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В ысшее профессиональное образование

И. В. З Ы К О В А

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОЙ
ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИИ

A PRACTICAL COURSE
IN ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY

Рекомендовано
Учебно-методическим объединением по образованию в области лингвистики
Министерства образование и науки Российской Федерации
в качестве учебного пособии для студентов лингвистических вузов
и факультетов иностранных языков

3-е издание, стереотипное

Москва
Издательский центр "Академия"
2008
У Д К 8 0 2.0 :80 1.3(075.8)
Б Б К 81.2А нгл-3 я 73
З-9 66

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:
доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры стилистики английского
язы ка М о с к о в с к о го го с у д а р с т в е н н о го л и н гв и с т и ч е с к о го у н и в е р с и те та
Е. Г. Б е л я в с к а я
доцент к а ф едры а н г л и й с к о г о я з ы ка М о с к о в с к о го государствен ного
л и н гв и с т и ч е с к о го ун и в е р с итета Т. В. Тадевосян;
канди дат ф и л о л о г и ч е с к и х н аук , д о ц ен т к а ф е дры ан гл и й с ко го язы к а
М о ск о в с к о й го су д а р ст в е н н о й ю р и д и ч ес к о й ак а д ем и и А. В. Д ор ош енко

Зыкова И .В.
З -9666 П р а к т и ч е с к и й к урс а н г л и й с к о й л ек с и к о л о ги и - A Practical
C o u rs e in English Lexicology : учеб. п о с о б и е д ля сту д . л и н г в .
в у зов и ф а к . ин. я з ы к о в / И. В. Зы кова — 3-е изд. стер . - М.:
И зд ател ьски м ц е н тр "А к а д е м и я ", 2008. — 288 с
IS B N 9 78- 5 - 76 9 5 -5 5 6 8 -8

Учебное пособие охватывает всю программу курса лексикологии английского языка. В


нем рассматриваются важнейшие проблемы лексикологии в свете ведущих принципов
современной лингвистики. Введение в теоретические проблемы курса осуществляется
на фоне обобщающего описания основ лексического строя английского языка. Каждый
раздел пособия снабжен вопросами и практическими заданиями, контролирующими и
углубляющими понимание языковых явлений, а также стимулирующими самосто-
ятельный анализ фактов языка.
Для студентов лингвистических вузов и факультетов иностранных языков.

УДК 802.0:801.3(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-3 я73
ПРЕД ИСЛО ВИЕ

Предлагаемое учебное пособие представляет собой курс л е к ­


си ко л оги и а н г л и й с к о ю язы ка и п р ед н а зн ач е н о для студентов
лингвистических университетов и институтов, а также дл я студен­
тов факультетов иностранны х язы ков. Пособие может бы ть и с ­
пользовано при изучении элементов лексикологии на занятиях по
речевой практике и культуре реч евою общ ения, а также на заня­
тиях. посвящ енны х проблемам межкультурной ком м уникации.
Пособие может быть использовано также при написании курсо­
вых и дипломных работ, при выполнении самостоятельных учеб­
но-исследовательских задании и при самостоятельной работе нал
языковым материалом.
Практические пели учебною пособия предполагают усвоение
о сн ов частной лексикологии, ознакомление студентов с наиболее
важными особенностями структурно-семантического строя а н г­
лийского языка, что поможет нм в дальнейш ем сознательно под­
ходить к изучению лексики в практическом плане.
В пособии осуществлен единый подход к изложению материа­
ла. основной особенностью которого я вляются поэтапная п рора­
ботка теоретических положений курса и контроль, осущ ествляе­
мый посредством вопросов и практических задании. Соблюдение
о б щ его п р и н ц и п а о р г а н и за ц и и м атериала способствует более
эффективному усвоению всех включенных в пособие тем.
Теория является неотъ емлемой частью процесса подготовки
специалистов по межкультурной комму никаким. Ьез углубления
в теоретические аспекты языка невозможна подготовка квали ф и ­
цированных кадров в области лингвистики, а также ф илол о гии.
Знание теоретических основ как частных, так и общ их л и н гви­
стических дисциплин способствует достиж ению высоких резуль­
татов в ходе обучения иностранному языку, позволяет сф орм и ро­
вать прочные навыки практическою использования того и ли ин о ­
го и н о стр а н н о го язы ка. В настоящ ее в р е м я исследователи все
чаще приходят к выводу о том. что бе з зн а н и я т еории изучен ие
язы ков сущ ест венно ослож няет ся. Обучающ ийся, не имеющ ий
п редставлен ия о с т р у к т у р н о -д е р и в а ц и о н н ы х, сем ан ти ч ески х ,
прагматических и других особенностях изучаемого языка, а так­
же его разнообразны х закономерностях, не способен ад ап ти р о ­
ваться к новой для него языковой среде, к новым для него я зы ­
ковым стандартам и речевым ситуациям, не г о тов к адекватному
использованию изучаемых языковых средств, поскольку в значи­
тельной степени о п и рается на знания и возм ож ности родного
языка. Таким обр азом , овладение теоретической базой данных
того тети иного и н о стр а н к о ю языка га р а н тирует успех в пр о цес ­
се меж культур нот о о б щ е ни я . снимает проблему возникновения
различных м еж ьязы ковы х конф ликтов, сущ ественно п он и ж аю ­
щих степень 'эффективности процесса межкультурной ком м уни­
кации. и ф орм ирует прочны е рецептивны е и продуктивные
межъязыковые умения, необходимые для достижения понимания
на межкультурном уровне общ ения.
Характер и объем теоретического материала определен п рак­
тической необходимостью и целесообразностью . Теоретические
сведения предлагаются в объеме, необходимом для практическо­
го овладения определенными лингвистическими понятиями. Те­
оретический материал во многих случаях сопровождается схема­
ми и таблицами, что делает теорию более наглядной и запомина­
ющейся.
Практическая часть учебного пособия начинается с серии во п ­
росов. которые лаются после каждой части или главы. Вопросы,
выносимые на обсуждение, предшествуют блоку практических за­
даний. что. безусловно, облегчает их вы пол нение. поскольку дан­
ные вопросы способствуют не только повторению пройденного
теоретического материала, но и концентрации внимания студен­
тов на наиболее важных научных понятиях и явлениях языка.
О соб ое в н и м ан и е в книге уделяется о р г а н и за ц и и работы с
практическим материалом. Больш инство практических заданий
содержит образцы их выполнения. Практические задания — это
основной сп особ выработки ум ен и й и приобретения навы ков в
работе с английским языком.
О сновой для практических заданий служат разнообразны е со­
временные английские лексикограф ические источники, а также
соврем енны е английские тексты. П рактический материал о тб и ­
рался с таким расчетом, чтобы он. с одной стороны , расш ирял и
одноврем енно углублял представление о том тети ином л и н гв и ­
стическом явлении, с другой стороны , облегчал понимание самой
сути этого явления, формируя прочные навыки не только сто р а с ­
познавания среди множества других ф актов языка, но и научно­
го анализа лингвистических данных
Пособие содержит более 160 разнообразных практических за­
даний. В соответствии с задачами практической л е к с и к а ют им а в ­
тор предлагает для выполнения следующие практические задания:
1) развиваю щ ие умение анализировать языковые факты на о с н о ­
ве приобретенных знаний: 2) направленные на нахождение п рак­
т и ч е с к о ю р е ш е н и я п роблем ы на сам о сто я тел ьн о о то б р ан н о м
материале: 3 ) развиваю щ ие аналитическое м ы ш ление и умение
обобщ ать и систематизировать конкретны й язы ковой материал;
4 ) развиваю щие языковую догадку. Большое количество п ракти­
ческих заданий и наличие ключей к ним лают установку на сам о­
4
стоятельное творческое изучение английского язы ка, позволяют
значительно расш ирить сферу сто практического применения. Та­
ким образом , вы полняя эти задания, студенты развиваю т чувство
язы ка, п о п а ш и ют свой словарный запас, а также знакомятся с со­
временными тенденциями в английской язы ковой системе.
Практические задании можно расс ма тривать также как допол­
нительный иллю стративный материал к теоретическим положе­
ниям курса.
Учебное п особие заверш ается вы п ол н ен и ем теста п о всему
пройденному материалу Вопросы теста построены в строгом с о ­
ответствии с той последовательностью , в которой представлен
теоретический материал. Ключи к тесту помотают студентам с а ­
мостоятельно оц ен и ть свои знания и степень усвоения гой или
иной темы.
Автор сердечно благодарит рецензентов книги за реком ен да­
ции, сделанные ими при ознакомлении с пособием, а также, н е ­
сом ненно. свою семью за поним ание, терпение и поддержку.
И . В Зыкова
PART
INTRODUCTION
I

1. T h e O bject o f Lexicology. Links o f Lexicology with O th e r


Branches o f Linguistics
2. Two Approaches to Language Study
3. The Course o f M odem English Lexicology

1. THE OBJECT OF LEXICOLOGY.


LINKS OF LEXICOLOGY WITH OTHER BRANCHES
OF LINGUISTICS

The term ‘lexicology* is composed o f two Greek morphemes: lexis


denoting 'w ord' and logos denoting ' learning'. T hus the literal meaning
o f the term ' lexicology is ' the science o f the word'. In m odem linguistics
lexicology is o n e o f th e branches o f science dealing with different
properties o f words and the vocabulary o f a language.
T he term 'word' denotes the basic unit o f a language resulting from
the association o f a particular meaning with a particular group o f sounds
capab le o f a p a rtic u la r g ra m m a tic a l e m p lo y m e n t. T he word is a
structural and semantic entity within the language system.
The term ‘v o c a b u la ry ’ is used to denote the system formed by the
total sum of all the words that the language possesses.
D istinction is naturally m ade betw een G en eral Lexicology an d
Special Lexicology.
The general study o f words and vocabulary , irrespective of the specific
features o f any particular language, is know n as General Lexicology
S p ecial L exicology is the lexicology o f a particular language
(e.g. English. Russian, etc.). i.e. the study and description o f its words
and vocabulary Special Lexicology may be historical and descriptive.
The evolution o f any vocabulary, as well as o f its single elements,
forms the object o f Historical Lexicology. This branch of linguistics
deals with the origin o f various words, their change and development,
and investigates the linguistic and extra-linguistic forces modifying their
structure, meaning and usage In the past historical treatment was always
combined with the comparative method Historical lexicology has been
c riticized for its atomistic approach, i. e for treating every word as an
individual and isolated unit. This drawback is, however, not intrinsic
to the science itself.
D escrip tive L exicology deals with th e vocabulary o f a given
language at a given stage o f its development It studies the functions o f
words and their specific structure as a characteristic inherent in the
system (Diagram 1).

D ia g ra m I
LEXICOLOGY

General Special

Historical Descriptive

Lexicology has close ties with o ther branches o f linguistics as they


also take into account words in one way or another approaching them
from different angles.
T h ere is a relationship between lexicology a n d p h o n etics since
phonetics is also concerned with the study o f the word, i.e. with the
sound-form o f the word. A close connection between lexicology and
gram m ar is conditioned by the manifold ties between the objects o f their
study. Even isolated words as presented in a dictionary' hear a definite
relation to the grammatical system o f the language because they belong
to som e part o f speech an d c o n fo rm to som e lexico-gram m atical
characteristics o f the word class to which they belong. Lexicology is
linked w ith the history o f a language since the latter investigates the
changes and the development o f the vocabulary o f a language. There is
also a close relationship between lexicology and stylistics. Stylistics
studies many problems treated in lexicology. These are the p roblems of
m eaning, synonymy, differentiation o f vocabulary according to the
sphere o f comm unication and some other issues. Lexicology is bound
up with sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics investigates the extra-linguistic
o r social causes o f the changes in the vocabulary o f a language. The
word-stock o f a language directly and immediately reacts to changes in
social life. The intense development o f science and technology, which
is a social, i.e. an extra-linguistic factor, has lately given birth to a great
n u m b e r o f new w ords, e.g.: C D - R O M ( ‘c o m p a c t disc read-on ly
memory : a C D on which large quantities o f information can be stored
to be used by a computer, etc. ). e -m a il ( ‘a system that allows you to
sen d a n d receive messages by c o m p u te r'), S M S ( 'te c h n ic a l short
m essage service, a m eth o d o f sending a text message to a mobile
phone’); pager ( ‘a small radio device, activated from a central point which
emits a series o f bleeps or vibrates to inform the wearer that someone
wishes to contact them or that it has received a short text message' ).
7
2 T W O A P P R O A C H E S TO L A N G U A G E STUDY

There are two principal approaches in linguistic science to the study


o f language m aterial, nam ely the synchronic (o r descriptive) an d
th e d ia c h ro n ic (o r h isto rical) ap p ro ach . T h e d is tin c tio n betw een
a synchronic and a diachronic approach is due to the Swiss philologist
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 -1913) who separated the two approaches
stating th a t sy n ch ro n ic linguistics is c o n c e rn e d with system s a n d
diachronic linguistics — with single units. Subsequent investigations,
however, have shown the possibility and the necessity o f introducing the
historical point o f view into systematic studies even in lexicology.
The term ‘synchronic' is composed o f two G reek m orphem es syn
meaning ‘together, with' and chro nos which denotes time'. I bus. with
regard to special lexicology the synchronic approach is concerned with
the vocabulary o f a language as it exists at a given period o f tim e,
e.g. at the present time.
The term ‘diachronic' is composed o f the Greek m orphem e' dia
meaning ‘through’ and chronos meaning ‘time'. Thus, the diachronic
approach in terms o f special lexicology deals with the changes and the
development o f vocabulary in the course o f time.
The two ap p roaches in lexicology (synchronic an d d iach ronic)
should not be contrasted or set one against the other: in fact, they are
interconnected and interdependent: every linguistic structure and system
exists in a state o f a constant development so t hat the synchronic state
o f a language system is a result o f a long process o f linguistic evolution,
the result o f the historical development o f the language.
A good example illustrating both the distinction between the two
approaches and their interconnection is furnished by the words to beg
and beggar. Syn chronically, these words arc related as a simple word
(to beg) and a derived w o rd 1(beggar) The noun beggar is derived from
the verb to beg by m eans o f the suffix -ar. Diachronically. however, we
learn that the noun beggar was borrowed from Old French and the verb
to beg appeared in the English language as a result o f back derivation2,
i.e. it was derived from the noun beggar.
Thus, the synchronic approach studies language at a theoretical ‘point’
in time. It refers to Descriptive Lexicology as this branch o f Linguistics
deals with the vocabulary and vocabulary' units o f language at a certain
tim e. T he diachronic approach refers to Historical Lexicology that
studies the development o f language o r languages over time.

1 Derived word — a won! formed or originated from another or from a root in the
same or another language
2 Back derivation - the formation of a word from the stem <base» of another word,
i.e. by means o f cutting off suffixes <prefixes» from the source word See also the
formation of the words: to burgle from the word burglar, to enthuse from enthusiasm,
to legislate from legislator
8
3 . THE C O U R S E O F M O D E R N E N G L IS H LEX ICO LO G Y

M od ern E n g lish L e x ic o lo g y a im s at g iv in g a s y s te m a tic


d e s c rip tio n o f th e w o rd -s to c k o f M o d e rn E nglish. W ords, th e ir
com ponent parts — m orphem es — and various types o f word-groups.
are subjected to structural and sem antic analysis primarily from the
synchronic angle. Thus. M odern English Lexicology investigates the
problems o f w ord-structure and w ord-form ation in M odem English,
the semantic structure o f English words, the main principles underlying
the classification o f vocabulary units into various groupings, the laws
governing the replenishm ent o f the vocabulary with new vocabulary
units.
M odem English Lexicology studies the relations between various
layers o f the English vocabulary and the specific laws and regulations
that govern its development at the present time. The source and growth
o f the English vocabulary, the changes it has undergone in its history
are also dwelt upon. A section dealing with Lexicography, the science
and a n o f dictionary-compiling, is also traditionally included in a course
o f Lexicology .
T h e course o f M o d e m English Lexicology is o f great practical
im p o r ta n c e as th e lan g u ag e le a r n e r will o b ta in m u c h v alu ab le
in fo rm atio n c o n c ern in g th e English w ord-stock an d the laws and
regulations governing the form ation and usage o f English words and
word-groups.
This text-book treats the following basic problems:
L Semasiology;
2. W ord-Structure:
3. W ord-Formation;
4. Etymology o f the English Word-Stock;
5. W ord-Groups and Phraseological Units;
6. Variants and Dialects o f the English Language;
7. English Lexicography.

QUESTIONS
1. What Greek m orphem es is the term 'lexicology' composed of?
2. What does lexicology study?
3. What does the term ẁord' denote?
4. What is the term 'vocabulary` used to denote?
5. What is the object o f study o f General Lexicology?
6. What does Special Lexicology study?
7. What forms the object o f study o f Historical Lexicology?
8. What does Descriptive Lexicology deal with?
9. What branches o f linguistics does lexicology have d o s e ties w ith ?
10. W hat are th e p rin cip al a p p ro a c h e s in linguistic science to
the study o f language material?
9
11. What scientist made the distinction between a synchronic and
a diachronic approach?
12. What is the literal m eaning o f the term 'synchronic' which is
Greek by origin?
13. What is the synchronic approach concerned with?
14. What is the literal m eaning o f the term ‘d iach ro n ic' which is
Greek by origin?
15. What does the diachronic approach deal with?
16. Why are the synchronic an d the diachronic approaches inter­
connected and interdependent? Give an example.
17. What does M odem English Lexicology aim at?
18. What problems does Modern English Lexicology investigate?
19. W hat se c tio n is also tra d itio n a lly in c lu d e d in a c o u rse o f
Lexicology? Why?
20. Why is the course o f M odem English Lexicology o f great practical
importance for the language learner?
SEMASIOLOGY

C h a p te r 1

1 .Meaning as a Linguistic Notion


1.1.
Referential o r Analytical Definitions o f Meaning
1.2.
Functional o r Contextual Definitions o f Meaning
Operational o r Information-Oriented Definitions o f Meaning
1.3.
2. Two Approaches to the Content Facet of Linguistic Units. Naming
3 . Types o f Meaning
4. Aspects o f Lexical Meaning

The branch o f lexicology that is devoted to the study o f meaning is


called semasiology. What is meaning? To define meaning is especially
difficult due to the complexity o f the process by which language and
hum an consciousness serve to reflect outward reality and to adopt it to
hum an needs.
The definition oflexica! meaning has been attempted more than once
in accordance w ith the main principles o f different linguistic schools1.
At present there is no universally accepted definition o f meaning, or
rather a definition reflecting all the basic features o f m eaning and being
at th e sam e tim e operational. N evertheless different d efinitions of
m ean in g help to sum up th e general characteristics o f the notion
comparing various approaches to the description o f the content side ot
the language.

1. MEANING AS A LINGUISTIC NOTION

There are three main categories o f definitions o f meaning which may


be referred to as
— referential or analytical definitions o f meaning:

' The disciples of F. de S a ia s u re . a Swiss linguist ( 1985-1913), consider meaning


to the relations between the object o r notion named and the name itself. Descriptive
linguistics o f th e Bloomfieldian tren d defines meaning as the situation in which the
word is uttered.
11
- functional o r contextual definitions o f meaning;
- operational or in format ion-oriented definitions o f meaning.

1 . 1 . R e f e r e n t i a l or Ana ly ti c al D e f i n i t i o n s
of M eaning

T he essential characteristic o f the referential approach is that it


distinguishes betw een th e th ree com ponents closely co n n ected with
m eaning:
1) the sound-form o f the linguistic sign:
2) the concept underlying this sound-form :
3) the referent, i.e. the part or aspect o f reality to which the linguistic
sign refers.
The referential m odel o f m eaning is the so-called basic triangle'
which is graphically represented on Diagram 2.
Diagram 2

T he sound-form o f the linguistic sign [dʌv] is connected with our


concept o f the bird which it denotes and through it with the referent,
i.e . th e actual bird. T h e diagram im plies th at m eaning is in a way
a correlation between the sound-form o f a word, the underlying concept
and the concrete object it denotes. Hence, the questions arise: in what
way does m eaning correlate with each elem ent o f the triangle and in
what relation does m eaning stand to each o f them ?
1. It is easily observed that the sound-form o f the word is not identical
with its m eaning. There is no inherent connection between the so u n d -
cluster [dʌv] and th e m eaning o f th e word dove. The co n n ectio n is
conventional and arbitrary. This can be easily proved by com paring the
so u n d -fo rm s o f d ifferen t languages conveying o n e an d th e sam e
meaning: English [dʌv] and Russian [golub']. T he words have different
sound-form s but express the sam e m eaning.
2. When we exam ine a word we see that its m eaning though closely
connected with the underlying concept o r concepts is not identical with
it o r with them . Concept is a category o f hum an cognition (категория
м ы ш ления). Concept is the thought o f an object that singles out its
e sse n tia l fe a tu re s . C o n c ep ts a re th e re su lts o f a b s tra c tio n a n d
generalization. T hus they are alm ost the sam e for the whole o f hum anity
12
Table I

—. concept “a building for human "fixed residence of family


language habttualion" or household’'

English house home

Russian JOM ЛОМ

in one and the same period o f its historical development. I he meanings


o f words, however, arc different in different languages. C o m p a re
th e linguistic expression o f o n e an d th e sam e concept in different
languages ( I able 1>.
This comparison proves the fact that the concepts expressed by one
and the same word in one language tin Russian), can be expressed by
two different words in the other language (in tnglish).
3. Distinguishing m eaning from the referent, i.e. from the thing
denoted by the linguistic sign, is o f the utmost importance. To begin
with, meaning is linguistic whereas the denoted object o r the referent is
beyond the scope o f language. One and the same object can be denoted
by more than one word o f a different meaning For example, in speech
th e referent

can be d e n o te d by th e w ord c a t.
a n im a l, p u ssy . Tom. th is. p e t. etc. All those words have the sam e
referent, but different meanings. Besides, there are words that have
distinct meaning but do not refer to any existing thing, e.g. m erm a id —
*an imaginary sea creature that has the upper body o f a woman and a
fish’s tail': a ngel — “a spirit that in some religions is believed to live in
heaven with G od: in pictures, angels are shown as people with wings':
p h o e n ix — ‘in ancient stories, an imaginary bird which set tire to itself
every 500 years and was b o m again, rising from its ashes ( = the powder
left after its body has been burnt)': etc
The conclusion is that m eaning is not to be identical w ith any o f the
three points o f the triangle — the sound-form . the concept and the
referent, but is closely connected with them.
The referential definitions o f meaning are usually criticized on the
ground that: I) they cannot be applied to sentences: 2) they cannot
accoun t for certain sem antic add itions em erging in th e process of
com m unication: 3) they fail to account tor the tact that o n e word may
denote different objects and phenom ena (polysemy) while one and the
same object may be denoted by different words (synonymy).
13
1 . 2 . F u n c t i o n a l or C o n t e x t u a l D e f i n i t i o n s o f M e a n i n g

The functional approach to meaning maintains that the meaning


o f a linguistic unit can be studied only through its relation to other
linguistic units. According to the given ap p ro ach the m eanings o f
the words to m ore and m ovem ent are different because these words
function in speech differently, i.e. occupy different positions in relation
to other words. To m m e can be followed by a noun (to move a chair)
and preceded by a pronoun iu v movei. SUnvment may be followed by
a preposition (movement of a car ) and preceded by an adjective (shiv
movement). T he position o f a word in relation to other words is called
distribution o f the word. As the distribution o f the words to mot e and
movement is different they belong to different classes of words and their
meanings are different.
The sam e is true o f different meanings of one and the same word
.Analyzing the function o f a word in linguistic contexts and comparing
these contexts, we conclude that meanings are different. For example,
we can observe the difference o f meanings o f the verb to take if we
examine its functions 111 different linguistic contexts, to take a seat
(*to sit dow n ' ) as opposed to to take to smb. (*to begin to like someone" 1
The term ‘context" is defined as the m in im u m stretch o f speech
necessary and sufficient to determine which o f the possible meanings
o f a polysemantic word is used.
The functional approach is sometimes described as contextual as it
is based on the analysis o f various contexts. In the functional approach
which is typical o f stru ctu ral linguistics sem an tic investigation is
confined to the analysis o f the difference o r sam eness o f meaning
meaning is understood as the function o f a linguistic unit

1 . 3 . O p e r a t i o n a l o r I n f o r m a t i o n - O r i e n t e d D e f in itio n s
o f M e a n in g

The operational or information-oriented definitions of meaning


are centered on defining m eaning through its role in the process of
communication. Thus, this approach studies words in action and is more
interested in how meaning works than in what it is. The information-
oriented approach began to take shape with the growing interest of
linguistics m the communicative aspect ol the language w hen the object
of study was shifted to relations between the language we use and the
situations whithm which it is used, thus exploring the capacity of human
beings to use the language appropriately.
Within the framework o f the trend described meaning is defined as
information conveyed from the speaker to the listener in the process of
communication This definition is applicable both to words and sentences
and thus overcomes o n e o f the alleged drawbacks o f the referential
14
approach. The problem is that it is more applicable lo sentences than to
words and even as such fails to draw a clear distinguishing line between
the direct meaning and implication (additional information).
T hus, the sentence John cam e a t 6 o'clock besides the direct
meaning may imply that John 'was tuxt hours late: fa iled to keep his
promise: came though he did not want to: was punctual as usual,
etc'. In each case the implication would depend on the concrete situation
o f com m unication and discussing m eaning as inform ation conveyed
would am ount to the discussion o f an almost infinite set o f possible
com m unication situations. The distinction between the two layers in
the information conveyed is so important that two different terms may
be used to denote them. 'The direct information conveyed by the units
c o n s titu tin g th e s e n te n c e may be referred to as m e a n in g while
the information added to (he cxlralinguistic situation may be called
sense.

