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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Федеральное агентство по образованию


Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего
профессионального образования «Казанский государственный
технологический университет»
«Институт технологии легкой промышленности, моды и дизайна»

Н.Х. Мифтахова, Э.М. Муртазина

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ


СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ «МОДА И ДИЗАЙН»

Казань
КГТУ
2010
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Мифтахова Н.Х., Муртазина Э.М. Учебное пособие по


профессиональному английскому языку для специальности «Мода и
Дизайн»: Учебное пособие для I курса. – Казань: 2010. – 307 с.
ISBN 978-5-7882-0983-8
В основе учебного пособия лежит идея взаимосвязанного и
одновременного развития группы речевых навыков – чтения, говорения,
аудирования и письма. Центральными темами текстового материала пособия
являются современные представления о стиле, моде, красоте. Учебное
пособие содержит множество заданий творческого и дискуссионного
характера, а также задания, направленные на анализ конкретных ситуаций
будущими дизайнерами и модельерами одежды. Каждый урок предваряется
эпиграфом, взятым из высказываний известных модельеров.
Цель учебного пособия – выработать у студентов языковую и
коммуникативную компетенции с тем, чтобы сформировать
конкурентоспособных специалистов.
Данное учебное пособие рассчитано на аудиторную, самостоятельную и
индивидуальную работу студентов, обучающихся по специальности «Мода и
Дизайн» в течение первого и второго семестров первого года обучения,
соответствует сетке часов и установкам рабочей программы кафедры
иностранных языков КГТУ (КХТИ).
При подготовке учебного пособия были использованы некоторые
материалы Интернет, энциклопедий и образовательных сайтов ВВС и Voice
of America.
The course attempts to enable students to use the English language through
developing all four skills: understanding, speaking, reading and writing. Each
passage will be used to train the student in the following: aural comprehension;
oral practice; reading aloud; oral composition; dictation; written grammar
exercises and tests.

Рецензенты: Гиззатова Г.К., доцент, кандидат филол.наук;


Галимзянова И.И., доцент, кандидат педаг.наук

ISBN 978-5-7882-0983-8
© Мифтахова Н.Х., Муртазина Э.М., 2010 г.

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Предисловие

Настоящее учебное пособие является первой частью учебного


комплекса по английскому языку для студентов, обучающихся по
специальности «Мода и Дизайн». Оно построено в соответствии с
требованиями действующей программы по английскому языку для
неязыковых специальностей высших учебных заведений и
обеспечивает базу для достижения конечной цели обучения –
практического владения английским языком. Содержание пособия
учитывает принципы личностно-ориентированного и деятельностного
обучения иностранному языку, социального партнерства,
предполагает развитие творческой активности, самостоятельности,
ответственности студентов за результаты своей деятельности, в том
числе будущей профессиональной деятельности, способствует
овладению эффективными стратегиями работы над языком и
формированию мотивации к совершенствованию умений
иноязычного общения.

В основе учебного пособия лежит концепция взаимосвязанного и


одновременного развития группы речевых навыков – чтения,
говорения аудирования и письма Такая идея в значительной степени
предопределила структуру и содержание пособия. Учебное пособие
состоит из шести разделов: Основной курс (Basic Course); Устный
курс (Oral Course); Краткий грамматический справочник; Сборник
упражнений по грамматике английского языка; Тексты к аудиокурсу
“Modern English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе”; Тексты
для самостоятельной и индивидуальной работы.

Основной курс включает 8 уроков (Lessons). Урок, являясь


структурной единицей основного курса, представляет собой
совокупность трех текстов (А, В, С) и системы упражнений. Основной
текст (текст А) содержит новый материал для чтения и понимания с
помощью стадии предтекстовой подготовки. Тексты В и С содержат
усвоенный ранее лексический и грамматический материал, однако в
новых комбинациях. На базе этих текстов отрабатываются опознание
и восприятие пройденного материала и развиваются навыки
различных видов чтения, а также навыки общения на иностранном

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языке. После-текстовые упражнения, представленные в заданиях к


текстам А,В,С, направлены на развитие практических навыков
использования английского языка: эффективных методов обработки
информации, тезисное представление информации, использование
информации в дискуссиях и выступлениях по заданным проблемам,
письменное их оформление в форме рекомендаций и проектов. Среди
после-текстовых упражнений много таких, которые направлены на
развитие коммуникативных навыков студентов средствами
иностранного языка. Они обычно предваряются набором фраз,
помогающих в выражении оценок, предпочтений и отношений.
Основой текстового материала являются образы современной моды и
стиля, а также связанные с ними умения ухаживать за своей
внешностью и одеваться, проблемы профориентации и выбора работы
в начале взрослой жизни, исходя из личностных качеств, умений и
талантов личности.

Тексты взяты из Интернет, энциклопедий и образовательных


сайтов ВВС и Voice of America, связанных с темами уроков.
Профессиональная заинтересованность студента в содержании текста
и возможность высказаться по проблемам его будущей специальности
входят в методический замысел уроков. Тематика текстов и
множество заданий творческого и дискуссионного характера
рассчитаны на то, чтобы создать дополнительный психологический
стимул для занятий английским языком.

Все упражнения урока делятся на пред-текстовые и после-


текстовые, что, в соответствии с данными современной методики,
программирует различные виды речевой деятельности учащихся – от
ориентировочной до контроля. С целью расширения лексического
запаса и коммуникативных навыков студентов уроки содержат
лингвистические игры. Все уроки «Основного курса» завершаются
тестами, которые снабжены ключами, что дает студентам
возможность самим контролировать усвоение грамматического
материала. Ключи помещены в конце «Основного курса».

Курс устной речи имеет целью выработать речевые навыки,


необходимые для ведения беседы на английском языке в объеме тем,
предусмотренных рабочей программой: знакомство и приветствия;

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жизнь студента; изучение иностранных языков; роль телевидения и


компьютеров в нашей жизни; проблемы экологии; поступление на
работу. Устные темы содержат лексическую программу; упражнения
на чтение, восприятие на слух и речевое общение; ситуации для
практики речевого общения; юмористические ситуации,
стихотворения, скороговорки, пословицы и поговорки.

Краткий грамматический справочник имеет целью


формирование у студента умения пользоваться обобщенными
предписаниями на базе знаний, полученных в средней школе.
Справочник состоит из десяти параграфов, посвященных
рассмотрению тех аспектов грамматики английского языка, изучение
которых предусмотрено рабочей программой в первом и втором
семестрах, а также тем, вызывающих коммуникативные затруднения.
Для изучения тем, не вошедших в грамматический справочник,
авторы рекомендуют «Практический курс грамматики Английского
языка», автор – Мифтахова Н.Х., переизданный РИС КГТУ в 2005г.
Методическая интерпретация указанного грамматического материала,
представленная в настоящем учебнике, ориентирует студентов на
понимание главных закономерностей, единых принципов, лежащих в
основе английской грамматики.

Сборник упражнений построен в соответствии с изучаемыми


грамматическими темами и включает обширный материал для
практического изучения, закрепления, а также для самостоятельной
работы студентов под руководством преподавателя, исходя из уровня
их школьной подготовки, что способствует коррекции уровня знаний
студентов.

Тексты к аудиокурсу “Modern English – Ресурсы Интернет в


учебном процессе” взяты из некоммерческих аудио-ресурсов,
предоставляемых в Интернет для развития навыков восприятия на
слух. Использованы аудио-материалы BBC и VOA, специально
подобранные в соответствии с тематикой данного учебника.

Тексты для самостоятельной и индивидуальной работы взяты


из современных источников средств массовой информации: Интернет,
журнальных статей, работ деятелей культуры и моды. Они содержат

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полезную информацию по проблемам дизайна одежды. В ряде текстов


рассматривается опыт домов моды Европы и США.

Учебное пособие прошло апробацию в учебном процессе


факультета легкой промышленности, на занятиях по английскому
языку со студентами, обучающимися по специальности «Мода и
Дизайн» (преподаватели – Муртазина Э.М., Галимзянова И.И.,
Темирбаева Г.Р., Батыршина Р.В., Арефьева Ф.Г.)

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Basic Course

Lesson One. STYLE IMAGES

Why have I chosen this


specialization? There can be
many answers. When I was a schoolgirl l
liked doing something with hands: drawing,, painting, sewing. While
studyingat school, I used to participate in contests on the technology of
making clothes, made clothes for myself, my friends and relatives. Sewing
is my hobby, which I want to be the job of my life.
Anisa M., the first year student

Грамматика
1. О четырех основных формах глагола (§ 1).
2. Анализ таблицы глагольных форм: оборот
долженствования (§ 2); прошедшее неопределенное время
(§ 3).
3. Упражнения № 1-8
Лексика
1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2. Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1. Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2. Topic 1. Meeting and greeting people.
3. Фразовый глагол “DO”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.

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Контроль: Тест урока 1.


Самостоятельная работа:
1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и
коммуникативных заданий по аудио-курсу “Modern
English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе” (TEXT
1).
2. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения».
ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Проверьте по транскрипции, правильно ли вы читаете следующие


интернациональные слова. Скажите, какие русские слова помогают
понять их значение:

style ['staIl] ; fashion ['fxSn]; modernness ['mOdqnIs]; image


['ImIG]; cardigan ['kRdIgqn]; khaki pants ['kRkI pxnts]; upgrade
['ApgreId]; monotonous [mq'nLtqnqs]; stereotype ['stIqrIqtaIp];
revenge[rI'venG]; idol ['aIdl]; dynamite ['daInqmaIt]; version
[vWSn]; cosmetic [kOz'metIk]; technique [tek'nJk].

2. Проверьте, правильно ли вы читаете следующие слова:


frumpy ['frAmpI] (старомодный); boring ['bOrIN] (скучный); wardrobe
['wLdrqub] (гардероб); mojo ['mauGau] (магическая формула); dreary [
'drIqrI] (унылый); sensible ['sensqbl] (практичный); clogs [klOgz]
(сабо ( обувь на толстой деревянной подошве)); mass-appealing [mxs
q'pJlIN] (пользующийся широкой популярностью); frumpiness
['frAmpInqs] (старомодность);
lackluster['lxk"lRstq] (тусклый, блеклый); timid ['tImId]
(застенчивый); budget-friendly ['bAGqt 'frendlI] (не вредящий
бюджету); self-confidence ['self'kOnfIdns] (уверенность в себе);
gorgeous ['gLGqs] (великолепный), loveliness ['lAvlInIs]
(миловидность); eternal [I'tWnl] (извечный); edgy simplicity [eGI
sIm'plIsItI] (крайняя простота); hanger ['hxNq] (вешалка); curves
[kWvz] (изгибы); personal funk ['pWsnql fANk] (индивидуальная
чувственность); chic [SJk]; icon ['aIkqn]; cluelessness ['klHlesnqs]
(невежественность); tailor ['teIlq] (портной); nip and tuck [nIp qnd
tAk] (зажимы и защипы) ; dumpy ['dAmpI] (унылый); mediocre
['mJdqukq] (посредственный); inexcusable ["InIks'kjHzqbl]

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(непростительный); cut [kAt] (крой); shape [SeIp] (форма, очертание);


victim ['vIktIm] (жертва), smartly['smRtlI] (красиво, элегантно);
figure flaws ['fIgq'flLz] (недостатки фигуры); super-trendy
['sjHpq'trendI] (сверхсовременный); no excuse [nqu Iks'kjHz] (не
имеет оправдания); tinted moisturizer ['tintId 'mOIsCqraIzq] (слегка
окрашенный увлажнитель); complexion [kqm'plekSqn] (цвет кожи);
makeover ['meIk'quvq] (переделка); eyebrows ['aIbrauz] (брови);
dated ['deItId] (вышедший из моды); dull[dAl] (тусклый); marvelous
['mRvlqs] (изумительный).

3. Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:

Пример: loveliness – love,


simplicity – simplе
curves, cluelessness, boring, modernness, sensible, smartly, flaws, moisturizer,
eyebrows, dated.

4. Скажите, к каким частям речи принадлежат следующие слова:

eternal, victim, cosmetic, version, boring, smartly, marvelous, personal,


hanger, self-confidence, inexcusable, moisturizer, loveliness, simplicity,
tinted, gorgeous, technique, to makeover, complexion, revenge, upgrade.

5.Проверьте, помните ли вы глаголы, приведенные в левой части


таблицы. Переведите словосочетания, приведенные в правой части
таблицы:
(1) to suggest (1) предлагать шаги
(2) to share (2) делиться подсказками
(3)to sizzle up (3) полностью обновить гардероб
(4) to snooze behind (4) сонно плестись за колесом моды
(5) to be perceived (5) хотеть, чтобы вас воспринимали таким
(6) to adapt (6) адаптировать свой стиль
(7) to inspire (7) найти модный образ, который бы вдохновлял
вас
(8) to curb (8) обуздывать невежество
(9) to flip (9) перелистывать страницы
(10) to check out (10) сверяться с фотографиями, снятыми при
показе дизайнерской одежды на подиуме
(11) to soak (11) просто впитывать это все
(12) to immerse (12) глубоко погрузиться в стиль

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(13) to whine (13) Не нойте!;


(14) to assess (14) оценить то, что имеете
(15) to stick to (15) придерживаться того, что вам действительно
необходимо
(16) to be lured into (16) не позволить увлечь себя легкомысленными
покупками
(17) to enhance (17) улучшить внешний вид
(18) to camouflage (18) скрыть недостатки фигуры
(19) to spotlight (19) выдвинуть на первый план достоинства
фигуры
(20) to flatter (20) эта одежда показывает ее в выгодном свете
(21) to expect (21) от вас ждут, чтобы вы покупали только
необходимые продукты
(22) to invest (22) прикладывать усилия
(23) to settle (23) никогда не останавливайтесь на
посредственности
(24) to soar (24) пусть возрастает ваша уверенность в себе

6. Прочтите несколько раз лексическую программу текста «А»,


найдите в тексте и переведите предложения, содержащие эту
программу.
1. to become frumpy in terms of cтать старомодным из-за скучного
boring wardrobe гардероба
2. desperate need of a bit more насущная необходимость в том,
modernness чтобы выглядеть чуть современнее
3. to get fashion mojo in gear привести в действие магическую
формулу моды
4. to be too timid to try their быть слишком робкими, чтобы
turn at style внести собственные изменения в
стиль
5. to break the style stereotype навсегда разрушить стереотип стиля
… for good
6. the self-confidence booster стимулятор уверенности в себе
7. Looking gorgeous is a state Выглядеть великолепно – это
of mind умонастроение
8. eternal chic and edgy неизменная элегантность и крайняя
simplicity простота
9. lean, perfect hanger figure тощая фигура идеальной «вешалки»

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10. difference between what is различие между вздором и


blah and what is stunning великолепием
11. just plain soak it all in просто впитайте все это
12. immerse yourself in style погрузите себя в стиль
13. to start looking fabulous начать выглядеть потрясающе
14. complete fashion disaster катастрофическая мода
15. only wear a few times надеть всего несколько раз
16. love your fashion пробуждение любви к вашей моде
awakening
17. to take a good look at внимательно посмотреть на себя
yourself
18. to look the best that you can выглядеть наилучшим образом
each day каждый день
19. explore your personal style выявить ваш личный стиль
20. constantly tweak your look постоянно подстраивать свой
to stay modern внешний вид, чтобы выглядеть
современно

TEXT A. 12 Steps to Style:


Dear Sharon: Help! Dear Angela:
You’re 27, that’s you have to wait at
least 80 years to look frumpy! There
I'm a 27 years old social worker are many lackluster girls out there,
who works at a private all too timid to change their style.
university. I already feel like I've No more frumpiness, you’ve
started to become "frumpy" decided to upgrade your image.
because of my boring Get rid of all those twin sweater sets
and monotonous jeans and break the
wardrobe. I don’t use makeup
style stereotype of the dreary social
and my face has uneven skin worker for good. I’m here to help
tone. I have limited funds and I you get your fashion mojo. So, let’s
am not particularly brave when it start and share some budget-friendly
comes to fashion, but I am in fashion tips to help you sizzle up
desperate need of a bit more your wardrobe.
modern-ness in my clothing and
total image. What steps would
you suggest to help me get my
fashion mojo? (Angela)

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12 STEPS:

STEP ONE: Admit it! Now you’ve done it! You took a long,
hard look in the mirror to appreciate your style at its true value. Stop
snoozing behind the style wheel and do something about it. There is
absolutely no reason to look boring (1), unless you intentionally
want to be perceived that way.

STEP TWO: Believe that you can be beautiful! Looking great


is not only the best revenge, it’s the best self-confidence booster! So
many women sadly think that they could never be as beautiful as the
models. Beauty is subjective (2). Looking gorgeous is a state of
mind, plus some effort to make the most of what you’ve got! Every
woman deserves to be her own favorite supermodel of loveliness.

STEP THREE: Find a fashion idol! Yes, most of us would like


to find the fashion medium between Audrey Hepburn’s eternal chic
and Kate Moss’s edgy simplicity. But only few have ever shared
their lean, perfect hanger figures. But they can adapt their style to
their own curves, and use it as their own. Famous or friend, find a
fashion icon who inspires you (3) and take note of how her personal
style stands out and what you can do to make it yours!

STEP FOUR: Educate yourself! Curb cluelessness! Flip the


pages of fashion magazines, check out designer clothes photos,
window shop in the most stylish stores, take a walk around the
trendier part of your town, and just soak it all in. Immerse yourself in
style until you actually “get” the difference between what is blah
and what is stunning (4). Soon, you will be able to find what would
look fantastic on you.

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STEP FIVE: Take action! You took a positive step by writing me


for fashion advice, others are reading this. Settling for mediocre is
inexcusable these days, anyone anywhere can find stylish clothing
(5); all they need to do is look online if modern fashion isn’t readily
available in their town. Don’t whine. Make today your day to start
looking fabulous.

STEP SIX: Assess what you have and what suits your lifestyle!
Surely, your entire wardrobe isn’t a complete fashion disaster. It may
be as simple as understanding different ways to mix pieces that you
already own with a few great, new fashion fixes to truly upgrade
your style (6). Couple together the unexpected for stylish results.

STEP SEVEN: Set your limits! They say, don’t go to the


supermarket on an empty stomach, well, don’t go shopping for a new
wardrobe totally without a plan. Have a mental list of what you
actually need (7) and stick to it. This way, you won’t be lured into
buying frivolous sale items that will break your budget and do
nothing to enhance your total look.

STEP EIGHT: Find your fit! One of the secrets French women
have to looking chic, is a tailor. Take the time and effort to have your
clothes altered to fit you perfectly. A little nip and tuck here and
there can be the difference between looking dumpy and looking
dynamite. But don’t expect total tailoring magic if something is
simply not the right cut for you. Understand your shape and dress
for it (8) .

STEP NINE: Don’t be a fashion victim! Just because something


is in style and trendy, doesn’t mean it’s right for you, your figure,
and your lifestyle. Be honest and realistic about the shape you are in
and your body’s general proportions to avoid looking like a fashion
victim (9). Dress smartly to camouflage figure flaws and spotlight
figure assets. Adapt your clothing choices to flatter your figure.

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STEP TEN: Understand the fine line between modern and


trendy! Adapt to trends (10) to keep your wardrobe and image
fresh. If you are on a very strict budget, don’t look for super-trendy
items that will be out of style in a quick fashion minute. When you
do want a cute, trendy piece, find a cheaper version of what you
know you will only wear a few times.

STEP ELEVEN: Hair and beauty! Style doesn’t stop above the
shoulders (11). You admit that your skin tone is uneven without
make-up, most woman have the same problem. There’s no excuse
not to adapt a fast, five-minute, natural make-up routine that can get
you out of the house looking refreshed everyday. It’s usually easiest
and the most cost effective to have a cosmetic counter makeover.
You are only expected to buy the products that you want—tinted
moisturizer would be a good start to even your complexion.

There’s no better quick fix makeover than a great haircut to look


modern and renewed. Don’t forget to shape your eyebrows, too! Too
often, woman forget to invest the effort in their overall beauty regime
and therefore look terribly dated and dull.

STEP TWELVE: Love your fashion! Take a good look at


yourself and be proud that you know you look the best that you can
each day. Explore your personal style (12) and constantly tweak
your look to stay modern. Never settle for mediocre when you can
look marvelous. Let your confidence soar—you did it.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.

1. В тексте «А» выделены предложения, которые, по мнению


авторов, логически связанны с двенадцатью шагами работы над стилем.
Заполните концептуальную таблицу, выразив свое согласие или
несогласие с тезисами авторов (YES/NO) и дайте свой комментарий.

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CONCEPT TABLE
Steps for Developing Your Personal Style
STEPS R E L A T E D I D E A S/ D E S C R I P T I O N S YES NO
1.Admit it! There is absolutely no reason
to look boring.
2. Believe that you
can be beautiful Beauty is subjective.

3. Find a Fashion
Idol Find a fashion idol who inspires you and
take note of how to make her personal
4. Educate yourself style yours.

5. Take action Get the difference between what is blah


and what is stunning.
6. Assess what you Find something stylish.
have and what suits your
lifestyle Mix pieces you already own to truly
7. Set your limits upgrade your style.

8. Find your fit Have a mental list of what you actually


need.
9. Don’t be a
fashion victim Understand your shape and dress for it.

10. Understand the Avoid looking like a fashion victim.


fine line between
modern and trendy
Adapt to trends to keep your wardrobe
11. Hair and beauty and image fresh.

12. Love your


fashion Style doesn’t stop above the shoulders.

Explore your personal style and never


settle for mediocre when you can look
marvelous.

2. Скажите, какая из идей текста «А» кажется вам


безусловно верной, а какая вызывает сомнения. Почему?
3. Прочитайте текст «В». Догадайтесь о значениях
неизвестных слов из контекста.

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TEXT B. Age Defying Style... Upgrade cute


to cool, but do not give up on modern!

Dear Sharon: Help! Dear Anna:

I am a 30 year old high school There is absolutely no reason


English teacher who feels stuck why a woman should think that
between fashion eras. Although I she must dress unfashionably at a
am not interested in dressing like certain age. Thirty is still a pretty
the students that I teach, I find young age. It’s a time to start
that the alternative of jumpers exploring those terribly girly
and printed sweaters of my older pieces that your students may
co-workers are horrific. What wear and capture the essence of
can a thirty year old woman do your true style. Once you start
to stay fashionable and fun believing that you are too old to
without dressing too young? keep modern, you’ll start looking
Please keep in mind that most like those who horrify you.
women in my career are on a
budget. Help would be greatly
appreciated. -Anna

It’s been said that fifty is the new thirty. People have methods to
oppose age and make the most of what they’ve got to peel off the
calendar years to simply look marvelous in a way that is timeless.
Trends today have become so universal, teens are wearing top
designers and their moms are shopping at off the radar, funky
boutiques. It’s really not about the age you are, but about the age that
you appear. Sure, as time goes on your body shifts and skin slackens,
but with sensible upkeep and a modern outlook, you can continue to
look amazing if you manage to get round the age.

But what does that mean: to get round the age? No ultra-low
hipsters worn with tiny shirts (even if your figure says yes, common
sense says shorten the amount of exposed flesh), and no baby-doll
mini. Most important, look like you have arrived and not like you’re
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finding your way!

Should you throw these things away? Not necessarily. Get rid
of pieces which define your age, like a T-shirt unless it’s cashmere
and you pair it under a lean menswear suit. Wear that baby-doll mini
over the too-low jeans and mid heel boots to keep the look relaxed
rather than teenybopper. Slice the belly baring top down the middle
and wear it as a shrug over a classic white roll-neck sweater and
knee-length skirt. Upgrade cute to cool, but do not give up on
modern. Keep the spirit in your wardrobe and the life in your
outlook. Be daring, but not inadequate.

How to keep to your personal style as the years go on? Start to


consider adding a few sophisticated pieces to mix with the fast
fashion cheapie fixes. As you mature, keep to your personal style,
but simplify it a bit as the years go on. If you think something makes
you appear dowdy, it does. If you feel dumb in an outfit, you look it
too. Well-cut, clean lines are right for any age. Spruce up with
trendy bags, shoes, and belts which imprint a look. As the clock
ticks, expose less, leave more to the imagination, and spotlight
what’s worth bragging about. Always, always keep your hairstyle
fresh with lots of movement. Give your make-up a lift and
moisturize. Don’t be afraid to experiment, but be very afraid of being
boring.

Some useful words and phrases:

1. smarts and methods to oppose age – хитрые уловки для того,


чтобы обмануть возраст
2. to peel off the calendar years – скинуть года
3. shopping at off the radar, funky boutiques – делать покупки в
неизвестных, простых и основательных бутиках
4. skin slackens – кожа обвисает
5. sensible upkeep – надлежащий уход
6. modern outlook – современный вид
7. to get round the age – обмануть возраст
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8. ultra-low hipsters - сверх низкие хипстеры ( мужские или


женские брюки в обтяжку, которые начинаются ниже линии
талии )
9. common sense – здравый смысл
10. exposed flesh – оголенная часть тела
11. teenybopper – хиппующий подросток
12. roll-neck sweater – водолазка
13. Upgrade cute to cool – сделай так, чтобы прелестное выглядело
клеевым
14. Be daring, but not inadequate – будь дерзкой, но не будь
неадекватной
15. sophisticated – изощренный
16. fast fashion cheapie fixes – дешевые комплекты быстро
проходящей моды
17. to simplify – упростить
18. to imprint a look – придавать вид
19. what’s worth bragging about – чем можно бахвалиться

4.Потренируйтесь в переводе текста “В”


5.Прочитайте текст С.

ТЕКСТ С. Image-boosting advice to rock


your world!

Dear Sharon: Help! Dear Casper:


My poor self-pitying princess, look
in the mirror and declare that you
I feel invisible, yet people tell are beautiful!
me I am attractive. I just don't
look the way I would like. What Grab the nearest dumpster. Fill it the
tips do you have for appearing brim with all your self-deprecating
debris. Roll the over-stuffed canister
beautiful? –Casper
of incredulousness down the steepest
hill. Inhale. Let the demons go…
Then, sweet sister of style, take stock
of your physical strengths: I am sure
there are many.

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Physical beauty is subjective - what is stupendous to one person is


hideous to the next. You must be pleasing to yourself.

Some of the most amazing looking women are so self-doubting that


they coil into oblivion. Conversely, some modest looking women
have such tremendous self-confidence and poise that they are
perceived as extraordinary.

Self-confidence is all in how you carry yourself. Hollywood legend


has it that Marilyn Monroe would virtually be unnoticed when
walking down a street with a friend. Then, Marilyn would ask, "Do
you want to see her?"

Off went mama mia Monroe's glasses. On came the Marilyn walk.
What happened next? Cars came to a screeching halt. Only now did
she transform into Marilyn the Goddess?

I have met and worked with many celebrities who were completely
indistinct and introverted until they put "it" on - and, wow! That
sweet cakes, is charisma. And, this magical "something" is the most
powerful form of allure that anyone can possess.

You don't have to wiggle like Marilyn, or have a camera focused on


your face to beguile, but you do have to radiate inner beauty to
hold the spotlight. Discover self-admiration. Feel praiseworthy about
yourself. Glow!!!

No amount of gorgeous clothes in your closet will turn you into a


beauty… you must believe that you are beautiful - inside and out -
to truly be a knock-out. But, proper clothing will aid to outwardly
boost your inner security.

Clothing also helps elevate self-esteem. Fashion is one of the few


quick-change pleasures you can experience. When you are wearing
clothing that fits correctly, emphasizes figure strengths, and

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camouflages figure weaknesses, you feel more secure about yourself.


Learn to concur those old insecure body image demons that nest
inside of you by looking terrific.

It is very true that when you are confident about your attractiveness,
you send out a positive exuberance so daily tasks seem to become
easier. Accept the imperfections of your body and make the most of
what you have. Present an exquisite spectacle of yourself for the
world to admire. Enjoy life!

Some useful words and phrases:

1. Image-boosting – поддержание имиджа


2. to rock your world – чтобы раскачать ваш мир
3. to feel invisible – чувствовать себя невидимкой
4. tips – подсказки
5. self-pity - жалость к себе
6. to declare – объявить
7. to grab – схватить
8. incredulousness – недоверие
9. what is stupendous to one person is hideous to the next – то,
что имеет огромное значение для одного человека,
омерзительно для другого
10. self-doubting – само-сомнение
11. conversely – наоборот
12. poise – самообладание
13. self-confidence – уверенность в себе
14. are perceived as extraordinary – воспринимаются как
исключительные
15. celebrities – знаменитости
16. allure – шарм, обаяние
17. to wiggle – покачиваться
18. to beguile – вводить в заблуждение
19. to radiate inner beauty – излучать внутреннюю красоту
20. self-admiration – восхищение собой

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21. to feel praiseworthy – чувствовать себя достойным


похвалы
22. proper clothing – надлежащая одежда
23. to camouflage figure weaknesses– скрывать недостатки
фигуры
24. to concur - соглашаться
25. positive exuberance – положительное богатство
26. for the world to admire – чтобы мир восхищался

6. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста «С».

