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Chapter 

1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces

BUCKLING-RESTRAINED BRACE
HISTORY, DESIGN and APPLICATIONS

Toru Takeuchi, Akira Wada


Ryota Matsui, Ben Sitler, Pao-Chun Lin,
Fatih Sutcu, Hiroyasu Sakata, Zhe Qu

1
1 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces
1.1 Composition of 
buckling‐restrained Braces (BRB)

Concept of Buckling-restrained Brace


Mortar

Appearance of typical BRB Types of restrainer

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2 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces

Restrainer
Core plate

Clearance and eccentricity

600 Development of
400 higher buckling mode
Axial force (kN)

200
0
-200
-400
-600
-40 -20 0 20 40
Axial deformation (mm)
Hysteresis of well‐designed BRB
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3 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces

1.2 History of Development
1972: Takeda et al. tried to improve the post-buckling behaviour of
H-section braces by encasing the steel section in reinforced
concrete. However, because no debonding mechanism was
provided, the restrainer received a significant compressive
force, cracked and ultimately experienced overall buckling.
1979: Motizuki et al. proposed introducing a debonding layer
between the core plate and reinforced concrete restrainer.
However, the system tended to buckle at the unrestrained core
extension
1988: The first practical buckling-restrained brace was achieved by
Saeki, Wada, et al. employed rectangular steel tubes with in-
filled mortar for the restrainer, and determined the optimal
debonding material specifications to obtain stable and
symmetric hysteresis behaviour.
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4 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces
1.2 History of Development
The first application of Buckling‐restrained Brace (Unbonded Brace, 1987)

BRB experiment 1987

Nippon Steel Headquarter No.2 (Tokyo) BRB installation

M Fujimoto, A Wada, E Saeki, T Takeuchi, A Watanabe: Development of Unbonded Braces, Quarterly Column, 
No.115, pp.91‐96, 1990.1
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5 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces

Plant & Environmental Sciences, UC Davis     Bennett Federal Building
Retrofit/ Salt Lake City
Early US applications in 2000’s

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6 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces
1.3 BRB TYPES (Mortar in‐filled type)

Restrainer
Restrainer

Core Plate

Restrainer

Core Plate

Connection Spacer

Slit

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7 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 1: Composition and history of Buckling‐restrained Braces
1.3 BRB TYPES (Dry type)
Restrainer Tube
Pin End Restrainer Tube Core Tube

Solid End Core Tube


Restrainer Tube
Bolt End Restrainer Tube
Core Tube

Core Tube

Unbonded Sheet
Restrainer
Bolt
Core Restrainer Bolt
Plate
Core Plate

Core Plate
Slit

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8 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 2: Restrainer Design and Clearances
Quality Requirement for 
Hysteresis models
Inappropriate  Plastic strain
clearance concentration

Local buckling Local bulging


Uneven stiffness
Uneven Uneven Local bulging Degradation
strength strength in compression side
Bulging-induced failure
Tearing
Degradation
in compression side Fracture
Slack 
(pin connection)

Buckling

Buckling-induced failure
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9 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 2: Restrainer Design and Clearances
2.1 Restrainer Design

Global Stability,  Higher Mode  Connection 


Connections
Restrainer including: Buckling Strength
Restrainer End
Fatigue Fracture

BRB Stability and Strength

1.Restrainer successfully suppresses core first‐mode buckling (Chapter 2)


2.Debonding mechanism decouples axial demands and allows for Poisson effects (Chapter 2)
3.Restrainer wall bulging due to higher mode buckling is suppressed (Chapter 3)
4.Global out‐of‐plane stability is ensured, including connection (Chapter 4)
5.Low‐cycle fatigue capacity is sufficient for expected demands (Chapter 5)

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10 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 2: Restrainer Design and Clearances

N crE  ac
ac  yc  E
N cr  N cu
N cu ac N cu  a  2s  e 
M  N cu (ac  yc ) 
B
  M B
y
1  N cu N crB 1  N cu N crB
a: Fabrication tolerances of core and/or brace
s:Clearance or thickness of debonding material (per face)
e:Eccentricity of the axial force
MBy:flexural strength of the restrainer
Ncu= da Ny:core yield force amplified by overstrength and strain hardening
da =1.4~1.5  2 EI B
NBcr :Euler buckling strength of the restrainer, given by: N cr 
B

lB 2
Where initial imperfections ec/lB ≤ 1/500, a relatively slender restrainer
with lB/Dr > 20 and with an overall safety factor of eα ≥ 1.5;