2 . TW O A P P R O A C H E S TO TH E C O N T E N T FACET
O F L IN G U IS T IC U N IT S . N A M IN G

S ince words deno te objects, processes, p h en o m en a ot concrete


reality, the first thing to be discussed is correlation between meaning
and the thing denoted by the word. In studying such correlation two
different approaches are possible. The study o f the semantic side ot the
word may start with the nam e or with the object denoted. In the first
case the study will consist in considering different meanings of the word,
determining interrelations between them, as well as discovering semantic
relations between different words. Such approach is called sem asio-
logica) The second approach is the reverse o f the first: it starts from
an object and consists in analyzing different words correlated with it.
This approach is called onomasiological (from the Greek onoma -
= *name*l I he o n o m asio lo g ical ap p ro ach helps to discover how
meaning is formed, considering its basic properties and peculiarities.
The difference between the two approaches may be illustrated by
Diagram .V
D i . u r . i in
the vi-masiologtcal approach

the oiwmasioloRical approach


There are two main participants in the process o f nomination: the
one who gives a nam e to an object (the nominator) and the object
which is given a nam e (the referent). The process o f giving a nam e to
an object consists o f several stages.
1. The process o f nom ination starts with forming a concept o f the
object. The concept is a generalized idea o f a class o f objects, summing
up the most essential features o f the given class thus distinguishing it
from o th e r classes. T h ere arc several factors which influence the
formation o f concepts: 1) the objective reality itself. This factor accounts
for differences in concepts in different language communities. This can
be illustrated by the collocability o f words in different languages: in
Russian ест ь суп — in English d rink so u p ; 2) the level of know ledge
about the nature and structure o f the given object. For example, the
concept o f “star” differs tor the I5,h century and 2114 century European:
3) th e g e n e ra l system o f n o tio n s ty p ical o f th e given language-
com m unity. e.g . philosophic, m oral, religious an d other principles
existing at the given period o f time.
2. The next stage in the process o f naming is the designation o f class
o f objects under nom ination w ith the help o f linguistic means. To form
meaning certain features (not necessarily the most important in shaping
the concept) are singled out to underlie word semantics. The features
chosen as the basic characteristics o f the object form the denotatum
It is really what the word denotes, while the concept and the referent
are what the word is correlated with. The interrelations o f concept and
denotatum may be different, in some cases the denotatum is close to
the concept, in o th er cases it is m uch narrower than the underlying
concept as can be seen from Diagram 4.
D iagram A
ihc rrlcrcnt
(c jf a concrete animal)

Ihc denotatum of the wool cat the denotatum of the word тои.н-г
• small fur> domestic amm.il often n e r o t am cat. but 'a cat that
kept as a pet, to catch mice, etc.') catches mice')

16
The dcnotational р а л o f meaning is relatively stable and it stands to
represent all the characteristics o f the object — general, individual, and
those to he discovered.
3. D efining a set o f denotational features constitu ting th e most
im portant p a n o f m eaning (i.e. the sem antic core) in the process of
nom ination is not the final stage. The next step is the form ation o f
functional significance o f a linguistic unit. T he attitude o f the speaker
towards the object, the place it is ascribed am ong other things also finds
its reflection in shaping lexical meaning. Information suggested in
addition to the denotatum may refer to the positive or negative attitude
o f th e n o m in a to r , o r it m ay in d ic a te a c e rta in s itu a tio n o f
com m unication and point out at the panicipants and their roles. This
add itio nal info rm atio n shap es th e co m m u n icativ e value o f lexical
meaning.
4. Coming to the final stage it should be noted that to become з word,
the semantic side formed in the process of nomination is to be correlated
with certain material structure, i.e. the sound form and the graphic
form. The acquisition o f the sound and graphic forms makes it possible
for the word to be conveyed from one person to ano ther to serve the
purposes o f communication.

3 . T Y P E S O F M E A N IN G

W o rd -m ean in g is not h o m o g e n e o u s. It is m ad e up o f various


com ponents. These com ponents are described as types o f meaning.
T h e two m ain types o f m eaning are the gram m atical m eaning and
the lexical meaning. Still one m ore ty pe o f meaning is singled out. It is
based on the interaction o f the major types and is called the pari-of-
speech (or lexico-grammatical) meaning.
The grammatical meaning is defined as an expression in speech
o f relationship between words. Gram matical meaning is the com ponent
o f m eaning recurrent in identical sets o f individual forms o f different
w ords, as. for ex am p le, th e ten se m ean in g in th e w o rd -fo rm s of
the verbs: asked, th o u g h t. w a lk e d : the case meaning in the word-forms
o f various nouns: g ir f 5, boy's, night's: the m eaning o f plurality which
is found in the word-forms o f nouns: jo y s . tables, places.
The lexical meaning o f the word is the meaning proper to the given
linguistic unit in all its forms and distributions. T he word-form s go.
gctes. w en t, going, g o n e possess different gram m atical m eanings of
tense, person, number, but in each form they have one and the same
semantic component denoting The process o f movement'.
Both the lexical word-
m eaning as neither :an exist w iihogt the othcr.j That can be observed
in th e sem antic an lysis o f co rrelated words it* different languages.
T h e R u ssia n word с в е д е н и я ifeiw Lsem afiH tfollv id e n tic a l with
КОСТАНАЙСКИ/ ' - ' т ОСНИЧИСКИЙ | ^
the English equivalent information because unlike the Russian сведения
the English word does not possess the grammatical meaning o f plurality
w hich is part o f the semantic structure o f the Russian word.
In some parts o f speech the prevailing com ponent is the grammatical
type o f m eaning. For exam ple, in the verb to be the gram m atical
meaning o f a linking clement prevails: He is a teacher.
The essence o f the part-of-speech meaning o f a word is revealed
in the classification o f lexical items into major word-classes (nouns,
verbs, adjectives a n d adverbs) a n d m in o r w o rd -classes (articles,
prepositions, conjunctions, etc).
All members o f a major word-class share a distinguishing semantic
com ponent which, though very abstract, may be viewed as the lexical
com ponent o f part-of-speech meaning. For example, the meaning o f
thingness or substantiality may be found in all the nouns, e.g. table,
love, sugar, though they possess different grammatical m eaning o f
num ber and case.
T he grammatical aspect o f part-of-speech meaning is conveyed as
a rule by a set o f forms. If we describe the word as a noun we mean to
say that it is bound to possess a set o f forms expressing the grammatical
meaning o f num ber (table-tables) and case (boy-boy's).
The part-of-speech meaning o f the words that possess only one form,
e .g . p re p o s itio n s , so m e ad v e rb s, e tc . is o b se rv e d o n ly in th e ir
distribution, e.g. to come in (here, there): in ion. under) the table.
The interconnection between the three types o f meaning is shown
m Diagram 5.
Diagram 5

MEANING

1 "

Lexical - - - P u rt- o f - S p e e c h (ira rn rru lK .il

4 . ASPECTS OF LEXICAL MEANING

In the general framework o f lexical meaning several aspects can be


singled out. They are:
a) the denotalional aspect;
b) the connotational aspect:
e) the pragmatic aspect.
The denotations! aspect o f lexical meaning is the p a n o f lexical
meaning which establishes correlation between the name and the object,
p h e n o m e n o n , process o r characteristic feature o f concrete reality
(or thought as such), which is denoted by the given word. T he term
denotationaF is derived from the English word to denote which means
be a sign of. indicate, stand as a name o r symbol for'. For example.
IS
the denotations] m eaning o f booklet is a small thin book that gives
information about something' It is through the denotational aspect o f
m eaning that the bulk o f inform ation is conveyed in the process o f
communication. The denotational aspect o f lexical meaning expresses
the notional content o f a word.
The connotations! aspect o f lexical meaning is the pan o f meaning
w hich reflects the attitude o f the speaker towards what he speaks about.
C o n n o t a t io n co n v ey s a d d itio n a l in f o r m a tio n in th e p ro c e s s o f
com m unication C onnotation includes:
1) the emotive charge, e.g. d a d d y as com pared to fa th e r.
2) evaluation, which may be positive o r negative, e.g. clique (a small
group o f people w ho seem unfriendly to o th er people) as com pared
to group (a set o f people):
3) intensity (or expressiveness), e.g. adore as compared to tore:
4) imagery, e.g. to w a d e — to walk with an effort (through mud.
water o r anything that makes progress difficult). The figurative use o f
the word gives rise to another meaning which is based on the same image
as the first — to w a d e through a book.
The pragmatic aspect o f lexical meaning is the part o f meaning,
th at conveys inform ation o n the situation o f com m u nication. Like
the connotational aspect, the pragmatic aspect falls into four closely
linked together subsections:
1) information on the “ time and space** relationship o f the
participants. Some information w hich specifies different parameters of
communication may be conveyed not only with the help of grammatical
means (tense forms, personal pronouns, etc.). but through the meaning
o f th e w ord For in sta n c e , th e w ords c o m e a n d g o c a n ind icate
the location o f the Speaker who is usually taken as the zero point in
Ihe description o f the situation o f communication.
The tim e clem ent when related through the pragmatic aspect of
m eaning is fixed indirectly. Indirect reference to time implies that
the frequency o f occurrence o f words may change with time and in
extrem e cases words may be out o f use o r becom e obsolete. Thus,
th e w ord b e h o ld — ‘take n o tic e , see (esp. so m eth in g u n u su al or
striking)” as well as the noun b eholder — ‘spectator* are out o f use now
but were widely used in the 17!>' century :
2 ) information on the participants and the given language
community. To illustrate this type o f pragmatic information in the word
meaning one can cite an example analysed by G. Leech in ‘‘Semantics".
Discussing two sentences
(1) They ch u cked a stone a t th e cops, a n d then d id a bunk w ith
the loot. (2) A fter casting a stone a t the police, th ey absconded with
th e money\
G .Leech points out that sentence (1) could he said by two criminals,
talking casually about the crime afterwards: sentence (2) might be said
by the chief inspector in making his official report. Thus, the language
19
used may be indicative o f the social status o f a person, his education,
profession o r occupation, etc. The pragmatic aspect o f the word may
also convey information about the social system o f the given language
community, its ideology, religion, system o f norm s and customs;
3) information on the tenor o f discourse. The tenors o f discourse
reflect how th e addresser (th e speaker o r th e writer) interacts with
the addressee (the listener o r the reader). Tenors are based o n social or
family roles o f the participants o f com m unication. A m other will talk
in a different wav (a) with her small child and (b) about her children.
There may be a situation o f a stranger talking to a stranger, o r tw o friends
discussing m atters o f interest, o r a teacher talking to a stud ent, o r
a student interviewed by the dean, etc.:
4) information on the register o f communication. The conditions
o f communication form another important group o f factors. The register
defines the general type o f the situation o f com m unicatio n grading
the situations in formality (variations ranging from extreme degrees o f
formality through norm to extreme non-formality). Three main types
o f the situations o f com m unication are usually singled out: formal,
neutral and informal. Practically every word in the language is register-
oriented. T hus, the pragm atic aspect o f m eaning refers words like
cordial, fra te rn a l, a nticipate, a id . sanguinary', celestial to the formal
register while units like c u t it out. to be kidding, hi. stu ff are to be used
in the informal register.
T h e a s p e c ts o f lexical m e a n in g a re p re se n te d g ra p h ic a lly o n
Diagram 6.
D ia g ra m 6
LEXICAL MEANING

D r notations I aspect - - -Connotational aspect Pragmatic aspect

fcmotive charge Evaluation


V X

Expressiveness Imagers

/
Information on the “ time and space"
relationship of the participants

Informaiton on the participants and


the given Language community
V
Information on the tenor of discourse
у
Information on the register
o f communication

20
Q U E S T IO N S AND T A S K S

' (J'JEST!ONS

I WTiat is the significance o f semasiology?


2. What are the three main trends in defining meaning?
3. What is the essence o f the referential (or analytical) approach to
meaning?
4. In what relation does m eaning stand (1) to the so u n d -fo rm .
(2) to the concept and (3) to the refereni?
5. How is meaning defined on the functional (or contextual) basis.’
6. What is meant by 'the distribution o f the word'?
7. What does the term ‘context’ mean?
8. What is the essence o f the operational (or inform ation-onented)
approach to defining meaning?
9. WTiat is the difference between ‘m eaning’ and ‘sense’?
10. What is the difference between the semasiological and onomasi-
ological approach to linguistic phenomena?
11. What are the main stages o f the process o f naming?
12. What factors influence the formation o f the concept?
13. What ty pes o f meaning can be singled out?
14. What is meant by III the grammatical meaning, <2) the lexical
meaning, (3) the part-of-speech meaning'.’
15. What aspects o f lexical meaning can be singled out'.’
16. What is the denotational aspect o f lexical meaning?
17. W hat is the co n n o tatio n al aspect o f lexical m eaning * What
constituents may be distinguished in it?
18. W hat is th e p ra g m a tic a sp e ct o f lexical m e a n in g ? W hat
constituents can be singled out in the pragmatic aspect o f meaning?

II TASKS

I. Analyze the distribution ot th e words renew al a n d to renew a n d different


c o n te x ts in w hich th e se w o rd s a te used. Apply th e fu n c tio n a l a p p ro a c h to
m eaning to prove that these words have different m eanings. G ive ih e m eanings
of these words.
M o d ® ! ' sea rch : I t he search for su rv iv o rs; a t h o r o u g h search ot
th e undergrow th; a fruitless search for a replacem ent. T h e police have already
e a r n e d out л search Rescuers were forced to a b a n d o n their search 2 an online
search: a com puterized search o f 10.000 m edical jo u rn als. 1 did a quick search
o n the Internet a n d fo u n d th ree airlines wi t h tickets available o n that date
A search found 46 websites 3 the search for a cu re; the search for happiness
T h e com m ittee is involved in a search for solutions n> key international problems
0 T h e word search is p reced ed by an article, a n o tio n a l verb, a possessive
p r o n o u n , a n ad jectiv e. T h e w ord search is follow ed by a p re p o s itio n .
a notional verb T he m eanings o f this w ord arc; I t a n attem pt to find som eone

21
or som ething; 2) a series o f actio n s d o n e by a c o m p u te r to find in form ation.
3) a n a ttem p t to find an explanation or solution

renewal
I a renewal o f war; a renewal o f hostilities; a renewal o f an old
friendship; the renewal o f youth. Recently there has been a renewal
o f interest in environmental issues. He felt the renewal o f affection.
2 a renew al o f lease (а р е н д а ); a renew al o f b ill, a renew al o f
a p assp o rt: a renew al o f a driving licence. T h e renew al o f your
contract is just a formality. My m em bership is up for renewal again
next year. 3 a p erio d o f e c o n o m ic renew al, th e need for u rb a n
renewal.
to renew
I to renew a passport, lo renew a book. He failed to renew his
contract, w hich expired last month. 2 The reunion offers an opportunity
to renew acquaintance with old friends. She will renew her strength
when she com es back from her holiday. 3 The parties reneued their
efforts lo agree the treaty. Student organizations renewed their call for
a reduction in tuition fees. In the morning the enemy renewed his attack.
4 You may need to renew the brake linings 1 must renew my library
ticket.

2.* Give possible interpretations of the sentences paying special attention


lo the italicized words. Stale the difference between meaning of the italicized
words and sense which these words lend to the whole utterance or the
situation
M o d e 1: I won't go further, 1 am afraid of the dog ahead Don't worry
lo ail appearances, it won't bite, it is just barking
y” to bark

Meaning Sense

to m ake the short sharp (loud) such behaviour of the dog implies
soun d that dogs an d som e o th er that th e dog itself is frightened
anim als make by the a p p earan ce o f th e people

1. The discreet door was shut with a bang. 2, She failed to buy an
expensive little box and she felt a strange pang. 3. I turned to my friend
but he had gone to the house and was leaning against it with his face
to th e w all. 4. R o se m a ry b ro u g h t th e b eg g a r to h e r lu x u rio u s
apartm ent. She helped the girl o ff with her coat. But what was she to
do with it now? Rosemary left the coat on the floor. 5. She didn't dine
with them. She insisted on leaving, b. He got up from his chair, but
he was moving slowly, like an old man. He put the newspaper down
very carefully, adjusting its creases with lingering fingers. They were
trembling a little. ?. He felt that he had behaved badly in losing his
tem per while she had so admirably co ntrolled hers. He sought for
a crushing phrase, som e final intimidating repartee. But before that
(the phrase) cam e she closed q u ietly the door in his face. 8. The girl
went to her father and p u lle d his sleeve lie was longing to begin to
be generous. 10. She was a resigned little woman with shiny red hands
and work-swollen finger knuckles
3 .1 . Analyze th e following leutures regarded as the basic c h an icten stic s ot
the given objects form ing the den o tatu m .

a large yellowish-brown animal of the cat


family which hunts an d lives mainly in
Africa, the male having a thick growth of
hair (a m ane — грива) over its head and
shoulders

a large tree that can live for a very long


tim e an d p ro d u c e s hard fru its called
acorns (Ae.iy.tu)

3 . 2 . * A n a ly z e ih e g iv en e x p r e s s io n s a n d a n sw e r t h e q u e s t io n : w hat
characteristics ol the lion a n d the oak not reflected in the d e n o ta tu m are proper
to th e c o n ce p ts about these objects'.’

1) a l i o n - h u n t e r ; to h a v e a h e a r t lik e л lio n ; t o fee! like a l i o n , t o r o a r


like a lio n ; t o lio n iz e s o m e o n e : to b e a r d t h e lio n in h is d e n : to b e th r o w n
t o t h e lio n s ; t h e lio n s s h a r e ; t o p u t o n e ' s h e a d in l i o n 's m o u t h :
2) great/mighty oaks from little acorns grow; a heart o f oak; iKtks may
fall when reeds stand the storm.
4 .* G r o u p th e follow ing w ords in to th ree c o lu m n s in a c c o rd a n c e with
Ihe sam eness ol their I > gram m atical. 2) lexical; 3) pa п - o t - speech m eaning
B o y ’s, n e a r e s t , a t. b e a u tif u l, t h i n k , m a n . d r if t, w r o t e , t r e m e n d o u s ,
s h i p 's , t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l , ta b le , n e a r . for. w e n t , f r i e n d ’s, h a n d s o m e ,
t h i n k i n g , b o y . n e a r e r , t h o u g h t , b o s s . l a m p . g o . d u r in g .
5 . “ Identify th e d c n o ta tio n a l a n d e o n n o ta tio n a l aspects ot lexical m ean in g
o f t h e g iv e n w o r d s A n a ly z e t h e s i m i l a r i t y a n d d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n
th e c o m p o n e n ts o f th e e o n n o ta tio n a l aspect ot lexical m e a n in g in th e given
pairs o f words

23
M o d e l: celebrated — notorious

(..’otnponcnl*
Dcnofaiiunal A cor.notanonai of the connotation;») aspect
Wotd' of lexical meaning which
aspects
specify the difference between
the words

celebrated widely k n o w n , adm ired evaluation ipositive)


a n d talked about by m any
people because o f grxxi
qualities

notoriou v widely know n because evaluation (negative)


1 o f so m ething bad.
1l for exam ple, for being
crim in al, violent,
o r im m oral

To deal with — to grapple with, sophisticated — hardened, adven­


ture — ordeal, perfect — flawless, to glance • to glare, adulation —
respect, ugly — repulsive, to m urm ur — to mutter.
6.* Slate what image underlies the meaning of the italicized verbs. Give the
meanings of these verbs.
M и 0 e It I heard what she said, but it didn't sink into my mind until much
later.
0 The meaning of the verb sink is based on the image ol something going
down below the surface or to the bottom of a liquid or soil substance'
S in k in to means 'to be gradually understood and accepted by tone's
mind)'.

1. You should be ashamed o f yourself. crawling to the director like


lhat. 2. T he crowd fir e d questions a t the speaker for over an hour.
3. Even though divorce is legal, it is still fro w n e d upon. 4. I ta k e back
my unkind remarks. 1 see that they were not justified 5. Ideas were Jiving
about in the meeting. 6 The children seized on the idea o f camping in
the m ountains, and began making plans 7. I was following the man
when he d ic e d into a small restaurant and I lost track o f him. S. You
might ca tch him in about II o'clock. 9. I should imagine that the
President was glad to lay doun his office. 10. Why are you trying to pin
the blame on me?

7*. State the difference in the pragmatic aspect of lexical meaning in the
following pairs ol words. Pay special attention to the register of communication
State the possible participants of the communicative situation and their roles
on winch tenors of discourse are based
24
M o d e I; to interrupt - to butt in I >nnt interrupt when your mother is
speaking There is an awful man in ihc Irutn mw who butts in whenever you
pause

Roles, which
Register l\»iiu ip.mis of ihc tenors of
Words discourse arc
ol communication communicative situation
based on
interrupt neutral parent child family roles

butt in intbim al people w ho know social roles


each other well enough

I. certainly — unquestionably: I'm sorry if upset you. dear


I certainly didn’t mean to. Japan has unquestionably one o f the most
successful economies in the world. 2. dough — money: He only married
her for her dough How much m o n ey will you pay me for this work,
sir? 3. picture — photograph: Karen showed me a picture o f her new
boyfriend — h e ’s very good-looking. Visitors are not allowed to take
photographs inside the museum. 4. skirt — girl: So, Bill, off to cha.se
some sk irt! I didn't know you were friends with the girl 1 had seen you
w ith last night. 5. quality — thing: T here are certain q u a litie s in
Orwell’s prose that I greatly admire. One o f the things 1 like about Mary
is the way she always keeps smiling, even when there are problems.

