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Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет

Филологический факультет

Е. С. ПЕТРОВА
В. П. ГОР

ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПРАКТИКУМ
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ:
ПОВЫШЕННЫЙ УРОВЕНЬ СЛОЖНОСТИ
(С КЛЮЧАМИ)

Учебное пособие

Санкт-Петербург 2008
ББК 81.2 Англ

Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук В. В. Гакова
(С.-Петерб. гос. таможенная академия)
канд. филол. наук В. Н. Пилатова
(С.-Петерб. гос. ун-т)

Печатается по постановлению
Редакционно-издательского совета
С.-Петербургского государственного университета

Петрова Е.С., Гор В.П.


Грамматический практикум по английскому языку: повышенный
уровень сложности (с ключами): Учебное Пособие. – СПб, 2008. –
64 стр. (“University Grammar”)
ISBN 5-8465-0038-2

Учебное пособие направлено на углубление практических знаний и умений


в области «проблемных» областей английской грамматики, таких как синтаксис
сложного предложения, система времен, залог, наклонение и модальные глаголы.
Упражнения снабжены ключами.
Предназначено для филологов старших курсов (бакалавров и магистров), а
также для лиц, совершенствующих знания английского языка.
ББК 81.2 Англ.

© Е. С. Петрова, 2008
ISBN 5-8465-0038-2 © В. П. Гор, 2008
Contents
Предисловие 4
Unit 1: Multiple Sentence 5
Unit 2: Tenses 14
Unit 3: Passive Voice 22
Unit 4: Modal Verbs 29
Unit 5: Subjunctive Mood 40
Key 48
Selected Bibliography 63
Предисловие
Учебные задания содержат дополнительный материал повышенной
трудности для работы над теми разделами практической грамматики
английского языка, которые традиционно считаются «проблемными»:
это синтаксис сложного предложения, система видовременных форм,
страдательный залог, сослагательное наклонение и модальные глаголы.
Диапазон заданий достаточно широк. В соответствии с программой
университетского курса практической грамматики, упражнения
предусматривают анализ конкретных форм и структур, использование
грамматических единиц в отдельных предложениях и связных текстах,
выявление ошибок, а также перевод предложений, содержащих указанные
грамматические структуры, с английского языка на русский и с русского
на английский. Последний вид работы будет особенно полезен студентам-
переводчикам.
Упражнения снабжены ключами, что позволяет использовать данное
пособие не только для аудиторных занятий под контролем преподавателя,
но и для самостоятельной работы. В ключах приводятся те варианты ответов
(во многих случаях, более одного), которые признаются нормативными
в официальном регистре речи. При этом авторы не ставили своей целью
показать весь диапазон грамматической вариативности английского языка;
для определения правомерности использования других вариантов читателю
рекомендуется обращаться к изданиям, включенным в библиографический
список.
Пособие целесообразно использовать при подготовке к контрольным
работам, экзаменам, а также международным тестам.
Наряду с настоящим пособием, авторы рекомендуют преподавателям
и студентам обратиться к следующим изданиям, подготовленным на
филологическом факультете СПбГУ: Шадрин В.И. Элементарная грамматика
английского языка. СПбГУ, 2000; A New University English Grammar / Отв.
ред. А.В.Зеленщиков, Е.С.Петрова, СПб., 2003; Е.С.Петрова. Сложное
предложение: варианты формы, значения и употребления. М., 2003;
Третьяков Ю.П. Mood in Modern English. СПб., 2001.
Предназначено для учащихся, прочно овладевших основами практической
грамматики английского языка и желающих совершенствовать свои знания,
а также для преподавателей, работающих в группах продвинутого уровня.
Авторы выражают признательность рецензентам, к.ф.н. В.Н.Пилатовой
и к.ф.н. В.В.Гаковой, за ознакомление с рукописью, помощь в апробации и
конструктивные замечания.
Разделы 1, 2 и 3 составлены В.П.Гор, разделы 4 и 5 – Е.С.Петровой.

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UNIT 1: Multiple Sentence
Exercise 1.1
Analyze the following compound sentences with various types of
coordination. State the types of coordination. Translate the sentences
into Russian.
1) She had to think of something to talk about, yet it was so hard to talk.
2) He must be dead or else we would have heard.
3) They ought to hang him anyhow, only hanging is too good for a
thief.
4) Gerald was disappointed, for he had wanted a son, but he nevertheless
was pleased enough over his small black-haired daughter.
5) He was too busy adjusting himself to the new life, and not only did
he not pick fights, but he avoided them whenever possible.
6) “I wouldn’t advise going that far, still it’s more sensible than doing
nothing at all”.
7) She was aware of the end of their era, but the rest of the household
was not, nor were the soldiers, and each soldier was welcomed as
a long-awaited guest.
8) “You can either make money in your present unladylike manner, or
you can be poor and genteel and have lots of friends”.
9) As valet, Pork kept Gerald’s bedroom in order, and, as butler, he served
the meals with dignity and style, but otherwise he let matters follow
their own course.
10) The Confederates could expect no more reinforcements, whereas the
railroad brought Sherman fresh troops and supplies daily.
11) Prissy rolled her eyes wildly, peeping first at the face of her mistress
and then at the cow; Scarlett seemed the less dangerous of the two, so
Prissy clutched at the sides of the wagon and remained there.
12) She dreamt of being permitted to use her charms on the convalescent
men, for many of them were attractive and well born, but this she
could not do in her widowed state.

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Exercise 1.2
Paraphrase the following sentences using object clauses. Begin as
shown.
1) We had no idea that it would result in one of the most amazing
periods of any of our lives. Little…
2) She finds it absolutely natural that her husband is the sole
breadwinner in the family. She takes…
3) You have every right to blame this accident on him. With…
4) It would be preferable if they admitted their mistake and tried to
rectify it. I’d…
5) I can’t believe that it was a marriage of convenience! To…
6) She perfectly realized how unstable their position was. Only…
7) Make sure that all the documents are printed in triplicate. See...
8) I may surely forget that I am your servant when you forget to pay
me. Well…

Exercise 1.3
Paraphrase the following complex sentences with adverbial clauses of
time using inverted word order. Begin as shown.
1) As soon as Peter sat down, he immediately addressed the landlord.
No sooner…
2) I will pay the artist only when the portrait has been painted. Only
after…
3) As soon as Philip said good night, she disappeared behind the front
door. Barely…
4) The reporters were allowed in the court room only after the
prosecutor had finished his speech. Not until…
5) When spring comes, you will be in truly great shape. Come…
6) The King just reached Paris when the Prime Minister sent a message
that it was necessary for him to return to London. Hardly…

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7) As soon as I got myself fairly comfortable and closed my eyes, I
heard the sound of people shouting. Scarcely…
8) He remembered that he had forgotten his coat, when he was already
in the doorway. Only when…

Exercise 1.4
Analyze the following complex sentences. Pay attention to the
subordinate clauses introduced by when / where. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1) This is where all our troubles begin.
2) Such steps may eventually lead to a situation where all the paths of
political action have been exhausted.
3) When exactly he returned was of no particular importance.
4) Another important declaration was made in 1328, when the Treaty
of Northampton ended Scottish invasions of northern England.
5) Where Alexander II had been assassinated, a magnificent cathedral
was built.
6) The only place where artists, intellectuals and students could meet
regularly were the cafes.
7) His proudest moment had been when two peasants bowed to the
ground, Russian style, and thanked him for his book.
8) So it remained a mystery when John had met this weird person.
9) He thoroughly explained to us where to find accommodation in
Charleston.
10) There was a time when the rich world seemed to understand its
ethical duty to the poor of the earth.

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Exercise 1.5
Analyze the following complex sentences. Pay attention to the
subordinate clauses introduced by (as …) as if / as though. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
1) All my aunts and uncles talked the colleges over as if they were
choosing a prep school for me.
2) I feel as though you were my brother or my cousin.
3) You eat as though each meal were your last.
4) Her behaviour seemed to amuse him, as though she were a playful
kitten.
5) He looked as calm as though he were discussing the weather.
6) He continued as if his pause had been a natural one.
7) He sounded as though he was delighted at her flurry.
8) They talked as though he was not present or could have no opinion
in the matter.
9) He always looked as if nothing had ever surprised him or amused him.
10) Suddenly she thought of Ashley, saw him as vividly as though he
stood beside her.
11) She laughed again, as if he said something very witty.
12) It was as if everyone in the family could easily read her mind.

Exercise 1.6
Analyze the following complex sentences. Pay attention to the
subordinate clauses introduced by means of the polysemantic
subordinator as. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) Weak as she was, she still was going home to Tara.
2) To Roberta’s pleadings, argumentative and threatening as they
were, he did not reply, not even by telephone.
3) Sick as he was, Dave resented being taken out, grunting and
growling broken-heartedly.

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4) Loving him as she did, it was a torture not to see him.
5) Even the Griffiths, poor as they were, would have felt themselves
demeaned by the thought of having to dwell in such a street.
6) The cannon sounded like thunder – the girls were scared of it more
than usual, sick as they were.
7) And Clyde, inexperienced as he was, was nevertheless quite able to
gather the meaning of that.
8) To him, indifferent as he was, she was just another girl – fairly pretty,
obviously sensuous and inexperienced, nothing to pay attention to.
9) Hungry as he was, he would not move to receive his ration of fish,
which Francois had to bring to him.
10) It was obvious that, intolerant as he was, he shared Frank’s opinion
that women had no place in business.

Exercise 1.7
Analyze the following compound and complex sentences. Pay attention
to the clauses introduced by means of while/whereas. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1) Whereas she should have turned to her family for support, she
preferred to struggle on her own.
2) They sat on the steps for half an hour, while I remained watchfully
in the garden.
3) While she came to see her aunt very often, she was not particularly
fond of her.
4) She had been always fond of postmodern literature, while her sister
considered Coelho and Eco to be extremely monotonous.
5) Gatsby got himself into a shadow and, while Daisy and I talked,
looked conscientiously from one to the other of us with tense,
unhappy eyes.
6) Hugh was just hopelessly stupid, while his brother was merely new
at the business.

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7) While the place looked shabby, they decided to stay there for a night.
8) In her family’s eyes he had no definite career and position in society,
while his contemporaries by this time were already, one a colonel, and
another a professor.
9) While this forest is worth a hundred pounds an acre paid down, you
won’t be able to receive that money in the present market situation.
10) Our friends took Jacob in their business, whereas I was forgotten.
11) He read the papers in silence, and while he read them James looked at
the floor, biting his fingers.
12) I understand such people, I feel them, whereas you have no instinct of
that kind.

Exercise 1.8
Analyze the following multiple sentences. Pay attention to the clauses
introduced by means of so (…). Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) “Perhaps he’ll become the best possible leader for the project, so
long as he’s infatuated and got money”.
2) She had his heart securely, so she could well afford to leave him
alone with his first love.
3) She pressed her hands hard against her skirts, so they would not
rustle.
4) And he bent his long legs and sat down in the chair, too low for him,
so that his knees were cramped up in a sharp angle.
5) “So long as you complete the harvesting today, you may have a good
rest tomorrow”.
6) She couldn’t make up her mind about anything, so now Peter makes it
up for her.
7) The wedding had been moved up from the autumn to the first of May,
so he could leave with the Troop when called into service.
8) We live by the principle that so long as there is a possibility of keeping
wealth in the family it must not go out.