 2 EI B
N crB  2
 e  N cu
lB

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11 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling
in‐plane local bulging failure

out‐of‐plane local bulging failure

(Tokyo Institute of Technology)

(National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering)
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12 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling
Tension
axial force

section s‐s
srs
Compression
core strain
Dr
Bc Bc Br
s
srs

steel core mortar debonding steel


Bc srw Br layer tube wall
w w

tc
srw
s tc Dr

section w‐w

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13 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling Compression is initially applied
Tension
Flexural buckling waves form in both the in‐plane and out‐
axial force

of‐plane directions

section s‐s

Compression
core strain

s
N N

w w

s
N N
section w‐w

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14 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling Maximum tensile strain is applied
Tension
Clearances increase because of the Poisson effect
axial force

γp =0.5, Poisson ratio of steel inelastic deformation 

section s‐s srs+0.5γp Bc ɛt

Compression
core strain ɛt
s
srs

Bc srw
w w srw+0.5 γp tc ɛt
tc
s

section w‐w

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15 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling
Tension Compression reaches yield strength Ny
High mode buckling waves form and generating the 
axial force

outward forces.
Ny section s‐s 2srs+γp Bc ɛt
outward force
Compression
core strain
Bc
s
Ny Ny

lp,s
w w 2srw+ γp tc ɛt
tc outward force
s
Ny Ny
section w‐w lp,w

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16 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling Compression reaches maximum 
Tension compressive capacity Ncu
High mode buckling wavelengths remain, the maximum 
axial force

outwards are fully developed.
section s‐s 2srs+γp Bc ɛt
Ncu
Compression
core strain Pd,s

s
Ncu Ncu

lp,s
w w 2srw+ γp tc ɛt
Pd,w Pd,w
s
Ncu Ncu
Pd,w Pd,w
section w‐w lp,w

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17 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.1 Failure Caused by High Mode Buckling
Tension
Local bulging failure when restrainer is 
axial force

too weak in sustaining outward forces

section s‐s
Ncu
Compression
core strain
in‐plane bulging
s

out‐of‐ in‐plane local bulging failure
plane 
w w
bulging

section w‐w out‐of‐plane local bulging failure

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18 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.2 Estimation on Outward Force (demand)
Apply moment equilibrium condition on the free body, 0.5Pd,s
In‐plane outward force Pd,s
0.5lp,s
Bc
Ncu
Ncu
4Ncu  2 srs  ν pBc εt  2srs+γp Bc ɛt
Pd ,s 
l p ,s 0.5Pd,s

Out‐of‐plane outward force Pd,w 0.5Pd,w
0.5lp,w
tc Ncu

4Ncu  2 srw  ν pt c εt  Ncu


Pd ,w  2srw+ γp tc ɛt
lp ,w
0.5Pd,w
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19 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.4 Estimation on Steel Tube Resistance (capacity) t
out‐of‐plane bulging failure δw
x x
A D
b
B
Pc,w
Bc Br
w w
B’
b
A’ a D’
section t‐t t δw

2x
Pc,w
D

A B
Bc
Bc D’
B’ section w‐w
A’ 3‐D view External work =  Pc,wδw
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20 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure small deformation curvature
3.4 Estimation on Steel Tube Resistance A D
Yield lines AD and A’D’ ignored 
Yield line patterns residual stress at tube corners
A D A D A D A D
B
B B B

B’ B’ B’
B’ 45。
α 45。 α
A’ D’ A’ D’ A’ D’ A’ D’
Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition 4
(Yoshida et al. 2010) (Lin et al. 2010)
Internal energy: E9 Internal energy: E9 Internal energy: E5 Internal energy: E5
(9 yield lines) (9 yield lines) (5 yield lines) (5 yield lines)
α: minimizing E9 α = 45° α: minimizing E5 α = 45°
4 2 2  Bc Br 2
Pc ,w  t r2σry 4  2 Bc Br 2 Pc ,w  t r2σry Pc ,w  t r σry
1  Bc Br  Pc ,w  t r σry 1  Bc Br  1  Bc Br
1  Bc Br
4 4  2t c Dr 2 2 2  tc Dr 2
Pc ,s  t r2σry Pc ,s  t r σry Pc ,s  t r2σry Pc ,s  t r σry
1  t c Dr  1  t c Dr 1  t c Dr  1  tc Dr
(resistance factor) (resistance factor) (resistance factor) (resistance factor)
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21 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.5 Test Results and Evaluations example: Conservative:
bulging is in expectation but did not occur in test
Experimental resistance factor ●