Chapter 2

1. j W ord-M eaning and Motivation


2. , Causes. Nature and Results o f Semantic Change
3. ! Polysemy
3.1 Diachronic and Synchronic Approaches to Polysemy
3.2. | Historical Changeability o f Semantic Structure
3.3., Polysemy and Context. Types o f Context
4. | Homonymy. Classification of Homonyms

1. W O R D -M E A N IN G AND MOTIVATION

The process of motivation depends upon the inner form o f a word


t c f . : in R ussian в н у т р е н н я я ф о р м а сл о ва), T he inner form is
the pivotal point in the lexical meaning which helps to get an insight into
the features chosen as the basis for nomination. In linguistics the term
motivation' is used to denote the relationship between the phonetic or
m orphemic composition and structural pattern o f the word on the one
•>s
hand, and its m eaning on the other. There are three main types of
motivation:
a) phonetic»! motivation;
h) morphological motivation;
c) semantic motivation.
The phoneticai motivation implies a direct connection between the
phonetic structure o f the word and its meaning. Tor instance, the word
cuckoo (cl. in Russian к ук у ш к а ) denotes a bird whose call is like its
name. Thus, there is a certain similarity between the sound-form of the
word and the sounds the bird produces
It is also suggested that so u n d s them selves can be em otionally
expressive which accounts for the phoneticai m otivation in certain
words. Tor example, the sound-clusier j-mj is imitative o f sound or swift
movement as can be seen in the words a ring (bell sound), to sing (to
make musical sounds), to su in g (to move quickly round to the opposite
directions), to Jling (to move suddenly or violently).
The morphological motivation implies a direct connection between
the lexical meaning of the com ponent morphemes . the pattern o f their
arrangement and the meaning o f the word. Thus, the main criterion in
morphological motivation is the relationship between morphemes. For
e x a m p le, th e d erived w ord to r e th in k is m o tiv a te d th ro u g h its
morphological structure which suggests the idea o f thinking again' The
direct connection between the order o f the arrangement o f morphemes
in words and their meaning can be illustrated by the semantic analy sis
o f different words composed of phonetically identical morphemes with
identical lexical meaning. The difference in the arrangem ent o f the
com ponent m orphem es in the words fin g er-rin g (кольцо) and ring-
fm g e r (безымянный палеи) accounts for the difference in the meaning
o f these words.
The semantic motivation implies a direct connection between the
central and marginal meanings o f the word For example, the compound
noun eyew ash has two meanings: 1) a lotion for the eves (примочка
п я глаз): 2) something said or done to deceive a person so that he
thinks what he sees is good though in fact it is not <cf in Russian
очковтирательство). The first meaning is based on the literal meanings
o f the components, i.e. the meanings o f the morphemes eye- and -wash.
T hus, the m otivation o f the n o u n eyew ash in its first m eaning is
morphological. The second meaning of the word eyvu ash is metaphoric
o r figurative. In th is case th e m o tiv atio n is se m a n tic . S em an tic
motivation is based on the coexistence o f direct and figurative meanings
w ithin th e sem an tic s tru c tu re of th e word. M o u th . for in stan ce,
continues to denote a part o f hum an face, and at the same time it can
mean metaphorically any opening or outlet, as in th e m outh o f a river:

M orphem e — the smallest meaningful language ur.il. e.g. ihc word writer
consists of two morphemes unt(e) -er.
2 . CAUSES, NATURE AND RESULTS
OF SEMANTIC CHANGE

Word m eaning is liable to change in the course o f the historical


development o f language There arc distinguished causes o f semantic
change, nature and results of the process o f change o f meaning.
Causes o f Sem antic Change. The factors accounting for semantic
changes may be roughly subdivided into two groups: a) extra-linguistic:
b> linguistic.
By extra-linguistic causes various changes in the life o f the speech
community are meant, i.e. changes in economic and social structure,
changes in scientific concepts. For example, changes in the way o f life
o f lhe British brought about changes in the meaning hlaford. Originally
th e word m eant bread-keeper* (•х р а н и тел ь хлеба*), an d later on
’master, ruler* (« попелигель, лорд-)
Some changes of meaning occur due to purely linguistic causes, i.e.
factors acting within the language system. The commonest form which
this influence takes is the so-called ellipsis. In a phrase made up o f two
words one ol these is omitted and its meaning is transferred to its partner.
For example, the verb to starve in Old English (O F) meant to die’ and
was habitually used in collocation with the word hunger In the 16'
century the verb to ston e itself acquired the meaning to die o f hunger*.
A n o th er linguistic cause is d iscrim ination/differentiation o f
synonyms which can be illustrated by the semantic development o f a
num ber o f words. In O F the word la n d meant both solid part of earth’s
surface' and the territory of a nation* In the Middle English period the
word country was borrowed as its synonym. The meaning o f the word
la n d was somewhat altered and "the territory o f a nation’ cam e to be
denoted by the borrowed word country.
Fixed context may be regarded as a n o th e r linguistic factor in
sem antic change. For exam ple, th e word token, when brought into
com petition with the loan word sign, becam e restricted in use to a
num ber of set expressions, such as fo ie to k e n , token o f respect and also
became specialized in meaning (Diagram 7).
D i a g r a m ~

CAUSES OF SEMANTIC CHANGE

1 inguisiic E x tra-lin guistic

E llip sis D ifferen tia'io n o f Fixed context*

Ihc etymological sen>c expresses the relation o f гhe head ot a household to hi*
dependant* w h o cat hi* bread’. « T h e C o n c i \ e O x / n r J D i c t i o n a r y o j Г itg iish
Ttx/nuiony. / |
N ature o f S em an tic C han ge. A necessary c o n d itio n o f any
semantic change is some connection, some association between the old
meaning and the new one. There are two kinds o f association involved
in various semantic changes:
a) similarity o f meanings:
b) contiguity o f meanings.
S im ilarity o f m eanings o r m etaphor may be d esc rib ed as the
semantic process o f associating two referents, one o f which in some wav
resembles the other. The word h a n d , for instance, acquired in the I6,r
century the meaning o f 'a pointer o f a clock or a watch' because o f the
similarity of one o f the functions performed by the hand ( to point to
s m th .) and the function o f the clock-pointer. See the expression hands
o f th e clock (watch).
C ontiguity o f m eanings o r metonymy may be described as the
semantic process o f associating two referents one o f w hich makes pan
o f the other or is closely connected with it. This can be illustrated by
the use o f the word tongue — ’the organ o f speech' in the meaning ot
■language' (as in m o th er tongue). The word bench acquired the meaning
judges' because it was on the bench that judges used to sit in law courts,
similarly th e H ouse acquired the meaning o f'm e m b e rs o f the House'
(Parliament) (Diagram 8).

Diagram 8

NATURE OF SEMANTIC CHANGE

S im t ia n i C o f m e an in g s C o n tig u ity ot' m e an in g s


MbtxPHOR x itro w x n

Results o f Sem antic Change. Results o f semantic change can be


generally observed in the changes o f the denotational meaning o f the
word. i.e. in restriction or extension o f meaning.
R estr ictio n o f m eaning c a n be illu stra te d by the se m a n tic
development o f the word h o u n d which used to denote dog of any breed'
but now denotes only a dog used in the chase'. If the word with a new
restricted meaning comes to be used in the specialized vocabulary of
some limited group within the speech community it is usual to speak ol
the specialization o f meaning.
Extension o f meaning may be illustrated by the word target which
originally meant 'a small round shield' but now means anything that is
tired a t ' If the word with the extended m eaning passes from the
specialized vocabulary into co m m o n use. the result o f the semantic
change is described as the generalization o f meaning.
See the graphic represen tatio n o f the processes in question on
Diagram 9
D ia g r a m 9

S p e c ia liz a t io n

Generalize Ikm

Results o f semantic change can be also observed in the alteration of


th e c o n n o t a ti o n a l a s p e c t o f m e a n in g , i.e . in a m e lio r a tio n o r
deterioration o f meaning.
A m elioration o f m ean in g im p lie s th e im p ro v e m e n t o f th e
connotational com ponent o f meaning. For instance, the word m inister
originally denoted ‘a servant' but now -- *a civil servant o f higher rank,
a person administering a departm ent o f state'.
Deterioration (or the pejorative development) o f meaning implies
the acquisition by the word o f some derogatory emotive charge. For
example, the word boor was originally used to denote ‘a peasant' and
then acquired a derogatory connotational meaning and cam e to denote
‘a clumsy o r ill-bred fellow’ (Diagram 10).

D iagram 10

RESULTS OF SEMANTIC CHANGE

C hange С lu n g e
o f the denotational component of ihe connotational component

M- '"ж
Restriction Extension Deterioration Amelioration
of meaning o f meaning of meaning of meaning

3 . POLYSEMY

Polysemy is a phenom enon which has an exceptional importance


for the description o f a language system and for the solution o f practical
tasks connected w ith an adequate understanding o f the m eaning o f a
word and its use.
A word may have several meanings. Then it is called a polysemantic
word. W ords having only o n e m eaning are called m onosem antic.
M onosem antic words are few in number. These are mainlv scientific
terms. The bulk o f English words are polysemantic.
29
A great contribution to the development o f the problem o f polysemy
was made by the Russian linguist V V.Vinogradov. ITie scientist admitted
th e im p o r ta n c e o f d iffe re n tia tin g th e m e a n in g from th e usage
(acontexual variant) Meanings are fixed and com m on to all people,
who know the language system. The usage is only a possible application
o f o n e o f th e m ean in g s o f a p oly sem an tic w ord, so m etim e s very
individual, sometimes more or less familiar. Meaning is not identical
with usage.
O f special im p o rta n c e is th e fact that polysemy exists only in
language, not in speech. The meaning of a word in speech is contextual.
Polysemy does not interfere with the com m unicative function o f a
language because in every particular case the situation or context, i.e.
the environment o f the word, cancels all the unnecessary meanings and
makes speech unambiguous.
A further developm ent o f V.V.Vinogradov's theory was A.I.Sm ir-
nitsky's work in the linguistic field under consideration. According to
this scholar all the meanings o f the word form identity (тождество)
supported by the form o f the word. A.I.Smirnitsky introduced the term
’a lexico-semantic variant* ( LSV). A lexico-sem antic variant is a two-
facet unit (двусторонняя единица), the formal facet o f which is the
sound-form o f a word, while the content facet is one o f the meanings
o f the given word. i.e. the designation (обозначение) o f a certain class
o f objects. Words with o n e meaning are represented in the language
system by one LSV, polysemantic words - by a num ber o f LSVs.
All lexico-semantic variants o f a word form a homogenous semantic
structure ensuring the semantic unity o f the given word. All LSVs are
united together by a certain meaning - the semantic pivot o f the word
called the semantic center o f the word. Thus, the semantic center of
the word is the part o f meaning w hich remains constant in all the lexico-
semantic variants o f the w ord1.

3 . 1 . D ia c h r o n i c a n d S y n c h r o n i c A p p r o a c h e s to P o l y s e m y

If polysemy is viewed diachronically it is understood as the growth


and development or as a change in the semantic structure o f the word.
Polysemy in diachronic terms implies that a word may retain its previous
meaning or meanings and at the same time acquire one or several new
ones. T hus, according to the diachro nic approach in the sem antic
stru ctu re o f a word two types o f m eaning c a n be singled o u t: the
primary meaning and the secondary meaning. T he polysemantic
word table, for example, has at least nine meanings in M odem English
<ModE). In the course o f a diachronic semantic analysis it is found that
o f all the meanings this word has in M odE the primary meaning is *a fiat

Sec .«Iso: lie гяенская Е .Г . С е м а н т и к а сл о ва. — M . 19ST.

30
slab o f stone or w ood’ which is proper to the word in the OE period.
All other meanings are secondary as they are derived from the primary
meaning. Semantic changes result as a rule in new meanings which are
added to the ones already existing in the semantic structure o f the word.
Som e o f the old m eanings may becom e obsolete o r even disappear
but the bulk o f English words tend to an increase in the num ber o f
meanings.
Synchronic ally polysemy is understood as the coexistence o f various
m ean in g s o f th e sam e w ord at a c e rta in h isto rical p erio d o f th e
development o f the English language. In the course o f a synchronic
semantic analysis o f the word table the follow ing question arises: do all
the nine meanings o f the word table equally represent the semantic
structure o f this word? The meaning that first occurs to us whenever
we hear or see the word ta b le is ‘an article o f furniture? This emerges
as the central to r basic) meaning o f the word, and all other meanings
are marginal (or minor) meanings. The central m eaning occurs in
various and widely different contexts, marginal meanings are observed
only in certain contexts. There is a tendency in m odern linguistics to
interpret the concept o f the central meaning in terms o f the frequency
o f occurrence o f this meaning. As far as the word table is concerned
the meaning ‘piece o f furniture’ possesses the highest frequency o f value
and makes up 52 Ъ o f all the uses o f this word.

3 . 2 . His to ri ca l C h a n g e a b i l i t y of S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e

As the semantic structure is never static, the primary m eaning o f


the word may become synchronically o n e o f its marginal meanings
and diachronicatly a secondary m eaning may becom e the c en tral
m eaning o f the word. T he relationship between the diachronic and
synchronic evaluation o f an individual m eaning may be different in
different periods o f the historical developm ent o f language. This can
be illustrated by the semantic analysis o f the word evidence. Originally,
when this word first appeared in Middle English in the 13th century' it
d e n o te d ‘significant a p p e a ra n c e , to k e n ’. T h is m ean in g in M iddle
English was b o th p rim ary td ia c h ro n ic a lly ) an d ce n tral ( s y n c h ro ­
nically). Later o n , the word acquired other meanings and am ong them
‘inform ation lending to establish fact? In M odern English, however,
while we still can diachronically describe the m eaning ‘significant
appearance, token' as prim ary it is no longer synchronically central
as the arrangem ent o f meanings in the sem antic structure o f the word
evidence has changed and its central an d the most frequent meaning
is ‘the available body o f inform ation indicating w hether a belief or
proposition is true or valid?
The results o f historical changes in the semantic structure o f the word
evidence are given in Table 2.
31
T a b le 2
----- ---- ----
significant appearance, 'information tending
evidence to establish feet'
token*
Middle English
diachronically primary secondary
synch ronically central marginal
i Modem English
diachronically primary secondary i
synchronically marginal central
-------

3 .3 . P o ly se m y a n d C o n te x t T y p e s of C o n te x t

T h e te rm ‘context* d e n o te s th e m in im a l s tre tc h o f sp e e c h
determining each individual meaning o f the word. Contexts may be of
two types: linguistic (verbal) and extra-linguistic (non-verbal).
Linguistic contexts may be subdivided into lexical and grammatical.
in lexical contexts o f primary im portance are the groups o f lexical
items com bined w ith the polysemantic word under consideration. This
can be illustrated by th e results o f the analysis o f different lexical
contexts in w hich a p olysem antic word is used. F o r exam ple, the
adjective heavy used with the words load, table m eans “o f great
weight*. W hen com bined with th e words denoting natural phenom ena
such as rain, storm, snow, w ind the adjective heavy is understood as
denoting 'abundant, striking, falling with force*. If used with the words
industry\ artillery, arm s and the like, heavy has the m eaning the
larger kind o f smth*.
It can be easily observed that the main factor in bringing out the
individual meanings o f the adjective heavy is the lexical meaning ol
the words with which this adjective is com bined. T hus, the meanings
o f heavy may be analyzed through its collocabilitv with th e words
weight, safe, table, snow, wind: industry, artillery, etc. The meaning
at the level o f lexical contexts is sometimes described as meaning by
collocation.
In grammatical contexts it is the grammatical (syntactic) structure
o f the context that serves lo determine various individual meanings o f a
polysemantic word. The meaning o f the verb to m ake — ‘to force, to
induce’ is found only in the grammatical context possessing the syn­
tactic structure to make + pm . + verb (to m ake smb. laugh, to make
smb. июгк. to m ake smb. sit). A nother meaning o f this verb — ‘to be­
come* is observed in the context o f a different syntactic structure — to
make + adj. ♦ noun (to m ake a good wife, to m ake a good teacher).
Such meanings are sometimes described as grammatically bound m ean ­
ings.
32
There are cases when the meaning of a word is ultimately determined
by the actual speech situation in which the word is used. i.e. by ihe
extra-linguistic context (or context of situation1). In the sentence
The bill is large, the meaning of the word hill is clearly ambiguous as
it has two “ readings" resulting from the two meanings o! the word bill.
The sentence can. however, be disam biguated? i.e. one o r the other
o f its two readings can be established if it is extended with ... bur need
nor be paid This extension is. o f course, possible only with one of the
meanings o f the word bill. The noun ring in to give smb. a ring* may
possess the m eaning a circlet o f precious metal* o r ‘a call on the
telephone* depending on the situatio n in which the word is used.
Another example is the word glasses in the sentence: John was looking
fo r the glasses. This j> ambiguous because it might refer to 'spectacles'
or to drinking vessels*- So it is possible to state the meaning o f the word
glasses only through the extended context or situation’

4 . H O M O N Y M Y . C L A S S IF IC A T IO N O F H O M O N Y M S

Two or more words identical in sound form, spelling but different in


meaning, distribution and in many cases in origin are called hom onym s.
The term is derived from G reek hom os — ‘similar* an d onom a —
‘name*, and thus expresses the sameness of name com bined with the
difference in meaning. M odem English is rich in hom onym ous words
a n d w ord-form s. It is som etim es suggested that the a b u n d a n c e of
h o m o n y m s in M o d e rn E nglish is to be a c c o u n te d for by th e
monosyllabic structure of the commonly used English words
The m ost widely accep ted classificatio n o f hom ony m s is that
recognizing homonyms proper, hom ophones and homographs.
I. Homonyms proper arc words identic.il in their sound-form and
spelling but different in meaning. Com pare the words:

pit <n » pit (n )


a l a r g e h o l e i n th e g r o u n d th e sto n e .» o f i r u i t |

■ 1 1 j

ball <n > ball m : >


a r o u n d o b j e c t u s e d in g a m e s a g a t h e r i n g o f p e o p l e f o r d a n c i n g

hack (n i back ( a d v >


part o f 1 h e n o d > away, f r o m t h r f r o n t

I-----

T h e term 'context of situation is a sso ciated with " a o s r h u la r s B. M alinow ski


( a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ! a m i J R F i r t h t a lin g u ist» B o th w e re c o n c e r n e d wi t h sta lin g
m e a n in g in te rm s u tT h e c o n te s t in w h ich la n g u ag e is u s e d , hut m n t h c r different w a\s
• S e e a lso P a lm e r / H S em a n tic s. Л New O u tlin e M 1‘hO

33
2. Homophones are words o f the same sound-form but o f different
spelling and meaning. Com pare the words:

piece in) |pt;s| pence I n ) |p i: s |


p art s e p a ra te d from smlh. a situ ation m w h ich ’here »s n o war
betw een c o u n trie s or grou ps

knight ini |nait| night ( n > | n a n |


in Ihc pas!, л Г u m p c a n soldier from Ihc p a n o f eac h 2 4 -h o u r period
a high social vLlns w h o wore a suit w h en i- is dark
o f a r m o u r 1 a m etal s u m a n d rode a h o rse

3. H o m o g ra p h s are words different in sound-form and in meaning


but identical in spelling. Com pare the words:

bow | i >Jb.xij bow <2) |h a o |


a weapon made from a long cursed a lorwurd me* emeu* or the top pun
piece of wood, used for shooting arrow* of the body. especially to show respect j

lend f 11 | li:d j tend ( 2 ) | led j


ihe first position at a particular lime ,t sott heavy grey metal |
during a race or competition !

O J E S “ .ON S AMD TASKS

I. Q>irZTiCihS

1. What does the process o f motivation depend on?


2. What is the term ‘motivation* used to denote?
3 What is the phonetical motivation'.’
4. What is implied by the term ‘morphological motivation*?
5. What does the semantic motivation mean?
6 What linguistic causes ol semantic change can be singled out?
7. What are the basic types ol association involved in various semantic
changes? Give examples.
8 What are the results o f the change o f the denotationa! aspect of
lexical meaning? Give examples.
9. What are the results o f the change o f the eonnotational aspect ot
lexical meaning? Give examples.
10 What is polysemy?
11 Why is it im p o rtan t to differentiate between m eaning' an d
‘usage*?
12. What are lexico-semantic variants?
13. What does the term semantic center o f the word' denote?
14. What types of meaning in terms of the diachronic approach lo
polysemy can be singled out?
34
15. What types o f meaning in terms of the synchronic approach to
polysemy can be singled o u t?
!6. W hat is m e a n t by th e historical ch an g eab ility o f sem an tic
structure o f the word?
17. What does the term context’ denote?
18. What types o f linguistic contexts do you know?
19. What is the extra-linguistic context?
20. What are homonyms'1 What types o f homonyms do you know?

n TASKS
1.* Suggest the meaning.'» ot ihc words according to th eir so u n d -fo m i. C heck
уo n i sell by a dictionary
Buzz, click, bang, sizzle, boom, quack.
2 .* A nalyze i h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e g iv en w o rd s. S l a te wh a t c o m m o n
associations. gi\cn by the graphic so u n d -c lu sters \p- |sp- 1. -ash 1-a: I ( and gl-
Jgl-i unite these words.
Sprinkle (to shake small am o u n ts o f a liquid over the surface of
something), spray {to send liquid through the air in tiny drops either
by the wind or some instrum ent), splash (to wet o r soil by dashing
masses or particles o f water», spit (send liquid out from the m outh).
spatter (to scatter drops of a liquid on a surface), spill (to accidentally
pour a liquid out o f its container), spurt (if a liquid spurts from smth..
it com es out in a sudden strong flow).
Sm ash (break violently into small pieces), dash (move o r be moved
violently). crash (strike suddenly violently and noisily), bash (to hit hard
and violently ), gash (a long deep cut or wound), slash (to move in a
violent way that causes a lot o f dam age), trash (to criticize in a very
strong way).
Glamour (a special quality that makes a person, place, o r situation
seem very exciting, attractive, o r fashionable), gleam (a bright light
reflected from something), glisten (to shine and look wet or oily), glossy
(shiny in an attractive way), glint (to shine w ith quick flashes o f light), glow
(to shine with a soft light), glimmer (a soft weak light that is not steady ).
3.* Analyze ihe meanings o f the italicized words. G r o u p the words according
to their type of motivation: a) words morphologically motivated; b) words
semantically motivated.
Driver — someone who drives a vehicle, especially as h is/her job;
careless — not taking enough care: leg — the part o f a piece o f furniture
such as a table or chair that supports it and raises it off the floor: horse —
a piece o f equipment shaped like a large box that is used in gymnastics.
singlehood — the state o f being single rather than married: wall —
em otions o r behaviour that prevent people from feeling close to each
other: hand-m ade — made by hand, not machine; piggish — selfish;
blue-eyed — having blue eyes; sound bite — a short co m m en t by
a politician o r a n o th e r fam ous p erso n that is taken from a longer
conversation o r speech and broadcast alone because it is especially
interesting or effective; leajlet — a small, often folded piece o f printed
paper, o ften advertising so m e th in g , usually given free to people;
streamlet — a small stream (a natural flow o f water).
4.* D efine ih c kind o f association involved in the sem antic change
M u <} e I: glass (a transparent solid substance used for m aking windows,
bottles, etc » — a glass (a c o n ta in e r used for drinking, m ad e o f glass»
T he kind o f association involved in the sem antic change hi Ihe words.g/u.vv —
a glass is know n as m elonym y o r the contiguity o f m eaning.
I) the fo o t o f a person - the fo o t o f a m ountain; 2) jean (heavy
(willed coiton cloth, esp. denim ) — jeans (trousers made ol denim );
3) Matisse (proper name) — a Mattisse (a painting); 4) the wing o f
a bird — the wing o f a building; 5) ihe key to a d o o r - ihe key to
a mystery; 6) copper Imetal) - copper (coin): 7» Ihe heart o f л man —
the heart o f a city; S) crown (a circular ornamental headdress w orn by
a m onarch) — crown (monarchy): 9) a whip (a lash used to urge horses
on) — a whip (an official in the British Parliament to see lhal members
are present at debates): 10) China (a country ) china (dishes made
o f porcelain (ф арфор)
5 ." Analyze ih e m ea n in g s o f th e italicized words. Identify th e result o f
changes of th e d c n o ta h o n al aspect o f lexical m ean in g in the given words.
M о d e I: loan ’a gift from a superior: a thing borrow ed - a sum o f money
which is borrow ed, often from л bank, a n d has to be paid back, usually together
wi t h an a d d itio n a l a m o u n t o f m o n e y th a t you have to pay as a c h arg e tor
borrow ing'
I h e result o f th e change o f th e denotational aspect o f lexical m eaning o f t he
w ord loan is that the w ord becam e m o re specialized in m eaning (restriction
o f m eaning, specialization)
1) camp : a place where troops are lodged in tents — a place where
people live in tents o r h u nts': 2) girl: a small child o f either sex* -
a small child o f the female sex'; 3) bird: л young bird’ — ‘a creature
w ith wings and feathers w hich can usually fly in the air'; 4) arrive: reach
the shore after a voyage' — ’reach a place at the end o f a journey or
a stag e in a j o u r n e y ': 5) deer: any q u a d r u p e d (ч е т в е р о н о г о е
ж и вотное)' — 'a hoofed grazing or browsing anim al, with branched
bony antlers that are shed annually and typically borne only by the
m ale'; 6) rug: rough woolen stuff — a small carpel*: 7) ham: ‘a place
for keeping barley’ — ‘a large farm building used for storing grain, hay.
o r straw o r for housing livestock’: 8) glide: ’to m ove gently and
smoothly* — ’fly with n o engine'; 9) room: space' — a part or division
o f a building enclosed by walls, floor, and ceiling'; 10) J lv move with
3b
wings’ — to move through the air o r in the o u ter space’: I I ) a rtist:
*a master o f the liberal arts <i> маннтарные науки)' — *a person who
produces paintings o r drawings as a profession o r hobby': 12) cham pion.
‘a fighting m an ’ — a person who has defeated o r surpassed all rivals in
a com petition, especially a sporting co ntest': 13) cam paign: army s
operations in the field' — a connected set o f actions intended to obtain
a particular result, in military operations, in politics and business’.
6.* Analyze th e m eanings o f th e italicized words. Identify th e result o f the
changes o f th e c o n n o ta tio n a l aspect o f lexical m ean in g in the given words.
^ t o n t i: ci/lam: a feudal serf, peasant cultivator in subjection to a lord —
“a person guilty or capable of a crime or wickedness'
Ш The result of the change of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning of
th e word v illa in is th a t th e w ord a c q u ire d a d e ro g a to ry em otive charge
tdeterioration o f meaning).
I) cu n n in g : ‘possessing erudition or skill’ — ‘clever in deceiving’:
2) knight: ‘manservant’ — ‘noble courageous m an ’: 3) fo n d : ‘foolish,
infatuated (лиш ивш имся рассудка)’ — 'loving, affectionate’: 4) gang:
‘a group o f people going together’ — an organized group ofCriminals':
5) m arshal: manservant attending horses’ ‘an officer o f the highest
rank in the arm ed forces’: 6) coarse, ordinary, c o m m o n ’ ‘rude or
vulgar': 7) m inister. *a servant’ — ‘a head o f a government departm ent’:
8) enthusiasm : a prophetic or poetic frenzy (безумие, беш енство)’ —
‘intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval': 9) v io le n r having
a m arked o r powerful e ffe c t’ - 'u sin g o r involving physical force
intended to hurt, damage, or kill som eone o r som ething’: 10) gossip:
‘a g o d p a re n t, a person related to one in G o d ' — the one w ho talks
scandal: tells slanderous stones about other people'.
7. Read the given passage. Speak on the linguistic phenomenon described
in it. f ind examples of your own.
COWBOY
This is an interesting example o f how a lexeme can have its
meaning deteriorate in several directions at once. C o u b o y originally’
developed quite positive connotations, with its romantic associations
of the Wild West. To these have now been added a num ber of
distinctly negative overtones in certain regional varieties.
• In British English, it can mean an incompetent or irresponsible
workman or business: c o u b o y p lu m b e rs, c o u b o y dou bie-gU cdn gJirm .
• In Northern Ireland, it can mean a member of a sectarian gang.
• In American English, it can mean an automobile driver who docs
not follow the rules of the road or a factory worker who does more
than the piece-work norms set by his union or feUow-worlcers.
(from th e C am bridge Encyclopedia
o f the English language by David Crystal)
8.* Read the sentences in which the polysemantic word simple is used, Give
all the lexico-semantic variants constituting the semantic structure of this word.
Check yourself by a dictionary.