1) Why is the physical beauty considered to be subjective?


2) What is the role of self-confidence for looking beautiful?
3) Why do celebrities feel praiseworthy about themselves?
4) What role does the proper clothing play?

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on the phrasal verbs with ‘DO’.

- to do up: 1) приводить в порядок, прибирать; 2) скреплять; паковать;


кутаться; одеваться; 3) консервировать; 4) крайне утомлять; 5)
разорять; кончать; избить; 6) стирать и гладить ( одежду ).

- to do in: 1) погубить, убить; 2) обмануть; 3) разрушить; 4)


переутомить; 5) одолеть; победить в состязании.

- to do away with: покончить, положить конец.

- to do for: 1) заботиться, присматривать; вести хозяйство (кого-л. );


2) справляться; 3) портить, разрушать, губить, уничтожать, убивать; 4)
годиться, подходить к (кому-л., чему-л.); 5) обеспечивать, снабжать.

- to do without: обходиться без ….

- to do with: 1) иметь дело с кем-л., ладить с кем-л.; 2) обходиться,


удовлетворяться (чем-л.); 3) находить применение чему-л.; 4)
нуждаться; 5) проводить время; 6) держать себя в руках.

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- to do out: убирать, прибирать.

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Explain the meaning of the expressions and sayings with the


verb ‘DO’ (You are allowed to use dictionaries).
1) to do one’s best/worst; 2) to do one’s bit; 3) to do wonders; 4) to do
somebody a favour; 5) to do a good turn; 6) to do smb. Justice; 7) to do
smb. a world of good; 8) to do some shopping (sports, sightseeing); 9) to be
doing fine; 10) it’ll do; 11) Easier said than done. 12) Well begun is half
done. 13) What’s done can’t be undone. 14) If we can’t do as we would, we
must do as we can. 15) Do as you would be done by. 16) What we do
willingly is easy.

2. Paraphrase the following sentences. Pay attention to the use


of the verb ‘DO’.
1). Your uncle is coming. Will you help me doing out a room for him? 2).
His business was done in by his former partners. 3). The old house needs
doing up. 4). Bad habits are not easily done with. 5). I can’t do without your
help. 6). Our parents were quite done up after that tedious work in the
garden. 7). I think we could do with a plateful of hot fried potatoes. 8).
Something must be done with the old car. It’s becoming a burden. 9). They
say he had done his bit in the development of the company. 10). Change of
surroundings will do you a world of good.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using different


collocations with the verb ‘DO’ instead of the italicized words.
1). My mother is looking after her niece and nephew while her sister is in
the hospital. 2). Can you manage without your mobile phone while you are
in class? 3). If you want to make up your face, go to the Ladies Room,
please. 4). Will it be convenient if I hand in my course work on Monday?
5). I’m sick and tired after that meeting. 6). He must give up smoking if he
wants to be healthy. 7). My friends advise me not to have anything in
common with my new room-mate. 8). I must confess they treated me
generously. 9). I want to have the kitchen whitewashed and papered. 10).

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We were told he took his share in organizing that amateur performance.


11). I’m sure this new medicine will have good effect on his health.

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS

Make up 3-phrase dialogs (up to the model) responding to the given


statements by warnings and keeping the conversation going.

Model
A: Let’s have a drink before we start. I feel a bit tired. A pint of beer will
do us a world of good.

B: We’d better not. One can never be too careful on the road.

A: Don’t worry. Everything will be all right. I’m never reckless.

Resource list: Mind you don’t… Be sure not to… You’d better not…
You’ve been warned… Be careful… Watch out… I’d never … Mark my
words…

You may use these as initial phrases:

1) Mind your own business! 2) The girl lives in a fool’s paradise thinking
she’s a beauty. 3) Let’s lie on the beach. The sun is wonderfully hot. 4)
Buy the child all sorts of ice-cream they sell here. Be generous. 5) I have
decided to turn my back upon my new room-mate.

Singing a song – Homeward Bound

I’m sitting in the railway station, Every day’s an endless stream


Got a ticket for my destination Of cigarettes and magazines
On a tour of one-night stands. And each town looks the same to me,
My suitcase and guitar in hand The movies and factories,
And every step is neatly planned And every stranger’s face I see
For a poet and a one-man band Reminds me that I long to be…

CHORUS (CHORUS)
Homeward bound,

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I wish I was homeward bound, Tonight I’ll sing my songs again,


Home – where my thought’s escaping I’ll play the game and pretend,
Home – where my music’s playing, But all my words come back to me
Home – where my love lies waiting In shades of mediocrity
Silently for me Like emptiness in harmony
I need someone to comfort me

(CHORUS)

TEST TO LESSON 1*
1. Укажите, в каком предложении паузы расставлены верно:

а) The individual | continuously responds to | and acts on contexts, |


which include a person’s biological makeup, | physical environment,

| and social, | historical, | and cultural context.


b) The individual continuously responds | to | and acts on | contexts,

which include a person’s biological makeup, | physical environment,

| and social, | historical, | and cultural context.


2. Определите, в каком ряду окончание –s читается [z]:
a) involves, dominates, includes, interacts, increases, requires,
responds, rests, adopts
b) responds, includes, involves, avoids, destroys, wins, starves,
returns, restores
c) promotes, cures, approaches, infuses, occurs, becomes,
responds, interacts, copes

3. Определите ряд, в котором все слова являются


существительными:
а) decreases, disciplines, contextual, psychologist, individual, person,
conditions
b) history, human, increases, decision, improvement, responds,
throughout
c) adults, context, performance, involvement, experience, orientation,
researchers

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4. Определите подлежащее главного предложения:


Such events may include the death of a parent when a child is young,
pregnancy in early adolescence, a disaster, or an accident.
a) such
b) events
c) child

5. Определите сказуемое главного предложения:


Development includes both gains and losses, which interact in dynamic
ways throughout the life cycle.
a) includes
b) gains
с) interact

6. Выберите правильный вариант перевода выделенных слов:


Development is embedded in history, being influenced by historical
conditions.
a) подчинено истории
b) встроено в историю
c) включено в исторический процесс

7. Заполните пропуск, выбрав нужную грамматическую форму:


Older adults …………………. wiser by being able to call on experience
as a guide to intellectual decision making.
a) are
b) has been
c) may become

* Ключи к поурочным тестам см. в конце «Основного курса».


Lesson Two
A Fleeting Glimpse into Fashion

Fashion is an entirely
unnecessary and yet
delightful detail of human
life.
- Joice Miller

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Грамматика

1. Времена группы Progressive ( § 5)


2. Глагол TO BE (§ 6).
3. Упражнения № 9-13.
Лексика
1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2. Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1. Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2. Topic 2. Student’s Life.
3. Фразовый глагол “GO”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.
Контроль: Тест урока 2.
Самостоятельная работа:
1.Выполнение заданий преподавателя по аудио-курсу
“Modern English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе”
(Text 2).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Проверьте, правильно ли вы читаете следующие слова:
entirely [In'taIqlI]; unnecessary [An'nesqsqrI]; delightful
[dI'laItful]; detail ['dJteIl]; quality [ 'kwOlItI]; costume
['kOstjHm]; attitude ['xtItjHd]; towards [tq'wLdz]; amused
[q'mjHzd]; tolerance ['tOlqrqns]; distinctions [dIs'tInkSqn];
womenfolk ['wImqnfquk]; embarrassed [Im'bxrqt]; arbitrary
['RbItrqrI]; absurd [qb'sWd]; reward [rI'wLd].

2.Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:

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Пример: delightful – delight,


amused – amuse
lacking, given, men’s, fashions, distinctions, the latest, unable, unreasonable,
willingly, worn.

3.Скажите, к каким частям речи принадлежат следующие слова:

entirely, unnecessary, delightful, quality, up-to-date, their, reality, would,


womenfolk, wearing, front, tolerance, caused, public, embarrassed, wives,
arbitrary, followed, offers, adventure, variety.
4.Проверьте, помните ли вы следующие глаголы:

(1) to contend, (2) to follow, (3) to give, (4) to lack, (5) to behold, (6) to
pretend, (7) to detect, (8) to conform, (9) to wear, (10) to change, (11) to
leave, (12) to embrace, (13) to be in front rank, (14) to cause, (15) to offer,
(16) to follow.
5. Переведите следующие словосочетания c русского языка на
английский, используя глаголы упражнения 4:

(1) никто не будет спорить; (2) следовать моде; (3) давать радость;
(4) не хватает умственных и моральных качеств; (5) пристально
наблюдать за модницами; (6) они делают вид, что не могут
определить; (7) определить тонкие отличия; (8) следовать
общепринятым представлениям; (9) что не носят; (10) мужская мода
изменяется медленно; (11) переставать следовать старой моде; (12)
принимать новую моду; (13) быть на самом переднем крае моды;
(14) заставить все взгляды обратиться в ее сторону; (15) предлагать
вознаграждение; (16) охотно следовать моде.
6. Прочтите несколько раз лексическую программу текста «А»,
найдите ее в тексте и переведите предложения, содержащие
эту программу.
1. delightful detail of human life восхитительная деталь человеческой
жизни
2. was lacking in any great mental or не хватает прекрасных умственных и
moral quality моральных качеств
3. fashion has given joy in age after мода приносит радость людям всех
age возрастов
4. to the women who are thus up-to- женщинам, одежда которых отвечает
date in their costume современным требованиям

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5. to the men who behold them мужчинам, которые пристально


наблюдают за ними
6. is one of amused tolerance Это терпимое отношение с оттенком
приятного удивления
7. a dress that is hopelessly out of date безнадежно вышедшее из моды платье
8. what is and what is not worn что носят и что не носят
9. in the very front rank of fashion на самом переднем крае моды
10. Fashion is an arbitrary mistress Мода – это властная госпожа

TEXT A. Fashions

Fashion is an entirely unnecessary and yet delightful detail of human


life. No one could contend that a person who did not follow the fashion
was lacking in any great mental or moral quality; yet to be in the fashion
has given joy in age after age, not only to the women who are thus up-to-
date in their costume, but to the men who behold them.
As a rule, men's attitude towards women's fashions is one of amused
tolerance. They pretend that they are unable to detect the nice distinctions
between the latest model from Paris and a dress that is hopelessly out of
date. But they are in reality just as eager to conform to the popular idea of
what is and what is not worn.
But men's fashions change slowly, and men, unlike women, like to be
the last to leave an old fashion rather than the first to embrace a new. They
have no desire either, that their womenfolk should be in the very front rank
of fashion. It would make them embarrassed to be seen in public with a
woman who was wearing something which caused every eye to be turned
upon her. But they like their wives to be dressed as most other women are
dressed.
Fashion is an arbitrary mistress to whom most women are slaves, but
though her commands are often unreasonable and not seldom absurd, she is
followed willingly, for the reward she offers is that sense of adventure and
variety which is the spice of life.
(From Fifty Model Essays by Joice Miller)

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.


1. Найдите в тексте «А» предложения, логически связанные со
следующими утверждениями:

1. It is joyful to follow fashion.


2. Men’s attitude to fashion differs from that of women.
3. Men like their wives to dress well.

2. Используя лексическую программу урока, составьте краткий


письменный пересказ текста «А».

3. Прочитайте текст «В» и объясните его заголовок.

TEXT B. Diana’s Style…


The allure of the People’s Princess

I cried when I heard Diana, Princess of Wales died. I don’t really


understand why.
Even when photographed in one of those ghastly hat horrors that we
have come to accept as de rigueur for British royalty there was always
something so compelling, so visceral, so natural about the Princess of
Wales that you absolutely could not resist taking your eyes off her.
And when she did get the royal boot and or fell mercy to the public
humiliation of her fair prince reportedly saying he would love to be married
to a homely, older, and non-charismatic other woman, she only grew more
fascinating and even more irresistible.
Diana had that certain magnetism which is usually reserved for movie
stars, yet if she was an actress her nose would have probably been bobbed
and her hair more sexed up. But as a princess, her looks were honest and
her appeal was genuine. Her total style has captured the world. And what
about her notorious royal look Americans once took notice? Well, maybe it
is in her sons, Princes William and Harry who inherited the twinkle in
their eyes.
Diana had “it” in a society always looking to find it.
On the tenth anniversary of her death, Diana Style unfolds the journey
of the People’s Princess from simple school girl to her life as a fashion icon
with all the delicious style bites in between.

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“If anything happens to me, do you think people will see me as another
Jackie Kennedy?” Diana, Princess of Wales said. Yes, Diana they do.

Some useful words and phrases:

1. allure – обаяние
2. ghastly hat horrors – ужасно жуткие шляпы
3. de rigueur [ dqri'gR] - модный
4. compelling – неотразимый
5. visceral – интуитивный
6. to get the boot – быть уволенным
7. to fall mercy – быть отданным на милость
8. public humiliation – публичное унижение
9. to be sexed up – содержать элементы сексуальности
10. her appeal was genuine – ее обращение было искренним
11. style bites – изюминки стиля

4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1) What was there so special about Princess Diana’s Style?
2) What sort of magnetism did Princess Diana have?
3) How did the world perceive Diana and her style?

5.Прочитайте текст С.

TEXT C. Giorgio
Armani

Characteristically dressed in
jeans, a white shirt opened at
the neck, and a navy cotton
pullover, Giorgio Armani
(born 1935) designs new
fashions in his 16th-century
palazzo in Milan. He was
given the honorary Neiman
Marcus Award, and has built
an international reputation -
as well as a fortune - on his revolutionary, unstructured jacket for men.

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In April of 1982 Time magazine placed the photo of Giorgio Armani on its
cover. Armani's first radically different blazer appeared in the fashion
world under his own label between 1974 and 1975. His sartorial style
exhibited a decidedly relaxed, even rumpled look. The designer softened
these new jackets by pulling out the padding and lining and leaving out
stiffeners of any kind. He combined thinner lapels with baggier pockets and
longer jackets. Armani's unstructured look makes even his English wool
suits feel as comfortable as silk pajamas. Armani's suit jackets reflected the
defiant, angry mood of political and social unrest. But fashion evolves and
Armani's designs changed by the end of the 1970s. Creating what would
eventually be known as the "wedge-shaped power suit," Armani extended
the shoulders and even added padding to them. The lapels were widened,
and the broadest point of the lapel, called the gorge, was lowered.

The effect was similar to a style once worn by Hollywood sex symbols like
Clark Gable. Still casual and comfortable, the new style was what the New
York Times called a "second sartorial innovation" that endowed men with a
"broad-shouldered, slim-hipped glamour."
In 1980, Giorgio Armani USA offered the American market a hybrid of the
two styles. His more fluid sport coats of the first half of the decade could be
compared to cardigan sweaters, with comfortable, sloping shoulders. These
jackets were teamed up with T-shirts for a studied, informal look. The
unmistakable Armani style evolved into an even more simplified version of
the original blazer. In his spring 1990 women's collection, Armani called
attention to the generous flow of jackets by stripping them of superfluous
detail.

Armani's feminine version of the menswear jacket looked like it was


borrowed from Greta Garbo's closet, or so imply some fashion critics. "My
first jackets for women were in fact men's jackets in women's sizes," he
told Time magazine. But it's Armani's use of strategically modified
menswear fabrics and tailoring in women's suit jackets that is his special
contribution. No one had ever done that before. While the jacket forms the
foundation of the Armani empire, the Italian designer created a variety of
other garments as well. Jackets were gold lame for evening and longer for
daytime wear.

Fabrics included silk-lined cotton and mixtures of velvet, silk, wool, and
linen, in a variety of patterns and stripes. Whatever Armani chooses to offer
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in a collection, he is praised for that sense of relaxed comfort. Celebrities


still count on Armani to make them look good for Hollywood's major
events. Whoopi Goldberg told People, Armani "just makes me look
elegant." Other star fans of Armani include Jodie Foster and Jack
Nicholson.
Armani describes his individual style as the "correct balance of knowing who you
are, what works for you and how to develop your own character."

Some useful words and phrases:

1. navy cotton pullover – хлопчатобумажный пуловер темно


синего цвета
2. fortune – богатство
3. unstructured jacket - пиджак или куртка без прокладок и без
подкладки
4. sartorial style – портняжный стиль
5. rumpled look – мятый вид
6. by pulling out the padding and lining – убрав набивку и
подкладку
7. leaving out stiffeners of any kind – отказавшись от любых
элементов жесткости
8. thinner lapels with baggier pockets and longer jackets – более
узкие лацканы, мешковатые карманы и длинные пиджаки
9. unstructured look – бесформенный вид
10. wedge-shaped power suit – клиновидный увеличенный
костюм
11. gorge – горловина
12. casual – свободный стиль
13. to endow – наделять
14. sloping shoulders – покатые плечи
15. broad-shouldered, slim-hipped – с широкими плечами и
узкими бедрами
16. by stripping them of superfluous detail – лишив их излишних
деталей
17. gold lime - ламе ( парчовая ткань с вкраплениями блестящих
нитей, используется для пошива вечерних туалетов)
18. patterns and stripes – узоры и полоски

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6. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе фраз из текста C.


Переводя с английского на русский, не заглядывайте в готовый перевод.
Таким же образом переводите с русского на английский.

(1) His sartorial style exhibited a (1) Его портняжный стиль


decidedly relaxed, even rumpled выражает намеренно
look. расслабленный, даже мятый вид.
(2) He combined thinner lapels with (2) Он комбинировал более узкие
baggier pockets and longer jackets. лацканы с более мешковатыми
карманами и более длинными
пиджаками.
(3) The designer softened these new
(3) Дизайнер делает менее
jackets by pulling out the padding
жесткими эти новые пиджаки,
and lining and leaving out stiffeners
вынимая наполнитель,
of any kind. выравнивая и опуская любые
(4) Armani's unstructured look элементы жесткости.
makes even his English wool suits (4) Бесформенный вид делает
feel as comfortable as silk pajamas. даже его шерстяные английские
костюмы удобными, как
(5) The unmistakable Armani style шелковые пижамы.
evolved into an even more (5) Безошибочный стиль Армани
simplified version of the original эволюционирует в еще более
groundbreaking blazer. упрощенную версию
первоначального большого
(6) Armani's feminine version of блейзера.
the menswear jacket looked like it (6) Женская версия мужского
was borrowed from Greta Garbo's пиджака Армани выглядела так,
closet, or so imply some fashion как если бы была заимствована из
critics. гардероба Греты Гарбо, как
намекают некоторые критики
(7) Fabrics included silk-lined моды.
cotton and mixtures of velvet, silk, (7) Ткани включали хлопок,
wool, and linen, with a variety of футерованный шелком, и смеси
patterns and stripes. бархата, шелка, шерсти и льна, с
большим изобилием узоров и
(8) He describes his individual style полосок.
as the "correct balance of knowing (8) Он описывает свой
who you are, what works for you индивидуальный стиль как
and how to develop your own "правильный баланс знаний о

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character." себе, что работает на вас и как


развить свой собственный
характер."

7.Перечислите аргументы, приводимые в тексте С в пользу


инновационного дизайнерского стиля Джорджи Армани.

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on the phrasal verbs with ‘GO’.


- to go at: 1) уходить, уезжать в ( определенное время ); 2) бросаться
на кого-л.; 3) энергично браться за что-л.; 4) продаваться за ( какую-л.
цену).
- to go off: 1) уходить, уезжать, отправляться ( куда-л. ); убегать,
сбегать; 2) уходить со сцены; 3) выстреливать ( об оружии ), взрывать
( о взрывчатке ); выпалить; 5) скончаться, умереть; 6) ослабевать,
проходить ( о чувствах ); 7) разлюбить ( что-л. ); невзлюбить ( что-л.
);
8) ухудшаться, портиться; терять ( силу, энергию, яркость и т. п. ); 9)
начинать ( что-л. внезапно делать ); разразиться ( смехом и т. п.,
непонятной или неуместной речью и т. п. ); 10) терять сознание;
впадать в ( какое-л. состояние ); 11) терпеть неудачу; не состояться,
расстроиться; 12) отделаться от чего-л.; сбыть, продать; выдать (дочь)
замуж; 13) проходить ( с большим или меньшим успехом - о
представлении и т. п. ).
- to go down: 1) спускаться, опускаться; понижаться; затонуть; 2)
садиться ( о солнце ); 3) доходить, продолжаться ( до какого-л. места);
4) стихать ( о волнах, ветре и т. п. ); 5) спадать ( об опухоли ); 6) быть
приемлемым, быть одобренным ( with ); 7) быть проглоченным; 8)
быть записанным, быть зафиксированным письменно; 9) ухудшаться (
о здоровье и т. п. ), ослабевать; умереть; свалиться от (какой-л.
болезни ); 10) терпеть неудачу; 11) уезжать на каникулы; уходить ( из
университета или колледжа); 12) быть посаженным в тюрьму; 13)
случаться, происходить.
- to go for: 1) идти за чем-л., кем-л.; 2) стремиться к чему-л.; 3)
выбирать; любить, нравиться; 4) наброситься, обрушиться на кого-л.;

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5) стоить, иметь цену; 6) становиться кем-л., действовать в качестве


кого-л.; 7) быть принятым за кого-л., считаться кем-л., сходить за кого-
л.; 8) быть действительным по отношению к (кому-л., чему-л. ),
относиться к ( кому-л., чему-л. ).
- to go on: 1) продолжать путь; 2) (упорно) продолжать, добиваться
(чего-л. ); продолжать разговор; 3) справляться, обходиться;
продолжать;
4) а) продолжаться, развиваться ( о действии, процессе, состоянии );
б) случаться, происходить, иметь место; длиться ( о времени ); 5)
действовать, вести себя ( каким-л. предосудительным образом ); 6) а)
говорить многословно; говорить много и утомительно; б)
накидываться, набрасываться ( на кого-л. ); 7) одеваться ( о предметах
одежды ); 8) выходить на сцену или спортивную площадку; 9)
спешить; 10) включать(ся) ( об электричестве ); 11) поддерживать
дружеские отношения с кем-л. (to go on well); 12) ( обыкн. в форме
прич. наст. вр. ) приближаться к (какому-л. времени ), приближаться к
( какому-л. возрасту ).

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Explain the meaning of the expressions with the verb ‘GO’ (You are
allowed to use dictionaries).
1) to go with the times; 2) to go back on one’s word; 3) to go in for sports;
4) it goes without saying; 5) to go wrong; 6) What has gone with him? 7)
my heart went pit-a-pat; 8) all his plans went flop; 9) let me go: 10) to go
with the current; 11) to go into details; 12 let it go; 13) I’m afraid he’s
going downhill.

2. Paraphrase the following sentences. Pay attention to the use of the


verb ‘GO’.
1) The house-warming went-off very well. 2) Don’t go and make a
laughing-stock of yourself. 3) She goes by the name of ‘Madonna’ among
the public. 4) We were going hard all term. 5) All his money goes on drink.
6) To go with the times we must be in the know of everything that is going
on around us. 7) I’m very sorry he went wrong. 8) The performance went
down very well with the public. 9) The man went bold-headed by the age of
thirty. 10) Ann often went for her sister, for their resemblance was
remarkable.

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3. Paraphrase the following sentences using different collocations


with the verb ‘GO’ instead of the italicized words.
1) It is evident that he will fail his examinations in spring. 2) He became
mad when his partner ran away with his wife. 3) Dogs usually pursue cats.
4) She wears black clothes because of her husband’s death. 5) Leave him
alone and let him continue his work. 6) Enter without knocking. 7) They
descended the stairs. 8) Playing tennis is our hobby. 9) My parents will
return in the evening. 10) Rumors spread that they were going to adopt a
child.

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 2-phrase dialogs (up to the model) responding to the given statements
by saying what must be done (or should not) and keeping the conversation going.

Model

A: I’ve decided to quit my job. The manager is picking on me!

B: You mustn’t take his words too much to heart. First make sure it was not your
fault.

Reference list: You must… You have to … You’ve got to … There’s no


need to… You needn’t… You don’t have to … You should … You shouldn’t
… You ought to … You oughtn’t to … You’d better …

You may use these as initial phrases:

(1) I feel ill at ease in the strange company. (2) I can’t bring myself to admit
that I was wrong. (3) I wish I could go with you on holiday. (4) Get away
with you! (Да ну тебя!) (5) I’m looking forward to changing my job.

Singing a song – Geri Halliwell "It's Raining Men"

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Humidity's risin' It's rainin men - Hallejulah


Barometer's getting low It's rainin men - Every specimen
According to our sources Tall blonde, dark and lean
The street's the place to go Rough and tough and strong and mean

Cos tonight for the first time God bless Mother Nature
Just about half past ten She's a single woman too
For the first time in history She took over heaven
It's gonna start raining men And she did what she had to do

It's raining men - Hallejulah She fought every Angel


It's raining men - Amen To rearrange the sky
It's raining men - Hallejulah So that each and every woman
It's raining men - Amen Could find the perfect guy

(Ow!) It's raining men


(Go get yourself wet girl, I know you
Humidity's risin' want to!)
Barometer's getting low
According to our sources I feel stormy weather moving in
The street's the place to go (About to begin)
Fell the thunder, don't you loose your
Cos tonight for the first time head
Just about half past ten Rip off the roof and stay in bed
For the first time in history (Rip off the roof and stay)
It's gonna start raining men
It's raining men - Hallejulah
It's raining men - Hallejulah It's raining men - Amen
It's raining men - Amen It's raining men - Hallejulah
I'm gonna go out, I'm gonna get myself It's raining men - Amen
get
Absolutely soaking wet

Выполните тест урока 2.


TEST TO LESSON 2

1. Укажите, в каком предложении паузы расставлены верно:

|
а) Maturation is the orderly sequence | of changes | dictated by the genetic |
blueprint we each have.

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|
b) Maturation is the orderly sequence of changes | dictated by the genetic
blueprint | we each have.
2.Определите ряд, в котором суффикс –ed читается [d]:
a) talked, emphasized, declined, influenced, assisted, maintained, reported
b) mastered, emphasized, declined, extended, provided, satisfied, claimed
c) moved, referred, claimed, maintained, declined, described, exposed

3. Определите ряд, в котором даны сказуемые, относящиеся к


временам группы Progressive:
a) has talked, is mastering, will be provided, were assisted, will
satisfy
b) is learning, was reporting, will be moving, are spending, is
becoming
c) is exposed, will be marked, is occurring, has claimed, is
influenced

4. Определите сказуемое главного предложения:


When individuals report how happy they are and how satisfied they are
with their lives, no particular age group reports that they are happier or more
satisfied than any other age group.
a) reports
b) report
c) are satisfied

5. Определите подлежащее главного предложения:


The debate about whether development is primarily influenced by
maturation or by experience has been a part of psychology since its beginning.
a) development
b) debate
c) a part

6. Выберите правильный вариант перевода выделенных слов:


Each of us is described as passing through a sequence of stages in which
change is qualitatively rather than quantitatively different.
a) скорее…, чем…
b) а не
c) по преимуществу

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7. Заполните пропуск, выбрав нужную грамматическую форму:


My relatives ……………………. soon.
a) are coming
b) will come
c) have come

Lesson Three
The Life Cycle of Fashion
An innovation is perceived
as having a life cycle, that
is, it is born, matures and
dies. The rate of fashion
change is defined by
characteristics of the
product, the market, or
audience, the distribution
cycle and those
characteristics of
individuals and societies
where innovation takes
place.
A.Rogers, designer

Грамматика
1. Оборот долженствования TO HAVE + INFINITIVE (§ 7)
1. Времена группы Perfect (§§ 8,9)
2. Упражнения № 26-32.
Лексика
1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач

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1. Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых


упражнениях.
2. Topic 3. Problems of Higher Education.
3. Фразовый глагол/существительное “HAND”. Упражнения.
Мини-диалоги.
Контроль: Тест урока 3.
Самостоятельная работа:
1. Выполнение заданий преподавателя по аудио-курсу “
Modern English - Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе” (Text
3,4).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1.Проверьте по транскрипции, правильно ли вы читаете следующие


интернациональные слова. Скажите, какие русские слова помогают
понять их значение:
process ['prqusqs] ; result [rI'zAlt]; individual ["IndI'vIdjuql];
basic ['beIsIk]; stages [steIGIz]; technology [tek'nOlqGI]; cycle
['saIkl]; graph [grxf]; diffusion [dI'fjHZn]; horizontal
["hOrI'zOntl]; vertical ['vWtIkl]; classics ['klxsIks]; identify
[aI'dentIfaI]; innovator ['InquveItq]; leader ['lJdq].

2. Проверьте, правильно ли вы читаете следующие слова:


purchase ['pWCqs] (покупка); awareness [q'wFqnIs]
(осведомленность); evaluation [I"vxlju'eISn] (оценка); advantage
[qd'vRntIG] (преимущество); adoption [ q'dOpSqn] (принятие,
усвоение); trial ['traIql] (испытание, проба); acception [qk'sepSn]
(принятие); consumer [kqn'sjHmq] (потребитель);
curve [kWv] (кривая); recession [rI'seSn] (падение); plotting
['plOtIN] (вычерчивание); fad [fxd] (прихоть; мода); opinion
[q'pInjqn] (мнение); laggard ['lxgqd] (запаздывание), isolate
['aIsqleIt] (изолировать, отделять).

3. Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:


Пример: plotting – plot,
recession – recess

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graphically, rapidly, proceeds, acceptance, diffusion, depicts, useful, adopted,


applicable, adopters, characteristic, identify, depicts, duration, awareness,
represented.

4.Проверьте, помните ли вы глаголы, приведенные в левой части


таблицы. Переведите словосочетания, приведенные в правой части
таблицы.

(1) to result from (1) принятие моды является


результатом
(2) to purchase (2) приобретать модные вещи
(3) to involve (3) включает пять основных стадий
(4) to range from … to …, (4) колеблется от технологии
изготовления новых тканей до
соответствия собственной концепции
моды
(5) to evaluate (5) оценивать моду положительно
(6) to represent (6) часто представлены в виде
колоколообразной кривой (bell-shaped
curve)
(7) to depict (7) граф отражает
(8) to indicate (8) горизонтальная ось показывает
(9) to portray (9) графически представленные данные
(10) to calculate (10) рассчитать уровень принятия
моды

5. Прочтите несколько раз лексическую программу текста «А», найдите


ее в тексте и переведите предложения, содержащие эту программу.

1. five basic stages: awareness, interest, пять основных стадий: осознание,


evaluation, trial, and adoption. интерес, оценка, проверка и
принятие.
2. help to distribute innovations in помогают распространять инновации
designing clothes в области дизайна одежды
3. new clothes should be better than новая одежда должна быть лучше,
previous alternatives чем предыдущий вариант
4. is consistent with the existing norms соответствует существующим
and values of the potential customers нормам и ценностям потенциальных
покупателей
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5. if easily learned and experienced если ее легко усвоить и применить на


практике
6. to be easily seen and communicated легко увидеть и передать другим
to others
7. the process proceeds to trial and процесс продолжается до испытания
adoption и принятия
8. to calculate the level of acceptance рассчитать уровень принятия моды
for a fashion
9. applicable for fads or classics на самом переднем крае моды
10. characteristic patterns of fashion Характерные способы освоения моды
adoption

TEXT A. Diffusion of Innovations in Clothes Design

New styles are offered each season. There are five characteristics the
presence of which help to distribute innovations in designing clothes:

1. Superiority – innovations in clothes design should bring an advantage


and new clothes should be better than previous alternatives in function,
cost, social prestige, or more satisfying aesthetics.

2. Compatibility - is the degree to which an innovation is consistent with


the existing norms and values of the potential customers. An innovation is
less likely to be adopted if it requires much change.

3. Complexity - indicates how difficult it is to learn about and understand


the innovation. An innovation has a greater chance of acceptance if easily
learned and experienced.

4. Trialability - is the extent to which an innovation may be tested with a


limited commitment, that is, easily and inexpensively tried without too
much risk.

5. Observability – is the possibility for an innovation to be easily seen and


communicated to others.

The fashion adoption process results from individuals making a


decision to purchase and wear a new fashion. This process involves five

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basic stages: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. The


individual becomes aware of the fashion, takes an interest in it, and
evaluates it as having some relative advantage that could range from a new
fabric technology to simply being consistent with self concept or what
one’s friends are wearing.

If the individual evaluates the fashion positively, the process proceeds


to trial and adoption. The study of the pattern of consumers’ adoption of a
fashion is often represented by a bell-shaped curve. The life cycle of a
specific fashion represented graphically indicates duration, rate of adoption,
and level of acceptance. The graph depicts the rate and time involved in the
diffusion process, with the horizontal axis indicating the time and the
vertical axis indicating the number of adopters or users.

Such graphically portrayed data can be used to calculate the level of


acceptance for a fashion. For example, the curve for a fashion that is
rapidly adopted but also rapidly declines will show early growth and quick
recession. The curve resulting from plotting the data in this way leads to
characteristic patterns of fashion adoption, applicable for fads or classics.
The graph is also useful to identify type of consumer in terms of when each
adopts a fashion within its life cycle.

The consumer who adopts the fashion at the beginning of the curve is
an innovator or opinion leader; at the peak - a mass-market consumer; after
the peak - a laggard.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.

1.В тексте «А» выделены предложения, которые, по мнению авторов,


логически связанны с распространением инноваций в сфере дизайна
одежды. Заполните концептуальную таблицу, выразив свое согласие или
несогласие с тезисами авторов (YES/NO) и дайте свой комментарий.

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CONCEPT TABLE
Diffusion of Innovations in Clothes Design

Сharacteristics R E L A T E D I D E A S/ D E S C R I P - YES NO
TIONS
1. Superiority The new design should
be better than the
2.Compatibility previous one.
The new design should conform
3.Complexity with the existing norms.

4.Trialability The new design should not be too


complex. It should be easily
5.Observability learned and experienced.
The new design should be easily
and inexpensively tested.
The new design should be easily
seen and communicated to others.
2.Составьте краткий письменный пересказ текста «А»,
поясняя и детализируя выделенные вами предложения.
3.Прочитайте текст «В».
TEXT B. Lipliner: Beauty No-No’s That Ruin Your Style
Dear Sharon: Dear Beatrice:
I am faced with a beauty crisis that
may ruin my love relationship. I Wake up and smell the coffee, or in
always line my lips with a dark your case, wake up and stop
brownish lipliner and fill in the looking like you were caught in a
center with a pale pink lipstick. I bag of espresso beans! Dear sweet
have been wearing this style of sister of well-meaning style, the
lipstick for years because I think the dark hard-edged lipliner sharply
very dark outline makes my mouth "defining" an extremely pale mouth
appear fuller and sexier. is really best kept to porn queens
who are into a different kind of
Now that I am about to meet my "style" anyway.
finance's parents, my future
husband tells me that brown-line
thing looks tacky!" Tacky, does
he suddenly think I am tacky?
Where has he been all along?
Why should I change my makeup
just to meet my future in-laws?
– Beatrice
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Somewhere, somehow, someone came up with some


kooky idea that a big brown rim looks appealing. Perhaps, on a stage 100
feet away from the viewing audience this extreme contrast may be
appropriate. But, in real life, a swarthy lip boarder looks plain weird.

I am sure you honestly didn't mean to commit a beauty no-no, you


merely were stuck in a bad habit that you weren't even aware that you had.
Your poor prince of a guy was probably too embarrassed to mention your
lipstick to you before or maybe he was so mesmerized by what came out of
your lovely lips that he was caught up in a romantic blur.

Now, faced with meeting his parents - whose approval he obviously


wants to have - he is asking you to change your image a trifle. Indeed, it is
a lousy moment for him to call you something as harsh as tacky, but
honestly, it is about time you blend the lines a bit, so to speak.

The funny thing about image mistakes is that usually we are not even
aware that we are committing a first-degree fashion police felony. But, with
a little awareness, we can all adapt our erring ways. In your case, make
your lips more approachable. Soften the line of your lipliner by blending it
with a sponge-tip pencil and then apply a similar color lipstick over it, so
the outline is barely visible and the result is far more natural.

Keep in mind that any "rule" of beauty can be broken. What we see in
magazines is sometimes strictly to excite, entice, and inspire - not to
actually copy per se. As far as real-life goes, unless you are model-cute and
hanging out in a club, best efforts are to wear makeup to enhance your
features in the most natural and least jarring way - with a little nod to a
modern trend, of course.

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However, there are some beauty no-no's that no matter what, are best
avoided:
Clumpy Mascara - Mascara should thicken, lengthen and darken in a
fashion that mimics real lush eyelashes.
Lining Your Inner Eye In Blue - It only "brightens" eyes on stage and
looks freaky and runny (расплывчато) in person.
Cakey Makeup - You know the kind, it gets caught in your wrinkles, ugh!
Foundation That Stops At Your Chin-- Avoid the makeup mask by
blending the color down your neck.
Wooly Or Over-Plucked Eyebrows - Eyebrows balance your eye shape
and face; they should not overpower or under whelm.
Dragon Lady Nails - If you need your knuckles to use a telephone, your
nails are too long.
Obvious Plastic Surgery - There is some truth to too much of a good
thing.
Perfume That Precedes You And Then Lingers Behind In A Room -
Only dogs need to leave their scent. When in doubt, the key to looking
beautiful is blend, blend, blend with a gentle hand.
Some useful words and phrases:
1. swarthy lip boarder – темная граница губ
2. to look appealing – выглядеть привлекательно
3. to be appropriate – быть уместным
4. to look tacky – выглядеть вульгарно
5. weird – причудливый
6. to be mesmerized – быть зачарованным
7. to commit a beauty no-no - совершить нечто недозволенное против
красоты
8. romantic blur - романтические размытые очертания
9. lipliner - карандаш для губ
10. per se - сам по себе, по существу
11. clumpy mascara – тушь комочками
12. freaky and runny – неестественно и расплывчато
13. least jarring way - наименее раздражающе
14. Cakey Makeup – затвердевший грим
15. foundation – основа

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4. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста В.


Переводя с английского на русский, не заглядывайте в готовый перевод. Таким
же образом переводите с русского на английский.

(1) you merely were stuck in a bad (1) к вам пристала дурная
habit that you weren't even aware привычка, о существовании
that you had. которой вы и не догадывались

(2) someone came up with some (2) кто-то высказал сумасшедшую


kooky idea that a big brown rim мысль, что губы, очерченные
looks appealing. широкой коричневой обводкой,
выглядят привлекательно.
(3) But, in real life, a swarthy lip
boarder looks plain weird. (3) Но в реальной жизни темная
(4) Indeed, it is a lousy moment граница губ выглядит довольно
for him to call you something as причудливо.
harsh as tacky. (4) Действительно, он выбрал
(5) The funny thing about image самый неподходящий момент,
mistakes is that usually we are not чтобы назвать тебя вульгарной.
even aware that we are committing (5) Забавной стороной ошибок
a first-degree fashion police имиджа является то, что мы даже
felony. не осознаем, что совершаем
правонарушение первой степени с
(6) Soften the line of your lipliner точки зрения полиции моды.
by blending it with a sponge-tip (6) Смягчите линию карандаша на
pencil and then apply a similar губах с помощью губки на конце
color lipstick over it, so the outline карандаша и затем нанесите
is barely visible and the result is помаду того же цвета, чтобы
far more natural. обводка губ была едва видима и
результат получился на много
(7) What we see in magazines is более натуральным.

sometimes strictly to excite, entice, (7) То, что мы видим в журналах,


and inspire - not to actually copy предназначено для того, чтобы
per se. только возбуждать, соблазнять и
вдохновлять – фактически не для
того, чтобы копировать, как есть.

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5. Составьте краткие тезисы к тексту «В». Перескажите текст «В»,


используя тезисы.
6. Прочитайте текст «С».

TEXT C. Madonna
Whether she is wearing navel-baring miniskirts, cone bras, or Gap
jeans, Madonna has been a fashion leader since she
became famous in the mid-1980s.
As an icon of popular culture, she has set
fashion trends and boosted the careers of
established as well as beginner designers. She has
appeared on numerous fashion magazine covers
and has been a fixture at runway shows around the
world. Her chameleonlike ability to regularly
transform her look reflects both the ephemeral
(эфемерный, мимолетный) nature of fashion and
Madonna’s redefinition (переопределение) of
femininity; her styles have encompassed everything
from punk to androgynous, hip-hop, geisha,
western, and military looks.
Born Madonna Louise Veronica Ciccone in Bay City, Michigan, in
1958, Madonna was one of six children raised in a strict Catholic home by
her father; her mother died when Madonna was only five years old.
Madonna was a cheerleader in high school. She acted in school plays and
trained as a dancer.

She attended the University of Michigan but dropped out to pursue a


professional dancing career in New York City in the late 1970s, where she
studied with choreographer Alvin Ailey. Realizing that she instead wanted
to pursue a career as a singer and actor, she worked as a model, sang in the
band The Breakfast Club, and starred in low-budget films.

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Her first success on the music scene came in 1983 with the release of
her self-titled solo album; she released over a dozen full-length albums
through 2003’s American Life. Although best known as a singer, the
multifaceted entertainer has also starred in numerous films, including the
1991 documentary Truth or Dare, and Evita, for which she won a Golden
Globe in 1996; has been featured in Broadway productions; and has
authored several books. Madonna’s highly individual style was apparent in
her debut on Music Television (MTV) in 1984.

In her videos for “Lucky Star” and “Borderline,” she wore her own
version of punk—black miniskirt rolled down to expose her navel, mesh
knit tank tops with her brassiere peeking through, black lace gloves, stiletto
heels, a “Boy Toy” belt, rubber bracelets, teased hair with an oversized
bow, and heavy makeup.

Madonna’s look spawned “Madonna wannabes”—legions of mostly


young girls who copied her early style. The craze only heightened with her
appearances in the 1985 movie Desperately Seeking Susan and on the MTV

Music Awards ceremony the previous year, when she wore a white lace
corset and “bridal” ensemble accessorized with her “Boy Toy” belt and
strands of pearls. Her look pervaded street styles of the mid-1980s and
appeared in advertisements for fashion brands such as Benetton. The
popularity of navel-baring (обнажающие пупок) garments has only
increased with the rise of young performers like Britney Spears and
Christina Aguilera donning the look.
Madonna has looked to
fashion icons of the past to
Г-н Браун заве create a persona. In her 1985
video for “Material Girl,” she
copied Marilyn Monroe’s look
from the film Gentlemen Prefer
Blondes, in which Monroe wears a
strapless, pink evening gown with
matching long gloves, adorned
with a lavish diamond necklace
and earrings.

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She again resembled Monroe at the 1991 Academy Awards in her


strapless, white, sequined Bob Mackie dress and Harry Winston diamonds.
In the early 1990s Madonna imitated the androgynous look of the 1930s
screen siren Marlene Dietrich, wearing menswear-inspired suits.

Madonna collaborated with the controversial couturier Jean Paul


Gaultier. Madonna is known for befriending designers and for wearing and
promoting the fashions of established as well as lesser-known designers. In
addition to her collaboration with Gaultier, who also designed the neo-punk
fashions she wore for her 2001 Drowned World tour, Madonna has worked
with the Italian designers Dolce & Gabbana. She was a friend to the late
Gianni Versace, in whose 1995 advertising campaign she appeared, and she
has often been seen in the front row of his sister Donatella’s runway shows.

Another close friend, the designer Stella McCartney, created a wedding


ensemble for Madonna’s 2000 marriage to the film director Guy Ritchie.
Madonna has worn Azzedine Alan, Gucci, Givenchy, Albert Ferretti, and
Badgley Mischka, among others. She has also worn the fashions of
designers before they were well known, such as Olivier Theyskens and
Rick Owens, helping to boost their careers.

In the fall of 2003 Madonna went from haute couture to mainstream,


appearing in an advertising campaign.

Madonna’s influence as a fashion leader has been consistent from the


beginning of her career. Her style has been watched and followed from the
moment she first appeared on MTV. She has launched style trends such as
wearing navel-baring fashions and underwear as outerwear, affecting the
clothing choices both of other celebrities and the public at large. Her
continual repackaging of herself has reflected her evolution as a woman
and a performer.

She has worn haute couture, supporting both known and unknown
designers, and marketed mainstream fashions, with her looks encompassing
different personas. The ubiquity of her unique and highly individual style
makes Madonna an icon of modern fashion.
7. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
(1) What designers does Madonna collaborate with?
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(2) What fashion trends has Madonna set?


(3) What are the typical garments that characterize Madonna’s
highly individual style?

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on verb and noun ‘HAND’.

- to hand down: 1) подавать сверху; 2) помочь сойти вниз; 3)


передавать по наследству, оставлять, передавать младшим
поколениям; 4) официально объявлять.
- to hand out: 1) помочь сойти, выйти; 2) выдавать, раздавать; 3)
давать не задумываясь; 4) тратить деньги.
- to hand in: 1) помочь войти ( в автобус и т. п. ); 2) вручать,
подавать, передавать.
- by hand: 1)вручную; ручным способом; с использованием
ручных приспособлений 2) c помощью телесных наказаний.

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Explain the meaning of the expressions with the word ‘HAND’


(You are allowed to use dictionaries).

(1)to be bound hand and foot; (2) to serve smb. hand and foot; (3) to live
from hand to mouth;
(4) to change hands; (5) to have a hand for drawing; (6) to have clean
hands; (7) to get the upper hand; (8) to have one’s hands full; (9) to lend
smb. a hand; (10) to hand over; (11) to hand up.

2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to collocations with the


verb and noun ‘HAND’

1) Orthodox belief in Russia is handed down from ancient times. 2) Hand


down the hammer and get off the ladder yourself. 3) You will have to hand
out the invitation cards. 4) The time is up. Hand in your papers, please. 5)
My new dress is knitted by hand. 6) The henchman (оруженосец) was
ready to serve his master hand and foot. 7) Though the family seemed to
live from hand to mouth they were always in high spirits. 8) The

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masterpiece changed hands many a time. 9) He is hand and glove with his
twin brother. 10) My sister undoubtedly has a hand for drawing. 11) You
may be sure he never took bribe, he has clean hands. 12) He got the upper
hand over his enemies. 13) Don’t be offended by my refusal. My hands are
full without it.

3. Recast the following sentences using different collocations with the verb and
noun ‘HAND’

1) You will have to deliver the tickets yourself. 2) Will you help me with
my baggage? 3) The young champions obtained advantage over their elder
competitors. 4) They have inherited it from their father. 5) Pass me the salt,
please. 6) Will you give me some more nails? I can’t get down every other
minute. 7) Ann seems to be good at knitting. 8) The two friends are
inseparable.

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 2-phrase dialogs (up to the model) responding to the given


apologies and keeping the conversation going.

Model
A: Sorry to have kept you waiting.
B: It’s all right. I’ve just come myself.

Reference list: It’s quite all right… That’s all right … Not at all …
Never mind that… Not in the least… No trouble at all … It doesn’t
matter …

You may use these as initial phrases:

(1) I do hope I didn’t hurt you. (2) I beg your pardon. I should have
remembered the date. (3) I am afraid I can’t place you. (4) I am sorry, but I
must be going. (5) Thank you, but I’m afraid it’s too late. (6) I’m awfully
sorry. It was just a slip of the tongue. (7) I must apologize for my curt
answer, but really I was awfully busy.

Listen and Sing a song – Tokio Hotel " Monsoon "

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I'm staring at a broken door


There's nothing left here anymore And when I loose myself I think
My room is cold of you
It's making me insane Together we'll be running
somewhere new
I've been waiting here so long And nothing can hold me back
But now the moment seems to've from you
come, Through the monsoon
I see the dark clouds coming up Hey! Hey!
again.
I'm fighting all this power
Running through the monsoon Coming in my way
Beyond the world, Let it send me straight to you
To the end of time, I'll be running night and day
Where the rain won't hurt I'll be with you soon Just me and
Fighting the storm, you
Into the blue, We'll be there soon
And when I loose myself I think So soon
of you,
Together we'll be running Running through the monsoon
somewhere new Beyond the world
Through the monsoon. To the end of time
Just me and you Where the rain won't hurt
Fighting the storm
A half moon's fading from my Into the blue
sight And when I loose myself I think
I see a vision in its light of you
But now it's gone and left me so Together we'll be running
alone somewhere new
I know I have to find you now And nothing can hold me back
Can hear your name, I don't know from you
how Through the monsoon
Why can't we make this darkness
feel like home? Through the monsoon
Just me and you
Running through the monsoon Through the monsoon
Beyond the world Just me and you
To the end of time
Where the rain won't hurt
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Fighting the storm


Into the blue

Выполните тест урока 3.

TEST TO LESSON 3

1. Определите ряд, в котором буква «у» читается как [I]:


a) crystal, accompany, energy, worry, way, year
b) only, daily, infinitely, immediately, primarily, they, yet
c) immediately, summary, hardly, enormously, analyst, physical

2. Определите ряд, все слова которого являются наречиями:


a) possibility, primary, easily, diversity, variety, daily
b) possibly, infinitely, immediately, primarily, namely
c) principally, immensely, secondly, largely, ready, hardly

3. Определите сказуемое в следующем предложении:

Rather, humans are changing their environment trying to fit their needs.

a) are
b) are changing
c) trying to fit

4. Определите ряд, в котором даны сказуемые во временной группе


Perfect:

a) has reflected, will have arrived, have argued, has to wax, could have
waned
b) has been choosing, had defined, will have invited, has developed,
would have fitted
c) has flourishing, has to evolve, having acquired, have remained, has to
pass

5. Укажите правильный перевод сказуемого следующего предложения:

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Society’s gender attitudes are changing.


a) изменились
b) меняются
с) будут меняться

6. Заполните пропуск, выбрав соответствующую грамматическую


форму:
The major changes …………………… in childhood, especially during
the first 5 years of life.
a) are taking place
b) take place
c) have taken place

7. Укажите предложения, где глагол to have входит в состав сказуемого


(более одного верного варианта):

a) But as the toddlers encounter fears and stressors, their independent


efforts
become moderated as they have to maintain support.

b) Klaus Riegel has argued that change, not stability, is the key to
understanding development.

d) The accumulation of knowledge has gathered speed – from a slow


swell to a meteoric rise.
Lesson Four
What was In at Different Times – Excurses into the History of
Fashion
In the XXI century there
is no shortage of icons
Теперь мы получили - “celebrity culture”
has provided, perhaps
too many.

- Christian Lacroix

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Грамматика
1. Страдательный залог ( § 4)
2. Модальные глаголы (§ 13).
3. Сослагательное наклонение (§ 12)
4. Упражнения № 15-25.
Лексика
1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2. Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах
урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1. Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2. Topic 4. Learning Foreign Languages.
3. Фразовый глагол “STAND”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.
Контроль: Тест урока 4.
Самостоятельная работа:
1. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по аудио-
курсу “Modern English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе”
(Text 5).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по разделу
«Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1.Прочтите слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции.
Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка:

wreck [rek], shape [SeIp], spirit ['spIrIt], desire [dI'zaIq], vital


['vaItl], personality ["pWsq'nxlItI], instead [In'sted], vintage
['vIntIG], casual ['kxZjuql], appearance [q'pIqrns], appropriate
[q'prquprIIt], gimmicks ['gImIks], bopper clothes ['bOpq klquDs ],
scattered ['skxtqd], expiration date ["ekspaI'reISn deIt], dorm ['dLm],
wardrobe ['wLdrqub], nuance [nju'Rns], honestly ['LnIstlI], bohemian
[bqu'hJmjqn], sincere [sIn'sIq].

2.Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский, проверяя


правильность произношения по упражнению 1:

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развалина, нюанс, одежда в стиле бибол, уловка, гардероб,


честно, разрозненный, вместо, старомодный, форма,
соответствующий, внешность, повседневный, срок годности,
искренний, личность, желание, общежитие, дух, жизненно
необходимый, богемный.

3.Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:


better, out-of-tune, understanding, realistic, designer, pieces, stylishly,
appearance, exposing, the most obvious, slimming, legginess, she’s
stealing, reappears, rethink, addition, bullying, classically, so-called,
makes fun, enemies.
4.Проверьте, помните ли вы глаголы, приведенные в левой части
таблицы. Переведите словосочетания, приведенные в правой части
таблицы.
(1) to enjoy (1) ты будешь радоваться жизни
(2) to be born (2) забудьте о том, в каком году родились
(3) to remain (3) модифицируйте модные направления,
чтобы оставаться современной
(4) to wear (4) сегодня уместно носить джинсы
(5) to mean (5) классический не означает простой
(6) to fall prey (6) никогда не становитесь жертвой
(7) to avoid (7) избегайте открывать
(8) to perceive (8) так вас и будут воспринимать
(9) to expose (9) открывать слишком большие участки
тела
(10) to stand (10) быть в состоянии носить более
короткие юбки
(11) to be caught (11) чтобы не быть пойманным в колею
моды,
(12) to take care (12) если вы будете заботиться о себе
(13) to suit (13) крой подходит для меняющейся
фигуры
(14) to flatter (14) чтобы выставлять в выгодном свете
вашу фигуру и индивидуальный стиль
(15) to need (15) вам надо одеваться
(16) to dress (16) всегда одеваться классически
(17) to be sincere (17) совет друга является искренним

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(18) to tweak (18) любой стиль можно переделать,


чтобы он выглядел великолепно
(19) to pull together (19) внешний вид всегда должен быть
собранным
(20) to understand (20) чтобы понимать ваши границы моды
(21) to get (21) займись делом

6. Переведите следующие фразы. Укажите, к каким временным


группам относятся сказуемые:
we were taking care; you should tweak mode trends to suit you; this dress
flatters your figure; you’ll be perceived the way you look; you have
remained modern since I saw you first; if your legs can stand the shorter
skirts; his suits have always been classical; she is caught in a fashion rut;
one needs to be sincere with his friends.

7. Прочтите несколько раз лексическую программу текста «А». Найдите


эти выражения в тексте и переведите соответствующие
предложения.
1) to forget about the year you were забыть о годе своего рождения
born
2) Get a life and you’ll enjoy life Займитесь делом и будете радоваться
жизни

3) like an out-of-tune train wreck подобно разбалансированной


развалине

4) never fall prey to being caught in никогда не становись жертвой


a fashion rut попадания в колею моды
5) Any style can be tweaked Любой стиль может быть видоизменен

6) it’s appropriate to wear jeans with уместно носить джинсы вместе со


vintage pieces старомодными вещами
7) They are back in Они снова в моде

8) clothing with an expiration date вышедшая из моды одежда

9) your style is a bit more downtown Ваш стиль чуть более деловой или
or bohemian? богемный?

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TEXT A. Age-appropriate Clothing – Are You Serious?

Dear Sharon: Help! Dear Sandra:


I am a 36-year-old business woman
and my best friend is ten years Yes, you can be stylish at any age!
older. Every time we go shopping I’ve seem to become the style expert
together she makes fun of what I of age-appropriate clothing thanks to
pick out and tells me, “dress your all of your letters and feedback.
age, you’re not 26!” But, I am not
46 either. So since you ask for it, here’s more
fashion advice about how to dress
She always tells me, "if it’s not appropriately and stylishly at any
classic, you can't wear it.” What to age.
do? I am not a fashion expert. I
need help about what not to wear at
my age to look good?! -Can I,
Should I, Could I? - Sandra V.

My personal belief is to forget about the year you were born and
dress for the physical shape you are in today. Get a life and you’ll enjoy
life, and you’ll look better for it!

You can be trendy at 46 or like an out-of-tune train wreck at 26. Age


has nothing to do with physical shape, spirit, or the desire to move forward
and stay vital.

Having great personal style is more about understanding yourself and


being realistic about how you look. Any style can be tweaked to look great
on you - it only takes a pragmatic glance in the mirror. Modify trends to
remain modern and understand your fashion limits.

If classic is your thing, keep it fresh. “Do pick pieces that reflect your
personality instead of following some social sense of what’s ‘right.’ Today
it’s appropriate to wear jeans with vintage pieces and evening bag”, says

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Gucci designer Frida Giannini. Classic doesn’t have to mean plain - it’s
all in the pieces you go for and how you put them together.

Appear professional when the occasion calls for it and look stylishly
casual for the weekend. But never fall prey to being caught in a fashion rut
because you are afraid to experiment with something new — that will
surely put years on your appearance.

As a business person, you want to appear office appropriate for the type
of business that you are in. No matter what your profession, you have to
avoid wearing overtly teeny bopper clothes with lots of over the top
gimmicks. Avoid exposing too much flesh. Keep your look pulled
together and you’ll be perceived the same way. If your clothing style is all
over the place, you’ll be perceived as scattered.

Now let’s get back to short skirts, the most obvious article of clothing
with an expiration date. They are back in, but the question to ask is how
do your legs look? Are they in shape to stand a shorter skirt, with or
without the help of dark slimming tights? A woman over 50 or 60 who still
has it going on can look stunning in a skirt about an inch or so above her
knee— that skirt length would offer the feeling of legginess without
appearing like she’s stealing her wardrobe from the local dorm.

Know the skin you are in and accept it. When it comes to fashion
trends, become a master at tweaking them and dissecting the right amount
of nuance which flatters you. If there’s trend that you love, but honestly
feel like you’ve missed its prime— skip it. When a style trend reappears
that you have clearly worn 15 or 20 years ago, rethink it and reinterpret it
with just one addition to your wardrobe rather than the full-on retro effect.

Keep up your skin care regime, don’t forget an up to date haircut, stay
true to your personal style, and not take yourself too seriously. If you take
care of yourself, stay healthy and fit, and maintain an open attitude about
life there really isn’t that much of a style difference in what a modern 35 or
45 year-old could wear - it really is the cut that’s tweaked to suit a changing
figure. As we mature simple, well-cut clothes are better than fussy layers
and crazy prints. Who says you need to always dress classically when your
style is a bit more downtown or bohemian? You need to dress in a way that
flatters your figure and individual style, not your friend’s personal taste.