resistance factor
4Ncu ,exp  2 srw  ν pt c εt  ×▲ Appropriate:
bulging occurred in test and was in expectation
out‐of‐plane:  2
l tσ
p ,w r ry ×▲ Dangerous:
4Ncu ,exp  2 srs  ν pBc εt  ● bulging occurred in test but was not in expectation

in‐plane:  Appropriate:
lp ,st r2σry Bc/Br or tc/Dr
bulging did not occur in test and was not in expectation
14
● 15 specimens without bulging
12 × 14 out‐of‐plane bulged specimens 
▲ 5 in‐plane in‐plane bulged specimens

10
resistance factor

Condition 2
(9 dangerous estimation)
8 Condition 1
(9 dangerous estimation)
6

4
Condition 4
2 (recommended)
Condition 3
(over‐conservative)
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Bc/Br or tc/Dr
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22 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.5 Test Results and Evaluations out‐of‐plane bulging
Proposed design method: Bc
tc
4Ncu  2srw  ν ptc εt 
Br
Pd ,w  Br  Bc    0.85
DCRw    1.0 Dr
Pc ,w  2Br  Bc  tr2σry lp ,w
Pd ,s  Dr  tc  4Ncu  2srs  ν pBc εt  in‐plane bulging
DCRs     1.0 Bc tc
Pc ,s  2Dr  tc  tr2σry lp ,s  0.85 Dr
Br
14
● 15 specimens without bulging
12 × 14 out‐of‐plane bulged specimens 
▲ 5 in‐plane in‐plane bulged specimens

10
resistance factor

8 7.7

2
0.85
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Bc/Br or tc/Dr
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23 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 3: Local Bulging Failure
3.6 Required Mortar Strength for Local Pressure

contact surface
Pd,w
Pd ,w
 fc' lc
lc Bc
steel core

Bc restrainer
3.7 Local Bulging Criteria for Circular Restrainer

Pd ,s  Br  2tr  4Ncu  2srs  ν pBc εt 


DCRsc     1.0
Pc ,s  cmtm  tc  πtr Br σry lp , s
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24 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 4: Connection Design and Global Stability
4.2 Design Concepts
The AIJ Recommendations provide rigorous evaluation methods for BRB connection 
out‐of‐plane buckling.  Two concepts below are presented:

JEIB Connection JEIB > EIB KRg Connection


zone  L0 zone
Gusset plate Restrainer-end
Moment transfer Bending zone
capacity is lost at the moment
end of restrainer transfer

Restrained
zone Plastic Restrained
EIB =Plastic lB L0 EIB zone zone
zone

Restrainer-end
zone

JEIB Connection JEIB > EIB Connection


zone  L0 KRg zone

1: Cantilevered gusset 2: Restrainer end continuity

AIJ (2009) Recommendations for stability design of steel structures. Architectural Institute of Japan.
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25 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 4: Connection Design and Global Stability
BRB configurations

Type A Type B Type C


(a) low stiffness (b) high stiffness Not rotationally
(US/NZ detailes) (JP details) braced

(a) One-way (b) Chevron


BRB configurations in frame
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26 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 4: Connection Design and Global Stability
Stability assessment
Tsai and Nakamura’s proposal (2002) Koetaka and Inoue’s proposal (2008)
L0 (1  2 N  )l
r  N cr   KR
ic (l  d   N  l )( d   N  l )
* *

 2 (1  2 )rJ EI B 1  1   2
N cr  N cr   KR
(2 L0 )2 (1  1 )   2 L0

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27 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Toru Takeuchi, Tokyo Institute of Technology
Chapter 4: Connection Design and Global Stability
Hikino and Okazaki’s proposal (2013)
K R L1 K R 1  2  d * 1  1  2
N cr      KR
L1 L1  L2  l  d * 1  (1  1 )  2 L0
Takeuchi’s proposal (2013)
  Rg
( M pr  M 0r ) ar  N crr  2 (1  2 ) J EI B K Rg  L0
N lim1   N cu N 
r
 
