a component of a
larger construction or structure, which does not necessarily have to be a specific
linguistic unit. IC analysis determines the constituent structure of various
linguistic units according to the combination of intuitive, distributional and
procedural criteria.
IC analysis is binary, which means that at any time of the analysis each
structure is to be divided into two parts, called immediate constituents (ICs).
When we reach the level of the smallest units which can no longer be divided
into two parts, they are called ultimate constituents (UCs). In a morphological
IC analysis the ultimate constituents are morphemes, while in a syntactic IC
analysis the ultimate constituents are words.
IC analysis is a top-down analysis, which means we start from a higher
structure and break it into component parts. It is performed according to
particular rules and follows a particular order.
It is important to observe that the division into parts of speech and the
division into parts of the sentence are organically related. A word (or a phrase)
as part of a sentence may enter into various relations with the other parts of a
given sentence.
Important observations in the theory of the parts of the sentence based on the
interrelation of types of syntactic bond and types of syntactic content were
made by A.I. Smirnitsky.
A part of the sentence is defined as a typical combination of the given type
of syntactic content and the given type of syntactic bond as regularly
reproduced in speech. Different types of syntactic bond form a hierarchy where
distinction should be made between predicative bond and non-predicative bond.
On the level of the sentence elements this results in the opposition of principal
parts and secondary parts.
The predicative bond constitutes the sentence itself. The parts of the
sentence which are connected by means of the predicative bond are principal
parts. These are the core of the communicative unit. The non-predicative bond
comprises attributive, completive and copulative relations.
The closest bond is commonly observed in attributive relationships.
Attributive adjuncts expand sentence elements rather than the sentence itself.
The qualificative relationship can be actualized by the attributive bond. The
paradigm of theses linguistic means is rather manifold. We find here:
- adjectives: a valuable thing
- nouns in the Possessive: my brother‘s book
- noun-adjunct groups (N+N): spring time
- prepositional noun-groups: the daughter of my friend
- pronouns (possessive, demonstrative, indefinite): my joy, such flowers,
every morning, a friend of his, little time
- infinitives: an example to follow
- gerunds and participles: walking distance, a smiling face
- numerals: the first task, two friends
- words of the category of state: faces alight with happiness
- idiomatic phrases: a love of a child, a jewel of a nature
The second type of non-predicative bond, the completive one, is more loose.
It develops the sentence in another way. In this type of bond the secondary parts
relate to the predicative core as a whole. The completive bond can expand the
sentence indefinitely. The completive bond manifests itself in object and
circumstantial (adverbial) relationship.

The copulative bond connects syntactically equivalent sentence elements

(homogeneous parts). Syntactic content is naturally understood as abstracted
from the pertainance of words to the parts of speech and concrete lexical

Since language is a system of interdependent units in which the value of

each unit results only from the presence of the others, there are naturally
borderline cases of dual or overlapping relationships. Prepositional phrases are
often ambiguous. Compare:
a) She touched the animal with her careful hand (She touched the
animal carefully).
b) She touched the animal with her hand.
We can‘t fail to see that object relations in a) are somewhat weakened. The
phrase is suggestive of adverbial meaning signalled by the adjective ―careful‖,
which cannot be said about the second example b).



Soames | stood invisible || at the top of the stairs ||| watching Irene sort |||| the
letters ||||| brought |||||| by the last post. (J.Galsworthy)

According to the purpose of utterance/from the point of view of its

communicative value/in accordance with the principle of communicative value,
it is a declarative affirmative sentence denoting a statement.
According to the number of primary predications(predicative centres)/from
the point of view of its structural peculiarities it is a simple sentence, the
structure of which is complicated at the expense of the secondary predication
(namely the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction) and participial phrases.
According to the principal parts available it is a two-member, complete and
extended sentence.
In terms of the IC model of analysis the first step to be made is to divide the
sentence into the subject group and the predicate group. There is no subject
group as such, since it is represented only by one word – Soames. According to
its structure it is simple. From the point of view of its grammatical value it is
notional, pointing out a person, expressed by a proper name in the common case
in the singular. All the rest of the sentence belongs to the predicate group. The
predicate is stood invisible. It is a compound nominal double predicate where
the verbal part stood performs a linking function, as it links its second part
(predicative) expressed by the adjective invisible to the subject. The type of the
bond between the subject and the predicate is a predicative one, which
manifests itself in an agent – process relationship.
The next group of ICs is stood invisible at the top of the stairs with the head-
word stood invisible and its adjunct at the top of the stairs. The type of the bond
between the components is completive and the relationship is adverbial
(circumstantial). In terms of traditional grammar analysis the adjunct performs
the function of an adverbial modifier of place, expressed by the prepositional
noun phrase.
Next we should cut stood invisible watching into ICs where the head-word is
stood invisible and the adjunct is watching. The bond between the components
constituting this group is completive, the relationship is adverbial
(circumstantial). From the viewpoint of traditional analysis the adjunct
functions as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.
The next division to be made is watching Irene sort, where the head-word is
watching and the adjunct is Irene sort. The bond between the head-word and its
adjunct is completive that manifests itself in object relationship. In terms of
traditional grammar analysis Irene sort is a complex object, expressed by the
Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.