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Be sure that your so-called best friend’s fashion advice is sincere. Who
says you need a friend who makes fun of you? That sounds more like
bullying and with ‘friends’ like that, you don’t need enemies.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.

1.Найдите в тексте «А» три предложения, наилучшим образом


передающему его смысл.
2.Составьте краткий письменный пересказ текста «А», поясняя и
детализируя выделенные вами предложения.
3.Прочитайте текст «В».

TEXT B. FASHION ICONS – EXCURSES TO HISTORY.

The term “fashion icon” has recently replaced the slightly antiquated
notion of “fashion leaders.” During the second half of the twentieth
century, fashion became less hierarchical, more meritocratic, and media-
dominated.

Indeed, the media itself created its own icons of style, sometimes
thrusting opinions to stylists, and others involved in the professional
process of promoting fashion. The designer-led fashions of the past were
joined by the concept of fashions created on the streets.

“Style is not fashion until it has reached the street,” is a statement


popularly attributed to Coco Chanel, herself a leader; she was also part of
the democratization of fashion. The “fashion leaders” of past generations
were those in the very highest society—royalty, aristocrats, and their wives
and mistresses. The Bourbon courts of pre-Revolutionary France were
famous for their fashion excesses, while in the 1790s Napoleon’s wife,
Josephine, introduced the new “Empire-line dresses,” which quickly
crossed the Channel.

At the start of the twentieth century, magazine journalism had been


enlivened by photographs. Much of the newsreel footage from the first
decade of the new century showed King Edward VII and his elegant wife,
Alexandra; many of his mistresses were also fashion leaders, such as

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Madame Standish of Paris, who was the first to wear the new “tailor-
mades” by Creed to the Paris racecourse.

Chanel set up her fashion business before World War I and, in its
aftermath, with radically altered style, her designs suited the new needs of
the society. During the War, many women had experienced the freedom of
wearing trousers for manual work—and freedom of movement was
Chanel’s aim. She liked wearing men’s sweaters and put women in soft
jersey and fluid garments. She popularized costume jewelry, the little black
dress—and the suntan. She was emulated in every way, and when she came
back from the Riviera to display her suntan at the Opera, a new craze began.

The war annihilated a generation of young men; the women who


survived wanted to forget, rather than to mourn. Economic independence
and changing mores meant new fashion icons were needed who
personified the Jazz Age: Clara Bow, the “It Girl” of cinema; and the idol
of Paris, singer Josephine Baker.

There was still a role for royalty—men and women were fascinated by
the dress of Edward, Prince of Wales, and his Oxford bags, plus fours, and
Argyle sweaters were widely copied. He even had a fabric pattern named
after him—Prince-of-Wales check. His long-term mistress, Freda Dudley
Ward, embodied the flapper look of the 1920s, but in the following decade
he abandoned her to marry the stylish American divorcee, Wallis Simpson.
It was she who formulated the fashion dictum, “A woman can never be too
rich or too thin.” Although the public was distressed by his abdication, they
nevertheless bought mass-market copies of her Molyneux wedding dress.
Technological changes now meant that fashions could be copied at
moderate prices, and, at last, ordinary women could copy their icons. This
was the decade when Hollywood moguls allowed women to imitate the
dresses of their favorite stars, as well as their makeup.

Designer Edith Head dressed leading stars Grace Kelly, Audrey Hepburn, and
the young Elizabeth Taylor in outfits inspired by the New Look. The 1950s saw a
sea change with the advent of youth oriented fashions, linked to music and to the
newly discovered and largest consumer group, the “teenagers.”

Designer Ossie Clark famously dressed Mick Jagger in a white tunic and
trousers in 1969, and in the 1970s the male stars wore makeup. The economic
difficulties of the 1970s produced the hedonism of Studio 54 and the
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confrontational androgyny of punk. In 1977, the Sex Pistols wore clothes designed
by Vivienne Westwood—torn, provocative, and fetishistic. In the 1980s, as
economic prosperity returned, so did conventional icons, like the young Princess
Diana, and more glamorous icons; the “supermodels” were dressed and lionized by
Gianni Versace. Rap stars, like Run-DMC, made active sportswear fashionable;
designers copied their look. In the 1990s, there was a need for less “glitzy” icons;
fashion followed music into “grunge,” photographers like Corinne Day created
“waifs” such as Kate Moss, and sports stars became emblems of style.

Some useful words and phrases:


1. meritocratic – способствующий достижению положения в обществе
благодаря способностям человека
2. media-dominated – с доминированием средств массовой информации
3. to thrust opinions – навязывать мнения
4. fashion excesses – модные излишества
5. Empire-line dresses – одежда в стиле ампир
6. to enliven– делать интереснее, оживлять
7. newsreel footage – хроникальная киносъемка
8. tailor-mades – одежда, изготовленная на заказ
9. fluid garments – одежда, не мешающая движениям
10. She was emulated in every way – ее копировали во всем
11. suntan – загар
12. to annihilate – истреблять
13. to mourn – скорбеть, оплакивать
14. changing mores [ mqurIz]– меняющиеся нравы
15. dictum – афоризм
16. abdication – отречение от престола
17. hedonism – гедонизм, культ удовольствия
18. androgyny of punks – гермофродизм Панков
19. to lionize - носиться с кем-л. как со знаменитостью

4. Прочитайте текст «С».

TEXT C. JACKIE KENNEDY: A FASHION ICON.

Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born into a wealthy family and raised to a
life of privilege. Her 1953 marriage to Senator Jack Kennedy at the wealthy
enclave of Newport, Rhode Island, was one of the most glittering social
events of the decade. Mrs. Kennedy became a popular figure during the
1960 presidential campaign; after her husband’s election, her beauty, love
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of clothes, and sense of style set her apart from her rather plain
predecessors as First Lady, Bess Truman and Mamie Eisenhower.
Criticized in some quarters for wearing European fashions, she patronized
American designers, particularly Oleg Cassini (whose designs, however,
owed much to European originals).

Her inauguration outfit of a fawn-colored woolen coat with matching


pillbox hat was instantly copied by thousands of women; a red dress (by
Chez Ninon after a Marc Bohan for Dior original) that she wore for a
televised tour of the White House became another iconic “Jackie Look.”

In 1968, five years after her husband’s assassination, Mrs. Kennedy


married wealthy Greek shipowner Aristotle Onassis; after his death in 1975
she returned to New York City and lived there until her death in 1994.
Throughout those years she dressed with elegance and style; but her time as
a true fashion icon came during her brief years in “Camelot,” the Kennedy
White House.

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

(1) In what way did Jacqueline Kennedy differ from her White
House predecessors?
(2) What details of her style became iconic for thousands of
women?

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on verb ‘STAND’.

- to stand for: 1) поддерживать, стоять за; 2) символизировать,


означать, обозначать, значить; 3) быть кандидатом; баллотироваться;
4) терпеть, выносить.
- to stand by: 1) присутствовать; быть безучастным зрителем; 2)
защищать, помогать, поддерживать; 3) держать(слово), выполнять
(обещание); придерживаться (линии поведения); 4) наблюдать, ничего
не предпринимая; 4) быть наготове.
- to stand on: 1) зависеть от чего-л.; 2) точно соблюдать ( условности и
т. п. ); 4) продолжать настаивать на истинности чего-л.
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- to stand out: 1) выделяться, выступать; 2) не сдаваться; держаться.


- to stand in with: 1) быть в хороших отношениях,
поддерживать хорошие отношения; 2) принимать участие,
помогать.

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Use the following expressions with the word ‘STAND’ in your own
sentences.
(1) stand on end (стоять дыбом ( о волосах )); (2) stand on one's head
(встать на уши, пытаясь что-то объяснить); (3) stand on one's own legs
(быть независимым); (4) stand on the defensive (обороняться,
защищаться, стоять/находиться в обороне); (5) stand on the fence
(занимать выжидательную позицию); (6) stand one's ground (проявлять
твердость; стоять на своем); (7) stand Sam (платить за угощение); (8)
stand shilly-shally (колебаться; проявлять нерешительность); (9) stand
shout (угощать выпивкой всю компанию).

2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to collocations with the


verb ‘STAND’.

(1) Ann’s family is very tenacious. They always stand for each other. (2)
GP stands for general practitioner (терапевт). (3) His elder son stands for
parliament. (4) If you promise a thing you must stand by your word. (5) He
seems to prefer standing by, not rendering actual help to his friends. (6) We
are on friendly terms and don’t stand on ceremony. (7) Sprinters are
coming. Stand out of the path or you will be knocked down. (8) I won’t
stand in with you, for I consider you to be in the wrong. (9) All the
members of the team stood up for their goal-keeper. (10) I can’t stand
impolite people. (11) Stand by to surface! Stand in the gap! (12) You must
stand firm, otherwise they will take the upper hand.

3. Recast the following sentences using different collocations with the verb
‘STAND’ instead of the italicized words and phrases.
(1) At the last election he was a candidate for his town. (2) Our citizens
should know how to defend their rights. (3) We won’t support your
appeal, for it’s groundless. (4) Will you step aside and give the way to the
runners. (5) I can’t endure his lack of table manners. (6) MP means
Member of Parliament.

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SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 2-phrase dialogs (up to the model) expressing your sympathy,


regret, encouragement in accordance with the model and keep the
conversation going.

Model

A: When I think of my examination next week my heart goes


into my boots.
B: Cheer up. It will all come round.

Reference list: Cheer up… Pull yourself together … It will all come round
… How awful! … I’m so sorry… Could I help you in any way?... Bad luck …
Things do happen… Don’t let that upset you… I wish I could do something
for you …

You may use these as initial phrases:

(1) My brother’s car was stolen yesterday. (2) I have lost all hope to see
him again. (3) Have you heard that Ann’s father has died recently? (4) It is
very cold in here. I am shivering all over. (5) I feel awfully seedy today (Я
плохо себя чувствую). (6) Can you imagine I was late for my classes
today because all the buses were full up and I couldn’t get in? (7) Oh,
bother, I have left my glasses at home. (8) I’m afraid I’m too old to dance.

Listen and Sing a song – Jingle Bells.


Jingle bells, jingle bells A day or two ago
Jingle all the way, I thought I'd take a ride
Oh what fun it is to ride And soon miss fanny bright
In a one-horse open sleigh, hey. Was seated by my side;
The horse was lean and lank
Jingle bells, jingle bells Misfortune seemed his lot,
Jingle all the way, He got into a drifting bank
Oh what fun it is to ride And then we got upsot.
In a one-horse open sleigh. Upsot.

We're dashing through the snow Jingle bells, jingle bells


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In a one-horse open sleigh Jingle all the way,


All the fields we go Oh what fun it is to ride
Laughing all the way, hey hey hey In a one-horse open sleigh, hey
hey hey Jingle bells, jingle bells
Bells on bob-tail ring Jingle all the way,
Making spirits bright Oh what fun it is to ride
Oh what fun it is to sing In a one-horse open sleigh.
A sleighing song tonight. Dashing through, the fields of white
On this happy Christmas night
Oh jingle bells, jingle bells Off we go through the snow
Jingle all the way, Bells are ringing, we'll be singing
Oh what fun it is to ride Jingle bells, jingle bells
In a one-horse open sleigh, hey Jingle bells, jingle bells jingle jangle
Jingle bells, jingle bells Jingle bells, jingle bells jingle jangle
Jingle all the way, Jingle bells, jingle bells jingle jangle
Oh what fun it is to ride Jingle bells, jingle bells jingle jangle
In a one-horse open sleigh. Jingle bells, jangle bells
Jingle all the way
On a one-horse open sleigh

Выполните тест урока 4.

TEST TO LESSON 4

1. Определите ряд, все слова которого являются прилагательными:

a) summarized, economic, developing, national, often, recent, visible


b) political, better, national, most often, recent, highest, ethnic
c) violent, acceptable, poor, elderly, aging, major, recently

2. Определите ряд, все слова которого являются существительными:

a) women, males, trend, government, present, use, needs


b) care, inadequate, provision, birth, poverty, politics, weaknesses
c) strengths, lawmakers, depression, contribution, society, barrier,
requirement

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3. Определите сказуемое в следующем предложении:

A current trend is to conduct developmental research providing knowledge and


leading to wiser and more effective decision making about social policy.

a) is
b) is to conduct
c) is providing and leading

4. Определите ряд, в котором все глаголы являются сказуемыми в


страдательном залоге:

a) have been beaten, were filled, is limited, could be diagnosed, are being
raised
b) is widespread, are influenced, will be improved, is strongly tired, are
influenced
c) is present, are expected, is escalating, can be divided, should be given
5. Заполните пропуски, выбрав правильную грамматическую форму:

A successful family policy ……… primarily ……….. by parents.

a) is …….. shaping
b) will ……. be shaped
c) can …….. to shape

Lesson Five

Fashion Shows: Glamour of High Fashion

The Paris haute couture


system was a successful
30) Уважаемые го formula for attracting
31) sales, prestigious
32)
clients, commercial and
forward to buyers, and
33) international press...
34) All other couture
organizations were based
upon this French model.
-Yves Saint Laurent

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Грамматика

1. Present Simple в сопоставлении с Past Simple ( § 14)


2. Краткие выводы (§ 15).
3. Упражнения № 53-55.
Лексика
1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2. Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1. Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2.Topic 5. Television in our Life.
3.Фразовый глагол “SET”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.
Контроль: Тест урока 5.
Самостоятельная работа:
1.Выполнение заданий преподавателя по аудио-курсу “Modern
English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе” (Text 6,7).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1.Прочтите слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции.
Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка:
exclusive [Iks'klusIv], in-house presentation ['In'haus "prezen'teISn],
haute couture [autkH'tjuq], clientele ["klJRn’tel], biannual spectacle
[bI'xnjuql 'spektkl], consumer [kqn'sjumq], evolution ["Ivq'luSn],
theatrical display [TI'xtrIkl dIs'pleI], wares [weqz], avant-garde
styles ["xvOn'gRd staIl], mannequins ['mxnIkInz], magnitude
['mxgnItjud], impresario ["Impre'sRrIqu], mass entertainment [mxs
"ente'teInment], supermodels [sjupq'mLdelz], narratives ['nxrqtIvz],
fictional character ['fIkSnl 'kxrktq], realm [relm], conceptual fantasy
[kqn'septjuql 'fxntqsI], licensed products [‘laIsnst 'prOdAkts] .

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2.Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский, проверяя


правильность произношения по упражнению 1:
эксклюзивный, манекенщицы, внутрифирменная презентация,
рассказы, развитие, импресарио, сфера, совершающееся дважды в
год представление, абстрактный
образ, изделия, высокая мода, клиенты, отвлеченная фантазия,
потребитель, театральное представление, авангардный стиль,
массовое развлекательное мероприятие, значимость, супермодель,
вымышленные герои, лицензированные продукты.

3. Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:


mannequins, entertainment, supermodels, licensed, consumer, socially,
became, broadened, indicating, traditional, narratives, stagings,
conceptual, these.

4.Проверьте, помните ли вы глаголы, приведенные в левой части


таблицы. Переведите словосочетания, приведенные в правой части
таблицы

(1) to evolve (1) показ мод возник


(2) to retain (2) мода не сохраняет связи с истоками
(3) to wear (3) чтобы носить дизайнерские разработки
(4) to reach (4) чтобы получить более обширную клиентуру
(5) to promenade (5) чтобы его жена прогуливалась в важных
общественных местах
(6) to extend (6) многие кутюрье расширили свой показ
(7) to include (7) их клиентура включала популярных звезд
(8) to stage (8) Клод Монтана поставил театральные
спектакли
(9) to hire (9) нанял импресарио рок-музыкантов

5.Переведите следующие предикативные пары. Укажите, к каким


временным группам относятся сказуемые:
fashion show has evolved, clothing is seen, social forces are
responsible, many couturiers extended, the custom-dressmaking trade
also maintained, their clientele included, Claude Montana staged
theatrical events, Mugler hired a rock impresario.

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6.Прочтите несколько раз лексическую программу текста «А»,


найдите ее в тексте и переведите предложения, содержащие эту
программу.

(1) an exclusive in-house эксклюзивная внутрифирменная


presentation of haute couture презентация высокой моды
(2) a biannual spectacle of both проводимое дважды в год представление
couture and ready-to-wear clothing как высокой моды, так и готовой одежды
(3) including the increased включая возросшую осведомленность
consumer awareness of Parisian потребителя относительно Парижской
couture моды
(4) it does retain links to its origins он (показ моды) действительно
in theatrical display сохраняет связь со своими истоками в
театральном представлении
(5) effective links to the world of эффективные связи с миром театра
theater
(6) became a place to see the most стал местом, где можно было увидеть
avant-garde styles наиболее авангардные стили
(7) resort areas were another means Курорты стали еще одним средством
of advertising up-to-the-minute рекламирования самых последних
designs моделей
(8) the public visibility and Доступность для общества и значимость
magnitude of fashion shows модного показа сильно возросла
increased dramatically
(9) This was the first time that the Впервые публике разрешили
public was allowed to attend a присутствовать на модном показе
couture show
(10) many now have specific Многие (модные показы) сейчас имеют
themes, mood music, and special специфические темы, музыкальное
lighting and other effects сопровождение, специальное освещение
и другие эффекты

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TEXT A. FASHION SHOWS


The fashion show has evolved from
an exclusive in-house presentation of
haute couture held for a private
clientele, to a biannual spectacle of
both couture and ready-to-wear
clothing that is seen by a vast cross-
section of consumers, the mass
media, and the fashion industry. A
number of cultural and social forces are responsible for this evolution,
including the increased consumer awareness of Parisian couture, the rise of
the ready-to-wear industry after World War II, the growth of the modeling
profession, and the increasing attention paid to the runway by the popular
press. While the fashion show today is different from its early-twentieth-
century incarnation, it does retain links to its origins in theatrical display
and the couture salon shows of that period.

Origins
In nineteenth-century Paris, it was common practice for dressmaker houses
to use their assistants or saleswomen (desmoiselles du magasin) to wear the
designer’s creations while working at the shop. To reach a broader
clientele, many couturiers extended this display to the public arena as well,
with figures such as Charles Frederick Worth dressing his wife in the latest
styles to promenade in socially important areas of the city such as the Bois
du Boulogne. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in London
and Paris, the custom-dressmaking
trade also maintained important and effective links to the world of theater
and advertised its wares by dressing famous actresses both on and off the
stage.

The couture houses were very successful promoters through this medium
and their clientele included such popular stars as Sarah Bernhardt and
Cecile Sorel. The theater, particularly in France and England, became a
place to see the most avant-garde styles and eventually a “fashion play”
genre developed that revolved around the presentation of the latest couture
creations. Dressing members of the fashionable demimonde and house

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mannequins (the term for models in this period) for the races, opera, and
theater premieres, and resort areas were another means of advertising up-to-
the-minute designs.

Fashion Show as Spectacle


In the 1970s and 1980s the public visibility and magnitude of fashion
shows increased dramatically. In 1973 the designer Kenzo presented a
large-scale ready-to-wear show on a stage rather than a runway, indicating
a break with haute couture tradition and the increasing emphasis on
spectacle. In the 1980s Thierry Mugler and Claude Montana staged
theatrical events that further removed the fashion show from the couture
salon. Mugler hired a rock impresario to stage his fashion show, an
audience of six thousand people attended, and half of the show’s tickets
were available for purchase by the public. This was the first time that the
public was allowed to attend a couture show and marks a trend toward the
fashion show as mass entertainment. In the mid-1980s the regular
broadcasting of the ready-to-wear shows on cable television further
broadened the viewing public. The increased public awareness of the
catwalk shows led to the promotion of “supermodels” in the early 1990s.
By this time, modeling had long been a socially acceptable profession and
the increasing cult of personality in various cultural arenas served to
promote models as celebrities on a par with movie actors.

While the majority of fashion designers hold traditional runway shows


during the fashion weeks
in Paris, London, New York, and other cities, many now have specific
themes, mood music, and special lighting and other effects. In the 1990s
there were a number of designers, including John Galliano and Alexander
McQueen, who became renowned for producing extravagant shows in
unusual spaces with narratives and fictional characters.

These theatrical stagings have pushed the fashion show beyond the
garment and into the realm of the conceptual fantasy. These types of shows
function primarily to promote brand recognition and to sell the ready-to-
wear lines and the licensed products.

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.


1. Прочитайте текст «А» и найдите предложения, содержащие
лексическую программу. Переведите эти предложения.
2. Прочитайте по ролям диалог текста «В» и потренируйтесь в
его параллельном переводе.
3. Используя информацию, данную в диалоге, перечислите
проблемы, возникающие во время показа мод.

TEXT B. How to Make a Fashion Statement in a World of 'Vogue'

Models showing the Tommy Hilfiger collection during Fashion Week last
month in New York speak about their attitudes to vocabulary of fashion
shows.

A.P.: А.П.:
I'm Adam Phillips. Today, we Меня зовут Адам Филипс. Сегодня
take a look at some of the special мы поговорим о некоторых
problems found in the world of специфических проблемах мира
fashion. моды.
New York City enjoys pride of Нью-Йорк по праву гордится тем,
place as one of the world's top что является одним из главных
fashion centers. That's where мировых центров моды. Именно
you'll find Valerie Steele, who здесь вы можете встретить Валерии
directs the Museum of the Стил, директора музея
Fashion institute of Technology, технологического института моды,
or FIT ["F-I-T"], where many of известного как FIT, который готовит
tomorrow's fashion designers, будущих дизайнеров,
marketing executives and others маркетинговых директоров и других
train for careers in the six- специалистов для промышленности,
hundred-eighty-billion-dollar-a- приносящей шестьсот восемьдесят
year fashion industry. миллиардов долларов в год.

VALERIE STEELE: ВАЛЕРИ СТИЛ:


The fashion world is the industry В моем представлении мир моды –
for me. It's definitely its own это промышленность. Он имеет свои
world. It has its own discourse. собственные языковые средства
You could call it’s language общения. Я думаю, вы можете дать
‘vogue’, I guess. Vogue being, of его языку название ‘вог’. ‘Вог’,
course, the number one fashion конечно, это международный
magazine internationally. журнал моды.
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А.П.:
A.P.: Действительно, именно к ‘Вог’ в
Indeed, Vogue is the premier go- первую оче- редь обращаются как
to place for both industry профессионалы, так и публика в
professionals and the public to see целом, чтобы узнать дизайнерское
a designer's line, a word that FIT направление. Это слово, как считает
assistant curator Fred Dennis says Фред Де-нис, помощник хранителя
means about the same thing as a музея FIT, означает то же самое, что
designer's collection. и дизайнерская коллекция.

FRED DENNIS: ФРЕД ДЕННИС:


A collection is what a designer Коллекция это то, что дизайнер
will produce [in] any given готовит к каждому сезону.
season.It can be anywhere from Она может включать от двадцати
twenty-five to a hundred pieces пяти до ста предметов в зависимости
depending on the designer. Pieces от дизайнера. Предметы создают
are looks. A look is a total head- внешний вид.
to-toe ensemble. So you can start Внешний вид создает общий
with a hat perhaps, a top, shoes. ансамбль с головы до пят. Поэтому
вы можете начать со шляпы,
A.P: возможно, топа, туфель.
"Ensemble" is one of dozens of А.П.:
French words used every day in “Ансамбль” – одно из дюжины
the world of haute couture, a французских слов, используемых
phrase that translates literally as ежедневно в мире высокой моды,
high culture but which also слово, которое переводится как
connotes the glamorous, «высокая культура», но также
expensive side of fashion. означает гламурную, дорогую
сторону моды.
VALERIE STEELE: ВАЛЕРИ СТИЛ:
So you talk about decolletage Так вы можете говорить, например,
[day-coe-la-TAHGE] for о декольте, имея в виду линию шеи,
example, which is the noun скажем, платья, обычно глубокую
referring to a neckline of say a линию, как глубокий вырез.
dress, usually a low neckline, as
in a plunging decolletage. А.П.:
Мир моды иногда подшучивает над
A.P: собой, используя такие слова, как
The fashion world sometimes “фашиониста”, имея в виду почти
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pokes fun at itself with terms like одержимо осведомленного эксперта


fashionista, meaning an almost по тому, что модно, а что нет. Оно
obsessively knowledgeable expert противопоставляет “фашиониста” и
on what's hot - meaning in, or in жертву моды.
fashion - and what's not. It
contrasts fashionista with fashion
victim. ТАМСЕН ШВАРЦМАН:
Те, кто становится жертвой
TAMSEN SCHWARTZSMAN: последних тенденций и прихотей.
One who falls prey to the latest Они идут за покупками и покупают
trends and fads. They'll go out вещи по сиюминутной прихоти,
and buy something that lasts as a которая длится только пару месяцев.
fad for only a couple of months. Жертвами моды могут также быть
Fashion victims can also be the люди, находящиеся на переднем
people who are cutting edge - крае – те, кто привносит тенденции
bringing some trend into the на рынок.
market.
А.П.:
A.P: Как я понимаю, индустрии моды
So I presume that the fashion нравятся такие ‘жертвы’.
industry likes these kind of
'victims’.
ТАМСЕН ШВАРЦМАН:
TAMSEN SCHWARTZSMAN: Конечно! Они делают покупки.
Of course! They shop. They Продвигают товар, люди
promote things that other people воспринимают новую идею и
then catch on to, and buy. покупают.

A.P: А.П.:
Indeed, the business of fashion is Действительно, деловой мир моды
all about desire, and so many связан с удовлетворением желаний,
fashion words convey judgments передает суждения о том, что
about what is attractive - and what привлекательно, а что нет. Многие
isn't. Many terms of fashion термины моды, такие как допинг,
praise, such as dope, sharp and отличный, фартовый, заимствованы
phat (it's spelled P-H-A-T) are из поп-музыки и явления хип-хоп.
borrowed from popular music and
the hip-hop scene.

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EMILY BERRY: ЭМИЛИ БЕРРИ


Just what will be considered phat То, что считается фартовым, как
in two seasons can be seen right говорят знающие люди, через пару
now on what insiders call the сезонов попадет на подиум.
catwalk, which is colloquial word
for ‘runway’.

4.Прочитайте текст «С» и ответьте на вопрос, поставленный в


заголовке.

TEXT C. French chic… What do we have to wear in


Paris?

Dear Sharon: Dear Nancy:


I’m going to Paris for vacation
and don’t want to look like a Thankfully, you are thinking about
tourist. I'm not familiar with what what not to wear in Paris - or any
is acceptable to wear in such a other stylish city for that matter!
chic city for touring around. I'm
thinking the usual American While we’re at it, let’s all make a
customs of wearing shorts, T- global resolution as to not wear our
shirts, sweats, tennis shoes, or ‘special’ car washing duds in public…
flip-flops probably won't go over hello, Mrs. Pink Sweats, you know we
well in Paris. are talking to you.

What should I wear to a dinner


cruise on the Seine or trolling
about Paris to visit museums,
shop, or have a casual lunch?
What's appropriate dress when
I’m off to a train excursion that is
still comfortable enough for
walking around a village on
somewhat rough roads? HELP me
look French chic! – Nancy F.

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“Do in Rome as the Romans do” – this popular English saying is also
true about what we wear at different places. While the chic women of Paris
do wear casual clothing, the real sophisti- cation comes from how they put
it together. They don’t suffer from the same dimwitted arro- gance as badly
dressed Americans who wear sloppy sweats, dumpy shorts, beachy flip-
flops, or athletic sneakers as their implicit right to be dressed ‘comfortably’
at all times. Parisians, for the most part, wear well-fitting clothes that suit
their frame. You’ll barely see a mademoiselle who is stuffed into a size too
small jeans or drowned in a droopy camp shirt. The French understand the
magic of a good tailor and proper fit, and so should you.

They also understand the power of quality. Europeans usually don’t


suffer the same fashion victim overindulgence as Americans do and feel
compelled to buy every trend simply because it is in style. They buy what
suits them in the best quality that they can afford. French chic is not a
matter of having it all, but a matter of having the best of all that you need.
Fashion is like food for the Parisian.

C'est la classique… ahhhh it even sounds better in French! Parisian chic


comprises of classically cut fashion worn in an unexpected, yet perfectly
elegant way. There is that certain extra design twist or precise flourish that
makes each piece special but never trite or tired. And what gives these
classics their special does of French chic style power? It’s the off-handed
way in which they are put together. A beautiful dress coat is worn with
jeans and a simple T-shirt, along with a luxurious handbag and rich scarf to
create an understated elegance that can take you to almost any kind of
situation in style. If a French woman does wear sneakers, they are leather
tennis shoes, designed to be more of a sports-inspired shoe rather than a
gym necessity.

Some useful words and phrases:

1. casual clothing – повседневная одежда


2. sophistication – изысканность, утонченность
3. dimwitted – неумный
4. arrogance – высокомерие
5. sloppy sweats – бесформенные свитеры
6. dumpy shorts – унылые шорты

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7. beachy flip-flops – пляжные сандалии


8. athletic sneakers – спортивные кеды
9. as their implicit right – как принадлежащее им право
10. well-fitting clothes – одежда, подходящая по размеру
11. a size too small jeans – джинсы на один размер меньше
12. droopy camp shirt – свисающая походная рубашка
13. overindulgence – чрезмерное потакание
14. to be compelled – быть вынужденным
15. extra design twist – дополнительное дизайнерское ухищрение
16. trite or tired – банальный или избитый
17. off-handed way – метод импровизации
18. along with – вместе с
19. understated elegance – скрытая элегантность

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on verb ‘SET’.