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9) The day after their arrival there was a heavy fall of rain, and in the
night the water came through in the corridor and in the nursery, so that
the beds had to be carried into the drawing room.
10) He believed that for Anna herself it would be better to break off all
relations with her lover; but if they all thought this out of the question,
he was even ready to allow these relations to be renewed, so long as
the children were not disgraced, and he was not deprived of them nor
forced to change his position.

Exercise 1.9

Analyze the following complex sentences. Translate the sentences into


Russian.

1) To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was


born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve
o’clock at night.
2) And seizing Jane by the arm so that he almost dislocated it, he
made her bend down to see that “he is all right again.”
3) “I must explain my feelings, the feelings that have guided me and will
guide me, so that you may not be in error regarding me as you make
this crucial decision”.
4) They were fond of one another in spite of the difference of their
characters and tastes, as friends are fond of one another who have
been together in early youth.
5) I need say nothing here, on the first head, because nothing can show
better than my history can whether that prediction was verified or
falsified by the result.
6) The arrangement was the more suitable as, immediately after the
wedding, the young people were to go to the country, where the more
important part of the trousseau would not be wanted.
7) Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that
station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show.

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8) Dolly simply wondered at all she had not seen before, and, anxious to
understand it all, made minute inquiries about everything, which gave
him great satisfaction.
9) All societies are divided into two major classes: masters and slaves who
are found in ancient society, lords and serfs who are found in feudal
society and capitalists and wage labourers found in capitalist society.
10) Maybe because it was that their conditions were different, or that they
had both become more careful and sensible in that respect, they had no
quarrels in Moscow from jealousy, which they had so dreaded when
they moved from the country.

Exercise 1.10
Analyze the following multiple sentences. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
1) The scream had subsided, but there was some change now: what it was
he did not see and did not comprehend, and he had no wish to see
or comprehend.
2) He stood with the two ladies, seizing both by their hands, persuading
them, and giving them reasons with astonishing plainness of speech, and
at almost every word he uttered, probably to emphasize his arguments,
he squeezed their hands painfully as in a vise.
3) Whether the labor devoted to obtaining the money corresponded to the
pleasure given by what was bought with it, was a consideration he had
long ago dismissed.
4) There are chance meetings with strangers that interest us from the first
moment, before a word is spoken; such was the impression made on
Edward by the person sitting a little distance from him, who looked like
a retired clerk.
5) Be that as it might, when, on the seventh day, he parted from the prince,
who was starting for Moscow, and received his thanks, he was happy
to be rid of his uncomfortable position and the unpleasant reflection of
himself.

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6) Whether these tears came from a sense of the injustice being done
him, from his love for the nobility, or from the strain of the position
he was placed in, feeling himself surrounded by enemies, his emotion
infected the assembly, the majority were touched, and everyone felt a
tenderness for this poor young man.
7) He said this from habit, lifting his brows with dignity, and reflected
immediately that whatever his words might be, there could be no
dignity in his position; and he saw this by the suppressed, malicious,
and ironical smile with which Jamie glanced at him after this phrase.
8) He talked of whole centuries in which all the country was so happy
that notable dances and feasts, or at most tournaments, were the only
things that could be remembered, and every day and week had been
better than the last.
9) The president’s clear message was that the time had not yet come to
abolish the party’s monopoly of power, but that it might well do so
when a new political structure had been worked out, and the present
economic crisis overcome.
10) In spite of the fact that science, art, and politics had no special interest
for him, he firmly held those views on all these subjects which were
held by the majority and by his newspaper, and he only changed them
when the majority changed them – or, more strictly speaking, he did
not change them, but they imperceptibly changed of themselves within
him.
11) She thought – and she wasn’t far wrong – that he was the shiningest,
delicatest, most graceful animal she had ever met; and he was so gentle
and soft of speech that, if you hadn’t known, you would hardly have
believed how fierce and terrible he could be in battle.
12) He was well acquainted with the way dilettanti have (the cleverer
they were the worse he found them) of looking at the works of
contemporary artists with the sole object of being in a position to say
that art is a thing of the past, and that the more one sees of the new men
the more one sees how inimitable the works of the great old masters
have remained.

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UNIT 2: Tenses
Exercise 2.1
Choose the most appropriate of the suggested variants to express a future
action. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) The wind has changed. I think it will / is going to rain.
2) We will be acquainted / will have been acquainted for 10 years in
September.
3) If your passport is not valid, you will / are going to be detained.
4) Will / shall we have dinner tonight?
5) I need to be at the headquarters at 5 pm, so I will leave / leave / am
leaving at 4.
6) “Somebody’s at the door.” “I will / am going to see who it is.”
7) The president will be meeting / is going to meet his cabinet tomorrow.
8) You will be given everything you desire providing you play / will play
by my rules.
9) Watch out! She will / is going to faint!
10) She asked if I would / will be so kind as to give her a lift to the airport.
11) “I will / am going to be a ballet dancer when I grow up”.
12) What sort of car do you think you will drive / will be driving a few
years from now?
13) I will / am going to do that for you, if you please.
14) By the time you get there, all the guests will have left / will leave.

Exercise 2.2
Complete the following sentences with future time reference using
appropriate verb forms. Account for the use of the finite verb form.
Sometimes two variants are possible.
1) Whoever (become) the winner will be given the right to kiss the
Queen’s hand.

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2) We will be somewhere in the South Pacific, when she (remember)
about our existence.
3) He assured me that James will still be a match winner, wherever he
(play).
4) If you only (accept) the offer of payment I made to you earlier, then the
rest of the debt will be paid very shortly.
5) “Only take care you and your Cossacks (be/not) all captured!”
6) However short of money they (be), he won’t see his children go
without food.
7) I hope she (bring) her daughter along when we’re married.
8) One should ask indirect questions, so that we (not cause) offence or
impose on other people.
9) I’m ready to pay him a visit, if it (help) the project.
10) Every man will submit to the laws of gravity or impermeability and
will never resist them once he (become) acquainted with them.
11) If you are not feeling well, we will be moving on as slow as you
(auxiliary verb).
12) “Now if you (be) so good as to let me pass, I’ll be most grateful”.
13) Adjust the line spacing so that there (be) a clear line space between the
paragraphs.
14) The harder they (press) her in these circumstances, the more confused
she will probably become.
15) “If they (give) the State the part of their collections considered to be
an important part of national heritage, the government will give them
permission to export the remainder”.

Exercise 2.3
Paraphrase the following sentences using the words suggested. Mind
the use of Continuous forms.
1) My original intention was to break all ties with this man. [going]
2) His behaviour is unusually rude today. [being]

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3) I entered the university in 1991 and graduated in 1995. [till]
4) Our quarrels over our common property go back years.
[quarrelling]
5) It occurred to me that you might like to go to the theatre tonight.
[whether]
6) If he is still sleeping when I’m there, I’ll wait. [nap]
7) She has the habit of contradicting everyone and everything.
[constantly]
8) She told us she had plans to give a party next Sunday. [giving]
9) I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting for so long. [been]
10) Who is the organizer of this tournament? [running]

Exercise 2.4
Use between two and six words to complete the following sentences.
Mind the use of Perfect forms.
1) I will let you operate this machine only after you … reading the
manual.
2) The suspect is believed … fled the country.
3) We tried to find the answer in all these books, but I’m afraid …
across any worthy information yet.
4) It wasn’t until he mentioned the conference that I … met before.
5) I saw you sister in the morning: she looked … had enough sleep
recently.
6) If we proceed at such a pace, we … decorating the house by next
Christmas.
7) I went to this new steak house last week: they serve the best … eaten.
8) I was really happy when they announced … decided to get married.
9) Since he got home from the campus, he … but sleep.
10) The electrician proceeded to fix the wiring having first … that the
electricity … off.

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Exercise 2.5
Paraphrase the following sentences using Perfect forms. Begin as shown.
1) Make sure you finish this book before you start on the others. Don’t
start…
2) Jo was last seen over a month ago. Nobody…
3) I’m sure he will arrive before we get there. By the time…
4) The journey to Paris took much longer before they built the Channel
Tunnel. Since…
5) I’m sure Pat will have solved the problem before everyone else.
Pat is…
6) After keying that report, could you perhaps check this order for
me? When…
7) No one has asked me that before. This is the first time…
8) To get to Edinburgh we will have to cover over 500 miles. By the
time we get…
9) This cafe used to be a lot more popular before they opened the new
one next door. Since…
10) We will fax you further details on receipt of your completed
application form. Having…

Exercise 2.6
Point out the use of Present Perfect Exclusive and Present Perfect
Inclusive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) This fellow has worked out the whole thing.
2) By seven o’clock the orchestra has arrived.
3) He has spent these five months in India, enjoying the sun and
dreaming of home.
4) She has always stirred up trouble and tried to get other girls’ fiancйes.
5) This has been a strain to you and you don’t know what you’re saying.
6) I have longed to see him for the last two years.

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7) This has been one of the most terrible shocks of my life.
8) Nothing like this has ever been done before.
9) I have lived out my life, watched it go by and have never been a
part of it.
10) My impression has been for some time past that you could hardly
endure her.

Exercise 2.7
Complete the following passage using appropriate verb forms.
Case notes of a nurse.
Ward Sister Sarah Brown (1) [be] responsible for the welfare of 28
patients on two wards at the London hospital where she (2) [work] for the
last 6 years. She (3) [direct] a staff of twelve working in three shifts. There
are also as many as 15 student nurses who (4) [assign] to the ward at any
one time. It (5) [calculate], she says, that 200 people – doctors, nurses,
visitors, students – (6) [move] through her general and acute medical ward
in a day.
Sister Brown, who is 39, (7) [qualify] as a nurse 20 years ago. She
(8) [work] as a clinical teacher and (9) [do] research in psychotherapy for
former smokers. Her working week easily (10) [exceed] the 37 hours she
(11) [suppose] to work.
08:45 The morning report (12) [just/end] and Sister Brown (13) [listen] as
a qualified nurse (14) [explain] the insulin injection she is about to
give to a diabetic patient.
09:38 Sister Brown (15) [chat] by the bedside of a 85-year old woman
who (16) [wait] for a place in a home for two and a half years.
11:33 Sister Brown (17) [just/interrupt] by a telephone call. Whatever she
(18) [do], she finds herself being summoned to deal with queries
and occasional emergencies.
Whenever she (19) [enter] a room, she (20) [switch] on a light by the
door to show staff and patients that she (21) [arrive].