In the next group of ICs sort the letters the head-word is sort, expressed by
the infinitive without the particle ―to‖, its adjunct is the letters. The bond is
completive, the relationship is objective. In terms of traditional grammar
analysis the adjunct the letters performs the function of a direct object,
expressed by a countable noun in the common case in the plural.
Then it is necessary to single out the group the letters brought by the last
post with the head-word the letters and the adjunct brought by the last post. The
bond between the ICs is attributive and it actualizes the qualificative
relationship. The adjunct is expressed by Participle II, used as an attribute in
postposition (postmodifier).
The next division to be made is brought by the last post. The head-word is
brought and the adjunct is by the last post. The bond between the components
of the group is completive. The relationship is circumstantial or objective. In
terms of traditional grammar analysis the adjunct by the last post performs the
function of an adverbial modifier of time or it may be treated as an object. It is
preceded by the determiners by and the and is expressed by a nominal phrase.
The last group of ICs is by the last post. The head-word is post, the adjunct
is last. The bond is attributive; relationship is qualificative with a shade of
temporary meaning. In terms of traditional grammar analysis the head-word is
expressed by a common noun and its adjunct, performing the function of an
attribute, is expressed by an adjective in the superlative degree.


1. The teacher was eager for his pupils to understand their task properly.
2. You can‘t expect all people to take your words for granted.
3. He came in from his carpentry, his sleeves rolled up, his waistcoat
hanging open.
4. Coming out of the theatre, we found it utterly impossible to get a taxicab.
5. Round his neck he wore a silk scarf. His head, with his hair brushed back,
was bare.
6. All the students in the classroom listened to the old lecturer without
interrupting him once.
7. The true way to be deceived is to think oneself more knowing than others.
8. She did not like being plunged back into a slave state.
9. He looked down unexpectedly to see Mary gazing up at him.
10. Once upon a time two poor wood cutters were making their way home
through a great pine-forest.
11. He found her in the kitchen one morning, groaning with pain, tears of
weakness running down her cheeks.
12. The duty of an artist and of a writer is to see clearly in their spheres of
activity and to define the means to serve the future of humanity.
13. With a sudden tightening of the muscles he became aware of a figure
walking noiselessly beside him.
14. Miss Fanny awakened much affectionate uneasiness in her sister‘s mind
that day, by passing the greater part of it in violent fits of embracing her.
15. Our arrival having been noted from afar, many children and grown-ups
came to meet us.



A. The compound sentence

1. (a) Coffee was served and the ladies went upstairs.

It is a compound sentence consisting of two coordinate clauses connected by
copulative connection with the help of the conjunction and.

Coffee was and the ladies went

served upstairs

(b) He loved his work and he counted himself fortunate to have such an
opportunity so early in his career.
It is a compound sentence containing two clauses joined by causative-
consecutive relations with the help of the copulative conjunction and, which
expresses a shade of consecutive relations.

(c) I wanted to go on, whereas my friend wanted to go back.

It is a compound sentence comprising two coordinate clauses which are
connected by adversative connection expressed by the adversative conjunction
In sentences (b), (c) the graphical presentation is the same as in sentence (a).

2. (a) Our Elsie was looking at her with big imploring eyes; she was
frowning, she wanted to go.
It is a compound sentence consisting of three coordinate clauses which are
connected by copulative coordination asyndetically.

Our Elsie was she was frowning she wanted to go


(b) I longed to stay there and tell the truth, but that would have been
ridiculous, so I came away.
It is a compound sentence comprising three coordinate clauses. The first two
clauses are joined by means of adversative connection with the help of the
adversative conjunction but. The second and the third clauses are connected by
causative-consecutive connection with the help of the consecutive conjunction

I longed to stay but that would have been so I came away

there... ridiculous

B. T h e c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e

1. (a) What impressed me was Cyprus Avenue.