- to set to: 1) вступать в драку; 2) браться за ( работу, еду и т. п. );


- to set up: 1) настраивать, производить настройку, регулировку;
2)устанавливать, ставить; 4) основывать, открывать (дело,
предприятие и т. п.); 5) подготавливать, планировать; 6) вызывать
(что-л.); причинять (боль и т. п.).
- to set in: 1) вставлять, вкладывать ( что-л. во что-л. ); 2) добавлять
(что-л. к чему-л. ); 3) начинаться, наступать, устанавливаться.
- to set about: 1) начинать делать ( что-л. ), приступать ( к чему-л. );
2) побуждать ( кого-л. ) начать делать ( что-л. ); 4) распространять
(слух и т. п. ).
- to set apart: 1) помещать отдельно, помещать раздельно; 2) сберегать
(деньги, время и т. п. ); 3) разнимать ( дерущихся ).
- to set out: 1) выставлять (на продажу или на обозрение); 2) излагать;
3)отправляться; выходить, выезжать, вылетать; 4) украшать, делать
более привлекательным; 5) высаживать ( семена, растения ); 6)
накрывать ( на стол); 7) выступать ( против противника )

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION


1. Use the following expressions with the word ‘SET’ in your own
sentences.

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(1) set tongues wagging (дать повод для сплетен; вызвать толки); (2)
set some money apart (отложить немного денег); (3) set forth one’s views
(изложить свою точку зрения); (4) set by the ears
(рассорить); (5) set eyes on smb. (приглядывать); (6) set one’s cap at
smb. (‘положить глаз’ на кого-либо);

2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to collocations with the


verb ‘SET’.
(1) Let’s set to work without delay. (2) That publishing house was set
up many years ago. (3) A spell (период) of rainy weather has set in. (4)
We set out at dawn so as to reach our destination before dark. (5) He was
set up as a mechanic. (6) The rumor was set about by one of your relatives,
no doubt. (7) We should set apart a little money in case of some possible
emergency. (8) This girl has set her cap at you. (9) Don’t forget to set the
clock.

3. Recast the following sentences using different collocations with the verb ‘SET’
instead of the italicized words and phrases.

(1) The political party proclaimed its program through mass media. (2) If I
were you I wouldn’t urge him on to oppose his parents. (3) So far as I
remember that building was erected when I was quite a boy. (4) The
teacher made all the pupils work at once. (5) The hot season began last
month. (6) I strongly advise you to begin writing the composition tonight
unless you want to lag behind your class. (7) Our new acquaintance
professed to be a film star. (8) Will you reserve these tickets for me? I’m
eager to attend the performance.

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 2-phrase dialogs (up to the model) expressing doubt,


hesitation, disbelief in accordance with the model and keep the
conversation going.
Model

A: My daughter can sleep all day long.


B: Really? Did you happen to ask her what she was doing at night?

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Reference list: Really? Is that so? I shouldn’t say so… I can hardly
believe my eyes! Too good to be true! Are you sure? You can never
tell … Do you really mean it?

You may use these as initial phrases:

(1) You always keep us waiting. (2) I’ m afraid I got off at the wrong stop.
(3) My shoes aren’t very clean today. (4) There were too few students at the
lecture. (5) I prefer coffee. (6) The cat has just eaten all the meat on the
plate. (7) We are going to the pictures together. Though I don’t think I like
his manners. (8) My friend is writing a book on navigation. (9) I like
neither sweets, nor chocolate. (10) This tooth is hurting me. (11) I hate him
like poison.

Listen and sing a song – Lemon Tree (Fool’s garden)

1. 5.
I’m sitting here in the boring room Isolation is not good is not good for
It’s just another rainy Sunday me
afternoon Isolation. I don’t want to sit on the
I’m wasting my time lemon-tree
I got nothing to do
I’m hanging around 6.
I’m waiting for you I’m steppin’ around in the desert of
But nothing ever happens and I joy
wonder Baby, anyhow I’ll get another toy
And anything will happen and you
2. wonder
I’m driving around in my car
I’m driving too fast 7.
I’m driving too far I wonder how
I’d like to change my point of view I wonder why
I feel so lonely Yesterday you told me ‘bout the
I’m waiting for you blue, blue sky
But nothing ever happens and I And all that I can see is just another
wonder yellow lemon-tree
I’m turning my head up and
3. down
I wonder how I’m turning, turning, turning, turning,
I wonder why turning around

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Yesterday you told me ‘bout the And all that I can see is just another
blue, blue sky lemon-tree
And all that I can see is just a yellow And I wonder, wonder
lemon-tree
I’m turning my head up and 8.
down I wonder how
I’m turning, turning, turning, turning, I wonder why
turning around Yesterday you told me ‘bout the
And all that I can see is just another blue blue sky
lemon-tree And all that I can see, and all that I
can see, and all that I can see
4 Is just a yellow lemon-tree
I’m sitting here
I miss the power
I’d like to go out taking a shower
But there’s a heavy cloud inside my
head
I feel so tired
Put myself into bed
While nothing ever happens and I
wonder

TEST TO LESSON 5
1. Укажите, в каком предложении паузы расставлены верно:
а) At this point | we have discussed a number of ideas | about the nature of
development | and issues in development.
b) At this point we have discussed a number of ideas | about the nature of
development | and issues in development.

2. Укажите ряд, все слова которого могут выполнять функцию


сказуемого:
а) came, did not seem, sent, is carrying, had moved, agree, while
carrying
b) had not determined, had to leave, resembling, should be placed,
would come, can improve, of weaving
c) should be, had to be placed, did not fall, put, is situated, may happen,
agreed, can be produced

3.Определите сказуемое главного предложения:

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Regardless of your age, you can make a number of important changes in


your current life-style that will help you feel better physically, mentally,
and emotionally.
а) will help
b) feel
c) can make

4.Определите подлежащее главного предложения:

Every life is distinct, a new biography in the world.

a. Every
b. life
c. biography

5. Определите предложение, в котором сказуемое имеет модальное


значение долженствования:

а) Recently researchers have found that, even in late adulthood,


exercise, strength training with weights, and improved nutrition can help
elderly individuals significantly improve their health and well-being.

b) And this new knowledge can be transmitted to the next generation of


children to help them become even healthier and feel better than our
generations
c) At this point we have to discuss a number of ideas about the nature of
development and issues in development.

6.Определите количество предложений (главное, придаточные),


входящих в состав следующего высказывания:

For children who experienced a world of poverty, neglect by parents, and


poor schooling in childhood enriched experiences in adolescence can not
remove the "deficits" they encountered earlier in their development.

a) одно
b) два
c) три

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Lesson Six. The Strategies of the Style: Trends in


Menswear.
Since the eighteenth
century, all attempts to
introduce color to male
formal attire have failed
or have been derided. A
shiny, colorful, patterned
male evening ensemble is
unthinkable. Such is the
continuing power and
influence of tradition.
- James Laver, the costume
historian

Грамматика

1. Инфинитив (INFINITIVE) (§ 16).


2.Функции инфинитива (§ 16).
3. Упражнения № 56-58.
Лексика
1.Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2.Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3.Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1.Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2.Фразовый глагол “PUT”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.
3. Topic 6. Computers in our Life.
Контроль: Тест урока 6.
Самостоятельная работа:

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1.Выполнение заданий преподавателя по аудио-курсу “Modern


English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе” (Text 8).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1.Прочтите слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции.
Проверьте, правильно ли вы читаете следующие слова:
quintessence [kwIn'tesns], casual ['kxZjuql], curiously
['kjuqrIqslI], ennobling [I'nqublIN], utilitarian
["jHtIlI'tFqrIqn], en masse ['On'mxs], uniform ['jHnIfLm],
panoplies ['pxnqplIz], custom-made ['kAstm 'meId], hand-
me-down ['hxndmI'daun], vintage ['vIntIG], tuxedo
[tAk'sIdqu], mischievous ['mIsCIvqs], appellation
["xpq'leISn], myriad ['mIrIqd], breasted [brestId], studs
[stAdz], bow tie ['bQu tQI], individuality
["IndJvIdju'xlItI], discreet [dIs'krIt], fob [fOb].

2.Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский, проверяя


правильность произношения по упражнению 1:
квинтэссенция, присвоение какого-либо имени, неформальный, (одно-
двух-) бортный, галстук-бабочка, необычайно, озорной, старомодный,
облагораживающий, практический, смокинг, совместно, кармашек
для часов, форменная одежда, запонки, доспехи, индивидуальность,
изготовленный на заказ, подержанное платье, бесчисленный,
обходительный.

3. Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:


unchanging, curiously, might seem, ennobling, utilitarian, recognizable,
globally, panoplies, restricted, timeless, unshakable, wearer’s, upbringing,
blacker, single breasted, collared, the finest, ready-made, hand-tied,
conveniently, being concealed, items.

4.Проверьте, помните ли вы глаголы, приведенные в левой части


таблицы. Переведите словосочетания, приведенные в правой части
таблицы:

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(1) to elevate (1) повышать самооценку


(2) to ennoble (2) мужская официальная одежда является
удивительно возвышающей и
облагораживающей
(3) to attempt (3) некоторые дизайнеры пытаются свободно
обращаться с любимыми деталями
(4) to choose (4) в целом, существуют пять стилей на выбор
(5) to encompass (5) чтобы выполнять все социальные функции
(6) to be restricted to (6) женщины не ограничиваются только черным
цветом
(7) to be referred to (7) обычно на зывают смокингом
(8) to be considered (8) галстук-бабочка не считается таковым, если
не повязан вручную
6. Прочтите несколько раз лексическую программу текста «А»,
найдите ее в тексте и переведите предложения, содержащие эту
программу.
(1) the men’s garments are nearly предметы мужской одежды почти не
unchanging, and they are described as изменяются, и такую одежду
“formal.” называют «официальной».
(2) the uniform nature of the clothes единообразная природа одежды
(3) But like the armed forces, which Но подобно вооруженным силам,
have panoplies of different ranks которые имеют знаки отличия для
различных рангов
(4) a tangible difference in provenance Ощутимое различие в происхождении
can be evinced делается очевидным
(5) A black-tie event is a sea of Мероприятие «при черных
uniforms галстуках» - это целое море униформ
(6) Formal clothes have an air of Официальная одежда заключает в
assured authority and confidence себе дух влиятельности и
уверенности
(7) timeless style of the unshakable неколебимо-классический стиль, не
classics подверженный воздействию времени
(8) a mischievous, iconoclastic dandy озорной, иконоборческий франт
(9) some contend that the classic некоторые спорят, говоря, что
tuxedo jacket must have a shawl collar классический смокинг должен иметь
rather than peaked lapels воротник-шаль, а не заостренные
лацканы
(10) if a spirited watch chain or fob is Если выразительная цепочка для
attached to a waistcoat часов, или кармашек для часов
прикреплены к жилету
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TEXT A. MEN’S FORMAL WEAR


The quintessence of
uniform elegance in
men’s wear is that the
men’s garments are nearly
unchanging, and they are
described as “formal.”
The exact opposite of
“casual” clothes, men’s
formal garments are as
curiously elevating and
ennobling as they are
utilitarian and leveling.
This might seem

contradiction in terms at first, but one has only to think of a “black-tie”


event to realize that at least en masse, the uniform nature of the clothes—
coded and easily recognizable globally—places all men in the same
category, much like a uniform does for the army, navy, or air force. But
like the armed forces, which have panoplies of different ranks, a tangible
difference in provenance can be evinced in evening or formal clothes.

- Is this suit custom-made?


- Is that rented?
- Is that a hand-me-down?
- Is this a lucky find in a vintage market?

A black-tie event is a sea of uniforms—all men, although from different


ranks in society, at least visually and superficially are united by convention.
Formal wear not only functions as a social leveling device for the men at a
gathering, but it also provides uniform clothes for the female guests who
are of course, not restricted to the black color for their gowns. Formal
clothes have an air of assured authority and confidence about them and are

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generally resistant to fashion, although of course some designers attempt to


play with their favorite elements from collection to collection. But
customers always seem to revert to the history, tradition, and timeless style
of the unshakable classics.

The most recognizable formal wear costume is the black-tie—in the


United States, usually referred to as the tuxedo and frequently shortened to
“tux.” In 1896, a mischievous, iconoclastic dandy, Griswold Lorillard,
wore a shorter, black formal jacket (without tails) to a country club in
Tuxedo Park, New York—and the name was established. The jacket part of
the black-tie ensemble is sometimes referred to as a “dinner jacket,” though
that appellation is too limiting to encompass all social functions.
Essentially, the terms all refer to the same costume, though some contend
that the classic tuxedo jacket must have a shawl collar rather than peaked
lapels, and many would permit no color other than black (some will allow
cream). But these distinctions have more to do with the wearer’s
upbringing and taste as opposed to the outfit itself.

There are generally five styles to choose from: single breasted, double
breasted, peaked lapels (usually double breasted) and single or double
breasted shawl collared. Basically, it is a black suit but ennobled by a silk
facing on the lapels, the better to provide a suggestion of luxury and
attention to detail. And black-tie is, and should only ever be, black—or
perhaps midnight blue, which the late royal couturier Sir Hardy Amies
always made it look blacker than black itself, under artificial light.

The shirt is always white. It can be made in anything from the finest
zephyr cotton to polyester—but it must always be white. Pearl buttons or
studs are the norm and a wing collar a matter of
choice and taste, although if one is sported it should be buttoned on or
studded through— not ready-made. And the bow tie is not considered one
if it is not hand-tied. While the basic elements of formal wear are
conveniently precise, the wearer is able to exert his individuality through
the sporting of discreet (or not so discreet) items of jewelry—these for the
most part being concealed by the jacket cuff in the form of links or by the
jacket itself if a spirited watch chain or fob is attached to a waistcoat.

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.


1.Прочитайте текст «А» и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих
основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения.

2.Перескажите текст «А», используя выделенные вами предложения.

3.Прочитайте текст «В» и дайте характеристику официальной


одежды.

TEXT B. Daytime Formal Wear.

As the costume historian James Laver has pointed out, since the
eighteenth century, all attempts to introduce color to male formal attire
have failed or have been derided. A shiny, colorful, patterned male evening
ensemble is unthinkable; such is the continuing power and influence of
tradition.
Formal daywear is now found primarily in the world of sports, and
especially of horse racing and boat racing. Royal Ascot, Goodwood, and
Henley are social institutions where formal clothes are demanded and
specific dress code requirements are imposed on all who attend.
Formal wear for Royal Ascot would be full morning dress (dove gray or
black); the groom or the bride’s father at a formal daytime wedding would
wear the same ensemble.
The coat is sometimes referred to as a cutaway coat (being a frock coat
with the corners removed), not to be confused with a tailcoat, which is cut
to the waist in the front, and has a pair of tails behind. A gray, or for the
more fashion conscious, brightly colored and patterned silk waistcoat, is
worn beneath and teamed with a tie, cravat, or some other individualistic
neck wear—but never a bow-tie.
The origin of formal wear is open to discussion and challenge, but one
name forever associated with formality, uniformity, and simplicity was
Beau Brummell—king of the dandies and a one-time favorite of King
George IV. He is often referred to as the “father of modern male formal
costume” as he eschewed the brightly hued silken finery and powdered
wigs generally worn at court for a sober suit of midnight blue-black with
minimal jewelry (a signet ring was permissible), no wig, no perfume but

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plenty of shaving and washing—a well-scrubbed appearance being the


natural partner to formal dress.
At weddings and funerals, formal clothes were obligatory and many
other social situations demanded this “civilian uniform” as a means of
maintaining a required ambiance, from balls and tea dances to memorials
and visits to the opera. Just a hundred years ago, dressing for dinner in
one’s own home could have meant having to wear full formal dress—even
if it was just with family members. A visit to almost any vintage clothing
fair or market will reveal several yesteryear formal garments for men—a
clue as to how vital they were and perhaps how few the occasions for
which they are needed in the early 2000s. Perhaps formal wear represents
the last bastion of constancy in clothing with a conspiratorial nod to time,
not trend.

Some useful words and phrases:

1. formal attire – официальная одежда


2. to deride – высмеивать
3. patterned – узорчатый
4. unthinkable – немыслимый
5. dress code – дресс-код
6. morning dress – официальный парадный костюм для утреннего и
дневного времени, визитка
7. dove gray – сизо-серый
8. cutaway coat – пальто с разрезом
9. frock coat – сюртук
10. tailcoat – фрак
11. fashion conscious – чувствующий моду
12. waistcoat – жилет
13. cravat – галстук, шарф
14. bow-tie – галстук-бабочка
15. uniformity – единообразие
16. signet ring – кольцо-печатка
17. civilian uniform – гражданская униформа
18. ambiance – окружение; обстановка, среда

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст «С».

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TEXT C. DOLCE & GABBANA

Domenico Dolce was born in Polizzi


Generosa (near Palermo, Sicily) on 13
September 1958. His family owned a small
clothing business, where Domenico worked
from childhood. Stefano Gabbana was born in
Milan on 14 November 1962. He studied
graphics but soon turned to fashion. After a
brief period of working as assistant designers,
they founded the Dolce & Gabbana label,
which had its first runway show as part of the
New Talent group in Milan in 1985, upon the
invitation of Italian fashion promoter Beppe
Modenese.
In 1986 they produced their first collection, called “Real Women.” In
1987 they launched their knitwear line and in 1989 their beachwear and
lingerie lines. Beginning in 1988 they produced their ready-to-wear line in
Domenico Dolce’s family-owned atelier, located in Legnano, Milan. The
first Dolce & Gabbana men’s collection appeared in 1990. In 1994 they
launched the D&G label, inspired by street style and a more youthful look.
They introduced a line of eyewear under the Dolce &
Gabbana and D&G labels and produced music CDs. In 1996, for
their tenth anniversary, they

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on verb ‘PUT’.


- to put out : 1) выгонять; удалять, устранять; убирать; 3) выдвигать,
высовывать, выставлять; 4) давать побеги (о растении); 5) тушить,
гасить; 6) отдавать на сторону ( вещи в стирку, в ремонт ); 7)
причинять неудобство; 8) выводить из себя, смущать, расстраивать;
9) выпускать, производить; 10) выпускать, издавать. 68
- to put up : 1) поднимать; 2) строить, воздвигать ( здание и т. п. );
3)ставить ( пьесу ); 4) выставлять на продажу; 5) повышать ( цены ).
- to put through: 1) выполнить, закончить ( работу ); 2) соединять
(по телефону ).

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- to put off : 1) высаживать, выпускать; 2) выключать (


электричество и т. п. ); 3) откладывать ( что-л. на более поздний
срок ); 4) отделываться, избавиться ( от кого-л., чего-л. ); 5)
вызывать отвращение; 6) мешать, отвлекать ( от чего-л. ); 7)
отбрасывать (страхи, сомнения и т. п. ).
- to put on : 1) надевать; 2) принимать вид; прикидываться,
притворяться; 3) ставить (на сцене ).
- to put down : 1) опускать, класть; 2) откладывать, прерывать
(работу и т. п. ); 3) запасать ( что-л. ); 4) записывать; 5) подавлять,
усмирять, пресекать.

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Use the following expressions with the word ‘PUT’ in your own
sentences.
(1) put me right (поправьте меня); (2) Never put off till tomorrow what
you can do today (Не откладывай на завтра то, что можешь сделать
сегодня); (3) put yourself at ease (расслабься); (4) put every iron in
fire (применить все возможные средства); (5) put in a word
(замолвить словечко за кого-л.); (6) put in good order
(упорядочивать); (7) put into action (вводить в действие); (8) put on
airs (важничать, чваниться; бахвалиться, задаваться).

2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to collocations with the


verb ‘PUT’.
(1) Put me right if you think I’m exaggerating things. (2) If you want to
travel when on leave you must put down your daily expenditure. (3)
Don’t put on airs. (4) The lecturer was put out by the noise in the hall.
(5) I hope we shall be able to put through this deal successfully. (6) Will
you put me through to the manager? (7) Put the knife and fork out of the
child’s reach. He will cut his fingers.

3. Recast the following sentences using different collocations with the verb
‘PUT’ instead of the italicized words and phrases.
(1) I would like to be put in connection with your dean. (2) Don’t
postpone your work till tomorrow. (3) To be able to buy that fur-coat
you must cut your expenses at once. (4) How much of vitamins does
your laboratory produce annually? (5) He was discouraged by such a

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cold reception of the audience. (6) Correct him if you believe he needs
correction. (7) Will you lay aside your book while I’m speaking to you?

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 3-phrase dialogs (up to the model) expressing anger,


irritation or indignation in accordance with the model and keep the
conversation going.

Model

A: You’ll have to hurry to get there in time.


B: How annoying! And there isn’t a bus along this road.
A: Unfortunately there isn’t.

Reference list: It’s awful (terrible, appalling, ghastly)… How awful


(dreadful, terrible)! … What a bore… How boring!... What a shame!
… What a nuisance! … There you are! … What next (I wonder)? …
Live me alone! … What do you take me for? … Who do you think you
are? … You are the limit!

You may use these as initial phrases:

(1) My tin-opener is missing. Did you take it again? (2) Oh dear, the picture
has fallen down again. (3) I think it’s going to rain. (4) Do you remember
that your sister’s birthday is next week? (5) Your new hat doesn’t become
you. (6) Something has gone wrong with my lap-top. Could you put it
right? (7) It would have been better if I didn’t go and take the exam. I
wouldn’t have failed. (8) There’s no need to lose your temper. (9) I must
have forgotten to lock the front door. (10) I was late for my classes again.
The lecturer didn’t let me in. (11) I hate him like hell.

TEST TO LESSON 6
Choose the best answer (a), (b), (c) or (d).

1. He … to finish reading the book, even though he found it so difficult.


(a) can
(b) could

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(c) was able


(d) able
2. Ann had to … her motorcycle last week after it broke down.
(a) repair
(b) take
(c) buy
(d) ride
3. It’s … that Andrew missed the business meeting in New York.
(a) fanatic
(b) suitable
(c) unpopular
(d) unfortunate
4. You can browse … the stalls at the market.
(a) in
(b) on
(c) across
(d) among
5. Julia was … in a small country village called Millwood.
(a) go up
(b) brought up
(c) rise
(d) developed
6. The tap in the kitchen doesn’t work. Tomorrow … a plumber.
(a) I should to call
(b) I’ll call
(c) I call
(d) I’m able to call
7. I don’t think it’s … to answer all the questions.
(a) interesting
(b) beautiful
(c) necessary
(d) able
8. They are going to build a new shopping and entertainment … there.
(a) complex
(b) difficult
(c) dockland
(d) service
9. It was a … show. I really enjoyed it!
(a) awful
(b) unusual
(c) spectacular
(d) ethnic
10. The weather tomorrow is going to be …

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(a) rain
(b) freeze
(c) cold and rainy
(d) wind

Lesson Seven. Future of Fashion


Women have become
liberated little by
little through thought,
work, and clothes.
I cannot imagine that
they will ever turn
back. Perhaps they will
continue to suffer
occasionally to be
beautiful, but more than
ever they seek to be
both beautiful and free.
- Paco Rabonne

Грамматика

1.Причастия. Participles ( § 17)


2.Функции причастий (§ 17).
3.Упражнения № 59-61.
Лексика
1.Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2.Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3.Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1.Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2.Фразовый глагол “KEEP”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.
3. Topic 7. Problems of Ecology.

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Контроль: Тест урока 7.


Самостоятельная работа
1.Выполнение заданий преподавателя по аудио-курсу “Modern
English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе” (Text 9).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1.Прочтите слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции:
Predicting [prI'dIktIN], speculative ['spekjulqtIv], actual
['xkCuql], technologies [tek'nOlqGIz], creativity
["krIq'tIvItI], manufacturing ["mxnju'fxkCqrIN], sewing
machine ['squIN mq'Sin], natural fibers ['nxCqrql 'faIbqz],
overwhelming sizes [quvq'welmIN 'saIzIz], titanium
[taI'teInjqm], wrinkles ['rINklz], item ['aItqm], venture
['venCq], knitted tubes ['nItId 'tjHbz], outfit ['autfIt],
bustle ['bAsl], elusive [I'lHsIv], luxury ['lAkSqrI], status
['steItqs], glamour ['glxmq], fleeting ['flJtIN].

2.Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский, проверяя


правильность произношения по упражнению 1:
прогнозирующий, швейная машина, гипотетический, мимолетный,
натуральные волокна, реальный, технологии, творчество,
производство, огромные размеры, титан, складки, положение в
обществе, эфемерный, переполох, изделие, предприятие, вязаные
трубы, костюм, шарм, роскошь.

3. Дайте начальные формы следующих слов:


Predicting, speculative, creativity, unheard, nineteenth, abilities,
communications, manufactured, entertainment, unlikely, wearer,
supposedly, premolded, sewn, a spectrum, outlining, greatly, stimulus,
theories.

4.Проверьте, помните ли вы глаголы, приведенные в левой части


таблицы. Переведите словосочетания, приведенные в правой части
таблицы
(1) to stem (1) обычно являются результатом изменений в
технологии
(2) to affect (2) производство одежды всегда находится под
влиянием

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(3) to stretch (3) способность высокотехничных тканей


растягиваться
(4) to inspire (4) вдохновляют дизайнеров одежды
(5) to expose (5) когда блуза подвергается действию горячего
воздуха
(6) to determine (6) дизайнеры определяют линию моды
(7) to cater (7) спектр стилей, которые удовлетворяют
прихотям …
(8) to retain (8) сохранять стереотипы

5. Прочитайте лексическую программу текста «А»

1. Predicting the future of fashion can Прогнозирование будущего моды


be as analytical as market research, or может быть аналитическим, как
just speculative исследование рынка, или просто
гипотетическим.
2 with textiles being developed that разрабатываются ткани со
have properties unheard of in natural свойствами, неслыханными для
fibers природных волокон
3. fashion designers, in their roles as дизайнеры, как создатели костюмов,
creators, determine the course of определяют направление моды
fashion
4. …predicts that the clothes of the … прогнозирует, что одежда
future will be premolded, bound or будущего будет предварительно
welded—no longer will they be sewn формоваться, подгибаться или
привариваться – ее больше не будут
шить
5. The result is a spectrum of styles Результатом является спектр стилей,
that caters to… который удовлетворяет прихотям…
6. The idea of clothing as a “second Идея одежды как «второй кожи»
skin”
7. at the same time it can be В то же время она может выглядеть
aggressive, with leather, corsetry, and агрессивной, с кожей, поясами и
body-revealing shapes обнажающими тело формами
8. the body of the future will be Тело в будущем будет другим
different
9. profit making have changed and will получение прибыли изменилось и
continue to alter the fashion industry будет продолжать изменять
индустрию моды

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TEXT А. Predictions about the Future of Fashion.

Predicting the future of fashion can be as analytical as market research,


or just speculative. Actual influences on fashion have typically stemmed
from changing technologies, political events, and the creativity of certain
individuals.

The manufacturing of clothes has always been affected by technological


advances. The sewing machine revolutionized the clothing industry in the
nineteenth century, and zippers altered clothing construction when they
were perfected for use in the 1930s. In the early 2000s, technological
innovations in fabrics influenced on how designers think about clothing,
with textiles being developed that have properties unheard of in natural
fibers.

The abilities of these high-tech fabrics to stretch to overwhelming sizes


or change their structure according to temperatures inspire clothing
designers and blur the lines between fashion and industrial design. The
Italian firm Corpo Nove designed a shirt woven with titanium that reacts to
shifts in temperature. Wrinkles in the fabric are released when the shirt is
exposed to hot air. Another item from the firm is a nylon jacket with a
cooling system.

Changes in communication also influence the styles of the future. A


nylon jacket, manufactured by Industrial Clothing Design, a venture of
Philips Electronics and Levi Strauss and Company, features a “fully
integrated communications and entertainment system”.

Primarily the fashion designers, in their roles as creators, determine the


course of fashion. As a result, clothing designers are often asked to look
into the future. Over time, their ideas and themes relating to these
predictions remain almost constant. Many of the predictions made were
unlikely to be achieved in that short period: “Paco Rabonne predicts that
the clothes of the future will be premolded, bound or welded—no longer
will they be sewn”. Issey Miyake is one designer rethinking how to make
clothes for the future. Miyake’s A-POC (A Piece of Cloth) features knitted
tubes of fabric with markings for an outfit. When purchased, the fabric is

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cut by the wearer to make different articles of clothing. But ideas such as
these are beyond the realm of mainstream fashion in the early twenty-first
century.