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All the nurses (22) [wear] flat white shoes which are essential to lessen
the strain of being on their feet virtually all day. The floors are hard but
Sister Brown says she (23) [get used to] them and hardly (24) [notice] her
aching feet any more.
12:38 Sister Brown (25) [have] a kind word with an elderly patient who
(26) [recently/admit] and (27) [very/concern] about her dog and
four cats. Pets are a particular problem for elderly patients who (28)
[live] alone for some time.
15:02 Sister Brown (29) [joke] with a patient who is about to (30) [take] to
another part of the hospital for an X-ray. The ward (31) [specialize]
in chest diseases and Sister Brown (32)[ ban] smoking.
15:55 Now that her shift (33) [finish], Sister Brown (34) [snatch] a
moment’s rest before driving home. She will be up again tomorrow
to do the same shift.
(After: Sue O’Connell. Focus on Proficiency)

Exercise 2.8
Define the finite verb forms used in the sentences and account for their
use. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) The Canadian Shield extends unbroken to the American border.
2) This metamorphic process has created zones rich in metallic
mineral deposits and coal-beds.
3) The eruption had not yet begun when all the locals were evacuated
to a safe zone.
4) Rescue teams are still trying to get to the landslide area, as the
survivors are waiting.
5) California has always enjoyed its Mediterranean climate with its
mild winters and moderately hot summers.
6) The Nobel Prize winner will be giving a speech on the effects of
climate change at the lecture hall at 2 pm tomorrow.
7) It had been raining heavily for three weeks when the dam
collapsed.

19
8) In 1484 Columbus’s proposal was rejected by a royal maritime
commission because of his miscalculations and because Portuguese
ships were already rounding Africa.
9) The shores of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea have been seeing
many hurricanes lately.
10) The fleet was attacked by pirates off the coast of Portugal, where
Columbus’s ship was sunk, but he swam to shore and took refuge in
Lisbon.

Exercise 2.9
Translate into English.
1) Оппозиция уже на протяжении двух лет безуспешно пытается
добиться запрета на ввоз ядерных отходов на территорию
нашей страны.
2) Если содержание углекислого газа в атмосфере в ближайшие
три года не уменьшится, то среднегодовая температура в
нашем регионе составит уже 10 градусов Цельсия.
3) Когда мы гостили у наших друзей в Британии, мы постоянно
забывали сортировать мусор, и муниципальная служба
несколько раз выписывала нам штраф.
4) Когда эти законопроекты уже будут одобрены правительством,
предприятия будут обязаны платить налог на сточные воды и
выбросы загрязняющих веществ в атмосферу.
5) Здоровье беженцев, вероятно, значительно пострадает
после того, как они проживут на зараженной территории на
протяжении даже нескольких недель.
6) Город едва успел оправиться от последствий наводнения,
как один за другим жители начали попадать в больницы с
заболеваниями, передающимися с водой.
7) Он сделал очень вдумчивый и увлекательный доклад о влиянии
кислотных дождей на растительность и почву, хотя раньше он
не проявлял большого интереса к вопросам экологии.

20
8) Водоем был в ужасающем состоянии: было очевидно, что
завод, производящий удобрения, уже долгие годы сбрасывает
в него токсичные отходы.
9) В новом столетии наша планета уже пострадала от нескольких
масштабных экологических катастроф.
10) К 2020 году уровень загрязнения воздуха даже в пригороде
превысит допустимые пределы в три раза.
11) Что бы ни случилось, нельзя объявлять вырубку тропических
лесов законной.
12) Авария на Чернобыльской атомной электростанции –
крупнейшая из ядерных катастроф, с которыми сталкивалось
человечество.
13) Раньше этот вид млекопитающих был включен в список
исчезающих видов, но теперь, когда среда его обитания
восстановлена, численность его популяции заметно возросла.
14) Каждый год в городе строятся новые мусороперерабатывающие
заводы.
15) До тех пор пока люди будут использовать мировой океан как
безграничную свалку, все источники пресной воды на планете
будут находиться под угрозой.
16) Эти исследования были проведены до того, как развитые
страны подписали договор о сокращении выбросов
озоноразрушающих веществ в атмосферу.
UNIT 3: Passive Voice
Exercise 3.1
Put the following sentences into the passive voice, paying attention
to the passive voice forms of ditransitive verbs. Make up two different
sentences where possible. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) The system of proportional representation gives disproportionate
powers to minority parties.
2) The presidential nominee had to repeat the concluding sentence of
his acceptance speech to a cheering crowd.
3) Government ministers must explain their actions to the House of
Commons.
4) The secretary brought a copy of the amended party manifesto to
the reporter.
5) This opinion poll shows the public the level of satisfaction with the
Prime Minister’s performance.
6) The Prime Minister offered a conservative MP the decisive cabinet
position.
7) Members of the House of Lords can suggest amendments to non-
finance bills to the House of Commons.
8) The presidential nominee described his views on the forthcoming
election campaign to the members of his party.
9) Only the President of the United States grants pardons and reprieves
to offenders in criminal cases.
10) Despite the electoral fraud, the Liberal candidate did not bring
charges against his opponent.

22
Exercise 3.2
Rewrite each of the following sentences with a ditransitive verb in two
different ways, using a different subject each time. Some sentences may
be rewritten only one way. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) In 1689, the Parliament offered the throne to William of Orange,
who was married to James’s daughter Mary and was a Protestant.
2) The Prime Minister suggested to the Sovereign that abdication was
the only possible step.
3) The Senator showed the press the documents that gave occasion to
the impeachment trial.
4) He bought a great deal of his jewellery collection for Lady Firth.
5) Just before the election campaign Johnson sold his sister all his real
estate.
6) The committee explained the new plan to the players when they
gathered before flying out to Spain.
7) The Conservative candidate promised his voters reduction in
taxes.
8) I believe John Stockman dictated this letter to her.
9) The Constitution guarantees every candidate equal rights during the
run-up to elections.
10) The NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council gave Russia a
consultative role in discussion of matters of mutual interest.
11) The judge repeated the verdict to the convict on his request.
12) The guards brought the rebel to the Emperor bound hand and foot.

Exercise 3.3
Paraphrase the following sentences using the words suggested.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) An awful lot has been omitted from the final draft of the agreement.
[out]

23
2) Our founder was given an honorary doctorate in law by Edinburgh
University. [conferred]
3) There were thousands of sunbathers on the beach. [packed]
4) My uncle underwent a five-hour operation to remove the growth that
had been diagnosed. [operated]
5) My watch and traveller’s cheques were stolen while I was abroad.
[robbed]
6) The accused claimed he hit the police officer as a result of provocation.
[provoked]
7) Both parties ripped the contract into pieces. [torn]
8) Many of us were shocked after a former actor took the oath as the
President of the United States. [sworn]
9) The present came as a complete surprise to me. [aback]
10) Trading activities in the war-stricken area have been reduced. [scaled]
(After: Richard Side and Guy Wellman. Grammar and Vocabulary for
Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency)

Exercise 3.4
Use the appropriate form of one of the listed phrasal verb to complete
the following passive sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian.
take over (2), set upon, take in, put about, work out, set up, take up,
put across, run over
1) My friend’s cat … by an ambulance yesterday.
2) Our local pub hasn’t had the same atmosphere since it … by one of the
big breweries.
3) To audiences ranging from the Royal Family to working men, the
message of science … by earnest evangelists.
4) The jacket fits you very well round the waist, sir, but if you feel it’s too
long, we can easily arrange for it … .
5) The tent … in less than ten minutes, and then we all started gathering
firewood.

24
6) It was announced that legislation to reduce the minimum wage
would not be presented to the Parliament until a compromise … .
7) Walking home from his job one payday, he … by two young men
who hit him with a stick, pushed him to the ground and seized his
meager wages.
8) The problem with losing weight, I find, is that all your clothes
need … .
9) So I began to visit the civil hospital which … by the military for
wounded and sick men from the British forces.
10) The part of the course I enjoyed least was philosophy. It … very
well by the lecturer.

Exercise 3.5
Rewrite the following sentences using the words suggested. Replace
the words in italics with appropriate passive forms and three-word
phrasal verbs. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) We are working towards a more natural order, where one will make
inequality disappear. [away]
2) Not a single person enjoys it when someone makes him or her
appear stupid in public. [fool]
3) Soon no one was able to see the ship. [sight]
4) In Scotland everyone eagerly expected the Queen’s annual visit.
[forward]
5) I get the impression that everyone had a poor opinion of Louise
because of that quarrel. [down]
6) We cannot bear such behaviour without complaining any longer.
[with]
7) The reason of his retirement was that the management criticized
most of what he did for the company. [fault]
8) Large numbers of us in this country are getting fed up with the
government addressing us as if we were not smart enough. [talk]

25
9) It is only natural that every family gives a great deal of attention to
a new baby. [fuss]
10) If someone had just listened to my warnings, the fire would not
have broken out. [notice]

Exercise 3.6
Put in the prepositions by or with to complement transitive verbs
referring to states. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) The resort was crammed … holiday-makers for the whole of the
summer season.
2) New pits are being excavated, as the existing ones are already filled
… refuse.
3) The coastal areas of southern Italy were dotted with cities occupied
… the descendants of Greek colonists.
4) The lower deck, shining clean now, was thronged … steerage
passengers.
5) The fog had thickened, so that the enemy ranks now lay concealed
… the screen of mist across the valley.
6) These dishes are inlaid … silver leaf, and ornamented … heads of
satyrs and mules.
7) The first known inhabitants of Italy lived around a quarter of a
million years ago, when the country was mostly inhabited …
elephants and rhinoceroses.
8) She sat at her desk as usual, her face illuminated … the cheap
reading light beside her.
9) The room they were now sitting in was a large one, lofty but dark,
well furnished, principally with writing-tables and desks covered
… papers and books.
10) Always he had been overshadowed … his elder brother, the famous
Black Douglas, and never wished it otherwise.

26
Exercise 3.7
Use between two and six words to complete the following sentences.
Use get-passive forms.
1) Last year the soil … with chemical waste from the nearby factory.
2) It is unpleasant for children when they … names by other
children.
3) We wanted to sue the post office for the fact that the parcel … in
transit.
4) “When you … , did you love your spouse?”
5) My handbag was completely flattened after it … by that stout
woman in the bus.
6) My husband’s been to the hairdresser: I really wish he … so
short.
7) He felt himself to blame for not … what his sister had asked him to
do for her.
8) The tragic news that the major … in a car crash spread quickly.

Exercise 3.8
Point out actional and statal passive. State the type of predicate.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) “When Miss Suellen and I are married, there’ll always be a place
for you under our roof.”
2) That night at Mrs. Elsing’s, when Fanny had been duly married,
she finally looked about her with gladness.
3) “Just us two, Frank,” she begged, squeezing his arm. I always did
want to run away and be married!”
4) And before he knew it, he was married and belonged entirely to his
wife.
5) He had now come to Moscow with a firm determination to make
an offer, and get married if he were accepted.