It is a complex sentence with the subject expressed by a subordinate clause
introduced by the conjunctive pronoun what. The main clause is devoid of the

What impressed me ← was Cyprus Avenue

(b) This is where Havoc has been.

It is a complex sentence with a predicative clause introduced by the
conjunctive adverb where. The main clause is devoid of the predicative.

This is → where Havoc has


(c) What surprised him was that there was no pain about it.
It is a complex sentence with a subject and a predicative clause. The subject
clause is introduced by the conjunctive pronoun what and the predicative clause
by the conjunction that. Since these clauses occupy the positions of the main
parts of the sentence, the main (principal) clause is reduced to the link verb

What surprised ← was → that there was no pain about

him it

2. (a) The woman who ran the place was very cheerful.
It is a complex sentence comprising (or consisting of) two clauses. The main
clause is The woman was very cheerful. The subordinate clause is who ran the
place. It is a restrictive (limiting) relative attributive clause modifying the
subject of the main clause as its antecedent.

The same graphical presentation is to be found in other complex sentences

containing one subordinate clause.

(b) The next book she wrote she sent to a magazine.

It is a complex sentence with a contact clause dependent on the antecedent
the next book, which is the subject of the main clause.
Or: It is a complex sentence containing a restrictive attributive clause joined
to the main clause asyndetically.

(c) Stratford-on-Avon, -where Shakespeare was born, is visited by thousands

of tourists.
It is a complex sentence with a descriptive (or non-restrictive) attributive
clause introduced by the relative adverb where, which refers to the antecedent
Stratford-on-Avon in the main clause.

(d) Look before you leap.

It is a complex sentence with an adverbial clause of time introduced by the
conjunction before and depending on-the predicate of the main clause.

(e) Bad as things are, we mustn’t give up hope.

It is a complex sentence with an adverbial clause of concession. The
concessive clause is introduced by the conjunction as with inverted word order
in the subordinate clause. It modifies the whole of the main clause.

3. I did not tell Muriel on my return to London what George had said to me,
or what he looked like, but contended myself with assuring her that he was well
and happy.
It is a complex sentence comprising one main clause and three subordinate
object clauses. The main clause contains two homogeneous predicates (did not
tell and contended) connected by the conjunction but. The first and the second
subordinate clauses are homogeneous, they are joined to each other by the
disjunctive conjunction or and introduced by the conjunctive pronoun what.
Both modify the first of the two homogeneous predicates. The third object
clause is introduced by the conjunction that. It depends on the object to the
second homogeneous predicate with assuring.

(а) Не spoke as if I were a child that needed to be distracted.

It is a complex sentence comprising three clauses. (Or: it is a complex
sentence consisting of the main clause He spoke and two subordinate clauses of
different degrees of subordination.) The first subordinate clause is of the first
degree of subordination. It is an adverbial clause of comparison introduced by

the conjunction as if and depending on the predicate of the main clause. The
second subordinate clause is of the second degree of subordination. It is a
restrictive attributive clause introduced by the relative pronoun that and
depending on the predicative of the previous clause, that is, the clause of the
first degree of subordination.

(b) When the news came that France had mobilized and that the Germans
had crossed the Belgian frontier, George abandoned all hope immediately.
It is a complex sentence consisting of one principal and three subordinate
clauses. The first subordinate clause is introduced by the conjunction when and
is a subordinate clause of time of the first degree of subordination. The other
two clauses are of the second degree of subordination. They are homogeneous
appositive clauses introduced by the conjunction that and linked with each other
by the copulative conjunction and. They both depend on the subject of the
adverbial clause of time.

С. The compound-complex sentence

Why were her own relations so rich, and Phil never knew where the money
was coming from for tomorrow’s tobacco?
It is a compound-complex sentence consisting of two coordinated clauses
connected by contrasting relations and linked by the copulative conjunction
and. Besides two coordinate clauses the sentence comprises one subordinate
clause which depends on the second coordinate clause. It is an object clause
introduced by the conjunctive adverb where.


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Навчальне видання

Чігірьова Алла Василівна

Щокіна Людмила Дмитрівна
Волосюк Ольга Валеріївна

Практикум з граматики «Синтаксис. Просте та складне речення» для

студентів ІІІ курсу спеціальності 6.020203 «Англійська мова та

Коректор А.Ю. Муромцева

План вид. 2011р., поз. №87


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