One of the ongoing influences on fashion is the shift in women’s roles in


society. Fashion designers look at these changes from various angles and
possibilities: the approach of unisex or androgynous clothing; the working
woman’s wardrobe as compared with men’s wear; or the validity of
femininity now that women are supposedly equal. The result is a spectrum
of styles that caters to a diverse group of women, yet retains many
stereotypes.

Fashion continues to represent female sexuality, with pleats and bows


and flowing chiffon, and at the same time it can be aggressive, with leather,
corsetry, and body-revealing shapes.

The human body plays as integral role as the clothes for many fashion
designers working in the early 2000s. The idea of clothing as a “second
skin” is often discussed when designers speak of the future of clothing.
This concept has yet to be achieved with the wearing of only body
stockings, or as Jean Paul Gaultier predicted in 1982, we’ll just “spray on a
latex body suit”. This idea of a second skin continues to interest Gaultier
and other designers. For his Fall 2003 collection, Gaultier created patterned
bodysuits, worn under clothes, including one outlining the body’s arteries.
More often fashion designers attempt to mold the body into other shapes.
While the concept differs little from bustles of the nineteenth century, the
results found in the early twenty-first century differ greatly. As Walter van
Beirendonck, the Belgian designer for Wild and Lethal Trash, said, “the
body of the future will be different”.

How fashion designers will manifest their ideas depends partly on the
changing structure of the fashion industry and the evolving needs, and
demands, of consumers. There remains the ongoing question regarding the
demise of French couture and the stimulus to fashion from street styles. In
The End of Fashion, Teri Agins argues that street style, consumer demands,
and profit making have changed and will continue to alter the fashion
industry. Agins’s theories apply to the marketplace, fashion in the twenty-
first century. They still belongs to the elusive world of luxury, status, sex,

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and glamour. While fashion is known to be fleeting, many predictions


about its future are slow to arrive.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.

1.Прочитайте текст «А» и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих


основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения.

2.Перескажите текст «А», используя выделенные вами предложения.

3.Прочитайте текст «В» и дайте характеристику высоко-


технологичной моды будущего.
4. Перескажите текст «В», используя концептуальную таблицу.

TEXT B. HIGH-TECH FASHION

High-tech fashion uses advances in science and technology to design


and produce
fashion products. Methods used in high-tech fashion are borrowed from
technologies developed in the fields of chemistry, computer science,
aerospace engineering, automotive engineering, architecture, industrial
textiles, and competitive athletic wear. Fashion projects an image of rapid
change and forward thinking—a good environment for use of the latest
technologies in production methods and materials. As technology becomes
more integrated with one’s everyday life, its influence on the fashion one
wears continues to increase.

Historic technological innovations such as the development of the


sewing machine, the zipper, and synthetic fibers have influenced how
garments are made, how they look, and how they perform. Elsa Schiaparelli
was a noted designer of the 1930s and 1940s who had an eagerness to
experiment with synthetic fibers. She introduced the first zipper to Paris
couture. World events delayed advancements in techno fashions until the
race for space began to influence designers in the 1960s. Paco Rabanne’s
experimentation with metal-linked garments, and Pierre Cardin’s
pioneering vacuum-formed fabrics began to push the boundaries of fashion
through experimentation with technology and innovative materials.
Plastics, foamlaminated fabrics, metallic-coated fabrics, and a sleek fashion
silhouette launched fashion into a new realm. Technological advances

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continue to influence fashion with new developments in materials, garment


structuring and sizing, methods of production, and the quest for fashion that
reflects the look and lifestyle of the future.

Techno Materials
Techno materials include fibers, textiles, and textile finishes engineered
for a specific function or appearance. The U.K. designer Sophia Lewis
believes that “the greatest potential for the future lies in experimental
fashion using advanced synthetics to promote new aesthetics and methods
of garment construction”. While most synthetics of the twentieth century
were developed to mimic natural fibers, the new synthetics are engineered
to be strong and durable even when lightweight, transparent, or elastic.
Blending natural fibers with synthetics in new ways to produce “techno-
naturals” is adding to the aesthetic and performance advantages of textiles.
Recent fiber developments include microfibers, fibers regenerated from
corn and milk proteins, metallics, and fiber optics. Microfibers can be
produced at a thickness less than that of a silk filament to create fabrics that
are soft and fluid with great strength and capabilities of performing under
extreme environmental conditions.

CONCEPT TABLE

High-Tech Fashion
Processes/Related Ideas Characteristics/Description
Concept
High-tech fashion What advances in High-tech fashion uses
science and technology technologies developed in the
does it use? fields of chemistry, computer
science, aerospace engineering,
automotive engineering,
architecture, industrial textiles,
and competitive athletic wear.

Fashion project is an image of


Fashion projects rapid change and forward
What is their major thinking—a good environment
course of development? for use of the latest
technologies in production
methods and materials

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The development of the sewing


machine, the zipper, and
synthetic fibers have influenced
Historic how garments are made, how
technological Trends in development they look, and how they
innovations perform.

The greatest potential for the


future lies in the new
experimental synthetics which
are engineered to be strong and
Techno materials What materials promote durable
new aesthetics and
methods of garment
construction?

5. Прочитайте и переведите текст «С».


TEXT C. Fashions for New Lifestyles

Sports and active lifestyles


have influenced fashions of
the early 2000s. Apparel
technologies developed for
competitive sports are
incorporated into fashions
for everyone. Research and
innovative thinking have
advanced sportswear with
attention to both
performance and aesthetics.
Garments that maintain body
temperature, cool the body, and improve performance are researched and
engineered with a new aesthetic that has moved the garments out of the
gym and into everyday life.

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Current fashion is making accommodations for the consumer’s changing


electronic lifestyle, including garments with pockets for cell phones, jackets
with connections for electronic music players, and stylish bags to tote
laptops. Researchers are developing “intelligent” fashions incorporating
wearable computers, communication systems, global positioning systems,
and body sensors.

Systems may have the capability to allow the wearer to surf the Internet,
make phone calls, monitor vital signs, and administer medication. While
much research remains to be done, initial exploration has begun at MIT’s
Media Lab, Starlab, Charmed Technology, and International Fashion
Machines. The goal of these groups is to develop prototypes of wearable
electronics and to explore the synergy required between computer science,
fashion, health care, and defense to produce marketable, user-friendly
products. Advances and innovative thinking in the production of apparel
and communication platforms and networks will be required to move these
concepts forward. The changing world political climate and the continuing
challenges of world health present new opportunities for science to address
wearable solutions. Development of protective apparel against bioterrorist
attack and spread of infectious disease commands research dollars from
governments worldwide. These investments will most likely lead to
exciting new materials that ultimately result in new fashion.

Fashion is a reflection of the times, and thus incorporates current


scientific and technological developments. Change is a constant in fashion,
and one can look forward to ever-developing advanced materials and
methods and perhaps even new purposes for fashion.

6. Make a list of major new lifestyles demanding changes in


clothes. Begin like that:
- sports and active life,

7. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту «С».


1) What are the apparel technologies developed for? To what spheres
of life do they contribute most?
2). What is the most important in sportswear: performance or
aesthetics?

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3). How does the electronic lifestyle change the current


fashion?
4). What firms explore the synergy required between
computer science, fashion, health care, and defense to
produce marketable, user-friendly products?
5). What do the investments into high-tech fashions have to
take into consideration in relation to the changing political
climate in the world?

LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on verb ‘KEEP’.


- to keep to : 1) придерживаться; держаться чего-л. ; 2) оставаться
дома или в постели.
- to keep up: 1) поддерживать; 2) держаться бодро; 3) продолжать;
4)поддерживать в должном порядке; 5) соблюдать, придерживаться; 6)
быть хорошо осведомленным, быть в курсе; 7) оставаться прежним ( о
погоде ).
- to keep in: 1) не выпускать; заставлять сидеть дома ( больного ); 2) to
keep in with smb. — оставаться в хороших отношениях с кем-л.; 3)
сдерживать(ся).
- to keep from: удерживать(ся), воздерживаться от чего-л.
- to keep away: 1) держать(ся) в отдалении; не подпускать близко;
остерегаться; 2) прятать; 3) избегать ( from ).
- to keep on : 1) продолжать ( делать что-л. ); 2) сохранять в прежнем
положении; 3) оставлять включенным ( электричество); 4) продолжать
путешествие; 5) продолжить действовать, упорствовать.

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Use the following expressions with the word ‘KEEP’ in your own
sentences.
(1) I won’t keep you long (я не задержу тебя надолго); (2) You must
keep an eye on him (Ты должен приглядывать за ним); (3) keep your
temper, please (держи себя в руках, пожалуйста); (4) the weather
keeps fine (стоит хорошая погода); (5) keep in mind the figures
(помни цифры); (6) she always keeps up with the times (она всегда
идет в ногу со временем).

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2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to collocations with the


verb ‘KEEP’.
(1) Your time is almost up, keep to the subject, please. (2) This tradition
is kept up throughout the country. (3) Will you keep it to yourself? I
don’t want the news spread. (4) We had to close all doors and windows
to keep out the awful smell. (5) To keep up with the times one should be
always in the know of what is going on in the world. (6) Will you keep
house for me? (7) When you go out you must keep your dog on the lead.

3. Recast the following sentences using different collocations with the verb
‘KEEP’ instead of the italicized words and phrases.

(1) Don’t come in. (2) Toward off the gnats we had to burn some
smoky twigs. (3) Who manages your household affairs? (4) Don’t go
near the water’s edge. It’s very wet there. (5) Restrain your feelings or
else everybody will guess the truth. (6) He continued reading his book
though it grew quite dark in the room. (7) We won’t detain you. (8) He
must make his expenses as low as possible. (9) I won’t conceal
anything from Mother. (10) Old customs are often observed by old
people.

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 2-phrase dialogs (up to the model) expressing threats or


reprimands in accordance with the model and keep the conversation
going.

Model

A: I’m thick and tired of your lecturing me.


B: How annoying! I wouldn’t have done such stupid things.

Reference list: I won’t have it… I won’t have that sort of thing again! … I
won’t have you doing it! … You ought to (+ Perfect Indefinite)... You
should (+ Perfect Indefinite) … Don’t you dare do that again! … You’d
better not!

You may use these as initial phrases:

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(1) You are just a fool to believe him! (2) I don’t think you are worth
your salt! (3) Your friend is nothing but a sponger (нахлебник). (4) I must
confess I haven’t done any homework for today. (5) Mine will be not a
love-match (брак по любви). (6) Don’t give yourself airs (Не воображай).
(7) Sorry, but I’ve forgotten to call you up. (8) I’m really sorry but I had no
time to drop you a line.

TEST TO LESSON 7
Choose the best answer (a), (b), (c) or (d).
1. I can’t make more mistakes at work because I don’t want to …
(a) get fired (b) get lost (c) get angry (d) get better
2. We had a lovely continental … at the hotel, with toast, rolls, jam and coffee.
(a) lunch (b) steak (c) breakfast (d) order
3. Glen hasn’t been to Long Island … last summer.
(a) for (b) ever (c) already (d) since
4. He … sure that the answer was correct.
(a) make (b) made (c) do (d) did
5. I haven’t seen him … months.
(a) ever (b) already (c) since (d) for
6. They wouldn’t … the money for the spare ticket I bought at the box office.
(a) order (b) refund (c) coin (d) queue
7. Would you please … about where we should go on holiday.
(a) confuse (b) make your mind up (c) do up your mind (d) get your
mind
8. A: Could you do me a(n) … ?
B: Certainly. What would you like me to do?
(a) favour (b) favourite (c) duty (d) effort
9. The policeman was … in the fight, so they took him to see a doctor.
(a) drowned (b) poisoned (c) wounded (d) persecuted
10. Claudius was … of murdering his brother.
(a) guilty (b) convinced (c) instructed (d) proof

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Lesson Eight. The Russian Top Designers


- I love this…
MAYBE I’m even a
little jealous, this
15 year old sensation
is stealing my
dream!...
… well maybe there’s
still some hope for
me, I’m still 17…
… I cannot wait until
her store opens in
NYC because she looks
like my kinda girl! i
lovee flashy hot
pink things!!...
About Kira Plastinina from the Internet Chat

Грамматика

1.Герундий (GERUN) ( § 18)


2.Функции герундия (§ 18).
3.Упражнения № 62-63.
Лексика
1.Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические
упражнения).
2.Ключевые слова (термины урока).
3.Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в
текстах урока.
Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения
коммуникативных задач
1.Развитие коммуникативных навыков в после-текстовых
упражнениях.
2.Фразовый глагол “MAKE”. Упражнения. Мини-диалоги.
3. Topic 8. Job Interview.
Контроль: Тест урока 8.

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Самостоятельная работа
1.Выполнение заданий преподавателя по аудио-курсу “Modern
English – Ресурсы Интернет в учебном процессе” (Text 10).
2.Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя по
разделу «Тексты для чтения»

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1.Прочтите слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции:

joke [jquk], affordable [q'fLdqbl], actually ['xkCuqlI], cute


[kjHt], anticipate [xn'tIsIpeIt], enterprise ['entqpraIz],
youth [jHT], opinion [q'pInjqn], debut ['deIbH], lollipops
['lOlIpOps], impressive [Im'presIv].

2.Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский, проверяя


правильность произношения по упражнению 1:

шутка, фактически, возможный, привлекательный, ожидать,


юность, смелое предприятие, мнение, дебют, леденец на палочке,
производящий глубокое впечатление.

3.Прочитайте лексическую программу текста А

1. she already has 40 stores across her у нее уже 40 магазинов по всей
native Russia родной России
2. Her clothing is like Forever 21 Ее одежда является соединением
meets H&M Вечно Молодых с Высокой Модой
3. clothing at affordable prices with одежда по доступным ценам с
lots of pink избытком розового цвета
4. in an age group she belongs in в возрастной группе, к которой она
принадлежала
5. I actually think her stuff is cute Я действительно считаю, что ее вещи
привлекательны

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6. is about to become very popular in скоро станет очень популярным в


the teen fashion world мире подростковой моды
7. is taking the youth fashion world by берет с боем мир молодежной моды
storm
8. This business adventure was the Это деловое предприятие было
brain child of her millionaire father детищем ума ее миллионера-отца
9. At first she was afraid but it looks Сначала она боялась, но, похоже, все
like it has turned out well пошло хорошо

TEXT А. Kira Plastinina: the Young Russian Designer.

Don’t take Kira Plastinina as a joke,


she already has 40 stores across her
native Russia, two in the Ukraine and
two more opening in the U.S. (NYC
and LA) in April. Her clothing is like
Forever 21 meets H&M - clothing at
affordable prices with lots of pink.
The brand’s target age is 14 - 25 yrs
old, in an age group she belongs in. I
actually think her stuff is cute,

I anticipate to check out her clothing when the store opens in NYC (on
Houston Street and Broadway).
"The name Kira Plastinina is about to become very popular in the teen
fashion world. The young lady is making quite a reputation for herself in
the fashion industry. Plastinina started her enterprise two years ago and is
taking the youth fashion world by storm. It stands to reason that if you want
to know what teens like to wear, why not ask a teen."

Plastinina has been compared to Paris Hilton and not in the crazy party
girl sense, but rather for her popularity in Russia, where she attends school
by day and designs by night. Paris was a guest of honor at Kira’s latest
show during Moscow fashion week. Plastinina really likes Paris’ style and
wanted her opinion on her collection. The designer’s father paid Paris $2
million to be part of the event.

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Currently her fashions are in over 30 family owned clothing stores across
Russia . Kira is ready to take America by storm at her first US debut.
Yesterday it was announced that a store will open in March on the corner of
Houston and Broadway, in New York.

This business adventure was the brain child of her millionaire father. He
ownes Wimm-Bill-Dann, Moscow’s largest daily and juice company. At
first she was afraid but it looks like it has turned out well for the ambitious
teen. Not only is Kira creating fashion, but she has a perfume line, shoes,
jewelry, candles and lollipops. Sounds pretty impressive!

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А,В,С.

1.Прочитайте текст «А» и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих


основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения.

2.Перескажите текст «А», используя выделенные вами предложения.

3.Прочитайте текст «В» и дайте характеристику вклада


В.Юдашкина в мировую моду (5 предложений).
4. Перескажите текст «В».

TEXT B. Valentin Yudashkin - Russia’s most famous fashion


designer

Valentin Yudashkin is Russia’s most famous fashion designer


and a decorated member of the Academy of Arts of the Russian
Federation. He is also honored with a rank of National Artist of
Russia. His clothes are displayed in the Louvre Museum of Clothes
in Paris, the California Museum of Fashion in Los Angeles, the
Metropolitan Museum in New York, the State Historical Museum
in Moscow and in other museums around the World.

Valentin Yudashkin is the only ever Russian designer to be


honoured with membership of the Syndicate of High Fashion in
Paris. His first collection was created in 1987, and he has since
created more than 40 collections.

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In 2003 he brought out his biographical album entitled “Valentin


Yudashkin”, and an exhibition of his clothing was held in the
prestigious State Historical Museum in Moscow. Since 2003 Valentin
Yudashkin is a member of Camera Nazionale della moda Italiana.

“Valentin Yudashkin’s House of Fashion” has existed since 1988.


Today his clothing collections comprise both haute couture and prêt-a-
porter, and accessories, jewelry, porcelain and sun glasses complete the
collection.

It is worthy of note that the company is famous not only in Russia


but also abroad. At present the “Valentin Yudashkin” brand can be
found in his boutiques in many Russian and foreign cities and interest
is increasing rapidly.

Valentin Yudashkin’s collections have been shown during the


weeks of haute couture and prêt-a-porter in Paris, Milan, New
York, and other cities.

VALENTIN YUDASHKIN Haute Couture fall-winter 2007-08


09.07.2007
Moscow Fashion Week started with Yudashkin Jeans collection
show. The new season clothes demonstrate motives and forms of
designer’s 90’s collections characterized by floral ornaments and fresh
natural colors of impressionists’ art.

Light, streamy textiles, sun-dresses decorated with big flowers,

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small shirts and skirts, loose-fitting pants and pipe jeans decorated with
embroidery, small jean jackets – all this Yudashkin offers to girls for
the next spring and summer.

The collection’s basic colors are white, milky, beige, lemon, light
turquoise accented by bright coral strokes. Black and white classic is
also recommended for the new season.
Silhouettes with low arm-holes and accented waistline are also taken
from 90’s. Various embroideries and applications, wide silk waistbands
are still fashionable.
The start of the Week was literally successful. The public was
satisfied. Tatiana Mikhalkova, the President of Russian Silhouette Fund
characterized the collection as very elegant and successful.

You cannot speak of Marlene Dietrich without mentioning her male


tuxedo. That iconic picture is placed in everyone’s head.

Yudashkin not only revived it classically but gave it a spin. He even


designed a three piece suit with waistcoat and a number of dinner
jackets firmly tailored.

The lovely exquisite furs and gowns were all inspired by Garbo and
Rokk. Floor length dresses with flowery patterns reminded us of a time
lost. His nice use of furs were more than mentionable especially a black
and white mink which had zip off sleeves that were held together by
white leather straps.

The designer states that he was not copying the 40s, but embodied it
to understand the charm and grace of that period.

Some useful words and phrases:

1. decorated member – награжденный (орденами, медалями) член


2. honored with a rank – присвоено почетное звание
3. only ever Russian designer – единственный российский дизайнер
4. entitled – озаглавленный
5. exhibition – выставка
6. to comprise – включать

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7. streamy textiles – струящиеся ткани


8. loose-fitting – просторный
9. embroidery – вышивка
10. light turquoise – светло-бирюзовый цвет
11. wide silk waistbands – широкие шелковые пояса
12. to give it a spin – запустить его в обращение
13. exquisite furs – изысканные меха
14. Floor length dresses – одежда длиной в пол
15. flowery patterns – цветочные орнаменты
16. mink – норка
17. zip off sleeves – рукава, отстегивающиеся с помощью застежки-
молнии
18. white leather straps – полоски белой кожи

5. Прочитайте и переведите текст «С».

TEXT C. RUSSIA: HISTORY OF DRESS

The systematic study


of the history of
dress in Russia
began in 1832 with
the publication of a
book by the
president of the
Academy of Arts,
Aleksei Nikolaevich
Olenin (1763–1843).
The occasion for the
writing of this book was a decree of the Emperor Nicholas I, who expressed
the desire to see a painting with many figures on the theme of the most
important event in Russian history: the baptism of the Russian people by
Prince Vladimir. The goal here would be to represent all the classes of
Russian society in conditions and clothing that approximated as accurately
as possible the actual conditions and clothing. Actual specimens of Russian
dress from early Russian history and even from the ninth to the thirteenth
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centuries had not been preserved. The only way to recreate what Russians
looked like in that epoch was to examine all the possible sources: the
archaeological data, all manner of written documents, as well as works of
handicraft and decorative art.
The most reliable information that we have concerning Russians dress of
the pre-Christian period comes from our knowledge of the materials
common to that period: hides and leather, bast, wool, flax, and hemp. The
style of dress did not differ from that of the other Slavonic nations. This
was determined by constant communication between these nations, by a
similar
manner of life, and by the climatic conditions. Women wore rubakhi (long
shirts) down to their ankles and with long sleeves gathered up on the wrists;
married women also wore the so-called ponevu (a kind of skirt consisting
of a checked-pattern woolen fabric. Married women completely
covered their hair by a povoi or ubrus in the form of a towel, while maidens
wore a venchik (a narrow band of fabric or metal) on their foreheads.

Maidens of the richer urban families had the resources to ornament


themselves with a koruna, which differed from the venchik only by its more
complex shape and finish. Men wore narrow porty (trousers) and tunic-like
sorochki (shirts) of linen, down to their knees or their mid-calves. The
footwear consisted in primitive shoes called lapti woven of bast, while the
city-dwellers wore lapti made of raw leather. We also know that men of the
upper classes wore boots of fine workmanship. According to the testimony
of Akhmet (the ambassador of the Bagdal caliph Muktedir), at the
beginning of the tenth century Slavonic men wore cloaks of dense fabrics
that left one arm free.

The Tatar-Mongol invasion led to a break in the contacts with Western


Europe, and the immediate proximity with Turkic-speaking peoples led to a
change in the form of Russian dress. Rashpatnyi clothing with a slit in front
from top to bottom appeared, and men wore broad trousers. One must say
at once that, even after having borrowed the cut, terminology, and certain
elements of this foreign dress, Russians never lost their own national
identity when it came to clothing.

Russia served as the intermediary in the trade between Europe and


Persia as well as Turkey. Clothing made of diverse patterned and bright-
colored fabrics acquired an especially decorative
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character, and details consisting of gold (metallic) lace and precious stones
made the garments particularly magnificent. It is well known that, during
the reign of Tsar Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible, 1530–1584), foreigners
desiring to receive an audience in the Kremlin were required to put on
Russian clothing as a way to recognize the magnificence of the Russian
throne. In order to make a favorable impression, servants were temporarily
given fine and expensive clothing from the tsar’s storehouse.

Women and young girls of the nobility wore the letnik (a garment with
very broad, short sleeves with detachable flaps made of expensive fabrics
embroidered with stones and pearls). Because of the heavy fabrics and the
abundance of precious stones and pearls, the dress of both men and women
was very heavy, weighing as much as 44 pounds.

The sarafans of rich city women were made of silk and velvet, whereas
those of peasant women were made of painted domestic linen. The cut of
the sarafan differed greatly depending on the
place where it was made and on the material: it could be straight, or it could
be composed of oblique wedges, kumanchiki, kindiaki, and so on. Over the
sarafan was worn the dushegreia (a short, wide jacket).

Over the course of his reign, Peter the Great (1672–1725; tsar from
1682, emperor from 1721) issued seventeen decrees in his name that laid
down the rules governing the wearing of European-type dress, the types of
fabrics, and the character of the trim for uniforms and festive attire. This
attests that Peter the Great reserved a special role for clothing in the system
of reforms he was instituting.

The formative element of the European female dress that had been
brought to Russia in the eighteenth century was the corset, and it
contradicted the Russian ideal of beauty; however, more important for the
female dress was a type of headdress—the fontange. The latter was
successful in supplanting, if only in part, the traditional headdress of the
married woman, which had to cover the hair fully. In combination with
heavy silken fabrics, this considerably facilitated the assimilation of the
new forms. A. S. Pushkin later wrote: “The aged grand ladies cleverly tried
to combine the new form of dress with the persecuted past: their caps
imitated the sable cap of the Empress Natal’a Kirillovna, and their hoop
skirts and mantillas were reminiscent to some extent of the sarafan and
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dushegreia.” The first to change their dress were the members of the tsar’s
family; and members of the court followed them.

The rigid ideological control of all spheres of life in the second half of
the 1920s led to a situation in which the creative heritage of brilliant artists
was not understood, not actualized, and was forgotten for a long period of
time. The rulers considered it necessary to rewrite the recent history,
expelling from everyday life all mention of the past and, first and foremost,
the material incarnation of the revolutionary aesthetic ideal. The
administrative system controlled consumption and encouraged the
formation of new elites, offering them the possibility of acquiring clothing
in special ateliers and stores. Clothes designers were being educated in the
arts department of the Textile Institute, but this profession was not
considered a creative one, with corresponding privileges.

Furthermore, since there was no private enterprise, these designers could


find work only at
state-owned firms and institutions (design houses, large specialized
studios), submitting to the state plan and worrying that they would be
accused of being bourgeois degenerates. All attempts to express one’s
individuality through dress, to separate oneself from the faceless gray
crowd, were thwarted by administrative measures. In 1949, the word
stiliaga entered the Russian language and was used to stigmatize lovers of
colorful clothing. In each city there appeared a “Broadway” (usually the
main thoroughfare of the city, named after the street in New York City);
and a promenade on this street could result in expulsion from the Textile
Institute or arrest for hooliganism.

The first to legalize the profession and to escape from the administrative
captivity was Slava Zaitsev (b. 1938), who established the Theater of
Fashions (1980), which later became his fashion house. By this time Russia
had more than a few brilliant designers who were also
recognized abroad. Irina Krutikova (b. 1936) became widely known as a
designer of fur clothing and received the title “queen of fur.” She
resurrected many old traditions and created new methods for coloring and
finishing fur. She opened her own studio in 1992.

The perestroika or great political change of the late 1980s made it


possible to organize one’s own business, to travel the globe, and to open
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boutiques of international brands in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and other


cities of the former Soviet Union. It also offered great opportunities for
both creators and consumers of Russian fashion. This changed the
appearance of cities and liberated people from having to expend enormous
effort to acquire the necessities of life.

Designers appeared who specialized in accessories. Irina Deineg (b.


1961) became known as a designer of both common and exclusive styles of
hats. Viktoriia Andreianova, Viktor Zubets, Andrei Sharov, Andrei
Bartenev, Valentin Iudashkin, and Iulia Ianina exhibit their collections
every year, and at the same they are developing designs for private
individuals as well as for mass production, filling corporate orders.

Some useful words and phrases:

1. baptism of the Russian people – крещение русских людей


2. handicraft and decorative art – кустарное производство и декоративное
искусство
3. pre-Christian period – дохристианский период
4. Slavonic nations – славянские народы
5. hides and leather – шкуры и кожа
6. bast – рогожа
7. flax – лен
8. hemp – пенька
9. fine workmanship – высокое мастерство
10. testimony – свидетельство
11. ambassador – посол
12. immediate proximity – непосредственная близость
13. cloak– плащ
14. intermediary in the trade – посредник в торговле
15. festive attire – праздничное пышное облачение
16. oblique wedges – косые клинья
17. rigid ideological control – жесткий идеологический контроль

6. Дайте описания предметов традиционной русской одежды,


названных в тексте «С».

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LANGUAGE STUDY

Emphasis on verb ‘MAKE’.

- to make out : 1) разобрать; 2) увидеть, различить, понять; 3)


составлять (документ ); выписывать ( счет, чек ); 4) справляться ( с
чем-л. ); преуспевать; 5) делать вид; притворяться; дать понять; 6)
удаваться, иметь успех.
- to make off: уходить, удирать; бежать; улепетывать; убираться;
убежать, удрать ( с награбленным ).
- to make up: 1) пополнять, возмещать, компенсировать;
наверстывать; 2) составлять, собирать; комплектовать;
4) подкраситься, подмазаться; 5) выдумывать; 6) устраивать,
улаживать; 7) мириться.
- to make away with: 1) избавиться, отделаться от чего-л., кого-л.;
убить кого-л.; 2) сбежать с краденым.

EXERCISES IN PROPER APPLICATION

1. Use the following expressions with the word ‘MAKE’ in your own
sentences.
(1) I can’t make up my mind (я не могу решить); (2) Will you make up
fire? (Ты не разведешь огонь?); (3) Make yourself comfortable
(Устраивайся удобнее); (4) we made for the station on foot (мы
пошли на станцию пешком); (5) he made bold to say… (он осмелился
сказать…); (6) make balls of smth. (натворить дел, напутать, привести
что-л. в беспорядок); (7) make common cause (действовать сообща);
(8) make sure (убедись).

2. Translate the following sentences paying attention to collocations with the


verb ‘MAKE’.