27
6) He had been married half a year and was considering a divorce.
7) He was impatiently looking forward to the news that she was
married, hoping that such news would, like having a tooth out,
completely cure him.
8) In fact, he said sheepishly, he expected to get married in the
spring.
9) Wait a little; I will tell you about myself. I was married, and my
husband deceived me.
10) Now he disliked talking business with her as much as he had enjoyed
it before they were married and started sharing a bedroom.
UNIT 4. Modal Verbs
Exercise 4.1
Fill in the gaps with suitable modal verbs. Practice using more than
one variant where indicated.
1) Janet has trained as a private pilot and so she ___ fly small planes.
[ability]
2) It looks like it ___ / ___ / ___ rain. You’d better take your raincoats.
[possibility]
3) When I was little, I ___ turn somersaults. [ability in the past]
4) That ___ be Brian on the phone: who else would be calling around
midnight? [assumption]
5) ___ / ___ / ___ I borrow your car? [asking permission]
6) The lodgers ___ pay the rent on the first working day of each
month. [obligation]
7) You ___ / ___ see a doctor about those headaches. [advice]
8) Students ___ / ___ eat or drink in the computer classroom
[prohibition].
9) He ___ be feeling very unhappy now that his wife has left him.
[deduction]
10) Sheila ___ be only fifteen – she’s a university student [impossibility;
incredulity].
11) You ___ to sweep the back yard and take the garbage out. [order]
12) Their team ___ / ___ / ___ started earlier – they’re running very
late. [criticism for past actions]
13) You ___ suffer for your perfidy! [threat]
14) We ___ give you a lift to town. [offer]

29
Exercise 4.2
Translate into English using can/could or its equivalents (semi-modals
or modal expressions).
1) Зима в этих краях бывает исключительной суровой.
2) Ты иногда меня просто доводишь!
3) Вряд ли я смогу получить первый приз – разве что буду
репетировать вдвое больше обычного.
4) В этом лесу мы смогли обнаружить редкие виды растений.
5) Чем, интересно, занимаются здесь эти люди? Неужели они и
вправду ищут клад?
6) Полярные исследователи были не уверены, сможет ли такая
маленькая экспедиция достичь Южного полюса.
7) Ты ведь могла меня поправить – но ты не произнесла ни слова!
8) Бультерьеры бывают очень агрессивными. – Мы так или иначе
не можем позволить себе взять щенка.
9) Когда Мэри было всего пять лет, она уже умела играть в
шахматы.
10) Мы получили огромное удовольствие. Лучшего отпуска и быть
не могло!
11) Хочешь сказать, ты входил в здание ночью? Но ведь тебя
запросто могли арестовать!
12) Не могу найти свои кожаные перчатки. Ну, куда же они
подевались?
13) На оленей нельзя охотиться – они защищены законом.
14) Неужели он и вправду актер? А с виду совсем не артистичен...
15) Извините, можно взять эти журналы на пару часов? – Конечно,
можно.
16) Птицы не смогут свить гнезда у нас в саду – здесь слишком
шумно.
17) Этот художник мог бы изобразить любой пейзаж.

30
18) Этот художник смог изобразить очень поэтичный пейзаж.
19) Этот художник мог изображать и батальные сцены, и
пейзажи.
20) Когда меня попросили о помощи, я попросту не смогла сказать
«нет».

Exercise 4.3
Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words in italics with
the correct form expressing permission or probability. More than one
variant can be possible.
1) Kate is unlikely to have accepted their terms.
2) It’s possible that you won’t even have to pay to get in.
3) You can try phoning the car dealer, but that car has probably been
sold by now.
4) If her husband is a jeweler, he probably knows all there is to know
about diamonds.
5) Don’t start worrying! It’s possible that they’ve taken another
plane.
6) I wrote to the editor about the infringement of copyright; he
probably received my letter last week.
7) My neighbours, I’m sure, were very proud of their daughter.
8) A student asked if it was allowed to write the essay in pencil.
9) I’m sorry to trouble you but I was wondering if there was any
possibility to make a phone call from here
10) They are likely to be exhausted after all that gardening.

Exercise 4.4
Translate into English using speech patterns with can and may.
1) Это лучшая картина на выставке. – Совершенно с вами
согласна!

31
2) Не знаю, как вас благодарить: мы сумели опубликовать рукописи,
которые хранились в ваших архивах.
3) Стало ясно, что мы ошиблись; нам оставалось только
извиниться.
4) Уровень ее знаний заслуживает самой высокой похвалы.
5) Разумеется, Сочи – прекрасный город, но в летний сезон здесь
слишком людно.
6) Невозможно быть слишком богатой или слишком стройной.
7) Вы ведь не откажетесь нам помочь, правда? – Ну, как же я могу
отказаться!
8) Глядя на мир, нельзя не удивляться.
9) Ну и холод! Мне бы сейчас теплый шарф! – А мне бы чашeчку
горячего чаю.
10) Введение можно и опустить.
11) Бедняга так проголодался, что никак не мог насытиться.
12) Необходимо соблюдать крайнюю осторожность: в этом районе
высок уровень преступности.
13) Мы невольно задумывались о будущем наших детей.
14) При неблагоприятных условиях температура может даже
превысить расчетную величину.
15) Не могу дождаться встречи с бывшими одноклассниками.

Exercise 4.5
Fill in each blank with a combination of a modal verb (or modal expression)
and a notional verb in the required form, affirmative or negative.
1) I know we’ve met once, but I’m afraid I … your name.
2) Applicants … fluent in French and English.
3) You … eating less if you want to lose weight.
4) On the off chance that she … him at home, she dropped in at his place
after work.

32
5) I … only two weeks before my visa was issued.
6) Does the new nurse really … at the railway station?
7) If he has devised this kind of scheme, he … rather cunning. You …
underestimate him as a rival.
8) Is the cabin still lived in? I feel there … a sort of rule about
occupancy.
9) The great library of ancient Alexandria … an amazing collection of
books and scrolls.
10) When it is legal time to stop serving drinks, and people …, the
barman usually says, “Time, gentlemen, please!”
11) Apparently, someone had meddled with the brakes: the car just …,
and the crash seemed imminent.
12) What … I … with the garbage? Not burn it, surely?
13) Sorry, but this application … . Candidates … in person.
14) The paths have been set out to make sure nobody … his shoes
dirty.
15) Vitamin remedies … if a healthy and balanced diet is followed.
16) Don’t play that music so loud! You … some consideration for other
people!
17) Really, Janet, you … to have promised him so expensive a
present!

Exercise 4.6
Translate into English paying attention to the use of modal verbs and
their equivalents in negative sentences.
1) Вы, должно быть, не передали мою заявку управляющему. Что
ж, вполне можете отнести ее к нему в кабинет сейчас.
2) Неужели нельзя воздержаться от разговоров о деньгах в моем
присутствии?
3) Нельзя оскорблять чувства других людей.
4) Нам не нужно было повторять дважды: все поспешили уйти.

33
5) Эти результаты, должно быть, не соответствовали ожиданиям
ученых.
6) Брауны, наверное, не успели на поезд. Могли бы хоть
позвонить!
7) Все члены делегации владели английским языком; приветствие
директора можно было не переводить, и переводчик просто
стоял в стороне.
8) М-р Робертс, должно быть, не понял твоих объяснений.
9) Андрею так и не пришлось побывать в США. Он не смог
пройти собеседование в консульстве.
10) Нельзя участвовать в выборах, если паспорт
недействителен.
11) Она чувствовала, что такие условия для нее невыгодны, но
не посмела возразить.
12) Нельзя упускать такую возможность!
13) Надо было посмотреть адрес в справочнике; как же нам
теперь найти эту контору? – Не может быть, чтобы ты не
запомнил дорогу.
14) Оргкомитет напрасно потратил деньги на почтовые марки:
приглашения можно было разослать по электронной почте.
15) Дети, должно быть, не осознавали опасности купания в
загрязненной воде.
16) По всей видимости, мой вопрос останется без ответа.

Exercise 4.7
Paraphrase the following sentences using modal verbs and
expressions. Begin as shown.
1) You have to practice a lot to become proficient. Only by ...
2) It was his duty to tell us about her resignation. He...
3) The plan was for the gallery to open yesterday, but it’s still closed.
The gallery ...

34
4) If it hadn’t been for Mark’s assistance, they wouldn’t have
succeeded. They would have been...
5) This is wood polish; you must not use it on plastic surfaces. This is
wood polish; under no circumstances...
6) It wasn’t very decent of them to charge you so much. They ...
7) Her appearance was so striking that she was stared at wherever she
went. Her appearance was so striking that people...
8) It wasn’t necessary to wash the dishes but she did. She...
9) Norman is so amusing – people take him for a music-hall comedian!
Norman is so amusing – he ...
10) She was happy that it was no longer necessary for her to work
overtime. She was happy that she...
11) It was wrong of you to speak so unkindly to her. You should…
12) He tried in vain to reach the office on the telephone. He was…
13) The arrangement was for the project to be drafted by now but it
isn’t. The project was…
14) It was your secretary’s duty to type the memo. Your secretary…
15) This house was almost certainly built before 1800. This house
must…
16) He hopes he can take part in the next performance. He hopes to…
17) We’ve all got umbrellas with us in case it rains. We’ve all got
umbrellas with us because…
18) It’s impossible to say yet whether the plan has succeeded.
Nobody…

Exercise 4.8
Translate into English using modals.
1) Наши партнеры до сих пор не приехали, хотя переговоры
должны были начаться в 10 часов.
2) Как по-английски “хрупкий”? – Вы должны знать это слово,
оно встречается в одном из последних упражнений.

35
3) Родители уехали, и на этой неделе я должен сам себе готовить.
Мне бы не помешала кое-какая помощь!
4) Ты должен будешь уйти на цыпочках, чтобы не побеспокоить
других.
5) Нужно взвесить все шансы. Нельзя принимать решения в
спешке.
6) Государства-участники обязуются воздерживаться от применения
силы в урегулировании международных конфликтов.
7) Горные реки бывают необычайно живописными.
8) До конца текущего года должны быть построены два
административных здания.
9) Обед был отвратительный! Зачем ты сказал, что он тебе
понравился? – Но, дорогая, я только сказал: должен сказать, обед
был замечательный.
10) Извините, вынужден вмешаться. Нам придется изменить
программу.
11) Всегда прошу соседа по комнате не шуметь, а он вечно хлопает
дверью.
12) В течение нескольких первых дней у альпинистов может
развиться снежная слепота.
13) Родителям сегодня утром нужно быть дома: фургон для перевозки
мебели должен приехать в 11 часов.
14) Должно быть, курение в этом здании будет запрещено.
15) Чтобы ваш бизнес оставался конкурентоспособным, необходимо
пересмотреть политику найма персонала.
16) Виндсерфинг может оказаться очень опасным занятием. –
Совершенно с вами согласна.
17) Никто не мог предвидеть, какие трудности им суждено было
преодолеть.
18) Квартирная хозяйка нам сказала, что пользоваться стиральной
машиной после десяти вечера нельзя.

36
19) Поставщик несет ответственность за доставку товаров.
20) Джеймс всем отдает приказы. Можно подумать, он здесь
главный!
21) В местном музее можно найти редкие образцы прикладного
искусства.
22) Как ты смеешь передразнивать деда?!

Exercise 4.9
Fill in each blank. Use between one and four words.
1) He … taking bribes, really; he has always been a law-abiding
citizen.
2) I was so ashamed I didn’t … look up.
3) It’s no use trying to convince him; you … well talk to a telegraph
pole.
4) To get to their house, you … drive into the middle of nowhere.
5) If we … to prevent further accidents of this sort, stronger measures
… taken.
6) You … specify your age – unless, of course, you feel that it’s
relevant to the matter.
7) … you turn on the radio when I’m trying to work? It’s simply
outrageous!
8) “All members,” says the UN Charter, “… settle their international
disputes by peaceful means.”
9) I spent $20 on the dictionary, but I … : the college library had a
sufficient number of copies.
10) According to a recent arrangement, the two branches … merged.
11) It … get warmer next week, as it is the coldest season in these
parts.
12) Really, Jane, you … to have promised him so expensive a present.
13) I see that she … having her picture appear in the papers.

