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Classification of Shape Casting Processes

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J.A. Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, 2000, Fig. 7-12

Shape Casting Processes:


Expendable Mould, Permanent Pattern Processes
Sand Casting Mold Features

FIGURE 5.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold


showing various features.
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Sand Casting Process Steps

FIGURE 5.16 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations in sand casting.


(See next slide for details.)
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Sand Casting Process Steps


FIGURE 5.16 The sequence of operations in sand casting:
(a) A mechanical drawing of the part, used to create patterns.
(b-c) Patterns mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Note the
presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place.
(d-e) Core boxes produce core halves, which are pasted together. The cores
will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a).
(f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern
plate to the flask with aligning pins, and attaching inserts to form the
sprue and risers.
(g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed.
(h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner.
(j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity.
(k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and securing
the assembly with pins and weights applied to hold the cope down.
(l) After the metal solidifies, the casting is removed from the mold.
(m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled, and the casting is cleaned,
inspected, and heat treated (when necessary).
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The Roles of Sands & Binders

• Sand is usually SiO2 based , but zircon, aluminum


silcate, chromite, olibvite, etc., are used
• Mustt have
M h uniform
if permeability
bilit tto allow
ll air
i iin th
the
mold to escape during filling
• Must have a binder strong enough to hold the mold
cavity shape during handling & filling, withstand the
metallostatic pressure and resist mold erosion during
filling
• The binder must be sufficiently weaken by the metal
heat to allow shrinkage of the casting and easy
removal of the sand after casting
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Types of Binders
Green Sand : cheapest, 6-8% bentonite (clay) and 2-3%
water.
Sodium Silicate: 3-5% sodium silicate+H2O (waterglass) is
then then purged with CO2 to give a Na2CO3 bond which is
stronger for larger castings and cores. Also know as CO2
process
Oil Sands: vegetable oils and some cereal flour are baked at
250°C. This gives a stronger bond for cores.
Resin-bonded sands: thermosetting polymers for stronger
bonds for cores
Vacuum-molding: thin plastic sheets are placed over clean,
dry sand in cope and drag and a vacuum is drawn. This
keeps the sand in place until pouring, draws the air out of
the mold cavity during casting and the loose sand is easily
removed after casting. 6

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Compaction of the Sand around the Pattern

Compaction of the sand around the pattern


must be done carefully to ensure uniform
permeability and strength
strength. Methods include:
• By hand
• Ramming
• Jolting
• Sand Slingers
• Impact Molding
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Mould Feeding
Turbulence Top Pouring
(Poor)

Cold
Mould Shuts
Occluded Erosion
Gas Pores

Bottom Pouring
(Best) 8

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Sand Casting Feeding System

Orderly and quiescent distribution of melt to a mold cavity requires a


well-designed rigging (sprue, runner & gating) system.
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J.A. Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, 2000, Fig. 7-13

Temperature Distribution in a Casting

FIGURE 5.11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-


metal interface during solidification of metals in casting.
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Solidification Time and Slush Casting


Chvorinov’s Rule:

where 1.5 < n < 2

FIGURE 5.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting; the remaining molten metal
is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Hollow ornamental and
decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting, which is
based on this principle. Source: After H.F. Taylor, J. Wulff, and M.C.
Flemings.
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Comparison of Shapes with Same Volume

Shape Area Volume (V/A) (V/A)2

Cube 6 1 0.167 0.028

Cylinder 5.54 1 0.181 0.033

Sphere 4.84 1 0.207 0.043

•Parts of the casting with small V/A will solidify more quickly.

•The runners and gates must be designed with this in mind

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Reducing Shrinkage & Microporosity Defects


Using Chills and Risers

(a) Microposity & shrinkage cavities can be avoided using b) blind risers, c) chills and
d) tapered sections and porous ceramic pencils in the blind riser.
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J.A. Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, 2000, Fig. 7-14

Fluidity

Fluidity is an semi-empircal measure of how far a molten alloy can flow down a
narrow passage before solidification chokes off and stops further filling
filling. It is
determined for example using a: a) spiral, b) plate or c) vacuum tests.

Best Worst
Pure metals & Dendritic solidification Innoculated melts 14
Eutectics J.A. Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, 2000, Figs. 7-6 & 8

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Foundry Alloys
• are selected for their
good castability (fluidity),
i.e., eutectics with short
freezing ranges or other
microstructures that
cannot tolerate
deformation

• generally have poor


ductility and are meant to
be cast into their final
shape without
subsequent deformation

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J.A. Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, 2000, Figs. 7-6 & 8

Typical Applications & Characteristics of Foundry Alloys


TABLE 5.3

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Properties & Applications of Cast Irons


TABLE 5.4

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Properties of Nonferrous Foundry Alloys


TABLE 5.5

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Shell--Molding Process
Shell

FIGURE 5.17 Schematic illustration of the shell-molding process,


also called the dump-box technique.
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Plaster of Paris and Ceramic


Mold Manufacture

FIGURE 5.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold.