(1) After stealing apples the youngsters made off as fast as they could.
(2) Will you make up the prescription for me? (3) She’s all made up. I
prefer natural beauty. (4) I don’t believe you. The story is all made up.
(5) Let’s make up our quarrel and be friends again. (6) Though the boy
is only eighteen he makes out on his own. (7) He made away with
himself when he learned about his bankruptcy. (8) It’s next to

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impossible to make up on you. I’m sure you’ll be a champion. (9) It’s


the woman who makes the home.

3. Recast the following sentences using different collocations with the verb
‘MAKE’ instead of the italicized words and phrases.

(1) She ventured to say that she was going to get married the moment
she left school. (2) I can’t understand your friend. (3) They went to the
gate as soon as the lights in the house went down. (4) He invented a
dozen excuses for being absent from the lecture. (5) The children
pretended they were grown up. (6) Why did this man commit suicide?
(7) Is he going to catch up with other students after being ill?

SOCIAL MINY-DIALOGS:

Make up 2-phrase dialogs (up to the model) expressing envy in


accordance with the model and keep the conversation going.

Model

A: She was awarded the first prize.


B: Some people have all the luck.

Reference list: He(she) was born lucky… He has luck! … I really envy
her about it! … We are all jealous ... Some people have all the luck
… You can thank your lucky stars … What a great piece of luck!

You may use these as initial phrases:

(1) My brother gave me a hand in moving the house. (2) They have recently
gone to Paris on holiday. (3) Our friend’s business turned out to be a
success. (4) We had a wonderful holiday. (5) This actress seems to be
untouched by time and age. (6) He managed to escape punishment for what
we have done. (7) All young men fall in for Kate. (8) I’m going to the
theatre tonight. (9) Alan is both good-looking and clever.

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TEST TO LESSON 8
Read the letter and choose the correct answer (a), (b), (c) or (d).
1547 Beach Drive
Freeport Long Island
New York
July 22nd

Dear Glen,

Thanks very much for your last letter, it was great to hear that you made
it to England and that you have found a job in Stratford-upon-Avon.
That’s the place where Shakespeare was born, isn’t it? I hope you found
‘Hamlet’ interesting when you saw it. I have never read the play, but
I’m told that it’s a good story.

I have been living in my parents’ summer house on Long Island since


the beginning of the summer. I finished my third year at New York
university with good grades, which made my father happy! Only one
more year until I graduate! If I get my degree, I will come over to
Europe. I want to tour around like you are doing. I have managed to
save over $3000 for the trip. Do you think that’s enough?

I saw Hank the other day. He is well. He asked me about what you are
doing, so I told him your news. He has gone to California for his
vocation with his girlfriend. He is coming back to New York in August.

Anyway, I’d better stop now. Some friends have just arrived. We are
going sailing in the boat. The weather has been fine ever since those
storms two weeks ago.
Bye for now!

Best wishes,

Lori

P.S. As you asked, I’ve enclosed a copy of your favourite newspaper


‘The Village Voice’. I hope you enjoy reading about your hometown!

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1. Who has seen ‘Hamlet’ at the theater?


(a) Glenn (b) Lori (c) Hank and his girlfriend (d) Lori’s father
2. Where is Lori living at the moment?
(a) New York city (b) Stratford-upon-Avon (c) Long Island
(d) California
3. What is Glenn doing at the moment?
(a) saving money to go to Europe (b) working in England (c)
studying at university (d) living in his parent’s house
4. The weather at Long Island:
(a) has been stormy ever since the beginning of the summer season
(b) was stormy recently
(c) has been fine ever since the beginning of the summer season
(d) is stormy at the moment
5. Which sentence is true?
(a) Lori asks if Glenn misses America
(b) Lori has sent a newspaper with her letter to Glenn
(c) ‘The Village Green’ is Lori’s favourite newspaper
(d) Lori doesn’t have a boat

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КЛЮЧИ К ПОУРОЧНЫМ ТЕСТАМ

Test to lesson 1 Test to lesson 2 Test to lesson 3 Test to lesson 4


1. a 1. b 1. c 1. b
2. b 2. c 2. b 2.c.
3. c 3. b 3. b. 3. a
4. b 4. a 4. b 4. a
5. a 5. b 5. b 5. b
6. a 6. a 6. b
7. c 7. a 7. c

Test to lesson 5 Test to lesson 6 Test to lesson 7 Test to lesson 8

1. a 1.c 7.c 1.a 7.b 1.a


2. c 2.a 8.a 2.c 8.a 2.c
3. c 3.d 9.c 3.d 9.c 3.b
4. b 4.d 10.c 4.b 10.a 4.c
5. с 5.b 5.d 5.b
6. с 6.b 6.b

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Oral Course

TOPIC 1

MEETING AND GREETING PEOPLE

WORDS AND PHRASES


Good morning. - Доброе утро,
Good afternoon. — Добрый день.
Good evening. — Добрый вечер.
How do you do? - Здравствуйте
Hello. — Здравствуй, привет.
Let me introduce you. — Разрешите мне Вас представить.
Let me introduce myself. — Разрешите представиться.
Let me introduce my friend (wife, husband) to you. —
Разрешите представить Вам моего друга (жену, мужа).
May I introduce my fellow-student (colleague, cousin)? —
Разрешите представить моего однокурсника (коллегу,
двоюродного брата). I
How are you? — Как поживаете?
How's your sister (brother, etc.)? — Как поживает Ваша сестра
(брат)?
How are your parents? — Как поживают ваши родители?
Quite well, thank you. — Хорошо, благодарю.
Fine, thanks. — Прекрасно, спасибо.
Not very well. — He очень хорошо.
So-so. — Так себе.
She (he) is ill. — Она (он) больна.
Who is this? — Кто это? (Как его зовут?)
Who is she (he)? — Кто она (он)?
What's your name? — Как Вас зовут?
What's your surname? — Как Ваша фамилия?
What are you? — Кто Вы? (о профессии)

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What is your mother (father, friend)? — Чем занимается Ваша мать


(отец, друг)?
Happy to have met you. — Очень рад был с Вами познакомиться.
Hope to see you again. — Надеюсь снова увидеться с Вами.
It's been nice to meet you. — Было приятно познакомиться с
Вами.
Good-bye. — До свидания.
So long. (Bye-bye,
Cheerio.) — Покa.
Seeing you soon. (See you later.) — До скорой встречи.
All the best. — Всего хорошего.

LEXICAL PROGRAM

Read the lexical program two or three times.


Try to memorize all phrases.
1. I haven't seen you for ages. He видел Вас целую вечность.
2. Have you met each other before? Вы знакомы?
3. I don't think you've met each Думаю, Вы не знакомы друг с
other before. другом.
4. Give her (him, them) my (best) Передай ей (ему, им) привет от
regards. меня.
5. Such luck! Какая удача!
6. What a surprise! Какой сюрприз!
7. — Where have you been (all this — Где ты был (все это время)?
time)? — I’ve been away. — Я уезжал.

8. What's the news? Что новенького? (Какие новости?)


9. I’ m sorry to hear it. Очень жаль слышать это.
10. How long are you going to stay? Как долго Вы собираетесь
пробыть?
11. Не is having a very good time. Он хорошо проводит время.
12. It' s doing him a lot of good. Это ему на пользу.
13. There's no doubt about it. В этом нет никакого сомнения.
14. You are quite right. Вы совершенно правы.

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15. It looks like that. Похоже на то.


16. It's very kind of you. Очень мило с Вашей стороны. (Вы
очень добры.)
17. All right. хорошо
18. A good name is better than riches, Доброе имя лучше богатства
(a proverb) (пословица)
19. No news is good news, (a saying) Отсутствие новостей – хорошая
новость (поговорка)

TRAINING OF READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE

1. Here is some useful information to read and remember:

You say "How do you do" to a person when formally introduced


or when you meet him for the first time. This formula may be used
almost any time of the day. You say "Good morning" to people
whom you know little or when your greeting is more formal. This
formula is used before lunch. You say "Good afternoon" to people
you do not know well between lunch time (12 o'clock) and tea-
time (5 o'clock). You say "Good evening" to people you do not know
very well after 6 p.m. The standard replies to "Good morning", "Good
afternoon" and "Good evening" are the repetition of the same words.
"Good day" is never used as a greeting. The proper universal
informal greeting is "Hello". This formula is usually used with the
first name, not with the surname.
After an informal or a friendly greeting often comes the question:
"How are you?" The usual phrase to use when you leave is "Good-
bye", but there are a number of other less formal ways of parting,
such as: "Bye-bye!"; "Cheerio!"; "See you later!"; "(I’ll) be seeing you
(soon)".
As a rule, when introducing somebody one says something like:
"Mrs. White, may I introduce Mr. Blake?" and then turning to Mr.
Blake she or he simply says: "Mrs. White". The simplest form of
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introduction is just mentioning both names: "Mr. Walters.


Mr.Gorin". The usual response to an introduction is "How do you
do", which is a sort of greeting and not a question (about your health)
and the best answer to it is "How do you do". Sometimes one may say
less formally: "I'm glad to meet you", "Happy to meet you".

2. Translate into Russian:

1. I don't think you've met each other before. 2.1 haven't


seen you for ages. 3. Give my regards to your family, please. 4.
Г m sorry to hear that. I hope things will soon improve. 5. How
long is he going to stay there? — I don't know exactly, but he's
having a very good time and it's doing him a lot of good, so the
longer he stays, the better.

3. Say:

l. What is the most accepted formal form of


greeting which is suitable at any time of day? 2. What
standard replies are there to "Good morning", "Good afternoon",
"Good evening"? 3. What is the most widely used formula of an
informal greeting? 4. What are the standard replies to the
question "How are you?"? 5. When people part, what do they
usually say that is suitable at any time of the day? 6. Which are
the less formal ways of parting?

4. What is it correct to say:

1 .When greeting a person you do not know well enough (in


the morning, after lunch time, after 6 o'clock). 2. When greeting a
friend. 3. When parting with a person you do not know very well (in
the morning, after lunch time, after six o'clock). 4. When formally
introduced.

5. Say how you respond to:

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1. How do you do?


2. Good morning! (Good afternoon! Good evening!)
3. Hello! How are you?

6. Ask your fellow-student which is the correct thing to say:

l. When greeting a person you do not know well. 2. When greeting


a person you know well. 3. When parting formally. 4. When parting
informally.

7. React to the following statements using the phrases given below:

Yes, you are quite right. — Да, вы правы.


I quite agree with you. — Я полностью с вами согласен.
Very likely. — Вполне возможно.
There is no doubt about it. — Несомненно.
It looks like it. — Похоже, что это так.

M o d e l : - It is important to know the rules of introduction.


- There is no doubt about it.

1. It is not always easy to start a conversation with someone to


whom one has only just been introduced. 2. He has a real gift for
conversation. 3.1t is by our manners and our conversation that people, when
we first meet them, are likely to form their opinion of us. 4. It is rude to
interrupt, especially when an older person is talking. 5. They say the true
foundations of learning are: seeing much, hearing much, reading much,
studying much.

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SITUATION PRACTICE

I .Below are given small situations showing the way you might greet people,
start a conversation and take leave. Practice them:

***

(1) — Olga, this is my brother, Pete.


— How do you do?
— How do you do? I'm glad to meet you.

** *

(2) — Hello, Helen! Such luck running into you! This is my friend, Nick.
— Very pleased to meet you.
** *

— Hello, Mary. What a surprise to see you! I haven't seen you for ages.
Where have you been all this time?
— I've been away.

** *

(3) — Hello, old boy. Very pleased to see you. What's the news?
— No news.

- "No news is good news". Do you know this English saying?

***
(4) — I'm sorry, but I must be off.
— Good luck. All the best to you.
— Good-bye till to-morrow.

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***

(5) — Good-bye. It has been a pleasure to see you. I hope we shall meet again
soon.
— Thank you. The pleasure was all mine.

2. Make up short dialogues based on the formulas used for introduction.


3. Practice in introducing each other.
4 Answer the following questions:
1. What are the rules of introduction useful to remember?
2. Which is the simplest form of introduction?
3. What is the best way to start a conversation after an
introduction?

5. Read and practiсe the following flashes of conversation:

(1) — Good morning, Mrs. Clyde.


— Good morning, Mrs. Davis. How are you today?
— I am quite well, thank you. And how are you?
— Fine, thank you.

(2) — Good-bye, Mrs. Blake. I'm sorry. But I must go now.


— Good-bye, Miss Jones. Happy to have met you!
— You are very kind. (It's very kind of you.) Thank you.

(3) — Mr. Bradley, I would like to introduce Mr. Petrov.


— How do you do, Mr. Petrov?
— How do you do, Mr. Bradley?

(4) — Mr. Morris, do you know Mr. Petrov?


— Yes, certainly. How are you? It's been quite a long time since we
met.

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— So-so. You see, my father is ill.


— Oh, I'm sorry to hear that.

(5) — Hello, Pete. Haven't seen you for ages.


— Hello, old man. Neither have I.
— Who is with you?
— Oh, sorry. It's Nelly, my cousin.
— How do you do? Glad to meet you.
— I'm happy to meet you.
— What are you, Miss Nelly?
— I'm a chemist.
— Oh, we are colleagues.
— What's your surname?
— It's Brown.
— And what's your first name?
— It's Nickolas. Call me Nick for short.
— All right.

6. Introducing a witty friend (a joke).

A certain playwright, introducing his friend, a well-known comic


actor, to a famous theatre star, said: "Madame, this is Mr. B. who is not
such a fool as he looks."
"True, madam," said the comedian. "And that is the principal
difference between my friend and me."

7. Comment upon the following proverbs:

1. A good name is better than riches. 2. No news is good news.

8. Look through the Topical Words and Lexical Program again and test yourself
if you have memorized them.

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TOPIC 2

STUDENT’S LIFE

WORDS AND PHRASES

1. Institute — институт
tо entег the Institute - поступить в институт
to graduate from the Institute - ........ окончить институт
2. student- студент
first-year student (fresher) — первокурсник
second-year student— второкурсник
fellow-student — сокурсник

3. lecture — лекция
seminar — семинар
class — занятие
in class — на занятии
to give a lecture — читать лекцию
to attend (miss) classes (lectures) — посещать (пропускать) занятия (лекции)
to be attentive (inattentive) — быть внимательным (невнимательным)

4. assignment (homework) — домашнее задание


to do (ignore) assignments — выполнять (не выполнять) домашние задания

5. notes — записи
to take notes of the lectures — записывать лекции
to underline important points — подчеркивать важные моменты

6. habit — навык, умение


study habits — учебные умения
responsible approach to study — ответственное отношение к учебе

7. examination (test) — экзамен (зачет)


to take an examination (a test) — сдаватъ экзамен (зачет)
to pass (fail) an exam (a test) — сдать (не сдать) экзамен (зачет)
to fail in physics (chemistry, etc.) — провалиться на экзамене
по физике (химии и т.д.)

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to read for exams ... — готовиться к экзаменам

8. grant — стипендия
increased grant — повышенная стипендия
to get a grant — получать стипендию
to stop someone's grant — лишить кого-либо стипендии

9. Dean — декан
Sub-Dean — заместитель декана
the Dean's office — кабинет декана
the faculty office — деканат
10. timetable — расписание
vacation (holidays) — каникулы

11. hostel — общежитие


roommate — сосед по комнате
student council — студенческий совет

12. (lecture) room — аудитория


lecture theatre — лекционный зал
great (assembly) hall — актовый зал
refectory — студенческая столовая

13. social activities — общественная работа

14. monitor — староста

15 to take part in social activities - принимать участие в общественной


работе

16. to speak at a meeting - выступать на собрании

Read the lexical program two or three times. Try to memorize all phrases.

LEXICAL PROGRAM

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LEXICAL PROGRAM

1. Excuse me for being late. Извините за опоздание.


2. Sorry to interrupt you Простите, что перебил Вас.
3. I hope I didn't hurt you. Надеюсь, я не обидел Вас.
4. It's a pity. What a pity. Жаль.
5. Not at all. Never mind. Не беспокойтесь.
Don't worry.
6. Sorry, I've kept you waiting. Извините, что заставил ждать.
7. Sorry, I won't be able to... Простите, я не смогу ...
8. Don't get upset. Не расстраивайтесь.
9. Take it easy. Не принимайте близко к сердцу.
10. Let's hope for the best. Давайте надеяться на лучшее.
11.Good for you (him, her, Молодчина.
them).
12.I'm not surprised. Меня это не удивляет.
13. I can't believe it. Я не могу этому поверить.
14. You are wrong. Вы ошибаетесь.
15. I don't think so. Я так не думаю.
16. То my mind. По-моему.
17. I've often wondered... Я часто задумывался (спрашивал себя)...
18. Agreed! Settled! Договорились! Решено!
19. This is natural. Это естественно.
20. With pleasure. Willingly С удовольствием. Охотно.
21. I expect so. Я этого ожидаю.
22. It goes without saying. Само собой разумеется
23. I have no idea. He имею представления.

TRAINING OF READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE

I. Translate into Russian:

l. We have lectures in various subjects this year. 2. I have been working


hard lately. 3. The subjects I work at most are chemistry and

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mathematics. 4. I work hardest at them because I find them very


interesting. 5. Some people work hardest at the subjects which they
find difficult. б.I’m not always
attentive at the English classes. 7. I find that I have to spend less time on
my homework if I'm attentive in class. 8 I’m afraid I don't give enough
attention to my studies here.

2 Ask your fellow-student; work in pairs.

What his idea of a good student is; what he thinks of the English
classes; what kind of a man is the
monitor; what his working day begins with; what questions he
likes to discuss with his friends.
How many students there are in his group; how many classes and
lectures he has; how much time he
spends on his English every day; how he gets to the Institute;
how often he has English classes:
friend's last night.
When he entered the Institute; when he will have his examinations
(vacation); when he will finish
reading the hook; when he last wrote a letter home (to his
friend); when he is going to see a new
film (play).
Whether he prefers to study at home or at the library; whether he likes
to study together with a friend or
prefers to do it alone; whether he finds his English classes
interesting; whether he reviews his
notes regularly.
Why students sometimes prefer to work at the library; why it is
necessary to develop good study habits;
why some students fail at the examinations; why good students
are freer to devote themselves to
social activities than are students with poor study habit.

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3. React to the following statements using:

Agreed; Settled; That's right; Willingly; With pleasure; I expect so; Fine;
Very good.
1. I'm afraid he won't be able to pass his examination in physics. 2. We
can do this assignment together. 3. I'm sure he is the right man for the job.
4. Let us meet at 6 o'clock. 5. He was the first to offer his help. 6. A man
is never too old to learn.

4. Form all the possible statements using the table.

M o d e l : Knowledge is all that is or can be known.

A literate person all that is or can be known,


School a person who is able to read and write,
Knowledge is a group of persons learning together,
A class to give a person knowledge or skill,
To teach an institution for teaching and learning

5. Construct sentences using a gerund instead of an infinitive:

Thanks for to develop good study habits.


Excuse my to do the reading regularly.
I am thinking of to arrange things quickly.
It's worth to translate the text.
I am (not) used to to follow his advice.
There is no use in to miss classes.
I am looking forward to to ignore assignments.
to address a big audience

5. Read and memorize the following formulas of politeness:

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Apologies and Regret :


Excuse me for being late.
Sorry to interrupt you...
Sorry, I hope I didn't hurt you
I'm very sorry, I won't be able to (I (can't)...
Sorry I've kept you waiting.
Replies
That's all right, come in.
That's all right. (Not at all.)
I'm (so) sorry. It's a pity. Too bad
Never mind. Don't worry

7.Say how you apologize if:

you are late; you missed a lesson; you offended someone


though you didn't mean to; you interrupted someone; you kept
someone waiting.

8. Say how you respond to:

1. Excuse me for being late. 2. Sorry to interrupt you. 3. I'm sorry. I


won't be able to finish the translation. 4. Sorry I've kept you waiting.

9. React to the following statements using the phrases given below:

a) Don't worry. He беспокойтесь.


Don't get upset about it. He расстраивайтесь.
Take it easy. He принимайте это близко к сердцу.
Everything will be all right. Все будет хорошо.

1. It's hard to believe she did not keep her promise. It's unlike her.
2. I've no idea how I'm going to do the job.
3. I can fail in mathematics, I'm afraid.
4. N. is awfully impatient.
5. She always interrupts people.

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b) Good. Хорошо.
Good for you (him, etc.)! Молодец!
Go ahead. Продолжайте (действуйте).

1. I'd like to add a few words. 2. He always keeps his promise. 3. I've
got a four in chemistry. 4. We've got good results. 5. We've solved the
problem. 6. He's won the prize.

c) That's all right. Ничего, все в порядке.


Never mind. Ничего, пусть это вас не беспокоит.
Forget it. He вспоминайте об этом.
Not at all. Нисколько, совсем нет.
No trouble at all. Какое же это беспокойство!

1. Excuse my troubling you. 2.Sorry I've torn the magazine


you gave rue. 3. Excuse me. Have I hurt you? 4. I'm afraid, I am
taking up too much of your time. 5. Sorry I've kept you waiting. 6.
Excuse my being late for the lesson.

I0. Answer the following questions:

1. Are you always attentive at the English classes? 2. Do you find


that you have to spend less time on your homework if you're attentive
in class? 3. Do you feel you give enough attention to your studies
here? 4. What are the subjects you give most attention to? 5. And
what are the subjects you don't give enough attention to? 6. What
marks did you get at your final examinations at school? 7. Is it important
for you what mark you get at the exam? 8. What do people mean when
they say their decision is final? 9. Are you familiar with the type of
person who says his decision or answer is final but then he changes
his mind? What do you think about these people? 10. Do you get a
grant? 11. Do all the students of your group get grants? 12. Does
anyone of your group get an increased grant?

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SITUATION PRACTICE

1. Practice the following dialogues:

(1) A: Your sister is a student, isn't she?


В: Yes, she is. She is studying to become a teacher.
A: Does she study mathematics? She used to like mathematics, didn't she?
B: Yes, she did. She still likes it now, but physics is her favorite subject.
A: She isn't a fresher, is she?
B: No, she isn't. She is already a second-year student.

(2) A: What did you do after school?


B: I worked at a plant for some time.
A: How did you pass your entrance examinations? You didn't fail, did you?
B: No, I didn't. I attended the preparatory courses and then passed the
entrance exams.
A: There was a stiff competition that year, wasn't there?
B: Yes, there was. But I passed the exams brilliantly.
A: Good for you!

(3) A: What did the Dean speak about?


B: He spoke of
how to become a
good student. A:
Did you find the
talk useful?
B: Yes, very much. He said: "Every student should remember that being a
student is a full-time job and like any other job it requires time, effort,
concentration, and appropriate techniques and habits."
A: And do you agree with him?
B: I think, he is right.

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(4) A: When will your exams begin?


B: Oh, they are not far off. Here is the time-table of my exams.
A: You are nervous, aren't you?
B: Of course, I am. Everybody is.
A: Are you reading for your exams now?
B: Yes, I am. I always take notes of the lectures but I can fail in
mathematics, I'm afraid.
A: Let's hope for the best. Good luck!

(5) A: I like the lectures in chemistry under Professor Novikov.


B: And so do I.
A: I haven't missed a single lecture.
B: Neither have 1.1 take notes of all his lectures. I don't miss a single
word.
A: And I don't either.

(6) A: Hello, Boris! Are you taking your exams?


B: I've already passed my last exam.
A: What did you get for mathematics?
B: I got a four. You passed your exams too. didn't you?
A: No, I didn't, I failed in physics,
B: What a pity. I am so sorry for you! How did it happen?
A: It's difficult to explain. My memory failed me and I forgot the simplest things. I
think it was the result of a sleepless night.
B: That's what 1 always told you. Don't put off your work to the very last! What
are you going to do now?
A: I'll have to take my exam in physics for the second time. I've just been to the
faculty office and the dean has already set the time.
B: I hope you'll get a good mark next time. Good luck !

(7) A: I notice Victor is always in a bad mood at the classes.


B: Yes, he is, but when he hears the bell from the classes he seems to look
happier.

(8) A: Peter has an awful habit of leaving everything to the last moment.
B: Therefore he never seems to have the time for anything.

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A: He always says he hasn't had the time to do the homework.


B: But I'm afraid, he wastes a lot of time.

(9) A: Nina knows so many things, she can talk on any subject under the sun.
B: But she is a bad listener. She always interrupts people and never lets you finish
a sentence.
A: She is eighteen, and that, I think, excuses her.
B: Yes, but don't you agree that "those talk most who have the least to say?"

(10) A: You know, my brother has failed in chemistry.


B: I'm sorry to hear that. And how did the parents take the news?
A: They took it calmly. His failure was not a surprise, he did not take his studies
seriously.
B: Yes, it's by working hard that students achieve good results.

2 . Develop the following situations into dialogues:

1. Quite unexpectedly in one of the corridors of the


Institute you come across an old friend of yours who is in his
second year.

2. When you return home after classes on the first of September


your mother asks you to tell her
about your first day at the Institute.

3. Which of the recommendations would you follow:

"Never put off till tomorrow what you can do to-day", or "Never put off
till tomorrow what you can put off till the day after tomorrow"? Why?
What do you usually put off till some other time and what do you do
immediately?

4.Give your stories:

a) Imagine a few days ago you were late for a party or your
classes, missed a lecture, didn't visit
your friend as you had promised, etc., because your watch had stopped
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you had lost your money, you


remembered you hadn't turned, off the gas, etc.
b) Imagine you think that the face of the man sitting next to you in
the bus is familiar to you. You
want to know where you’ve seen him. But the man doesn't remember you.
In the end the two of you agree
you've met before. These words will help you: Excuse me, what makes
you think so? Perhaps; It's quite
possible; You're wrong; Try to remember; Memory; You're right.

5. Comment on the following proverbs and maxims:

1. You never know what you can do till you try. 2. Think well
before you open your mouth. We are often sorry that we have spoken
but never sorry to have been silent. 3. A good beginning makes a good
ending. 4. All's well that ends well. 5. Four eyes see more than two.

6. Group dialogue. Discuss the problems raised in the dialogue given


below. Give your reasons while expressing your viewpoint.

A: I've often wondered what matters most in making a good student.


B: To my mind, memory is the thing.
A: I don't think so. Memory alone won't get you anywhere.
B: Well, it goes without saying that one must have brains as well. But
memory is of utmost importance, I believe.

7. Suggested topics for conversation:

1. Give a talk on what makes a good student.


2. Describe one of the students whom you know to be a good
student.

8.Look through the Topical Words and Lexical Program again and
test yourself if you have memorized them.

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TOPIC 3
PROBLEMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
WORDS AND PHRASES

1. education — образование, обучение


higher education — высшее образование free
education — бесплатное образование
self-education — самообразование Synonyms:
training, instruction.
2. institute — институт
to admit (to enroll) to the Institute — принять (зачислить) в институт
admission committee — приемная комиссия
to be expelled from the Institute — быть исключенным из института
college — колледж (в Англии, США)
higher educational establishment (institution) — высшее учебное заведение
department — отделение; кафедра
day (evening) department — дневное (вечернее) отделение
equipment — оснащение, оборудование
3. academic year — учебный год
term — семестр
examination period — сессия
diploma project — дипломная работа
to defend a diploma project — защищать дипломную работу
to do (take) a subject — проходить предмет
key subject — основной предмет
optional subject — факультативный предмет
general science — общеобразовательные науки
humanities — гуманитарные науки
social sciences — общественные науки

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LEXICAL PROGRAM

Read the lexical program two or three times.


Try to memorize all the phrases:

1. latest achievements — новейшие достижения


2. modern methods of research — современные методы исследования
3. cognizing and transforming the world — познание и преобразование мира
4. to develop creative thinking — развивать творческое мышление
5. to shape the outlook — формировать мировоззрение
6. independent thinking — самостоятельное мышление
7. social awareness — общественное сознание
8. for this purpose — с этой целью
9. entrance is open to all — поступление доступно всем
10. the right to education — право на образование
11. student's rights and duties — права и обязанности студента
12.as compared with — по сравнению с
13. on the average — в среднем
14. age limit - возрастной ценз
15. Lost time is never found again. - Потерянного времени не вернешь

TRAINING OF READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE

I .How would you explain the following phrases to your fellow-students:

evening and correspondence department; to study while keeping a job; to


grant admittance to an institute; highly qualified specialists; to possess a
wide range of knowledge common curriculum for all related
specializations and faculties; up-to-date equipment; independent research.

l. Construct sentences using the following:

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to need highly qualified specialists.


The number of higher educational to be growing every year.
establishments to be universally acknowledged.
Specialization to begin in the third or fourth year.
Economy, philosophy and foreign to be taught in all higher educatio-
languages nal establishments.
Hundreds of higher educational to be attended by up to 50,000 fore-
ign students from 130 different
institutions
countries

2. Construct sentences beginning with " Will you ... ", "Could you ...".
Work in pairs. Use the suggested replies:
Certainly, I will; I'll do it; Of course; Most willingly; Here you are;
All right, I will; I'm afraid not.
to tell us what matters most in making a good student; to; teach us how to
plan and organize our work; to be more attentive in class; to keep your
promise this time; to explain the reason for his failure at the exams; to
explain what the underlined phrase means; to give your dictionary.