37
14) It’s a very old story; everyone will … it hundreds of times.
15) If he is a chef in an exclusive restaurant, he … trained in Paris.

Exercise 4.10
Complete these sentences, using a modal or semi-modal verb and the
correct form of the infinitive.
1) I don’t believe you! A dauntless campaigner like Peter ... (give in) to
his opponents!
2) Of course you have a chance of getting this job. You ... (go for) it.
3) Certain fish ... (migrate) vertically from the surface to the depths of
the sea and vice versa.
4) The League of Nations found it difficult to carry out actions against
aggressive states because every decision ... (agree) upon by all
members.
5) I told him he was making a mistake. – I know. He ... (listen) to you.
6) I ... yet (meet) a more efficient secretary than Ms Ryan.
7) My scrap-book ... nowhere (find). – It ... (mislay) when we were
tidying up.
8) The radio’s dead. – The battery ... (recharge).
9) It is said that every man ... (hold) accountable for his actions.
10) The doctor ... (notify) of any change in the patient’s condition.
11) Your witness ... (be) at the scene of the crime – she was out of the
country last June.
12) If one only watched movies, one ... (think) that all Native Americans
wore feather headdresses and slept in tepees.

Exercise 4.11
Modals in context: fill in the gaps.
Work (1) seem like hell at times, but however much we (2) think
we loathe it, we have a deep psychological need for it. When workers

38
lose their jobs, they (3) become depressed. As if being told that they are
not needed isn’t bad enough, you (4) cope with a work-driven culture
in which the jobless are regarded as outsiders. There are also cultural
attitudes towards work. An American who makes a million dollars (5)
most likely try to turn it into ten million, while his or her European
counterpart (6) be more content with buying a country house and
retiring. The Japanese work harder than most other nationalities. An
exaggerated loyalty to your place of work, working 16 hours a day and
giving up your vacations (7) only result in one thing – misery.
It (8) be true that we (9) to work, but like everything else, it (10) be
done in moderation.
UNIT 5. The Subjunctive Mood
Exercise 5.1
Point out Subjunctive Mood forms, qualify them and account for their
use.
1) I wish our movement were given better press coverage.
2) It’s just about time we made our views public.
3) If they refuse to cooperate, then so be it.
4) If more people had come to the polls, we shouldn’t face another
election campaign.
5) It is only natural that more and more people should become aware
of global issues.
6) Consumers insisted that the chemical dyes be replaced with natural
pigments.
7) Come September, most seaside towns will look deserted.
8) You’ll have to quote your sources in order that the bibliography
would be complete.
9) Wherever you may go, remember to keep in touch.
10) Were there to be another crisis, smaller factories would collapse.

Exercise 5.2
Paraphrase these sentences using the Subjunctive Mood. Begin as
shown.
1) Without a knowledge of several Asian languages he wouldn’t be in
the diplomatic service. If it...
2) If the house burns down they’ll get insurance money. Should...
3) This tiny girl knows how to play chess. It’s simply incredible! It
is...
4) If the factory’s waste polluted the soil, environmentalists would
sue the management. Were the...

40
5) Whatever happens, I’ll venture my money on their new project.
Come...
6) We regret the fact that the landlady didn’t inform us of her decision.
We wish…
7) I’d prefer my children to wear natural fabrics. I’d sooner…
8) What on earth will happen if the neighbours don’t accept your
excuse? Suppose…
9) Unfortunately, I’m not as fit as I used to be. If only…
10) You should make an appointment with your dentist. It’s about…

Exercise 5.3
Paraphrase the following sentences using the words suggested.
1) The government must take immediate action so that the situation
does not get worse. [lest]
2) I’d prefer you to start next week. [started]
3) “Look in the mirror before you drive off,” the instructor kept saying
to Margaret. [insisted]
4) She is a kind of foster mother, in a way. [were]
5) I hope you teach your son not to answer back. [wish]
6) If you do change your mind after all, drop me a line. [should]
7) Now I’m sorry I didn’t go to university. [gone]
8) If he reconsidered his policy, the party would carry more weight.
[he to]
9) We should have stopped trying to correct him of these faults long
ago. [high]
10) Please don’t let the dog sit in the front of the car. [rather]

Exercise 5.4
Fill in the gaps with a suitable word or phrase.
1) I felt on the top of the world. I wished that moment ... last forever.

41
2) I am determined to observe the eclipse of the sun, whenever it ...
occur.
3) Be… may, these considerations don’t alter the seriousness of the
situation.
4) We consider it essential that all children ... equal educational
opportunities.
5) The hedge looks untidy, as though it ... trimmed for months.
6) I was still filling out the forms when who ... in but our chairman.
7) What … did about the problem of industrial waste?
8) She always gets up quietly so that the children … wake up.
9) Whatever he … in his diary, they never doubted his loyalty.
10) You look as if you … the match instead of watching it!

Exercise 5.5
Translate into English using Formulaic Subjunctive
1) Этот актер был необычайно популярен; достаточно сказать,
что он сыграл главные роли в двадцати фильмах.
2) Во что бы то ни стало добьюсь успеха в бизнесе.
3) Почти все детали механизма в случае необходимости можно
заменить.
4) Их отношения – это, так сказать, улица с односторонним
движением.
5) Собираешься переселиться в столицу? – Боже упаси!
6) Я далек от мысли вас поучать / Не сочтите, что поучаю, но
местные традиции основываются на взаимном доверии.
7) Да здравствует солнце, да скроется тьма!
8) Пусть всегда будет солнце, пусть всегда будет небо!
9) Этот памятник устанавливается здесь навсегда. – Так тому и
быть!
10) Живите долгой и счастливой жизнью.

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11) С наступлением зимы этот городок превратится в горнолыжный
курорт.
12) Да сопутствует вам успех!
13) Хочешь погубить свою карьеру – ну, что ж…
14) По правде сказать, такой подход оказался непродуктивным.

Exercise 5.6
Decide which of these sentences contain mistakes.
1) I had rather you didn’t use the spare room. It’s just been tidied up.
2) It’s high time their boss will deal with their complaints.
3) Supposing I refuse to cooperate, what did you do about it?
4) If we only knew where his money was coming from.
5) She wished she would be sixteen again.
6) She’s only a trainee but sometimes she acts as if she is an
instructor.
7) I’d sooner she didn’t wear so much makeup to the office.
8) What if you’ll see them at the party?
9) It’s about time I didn’t get told off, Mom: I’m a married woman
after all!
10) What a mess: the room looks as though it’s been ransacked!

Exercise 5.7
Use the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.
Dear Ms Green,
I’m writing to you in your position as secretary of Linden Mansions
Residents’ Association in connection with the problem of residents
leaving bicycles in the common entrance hallway.
My wife and I have yet again been having a lot of trouble with
Steve and David Brown, the tenants of flat 16 on the ground floor,
and we feel it’s high time this persistent dispute (1) [finally/resolve].

43
These tenants own two bicycles which they insist on leaving in the
entrance corridor. No doubt you are aware that the leases of the flats in
our building require that the entrance (2) [keep] clear of obstruction at
all times. Under the building regulations the common entrance corridors
to flats must be treated as if they (3) [be] exits of a public building, and
are therefore subject to the same restrictions. Supposing the corridor (4)
[block] with bicycles and there (5) [be] a serious fire? We might all be
trapped in our flats.
Apparently last month you told the Browns that they could keep
their bicycles there for a temporary period. Well, I certainly wish you
(6) [not agree] to that. I would sooner they (7) [keep] the bikes in their
own flat. They say there isn’t any space in it, and I wish I (8) [be] able
to offer them somewhere else. Their intransigence is beginning to seem
deliberate. It isn’t as though we (9) [not tell] them about this on numerous
occasions. In fact, it has now reached a stage where I feel I must insist the
chairman of the residents’ association (10) [demand] they (11) [remove]
the bicycles forthwith.
Yours sincerely,
Howard Ferguson

Exercise 5.8
Complete the following sentences (unreal conditions in the past) using
appropriate verb forms.
1) If it (snow) hard last February, the roads (block).
2) The dinosaurs (might, survive) if a meteor (not strike) the earth 65
million years ago.
3) … he (not develop) pneumonia, the first artificial heart patient
(probably survive).
4) The ancient bridge (not fall) if heavy carriages (ban) from it.
5) Convalescence (perhaps accelerate) if electrical healing techniques
(apply).
6) The concrete in this foundation (not set) properly if it (be) too cold.

44
7) What kinds of plants (develop) if lava (cover) the entire
island?
8) … the engines (duly inspect), the plane crash (avoid).
9) … the gasoline truck (hit), it (explode).
10) More artifacts (might, excavate) if the field season (not come)
to a close.
11) If the computer program (not function) correctly, it (check) for
“bugs”.
12) …the passages (keep) clear of obstruction, the occupants (trap)
in their rooms.
13) The reactor (explode) if the pressure (not release).
14) The learners (could, respond) better … they (given) more
encouragement.
15) … the results (be) incorrect, the technicians (lose) their jobs.
16) The engine (disintegrate) if it (run) at 80.000 rpm.
17) If the power line (break), the gasoline generator (supply)
electricity.
18) The trees (survive) if the winter (be) so severe.
19) Unless the samples (freeze) they (not last).

Exercise 5.9
Translate into English using the Subjunctive Mood.
1) Я как раз составляла проект новой программы сотрудничества,
когда вошел не кто иной, как наш координатор.
2) Требование, чтобы министр не был связан с большим
бизнесом, звучит вполне разумно.
3) Последняя постановка Музыкального театра – это, так
сказать, дань традиции.
4) Если вдруг опоздаем на поезд, придется ехать на машине.
– Боже упаси, чтобы Майк сидел за рулем!

45
5) Необходимо, чтобы каждый устный переводчик знал
формулы вежливости, типичные для англоязычных стран.
6) Ах, если бы сейчас было лето!
7) Теперь моя дочь сожалеет, что не стала специализироваться
в банковском деле.
8) Ваша газета готовит материал о выборах? Хотелось бы,
чтобы вы указывали свои источники информации.
9) Лаборатория обнародовала результаты тестов, чтобы у
широкой общественности была достоверная информация
об этих пищевых добавках.
10) Вполне естественно, что ваш заказчик требует предъявления
лицензии.
11) Уровень безработицы в городе снижается: достаточно
сказать, что в том месяце было создано более 500 рабочих
мест.
12) Я далека от мысли давать советы, но последняя глава
нуждается в серьезном редактировании.
13) Вам пора начать собственное дело. – Да, я и сам жалею, что
мы не открыли бюро путешествий еще два года назад.
14) Целесообразно проводить такие образовательные выставки
ежегодно.
15) Если бы не опасность радиоактивного загрязнения, ядерная
энергия использовалась бы гораздо более широко.
16) Если бы я сразу зашла на сайт британского консульства, то
заполнила бы все бланки правильно.
17) Жаль, что в городе недостаточно спортивных сооружений.
18) Некоторые телезрители предлагают запретить рекламу на
первом канале.
19) Надо же, чтобы такое случилось именно с моими
соседями!
20) Какие бы ты провел реформы, стань ты губернатором?

