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Chapter 5

Magnetic Circuits

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-1

Magnetic Field
❑ Magnetic field, H, produced by current carrying conductor

❏ Ampere’s Law dl
H i3
i1
v∫ H dA = ∑i i2
closed path

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-2

H in a Toroid

rm

ID ID
OD OD

1  ID + OD 
Mean radius, rm =  
2 2 
lm = 2π rm
Ni Ni
Ampere's Law ⇒ H m = =
2π rm lm

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-3
Flux Density B
❏ Units:Weber / meter 2 [Wb / m 2 ] or Tesla [T ]
❏ In air B = µo H , µo = 4π × 10 −7 Wb / A / m
❏ Ferro-magnetic materials
Bm Bm
Bsat µo
µm
µo
Hm Hm

◆ Linear approximation Bm = µm H m
◆ Bsat ~ 1.6 - 1.8 Tesla
◆ In saturation µm approaches µo

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-4
Flux, Flux Linkage, and MMF
❏ Flux Im [Wb]
Am
[assuming uniform flux density]
φm = Bm Am
φm
Ni
Bm = µ m H m and H m =
lm
 Ni  Ni F
∴ φm = Am  µ m  = =
 A m   Am  ℜm
µ A 
 m m
lm
❏ Reluctance ℜm =
µ m Am

❏ Flux Linkage λm = Nφm

❏ MMF F = Ni

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-5

Magnetic Structures with Air Gaps


Hm Am + H g A g = N i
Bm = µ m H m , Bg = µo H g φm = φ g = φ
i
Bm Bg lg
Am + Ag = N i
µm µo N

φ = Am Bm = Ag Bg
φ φ
Bm = Bg =
Am Ag To account for fringing Ag = ( w + l g )( d + l g )
Am Ag
φm ( + )= N i
Am µ m Ag µo ℜ = ℜm + ℜ g
ø÷ö ø÷ö
ℜm ℜg

F
φm =

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-6

Inductance
φm Am
i N
× 
 lr  × ( µm ) × ( Am ) ×( N ) λm
N i Hm Bm φm

N2
Lm =
lm
µm µ m Am
λm = Lm i

λm  N  N2 N2
Lm = =   µ m Am N = =
i  lm   lm  ℜ
 
 µ m Am 
• For linear magnetic conditions inductance depends only on magnetic circuit
1 1
❏ Energy stored in magnetic circuits W = Li 2 = Bm2 Amlm
N
2 2 µm
volume
W 1
❏ Energy density w= = Bm2
volume 2 µ m

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-7

Faraday’s Law - Induced Voltage


φ (t )
dλ dφ
❏ Induced voltage e= =N
dt dt i (t )
❏ Current direction is into positive polarity +
e(t ) N
voltage → flux direction −

❏ Lenz’s law: Polarity of induced voltage


◆ When current and flux directions are consistent (a current
as indicated would create a flux as indicated), then the
voltage should be labeled positive where the current enters
the coil.

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-8

Coil in Sinusoidal Steady-State


❑ Induced voltage under sinusoidal steady-state φ (t )

Given e(t ) φ (t ), i (t ) i (t )

φ (t ) = φˆ sin ω t +
e(t ) N
t


e (t ) = N = N φˆ ω cos ω t
dt
❑ Relating e(t ), φ (t ), and i (t )
λ Nφ
L= =
i i
N
⇒ i (t ) = φ (t ) 
L  di (t )
 ⇒ e(t ) = L
dφ(t)  dt
& e(t) = N
dt 

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-9

Leakage and Magnetizing Inductances


φm i (t )
i + el (t ) −
i + Ll +
+
e ⇒ +
e φl e(t ) em (t ) Lm

− −
− −

φ = φ m + φA λ = Nφ = N φm + N
N φA
N
λm λA φm
λ λm λA ⇒ Lself = Lm + LA R Ll i (t )
= + + + el (t ) +
i i i e t
v (t ) e(t ) m )
(
− − −
λ = Lself i = Lm i + LA i

di di di
e = Lm + LA = em + LA
N dt N dt dt
em eA

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-10

Transformers

❏ Tightly coupled coils (low leakage inductance)


❏ Essential for power transmission and distribution
❏ Helpful in understanding induction machines

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-11
Transformers - Development
φm
❏ Single coil +
e1
Assuming zero resistance and − N1

leakage inductance
dφm
e1 = N1
dt
φm determined completely by + im
1
applied voltage φm = N ∫ e1 dτ e1 Lm
1
im depends on Lm −

φm
❏ Two coils +
dφm dφ m e1
e2 (t ) = N 2 & e1 (t ) = N1 −
N1
dt dt
N2
e (t ) N
⇒ 1 = 1
e2 (t ) N2 +
e2