I. The book tries to give simple explanations o f some very complex


scientific ideas. 2. Sally likes clothes that are simple but elegant. 3. The
simple fact is that he wants a divorce. 4. Archaeologists found several
simple tools at the site. A knife is a simple loot. 5. Her grandparents
were sim ple people w ho never had m uch money. I'm just a simple
farmer. 6 You may be joking but she's simple enough to believe you
7. I'm afraid old Jack is a bit simple.
9.* Analyze the meanings of the given polysemantic words taken from the
Concise Oxford Dictionary o f English Etymology. These meanings are
considered primary and central in Middle English What are their basic (or
central) meanings from the point of view ot the present-day language? What
can you say about the historical development of their semantic structure1
M •>»Je '• pension fixed or regular payment, spec, out of the revenues
of a benefice’ (XIV c.)
El In modem English the central meaning of the word is a regular payment
made by the state to someone who can no longer earn money by working .
Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word pension
remains central.
I) likely — ‘probable* (XIII c .): 2) revolution — moving o f a celestial
body in an orbit' (XIV c ) ; 3) to perish — come to a violent or untimely
end, cease to exist* (XIII c . ): 4) challenge — ‘accusation* (XIII c.K
5 ) single — ‘u n a c c o m p a n ie d , u n m arrie d ; individual; not d o u b le '
(XIVc.); 6) to hetrav — ‘to give up treacherously* (XIII c ).
10.* Classify the given words into; I >homonyms proper; 2) homophones.
3) homographs. Give meanings of these words.
Made (adj) - maid <n): row (n) — row (n); week (n) — weak (adj):
seal (n ) — seal (n ); te a r (v) — tear (n ): bread (n ) — bred (adj):
b a n d ( n ) — b a n d (n ); sum (n) — som e (p ro n ): fall (n) — fall (v):
wind (n) — wind <v); base (n) — base (v); desert (v) — desert <n):
hare (n) — hair In); sewer (n) — sewer (n); c o m (n) co m (n).
11.* Fill in the blanks choosing the right word.
I. Out o f ... out o f m ind (cite, site , sight). 2. D o not look a g i f t ...
in the m outh (horse, hoarse). 3. It never rains, but i t ... (pours, paw s).
4. N o ... without sweat (sw eet, suite). 5. D o not run with the ... and
h u m with the hounds (h a ir. h a re). 6. All is ... in love and war (fa re,
fa ir ). 7. Fame is chiefly a m atter o f... at the right m om ent (die. dye).
8. W hen tw o p eo p le ride th e .... o n e m ust ride b e h in d ( h o a r s e ,
h orse).
38
3

I. Intralinguistic Relations ol W o rd s
2 Types o f Semantic Relations
2.1. Proximity
2.2 Pqtiivalence
2.3 Inclusion. Hyponymic Structures
2.4. Opposition
3. Semantic C lassification of Words
3.1 Synonvmy. Classification o f Synonyms
3.2 l exical an d Terminological Sets. Lexico-Sem antic Ciroups
t
and Semantic Fields
3.3 Antonvmv Classification o f \n t o m n i s

1. I N T R A L I N Q U I S T I C R E L A T I O N S O F W O R D S

The principles which determine the interna! structure o f the language


system were derived by F de Saussurc from two basic notions which have
b ecom e traditional in linguistics. W o rd-m eanin g can be perceived
through iniralinguistic relations that exist between words. Intralinguistic
r e la tio n s o f w o rd s are basically o f tw o ty pes: s y n ta g m a tic an d
paradigmatic.
Syntagmatic relations are the relationships that a linguistic unit has
w ith o th e r u n its in th e s tre tc h o f lan g u ag e in w h ich it o c c u rs.
Syntagmatic relations define the meaning the word possesses when it is
used in combination with other words. For example, the meanings of
the verb to get can be understood from the following contexts: He got
a letter ('to receive ): He got tired (‘to become*); He got to London
('to arrive ); He could not get the piano through the d<nir ('to move
smth. to or from a position or place* I. So syntagmatic relations are linear
(simultaneous) relationships between words
Paradigmatic relations are the relationships that a linguistic unit
has with units by which it may be replaced. Paradigmatic relations exist
betw een words w hich make up one o f the subgroups o f vocabulary units,
e.g. sets o f synonyms, lexico-semantic groups. Paradigmatic relations
define the meaning the word possesses through its interrelation with
other members o f the subgroup in question. For example, the meaning
o f the verb to get can be fully understood in comparison with other units
o f the synonymic set: to obtain, to receiie. to gain, to acquire , etc So
paradigmatic relations are associative (non-sim ultaneous) relationships
between words.
T he distinction between syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations is
conventionally indicated by horizontal and vertical presentation as it is
shown on Diagram 11.
39
D iagram 11
S y n t a g m a t i c relations
V
He got л letter
S ,.
Ш
5 £
SC J5 I received iJ ll t f-H U i

’Я 1£
w Sue o b ta in e d a n o te
A

etc

2 . T Y P E S O F S E M A N T IC R ELA TIO N S

T h e re a re lo u r b asic ty p e s o f s e m a n tic re la tio n s: p ro x im ity ,


equivalence, inclusion and opposition.

2 . 1 . P r o x i m it y

Words very seldom are the sam e semantically, i.e. they are not
identical in meaning and show a certain semantic difference as well as
similarity. Meaning similarity is seldom complete and is nearly always
partial which makes it possible to speak about the semantic proximity
o f words an d, in general, about the relations o f sem antic proximity,
Com pare the words used for describing a female appearance from the
point o f view o f similarity and dissimilarity in their content side:

beautiful extremely g o o d -lo o k in g , m u ch m ore so th an most w om en


pretty go o d -lo o k in g in an ordinary wav but not really beautiful
o r sexually exciting 1

attractive g o o d -lo o k in g , especially in a way that m akes y ou feel sexually


interested

striking very attractive, especially because a w o m a n has a particular


feature, such as h air o r eyes, that is beautiful a n d unusual

handsom e g o o d -lo o k in g in an un usu al way. especially because a w o m an


is tall o r strong or looks as if she has a strong character
— — ------------------------------- 1
An obvious conclusion is that the adjectives discussed are charac­
terized by certain features o f semantic dissimilarity w hich shows that they
are not absolutely identical in meaning.
Semantic proximity implies that two (or more) words however different
may enter the semantic relations o f proximity if they share certain semantic
40
features, e.g. the words red and green share the semantic features of
‘c o lo u r, basic or rainbow c o lo u r. complementary colour', etc.
The words may be graded in semantic proximity. A higher degree of
semantic proximity helps to single out synonyms while a lower degree
o f proximity provides for a description o f broader and less homogeneous
semantic groups. For example, the degree o f proximity will be much
lower in the words red and green which share the semantic feature of
‘colour’ than in red vs scarlet or green vs emerald. I he words table
and chair share the semantic features o f ‘thingness*, object’, ‘piece of
furniture’ that forms a good basis for grouping them together w ith other
nouns denoting pieces o f furniture .

2 . 2 . E c jU 'v a le n c e

Semantic equivalence implies full similarity o f meaning o f two or


more language units. Being an extreme case o f semantic proximity it is
qualitatively different from all other cases suggesting the existence ot
units different in form but having identical meaning, i.e. one and the
same content side.
Semantic equivalence is very seldom observed in words and is claimed
to be much oftener encountered in case o f sentences, e.g. the phrase
John is taller than Bill may be considered equivalent to the phrase Bill
is shorter than John, and the phrase She lives in Paris is semantically
equivalent to She litres in the capital o f France.
The relations o f semantic equivalence in words can be illustrated by
two phonetic terms stops and plosives both used to denote the English
sounds (p. bj. |t. d |. |k. g). The meaning o f the word stop is defined as
‘consonant sound made by closure o f organs follow ed by audible release
o f air', while the meaning o f the word plosive is defined through the
m eaning o f th e word stop. Both w ords in th e given m ean in g are
semantically identical and may be used interchangeably.
Semantic equivalence in words is highly unstable, it tends to turn into
the relations o f sem antic proximity. T his p ro n o u n c ed tendency to
semantic differentiation may be viewed as a realization o f the economy
principle in the language system which “does not need” words different
in form and absolutely similar in meaning.

2 . 3 . I n c lu s i o n . H y p o n y m tc S t r u c t u r e s

.Another type o f semantic relations is the relationship o f inclusion


which exists between two words if the meaning ol one word contains
the semantic features constituting the meaning o f the other word. The
semantic relations of inclusion are called hyponymic relations. Thus,
for example, vehicle includes car, bus. taxi, tram and flower includes
daffodil, carnation, snowdrop. lily. The hyponymic relation may be
41
viewed as the hierarchical relationship between the m eanings o f the
general and the individual terms.
The general term — vehicle. tree, anim al - is referred to as the
classifier o r the hvperonym. The more specific term is a t lied the hyponym
(car, tram : oak. ash, cat. tortoise). T he m ore specific term (the
hyponym) is included in the more general term (the hvperonym), e.g. the
classifier m o w and the members of the group — w alk . run. saunter. The
individual terms contain the meaning of the general term in addition to
their individual meanings which distinguish them from each other.
It is important to note that in hyponymic structures certain words
may be b o th classifiers ih y p ern n y m s) an d m em bers o f th e group
(hyponyms) (Diagram 12).
D Ingram 12

p la n t

' - f -
grass bush tre e s h ru b flo w e r

* **
p in e oak ash m a ple

Я X
while pmc yellow pine

From the diagram above it is quite clear that the words tree and pine
are both hyperonyms (the classifiers) and hyponyms (the members of
the group).

,2.4. O pp osition

The contrast o f sem antic features helps to establish the semantic


relations o f opposition. T h u s, the m ean in g o f th e word black is
contrasted to that o f the word white The relations o f opposition imply
the exclusion o f the meaning o f one word by another, which, in fact,
implies that the referential areas o f the two (or more) words are opposed,
th u s. black is opposed to white but it is not opposed to either red or
yellow. In the latter case we can speak about contrast o f meaning, but
not the semantic relations o f opposition.
T h ere are two types o f relations o f sem antic o p p o sitio n : polar
oppositions and relative oppositions. Polar oppositions are those which
are based on th e sem an tic feature unitin g two linguistic units by
antonym ous relations, e.g. rich ~ poor, dead — alive, young — old
Relative oppositions imply that there are several semantic features on
which the opposition rests. For example, the verb to leave m eans ‘to
go away from* and its opposite, the verb to arrive denotes reaching a
place, esp. the end o f a journey*. It is quite obvious that the verb to leave
implies certain finality and movement in the opposite direction from the
42
place specified. I he verb to arrive lays special em phasis semantically
on ‘reaching sm th.'. i.e. attaining a point which is set as an aim and
implies effort in achieving the goal Thus, it is not just one semantic
feature the presence o f w hich in one case accounts for the polarity ot
meaning, but a whole system o f semantic features which underlies the
opposition of two words in the semantic aspect.

3 . S E M A N T IC C L A S S IF IC A T IO N O r 3N Q R D S

In general there arc two basic principles o f grouping words together


according to the properties o f their content side. They are;
1. To classify words proceeding from the basic types o f sem antic
relations
2. To group words together starting o ff w ith associations connecting
the given words with other vocabulary units.
According to these principles o f classifying linguistic units the following
semantic classes (or categories) can be singled out: synonyms, lexical and
terminological sets, lexico-semantic groups, semantic fields, antonyms

3.1 - S y n o n y m y C is s t r f ic t t io n of S y r o n y m ;

S y n o n y m s are usually defined as words belonging to one part of


speech, close in meaning and interchangeable at least in some contexts.
S y n o n y m s are c h a ra c te riz e d by e ith e r th e se m a n tic re la tio n s of
equivalence or by the semantic relations o f proximity. As the degree of
semantic proximity may be different, different types o f synonyms can
be singled out. Full (to tal) synonym s, i.e. words characterized by
semantic equivalence, are extremely rare.
The degree o f semantic proximity is best of all estimated in terms ot
the aspects of meaning, i.e. the denotational. the eonnotational. and
the pragmatic aspect.
The highest degree o f proximity is observed in synonyms which have
similar denotational aspects but differ either in the eonnotational <1ю г
the pragmatic (2) aspect o f meaning.
1. The difference in connotation may be illustrated by the words
fa m o u s meaning ‘known widely, having fam e’ and the word notorious
which is defined as “widely known because o f smth. had. for example
for being criminal, violent, immoral*. Thus, the word fa m o u s implies a
positive emotive evaluation, and the word notorious — negative.
2. The difference in the pragmatic value o f words is found in a far
greater number o f words than the difference in the eonnotational aspect.
It can be observed in synonym ic pairs consisting o f a native an d a
borrowed word. In most cases the native word is more informal, whereas
the foreign word has a learned or abstract air. cl.: brotherly — fraternal.
43
bodily — corporal. In a few cases these synonymic values are reversed,
e.g. deed — action, fo e — enemy.
Taking into account the difference o f synonyms by the three aspects
o f their meaning they may be classified into stylistic, ideographic and
ideographic-stylistic synonyms.
Stylistic synonymy implies no interchangeability in context because
the underlying situations are different, e.g. children -- infants, d a d -
father. Stylistic synonym s are sim ilar in the denotational aspect o f
meaning, but different in the pragmatic (and connotational) aspect.
Substituting one stylistic synonym for another results in an inadequate
presentation o f the situation o f comm unication
Ideographic synonymy presents з still lower degree o f semantic
proximity and is observed w hen the connotational and the pragmatic aspects
are similar, but there are certain differences in the denotational aspect of
meaning o f two words, e.g. forest — apartment — flat, shape —
u x x m J .

form. Though ideographic sy nonyms correspond to one and the same


referential area. i.e. denote the same thing or a set of closely related things,
they are different in the denotational aspect o f their meanings and their
interchange would result in a slight change of the phrase they are used in.
Ideographic-stylistic synonymy is characterized by the lowest degree
o f semantic proximity. This type o f synonyms includes synonyms which
differ both in the denotation»! and the connotational and/or the pragmatic
aspecb o f meaning, e.g. ask — inquire, expect — anticipate. If the
sy nonyms in question have the same patterns o f grammatical and lexical
valency, they can still hardly be considered interchangeable in context.
E ach sy n o n y m ic g ro u p c o m p ris e s a d o m in a n t e le m e n t. T h is
synonymic dominant is the т о м general term potentially containing
the specific features rendered by all the other members o f the synonymic
group. In the series leaie — depart - quit — retire — clear out Ihe
verb leave, being general and both stylistically and emotionally neutral,
can stand for each o f the other four terms. The other four can replace
leate only when some specific semantic com ponent prevails over the
general notion. For example, when it is necessary to stress the idea o f
giving up employment and stopping work quit is preferable because in
this word this particular notion dominates over the m ore general idea
com m on to the whole group.

3 . 2 . L e x ic a l a n d T e r m i n o l o g i c a l S e t s . L e x i c o - S e m a n i i c
G r o u p s a n d S e m a n t i c F ie ld s

Words denoting different things correlated on extralinguistic grounds


form lexical sets (п р ед м етн ы е или тем ати ч ес к и е группы). For
example, the words lion, tiger, leopard, pum a, cat refer to the lexical set
o f ‘the animals o f the cat family? Depending on the type o f the notional
area lexical sets may acquire a m ore specialized character, e g. names of
44
‘musical instruments*: p ia n o . organ, violin, d ru m , names o l'p a rts o f the
car m echanism ’: radiator. m otor, handbrake, wheels. Such classes of
words are called terminological sets Перчи оологические группы).
Words describing different sides o f one and the same general notion
arc united in a lexico-sem antic group if
a) the underlying notion is not too generalized and all-embracing,
like the notions o f ‘tim e’, ‘space’. Mile', process’, etc.;
b )lh e reference to the underlying notion is not just an implication in
ihc meaning of the lexical unit but forms an essential part in its semantics
Titus, it is possible to single out the lexico-semantic group o f names ol
‘colours’ consisting of the words p in k . red. black, green, w hite, the lexico-
semantic group of verbs denoting physical movement' to go. to turn,
to run. or destruction’ — to ruin, to destroy. to explode, to kill; etc.
If the underlying notion is broad enough to include alm ost all-
embracing sections o f vocabulary we deal with semantic fields. For
example, the words cosm onaut <n >, spacious (adj.). to orbit (v.) belong
to the sem antic field o f space’. These broadest semantic groups are
sometimes referred to as conceptual fields which might be in many cases
misleading. The members o f the semantic fields arc joined together by
some com m on semantic com ponent, i.e. the com ponent com m on to
all the members o f the semantic field, w hich is sometimes described as
the com m on denom inator o f meaning.
T he starling point o f th e theory o f sem antic fields an d lexico-
semantic groups was J Trier's work (a G erm an linguist; the beginning
o f th e 20th century) o n intellectual terms in Old and M iddle High
G e rm a n J . Trier showed that they form an in terd epend ent lexical
sp h ere w here the sig n ifican ce o f each u n it is d e te rm in e d by its
neighbours The sem antic areas o f the units limit one a n o th e r and
cover up the whole sphere.
T he correlation between the semantic classes may he graphically
presented by means of concentric circles (Diagramm 13).
D iag ra m m I'

a sem antic field


a lexico-sem antic group
a lexical/term inological set

3 . 3 . A n t o n y m y . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ot A n t o n y m s

.Antonyms — a class o f words grouped together on the basis o f the


semantic relations o f opposition. Antonyms are words belonging to one
part o f speech sharing certain com m on semantic characteristics and in
this respect they are similar to such semantic classes as synonyms, lexical
45
sets. Icxico-scm antic groups. There exist different classifications of
antonyms.
Structurally, antonym s can be divided into antonym s o f the same
root (1). e.g. to do — to undo. cheerful — cheerless : and antonym s ol
different roots ( 2) . e.g. day — night, rich — poor.
Sem antically, an to n y m s may be classified into con trad icto ries,
contraries and incompatibles.
1. Contradictories represent the type of semantic relations that exist
between pairs like, for example, dead — alive. single - married.
Contradictory antonyms are mutually opposed, they deny one another
Contradictories form a privative binary opposition, they are members
o f two-term sets. lo use one o f the words is to contradict the other and
to use ‘not' before one o f them is to make it semantically equivalent to
the other: nor dead = alive : not single = married.
2. C ontraries are an to n y m s that can be arranged into a series
according to the increasing difference in one ol their qualities. The most
distant elem ents o f this scries will be classified as contrary notions.
Contraries are grad able antonyms, they are polar members o f a gradual
opposition which may have intermediate elements. This may be observed
in cold — hot and coo! — warm which arc intermediate members.
Thus, we may regard as antonyms not only cold and hot but also cold
an d warm. C ontrary antonym s may also be considered in term s o f
degrees o f the quality involved. Thus, water may be cold or w r y cold.
and water in one glass may be colder than in another glass.
3. Incom patibles are anto nym s which are characterized by th e
relations o f exclusion. Semantic relations o f incompatibility exist am ong
antonyms with a com m on com ponent of meaning and may be described
as the reverse o f hyponv my. For example, to say morning is to say not
afternoon, not evening, not night. The use of one m em ber of this set
implies the exclusion ol the other members o f the set. Incompatiblcs
d iffer from c o n tra d ic to rie s as in co m p atib les are m em b ers o f the
multiple-term sets w hile contradictories arc members o f two-term sets.
A relation o f incompatibility may be also observed between colour terms
since the choice of red. for example, entails the exclusion ol black, blue,
yellow, etc.

о U£ T ГО N S д v lD t a s k s

I ш ш т ю т

!. What are the basic types o f intralinguistic relations o f words?


2. What d o syntagmatic relations mean?
3. What relations are called paradigmatic0
4. What are the main types o f semantic relations?
5. What is the sem antic proximity ol meaning? What are the two
extreme cases o f semantic proximity?
46
6. What is semantic equivalence? Is semantic equivalence a stable
type o f semantic relations'?
7. What is meant by inclusion as a type о I semantic relations? What is
the other linguistic term used to denote semantic relations ol inclusion ’
8 W hat does the term hyperonynT m ean? What does the term
‘hyponynT denote0
9. What is opposition as a type o f semantic relations0
10. What types o f semantic opposition can be singled out?
11. What are the two basic principles o f semantic classification ol
words? What are the resulting word-classes?
12. What are synonyms?
13. What semantic relations are sy nonyms characterized by ?
14. According to what principles are synonyms classified? What are
the main types o f synonyms?
15. What is meant by the synonymic dom inant0
16. What are lexical sets? What are terminological sets0
17. What is a lexico-semantic group?
18. What is a semantic field?
19. What do we call antonyms?
2(1. What structural types o f antonyms d o you know *
21 What semantic types o f antony ms d o you know0
22. What is the difference between: a» contradictories and contraries;
b) contradictories and incompatibles?

II. TASKS

I.* С oi Праге the meaning** o f ihc given word** Define w hat semantic features
arc shared by all the members of ihc group and what semantic properties
distinguish them from each other
I)
wage a fixed regular paym ent, typically paid on a daily or weekly
basis, m ad e by a n em ployer to a n em ployee, especially
to a m an u al o r unskilled worker
--------- J
salary a fixed regular pay m en t, typically paid o n a m onthly basis but
often expressed as a n a nnu al sum . m ad e by an em ployer lo an
em ployee, especially a professional or w hite-collar worker

pa y ihe money paid to so m e o n e for regular work


----------------- ------------------ -4
I
fe e a payment m ade to a professional person ( e g to a lawyer, writer I
o r to a professional or pubhc body ir exchange for advice or
services

income money received, especially o n a regular basis, tor work


or Through investm ents

47
2)
reputation th e general o p in io n that people have about a person,
org an ization based on what they have h e ard , read. seen,
or experienced
image the idea or o p inio n that people have about a person,
org an izatio n , especially w h en this has been deliberately m ade
o r p lanned
n am e th e reputation л p erso n or a n organization has because j
o t som eth in g they d o o r because o f the quality o f what they
p ro d u ce, usually w hen this is good
. pn-srige th e respect a n d g o o d reputation a person, organization has
because thev have a high position in society, are adm ired
b \ people
siattt re a reputation for being very goo d at so m ethin g very im portant
or influential that m akes people respect you

2.* Organize the given words in accordance with their hypoiiymic relations
Enumerate the general terms (hvperonyms).
1) tram, light lorry, bicycle, vehicle, cabriolet, car. heavy lorry, estate
car. motorcycle, bus. lorry, three-door hatchback, three-way dump truck:
2) turtle, m am m al, squirrel, anim al, reptile, seal, tiger, lizard,
leopard, fox, wolf, iguana, bear, snake, leline, panther.
3.* Group ihe sentences into pairs so that in one sentence there should be л
hvperonym (the more general term) and in ihe other - the hyponym ithe more
concrete term).
M o d e l : The m an w as m urdered —- The m an u a s poisoned
He gave her a ring with five emeralds as a birthday present. 2 The
I.
m an uas poisoned 3. She looked at him. 4. He heard a nightingale
singing. 5. He is an officer, 6 It's an old car n She was wearing a black
dress. 8. They built a boat. 9. The man uas murdered. 10. She stared
at him 11 He is a colonel. 12. It's an old vehicle. 13. He gave her a ring
with five precious stones as a birthday present. 14. They bought flowers
in the shop. 15. She was wearing a dark dress. 16. She has got a child.
I7. They built a yacht. 18. They bought lilacs in the shop. 19 She has
got a daughter. 20. He heard a bird singing.
4.* Cine meanings ot the following synonyms Slate the difference ir. the
connotational aspect of their meaning.
M o d e l ; lot e — worship
j• i (
■ ‘ lore — an intense feeling of deep affection Emotive charge and j
worship — the feeling of profound reverence expressiveness (intensity i
■and strong adoration I are different.