46
Exercise 5.10
Translate into English using the Subjunctive Mood or the Indicative
Mood.
1) Что бы вы ни увидели во время показа мод, не спешите
критиковать дизайнера.
2) Поразительно, что мой проект принят!
3) Чем бы ты ни занимался, не бросай переводы поэзии.
4) Возмутительно, что его письмо содержит ложные сведения!
5) Если вдруг увидишь Анну, передай, что я купил для нее план
Лондона.
6) Неважно, какими словарями пользовался переводчик, –
терминологию необходимо унифицировать.
7) Совершенно естественно, что все студенты владеют
компьютерной грамотностью.
8) С какой стати они критикуют систему пропорционального
представительства, ничего о ней не зная?
9) Досадно, что он не смотрит программы новостей.
10) Любой, кто выиграет главный приз, должен будет уплатить
значительный налог.
KEY
UNIT 1
The numbering begins with independent clauses irrespective of their
position in the sentence (e. g. 1 and 2); then the numbering extends to
subordinate clauses in order of their appearance in the sentence (e. g. 3,
4 and 5).

Exercise 1.1
1) 1:2 – adversative coordination, conjunctive adverb yet; 2) 1:2 – disjunctive
coordination, conjunction or else; 3) 1:2 – adversative coordination, conjunction
only; 4) 1:2 – causative-consecutive coordination, conjunction for; 2:3 –
adversative coordination, conjunction but ; 5) 1:2 – copulative coordination,
conjunction and; 2:3 – copulative coordination, conjunction not only … but
also; 6) 1:2 – adversative coordination, conjunctive adverb still; 7) 1:2 –
adversative coordination, conjunction but; 2:3 – copulative coordination,
conjunctive adverb nor; 3:4 – copulative coordination, conjunction and;
8)1:2 – disjunctive coordination, conjunction either … or; 9) 1:2 – copulative
coordination, conjunction and; 2:3 – adversative coordination, conjunction
but; 10) 1:2 – adversative coordination, conjunction whereas; 11) 1:2 –
asyndetic coordination; 2:3 – causative-consecutive coordination, conjunctive
adverb so; 12) 1:2 – causative-consecutive coordination, conjunction for;
1:2 – adversative coordination, conjunction but.

Exercise 1.2
1) Little did we know/suspect/imagine that it would…; 2) She takes it for
granted that…; 3) With good reason / With every justification may you blame
this accident on him.; 4) I’d rather they admitted…/ I’d prefer they admitted…;
5) To think that it was…! 6) Only too well did she realize how…; 7) See to it
that all…; 8) Well may I forget…

Exercise 1.3
1) No sooner had Peter sat down than he addressed…; 2) Only after the portrait
has been painted will I…; 3) Barely had Philip said good night when she…;
4) Not until the prosecutor had finished his speech were the reporters…;
5) Come spring, you will…; 6) Hardly had the King reached Paris when the
Prime Minister…; 7) Scarcely had I got myself … when I heard…; 8) Only
when he was already in the doorway did he remember…

48
Exercise 1.4
1) predicative clause; 2) attributive relative limiting classifying clause;
3) subject clause; 4) adverbial clause of time; 5) adverbial clause of place;
6) attributive relative limiting particularizing clause; 7) predicative clause;
8) subject clause; 9) object clause; 10) attributive relative limiting classifying
clause.

Exercise 1.5
1) adverbial clause of manner; 2) predicative clause; 3) adverbial clause of
manner; 4) adverbial clause of manner; 5) adverbial clause of comparison;
6) adverbial clause of manner; 7) predicative clause; 8) adverbial clause
of manner; 9) predicative clause; 10) adverbial clause of comparison;
11) adverbial clause of manner; 12) predicative clause.

Exercise 1.6
1) adverbial clause of concession; 2) adverbial clause of concession; 3)
adverbial clause of reason; 4) adverbial clause of reason; 5) adverbial clause
of concession; 6) 1, 2 – independent clauses, asyndetic coordination; 2→
3 – adverbial clause of reason; 7) adverbial clause of concession; 8) adverbial
clause of reason; 9) 1 – independent clause, 1→2 – adverbial clause of
concession, 1→3 – attributive relative non-limiting descriptive clause; 10) 1 –
independent clause, 1→2 – subject clause, 2→3 – attributive appositive clause,
2→4 – adverbial clause of reason.

Exercise 1.7
1) adverbial clause of concession; 2) adverbial clause of time; 3) adverbial
clause of concession; 4) 1, 2 – independent clauses, 1:2 – adversative
coordination; 5) adverbial clause of time; 6) 1, 2 – independent clauses, 1:2 –
adversative coordination; 7) adverbial clause of time; 8) 1, 2 – independent
clauses, 1:2 – adversative coordination; 9) adverbial clause of concession;
10) 1, 2 – independent clauses, 1:2 – adversative coordination; 11) 1, 2 –
independent clauses, 1:2 – copulative coordination; 2→3 – adverbial clause
of time; 12) 1, 2, 3 – independent clauses, 1:2 – asyndetic coordination, 2:3 –
adversative coordination.

Exercise 1.8
1) adverbial clause of reason, subordinator so long as; 2) 1, 2 – independent
clauses, 1:2 – causative-consecutive coordination, coordinator so; 3) adverbial

49
clause of purpose, subordinator so; 4) adverbial clause of result, subordinator
so that; 5) adverbial clause of condition, subordinator so long as; 6) 1, 2 –
independent clauses, 1:2 – causative-consecutive coordination, coordinator
so; 7) adverbial clause of purpose, subordinator so; 8) 1 – independent clause,
1→2 – attributive appositive clause, subordinator that, 2→3 – adverbial clause
of time, subordinator so long as; 9) 1, 2 – independent clauses, copulative
coordination, coordinator and, 2→3 – adverbial clause of result, subordinator
so that; 10) 1, 2 – independent clauses, 1:2 – adversative coordination,
coordinator but, 1→3 – object clause, subordinator that, 2→4 – adverbial
clause of condition, subordinator if, 2→5, 6 – homogeneous adverbial clauses
of time linked by means of coordinator and, subordinator so long as.

Exercise 1.9
1) 1→2 – object clause, 2→3 – parenthetical clause; 2) 1→2 – adverbial
clause of result, 1→3 – object clause; 3) 1→2 – attributive relative limiting
particularizing clause, 1→3 – adverbial clause of purpose, 3→4 – adverbial
clause of time; 4) 1→2 – adverbial clause of manner, 2→3 – attributive
relative limiting classifying clause; 5) 1→2 – adverbial clause of reason, 2→
3 – adverbial clause of comparison, 2→4 – object clause; 6) 1→2 – adverbial
clause of reason, 2→3 – attributive relative non-limiting descriptive clause;
7) 1→2, 3 – object clauses; 8) 1→2 – attributive relative limiting particularizing
clause, 1→3 – attributive relative non-limiting continuative clause; 9) 1→
2 – attributive relative limiting classifying clause, 1→3 – attributive relative
limiting classifying clause; 10) 1→2 – adverbial clause of reason, 2→3,
4 – predicative clauses, 1→5 – attributive relative non-limiting descriptive
clause, 5→6 – adverbial clause of time.

Exercise 1.10
1) 1:2 – adversative coordination, 2:3 – asyndetic coordination, 3:4 – copulative
coordination, 3→5 – object clause; 2) 1:2 – copulative coordination, 2→3 –
attributive relative limiting particularizing clause; 3) 1→2 – subject clause,
2→3 – object cause, 1→4 – attributive relative limiting classifying clause;
4) 1:2 – asyndetic coordination, 1→3 – attributive relative limiting classifying
clause, 3→4 – adverbial clause of time, 2→5 – attributive relative non-limiting
descriptive clause; 5) 1→2 – adverbial clause of concession, 1→3 – adverbial
clause of time, 3→4 – attributive relative non-limiting descriptive clause; 6) 1:2
– asyndetic coordination, 2:3 – copulative coordination, 1→4 – adverbial clause
of concession, 4→5 – attributive relative limiting particularizing clause; 7)

50
1:2 – copulative coordination, 1→3 – object clause, 3→4 – adverbial clause of
concession, 2→5 – attributive relative limiting particularizing clause; 8) 1→
2 – attributive relative limiting classifying clause, 2→3, 5 – adverbial clauses
of result, 3→4 – attributive relative limiting particularizing clause; 9) 1→2, 3 –
predicative clauses, 3→4, 5 – adverbial clauses of time; 10) 1:2 – copulative
coordination, 2:3 – disjunctive coordination, 3:4 – adversative coordination,
1→5 – adverbial clause of concession, 1→6 – attributive relative limiting
particularizing clause, 2→7 – adverbial clause of time; 11) 1:2 – copulative
coordination, 1→3 – parenthetical clause, 1→4 – object clause, 4→5 –
attributive relative limiting particularizing clause, 2→6 – adverbial clause of
result, 6→7 – adverbial clause of condition, 6→8 – object clause; 12) 1→
2 – attributive relative limiting particularizing clause, 2→3 – parenthetical
clause, 3→4 – adverbial clause of proportion, 2→5,6 – object clauses, 6→
7 – adverbial clause of proportion, 7→8 – object clause.

UNIT 2
Exercise 2.1
1) is going to; 2) will have been acquainted; 3) will; 4) shall; 5) am leaving;
6) will; 7) will be meeting; 8) play; 9) is going to; 10) would; 11) am going to;
12) will be driving; 13) will; 14) will have left.

Exercise 2.2
1) becomes (simple present in a subject clause joined by means of -ever
compound); 2) remembers / will remember (simple present or future indefinite
in an adverbial clause of time after when in the meaning of and then); 3) plays
(simple present in an adverbial clause of place after subordinators anywhere,
everywhere, wherever); 4) accept / will accept (future indefinite may be used
in type 1 conditionals with direct references to willingness or unwillingness);
5) are not (simple present in object clauses following take care, see to and make
sure); 6) are (simple present in an adverbial clause of concession with a future
time reference); 7) brings / will bring (simple present or future indefinite used
with little or no difference in meaning in object clauses following the verb
hope); 8) don’t cause (simple present with a future reference in an adverbial
clause of purpose as the predicate of the main clause includes a modal verb);
9) helps / will help (future indefinite may be used in type 1 conditionals
when the situation described in the main clause is likely to occur prior to the
situation described in the conditional clause); 10) becomes (simple present

51
with a future reference in an adverbial clause of time); 11) do / will (simple
present to refer to the future in adverbial clauses of comparison); 12) are / will
be (future indefinite may be used in type 1 conditionals in polite requests); 13)
is (present simple in an adverbial clause of purpose to refer to hypothetical or
future events); 14) press (simple present in an adverbial clause of proportion
and future indefinite in the main clause of a sentence with a future reference);
15) give / will give (future indefinite may be used in type 1 conditionals when
a speaker announces a decision).