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-12

Transformer Model

+ im +

e1 Lm e2

− −
N1 N 2
øõ÷õö
Ideal
Transformer

❏ Dot polarity
❏ Magnetizing inductance

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-13
Transformer with Secondary Loaded
φm
i1 (t )
+
e1
❏ φm determined by e1 alone
N1

N2
i2 (t )
hence i2 in secondary induces
+
e2
i2 ' in the primary such that −

N1 i2′ = N 2 i2
i1 (t ) i2 '(t ) i2 (t )
i′ N
⇒ 2 = 2 + im +
i2 N1
e1 Lm e2
i1 (t ) = i2 '(t ) + im (t )
ø÷ö øõ÷õ ö − −
relflected magnetizing
N1 N 2
load current øõ÷õö
current Ideal
Transformer

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-14

Real Transformers
i1 (t ) R1 Ll1 i2 '(t ) Ll2 R2 i2 (t )
❏ Add leakages + + + +
im
❏ Core loss v1 e1 Rhe Lm e2 v2
- hysterisis
− − − −
- eddy currents N1 N 2
øõ÷õö
❏ Winding resistances Real
Transformer Ideal
Transformer

❏ Laminations to reduce eddy current loss

i
φm
circulating
circulating currents
currents

φm

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-15

Determining Transformer Model Parameters


i1 (t ) R1 Ll1 i2 '(t ) Ll2 R2 i2 (t )
+ + im + +

v1 e1 Rhe Lm e2 v2

− − − −
N1 N 2
Real øõ÷õö
Transformer Ideal
Transformer

❏ Open circuit test


◆ Core loss, Rhe
◆ Magnetizing inductance, Lm
❏ Short circuit test
◆ Winding resistance, R1 , R2
◆ Leakage inductance, Ll1 , Ll2

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-16

Open Circuit Test


❏ Secondary unloaded (open circuit)
❏ Rated voltage applied to primary
❏ Measure
◆ To find Rhe
I oc
2
Voc
Rhe =
Poc +
Voc jX m Rhe
◆ To find Lm −

Voc
Rhe jX m =
I oc

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-17
Short Circuit Test
❏ One winding shortened
small voltage applied to other winding
❏ Measure VSC , and I SC , and PSC
◆ To find R1 and R2 I1 R2
R1 jX l1 jX l 2 I SC
1P
R2 = SC 2 + + +
2 I SC
E1 E2 VSC
2
N  − − −
R1 = R2  1  N1
 N2 
N2

I SC
◆ To find Ll1 and Ll2 2 +
VSC N  N 
2
jX l1  2  + jX l 2
2R2 + j2 X l 2 =  N1 
R1  2  + R2
 N1 
VSC
I SC −
2
 N1 
N1 N2

X l1 = X l 2  
 2
N

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-18

Permanent Magnets
❏ Typically used in smaller motors
❏ Applicable power range increasing due to new materials
❏ In simplest analysis, treated simply as a source of magnetic
flux

-B
Fe Co
d-
N Sm

Alnico
Ferrite

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-19
Summary
❏ What is the role of magnetic circuits? Why are magnetic
materials with very high permeabilities desirable? What
is the permeability of air? What is the typical range of
the relative permeabilities of ferromagnetic materials like
iron?
❏ Why can "leakage" be ignored in electric circuits but not
in magnetic circuits?
❏ What is Ampere's Law and what quantity is usually
calculated by using it?
❏ What is the definition of the mmf F?
❏ What is meant by "magnetic saturation"?
❏ What is the relationship between φ and B?
❏ How can magnetic reluctance ℜ be calculated? What
field quantity is calculated by dividing the mmf F by
the reluctance ℜ ?
© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-20

Summary
❏ In magnetic circuits with an air gap, what usually dominates
the total reluctance in the flux path: the air gap or the rest
of the magnetic structure?
❏ What is the meaning of the flux linkage λ of a coil?
❏ Which law allows us to calculate the induced emf?
What is the relationship between the induced voltage and the
flux linkage?
❏ How is the polarity of the induced emf established?
❏ Assuming sinusoidal variations with time at a frequency f,
how are the rms value of the induced emf, the peak of the
flux linking a coil, and the frequency of variation f related?
❏ How does the inductance L of a coil relate Faraday's Law
to Ampere's Law?
❏ In a linear magnetic structure, define the inductance of a
coil in terms of its geometry.
© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives
5-21

Summary
❏ What is leakage inductance? How can the voltage drop
across it be represented separate from the emf induced by
the main flux in the magnetic core?
❏ In linear magnetic structures, how is energy storage defined?
In magnetic structures with air gaps, where is energy mainly
stored?
❏ What is the meaning of "mutual inductance"?
❏ What is the role of transformers? How is an ideal
transformer defined? What parasitic elements must be
included in the model of an ideal transformer for it to
represent a real transformer?
❏ What are the advantages of using permanent magnets?

© 2000 http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/electricdrives

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