2  Rg

( M pr  M 0r ) ( ar N crB )  1 cr
(2 L0 )2 
 Rg  24 /   J EI B

2 L0   Rg  24 /  2
r  
ic (1  2 )  Rg

Lin yielding

Dneck

point of rotation
a) mortar‐filled BRB
Lin

b) steel tube‐in‐tube BRB

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28 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Toru Takeuchi, Tokyo Institute of Technology
Chapter 4: Connection Design and Global Stability
Takeuchi’s proposal (cont’d)

In case of plastic hinges produced at joint ends


(1  2 ) M pg  M 0r    M pr  M 0r   ar
N lim 2     N cu
(1  2 ) M p  M 0    M p  M 0   ( ar N cr )  1
g r r r B
 

Stable Unstable
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29 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Toru Takeuchi, Tokyo Institute of Technology
Chapter 4: Connection Design and Global Stability
4.6 In‐plane pinching 

horizontal stiffener

vertical
stiffener

(a) Frame pinching (b) Frame opening


Expected Failure Recommended Proposal
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30 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 5: Cumulative Deformation Capacity until Fracture
Cumulative energy‐dissipation capacity
(a) Ordinary Tube Brace Local Buckling Mechanism

Plastic stress concentration


(b) Incomplete Buckling-restrained Brace
Expected Plastic Zone

Friction
(c) Complete Buckling-restrained Brace Mild local buckling and averaged
strain distribution along plastic zone
Plastic Zone

Local buckling distribution until fracture

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31 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 5: Cumulative Deformation Capacity until Fracture
BRB Fatigue Performance under Cyclic Loading
100 Steel material fatigue 
Exp. Data5) performance4)
LY100
Strain Ampilitude Δεeq (%)
Steel material fatigue 
10 performance4) SS400
BRB fatigue 
6),7) LY235
1 performance
Manson‐Coffin
Fatigue Formula
0.1
Plastic  Elastic   t  C1 N f m  C2 N f m
1 2

region region
0.0
BRB < Steel Material
11 10 100 100 1000 10000
0 0 0
Cycle Number Nf
4) Saeki, E et al. 1995. A Study on Low Cycle Fatigue Characteristics of Low Yield Strength Steel, J. Struct. Constr. Eng., AIJ, No. 472, 139‐147
5) Nakamura, H., Takeuchi, T., et al. 2000. Fatigue Properties of Practical Scale Unbonded Braces, Nippon Steel Technical Report, Nippon Steel 
Corporation, No. 82, 51‐57
6) Takeuchi, T. et al. 2008. A. Estimation of Cumulative Deformation Capacity of Buckling Restrained Braces, J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 134, No. 
5, 822‐831
7) Takeuchi, T. et al. 2006. Cumulative Deformation Capacity and Damage Evaluation for Elasto‐plastic Dampers at Beam Ends, J. Struct. Constr. 
Eng., AIJ, No. 600, 115‐122
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32 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 5: Cumulative Deformation Capacity until Fracture
Fatigue Performance of BRB 
using Plastic Strain Concentration Mechanism
100
s0=0mm Experiment s0=1mm, 
(Steel material) tc=25mm5)
Strain amplitude Δεn (%)

Experiment  s0=2mm, 
10 s0=1.0mm, tc=25mm tc=12mm9)
s0=2.0mm, tc=12mm

s0=2.0mm, tc=25mm
0.1 Fatigue performance of BRB
decreases as clearance 
s0=5.0mm, tc=25mm SN400B between core plate and 
0.01 restrainer increases
1 10 100 1000 10000
Fracture cycle Nf
5) Nakamura, H., Takeuchi, T., et al. 2000. Fatigue Properties of Practical Scale Unbonded Braces, Nippon Steel Technical Report, Nippon Steel 
Corporation, No. 82, 51‐57
9) Takeuchi, T., Ohyama, T., and Ishihara, T. 2010. Cumulative Cyclic Deformation Capacity of High Strength Steel Frames with Energy 
Dissipation Braces (Part 1), Journal of Structural and Constructional Engineering, Architectural Institute of Japan, Vol. 75, No. 655, 1671‐1679 
(in Japanese)
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33 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 5: Cumulative Deformation Capacity until Fracture
Estimation by Miner’s Method
F re q u en cy N (cyc les)
fi
120
100
80
60
40
20
10
5
0