Exercise 2.3
1) Originally I was going to break all ties with this man. 2) He is being
(unusually) rude today. 3) I was studying at the university from 1991 till 1995.
4) We have been quarrelling over our common property for years. 5) I was
wondering whether you might like to go to the theatre tonight. 6) If he is
still having a nap when I’m there, I’ll wait. 7) She is constantly contradicting
everyone and everything. 8) She told us she was giving a party next Sunday.
9) I’m sorry you have been waiting for so long. 10) Who is running this
tournament?

Exercise 2.4
1) have finished; 2) to have; 3) we haven’t come; 4) realized / remembered
that we had; 5) as if she had not; 6) will / shall / ‘ll have finished; 7) steaks
I’ve ever; 8) that they had; 9) has done nothing; 10) checked / made sure …
had been switched off.

Exercise 2.5
1) Don’t start on the other books until you have finished this one. 2) Nobody
has seen Jo for over a month. 3) By the time we get there, I’m sure he will
have arrived. 4) Since the Channel Tunnel was built, the journey to Paris takes
/ has taken much less time. 5) Pat is certain / sure / bound to have solved the
problem before everyone else. 6) When that report has been keyed (or: you
have keyed that report), could you perhaps check this order for me? 7) This is
the first time I have been asked that (or: anyone / someone has asked me that).
8) By the time we get to Edinburgh we will have covered over 500 miles. 9)
Since the new cafй next door was opened (or: they opened the new cafй next
door), this one has been / has become a lot less popular (or: hasn’t been nearly
so popular). 10) Heaving received your completed application form, we will
fax you further details.

52
Exercise 2.6
1) has worked out – Present Perfect Exclusive; 2) has arrived – Present Perfect
Exclusive; 3) has spent – Present Perfect Inclusive; 4) has … stirred up … and
tried – Present Perfect Inclusive; 5) has been – Present Perfect Inclusive; 6) have
longed – Present Perfect Inclusive; 7) has been – Present Perfect Exclusive;
8) has … been done – Present Perfect Exclusive; 9) have lived, … watched…
and have never been – Present Perfect Inclusive; 10) has been – Present Perfect
Inclusive.

Exercise 2.7
1) is; 2) has been working / has worked; 3) directs; 4) are (being) assigned;
5) has been calculated; 6) move; 7) qualified; 8) worked; 9) did; 10) exceeds;
11) is supposed; 12) has just ended; 13) is listening; 14) is explaining; 15) is
chatting; 16) has been waiting; 17) has just been interrupted; 18) does; 19) nters;
20) switches; 21) has arrived; 22) wear; 23) got used to; 24) notices; 25) is
having; 26) has been recently admitted; 27) is very concerned; 28) have been
living; 29) is joking; 30) be taken; 31) specializes; 32) bans; 33) is finished;
34) snatches.

Exercise 2.8
1) extends – Present Indefinite, general truth; 2) has created – Present Perfect, a
completed action that occurred at some irrelevant time in the past and produced
effect on the current situation; 3) had not begun – Past Perfect, an event that had not
yet occurred by the time when the action denoted by the context happened, were
evacuated – Past Indefinite, an action at a particular time in the past; 4) are trying –
Present Continuous, an action in progress at the moment of speaking, are waiting –
Present Continuous, a temporary situation which is in progress for a limited period
of time; 5) has enjoyed – Present Perfect, a situation that extended from some
time in the past to the present and may continue into the future; 6) will be giving –
Future Continuous, an announcement of future plans in formal context; 7) had
been raining – Past Perfect Continuous, an action in progress that began before a
certain moment in the past indicated by the context, collapsedx– Past Indefinite,
an action at a particular time in the past; 8) was rejected – Past Indefinite, an action
at a particular time in the past, were rounding – Past Continuous, a temporary
action in progress at a particular time in the past; 9) have been seeing – Present
Perfect Continuous, actions repeated a number of times within a limited period
which ends at the moment of speaking; 10) was attacked, was sunk, … swam and
took – Past Indefinite, a sequence of events in the past.

53
Exercise 2.9
1) …has been trying…; 2) Unless … decreases, the temperature will settle
at…; 3) … were staying …, we were constantly forgetting…; so … fined us
several times. 4) When these bills have been approved …, businesses will
have to…; 5) The refugees’ health will very likely be ruined after they have
lived …; 6) The city had hardly recovered … when the residents started…;
7) He made …, though previously he had never shown much interest …;
8) he pond was …; it was evident that the factory … had been discharging …;
9) … our planet has already suffered from…; 10) By 2020 the level of air
pollution … will have exceeded …; 11) Whatever happens, one mustn’t …;
12) The accident … is the gravest nuclear catastrophe the humanity has ever
faced. 13) This species used to be included …, however, now that its habitat
is restored, … has increased. 14) … are being built …; 15) As long as people
use/are using … , all fresh water sources will be at risk. 16) … had been
carried out before … was signed.

UNIT 3
Exercise 3.1
1) Minority parties are given disproportionate powers by the system of
proportional representation. Disproportionate powers are given to minority
parties by the system of proportional representation. 2) The concluding sentence
of the acceptance speech of the presidential nominee had to be repeated to a
cheering crowd. 3) The actions of the government ministers must be explained
to the House of Commons. 4) A copy of the amended party manifesto was
brought to the reporter by the secretary. 5) The public is shown the level of
satisfaction with the Prime Minister’s performance by this opinion poll. The
level of satisfaction with the Prime Minister’s performance is shown to the
public by this opinion poll. 6) A conservative MP was offered the decisive
cabinet position by the Prime Minister. The decisive cabinet position was
offered to a conservative MP by the Prime Minister. 7) Amendments to non-
finance bills can be suggested to the House of Commons by the members of the
House of Lords. 8) The views of the presidential nominee on the forthcoming
election campaign were described to the members of his party. 9) Pardons and
reprieves are granted to offenders in criminal cases by the President of the
United States. Offenders in criminal cases are granted pardons and reprieves
by the President of the United States. 10) Despite the electoral fraud, charges
were not brought against the opponent of the Liberal candidate. Despite the

54
electoral fraud, the opponent of the Liberal candidate was not brought charges
against.

Exercise 3.2
1) In 1689, William of Orange, who was married to James’s daughter Mary
and was a Protestant, was offered the throne. In 1689, the throne was offered
to William of Orange, who was married to James’s daughter Mary and
was a Protestant. 2) Abdication was suggested to the Sovereign as the only
possible step. 3) The press was shown the documents that gave occasion to
the impeachment trial. The documents that gave occasion to the impeachment
trial press were shown to the press. 4) A great deal of his jewellery collection
was bought for Lady Firth. 5) Just before the election campaign all Johnson’s
real estate was sold to his sister. Johnson’s sister was sold all his real estate just
before the election campaign. 6) The new plan was explained to the players
when they gathered before flying out to Spain. 7) Conservative voters were
promised reduction in taxes. Reduction in taxes was promised to Conservative
voters. 8) I believe this letter was dictated to her by John Stockman. 9) Every
candidate is guaranteed equal rights by the Constitution. Equal rights during
the run-up to elections are guaranteed to every candidate by the Constitution.
10) Russia was given a consultative role in discussion of matters of mutual
interest by the NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council. A consultative role in
discussion of matters of mutual interest was given to Russia by the NATO-
Russia Permanent Joint Council. 11) The verdict was repeated to the convict
on his request. 12) The rebel was brought to the Emperor bound hand and
foot.

Exercise 3.3
1) An awful lot has been left out of the final draft agreement. 2) An honorary
doctorate in law was conferred on our founder by Edinburgh University.
3) The beach was packed with thousands of sunbathers. 4) My uncle was
operated on (or: They operated on my uncle) for five hours to remove the
growth that had been diagnosed (or: for the growth that had been diagnosed to
be removed). 5) I was robbed of my watch and traveller’s cheques while I was
abroad. 6) The accused claimed he was / had been provoked into hitting the
police officer. 7) The contract was torn up by both parties. 8) Many of us were
shocked when a former actor was sworn in as President of the United States.
9) I was completely taken aback by the present. 10) Trading activities in the
war-stricken area have been scaled down.

55
Exercise 3.4
1) was run over; 2) was taken over; 3) was put about; 4) to be taken up; 5) was
set up; 6) had been worked out; 7) was set upon; 8) to be taken in; 9) was/had
been taken over; 10) wasn’t put across.

Exercise 3.5
1) … inequality is done away with. 2) …being made a fool of … 3) … the ship
was lost sight of. 4) … the Queen’s annual visit was (eagerly) looked forward
to. 5) … Louise was looked down on… 6) Such behaviour cannot be put up
with… 7) … most of what he did for the company was found fault with by
the management. 8) … with being talked down to by the government. 9) …
a new baby is made a fuss of in every family. 10) If my warnings had been
taken notice of, …

Exercise 3.6
1) with; 2) with; 3) by; 4) with; 5) by; 6) with, with; 7) by; 8) by; 9) by;
10) by.

Exercise 3.7
1) got polluted/poisoned/contaminated; 2) get called; 3) had got damaged; 4)
got married; 5) got sat on / had got sat on; 6) hadn’t got his hair cut; 7) having
got done; 8) got killed / had got killed.

Exercise 3.8
1) statal passive, compound nominal predicate; 2) actional passive, simple
verbal predicate; 3) actional passive, simple verbal predicate; 4) statal passive,
compound nominal predicate; 5) actional passive, simple verbal predicate;
6) statal passive, compound nominal predicate; 7) actional passive, simple
verbal predicate; 8) actional passive, simple verbal predicate; 9) statal passive,
compound nominal predicate; 10) actional passive, simple verbal predicate.

UNIT 4
Exercise 4.1
1) can; 2) could/may/might; 3) could; 4) will; 5) can/could/may; 6) must; 7)
should / ought to; 8) must not/cannot; 9) should; 10) can’t; 11) are; 12) might
/ could / should; 13) shall; 14) could.

56
Exercise 4.2
1) Winter can be very severe... 2) You can be very annoying! 3) I’m
unlikely to win... – unless, of course, I practice... 4) we managed to
find... 5) Can they really be looking for a treasure? 6) ... whether such
a small expedition would be able to reach / would manage to reach /
would succeed in reaching... 7) You could have corrected me... 8) Bull
terriers can be very aggressive – We can’t afford to buy a puppy anyway.
9) could play / knew how to play... 10) We couldn’t have had a better
holiday! 11) You might / could have been arrested! 12) I can’t find...
Where (on earth) / Wherever can they be? 13) One cannot hunt deer...
14) Can he be an actor? 15) ... could I borrow these magazines... – Yes,
help yourself / Of course you can. 16) won’t be able to nest... 17) ...
could depict; 18) managed to depict; 19) was capable of depicting; 20) I
simple couldn’t say no.

Exercise 4.3
1) can’t; 2) You may not; 3) must have; 4) must/should know; 5)They
may /might have; 6) will / must have; 7) must have been; 8) she could/
might; 9) I might; 10) will/must.