48
C onfidence — assurance; to satisfy — to delight; alone - lonely;
to create - to m a n u fa ctu re; to blush — to redden; lo trem ble —
to shudder.
5 .* State the difference in th e p rag m atic aspect o f m e a n in g o f th e given
synonym s. C on sult a dictionary.
\ 1 о С й* I; to set" — to behold
GL T h e verb to behold is form al, w hereas the verb to sec is neutral.

C ar — automobile: refreshment - bite: soldier — warrior; to begin —


to com m ence: face - puss; to leave - to abandon: hearty — cordial,
hand — fin; to cry — to weep.
6 .* Look up in a dictionary m eanings o f th e given p a irs o f synonym s. Classify
synonym s in to stylistic, ideographic a n d ideographic-stylistic.
M o d e l : m um — m other
S ] T h e w ords have the sa m e de n o ta tio n a l m ean in g a female parent*, but they
differ in th e pragm atic aspect o f m eaning as th e w ord m um is informal. Гhus.
th is p a ir o f synonym s belongs to th e g ro u p o f stylistic synonym s.

Information — data: associate — pal: infectious - contagious: to


ask to interrogate: to meet - to encounter: to reckon - to estimate;
mum — mother, faculty — talent; to foretell — to predict: to walk — to
promenade: blemish — flaw; heaven — sky; intelligent — smart: affair -
business.
7 ." Find the synonym ic d o m in a n t in th e following groups o f synonym s.

To sob — to weep — to cry: to brood — to reflect — to mediate -


lo think; to glare — to peep - to look — to stare — to glance; strange -
quaint — o d d — queer; terror — fear — horror; angry — furious —
enraged: to flash — to gleam to sparkle — to blaze - to shine
8.* A rrange th e following units into tw o lexical a n d tw o term inological sets.
Give th e m c o rre sp o n d in g names.

Detached house, wire-haired fox terrier, climbing robe, bull terrier,


disk, horse (vaulting horse), hardware, m ulti-storey block o f fiats,
m on itor, terraced h o u se. Scottish terrier, m ainfram e, tra m p o lin e ,
interface. Bedlington terrier, floor, high-rise block o f flats, landing mat.
Pekinese, asym m etric bars, software, weekend house, springboard,
server, cottage, beam, semi-detached house.
9.* Classify the follow ing words an d w ord -co m h in aiio n s into lexico-sem antic
grou ps 11 \ an d sem antic fields (2) u n d e r th e headings ‘education* a n d 'feeling'.

Book, to bear malice, displeased, to teach, intelligent, indifference,


classmate, to adore, affection, to coach, frustrated, pedagogical, college,
hatred, day-student. in a temper, to repeat a year, passion, calm (adj).
exercise, reader, satisfaction, to write, wrathful, knowledge, tuition.
49
jealousy, course, to supervise, to infuriate, disciplined, happy, to develop
habits, unrest, shock, methodological, to hurt, to smatter o f (ini, angry.
10.* Сi i\ c a n to n y m s to the following words. G r o u p th e m into a n to n y m s o f
the sam e root (a) a n d a n to n y m s o f different roots (b>.
\ 1 * > • ! < . ■ ! : a r t is t ic

a The a n to n y m o f the word artistic is inartistic. T h ese words belong t o the


group o f a n ton ym s o f th e sam e root (group a).

Happy tadji, careful (adj). dwarf (adj), obedience (n). criticism (n>.
above (adv), regular (adj). asleep (ad j). back tad v ). polite (adj).
triumph (n), hope (n). artistic (adj). appear (v ). prewar (adj). far ( a d \ ).
logical (adj). love (n). known (adj).
1 1 .* C lassify a n t o n y m o u s p a ir s i n to c o n t r a d i c t o r i e s , c o n t r a r i e s a n d
m c o m p a t i b le s T o prov e th e d iv is io n give i n te r m e d i a t e m e m b e r s o f t h e
a n to n y m o u s set where it is necessary, o r give o th e r m em b ers o f th e g ro u p w hich
are excluded in the given a n to n y m o u s pair.
V o i l ® I: a rid — a u a sh
These antonym s refer to the group o f contranes as they are polar m em bers o f a
gradual opposition which lias the following intermediate members: dry — u e t

Poetry — p ro se, inch — fo o t, m an w o m an , old — y o u ng,


beautiful — ugly. M onday — Sunday, teacher — pupil, to adore — to
loathe, one — thousand, tremendous — tiny, iron — copper, to accept —
to reject, round — square, creditor — debtor, im m aculate — filthy,
boy — man. day — night, clever — stupid, red — brow n, a rid — aivash.
inside — outside, open — shut, November March, evil — good.
12 . R e ad th e follow ing passage. Speak o n th e differen c e b etw een such
linguistic p h e n o m e n a as hyponym y a n d incom patibility

SHOWING OUR TRUE COLOURS


The way the linguistic world fails to correspond to the physical
world is well illustrated by the use of the lexeme c o lo u r. A physical
account recognizes red, y e llo w , and Ы ие as primary' colours, and
g re e n , tio le t, and o ra n g e as their compkrmentaries. In a large box
of paints, several dozen colours will be found, including b la c k , w h ite
g r e y , b ro u m . and a number of increasingly fine discriminations (.lila c,
m a u v e , p u rp ie . in d ig o , etc).
In language, what is considered to be a hyponym of c o if ю г depends
very much on the context
• In the field of snooker1, the c o lo u rs exclude re d . Ih e c o lo u re d
balls can be played only' after a red ball has been potted.

Snooker — a g am e p lay ed o n a large tab le co v ere d w ith g re e n c lo th P la y e rs try


to hit c o lo u re d balls in to h o le s c a lle d p o ck ets wi t h л long stick c a lle d a cue

5f)
• By contrast, in the field of health (for Caucasians), colour can
mean only red, or at least pink (in the аЯоиг came back to his cheeks)-
• In publishing, a book primed in Mack type on white paper is
not considered to be in colour. Yet if blue, say. is introduced to add
interest to the page, this is called using a second colour {black being
the ‘first’ colour).
• In the field of South African racial relations, coloured excludes

t television, there is a contrast between films


made in colours (as in Technicolor) and in black-and-white. Camera
film and television sets. too. are categorized in this way.
-it^!^1НЯ??^ДС!ииЮ1 ' Tv~’ .л -r
(from th e C am bridge Encyclopedia o f
th e English Language by David Crystal)
PART
WORD-STRUCTURE
III

Chapter 1

1. Morphemes. Classification o f M orphemes


2, Types o f Meaning in Morphemes
3. M orphemic Types o f Words
4. Types o f Word-Segmentability
Procedure o f Morphemic Analysis

1. M O R P H E M E S . C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F M O R P H E M E S

Words consist o f morphemes. T he term ‘morpheme" is derived from


G reek m orphe — ‘form* + -erne. The G reek suffix -erne has been
adopted by linguists to denote the smallest unit (cf. phoneme, sememe).
The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit o f form. M orphemes
cannot be segmented into smaller units without losing their constitutive
essence, i.e. two-faceted ness — association o f a certain meaning with a
certain sound-pattem . M orphemes occur in speech only as constituent
parts o f words but not independently.
M orphemes may have different phonetic shapes. In the word-cluster
please. pleasing. pleasure. pleasant the root m orphem e is represented
by the phonetic shapes: |plcz-| in please, pleasing ; (plc^-l in pleasure :
| plez-J in pleasant. All the representations o f the given m orphem e are
called allomorphs or m orphem e variants.
M orphemes may be classified from the semantic point o f view and
from the structural point o f view.
Semantically morphemes fall into two types: 1) root-m orphem es and
2) non-root morphemes.
Root-morphemes (or radicals) are the lexical nucleus o f words. For
example, in the words remake, glassful, disorder the root-morphemes
-m ake. glass- and -order are understood as the lexical centres o f the
words. T he root-m orphem e is isolated as the m orphem e com m on to a
set o f words making up a word-cluster. e.g. the m orphem e teach- in to
teach. teacher, teaching.
N o n -r o o t m orphem es in c lu d e in fle c tio n a l m o rp h e m e s (or
inflections) and affixational m orphemes (or affixes). Inflections carry
52
only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation
of word-forms, whereas affixes are relevant for building various types
o f stems'. Lexicology is concerned only with afTixationai morphemes.
Affixes are divided into prefixes and suffixes. A prefix is a derivational
m orphem e preceding the root-m orphem e and modifying its meaning
(cf. pronounce — m is pronounce, safe — u n s a fe ) . A suffix is a
derivational m orphem e following the root and forming a new derivative
in a different part o f speech or a different word class (cf. -en. -y. -less
in heart -en . heart -y. heart le ss )
Structurally m orphem es fall into three types; 11 free m orphem es:
2) bound morphemes: 3) sem i-hound (semi-free) morphemes.
A free morpheme is defined as one that coincides with the stem or
a word-lorm . For example, the root - m orphem e frie n d - o f the noun
friendship is naturally qualified as a free m orphem e because it coincides
with one o f the forms o f the word friend.
A bound morpheme occurs only as a constituent part o f a word
Affixes are bound m orphem es for they always make part o f a word, f o r
exam p le, the suffixes -ness. -ship. - ize in the words darkness,
friendship, to attirize: the prefixes im-. dis-. de- in the words impolite,
to disregard, to demobilize.
Some root-m orphem es also belong to the class o f bound morphemes.
These are. as a rule, roots which are found in quite a limited num ber of
words and never independently o r pseudo-roots, i.e. root-m orphemes
which have lost most o f the properties o f “ lull” roots. Such are the root-
morphemes goose- in gooseberry, -ceiiv in conceive. Combining forms,
i.e. m orphem es borrowed namely from Greek or Latin in which they
existed as free forms, are considered to be bound roots. For example,
the word tele-phone consists o f two bound roots, whereas the word
cycl ic — o f a bound root and an affix
Sem i-bound (sem i-free) morphemes are m orphem es ihat can
function in a m orp h em ic sequence b o th as an affix a n d as a free
morpheme. For example, the morphemes ич /' /an d h a lf on the one hand
occur as free morphemes that coincide with the stem and the word-form
in the utterances to sleep well. h a lf an hour, on the other hand uvll
and hall occur as bound m orphemes in the words u'cll-knoun. half-
done

2 . T v p f s O F M E A N IN G i xl M O R DH E M E i

In m o rp h e m e s different types o f m ean in g can be singled out


d e p e n d in g on th e s e m a n tic class m o rp h e m e s b e lo n g to. R o o l-
m orphem cs possess lexical, differential an d distributional types ol

\ stem i* ihc ;>.!Г .it j vkord that п т .'и 'Ъ u:u'h.ms.cd 'hro.uihow t IS pa r.idicr-

s "»
m ean in g . A ffix atio n al m o rp h e m e s have lexical. p a rt-o f* sp e e c h .
differential and distributional types o f meaning. Both root-m orphem es
and affixational m orphem es are devoid o f grammatical meaning.
Lexical meaning. The lexical meaning o f root-m orphem es differs
from that o f affixatio nal m o rp h e m e s . R o o t-m o rp h e m e s have an
individual lexical m eanin g shared by n o o th e r m o rp h em es in the
language. T he lexical meaning o f affixational morphem es is. as a rule,
o f a m ore generalizing character. For example, the suffix -en carries the
meaning the change o f a quality’. Verbs formed with the help o f this
suffix express the idea that someone or something has more o f a quality
than it had previously. If. for example, a river deepens, it becomes deeper
than it was before, and if a person is deafened, he has lost temporarily
the power o f hearing.
As in words lexical meaning in morphemes may also be analyzed into
d e n o ta tio n a l a n d c o n n o ta tio n a l c o m p o n e n ts. T h e c o n n o ta tio n a l
com ponent o f meaning may be found not only in root-m orphem es but
in affixational morphemes as well. Endearing and diminutive suffixes,
such as -etie ( kitchenette. ieajlette): -ie(y) ( dearie. girlie ); -ling
<duckling. u'olfling) bear a heavy emotive charge. The affixational
morphemes w ith the same denotational meaning sometimes differ only
in connotation. For example, the m orphem es -ly. -like, -ish in the
words womanly, womanlike, womanish have the same denotational
meaning o f similarity but differ in the connotational com ponent (cl. the
Russian equivalents: ж енственны й — женский — бабий).
Stylistic reference may also be found in morphemes o f different types.
For e x a m p le, th e a ffix atio n a l m o rp h e m e s -ine (ch lo rin e). - oid
(rhomboid) are bookish.
D ifferen tial m eaning. D ifferential m e a n in g is th e sem an tic
component that serves to distinguish one word from all others containing
identical morphemes. In words consisting o f two or more morphemes,
one o f the constituent m orphem es always has differential meaning. For
e x a m p le, in the w ord b o o k sh e lf 't h e m o rp h e m e -s h e lf serves to
distinguish the word from other words containing the morpheme book-:
Ьсюксазе. bookstall.
Distributional Meaning. Distributional meaning is the meaning of
the order an d arrangement o f m orphem es making up the word It is
found in all words containing m ore than one morpheme. For example,
the word singer is composed o f two morphemes sing- and -er both of
which possess the denotational meaning — *to make musical sounds’
an d ’the d o e r o f the action*. A different arrangem ent o f the sam e
morphemes *ersing would make the word meaningless.
Part -of- speech meaning. In most cases affixational morphemes are
indicative o f the part o f speech to which a derivational word belongs.
For example, the affixational m orphem e -m ent ( m ovem ent ) is used to

‘ ersiejt notation of the order ol the m<*rphemes.

54
form nouns, while the affixational m orphem e -less {careless) forms
adjectives. S om etim es th e p art-o f-sp ee ch m eaning o f m orph em es
predom inates. For exam ple, the m orphem e -ice in th e word justice
serves principally to tra n s fe r th e p a r t- o f-s p e e c h m ean in g o f th e
m orphem e just- into another class and namely that o f the noun.

3. M O R P H E M I C T Y P E S OF W O R D S

According to the num ber o f morphem es words are classified into:


11 monomorphic:
2) polymorphic.
Monomorphic or root-words consist o f only one root-m orphem e
(small, dog. make) Polymorphic words according to the number of
r o o t - m o r p h e m e s are c lassified in to : a) m o n o ra d ic a l ( o n e - r o o t
m orphem e) and b) poly radical (words consisting o f two or more roots).
M o n o r a d ic a l words fall into three subtypes:
1) radical-su lT ix al w ord s, i.e . w o rd s c o n s is tin g o f o n e root
m orphem e an d one o r m ore suffixal m orph em es (e.g. acceptable,
acceptability):
2) ra d ic a l-p re fix a l w o rds, i.e . w ords c o n s is tin g o f o n e ro o l-
m orphem e and a prefixal m orpheme (e.g. outdo, unbutton):
3 ) prefixo-radical-sulfixal words, i.e. words which consist o f one
root, prefixal and siiffixal m orphem es (e.g. disagreeable, misinterpre­
tation).
Polyradical words fall into two subtypes:
1) polyradical words which consist o f two or m ore roots with no
affixational morphemes (e.g. book-srand. lam pshade).
2) polyradical words which contain at least two roots and one or more
affixational morphemes (e.g. safety-pin. light-mindedness, pen-hold­
er).

4 , T Y P E S OF W O R D В EG ME NT ABILITY

Three types o f morphemic segmentability o f words are distinguished:


complete, conditional, defective .
Com plete segmentability is characteristic o f a great num ber of
words, the morphemic structure o f which is transparent enough, as their
individual m orphem es clearly stand out within the word an d can be
easily iso la te d . T h e m o rp h e m e s m a k in g up w ords o f c o m p le te
segmentability are called m orphem es proper or full m orphem es. The

C f . ih e R u s s ia n ic r n is ahboc . ус л о вн о е и д е ф ектн ое м о р ф о л о ги ч е с ко е
ч л е н е н и е с .ю н
transparent m orphem ic structu re ol the segm entable words e n d le s s ,
useless is conditioned by the fact that their constituent m orphem es recur
with the sam e meaning in a num ber o f o th er words: a n e n d . to e n d :
u se . to u se and nam eless, p o u erless.
C o n d itio n a l se g m e n ta b ility c h a r a c t e r i z e s w o rd s w h o s e
segmentation into the constituent m orphem es is doubtful for sem an tic
reasons. In the words reta in , d e ta in o r receive, d eceive the s o u n d -
clusters — [ri- 1. |d i-l seem to be singled o u t quite easily due to th e ir
recurrence in a num ber of words. On the o th er hand, they have n o th in g
in com m on with ihe phonetically identical m o rphem es re-, d e - w h ich
are found in the words re w rite , re o rg a n ize , d e c o d e , d e o rg a n ic e .
N either the sound-clusters |r i - j . |d i - | n o r the |- i e m |. [-si:v| possess
any lexical o r p a rt-o f-s p e e c h m ean in g o f th eir own. T h e ty pes ol
meaning that can be ascribed to them is differential and distributional:
the [ri-J distinguishes retain from d e ta in an d the |- te m | distinguishes
retain from receive, whereas their ord er an d arrangem ent point to th e
status o f the re-, d e - as different from that o f the rain and - c e ir e
within the structure o f the words. The m orphem es making up w ords
o f c o n d i t io n a l s e g m e n ta b ility d o n o t rise to th e s t a t u s o f fu ll
m orphem es for sem antic reasons an d that is why are called pseudo-
m orphem es or quasi -m orphem es.
D e fe c tiv e se g m e n ta b ility is th e p ro p e rty o f w o rd s w h o s e
com ponent m orphem es seldom or never recur in other words. O n e ol
the com ponent m orphem es ol these words is a unique m orphem e in the
sense th at it d o es not recur in a different linguistic e n v iro n m e n t
Л unique m orphem e is isolated and understood as meaningful because
the constituent m orphem es display a more o r less clear denotational
meaning. In the word h a m let (деревушка» the m orphem e -let has the
meaning ol diminutiveness. This m orphem e occurs in the words ringlet,
le a fle t, s tr e a m le t T he s o u n d -c lu ste r |lnv m -j that is left after th e
isolation o f the m orpheme -/e/d o es not recur in any other English word
The m orphem e h a m - carries a differential and distributional m eaning
as it distinguishes h a m let from stream let, ringlet This m orphem e is
qualified as unique.

5 . P R O C E D U R E O f M O R P H E M IC A N A '.T S iS

The procedure generally employ ed for the purposes o f segmenting


words into the constituent m orphem es is known as the method o f
immediate and Ultimate Constituents'
Im m ediate C o n stitu e n ts any <>f rnc.irmjilu p.n:> (brining » b r e c -
linguistic лип I h c ar.ilw i* in to I m m e d ia te С im M itu c n b i K was Hist suggcMeJ
I . B lo o m f ie ld a n d later d e v e lo p e d b \ m a n s l i n p i m b . i Ne e B lo o m f ie ld I . l a n g u a g e -
I ordon. Iч - I*. 2i<*. i

><>
T his m ethod is based on a binary principle, i.e. each stage ot the
procedure involves two components the word immediately breaks into
At each stage these two com ponents are referred to as the Immediate
Constituents (ICs). Each IC at the next stage o f analysis is in its turn
broken into smaller meaningful elements. The analysis is completed w hen
we arrive at constituents incapable o f further division, i.e. morphemes.
These morphemes are referred to as the Ultimate Constituents ( UC\i.
F or exam ple, the nou n friendliness is first segm ented into the ICs
I) frie n d ly - (recurring in the adjectives friendly and friendly-looking )
an d 2) -ness (found in a countless number o f nouns, e.g. happiness,
darkness). The IC -ness is at the same time a U C o f the noun, as it cannot
be broken into any smaller elements possessing both sound-form and
meaning. The IC friendly ■- is next broken into the ICs I )friend- (recurring
in friendship, unfriendly) and 2) -ly (recurring in uifely, brotherly). ITie
ICs friend- and -ly are both I C s of the word under analysis.
The division into ICs and U C s can be carried out on the basis o f tw o
principles: 1) the affix principle and 2) the root principle. According to
th e affix principle the segm entation o f the word into its constituent
m orphem es is based on the identification o f an affixational m orpheme
within a set of words, e.g. the identification of the m orpheme -less leads
to the segmentation of words like useless, hopeless, merc iless into the
suffixational m orphem e -less and the root-m orphem es use-, hope-,
m erci - within a w ord-cluster. A ccording to the root principle the
identification o f the root-m orphem e agree- in the words agreeable,
agreement, disagree makes ii possible to split these words into the root
agree - and the affixational m orphem es -able. -ment. dis
As a rule, the application o f one o f these principles К sufficient for
the m orphem ic segmentation o f words.

O U E S T .O N S AND TASKS

I CUES 7 >Q\':5

!. What do words consist ot?


2. What is a morpheme?
3. What is meant by the term allomorphs' (or ‘m orphem e variants')?
4. What types o f morphemes can be singled out semantically?
5. What do we call root-m orphem es (or radicals)?
6. What d o we call non-root morphemes?
7. What is a suffix ’ What is a prefix?
S. W hat s tr u c tu r a l ty pes o f m o rp h e m e s can be sin g led o u t?
Characterize each type.
9 What types o f meaning do root-m orphem es possess?
10. What types ot meaning d o affixational m orphemes have?
11. In what way does the lexical meaning of root-m orphem es differ
from the lexical meaning of affixational morphemes?
12. Whal is the differential meaning o f morphemes?
13. What is the distributional meaning o f morphemes?
14. What is meant by the part-of-speech meaning o f morphemes?
15. What words are called m onom orphic?
16. What are polymorphic words? What types o f polymorphic words
can be singled out?
17. What subtypes do monoradical words fail into?
18. What subtypes can polyradica! words be divided into *
19. W hat are th e th re e ty p e s o t m o r p h e m ic s e g m e n ta b ility 1
Characterize each type.
20. W hat a re m o r p h e m e s m ak in g up w o rd s o f c o m p le te
segmentability called0
21. W hy are m o rp h e m e s m a k in g u p w o rd s o f c o n d itio n a l
segmentability called pseudo-m orphem es (or quasi-morphemes)?
22. What is one o f the com ponent m orphem es making up words o f
defective segmentability called?
23. What is the procedure o f m orphemic analysis based on?
24. What are the two principles applied in the analysis o f words into
ICs and UCs?

п. task s

1.* Segment the following words into morphemes. Define (a) the semantic
types and (Ы the structural types of morphemes constituting the given words.
M o d e l : a ini/ess
cLi The word aimless can be segmented into two morphemes: aim- - -less.
a) semantically aim- is a root-morpheme, -less is an affix.
bl structurally aim- is л free morpheme: -less is a bound morpheme.
Beggarly, p o stm an , shorten, destabilize, sym pathy, fruitfulness,
maltreatment, disaffected, overrule, photographic, half-eaten, theory,
rent-free.
2. Read the following passage. Speak on the difference between inflectional
and affixations! morphemes and their peculiarities.

THE DERIVATIONAL FIELD OF A SINGLE WORD


(from J.Toumicr, 1985)
Inflections are a quite distinct group, always occurring at the very
end o f a word (graces, disgraced), and following the derivational suf­
fixes if there arc any. If there were several Instances of gracelessness
to be talked about, we could say (admittedly, not with any great ele­
gance) graceiessnesses
Toumter’s detailed study also includes extremely foil listings of the
derivational affixes in English. There are a surprisingly large number
o f them: excluding variant forms, he gives 586 prefixes and 522
58
suffixes. The latter total indudes dozens of forms which are rare in
everyday conversation (except among specialists), such as -acea,
•ectomy\ -gynous. -mancy. and -ptoid.
Affixes o f th is kind come and go. -n ik , for exam ple, is a
development in English which became highly productive in the late
1950s. following the launch of Sputnik /. and such subsequent
operations as the launch of a dog into space (pupnik, u'oofnik.
m uttnik. etc.) and the failure of a US satellite ( Yanknik; d ud nik.
staiinik. etc.). This usage seems to have died out in the early 1960s.
A related suffix, with citations since the 1940s. and seen in beatnik
and similar uses (beaehnik.fitm nik.jazznik. etc.). was productive into
the early 19"4)s. but seems to have since died out (after LBauer. 1983)-
lnflectkma) suffixes, by contrast, do not come and go. There haw
been no changes in the s>-stem since the Early Modem English period.
(from the Cambridge Encyclopedia o f
the English language by D.Crystal)
3.* Translate the following words into Russian, taking into a cc o u n t th e lexical
m ean in g ot the root a n d afftxational m orphem es.
M o d e l : w eekly
E T he lexical m eaning o f th e ro o t-m o rp h e m e u v e k - is ‘a period o f sex с n days'.
T h e lexical m eaning o f th e affixational m o rp h e m e -Л is ‘frequency' The
w ord weekly is rendered in Russian by th e w ord еженег!е.1ыю.