3. Choose a reply from the right-hand column.

1. We learn a lot when we


discuss events and ideas. But he doesn't.
2. No news is good news. I quite agree with you.
3. We've got to do I'm afraid so.
everything ourselves. Looks like that.
4. We've got to hurry up. Right you are.
It's getting dark.
5. He knows English.

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5. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the subjects you work most at? 2. What marks
have you been getting in these subjects? 3. Do you work hardest at
them because you find them very interesting or because you find them
difficult? 4. In what subjects do you have lectures this year? 5. Who
are the lectures given by?

6. By whom are the seminars given? 7. Will you have examinations in


these subjects at the end of the year? 8. Who will you be examined by?
9. Is it important to you who examines you? Why? 10. Which of the
subjects you are taught here you find the most interesting and useful?
11. Do you find it difficult to keep to the subject when discussing
something?

6.Read and practice the model dialogue. Fill in the gaps in the dialogue
with words from columns (1), (2), (3).

A: I've often wondered what matters most in making a brilliant... (1).


B: To my mind ... (2) is the thing.
A: I don't think so .... (2) alone won't get you anywhere.
В.: Well, it goes without saying that one must have ... (3) as well. But...
(2) is of utmost importance, I believe.

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(1) (2) (3)


scientist hard work brains
teacher quick wit a foreign language
architect system intuition abilities
engineer sense of responsibility luck
writer talent work experience
journalist the art of conversation will power
student charm knowledge
lawyer love for one's profession
lecturer creative thinking

7. Make certain you know the English names for professions and
specializations.

Now more than 3,000,000 students in Russia are trained in 430


specializations to become teachers, engineers ... (Go on naming the
specializations. See how many you can name).

SITUATION PRACTICE

1. Read (or listen to) the following short dialogues. Describe the
situation and characterize the speakers.

(1) — If the Dean doesn't take back what he said to me this morning, I am
going to leave college.
— What did he say?
— He told me to leave the college.

* **

(2) P r o f.: "Can you tell me anything about the great


chemists of the 17th century?"
S t u d . : "They are all dead, sir."

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* **

(3) — Say, Dad, remember that story you told me about when you were
expelled from college?
— Yes.
— Well, I was just thinking, Dad, how true it is that history repeats itself.

***

(4) F r i e n d : "And what is your son going to be when


he's passed his final exam?" F a t h e r : "An old
man."

* * *

(5) S t u d . : What's the date today, please.


P r of: Never mind the date. The
examination is more important.
S t u d . : Well, sir, I wanted to have
something written on my paper.

2 .Read the following and describe the situation:

The Absent-Minded Professor

Professor Black of Oxford was very absent-minded. Once he went


to visit his friend who lived not far from college. They had dinner and
then talked. Black was a great talker. Midnight came, then one o'clock,
two o'clock and still Black went on talking though his friend was feeling
very tired and often looked at the clock. He did not want to be impolite,
but at last he said, "Black, my dear fellow, I hate to put you out, but I have
a class at 9 o'clock tomorrow, and I must get to bed." "Good heavens," said
Black, looking confused. "I thought you were at my house."

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3.Develop the following situations into dialogues:

1. Imagine that one of your group-mates doesn't work the way he


should. Talk to him. Use the following proverbs: Prevention is better
than cure; Business before pleasure; No sweet without sweat. Lost time
is never found again. 2. Imagine that your group is meeting a youth
delegation from Britain. They are interested in the system of higher
education in Russian. Make up a group dialogue on the basis of topical
words and phrases. 3. Imagine that you are the leader of a student
delegation to the USA. Give a short talk on our system of higher
education. Use statistics as much as you can.

4. Do you agree with the following? Explain your viewpoint.

1. Many can argue, not many discuss.


2. The more a man learns, the more he can learn.
3. Busiest men find the most time.
4. Whoever wants to succeed should plan his time carefully.
5. We judge ourselves by what we are capable of doing, but
others judge us by what we have
already done.

5. Do you think that:

— self-instruction is the best kind of instruction?


— the successful learner is the learner who has devised a
successful self-teaching method?
6. Discuss the following topics. One student should act as chairman and be
ready to sum up at the end.

1. What does our state do to guarantee the right to education?


2. Who studies in higher educational institutions?
3. Speak on students' rights and duties.

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7 .Look through the Topical Words and Lexical Program again and test
yourself if you have memorized them.

TOPIC 4

LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES WORDS AND PHRASES


1. language — язык
foreign language — иностранный язык
to learn a foreign language — учить иностранный язык
to speak English — говорить на английском языке
to master the English language — овладеть английским языком
language laboratory — лингафонный кабинет
2. grammar rules — правила грамматики
3. parts of speech — части речи
noun — имя существительное
adjective — прилагательное
verb — глагол
article — артикль preposition — предлог pronoun — местоимение adverb —
наречие conjunction — союз interjection — междометие
4. word — слово
to memorize a word — запомнить слово to write down a word — записать слово
to look up a word in a dictionary — посмотреть слово в словаре to pronounce a
word — произнести слово
to guess the meaning of a word from the context — догадаться о значении слова
из контекста word-order — порядок слов synonym — синоним antonym —
антоним
root — корень (слова); prefix — приставка (префикс); - suffix — суффикс
5. pattern — модель, образец
6. sentence — предложение
to construct a sentence — составить предложение -
7. to read aloud (silently, in chorus) — читать вслух (про себя, хором)

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8. to translate orally (in writing, at sight) — переводить устно (письменно, с


листа)
record — пластинка; tape-recording — магнитофонная запись

LEXICAL PROGRAM
Read the lexical program two or three times. Try to memorize all phrases.
1.spoken language разговорная речь
2. mother tongue родной язык
3. foreign language иностранный язык
4. means of communication средство общения
5. speaking practice разговорная практика
6. lack of practice отсутствие практики
7. What languages do you На каких языках Вы говорите?
speak?
8. I speak English a little. Я немного говорю по-английски.
9. I read English a little. Я немного читаю по-английски.
10. I don't speak any foreign Я не говорю ни на одном
language. иностранном языке.
11. a slip of the tongue Оговорка.
12. The point is... Дело в том, что...
13.1 can't agree with you. Я не могу с Вами согласиться.
14. I'm afraid you are mistaken. Боюсь, Вы ошибаетесь.
15. on the contrary наоборот
16. in my opinion (to my mind) по-моему,
17. as. far as I know насколько мне известно,
18. as is known как известно

TRAINING OF READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE

1. Translate the following phrases into Russian. Learn them by heart.

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1. Language is a part of our lives. 2. Nothing can be done without


speech. 3. Our speech is our personality. 4. Words are tools of thought.
5. One can't think without words. 6. One knowing two languages is
worth two. 7. By learning a foreign language thoroughly we discover a
new world. 8. Language is a means of communication. 9. The most
important thing in learning a language is to have patience. 10. We study
languages through practice.

2 Ask your fellow-student:

1. if he practices English every day; 2. if the language laboratory


helps him to improve his pronunciation; 3. why people are so eager to
learn foreign languages and why they often fail to do so; 4. what happens
if one does not practice enough; 5. why the learning of a language should
be systematic.

3.Guess the various meanings of the verb “to keep” from the context and
translate the sentences:

1. He always keeps people waiting. 2. Keep the conversation going.


3. The teacher kept the students working. 4. You must keep the room
tidy. 5. What kept you away? 6. The fire will keep wild animals away. 7.
Keep the dog out. 8. Nothing will keep her here. 9. The sun keeps us
warm. 10. You have to keep practicing. 11. He did not keep his promise
(word).

4. What is your opinion?

Someone has said: "Tell me what a man reads and I'll tell you
what he is." This quotation might be modified to read: "Tell me a
student's attitude to foreign languages, and I will tell you what kind of a
future specialist he is."

5. You'll find the following recommendations useful:

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Stop, Look and List Them

When you come across new and unfamiliar words STOP! Then
LOOK around and see whether you can guess their meaning from the
context. If the context doesn't give you the first aid, LIST them. LOOK
them up in a dictionary. The LIST you make of words is worth a great
deal more than any LIST made for you. It is connected with your
reading; it is associated with your ideas; it is yours. Each new word you
acquire will enrich your language and mind. The more words you learn,
the more easily you'll be able to recognize and remember other words and
so add them to your growing vocabulary.

6. Discuss the question: "How many new words can be learned in one
lesson?" What is your experience?

7. Here is another recommendation for you to follow:

There are no long words in English. They only seem to be long.


When you look at a long word, you find that it is only a lot of little units
put together. The words you consider long are combinations of short
words or parts of words written together. The trick is to be able to
divide the long word into recognizable short units.

If you can divide a word properly you can generally conquer it. So you
will find it excellent practice to pay attention to these small words in your
reading. There are so many of them, that it becomes a fascinating hobby to
try to trace them

8. Here is one more recommendation for you to follow:

The prefix is small but mighty. We guarantee that your


knowledge of words and your ability to remember them will be greatly
increased if you master prefixes. If you learn the influence of a prefix
upon a word, your vocabulary will grow. Now go ahead and expand
your knowledge of prefixes and words.

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9.Read the following text. Notice the details so that you will be able to answer
questions.

How to Learn a Language

You can learn a foreign language. This is a true statement. It is


true because you know your mother tongue. And if you have been able
to learn it, you can learn any language, provided you really want to.
If you want to speak a language, you must hear it spoken and
speak it yourself. A record or a tape-recording can be of great help.
If you are mainly interested in reading a language, you must read
as much as possible.
Actually there is no magic formula to follow. But there are some
general guides that you will find helpful if you want to speak and to read a
foreign language.
Listen to records. Turn on your radio. Concentrate on the words
that are more frequently used. Then try to learn whole phrases and
sentences. Learn them as one piece not as separate words put together.
Study. Each language has its own grammar rules. Don't fight the
rules. Study them carefully and learn to use them.
Read. Practice reading English newspapers and magazines. The
more you read, the sooner you will get to feel the language.
Repeat, Repeat, Repeat. Say words and phrases and sentences
over and over again. You are learning a new skill and you have to
practice. You have to keep practicing, or you lose your skill. But here is a
bit of encouragement. If you forget a language through lack of
practice, you can learn it again quickly.
The more you learn, the easier it is for you to learn still more.
Your knowledge of a language is like a snowball rolling downhill.

10. Answer the questions on the text given above.

1. Is there any magic formula to follow in learning a language? 2.


What is the first necessary thing to do in learning a spoken language? 3.
Why are grammar rules important in learning a language? 4. What happens
if you do not practice enough? 5. Why can your knowledge of a language
be compared with a snowball rolling downhill?

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11. Ask questions to which the following could be answers:

1. A record or a tape-recording can be of great help. 2. You can


learn a language at any age. 3. Language is a tool of thinking. 4. Babies
learn a language by imitating. 5. She knows English and French. 6. They
study both words and grammar. 7. You should do this work skilfully. 8.
The best time to start learning a language is now.

12. Construct sentences and translate them:

No matter what your age is you can learn a foreign


how old you are language.
when you start

13.Correct the wrong statements using the following as phrase openings:

It seems to be wrong; I am afraid you are mistaken; I can't agree


with you; On the contrary; I don't believe that; To my mind; As far as I
know; As is known.
1. Learning a foreign language is just a matter of memorizing
words. 2. A record or a tape-recording cannot be of great help in learning
a language. 3. Learning a foreign language is wasting time and energy. 4.
There is a magic formula to follow in language learning. 5. Grammar
rules are not important in learning a language. 6. We do not need
language in order to think. 7. You will not learn a language better and
more quickly if you realize the difficulties.

14. Маке up sentences of your own using the verbs given below:
to learn, to speak, to hear, to help, to talk, to start, to forget, to
repeat, to study, to pronounce, to write, to practice, to know, to master, to
memorize, to follow, to build up, to encourage, to discourage, to hope, to
use

15. Practise the conversation pattern given below. Give various replies. Work in
pairs.

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What languages do you speak? I'm sorry, 1 don't speak any foreign
language, but I read a little in English. I want to master English. I want
to read books in the original.

На каких языках вы говорите? - К сожалению, я не говорю ни на одном


иностранном языке, но я немного читаю по-английски. Я хочу
овладеть английским языком. Я хочу читать книги в оригинале.

16. Choose a reply from the right-hand column:

I have very little experience in


learning a language. He does everything in the best way
I've no idea how I am going to do possible.
the job.
It looks like he'll start learning Don't get upset about it.
English. Let's hope for the best.
He does everything in the wrong Too bad!
way. Good for him!
I forgot to look up the word in a
dictionary.

17. Translate into Russian:

We learn to swim by getting into water, and swimming. We learn


to play football by playing it. We learn to drive a car by driving it. The
same can be said of languages: we learn to speak by speaking, to read by
reading, to translate by translating.

SITUATION PRACTICE

1. Read and practice the following dialogues:

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On Learning a Language
A.: How can one learn a foreign language?
В.: It depends on the aim: if you want to speak a language, you must bear it
spoken and speak it yourself. You must listen, imitate and practise a lot.
A.: And if one is mainly interested in reading?
В.: Then one must read a lot. The general rule is: we learn
to speak a language by speaking, and we learn to read by reading.
A.: Some people believe that learning a language is just a matter of memorizing
words. I should like to hear what you think about that.
В.: You do need words to build up a vocabulary, of course. But learning isolated
words without knowing how to put them together will be a waste of time. One
should learn the grammatical structure of the language.
A.: But it is so dull to study grammar.
В.: I can't agree with you. The point is that you should study grammar together
with the language and not instead of it. Trying to master a language without
studying its grammar is like trying to build a house without a plan.
A.: When is the best time to start learning a foreign language?
В.: You can learn it at any age. The best time to start learning is now, no
matter how old you are.
A.: Is there any magic formula to follow?
В.: Actually there is not any magic formula to follow. But the golden rule No. 1
is to have patience: if you work every day, if you practice the language, you
will learn it well

Rules of Grammar
Student: There is one thing that puzzles me. Who makes the "rules" of
grammar? Who decides whether the sentence is right or wrong? T e a c h e r : N o
one.
St.: But isn't there an Academy that does it?
Т.: No, as far as I know.
St.: Hasn't Oxford University or Cambridge anything to do with it?
Т.: No. You see, the grammar of a language is not a list of rules forced on
people who speak it; it is just a record made by careful observation of how
people speak the language.

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St.: But there are "rules" and laws of grammar to say "this is right and this
is wrong". Surely, language must obey these rules.
Т.: We have "rules and laws of Nature", but these are not rules for Nature that
Nature has to obey; they are just few things that wise men have observed as to
the way Nature acts. If we find that Nature is not acting according to these
rules we don't try to force Nature to obey them; we change rules and make
new ones.
St.: And is it the same with grammar?
Т.: Exactly. Language is a living thing, always changing; old words die,
new words come in; some constructions gradually fallout of use, others
make their way in. English of today is not quite the same as English of the
seventeenth century. What is good grammar for Shakespeare couldbe bad
grammar for Shaw.
St.: What is grammatically "right" and what is grammatically "wrong"? How
do you decide?
Т.: Whatever form is used by the majority of educated speakers or writers is
correct; or, as Henry Sweet put it, "Whatever is in general use in language is,
for that reason, grammatically соrect." That is all.

2. Discuss the problems raised in the dialogues given above Questions to be


answered during the discussion:

1. What subject is discussed in the dialogues? 2. Who makes the


rules of grammar? 3. Is language changing? 4. Do old words die? 5. Do
new words come in? 6. Is English of today quite the same as English of
the 17th century? 7. What are the rules of grammar compared to? 8. What
do you think will happen if people stop observing grammar rules? 9. What
do you think is the best way to learn English grammar? 10. Does grammar
help to speak and read?

3. Lеаrп by heart the poem given below:

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The English Grammar in Rhyme


Three little words you often see, Are Articles A, An and The.
A noun is the name of anything, As School, or Garden, Hoop, or Swing.
Adjectives tell the kind of Noun, As Great, Small, Pretty, White, or Brown.
Instead of Nouns the Pronouns stand. Her head, His face, Your arm, My hand.
Verbs tell of something being done: To Read, Count, Laugh, Sing, Jump, or Run.
How things are done the Adverbs tell, As: Slowly, Quickly, Badly or Well.
Conjunctions join the words together -As men And women, wind And weather.
The Preposition stands Before A noun, as In or Through a door.
The Interjection shows surprise, As Oh! How pretty! Ah! How wise!
The whole are called nine parts of speech Which reading, writing, speaking teach.

4. It's interesting to know:

The English people like the adjective "nice" very much. If you
come to England on a short visit, you don't have to learn or to use any
other adjectives. You can say that the weather is nice, a restaurant is nice,
Mr. N. is nice, you had a nice time, and all this will be nice.

5.Read and practice the following jokes:

***

"What is the plural of man, Johnny?" "Men," answered Johnny. "And


the plural of child?" "Twins," — was the unexpected reply.

***

P r o f : Brown, what is a synonym?


S t u d : It is a word you use in place of another one when you cannot
spell the other one.

6. Read and discuss the following sayings and proverbs:

1. Speech is silver, silence is gold. 2. Great talkers are never great


doers. 3. We have two ears and only one tongue in order that we may hear

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more and speak less. 4. Among the other things most often opened by
mistake is the mouth. 5. When you have nothing to say, say nothing.

7. Read the following rhyme and learn it by heart:

If your lips
Would keep from slips(Хотят избежать ошибок)
Of these five things beware:
Of whom you speak,
To whom you speak,
And how, and when, and where.
8. Guess the following riddles:
1. Which two letters of the alphabet have eyes?
2..Which 3 letters would frighten a thief?
3.Which is the longest word in English?
4. What begins with "t", ends with "t" and is full of tea?
5. What is twice in a moment, once in a minute and never in an hour?
6. What can speak every language in the world?
7. Which is the only tool that becomes sharper with the use?

Answers: 1. "A and "B", because we say: ABCD (А, В see D). 2.
"I", "C", "U" (I see you). 3. "Smiles", because there is a
mile between the first and the last letters. 4. A teapot. 5.
The letter "m". 6. An echo. 7. The tongue.

9. Group dialogue. Questions to be discussed. One student should act as


chairman and be ready to sum up at the end.

1. What professional qualities do you consider indispensable for


an engineer? 2. What qualities do you think an engineer can acquire
knowing a foreign language? 3. How can an engineer improve his
professional qualification?

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10. Get ready a) to act as a reporter and interview your fellow-students on how
to learn a language in a most effective way; b) to talk as an expert on this
problem...

11. Express in five sentences your ideas on the topic discussed. Do it in writing.

12. Look through the Topical Words and Lexical Program again and test
yourself if you have memorized them.

Verses and Rhymes for Fun

The More We Study


The more we study, the more we know,
The more we know, the more we forget.
The more we forget, the less we know.
The less we know, the less we forget.
The less we forget, the less we know.
Why study?
The Optimist
The optimist fell ten stories.
At each window bar
He shouted to his friends:
"All right so far."

The Difference

Twixt optimist and pessimist


The difference is droll:
The optimist sees the doughnut (бублик);
The pessimist sees the hole.

Duty of the Student


It is the duty of the student
Without exception to be prudent.
If smarter than his teacher, tact
Demands that he conceal the fact.

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A Wise Owl

There was an old owl who lived in an


oak, The more he heard, the less he
spoke;

The less he spoke, the more he heard —


Oh, if men were all like that wise bird!

A Caution
If your lips would keep from slips,
Of these five things beware:
Of whom you speak, to whom you speak,
And how, and when, and where.

Philosophic Advice
He who knows not, and knows not that he knows not; he is a fool; shun him.
He who knows not, and knows that he knows not; he is simple, teach him.
He who knows, and knows not that he knows; he is asleep, wake him.
He who knows, and knows that he knows; he is wise, follow him

Happy Birthday to You


You have a date to celebrate
Which comes but once a year
And so to-day, we'd like to say From all of us to you:
Happy birthday, happy birthday
Happy birthday to you.

Magic Words
Hearts like doors will open with ease
To very little keys;
And don't forget that two are these:
"We thank you all," and "If you please."

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TOPIC 5

TELEVISION IN OUR LIFE


Advantages and disadvantages of TV.
We talk to various people from different countries about their attitudes
(мнения) about TV. Does TV educate or stimulate? (1)
Or is it a drug or tranquilizer used to control the population?(2)
There are some views, e.g. “TV has been the greatest
instrument of social democracy in Western European socialites”, - said Mr.
Smith from British film institute.
Some people disagree, 90 % of TV programmes in some countries are
foreign. And some people think and feel, that TV has disrupted local
culture and social ties. Why do developing countries introduce TV? (3)
Perhaps government do it for prestige, to show that they have introduced
new technology into their societies. Another possible reason is that political
leaders want their people to see them on TV.
TV is a very expensive medium and many countries don’t have the
technology and the money to make their own television programs. The
result is that most countries are dependent on TV of Britain and America.
It is easier and cheaper to buy foreign products mainly soap operas. So, a
lot of people feel that TV is a danger to local cultures in some countries.
How do people usually answer the question: “What are

you going to do tonight?” or “What are you going to do at the weekend?” In other

words how do people spend their free time?.

Some 20 or 30 years ago the usual answers used to be “We are going to the
theatre” or “We are going to the party” or “We are having some friends
round”. Now you are very often hear “We are going to stay at home and
watch the television”.
A first-rate colour TV set has become an ordinary thing in the household
today
and a video cassette recorder is quickly becoming one. Modern TV offers
viewers several programs on different channels. In addition to regular
newscasts(выпуск новостей) you see
plays and films, operas and ballets and watch all kinds of contests, quizzes
and sporting events. You can also get a lot of useful information of the
educational channels. A good serial can keep the whole family in front of
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the TV for days, and don’t we spend hours and hours watching our favorite
football and hockey team in an important international event.

In conclusion we may say that TV most definitely plays a very important


part in people’s life, but is this a good thing or a bad one? (4)
Don’t we go out less often, then we used to? (5)
Don’t we read less?(6)
READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE

TV QUOTES

***
“TV is an invention that permits you to be entertained in your living room
by people you won’t have in your home.”
***
“We were so poor that our TV only had two channels – ON and OFF”.

***
“When television is good, nothing is better. But when television is bad,
nothing is worse.”
***
“Television has proved that people will look at anything rather than each
other.”

***
“I find television very educating. Every time someone turns on the set I go
into other room and read a book.”
***
“Why should people pay good money to go out and see bad films when
they can stay at home and see bad television for nothing?”

***
“Television is chewing gum for the eyes.”

***
“People on TV never finish their drinks.”

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QUIZ - ARE YOU A TV JUNKIE?


Are you addicted to television? Do this quiz from the magazine Cool
English,№24 and find out whether you are a ‘TV addict’ or not.
1. How many hours a day do you spend before TV set?
a) 1 hour or less
b) 2 hours
c) something between two and fifteen hours

2. What’s your idea of a romantic night?


a) The theatre, dinner in a restaurant.
b) A night on the sofa watching favorite TV programs.
c) Dancing all night in a disco.

3. If there were a fire in your house, what would you save first?
a) My children, my pets, my home folk – in that order.
b) Jewelry, money, documents.
c) The television and my video collection.

4.What’s the first thing you do when you get home?


a) Prepare some food – I’m usually starving.
b) Do some exercises, eat then get ready to go out.
c) Kick my shoes off, lie down on the sofa, pick out the remote control and
start zapping.

5. It’s sunny outside and you don’t have to go to work. What are you going to
do?
a) Turn on the television and see what’s on.
b) Get your bicycle and go for a ride.
c) Head for the friends to invite them for a walk.

6.Your friends would like to do something different from the sort of things
you normally do. You suggest:
a) Doing new sport such as bungee-jumping.
b) Subscribing to a new satellite/cable channel.
c) Going to a nearest travel agency and buying tickets to a far away country.

7. What’s the best way to educate a child?


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a) Stick them in front of the television for 12 hours a day.


b) Fill their free time with lots of different activities.
c) Buy them some books and tell them to get reading.

8. What are your favorite topics of conversation?


a) Politics and social welfare.
b) I don’t have any favorites – I just see where the conversation is going and
try to say something interesting and relevant.
c) The things that have happened in the previous episode of my favorite
television series or soap opera.

9. How would you react if you had no television for a week?


a) I’d pull out all my hair, bang my head repeatedly against the wall and try to
jump off a bridge or at least tell people I’m going to.
b) I’d go to sleep.
c) I probably wouldn’t notice the difference.

10. It’s late at night and you’re watching TV but there’s nothing good on.
What do you do?
a) Turn the TV off and go to sleep.
b) Sit down and wait – there’s bound to be something good on soon.
c) Get a book – that’s much better than watching the rubbish they put on
these days.

11. What’s your idea of the perfect dinner?


a) Lots of friends, great food and a lively conversation.
b) Beer, a pizza, a bucket if ice-cream and my best friend to talk to.
c) Alone on the sofa with a bag of crisps, a beer and the TV.

12. What’s your opinion of television and how do you think it can affect our
lives?
a) It can teach us how to deal with problems and communicate with others. It
can also act as a great substitute for a real life.
b) We should never let television influence or dominate our lives in any way.
c) It can lead to an increase of crime and violence and the use of foul
language.

Quiz score:

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1. a) – 1, b) -2, c) – 3 2. a) – 1, b) – 2, c) – 3 3. a) – 2, b) – 1, c) – 3 4.
a) – 2, b) – 1, c) - 3
5. a) – 3, b) -2, c) – 1 6. a) – 1, b) – 3, c) – 2 7. a) – 3, b) – 2, c) – 1 8.
a) – 1, b) – 2, c) - 3
9. a) – 3, b) -2, c) – 1 10. a) – 1, b) – 3, c) – 2 11. a) – 1, b) – 2, c) – 3 12.
a) –3, b) – 1, c) - 2

Quiz analysis:
1-12;
Television has very little importance for you. You seem to know how to fill
your time constructively.
13-24;
You like watching the television every now and then but you seem to have
your addiction under control.
25-36;

You are completely addicted to television – getting a life of couch potato

TOPIC 6

COMPUTERS IN OUR LIFE


It appears that the PC is rapidly becoming a TV. That is if you define the
TV as a device that let’s you view video.

The traditional television has been a mainstay in the home for decades and
in a way, has been a portal to the world in terms of a window to the world
for news and entertainment.

But thanks to the PC, broadband and the Internet, the PC itself has in many
ways overtaken the role of the TV in terms of being our primary device that
helps us gain access to the world of information and entertainment.

I believe the key reason for this is that the TV mostly gives us info and
entertainment in a linear fashion while the PC has the ability to deliver it on
demand. Don’t get me wrong. The TV is not going away and in fact, is
becoming an even more important screen in our digital lifestyles. But the

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PC is quickly eclipsing the TV in terms of playing a major role in


delivering information and entertainment to millions of users.

Of course, the PC has been handling images and video for some time but
the turning point came when Apple introduced the Video iPod and more
importantly, TV shows into the overall iTunes mix. Now people can view a
vast number of their favorite TV shows on their iPod or PC on demand.
And the trend for distributing video over the Internet and especially to PC’s
is only going to rise. Today, Fox announced that they would offer some of
their TV shows through Fox On Demand over MySpace and the Internet
and NBC has recently announced that they are creating their own Internet
based video service for delivering NBC shows to PC’s over the Internet in
the coming days. I expect all of the networks to follow suit and create their
own direct video distribution portals or distribute their video shows through
partnerships via folks like Google, Yahoo, YouTube, etc.

I am personally amazed that it has taken them this long to figure out that
the Internet is as much as a “pipe” for delivering their content as broadcast
air waves and cable has been for them in the past. In fact, I met with
officials of two of the major networks seven years ago and tried to get them
to understand this back then. I realize they had trouble with the business
model but if they had seen the Internet as just another media distribution
mechanism, then they could have seen even then that their model of using
advertising would work with this new distribution medium as well.

Interestingly, the PC monitor in this case becomes the TV and is, at the
moment, the primary way we view this type of Internet driven video
content in the short term. But I think Apple’s new iTV product that links
Mac content to a TV via wireless could be another defining moment for
industry and really start people moving that content from the PC to the TV.
Yeah, I know, Microsoft with their Media Center and media adaptor has
been doing this for years and other players like Mediabolic, Digital Deck,
to name just a few, have offered similar solutions in the past. But they have
not been easy to use or in some cases, easy to set up and consumers have
been slow to use these types of devices in the past. Apple’s iTV product
could change that.

But it would be wrong to underestimate the role of the PC as a video


viewing device as people discover that they can even watch live television
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via Sling Media or Orb Networks as well as TV shows and movies on their
computer. As the networks are finding out, there are a lot of eyeballs
connected to YouTube, iTunes and other over-the-Internet video services
and the PC is quickly becoming the on-demand video viewing device for
the masses.
READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE

JOKES and LAUGHTER