Exercise 4.4
1) I can’t agree more; 2) I can’t thank you enough; 3) we could but
apologize; 4) Her standard of knowledge cannot be praised too highly /
overestimated; 5) Sochi may be a beautiful town, but it’s too crowded...
6) One can’t be too rich or too slim. 7) How can I possibly refuse? 8) When
looking at this world, one can’t but marvel. 9) I could do with a warm
muffler. – And I could do with a nice cup of tea. 10) The introduction
may just as well be left out; 11) ...he couldn’t have enough (to eat).
12) You / One can’t be too careful; 13) We couldn’t help thinking about...
14) ...the temperature may well exceed the estimated value. 15) I can’t
wait to see...

Exercise 4.5
1) can’t remember; 2) must be; 3) ought to / should begin; 4) might find;
5) had to wait; 6) have / need to be met; 7) must be, should not; 8) ought
to be; 9) must have had; 10) must leave; 11) would not stop; 12) shall I
do; 13) cannot be accepted; must apply; 14) need get; 15) need not be
taken; 16) ought to have/show; 17) must have gone crazy.

57
Exercise 4.6
1) You must have failed to pass... 2) Must you talk about money in my
presence? 3) One / You mustn’t hurt other people’s feelings. 4) We didn’t have
to / didn’t need to be told twice; 5) The results must have been at variance
with the researchers’ estimates; 6) The Browns must have missed... They
might/could have phoned us. 7) ... didn’t need to be translated; 8) ...must have
misunderstood / misinterpreted... 9) Andrey has had no chance to visit... He
failed to pass... 10) You cannot take part in the election unless you have a valid
passport. 11) ...but she dared not object / did not dare to object; 12) You mustn’t
miss this opportunity / This is an opportunity not to be missed. 13) You should
have looked up... How are we to find...? It can’t be that you don’t remember /
Can you have forgotten?... 14) The organizing committee needn’t / shouldn’t
have spent so much money on postage stamps: the invitations could have been
sent via email. 15) ... must have been unaware... 16) ... is not likely to be
answered / is likely to remain unanswered.

Exercise 4.7
1) practicing a lot can you become... 2) ought to / should have told us... 3) was
to have opened... 4) unable to succeed without Mark’s assistance; 5) must it
be used... 6) might have charged you less. 7) would stare at her... 8) needn’t
have washed... 9) might be... 10) didn’t need to work... 11) not have spoken...;
12) unable to reach...; 13) to have been drafted by now. 14) should / ought to
have typed...; 15) have been built...; 16) be able to take part...; 17) it may /
might rain. 18) can say yet...

Exercise 4.8
1) ... even though the talks were to have started at 10am. 2) You ought to /
should know...; 3) ... I’m having to cook for myself. I could do with some
help! 4) You’ll have to tiptoe lest you should / so as not to... 5) We must
weigh... We mustn’t / shouldn’t make any decisions in haste; 6) The member
states shall renounce the use of force in settling international disputes; 7) ...
can be exceptionally picturesque. 8) Two office buildings are to be built...
9) I must say the dinner was delicious. 10) I’ve got to cut in; we’ll have to
change... 11) ... but he will slam the door; 12) climbers may develop snow
blindness; 13) They will have to stay at home... the removal van is to arrive...
14) Smoking is likely to be forbidden... 15) If your business is to remain
competitive, your recruitment policy should be reconsidered. 16) Surfing can
be... – I can’t agree more. 17) Nobody could foresee what difficulties they

58
were to overcome. 18) The landlady said that we must not use... 19) (The)
Supplier shall be responsible for... 20) James is ordering people about. He
might be the boss! 21) One can/may find unique specimens... 22) How dare
you mimic Granddad!

Exercise 4.9
1) can’t have been; 2) dare to; 3) might (just) as; 4) will have to / have got to;
5) are; 6) needn’t / don’t have to; 7) Must; 8) shall; 9) needn’t have; 10) are
to be; 11) couldn’t (possibly); 12) ought not; 13) has succeeded in; 14) have
heard; 15) should have been.

Exercise 4.10
1) can’t / couldn’t have given in; 2)ought to / should; 3) can migrate; 4) had
to be agreed upon; 5) wouldn’t listen; 6) have yet to meet; 7) is nowhere to
be found; must have been mislaid; 8) should be recharged; 9) must be held;
10) should be notified; 11) couldn’t have been; 12) might.

Exercise 4.11
1) may; 2) may; 3) may; 4) have (got) to; 5) will; 6) will; 7) can; 8) may;
9) need; 10) should.

UNIT 5
Exercise 5.1
1) were – synthetic form: Past Subjunctive (used in an object clause after I wish,
with present time reference); 2) made – subjunctive equivalent, a Past Indefinite
form (used in an attributive clause after ‘It’s time’); 3) be – synthetic form:
Present Subjunctive (formulaic use); 4) had come – subjunctive equivalent (a
Past Perfect form); shouldn’t face – analytical form with the mood auxiliary
‘should’ (used in a mixed-type conditional sentence); 5) should become –
analytical form with the mood auxiliary ‘should’ (the so-called ‘emotional
should’); used in a subject clause after ‘It is only natural’; 6) be – synthetic
form: Present Subjunctive (used in an object clause after a volitional verb);
7) come – synthetic form: Present Subjunctive; formulaic use; 8) would be –
analytical form with the mood auxiliary ‘would’; used in an adverbial clause
of purpose after ‘in order that’; 9) may go – analytical form with the mood
auxiliary ‘may’; used in a subordinate clause joined with the help of an ‘-ever’
compound; 10) were…( to) – synthetic form: Past Subjunctive; expresses a

59
slighter degree of probability [formal]; would collapse – analytical form with
the mood auxiliary ‘would’; used in a second-type conditional sentence);

Exercise 5.2
1) If it were not for his knowledge… 2) Should the house burn down… 3) It
is simply incredible that this tiny girl should know how to play chess! 4) Were
the factory to pollute the soil… 5) Come what may…; 6) We wish (that) the
landlady had informed us…; 7) I’d sooner my children wore… 8) Suppose the
neighbours didn’t accept your excuse, what on earth would happen? 9) If only
I were as fit as I used to be. 10) It’s about time you made… .

Exercise 5.3
1) … lest the situation should get worse; 2) I’d rather you started; 3) The
instructor insisted that Margaret should look in the mirror before she drove
off. 4) … as it were; 5) I wish you would teach… 6) Should you change…
7) Now I wish I had gone… 8) Were he to reconsider… 9) It’s high time we
stopped… 10) I’d rather you didn’t let…

Exercise 5.4
1) would; 2) may; 3) that as it; 4) (should) have; 5) had not been; 6) should
come; 7) would you rather that we; 8) would not; 9) may have written; 10) had
played.

Exercise 5.5
1) suffice it to say; 2) Come what may / Come hell or high water… 3) if need
be; 4) as it were; 5) Heaven forbid! 6) Far be it from me to lecture you…
7) Long live the sun, let darkness vanish! 8) May there always be sunshine,
may there always be blue skies! 9) Be it so! 10) May you live a long and happy
life; 11) Come winter… 12) Success attend you! 13) … so be it; 14) If truth
be known…

Exercise 5.6
Sentences 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10.

Exercise 5.7
1) was finally resolved; 2) (should) be kept; 3) were blocked; 4) were blocked;
5) was; 6) had not agreed; 7) kept; 8) were; 9) hadn’t told; 10) should demand;
11) remove.

60
Exercise 5.8
1) …snowed … would have been blocked: 2) …might have survived… had
not struck… 3) Had he not developed…would have probably survived. 4) …
would not have fallen … had been banned… 5) …would perhaps have been…
had been applied. 6) …would not have set… had been too cold. 7) …would
have developed… had covered… 8) Had the engines been duly inspected, …
would have been avoided. 9) Had the gasoline truck been hit, it would have
exploded. 10) …might have been excavated… had not come… 11) …had not
functioned… would have been checked… 12) Had the passages been kept…
would not have been trapped…13) …would have exploded… had not been
released. 14) …could have responded… had they been given…15) Had the
results been incorrect, … would have lost… 16) …would have disintegrated…
had been running… 17) …had broken… would have supplied… 18) …would
have survived… had not been… 19) …had been frozen… would not have
lasted.

Exercise 5.9
1) I was just drafting… when who should enter but… 2) The requirement
that a minister (should) not be involved with… 3) … as it were… 4) Should
we miss the train, we would have to… -- Heaven forbid that Michael should
drive! 5) It is essential that… should know… 6) If only it were…7) Now
my daughter wishes that she had majored in banking. 8) We wish you would
quote…9) Our laboratory (has) published… so that the general public would
have / should have / may have / had reliable information about these food
additives. 10) It’s only natural that your customer should demand to see your
licence.11) The town’s unemployment rate is falling; suffice it to say that 500
jobs have been created this month. 12) Far be it from me to instruct you…
13) It’s about time you started… – I certainly wish we had established…14) It
is advisable that this kind of exhibition should be held annually. 15) But for
the danger of radioactive contamination, nuclear energy would be put to a far
wider use. 16) If I had visited… I would have filled in…17) I wish the town
had more…18) … suggest that commercials should be banned… 19) Oh!
That this should happen to my neighbours! 20) … would you effect if you
became…

Exercise 5.10
1)Whatever you (may) see… 2) It’s unbelievable that my design has been /
should have been / should be selected! 3) Whatever you (may) do… 4) It’s

61
outrageous that his letter should contain / contains… 5) If you see / Should
you see… 6) No matter what dictionaries the translator has used / may have
used … 7) It’s only natural that all students are / should be computer literate.
8) Why should / do they criticize…9) It’s annoying that he will not watch /
does not watch / should not watch… 10) Whoever wins / may win the first
prize will have to…
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Azar, B.S. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 2nd ed. New Jersey,
1989.
Benson, M., Benson, E., and Ilson, R. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of
English. Moscow, 1990
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G. et al. Longman Grammar of Spoken and
Written English. Longman, 1999
Bywater, F.V. Proficiency Course in English. London, 1990
Carter, R. and McCarthy, M. Cambridge Grammar of English. CUP, 2005
Close, R.A. A Reference Grammar for Students of English. Moscow, 1979
Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. London, 1993
Drummond, G. English Structure Practice. Longman Group Ltd., 1981
Gethin, H. Grammar in Context: Proficiency Level English. Longman, 1996
Graver, B.D. Advanced English Practice. 3rd ed. OUP, 1986
Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. A Communicative Grammar of English. Moscow,
1983
Maclin, A. Reference Guide to English. New York, 1971
O’Connell, S. Focus on Proficiency. London, 1995
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. A Grammar of
Contemporary English. London, 1973.
Side, R., Wellman, G. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced
and Proficiency. 2nd ed. Edinburgh, 2000.
Swan, M. Practical English Usage. 2nd ed. OUP, 1995.
Thompson, A.J. and Martinet, A.V. A Practical English Grammar. 4th ed.
OUP, 1986
Vince, M. Advanced Language Practice. Oxford, 1994
Грамматика современного английского языка / Под ред. А.В. Зеленщикова
и Е.С.Петровой. СПб., 2003 (на англ. яз)
Петрова Е.С. Сложное предложение в английском языке: варианты
формы, значения и употребления. М., 2002 (на англ. яз.)

63
Елена Серафимовна Петрова
Вера Петровна Гор

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ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ:
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