Eyelet, deho u se, n eurosis, hostess, betrayal, antipathy, briefly,


horsemanship, prewar, famous.
4 .* D e fin e t h e m o r p h e m e s th e d ifferen tial m e a n in g o f w h ich h e lp s to
distinguish between words in the given sets.
M o d e l : phraseology'. ideology, m ythology. neurology
be The m o rp h e m e s p h ra se-. id c(a \-. m yth - an d neuno possess th e differential
m eaning as each o f them may serve to distinguish the word it form s from the
o th e r words in the given set.
1) no teb o o k , copybook, cxercisebook. textbook: 2) crossroads,
cross-legged, crosswind, cross-current; 3) city-based, hospital-based,
ocean-based, foreign-based; 4) forefoot, forehead, forepart, foreground:
5) raspberries, elderberries, strawberries, cranberries.
5.* Classify th e following words according to th e p art-o f-sp e ec h m eaning
o f th eir affixaiional m orph em es.
M o d e l : criticism
E T h e affix -ism indicates that the derived w ord is a nou n.
Suitability, hatless, accordingly, com bination, befriend, sideways,
hospitalize, boyhood, congratulatory, enlarge, northwards, spacious,
bureaucracy, quarrelsome, clarify, breakage, drinkable, weaken.
59
6.* Analy/c the following words «according to their morphemic types. Define
the subtypes of polymorphic words Classify polyradical words into two groups.
1) words consisting of two or more roots with no affixational morphemes.
2) words containing two roots and one or more affixational morphemes.
\% о iie |: duck, illiterateness. back-bencher
GG The word duck is monomorphic The word illiterateness is polymorphic,
monoradical, prcfixo-radical-suffixal The word b a c k -b e n c h e r is
polymorphic. poly radical, contains two roots and one affixational шофНетс
(group 2)
H ouse, uncover, dark -b ro w n , d isa p p o in tm e n t, effective, black,
historian, book-keeper, cry* mistrust, unanswerable, home-sick. good,
ex-wife, laughter-filled, go, unfortunately, age-long, manageability,
short-sightedness.
7.* Group the words according to the type of word-segmentability they may
be referred to.
M o d e l : exceed, tablet, lifeless

Complete ГХ*1ее live


scgmcnlahiliiy segmeniabiliiy scgmenuibilrn
lifeless exceed tablet
----------------- 1

Hostage, nameless, fraction, perceive, pocket, discuss, feminist,


contain, overload, pioneer, underestimate, proceed, athlete, pretend,
am oral, m irror, unfriendly, assist, gooseberry, obsess, carefulness,
manic, attract, budget.
7 .1.* In ease of conditional segmentability give words possessing the same
morphemes.
M < id el: relieve
0 1he word relieve can be conditionally segmented into two morphemes re
and -here w hich occur in a number of other words, e g re-lax. be-//ere.
7.2." In case of detective segmentability identify the denotational meaning
of affixational morphemes.
\i e § b a r b a r is m

a The denotational meaning of the affix -ism is 'behaviour'


8.* Analyze the following words from the point of view of their ICs and U(_ s
applying an affix or a root principle
X1 ■■(i t I uncommonly
0 The morphemic analysis ot the word uncommonly ;s bused on the application
of the affix principle and includes the following stages:
Ы)
1) uncommon- (1C) + -l\ (strangely. sadly) <К /I С );
2) un- (unsafe, unclean) (It . l.C » + -сопшнш (K /TC'l.
The word consists of 3 IC s .
I n d e p e n d e n c e , b e a u lif u ln e s s , u n fo rg e tta b le , u l t r a - c r e a t i v e ,
s p o tlc s sn e ss . d is re s p e c tfu l, unladylike, d is a r m a m e n t, in ju stic e ,
disobedience.

Chapter 2

1. ; Derivational Structure
2. ■ Derivational Bases
3. ; Derivational Affixes
4. Derivational Patterns
5. Historical Changeability of Word-Struciure

1. D E R I V A T I O N A L S T R U C T U R E

The nature, type and arrangement of the immediate coastituents of


the word are known as its derivational structure.
Though the derivational structure of a word is closely connected with
its m orphem ic (or morphological) structure and often coincides with
it. it differs from the morphemic structure in principle.
T he analysis o f the derivational structure reveals the hierarchy o f
m orphem es making up the word, the way a word is constructed, the
structural and the semantic type of the word and how a new word of
s im ila r s tru c tu re shou ld be understood. For exam ple, th e words
u n m ista ka b le and discouraging morphemically refer to one and the
s a m e ty p e as th e y b o th are seg m en ted in to th re e U ltim a te
C o n s titu e n ts — o n e prefixational. one root an d o n e suffixational
m orphem e. However, the nature and arrangement o f m orphem es in
these words indicate that these words belong to different derivational
types. In u n m ista ka b le the prefixational m orphem e is added to the
seq uen ce o f th e root a n d the suffixational m orphem es. T h u s, the
m eaning o f the word is derived from the relations between u n - and
- m is ta k a b le — ‘not m istakable . In th e word d is c o u r a g in g th e
suffixational morpheme is added to the combination o f the prefixational
and the root m orphem es and the meaning o f the word is understood
from the relations between discourage- and -in g — som ething that
discourages’. Hence, the word unm istakable refers to a prefixational
derivative and the word discouraging — to a suffixational one.
The basic elementary units ol the derivational structure o f words are:
derivational bases, derivational affixes and derivational patterns.
61
2 . DERIVATIONAL E A S E S

A derivational base is the part o f the w ord, w hich establishes


c o n n e ctio n with th e lexical unit th a t m otivates the derivative an d
determ ines its individual lexical m eaning describing the difference
between words in o n e and the sam e derivational set. For example, the
individual lexical meaning o f the words singer, w riter, teacher which
denote active doers o f the action, is signaled bv the lexical meaning of
the derivational bases: sing-, w rite-, reach-.
Derivational bases differ from morphological stems both structurally
and semantically (Table 3):

T a b le '
1
A Morphological A Derivational
Stem Base |

1) the starting point for the forms 1) the starting point for different
of the word words
(e.g. heart — hearts) (e.g. heart — hearty, heartless,
heartbeat)

2) predicts the part-of-speech 2) does not predict the part-of-


meaning of the word speech meaning of the word
(e.g. daydream er (n)) (e.g- d aydream er (n )
from daydream (v))

3) stands for the whole semantic 3) represents only one meaning


structure of the word, represents o f the source word .
all lexical meanings o f the word (e.g. glassful —a drinking vessel:
(e.g. glass (n) — 1 a hard clear glassy — smooth and shiny like
substance: 2 a small container glass)
for drinking out of; 3 attractive
objects made of glass: 4 minor;
tL-. 5 a barometer)
•- .....

Structurally derivational bases fall into three groups:


I. Bases that co in cid e with m o rphological stem s, e.g . d u t i fu l .
d u tifu lly : to d a y -d r e a m , d a y d r e a m e r ;
Stems that serve as this class o f bases may be o f different derivational
types thus forming derivational bases o f different degrees o f complexity;
a) sim ple stem s, w hich co n sist o f only o n e . sem antically n o n ­
motivated constituent, e.g. p o cket, m otion, retain\
b) derived stems, which are semantically and structurally motivated.
They are as a rule binary (m ade up o f two ICs), e.g. girlish, girlishness.
62
The derived stem o f the word girlish is girl , whereas the derived stem
o f the w ord girlishness - girlish-:
c) com pound stems are always binary and semantically motivated,
but unlike the derived stems both It s of com po und stems are stems
them selves, e.g. m a tc h -b o x (two simple stem s), le tte r -w r ite r (one
sim ple and one derived stem ): a ir c r a ft-c a r r ie r (a c o m p o u n d and
derived stem).
2. Bases that coincide with word-form s. e.g. u n sm ilin g , p a p er-
b o u n d . This class o f bases is represented by verbal word-forms — the
present an d the past participles. T he collocability o f th is class o f
derivational bases is confined to: I > a few derivational affixes such as
the prefix u n - and the suffix -ly. e.g. u n n a m ed , unknow n: sm ilingly,
k n o w in g ly : 2) o th er bases which c o in c id e only with n o m in al and
adjectival stems, e.g. m o ckin g -b ird , d a n cin g -g irl. ic e -b o u n d , e a sy ­
going.
3. Bases that coincide with word-groups. e g. fla t- w a is te d . second-
rateness. Bases o f this class allow a rather limited range o f collocability.
They are m ostly com b ined with derivational affixes in the class o f
adjectives and nouns: b lu e -e y e d . lo n g -fin g ered , old -u 'o rld ish . Free
word-groups make up the greater p an o f this class o f bases.

3 . D E R 'V A T iO N A L a c FIX ES

D eriv atio n a l a ffix e s are Immediate Constituents o f derived words


in all parts o f speech.
Derivational affixes have two basic functions: I ) stem building which
is c o m m o n to all affixational m o rp h em es: d eriv ational a n d n o n -
derivational. cf.: -ish in the words girlish, greyish and -i.sh in the words
p u b lish , distinguish: 2) word-building. It is the function o f repatterning
a derivational base and thus forming new words. The repatterning may
result in transferring a derivational base into the stem o f anoth er part
o f speech, e.g. the derivational suffix -ness in the words fr ie n d I m ess
an d g irlishness repattem s the adjectival derivational bases fr ie n d ly -,
g ir lis h - into the n o u n stems. T h e rep attern in g may also result in
transferring a derivational base into stem o f the same part o f speech, e.g.
-d o m applied to the n oun o ff ic ia l turns it into the stem officialdom and
thus forms a new noun.
Semantically derivational affixes are characterized by a unity o f part-
of-speech m eaning, lexical m eaning, differential an d distributional
meanings.
The part-of-speech meaning is proper to derivational suffixes and
prefixes in different degrees. It stands out clearly in derivational suffixes
but it is less evident in derivational prefixes. Prefixes like e n d e - . Re­
possess the part-of-speech meaning and function as verb classifiers, e.g.

enslave, deice. befriend. The prefix over- evidently lacks the part-of-
specch m eaning and is freely used both for verbs and adjectives, e.g.
oversleep, overeat. o ver-co n fid en t. (Я>ег-worried.
The lexical meaning in derivational affixes also has its peculiarities
and may be viewed at different levels:
1) the lexical meaning o f a generic lype proper not to an individual
affix but to a set o f affixes, forming a semantic subset. For example, the
m eaning o f resem blance found in the suffixes -is/i. -lik e . -v . -ly
ib o yish , la d y lik e . sp id ery, m a n ly): the m eaning o f abstract quality
conveyed by the suffixes -ness, -iry t blindness. equality): the meaning
o f absence conveyed by the prefix u n - and the suffix -less (unclean,
un lu cky, speechless, heartless).
2) an individual lexical m ean in g shared by n o o th er affix. For
instance, the suffixes -ish. -lik e . - r a i l have the meaning o f resemblance
but -lik e conveys an overall resemblance. •ish conveys likeness to the
most typical qualities o f the object: -y conveys likeness to outer shape,
form, size o f the object.
Derivational affixes may be m onosem antic. e.g. the prefix o m n i-
mcaning a ir (om nipresence. om niscience), and polysemantic, e.g. the
suffix -less m eaning ‘lacking something* ( b ra in le ss. e n d le ss I an d
exceeding a category* (tim eless, countless).
There is a specific group o f m orphem es w hose derivational function
does not allow one to refer them either to derivational affixes or to bases,
e.g. h a lf- in the words h a lf-Лете, h a lf-broken; self- in the words self-
m ade. s e lf-interest: ill- in the words ///-dressed, ///-behaved. Such
m orphem es are called sem i-affixes, i.e. elements which stand midway
between roots and affixes. On the one hand, these m orphem es retain
certain lexical ties with the root-m orphem es o f independent words, on
the other hand, they function as derivational prefixes.

4 . DERIVATIONAL P A T T E R N S

A derivational pattern (D P ) is a regular meaningful arrangement,


a structure that imposes rigid rules on the order and the nature o f the
derivational bases and affixes that may be brought together. D Ps are
studied with the help o f distributional analysis at different levels. Patterns
are usually represented in terms o f conventional sy mbols: small letters
v, n. a. d. num stand for the bases which coincide with the stems o f
th e respective parts o f sp eech: verbs, n o u n s, adjectives, adverbs,
numerals: v ^ , stand for the bases which are the past and the present
participles respectively.
DPs may represent the derivational structure at different levels of
generalization:
a) at the level o f structural types. Patterns o f this level are known
as structural formulas. S tructural form ulas specify only the class
64
m e m b e r s h i p o f I m m e d i a t e C o n s t it u e n t s a n d t h e d i r e c ti o n ot
m otivation, such as: a ♦ -sf —» N. prl- • n » V. 11 + -st —» N . n -si
—> V. v —►N.
According to structural IbrmulaN all words may be classified into:
D sutTixal derivatives: b la c k n e ss: 2) prctixal derivatives: rew rite:
3) conversions: a cut: 4) com pound words; m usic-loi'er.
b) at the level o f structural patterns. Structural patterns specify the
b ase classe s a n d in d iv id u a l affix es th u s in d ic a tin g th e le x ic a l-
gram m atical an d lexical classes o f derived words. T he affixes refer
derivatives to specific parts of speech and lexical subsets, f o r example,
the D P n t -ish -* A signals a set o f adjectives w ith the lexical meaning
o f resemblance, w hcreas a + -ish —>A signals adjectives meaning a small
degree of quality:
c) at the level o f structural-semantic patterns. Structural-semantic
patterns specify semantic peculiarities o f bases and individual meanings
o f affixes. For example, the nominal bases in the pattern n + -ess — Л
are confined to nouns having in their semantic siructures a com ponent
*a male anim ate being’: lioness, traitress, actress There are certain
semantic constrains imposed on both the bases and the suffix in the
pattern n - -y —*A. Nominal bases denoting living beings are collocated
with the suffix -y meaning resemblance', e.g. birdy. c a tty . but nominal
bases denoting material, pans of the body attract another meaning of
the suffix -y that o f ‘considerable am ount, size' resulting in adjectives
like grassy, leggy, starry.
It follows that derivational patterns may be classified into two types;
structural patterns <b) and structural-semantic patterns (c)

5 . H ISTO R IC A L C H A N G EA B ILITY C-F W O R D -S T R U C T U R E

The derivational structure o f a word is liable to various changes in


the course o f time. Certain morphemes may become fused together o r
may be lost altogether. As a result o f this process, know n as the process
o f simplification . radical changes in the word may take place: root
morphemes may turn into affixational o r semi-affixational m orphemes,
com pound words may be transformed into derived o r even simple words,
polymorphic words may become m onom orphic.
The M odern English derived word w isdom goes back to the Old
English com pound word w isdom m which the component -d o m was a
root-m orphem e and a stem of an independently functioning word with

Simplification 6 d e f i n e d л * a m o r p h o l o g i c : * ! p r o c e s s b \ w h u b a w o r d o : .i

c o m p l e x m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i m c t u r e l o s e s i h c m e a n i n g o ’ i t s s c p . t r . i t c m o r p h o l o g i c a l p a r t s

a n d b e c o m e s a m e r e s v m b o l o f t h e n o t i o n g i v e n (A p ito .ib d f t В М е к е и к о i o i л я

с о в р е м е н н о ю a i H . i m i c k o i o я ш к а — X ! . . i 9 “ .i t S t П .

65
the m eaning ‘decision, judgm ent, ordinance*. The whole com pound
word meant ‘a wise decision, judgment*. In the course o f its historical
development the meaning o f the second c o m p o n e n t dom became
more and m ore generalized till it turned into the suffix forming abstract
nouns (cf.: fre e d o m . boredom ).
The noun la d y is a simple m onom orphic word in M odem English.
This noun underwent the process o f simplification and shortening as
in Old English it was a com pound word h lx fd iy e consisting o f h t a f
meaning ‘bread* and d ije having the meaning kneading* (месящ ая,
замеш ивающ ая).
Sometimes the spelling o f some M odem English w ords as compared
with their sound-form reflects the changes these words have undergone.
The M odem English word cupboard judging by its sound-form |k\badl
is a m onom orphic non-m otivated simple word. But earlier it consisted
o f two bases represented by m onom orphic stems |k \p | and |bs:d| and
was pronounced |'клр bo:dJ. The word signified ‘a board to put cups on
Nowadays, however, having been structurally transformed into a simple
word, it denotes neither cup nor board as may be seen from the phrases
a boot cu p b o a rd . a clothes cupboard.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

I. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is a derivational structure?


2. What is the difference between the derivational structure and the
morphemic structure o f a word *
3. What are the basic elementary units o f the derivational structure?
4. Wliat is a derivational base?
5. W hat are th e s tr u c tu r a l a n d se m a n tic d iffe re n c e s betw een
derivational bases and morphological stem s’
6. What structural classes d o derivational bases fall into?
7. What are the three types of stems forming derivational bases of
different degrees o f complexity ?
8. What are derivational affixes?
9. What functions d o derivational affixes have?
10. What are derivational affixes characterized by semantically0
11. What can you say about the part-of-speech meaning proper to
derivational suffixes and derivational prefixes?
12. What are the peculiarities o f the lexical meaning in derivational
affixes? What levels can the lexical meaning o f derivational affixes be
viewed at?
13. What is a derivational pattern?
14. In what way are derivational patterns represented ’
15. What levels of generalization can derivational patterns represent
the derivational structure o f a word at?
66
16 What do structural form ulas ( l>. stru ctural patterns (2) and
structural-semantic patterns (3) specify0
17. What changes may take place in the structure o f words in the
course o f time? Give examples.

n. TASKS

1.* Group the given words according to their derivational structure into
suffival and prefixal derivatives.
M o d e l : unu'ifely - un- -+• -wifely (a prefixal derivative), em bittered —
embitter ed (a sufllval derivative)
Insensible, discouragement, unwomanly, impassioned, befriended,
a s v s te m ic . u n im a g in a b le , d isco v ery , irre s p o n s ib le , im p re s s io n ,
d is h e a rte n , in d efen sib le, d isg u ise m e n t. a c c o u n ta b le , unfriendly,
outrageous, impersonal, renewable, underdeveloped, endangerment.
2.* Group derivational bases of the given words into three structural classes:
a) bases that coincide with morphological stems of different degrees of
complexity; bi bases that coincide with word-forms; c) bases that coincide with
word-groups.
M o d e l : colour-blindness, unw rapped. u h ite -sk in n e d
Ё The derivational base of the word co lo u r-b lin d n ess coincides with the
compound morphological stem colour-blindness which consists of one
simple and one derived stem (class a) The derivational base of the word
unw rapped coincides with the verbal word-form -w rapped — the past
participle (class b>. The derivational base of the word u h ite - s k in n e d
coincides with the word-group w hite skin (class c)
Illiterate ness, waterskier. unprotected, bra irest ruster . three-cornered,
frie n d lin e s s , a llrig h tn ik . im p o s s ib le , g re e n -e y e d , p a in s -ta k in g ,
lan dlord ism , a b se n t-m in d e d , brainless, understanding!)', w eath er­
beaten. long-legged, broaden, heart-breaking, freestyler. seemingly,
livelihood, un inspiring , b ac k -b en ch er, acceptability, d o -g o o d ism .
laughingly, d o -it-y o u rse lfer, u n im p o rta n c e , o n e -sid e d , u n n am ed ,
allatonceness. familiarity, whitefeathery. snow-covered, weekender,
long-running, idletalker.
3.* Combine the words the derivational affixes of which express: ai ’not'
without' or opposite o f; b) ‘exceeding/a great extent' or *a large amount of.
a great deal o f; ci similarity/resemblance'; d) (very ) small' or not enough .
e) ‘liking for'
Nameless, hyperactive, sneaky, oversleep, microsurgery, frolicsome,
anti-war. disapprove. booklet, priceless, cuboid, overwork, superclever.
B ra in s tr u s t (B rit.) a g ro u p o t expert» w h o g o o im p ro m p tu m o l p la n n e d nr
prepared» answer» t oq u e s tio n s o n to p ics o f g en era l o r c u rre n t in fro nt o f an
i n t e r e s t

au d ien ce or o n d ie radio
d e p o p u la te d , w h itis h , b ib lio p h ile , n o n s m o k e r, o u tg ro w ,
parapro fcssion al, apolitical, sp h eru le , talkative, lifeless, fiendish,
duckling, mistrust, Francophilia, feathery', unhappiness, m uch-w orn,
superrich, underdevelopm ent, childless, m ini-m arket, multicolored,
kitchenette, disorder, ladylike, quarrelsom e, hy p crcreatb e. am oral,
m icrofilm , babyish, ageless, u ltra m o d e rn , in a tte n tio n , flowerlike,
h u m a n o id , creativ e, u n d e rc o o k e d , m u ltita le n te d . su b -V ic to ria n ,
miniskirt, anticlimax, extra-soft, hypotherm ia, outlive, paramilitary,
greyish, countless, clockwise, lambkin, duty-free, megabucks, starlet
4.* Give structural formulas of the following words. Classify the words into.
1) sufftxa! derivatives; 2) prefixa! derivatives; 3) conversions; 4 1 compound words
M o d e l : blackness, table-cloth
The structural formula ot the word blackness is a + -sf —* N. The given
word is a suffixa! derivative. I he structural formula of the word table-cloth
is n + n -» N. Table-cloth is a compound word
l o p ap er, sp eechless, p e n -h o ld e r. irrep laceable, n o th in g n ess,
to winter, age-long, fearsomely. sharpen. wind-Unvcn. independence,
ex-housewife.
5.* Give siruciural patterns of the following words Stale to wfi.it parts of
speech and lexical subscls affixes refer the given derivatives
M o d e ! : threesome
[yj The structural pattern of the word threesome is num + -some -• N. The
DP signals a set of nouns with the lexical meaning of a group consisting of
a certain number o! people’
Yearly, engineer, diseased, completion, incurable, to ape. lair-haired,
customary, overtime, miscalculation.
6.* G oe structural semantic patterns of the following words Specify
semantic peculiarities of derivational bases and individual meanings of affixes
of the words under analysis.
M o d e l : ex-president, ex -secretary. ex-journalist, ex policeman
v~! The structural-semantic pattern of the given words is ex- + n —* N In this
DP the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting professions The prefix
ел- combined with these bases possesses the meaning 'former*
I) L ondoner, villager. New Yorker, towner: 2) tall ish. thinnish.
biggish, longish. low ish: 3 1 lungful, a rm fu l, m o u th fu l, han dful;
4» savagery, foolery, snobbery, roguery ; 5) decency, com placency,
obstinacy, hesitancy: 6) advocacy , accountancy , presidency, consultancy;
7) demist, defrost, deice, dewater, degas; 8) rapidly, slowly, gradually,
quickly: 9) schoolm ate, clubm ate, flatm ate, room m ate: 10) joyful,
delightful, hateful, cheerful, sorrowful.
68
7.* Analyze the historical changeability «>l the word-structure of the following
words.
M © d 11:

kindred — kin- (‘family. race » + -r.vden Cadvicc. rule, condition')


li? Ihe root-morpheme -rxden lost its lexical meaning and turned into the
suffix red Later -redbecame unproductive. .A s a result the compound word
became a simple one.
n e c k la c e |n ek lis|: hnccca- ( ‘back o f the neck'; 'n a p e ') + -la (a \s
(-late) m oose': ’string or cord for tying )
zc The compound word underwent the process o f simplification of the
morphological structure accompanied by certain phoneticai changes. As a
result the compound word became a simple one.
1) isla n d : ea - 'water, a river* + -lo n d 'solid portion o f the earth's
surface; ground*: 2) w a r id : w e r- ‘m an . w arrior' t - a id ‘old age';
3) friend ly f r i o n d - friend’ + -lie ‘appearance, form, body'; 4) cabinet
cabin- ‘hut. tent* + -et ‘small': 5) a lu a v s : aU-ieaU- ‘all* + -ueges ‘road,
path: distance travelled'; 6) ca re fu l: caru- ‘g rie f, ‘burdened state of
m ind' + -fu ll ‘lull o f ; 7) freedom : fr e o - ‘not subject to control from
o u ts id e ' - -d o m ‘judg m ent, c h o ice , h o n o u r': 8) c h ild h o o d : c ild -
'child' + -h a d ‘condition, title, quality*; 9) reckless: recce- ‘concern,
care* -leas ‘devoid o f : 10) lin e n : lin - ‘flax* + -en 'm ade or consisting
o f . ‘o f the nature o f ; 11) h a tr e d : h a te - ‘suffering*, ‘anger, insult,
trouble* + -rx d e n ‘advice, rule, condition? 12) forehead: fore- ‘before’ +
+ -h e a fo r d ‘anterior part o f the body, containing the m o u th , sense
organs, and brain*.
WORD-FORMATION

Chapter 1

1. I Various Types and Ways o f Forming Words


2. I Affixation
2.1. SufFixation. Classification o f Suffixes
2.2. Prefixation. Classification o f Prefixes
X Productive and Non-Productive Affixes
4. Etymology o f Derivational Affixes
5. Valency o f .Affixes and Bases