0.525
1.225
1.925
2.625
3.325

6.125
6.825
7.525
8.225
8.925

11.73
12.43
4.025
4.725
5.425

9.625
10.32
11.02
S tr a in A m p litu d e   (% )
i
Strain Amp. Δε (%) Strain Amplitude Frequency
100
Constant Amp.
10
Gradually
1 Increasing
Fatigue
0.1 εe=0.5・N f-0.14 Shaking
Table
0.01
0 0.5 1(Theory) 1.5 2
εp=54.0・N f-0.71
Damage Index
0.001
1 10 100 1000 10 4 10 5 10 6 Accuracy by Miner’s Method
Failure Cycles N f (cycles)
Fatigue Curve under Constant Amplitude
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34 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 6: Performance Test Specification for BRB
6.1 Test Configurations
1) Uniaxial test

Single Brace test

Single Brace test


with rotational deformation
(ANSI/AISC 341-05)

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35 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 6: Performance Test Specification for BRB
2) Inclined test

Inclined layout
with column

Inclined layout
with initial
out-of-plane drift

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36 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 6: Performance Test Specification for BRB
3) In‐frame test 

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37 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 6: Performance Test Specification for BRB
Example BRB testing protocol
(a) ANSI/AISC 341-05 and US practice
Cycle Inelastic Deformation Cumulative strain Cumulative
(Story drift angle) ( bm = 4 by ) ( by =0.25%) Inelastic strain
 by ×2 =2×4× by -  by ) =0 by =2×4×0.25=2% =2×4×0=0%
0.5 bm ×2 =2×4× by -  by ) =8 by =2×4×0.5=4% =2×4×0.25=2%
1.0 bm ×2 =2×4× by -  by ) =24 by =2×4×1.0=8% =2×4×0.75=6%
1.5 bm ×2 =2×4× by -  by ) =40 by =2×4×1.5=12% =2×4×1.25=10%
.0 bm ×2 =2×4× by -  by ) =56 by =2×4×2.0=16% =2×4×1.75=14%
1.5 bm ×4 =4×4× by -  by ) =80 by =4×4×1.5=24% =4×4×1.25=20%
(1.5 bm until fracture)
Total =208 by =56% =52%

(b) BCJ and Japanese practice


Cycle Inelastic Deformation Cumulative strain Cumulative
(Plastic length strain) ( by =0.25%) ( by =0.25%) Inelastic strain
 by ×3 =3×4× by -  by ) =0 by =3×4×0.25=3% =3×4×0=0%
0.5%×3 =3×4× by -  by ) =8 by =3×4×0.5=6% =3×4×0.25=3%
1.0% ×3 =3×4× by -  by ) =36 by =3×4×1.0=12% =3×4×0.75=9%
.0% ×3 =3×4× by -  by ) =84 by =3×4×2.0=24% =3×4×1.75=21%
 ×3 =3×4× by -  by ) =132 by =3×4×3.0=36% =3×4×2.75=33%
(3.0% until fracture)
Total =264 by =81% =66%

38
38 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 6: Performance Test Specification for BRB
6.4 Post Earthquake Inspection
Koriyama Big-Eye, a 24-story, 133m building complete in 1998 in Fukushima experienced
Tohku Earthquake 2011 at 234km from epicenter. The cumulative deformation
measurements and earthquake record were used to calibrate a finite element model,
indicated a peak ductility demand of µ ≈ 4 and a cumulative plastic strain of ∑εp ≈ 20%
(∑δp/δy ≈ 100) in the Y direction, still 6% of their capacity.

cumulative def.
meter

Fukushima Koriyama Big-Eye max def. meter


Inaba Y, Morimoto S, Tsuruta S, Takeuchi T, Matsui R. Damage record of buckling restrained braces that received actual ground
motion. AIJ Kanto Branch Research Report Collection 2017
39
39 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.1: Damage Tolerant Concept
7.1.1 Damage Tolerant Concepts

Damage Tolerant Structure
Earthquake Ground Motion and Seismic Design in Japan

Wada A, Connor J, Kawai H, Iwata M, Watanabe A: Damage Tolerant Structure, ATC-15-4, Proc. 5th
US-Japan WS on the Imprement of Building Structural Design and Construction Practices, 1992.9
40
40 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.1: Damage Tolerant Concept

Strain Distribution along the beam System of Main Structure and Damper
BRB Energy BRB Energy
Main Frame
Shear
Dissipation Shear Dissipation
Damage Zone
Force Zone Force Zone
Max Response Max Response
Main Frame
(High-strength
Steel)
Main Frame
(Normal Steel)