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Vacuum--Casting Process
Vacuum

FIGURE 5.19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Note


that the mold has a bottom gate. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the
mold into the molten metal. Source: After R. Blackburn.
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Sand Casting

Advantages Disadvantages
• Inexpensive
p mould • Cost pper ppart is higher
g
• Complex geometry • Labor intensive
• All alloys • Slower production rate
• Unlimited size • Rough surface finish
• Economical in low • Loose tolerances
quantities
• Requires relatively thick
walls (>3 mm)

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Expendable Mould & Pattern Processes:


Processes:
Evaporative Pattern (Lost Foam) Casting
Polystyrene Ceramic
pattern Slurry

FIGURE 5.20 Schematic illustration of the expendable-pattern casting


process, also known as lost-foam or evaporative-pattern casting.
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Lost--Foam Casting of Engine Blocks


Lost

FIGURE 5.40 (a) An engine block for a 60-hp 3-cylinder marine engine,
produced by the lost-foam casting process; (b) a robot pouring molten
aluminum into a flask containing a polystyrene pattern. In the pressurized
lost-foam process, the flask is then pressurized to 150 psi (1000 kPa).
Source: Courtesy of Mercury Marine
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Investment Casting

FIGURE 5.21 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax


process). Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and
from a variety of metals. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.
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Rotor Microstructure

FIGURE 5.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment


cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom). Source: Advanced
Materials and Processes, October 1990, p. 25. ASM International.
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Investment Casting

Advantages Disadvantages
• Good dimensional • Long production cycle
accuracy leads to high cost per part
• Relatively inexpensive • Mold is not reusable
mold
• Rapid production rates
possible
p
• Complex shapes
• Very high temp
materials - Titanium
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Permanent Mould Casting Processes:


Processes:
Pressure Casting

FIGURE 5.23 The pressure casting process, utilizing graphite molds


for the production of steel railroad wheels. Source: Griffin Wheel
Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.
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© 2008, Pearson Education

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Hot--Chamber Die Casting


Hot

FIGURE 5.24 Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process.


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Cold--Chamber Die Casting


Cold

FIGURE 5.25 Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process.


These machines are large compared to the size of the casting, because high
forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure.
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Die Casting

Advantages Disadvantages
• High production rates • High tooling cost
possible, with high level
possible
of automation • Long lead times (months)
• Very thin walls possible • Limited size (<12 kg)
(0.5 mm for Mg die • Limited in alloys (low
casting) temperature only), e.g.,
• Good surface finish Zn, Al, Mg foundry alloys

• Economical in large
quantities
• Better control of mould
temperatures
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Centrifugal Casting

FIGURE 5.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Pipes,


cylinder liners, and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process.

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Semicentrifugal Casting

FIGURE 5.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process.


Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. (b) Schematic illustration of
casting by centrifuging. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine,
and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces.

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Squeeze--Casting
Squeeze

FIGURE 5.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process.


This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.

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Turbine Blade Casting

FIGURE 5.29 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional


solidification; (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade; and (c) a
single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Source:
(a) and (b) After B.H. Kear, (c) Courtesy of ASM International.
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Crystal Growing

FIGURE 5.30 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling


(Czochralski process) and (b) floating-zone method. Crystal growing is
especially important in the semiconductor industry. (c) A single-crystal silicon
ingot produced by the Czochralski process. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corp.
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Melt--Spinning Process
Melt

FIGURE 5.31 (a) Schematic illustration of the melt-spinning process to


produce thin strips of amorphous metal. (b) Photograph of nickel-alloy
production through melt-spinning. Source: Courtesy of Siemens AG.

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Volume of Metals Cast by Various


Shape Casting Processes

• Sand casting - 60%


• Investment casting - 7%
• Die casting – 9%
• Permanent mould casting – 11%
• Centrifugal
C t if l casting
ti – 7%
• Shell mould casting – 6%

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General Characteristics of Casting Processes


TABLE 5.2

1 worst,
5 best.

1 worst, 5 best.

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Casting Processes Comparison


TABLE 5.8

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Economics of Casting Processes

FIGURE 5.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes.
Note that because of the high cost of equipment, die casting is economical mainly for
large production runs. Source: The North American Die Casting Association.

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Defects in Castings
• Metallic Projections – flash at the parting lines
• Cavities – blowholes, pinholes, gas porosity,
shrinkage cavities….,
• Di
Discontinuities
ti iti – cold
ld or h
hott cracks,
k cold
ld shuts…
h t
• Surface defects – surface folds, laps, scars,
checking..,
• Incomplete casting – misruns, insufficient metal or
superheat…
• Incorrect Dimensions –warping, incorrect
shrinkage allowance in pattern…
• Inclusions – gas, intermetallics, oxides & slag
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Using Internal & External Chills to prevent


Solidification Porosity

FIGURE 5.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark
areas at corners), used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by
shrinkage. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of
metal, as shown in (c).
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Designing for Casting

• All castings require draft angles (0.5-2°) so the pattern can be removed from the mould
or the casting can be removed from the mould.
• Avoid large flat/plane areas and surfaces that will warp and experience solidification
shrinkage porosity. Use staggered ribs and serrations
• Include allowance for shrinkage, i.e., patternmaker’s shrinkage allowance is typically
10 to 20 mm/m on all dimensions
• Include machining allowances, e.g., 2-5 mm for small and up to 25 mm for large
castings
• The design should aim to simplify casting, e.g.,: a) & c) undercuts require extra cores
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and b) & d) can be eliminated

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Elimination of Stress Concentrations


and Solidification Porosity in Castings

FIGURE 5.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings.


Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations; (b, c, d)
examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-
sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities.
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Design Modifications for Casting

FIGURE 5.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings.


Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association.
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