1. VARIOUS TYPES AND WAYS OF FORMING WORDS

Word-formation is the system o f derivative types o f words and the


process o f creating new words from the material available in the language
after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns. A distinction
is made between two principal types o f word-format ion: word-derivation
and word-composition.
The basic wavs o f forming words in word-derivation are affixation
and conversion. .Affixation is the formation o f a new word with the help
o f affixes, c .g h e a r tle s s (from h e a r t), to o v e r d o (from to d o ).
Conversion is the formation o f a new word by bringing a stem o f this
word into a different formal paradigm, e.g. a fa ll (from to fa ll), to slave
(from a s la te ). The basic form o f the original and the basic form o f the
derived words in case o f conversion are homonymous.
Word-composition is the formation o f a new word by combining
two or more stems which occur in the language as free forms, e.g. d o o r­
h a n d le. house-keeper.
Apart from principal there are some m inor types o f m odern word-
form ation. i.e. shortening, blending, acronymy. sound interchange,
sound imitation, distinctive stress, and back-formation.
Shortening is the formation o f a word by culling off a part o f the
word. According to the part o f the word that is cut off (initial, middle
o r final) th e re are the follow ing types o f sh o rten in g s: I) initial
(orap h esis). c.g f e n d (v) < d e fe n d . p h o n e < telephone: 2) medial
(o r sy n co p e ), e.g . sp ecs < s p e c ta c le s, f a n c y < fa n ta s y : 3) final
( o ra p o c o p e ), e.g. a d . a d v e rt < a d v e rtise m e n t, veg < veg eta b les;
4) both initial and final, e.g. f l u < in flu e n za . frid g e < refrigerator.
70
Blending is ihe formation o f a new word by combining parts o f two
words. Blends m ay be o f two types; I ) additive type th a t m ay be
transformed into a phrase consisting of complete stems com bined by the
conjunction a n d , e.g. sm og — sm(oke) and (flog; 2) restrictive type that
can be transformed into a phrase, the first element o f which serves as a
modifier for the second, e.g.; telecast - television broadcast.
Acronymy (or graphical abbreviation) is the formation o f a word
from the initial letters o f a word combination. There are two basic types
o f acronyms: I > acronyms which are read as ordinary English words,
e.g . U N E S C O (jii: neskauj — th e U n ite d N a tio n s E d u c a tio n a l.
S cien tific a n d C ultural O rganization, 2) acronyms with the alphabetic
reading, e.g. B B C | bi' bi: si:j — th e British Broadcasting Corporation.
Sound-interchange is the formation o f a word due to an alteration
in the phonem ic composition o f its root. Sound-interchange falls into
two groups: 1) vowel-interchange (or ablaut): f o o d — to fe e d . In some
cases vow e l-in te rc h a n g e is c o m b in e d w ith sufFixation: stro n g —
stren g th: 2) consonant-interchange: advice — to advise.
C onsonant-interchange and vow el-interchange may be com bined
together, life — to live.
Sound imitation (or onomatopoeia) is the naming o f an action or
a thing by a m ore o r less exact reproduction o f the sound associated w ith
it. cf.: c o c k - a - d o o d le - d o (E n g lish ) — к у - к а - р е - к у (R u s sia n ).
Semantically, according to the source sound, many onomatopoeic words
fall into a few very definite groups: 1) words denoting sounds produced
by hum an beings in the process o f com m unication or expressing their
feelings, e.g, charter, babble; 2> words denoting sounds produced by
animals, birds, insects, e.g. m oo, cro a k, buzz: 3) words imitating the
s o u n d o f w ater, th e no ise o f m etallic th in g s, a forceful m o tio n ,
movements, e.g. sp la sh . clin k, w hip, swing.
Back-formation is the formation o f a new word by subtracting a real
o r supposed suffix from the existing words. The process is based on
analogy. For example, the word to but/e to act or serve as a butler’ is
derived by subtraction of -er from a supposedly verbal stem in the noun
butler.
Distinctive stress is the formation o f a word by means o f the shift
o f the stress in the source word, c f : increase (n ) — increase (v), absent
(adj) — a b se n t (v ).

2 . AFFIXATION

Affixation is generally defined as the formation o f words by adding


derivational affixes to different types o f bases. Affixation includes
suffixation an d prefixation. Distinction between suffixal an d prefixal
derivatives is made according to the last stage o f derivation. For example.
71
from the point o f view o f derivational analysis the word unreasonable -
un ♦ (reason- + -able) is qualified as a prefixal derivative, while the word
discouragem ent — (dis- - -courage) + -m en t is defined as a sulTixal
derivative. The last stage o f derivation determ ines the nature o f the ICs
o f the pattern. But from the point o f view o f m orphem ic analysis these
words are specified as prefixal-suffixal derivatives.

2 . 1 . Suffixation. C lassification o f S u ffix es

SufTixation is the form ation o f words with the help o f suffixes.


Suffixes usually modify the lexical m eaning o f th e base and transfer
words to a different part o f speech. There are suffixes, however, w hich
d o not shift words from one part o f speech into a n o th e r They can
transfer a word into a different sem antic group, e.g. a concrete noun
becomes an abstract one: fr ie n d - - frien d sh ip .
Suffixes can be classified into different types in accordance with
different principles.
1. According to the lexico-grammatical character o f the base suffixes
are usually added to. they may be:
a) deverbal suffixes (th o se a d d e d to th e verbal base), e .g -e r
(speaker): -ing (reading): -m en t (agreem ent), -ah/e (suitable):
b) denom inal suffixes (those added to the nominal base), e.g. -less
(endless): -Jut (arm ful): -ist (novelist): -som e (troublesom e):
e) deadjectival suffixes (those added to the adjectival base), e.g. -en
(w iden): -lv (rapidly): -ish (w hitish): -ness (brightnessi
2. According to the part o f speech formed suffixes fall into several
groups:
a) noun-form ing suffixes: -age (b n ’akage. bondage): -a n c e /-e n c e
(a s s is ta n c e . referen ce): -d o m (freed o m , kin g d o m ): -e r (te a c h e r,
b a k e r): -ess ( lio n e ss, a ctress): -in g ( b u ild in g . w a sh in g ): - h o o d
( m a n h o o d . c h ild h o o d ) : -n e s s (te n d e r n e s s , p r e ttin e s s ) : -s h ip
(relationship, partnership):
b) adjective-forming suffixes: -a bie/-ible/-ubte (unbearable. audible,
soluble): - a I (fo rm a l, o fficial): -ic (poetic): - a n t/- e n t (rep en ta n t,
dep en d en t): -e d <w o o d ed . sh a p e d ): -fu l (delightful, d o u b tfu l); - ish
<reddish, btKtkish): - tie (active): -ous (courageous, curious):
c) n um eral-form in g suffixes: -fo ld (tw ofold): -teen (fo u r te e n ):
-th (seventh): -ty (sixty):
d) verb-forming suffixes: -ate (fa c ilita te ): -er (glimmer): -fvi-ify
(terrify. speechify): -ize (equalize, h a rm in ize): -ish (establish);
e) adverb-form ing suffixes: -ty ( q u ic k ly . coldly): - w a r d / w a rd s
(upw ard. northw ards): -w ise (likewise).
3. Semantically suffixes fall into:
a) m o n o s e m a n tic . e.g . th e suffix -e ss has only o n e m ean in g
female' - tigress, tailoress:
72
b> p o ly s e m a n tic , e .g . th e suffix - h o o d h a s tw o m ean in g s:
1) ‘condition or quality* - falsehood. icom anhood: 2) ‘collection or
group' — brofherlntod.
4. According to their generalizing denotational meaning suffixes may
fall into several groups. For instance, m nin-suffixes fall into those
denoting:
a) the agent o f the action, e.g. ~er (baker): -a n t (assistant):
b ) a p p u r t e n a n c e , e .g . - a n ; - t a n ( V ic to r ia n , R u s s ia n ) : -e se
( C h in ese1:
с 1collectivity, e.g. -dorti (o ffic ia ld o m ): -ry (peasantry):
d I diminutiveness, e g -ie (birdie): -let (cloudlet): -ling (u'oljling).
5. According to their stylistic reference suffixes may be classified into:
a) those ch a racteriz ed by neutral stylistic reference, e g. -a b le
(agreeable): -er (writer): -ing (meeting):
Ы those having a certain stylistic value, e.g. -a id (asteroid): -iron
(cyclotron) These suffixes occur usually in terms and are bookish.

2 .2 . P re fix a tio n . C la s s ific a tio n of P re fix e s

P r e f ix a tio n is the form ation o f words with the help ol prefixes.


Prefixes are derivational morphemes affixed before the derivational base
Prefixes modify1the lexical meaning o f the base. They seldom shift words
from one part o f speech into another and therefore both the source word
and its prefixed derivative mostly belong to the same part o f speech, e.g.
to rew rite < to write.
Prefixes can be classified according to different principles.
1. According to the iexico-grammatical character o f the base prefixes
are usually added to. they may be:
a) deverbal (those added lo the verbal base). e.g. re- (rewrite): ouer-
(oierdo): (tut- (outstay):
b) denom inal (those added to the nom inal base), e.g. u n - ( u n ­
button): d e- (detrain): ex- (ex -p resid en t);
c) d ead jectiv al (th o s e a d d e d to th e ad jectival b a se ), e .g . u n -
(u n e a sy); hi- (bia n n u a l).
2. According to the class o f words they preferably form prefixes arc
divided into:
a) verb -fo rm in g prefixes, e.g . e n - / e m (e m b e d , e n c lo se ): be-
(b e frie n d >; de- (dethrone):
b) n o u n -fo rm in g prefixes, e.g. n o n - (n o n -sm o k e r ): su b - (s u b ­
com m ittee): ex- (ex-husband):
e) adjective-forming prefixes, e.g. u n - (unfair): il- (illiterate): ir-
(irregular).
d) adverb-forming prefixes, e.g. u n - (u n fo rtu n a te ly): u p - (uphill).
It should be specially mentioned that the majority o f prefixes function
in m ore than one part o f speech.
73
3. Semantically prefixes fall into:
a) m o n o s e m a n tic . e .g . th e p re fix e x - h as o n ly o n e m e a n in g
former' — ex-b o xer.
b) polysem antic, e.g. the prefix d is - has four meanings: I) ‘n o t'
t d isa d v a n ta g e ): 2) ‘reversal or absence o f an action o r state' (d is ­
econom y. disaffirm ): 3) ‘removal o f t to disbranch): 4) ‘completeness
or intensification o f an unpleasant action* (disgruntled).
4. According to their generalizing denotational m eaning prefixes fall
into:
a) negative prefixes, e.g. u n - (ungrateful): non- in o n p o litica l): in-
(incorrectк dis- <d islo ya l); a- (amoral):
b) reversativc prefixes, e.g. u n :- (untie): d e- (decentralize): d isr
(disconnect):
c ) pejorative prefixes, e.g. m is- (m ispronounce): m a t- (m altreat):
pseudo- (pseudo-scientific):
d) prefixes o f time and order, e.g fo r e - (foretell): p re- (pre-war):
post- (post-w ar), ex- (ex-president):
e) prefix o f repetition: re- (rebuild, rewrite):
f) locative prefixes, e.g. super- (superstructure), sub- (subw ay),
inter- (in te r-co n tin en ta l). trans- (tra n sa tla n tic).
5. According to their stylistic reference prefixes fall into:
a) th ose characterized by n eu tra l stylistic reference, e.g . over-
(oversee); u n d er- (underestim ate): u n - (unknow n):
b) those possessing quite a definite stylistic value, e.g. p seu d o -
(pseudo-classicaf): super- (superstructure): ultra - (ultraviolet): uni-
(u n ila te r a l): h i- (b ifo ca l). These prefixes are o f a literary-bookish
character.

3 . P R O D U C T IV E AND N O N -P R O D U C T IV E A FFIX ES

The word-forming activity o f affixes may change in the course of


time. This raises the question o f productivity o f derivational affixes, i.e.
the ability o f being used to form new. occasional o r potential words,
which can be readily u n d ersto o d by the language-speakers. Thus,
productive affixes are those used to form new words in the period in
question.
T he m ost productive prefixes in M odern English are: d e - ( d e ­
c o n ta m in a te ) . r e - ( r e t h i n k ) , p r e - ( p r e fa b r ic a te ) , n o n - ( n o n -
op era tio n al), u n - (u n fu n n y ), a nti- (antibiotic).
The most productive English suffixes arc given below:
Noun-forming -er (manager), -ing (fighting), -new (sweetness),
suffixes -ation (automation), -ее (evacuee). -ism (materialism).
/л/ (impressionist), -ancef-ancy (redundancy ).
-ry (gimmickry). -or (reactor), -ics (cybernetics)

74
Adject ine- forming -able (tolerable), -ic <deitrunic), -ish (smartish).
suffixes -ed (learned), -less (jobless), у (tweedy)
Verb-forming -ize.!-ise (vilamini/e). ate (oxidate). -if\*(falsify )
suffixes
Adverb-forming -fy (equally)
suffixes
-

Non-productive affixes are the affixes which are not able to form
new w ords in the period in q uestion. N o n -p ro d u c tiv e affixes are
recognized as separate m orph em es a n d possess clear-cut sem antic
characteristics. In some cases, however, the lexical meaning o f a n o n ­
productive affix fades o ff so that only its p a rt-o f-sp e e c h m eaning
rem ains, e.g. the adjective-form ing suffix -so m e ( lo n eso m e. lo a th ­
som e).
Some non-productive English suffixes are given below:

Noun-forming suffixes -th (truth), -hood (sisterhood), -ship (scholarship)


........ ''
Adjcc [inc- form ing -ful (peaceful), -fy (sickly ), -some (tiresome),
suffixes -en (golden), -ous (courageous)
Verb-forming suffixes -en (strengthen)

It is worthy o f note that an affix may lose its productivity and then
beco m e produ ctive again in th e process o f w o rd -fo rm a tio n . T his
happened to the suffix -d o m . For a long period o f time it was n o n ­
productive but in the last hundred years -dom got a new lease o f life so
that a great am ount o f words was coined with its help. e.g. serfdom ,
s la te dom .
T h e p ro d u c tiv ity o f an affix s h o u ld not be c o n fu se d w ith its
frequency o f occurrence. The frequency ol occurrence is understood
as the existence in the vocabulary o f a great num ber o f words containing
the affix in question. An affix may occur in hundreds o f words, but if it
is not used to form new words, it is not productive. For example, the
adjective suffix -fu l is met in hundreds o f adjectives ( beautiful, hopeful.
trustful, useful), but no new words seem to be built with its help, and
so it is non-productive.

4. E T Y M O L O G Y O F D E R IV A T IO N A L A F F IX E S

From the point o f view o f their etymology affixes are subdivided into
two main classes: native affixes and borrowed affixes.
Native affixes are those existed in the Old English period or were
form ed from Old English words. T h e latter category is o f special
75
importance. The changes a m orphem e undergoes in the course ot time
may be o f different kinds. A bound m orphem e, for example, may be
developed from a free one. Such are the suffixes -d o m << d a m Tate,
power'); -h tw d (< h a d state ): -lock (< lac ’actions or proceedings,
practice'). -sh ip (< scip e state, co n d itio n ’), and th e prefixes over-
К ofer 'in excess, extra, upper’), o u t- (< tit ‘foreign, external ), etc.
Some native English affixes are given below:
T
Noun-forming suffixes -er teacher. driver, painter
-n ess lovelinevs. ugliness, coldness
-ing meaning, singing, understanding
-dom wisdom, freedom, kingdom
-hood manhood, motherhood. neighbourhood
-ship mastership, workmanship, leadership
-tb health, length, truth
-lc( booklet, coverlet, islet
Adject ive - fo mu ng -ful joyful, sinful, skilful
suffixes -less sleepless, sensclcs». harmless
-y tidy, merry, cozy
-ish childish, stylish, snobbish
-ly ugly, likely, lovely
-en silken, golden, wooden
-so m e handsome, tiresome, burdensome
-like dreamlike, ladylike, cow like
Verb-forming suffixes -en redden, sadden, widen
Adverb-fonn ing -ly hardly, rarefy, simply
suffixes -w ise clockwise, otherwise, likewise
1Prefixes bc- befool. befriend, befog
m is- mismanage, misname, misuse
un- unselfish, unacademic
over- i overdo, overact, overanalyze

Borrowed affixes are those that have com e to the English language
from different foreign languages. T h e affixes o f foreign origin are
classified according to their source into:

Latin -аЫе/-1Ые advisable, profitable, divisible


-a n t/-e n t attendant, servant, studem
ex tra - extraterritorial, extracurricular
pre- pre-school, pre-race, pre-election
ultra- ultra-high, ultra-intelligent
Greek -ist artist, realist, leftist
-ism m a te ria lis m , d a r w in is m . m arx ism
-ite th a tc h e rite . Israelite, vu lcanite

76
anti- anli-pollution. anti democratic
sy m -/sy n - symmetrical, synthesis
••
French -a g e wreckage, peerage, percentage
-a n c e /-e n c e perseverance, extravagance, coherence
-ard wizard, drunkard
-a te doctorate, elector ate. filtrate
-е е employee, addressee, absentee
-e ss princess, captainesv authoress
e n -/e m - enlist, enclose, embed

The adoption ol countless foreign words caused the appearance ol


many hybrid words in the English vocabulary H y b rid s are words that
are made up o f elements derived from two or m ore different languages.
There arc two basic types of forming hybrid words: I ) a foreign base is
combined with a native affix, e.g. colourless, uncertain. 2i a native base
is com bined with a foreign affix, e.g. drinkable, ex-w ife. There are also
many hybrid com p o u n d s, such as b la c k g u a rd (English * French).
schoolboy (Greek + English).

5 . VALENCY OF AFFIXES AND BASES

Valency o f affixes is understood as their capability to be combined


with certain bases. For example, adjective forming suffixes are mostly
attached to nominal bases. They are: -en (g o ld en \. -fu l (m e a n in g fu l).
-less (careless), -ly (soldierly). -like (c h ild lik e ). The highly productive
suffix -able, however, can he combined with nominal and verbal bases
alike <h onorable. advisable).
Valency o f bases is the possibility o f a particular base to take a
particular affix The valency ol bases is not unlimited For example,
noun bases can be followed by:
1) the noun-form ing suffixes, e.g. -eer (profiteer), -ful (spoonful),
- its (linguistics), -let (cloudlet):
2) th e a d je c tiv e - fo rm in g su ffix e s, e .g . - a l ( d o c to r a l) , - a r y
(revolutionary ), -ous (spacious), -ic (historic):
3) the verb-forming suffixes, e.g. -en (hearten), -ize (sy m p a th ize )
I h e c o m b in in g p o ssib ilities (o r valency) a re very im p o rta n t
semantically because the meaning o f the derivative depends not only on
the m orphem es o f w hich it is com posed but also on combinations ot
bases and affixes that can be contrasted with it. Contrast is observed in
the use o f the same m orphem e in different environment or in the use
o f different m orphem es in the sam e environm ent. For example, the
difference in the suffixes - it у and -ism becomes clear when comparing
th em as co m b in ed with identical bases: fo r m a lity — fo r m a lis m :
reality — realism. Thus, the words in -ity mean the quality o f being
what the corresponding adjective describes, o r an instance o f this quality.
The resulting nouns are countable. The suffix -ism forms nouns naming
a disposition to what the adjective describes, or a corresponding type
o f ideology . These nouns arc uncountable.
A description o f affixes according to the bases w ith w hich they are
combined and the lexico-grammatical classes they serve to differentiate
is very helpful in the analy sis o f the meanings the affixes arc used to
render

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

I. QUESTION'S

1. What is word-formation'*
2. What arc the principal types o f word-formation?
3 What are the basic ways o f forming words in word-derivation?
4 What is meant by word-composition?
5. What are the m inor types o f m odem word-formation?
6. What is shortening'* What groups o f shortenings can be singled out ?
7. W hat d o e s b le n d in g m e a n ? W hat ty p es o f b le n d s c a n be
distinguished?
8. What type ofword-form ation is called acronymy? What basic types
of acronyms d o you know ?
9. What is sound-interchange? What groups does sound-interchange
fall into?
10. What is meant by sound imitation or onomatopoeia? What groups
o f onom atopoeic words can be singled out according to the semantic
principle?
11. What do we call back-formation?
12. What type o f word-fbrmaiion is known as distinctive stress?
13. What is affixation?
14 What is the role of suffixes m the formation o f new words?
15. What are the principles o f the classification o f suffixes *
16. What is prefixation'*
17. What principles o f the classification o f prefixes can be singled out ?
IS. What does the term ' productivity o f derivational affixes' denote?
19. What affixes arc called productive?
20. What affixes are known as non-productive *
21. In what way can the productivity o f an affix change in the course
of time?
22. What is the difference between the productivity o f affixes and
their frequency o f occurrence?
23. What main classes o f affixes can be distinguished from the point
o f view o f their etymology ?
24. What affixes are called native?
25 What are the sources o! borrowed affixes?
7S
26. What words are called hybrids'* What arc the basic types o f hybrid
words?
27. What is meant by the valency o f affixes'*
28. What is the valency o f bases.*
29. Why is it im portant to investigate o r to take into account the
combining povsibililies o f affixes and bases?

II. T A S K S

1 * In accordance with the part that is cut off to form a new word classify
cases of shortening into four groups: I >initial shortenings taphesisi. 2) medial
shortenings (syncope): 5) final shortenings (apocope): 4i both initial and final
shortenings
M o d e l : net < internet
0 The initial pan of ihe ongmal word is cut off. Consequently, the new word
refers to the first group.
hols < holidays; va c vacuum cleaner: tec < detective: p la n e <
aeroplane: Frisco < (San) Francisco: q u iz < inquisitive; bus < omnibus;
curio < curiosity; m iss < mistress; sport < disport: soccer < Association
Football: f a n < fanatic: circs < circumstances; ch u te < parachute: A line
< Adeline; cert < certainty: te n d < attend: m a n < market: coke < coca-
cola: L iz < Elizabeth: p r e p -s c h o o l < p reparatory-sch ool: g a to r <
alligator: cuss < customer.
2.* Determine the original components of the following Wends Define which
type (additive or restrictive) the Wends belong to
M o d e l : to guesstimate, seadrome
0 Ihe verb to guesstimate is formed by combining the words guess and
estimate. I lie given Wend may be transformed into a phrase consisting of
complete stems combined by the conjunction and. Thus, to guesstimate
belongs to the additive type of blends
0 The noun seadrome is formed by combining the words sea and airdrome.
I hegiven blend may be transformed mm л phrase, the first element of which
serves as modifier to the second. I hus. seadrome belongs to the restrictive
type of blends.
Positron, brunch, abxoiivcly. motel, spam. Hush, slanguage, twirl, bit.
mingy, transceiver, paratroops, crocogator, oihtics. dipward, w indoor,
newtopia. glumpy. cablegram, smazc, flextime. Oxbridge.
3.* Define which words have been combined to form the following computer
terms. Give their meanings.
Netiquette, emoticon, neti/en. technophobe
4.* According to their pronunciation classify the given acronyms into two
groups 11 those that are read as ordinary English words: 2) those with the
alphabetic reading.
74
VI о d е I: \ А I f НЕ' | ‘nur(Il:| — National Association oflcachers in Further
and Higher Education (group 1): M P |'em 'ре| — Member of Parliament
(group 2 1
N A T O — N orth A tlantic Treaty O rganization. U N O — L niied
N ations O rg a n izatio n . W H O — T h e World H ealth O rg an ization .
HI PA — British I nitcd Provident Association. A G M — annual general
meeting. B 7 — W omen's Institute. U C A S — Universities and Colleges
Admissions Service. IR A — Irish Republican Army. V4.S4 — National
Aeronautics and Space Administration. C IO — Criminal Investigation
Department. SA L E - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. UEEA - L nion
o f E u ro p e a n F o o tb all A sso ciatio n s. IQ — intellig en ce q u o tie n t.
X A A f l — Navy. Army, and Air Force Institutes. M R R M — medium-
range ballistic missile. E B I — Federal Bureau o f Investigation. TEEL —
teaching o f English as a foreign language. UFO — unidentified flying
object. U N R R A — United Nations Relic! and Rehabilitation Adm ini­
stration. I I P — very important person. FIFA — Federal International
Football Association. <7/ — government (or general) issue.
5.* Group the words formed b> sound-interchange into 1) those formed by
vowel-interchange or ablaut (& suffixation >. 2i those formed by consonant-
interchange; 3) those formed by combining both means, i e vowel- and
consonant-interchange.
M o d d : relief (Ю — relieve is) eonsonant-interehange
Long (adj) - length (n). speak <v) speech (n). wreathe (v)
wreath (n). bake (v> - batch (n). strike (v ) — stroke <n>, house in ) —
house (v). breathe (v ) — breath (n>. believe (v) — belief in), full (adj) —
fill (V). lose tv) — loss (ii), prove (v) — proof in), knot (n) — knit (v).
glaze (v) — glass in ), shelve <v) — shelf (n). wake tv) —watch (n).
lo ath e ( n ) lo ath <n>. use (v) use (n>. sing (v) song (n).
c lo th e (v) - c lo th (n ). bite <v> - bn <n>. halve (v) — h a l f t n ) ,
abide (v) — abode lit), serve (vi — serf (n). deep (adj) — depth (n>.
bathe (v ) — bath (n). ride (v) — road (n).
6.* Match the Russian words with their English equivalents.
Russian English
1. и иск 1. grumble
2. бал. баи: сильны )! улар 2. hushaby hush
3. хихикать 3. pop
4 мычать 4. ihum p-thum p
5. квакать 5. cheep
6. ворчать b. giggle
7 свист 7. m oo
8. тук-тук. наносит тяжелый 8. croak
улар
9. баю -бай. убаюкивать 9. whiz
SO
1 0 . куковать 10 bang
11. мяукать 11. babble
12. ш икать 12. quacking
13. жужжать 13. neigh
14. лепет 14. mew
15. хлоп, хлопнуть 15. mumble
16. крякайьс 16 fizz
17. ш амкать 17. boo
18. ш ипение 18. cackle
19. кудахтать 19. buzz
20. ржание 20. cuckoo

7.* f rum the sentences given below wnte out the words built up by back-
formation Give the original words from which they arc formed
M o d e l : They commentate on live Monday matches.

from which it was fomied is commentator in).