BRB BRB

0.00125 0.005 0.01 Story Drift 0.00125 0.01 Story Drift


(1/800) (1/200) (1/100) (1/800) (1/100)
Angle Angle
(a) Ordinary Concept (b) Damage Tolerant Concept
Shear force-Story Drift Relationship of Damage Tolerant Structure
41
41 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.1: Damage Tolerant Concept

Triton Square Project


42
42 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.1: Damage Tolerant Concept

Following Damage Tolerant Projects

Grand Tokyo North Tower Election of Large BRBF

43
43 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Grid-skin structures with BRBs

BRB is suitable for Grid-skin structures

Ductile elements, Less bending loss,


Free internal space, Design with facades

44 Toru Takeuchi Tokyo Tech


Energy-dissipation Skins with Solar Cells
2. Disaster Prevention and Environmental Sustainability

Cg南側

45 Toru Takeuchi Tokyo Tech


Energy-dissipation Skins with Solar Cells
2. Disaster Prevention and Environmental Sustainability
Main Frame
Spiral Layout of Energy-dissipation
Fuses around Perimeter zones
Open Space

Energy Dissipation Brace

Solar-panel Envelope Structure


Flexible and Lightweight structure over the main frame
46
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs
Midorigaoka-1st Building Retrofit concept

47
47 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

800 800
600 600
400 400
200 200
(kN)

(kN)
0 0
-200 -200
-400 -400
-600 Experiment -600 Experiment
Calculation Calculation
-800 -800
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30
(mm) (mm)
(a) Before retrofit (b) After Retrofit
Reduced mock-up test for 2nd floor frame
48
48 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

Maximum story drift obtained by time‐history analyses

Detail for the connections between frame and BRB
49
49 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs
Environmental effect of outer skins

summer spring/fall winter


50
50 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

Perimeter work process

Carbon fiber reinforcement BRB Attachment


51
51 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

52
52 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs
Retrofit with Diagonal BRB Louver

(a) Exterior appearance (b) Interior view


Application for Seismic retrofit (Administer Build. Tokyo Tech)

Takeuchi T, Yasuda K, Iwata M: Seismic Retrofitting using Energy Dissipation Façades, ATC-SEI09
(San Francisco), 2009.12
53
53 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs
7.4.1 BRB application on RC frame with elastic steel frame

54
54 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs
A A

B B

C C

D D

E E

F F

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Typical RC school building in Turkey

55
55 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

160
Residual displacement

≈1/30 story drift
120
Inter‐story displacement (mm)

RC only
80

40
RC + BRB  + SF

0 ≈1/3000 story drift
≈1/1000 story drift

RC + BRB
‐40
RC only
RC+BRB
RC+BRB+SF
‐80
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (sec)

56
56 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

Increment Dynamic Analyses curves

2 1.5
RC only (b) RC+CB+SF
(a)
RC+CB+SF

"First Mode" Apectral Acceleration SA
"First Mode" Spectral Acceleration SA

RC+BRB
RC+BRB+SF
target drift (1/150) RC+BRB+SF
1.5
1

(T1, 5%) (g)
(T1, 5%) (g)

0.5
0.5

0 0
0 0.00025 0.0005 0.00075 0.001
0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025
Maximum Residual Drift (rad) 
Maximum inter‐story drift (rad) 

57
57 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.3: Seismic retrofit with BRBs

Cyclic Loading Test for RC retrofit with BRB+SF


(Istanbul Technological University)

58
58 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.6: Applications for truss and spatial structures
7.5.2 Types of Spatial Structure Applications
a) Truss structures Force
Limiting
Function
2

1.5

y
1

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
△ △ △ △ △ △

Buckling BRB -2
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
軸歪み [%]
Response Control for Truss Structures

Devices

Device Layout Types for Response-controlled Truss Structures


59
59 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.6: Applications for truss and spatial structures
Horizontal Acceleration

Vertical Acceleration

Horizontal Input
Seismic Response of Raised Roof

(R‐1) Roof with Dampers (R‐2) Base Isolated


Roof

(R‐3) Substructure with Dampers (R‐4) Entire Base Isolation


Device Layout for Response-controlled Roof Structures
60
60 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.6: Applications for truss and spatial structures

Seismic retrofit of communication towers

61
61 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.6: Applications for truss and spatial structures

Toyota Stadium
Vibration Control Brace (Deck) Deck

5.7 5.7
Horizontal Tie

Horizontal

108.3m
Brace

Thrust Brace

Main Arch
5.7 5.7

Vibration Control Brace


(Roof)
Shimokita Dome
62
62 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.6: Applications for truss and spatial structures
7.5.3 Applications to Bridge Structures

BRBs

Seismic retrofit of steel arch bridge


with BRBs
Buckling‐restrained Braces

Retrofit of Hanshin  highway bridge

Celik O, Bruneau M: Skewed Slab‐on‐Girder Steel 


Bridge Superstructures with Bidirectional‐Ductile End  Bridge girder with BRBs on RC peer
Diaphragms, ASCE Journal of Bridge Engineering, 
Vol.16, No.2, pp.207‐218, 2011
63
63 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts
7.6.2. Dual spine system
Elastic
BRB or Damper Brace

BRB or Damper
(a) Conventional BRB distribution (b) Dual spine concept
Taga K, Koto M, Tokuda Y, Tsuruta J, Wada A. Hints on how to design passive control structure whose 
damper efficiency is enhanced, and practicality of this structure, Proc. Passive Control Symposium 2004, 
105‐112, Tokyo Tech, 2004.11
64
64 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts

Retrofit of Suzukake G3
Tokyo Tech 2010
Akira Wada, Qu Zhe et al.

Qu Z, Wada A, Motoyui S, Sakata H, Kishiki S: Pin-supported walls for enhancing the seismic
performance of building structures. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 2012
65
65 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts
7.6.4. Non-uplifting Hinged Spine Frame System (Material Research Building)

66
66 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts
7.6.5. Comparison of Spine Frame Systems

(a) Conventional BRBF  (b) Lift‐up Rocking Frame  (c) Non‐uplifting Spine 


(SD)  (LU)  Frame (NL) 

Takeuchi T, Chen X, Matsui R. Seismic performance of controlled spine frames with energy‐dissipating 
members, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.115, 51‐65, 2015.11
67
67 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts
5 5
0.8% rad. 0.05% rad.
4 (1/125) 4 (1/2000)
Shear
Damper 3 3

System
2 2

1 1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15
PT wire 5 5
0.8% rad. 0.05% rad.
4 (1/125) 4 (1/2000)
Lift-up
3 3
Spine
System 2 2

1 1
BRC 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15
5 5
0.8% rad. 0.05% rad.
4 (1/125) 4 (1/2000)
Non Lift-up
Spine 3 3

System
2 2

BRC BRC 1 1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15

Max. Story Drift Angle (%) Residual Story Drift Angle (%)
68
68 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts
7.6.7 Application Examples
Retrofit of Steel Frame with RC core wall spine

680 Folsom Street, SF, US

Janhunen B., Tipping S., Wolfe J., Mar T. Seismic Retrofit of a 1960s steel moment-frame
highrise using a pivoting spine, SEAOC 2013 Convention Proceedings
69
69 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts

Damped Outrigger concept

BRBs

RC core

Wilshire Grand Tower, LA, US


Joseph LM, Gulec C, Schwaiger K Justin M: Wilshire Grand: Outrigger Designs and Details for a Highly 
Seismic Site,  International Journal of High‐Rise Buildings,  Vol.5, Issue 1, 2016, pp.1‐12
70
70 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.7: Spine frame concepts
Optimization Method

Response

Damper
Rat  Outrigger position
3.28Str 2 Rat 2  0.75Str (1  Rat ) Rat  0.57(1  Rat ) 2
 opt 
6.75Str 2 Rat 2  1.81Str (1  Rat ) Rat  0.63(1  Rat ) 2
Exclusive
Optimization 0.20 2  0.59  0.61 kb Rat , opt
Rat , opt  , c 
2.01 4 Str 2  Str (  2) 2 
d , opt

B.Huang, T.Takeuchi: Dynamic Response Evaluation of Damped-Outrigger Systems with Various


Heights, Earthquake Spectra, Vol.33, No.2, pp.665-685, 2017.5
71
71 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Chapter 7.6: Applications for truss and spatial structures

The latest knowledge is overviewed in

Buckling-Restrained Braces and


Applications
T. Takeuchi and A. Wada, Japan Society of
Seismic Isolation, 2017

mail to contactjssi@jssi.or.jp

30-years from the first application, BRBs are still actively researched and
expanding applications. I am looking forward to further development in
the future.
72
72 Buckling‐restrained Braces and Applications
Thank you very much for your kind attention

73