I They both enthused over my new look. 2. She didn't like that he
frivolcd in such a serious situation. 3. It was pure greed that made me
finish all those chocolates. 4. They've asked me to edit o n e o f the
volumes in their new series o f Shakespeare plays. 5. The police found
the people w ho burgled o ur house while we were away on holidays.
6. They televised a live debate between the рзпу leaders. 7 There is no
one today worth butling for. S. The existing systems begin to obsoiesce.
9. They didn't want him to orate at the meeting. 10. I was very peeved
by his refusal to cooperate. 11. I intuited his real identity. 12. Mountain
peaks are classified according to their shape.
8.* What serves as a word-formation means in the given pairs of words. Stress
these words
M o d e l : alternate Iv) — alternate (adj)
0 The distinctive stress is a word-formation means in the given pair of words:
alternate <v) |>:It?neit| alternate (adj) |.Tlt3:nat|.
1) com pound (n. adj) - com pound (v): 2) perfect (adj) — perfect
(v); 3) p erm it (n) — p erm it ( \ ) : 4) p rog ress (n ) — progress (v):
5) frequent (adj) — frequent (v): 6) affix (n) — affix (v ): 7) contact (n> —
contact (v); 8) insult (n) — insult (v); 9) abstract (adj) — abstract (v);
10) d e c re a s e (n ) — d e c re a s e (v); I I) p ro te s t (n ) — p ro test (v );
12) produce (n) — produce (v); 13) survey (n) — survey <v); 14) conflict
(n) — conflict (v >; 15) subject (n. adj) — subject (v >.
9.* Define and wnte down the derivational ba.se of the given nouns into the
first column. Classify the derivational suffixes according to the lexico-
grammatical character of the base they are added to.
81
M o d e - !: arrival

The derivational base of the noun arrival is arricie)-. The suffix ol is added
to the verbal base and thus it ma> be qualified as a devcrbal suffix

Derivational have Suffix Derived nouns


----_ ..................... i
1

a m i it')- -al arrival


-tan ice abundance
-cy constancy
dom kingdom
-ten ice independence
ful mouthful
[
! -hood boyhood
-ing dancing
... -ion invention
... -ism criticism
- its sensitiv it>
... -ment agreement
— -ness happiness
-ship ownership
1 f- ■
-lan musician

10.* Distribute the given words formed b> means of the polysemantic suffix
-ship according to three meanings of this suffix into three corresponding groups:
1> skills or ability*. 2) position or occupation', л) ‘relationship or connection
between people'.
Workmanship, comradeship, musicianship, chairmanship, friendship,
professorship, show m anship, lectureship, kinship, sportsm anship,
acquaintanceship, studentship, salesmanship, dociorship. partnership.
11.* Classify suffixes forming the given nouns according to their generalizing
meaning into three groups: I ) suffixes denoting people of different professions
or of different kinds of activity; 2) suffixes denoting collectivity or collection of;
3) suffixes denoting diminutivcncss.
Membership, assistant, lecturette. trainee, sisterhood, actress, piglet,
painter, m achinery, aunty, yup piedom , historian, duckling, finery,
scientist, babykins. readership, supervisor, nightie, aristocracy.
82
12." Translate the given combinations of words into English. Pay special
attention to the formation of different m meaning adjectives by means of adding
different suffixes to one and the same derivational base.
M © d r!: fa v o u r любимый актор благоприятная погода
д! The Fnglish for любимый auiop is a faiourite author. The English for
благоприятная погода is fm ourahte weather.
1) e x h a u st: изнуригсльная работа — и сч ерп ы ваю щ и й o i b c i:
2) history, историческая победа - исторический фильм; 3) h o n o u r
почетный гражданин — п о чеж л я обязанность: 4) respect: почти­
тельное молчание — почтенный человек; 5) skill: квалиф ицирован­
ный рабочий опытный, искусный хирург; 6) culture, культурная
жизнь — культурный человек: 7) touch, трогательные слова — обид­
чивый человек: 8) delighr. восхищенные зрители - восхитительные
каникулы; 9) econom y: экономический кризис — экономные рас­
ходы; 10) co n tem p t презренный предатель — презригсльная улыбка.
13 .* Combine the prefixes in the box with the appropriate derivational base
from the list Classify the prefixes according to the Icxico-grammatieal character
of the base they are attached to and according to the pan of speech they form
\ l a d r l : dis-
Gl The prefix dis- can be combined with the bases: -advantage, -favour,
-order. It is added to the nominal bases to form new nouns. Thus, this prefix
can be qualified as a denominal and noun-forming prefix.

dis-. il-. non-. ir-. un-. irn-. in-, de-. a-

Legal. relevant, m ature, regulate, moral, ability, paym ent, happy,


responsible, patient, stabilize, honour, smoker, leant, formally, typical,
logical, rational, possible, classify, agreement, verbal. lock, practical,
dependently. mystify, resistible, sensual, literate, obedience, academic,
tie. adequately, septic, clean.
14.“ Analyze different meaningsof the prefix снег- forming the given words.
Classify these words according to the generalizing meaning of the prefix over-
under the following headings; 11 “excess'; 2) time (age)'; 3) position or place':
4) addition’; 5) ‘outer, covering'; 6) “a person engaged in a certain activity or
an agent of an action’.
\ 1 о d * 1: overlord (n ), oicrpaint (n ), otereager <adj >
the noun overlord means “a ruler, especially a feudal lord', it refers to
E j A s
group 6. The word oterpaint has the meaning ‘paint added as a covering
layer' and may be referred to group 5. The adjective m-ereage r means
‘excessively eager' and so it refers to group 1.
Overlay (v. n ), o v er-k ing (n ), o v er-fo rtv (n ), overdevelop (v).
o v e rh a n g (v), o v e rp rin t (v ). o v ercoat ( n ) . o v e ra m b itio u s (adj).
overseventeen (n), overhead (adv), overreacher (n ). overtime (adv).
83
overstitch (n). overman <n), overprotective (adj). overseer (n). overcast (\ ).
overtly (v). overdose (n). overtwenty (n>, overlap (v), ovemightcr (n).
overleaf (adv). overdub (v). ovetboot (n). overcaneful (adj). overside (adv).
overlooker (n). overall <n). overda*ss (v). overground (adj). overlander (n).
15.* The prefix pre- making up the italicized words has Iwo different
meanings. Wnte *X' in the space provided it it means that one thing happens
before another Write ' Y' if it means that something has already been done
1. I hate the p re-C h ristm a s panic that seems to hit my family in the
middle o f December.

2. Eventually the p re -p a id envelopes were sent from the mail order


company.

3. His preconceived ideas made it impossible for anyone to get him


to listen to their side o f the argument

4. T h e re were m an y p r e - fo u r te e n th c e n tu r y p o rtra its in the


exhibition.

5. The jury unanimously reached the decision that the killing was
prem editated.

6. He married late and his wife predeceased him.

7. Bake the cake in a p re -h e a te d oven for twenty minutes.

8. Ann had invited us round early for a p re -d in n e r drink

9. Some football players develop a special routine to cope w ith p re ­


m atch nerves.

IU. We had been given tickets to a preview ol the film.

16.* Wnte out the italicized words from the sentences taken from “ The
Independent" and classify them according to the productivity o f their
derivational affixes. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Then he read extracts from it. secret histories o f those whom he
chooses to call the unpeople o f this world — the slave labourers <...>
sacked in the winter o f 1995. w ho were refused support by their union.
2. 1 am not over-optimistic about my chances o f winning any o f these
three f i r s t ships.
3. The locals call this place Pitta straat due to the num ber o f ethnic
fast-food places, which becom e a w elcom e refuge for p u b b e rs an d
clubbers.
84
4 T he key players left the encounter sounding unimpressed by Mr
Yeltsin's efforts to cajole them into supporting the 35-year-old ex-
p ro vin cia l banker and former energy minister. Sergei Kiriyenko.
5. But the interesting point about the legend is that it shows the
iconisrs had the notion o f painting from life’.
6. The problem in my own case is not sexism, but alphabetism . My
partner can vote in the proposed Halifax conversion, but I cannot. My
surname begins with G and hers with C. Only the first-named person
in a joint mortgage is entitled to vote and to participate in any subsequent
shares handout.
7. Bespectacled Kate spanned some eighteen p e e p fu l years before
being yanked back from retirement for further snoop ings.
8. He may say the same thing with the release o f every new movie,
but this time it needs to be said more forcibly, because Harry Block is a
writer who specializes in talxxnsh relationships...
9. The risk lies not in these elements singlely but in the danger that
they might combine to create a whole, which is greater than the sunt ol
its p an s producing a chain reaction.
10. Some people have cup boa r d f и Is o f u n u e a ruble outfits without
which they simply cannot live: badly Hared trousers, nickel belts that give
you a nasty rash, and expensive peep-to ed stilettos with em balm ed
goldfish in the heels.
11 My mother-in-law is a hatahotic person.
12. It’s lovely to come back and revisit these places arid reject these
emotions.
13. There are still one or two paintings that strike me as having a
uro n g ish size, and therefore give an eccentric scale to the figure.
14. Invariably, some not just name but place-dropping m em ber ol
London s C e/ebritoiracy is boasting about her high-powered, action
packed day beginning with breakfast in bed.
17.* Study the given words illust rating the tact that productivity of affixes 's
a historical phenomenon
txplam what the derivational affixes mean
XI о tl e I: arrestee, itnpeachee. pvrsuadee. secondee
гт
щ*
cil Ih e suffix tv means ‘recipient of an action'.
1) g ro c eteria, b o o te te ria . b o o k e te ria . w asheteria: 2i sp ydo m .
b lo k e d o m . c o m p u t e r d o m , s n u b d o m , b tk e rd o m : 3) u n ta k e a b le .
uneducative, undutiful. unbrotherly; 4» taxiful. polful. cupboardfui.
harpful: 5» entailable, ndeable. passable, doable; 6) emailer. channeler.
bagger, clubber: n ) co o lth . th ickth. rcsid eth: 8) to belgium ize. to
vacatiom/e. to citizenize. to IrcteHze; 9) ex analyst, ex-wages (clerk),
ex-superior, ex-provincial. 10) milkahoiic. newsacholic. btvokachohc.
chocoholic, halaholic. workacholic. shopachohc: II) refeel, reintercst.
re-aim. rebalance. 12) genderism. ableism, heighiyism. alphabetism
\S
18.* Define the etymology of the derivational affixes forming the given
words.
A1 © <1H: risky (full o f the possibility of danger. failure, or loss)
a. The suffix v is Old English.
!) refu sen ik (a Jew in the former Soviet U nion who was refused
permission to emigrate to Israel), b ea tn ik (a young person in the 1950s
an d early 1960s belonging to a subculture associated with the beat
generation); 2) p ro -fa m ily (promoting family life and traditional moral
values); 3) do a b le (within one's powers); 4) m e m m e n t (gaiety and fun):
5) fo r e te ll (to predict the future or a future event): 6) breakage (a thing
that has been broken): 7) n o n -citizen (a person who is not an inhabitant
or national o f a particular state or town): 8) tru ism <a statement that is
obviously true and says nothing new or interesting); 9) ot'erexcite (excite
excessively): 10) h in d ra n ce (a thing that provides resistance, delay, or
obstruction to something o r som eone): 11) coolant (a languid or gas that
is used to remove heat from something): 12) p a ra leg a l (a person trained
in subsidiary legal matters but noi fully qualified as a lawyer).
19.* Form adjectives from the italicized words given in brackets by means ol
attaching appropriate suffixes to them. Analyze the valency ol ihc adjective-
forming affixes in terms of the bases they are attached to.
M o d с t. The time seemed to stretch out in a (dream .) manner
L*Z The adjective-forming suffix -tike is attached to the nominal base dream-
to form the adjective dreamlike
1. She smiled a slightly {ironic...) smile. 2 He felt very (protect...)
towards her and loved her dearly 3 The newspapers printed a shocking
and (sh a m e...) story. 4. She slept on a (collapse...) bed with rough.
\p rickle...) sheets. 5. He filled the frequent silences with (com ic...)
anecdotes. 6. There were two letters from Michael, warm, (hum or...), and
lull o f information. 7. Mr and Mrs Bixby lived in a (sm all...) apartment
S. His voice was cold and (dead...). 9. 1 have extra French lessons with a
(retire...) schoolmaster. 10. Judy was very (complim ent... >about my work.
II There is the danger o f an (accident...) explosion that could be caused
by a gas leak. 12. I understood that it was (permit.. ) to ask a question.
13. She thought how (fool...) h e'd been and was not angry any more.
14. It’s time you chose between the two (alternate ) lifestyles.
20.* Add appropriate suffixes to the verbal bases to form words corresponding
to the meaning of the given sentences. Analyze the valency of the verbal bases
in terms of the suffixes they can be combined with.
M о d e l : There was an story in the paper this morning (amuset
r l The verbal base amuse- is combined with the adjective-forming suffix -me
to form the adjective amusing.
86
I. He made himself... by handing round the coffee cups, (use) 2. He
felt strongly that schools did not provide the kind o f ... needed for the
development o f good leadership qualities which should be instilled from
early childhood, (encourage) 3. The photos made him look quite
(attract) 4. He explained that he would like to becom e ... in industry,
(m anage) 5. Mr Sm ith told me a lot about ... o f printing in the 15:
century, (invent) 6. Deaths caused by reckless driving are ... . (avoid)
7. Her ... on staying in the best hotel was very ... and ... . (insist, tire,
annoy I S. She is suing the company lor unfair ... . (dismiss) 9 My little
daughter has an ... friend (imagine) 10 I did not want to encounter
other ... to the post, (appoint)

Ohapter 2

1 Conversion. Typical Semantic Relations in Conversion


2. Diachronic Approach to Conversion
3. Basic Criteria o f Semantic Derivation in Conversion
4. W ord-Com posit ion. Types o f Meaning o f C om pound Words
5. ; Classification o f C om pound Words
6. Correlational Types o f Com pounds

1. C O N V E R S IO N . TYPICAL S E M A N T IC R ELA TIO N S


IN C O N V E R S IO N

Conversion is one ot the principal way s o f forming words in M odem


English. It is highly productive in replenishing the English word-stock
w ith new words. Conversion consists in making a new word from some
existing word by c h a n g in g th e category o f a p art o f sp eech ; the
morphemic shape of the original word remains unchanged, e.g. work —
to u 'o rk. p a p er — to p a p e r The new word acquires a meaning, which
differs from that o f the original one though it can be easily associated
with it. The converted word acquires also a new paradigm an d a new
syntactic function (or functions), which are peculiar to its new category
as a part o f speech, e.g. garden - to garden ( Table 4).
A m ong th e m ain varieties o f c o n v e rsio n are: I) verbalization
(the formation o f verbs), e.g. to ape (from ape n.i: 2) sub stantiation
(th e fo rm a tio n o f n o u n s ) , e .g . a p r iv a te (fro m p r iv a te a d j.):
3) adjectivation (the formation ol adjectives), e.g. dow n (adj) (from
d o w n adv ); 4) adverbaiizatiun (the formation ol adverbs), e.g. hom e
(adv.) (from hom e n.t.
T h e tw o c a te g o rie s o f p a rts o f sp e e c h especially a ffe c te d by
conversion are nouns and verbs.
T a b le 4
garden > to garden

Meaning Paradigm Function! s)


I
garden 'a piece of land, often -s (plural) Subject
around or at the side -'л (possessive case) Object
of a house, which may -s' (possessive case, Predicative
be covered with grass plural)
or planted with flowers,
fruit, and vegetables'
to garden ‘to work in a garden, s (3r,: person, singular) Predicate
keeping it tidv, making -ed ( Past Indefinite.
plants grow, etc.’ Past Participle)
-ing (Present Participle.
Gerund)
■- -

1. Verbs converted from nouns are called denominal verbs If the


n o u n refers to so m e object o f reality (a n im ate or in an im ate) the
converted verb may denote:
1) action characteristic o f the object: ape n • ape \. 'imitate m a
foolish wav’:
2) instrumental use of the object: whip n. 1 whip 'strike with a w hip
3) acquisition or addition ol the object: f \ h n. fis h catch or try
to catch fish’;
4) deprivation ot the object: d u st n > d u st remove dust from
smth.':
5) location: [ x x k e t n. > p o cket v. ‘put into o n e ’s pocket'

2. Nouns converted from verbs are called deverbal substantives ll


the verb refers n> an action, the converted noun may denote:
1) instance o f the action: ju m p v. - jum p n. 'sudden spring from the
ground?
2) agent ot the action: help v. -• help n. ‘a person who helps?
3) place of the action: drive v > drive n. ’a path or road along which
one drives?
4) result o f the action: p eel > peel n 'the outer skin of fruit nr
potatoes taken o f f :
5) object o f the action: let v let n. a property available lor rent*
In case o f polysem antic words o n e and the sam e m em ber o f a
conversion pair may belong to several groups. Гог example, the deverbal
substantive slide is referred to the group denoting place o f the action'
(point 2.3) in the meaning a stretch o f sm ooth ice or hard snow on
which people slide’ and to the group 'agent ot the action' (point 2.2 1
when this noun means 'a sliding machine part'
2 . D IA C H R O N IC A P P R O A C H TO C O N V E R S IO N

The ca u se s lh al m ad e c o n v e rsio n s o w idely sp read are to he


approached diachronically.
Nouns and verbs have become identical in form firstly as a result of
the loss o f endings. When endings had disappeared phonetic develop­
ment resulted in the merging o f sound forms for both elements o f these
pairs, e.g. carton (\) . caru (n) • care (v. n >: fufu in), lu fia n (\) >
love (n. v ).
The similar phenom enon can he observed in words borrowed from
the French language In French these words were ol the same root but
belonged to different parts o f speech, in the course o f time they lost their
affixes and became phonetically identical in the process o f assimilation,
e.g . c r ie r <\ ). c ri (n> • c r y <\, n); e s c h e q u ie r (v). esc h a in ) >
check (v. n).
Thus, from the diachronic point o f view distinction should be made
between homonymous word-pairs, which appeared as a result of the loss
o f inflections, and those formed by conversion.
The diachronic semantic analysis o f a conversion pair reveals that
in the course o f time the semantic structure o f the base may acquire a
new meaning or several meanings under the influence o f the meanings
o f the convened word. This semantic process is called reconversion.
e.g. sm o k e (n) — sm oke <v ). The noun sm o ke acquired in 1715 the
meaning o f the act o f smoke coming out into a room instead o f passing
up the chimney* under the influence o f the meaning o f the verb sm oke
‘to emit smoke as the result o f imperfect draught or improper burning*,
acquired by this verb in 1663.

3 . B A S IC C R IT E R IA O F S E M A N T IC DERIVATION
IN C O N V E R S IO N

There are different criteria o f differentiating between the source and


the derived word in a conversion pair.
1. The criterion o f the non-correspondence between the lexical
meaning of the root-m orphem e and the part-of-speech meaning ol the
stem in one o f the two words in a conversion pair.
In the pair fa th e r (n) — fa th e r (vi. the noun is the nam e for a
being. The lexical meaning of the root-m orphem e corresponds to the
p art-of-sp eech m eaning ol the stem. The verb to fa th e r d eno tes a
process, therefore the part -о f- speech m eaning o f its Mem does not
correspond to the lexical meaning o! the root which is o f a substantive
character. This distinction accounts tor a com plex character ol the
sem antic stru c tu re o f verbs o f this type D ue to Ihe fact that the
semantically simple is the source o f the semantically complex, the verb
.49
ю fa th e r can be considered the derived m em ber in the conversion pair
in question.
2 The synonym ity criterion . T h is c riterio n is based on the
com parison o f a conversion pair w ith analogous synonym ous word-
pairs. For example, comparing the conversion pair ch a t (v) — char (n)
w ith the synonym ous pair o f words to converse — co n v ersa tio n . it
becom es obvious that the nou n c h a t is the derived m em ber as the
semantic relations in the case o f to c h a t — c h a t are similar to those
between to c o ru e rse — c o n v e rs a tio n . The synonym ity criterion is
considerably restricted in its application, it may be applied only to
deverbal substantives (v > n).
3 The criterion of derivational relations. In the word-cluster. for
instance, h a n d (n) — h a n d <v) — h a n d fu l — h a n d y the derived words
o f the first degree o f derivation’ have suffixes added to the nominal base:
h a n d fu l. han d y. Thus, the noun h a n d is the center o f the word-cluster.
This fact makes it possible to conclude that the verb to h a n d is the
derived m em ber in the conversion pair under analysis
4 The criterion o f semantic derivation. This criterion is based on
semantic relations within conversion pairs. The existence o f relations
typical o f denominal verbs within a conversion pair proves that the verb
is the derived m em ber, the existence o f relations typical o f deverbal
substantives marks the noun as the derived member. For example, the
semantic relations between c r o u d (n) — c r o u d t \ ) are perceived as those
o f ‘an object and an action characteristic o f the object'. This fact makes
it possible to conclude that the verb c r o u d is the derived member.
5. The criterion o f the frequency o f occurrence. According to this
criterion a lower frequency value testifies to the derived character of the
word in question. For example, according to M .W est’s "A G eneral
Service I is! o f English Words", the frequency value o f the following
verb-noun conversion pair is estimated as follows; to a n s u e r (63 cc )
answ er (35 ). Ihus. the noun a n sw er is the derived member.
6 The tran sform ation al criterio n . T h e a p p lic a tio n o f th e
tra n sfo rm a tio n a l p ro c e d u re may be illu stra te d by a ch a n g e o f a
predicative sy ntagma into a nominal syntagma: R oy loves n a tu re —*
R oy's love o f nature. This transformation is made by analogy with the
transformation o f The com m ittee elected John into J o h n 's election by
the com m ittee in which the word election is a derived one. This makes
it possible to conclude that the noun h u e is the derived member.
Failure to apply this transformational procedure proves that nouns
cannot be regarded as derived from the corresponding verba! base, e g.
S h e bosses th e establishm ent —* * H er boss o f th e establishm ent.

D eriv ed word» m . n have different d e g r e e w f d e r i v a t i o n Гог e x a m p le , ih e derived


words h a s ty , d e vo tio n are d e s c rib e d as having th e firs? degree o f d c r o a l m n . w here л»
Ihe d e u v e d words h a s tily . d a x n to r u it are of th e s e c o n d d eg ree ot dcnv.n»on

90
4 . W O R D - C O M P O S I T I O N . T Y P E S OF MEANING
OF C O M PO U N D W O R D S

W o rd -c o m p o s itio n is the type ot w ord-form ation, in which new


words arc produced by combining two or more Immediate Constituents
(ICs). which are both derivational bases. The ICs o f com pound words
represent bases o f all three structural types: I ) bases that coincide with
morphological stems: 2» bases that coincide with word-forms: 3) bases
th at coincide with word-groups The bases built on stems may be o f
different degrees o f complexity: I) simple, e.g. u e e k -end. 2) derived,
c.g letter-w riter. 3) com pound, e.g. aircraft-carrier.
C a re s h o u ld be ta k e n n o t to c o n fu se c o m p o u n d w o rd s w ith
p o ly m o rp h ic words o f seco n d ary d eriv atio n , i.e. derivatives built
according to an afTixal pattern hut on a com pound stem as its base. e.g.
school-m astership — |n + n) + s u f: ex-housew ife - prf. + |n + n|.
The meaning o f a com pound word is made up o f two components:
structural and lexical.
The structural meaning o f com pounds is formed on the base of:
1) the meaning o f their distributional pattern and 2) the meaning o f their
derivational pattern.
The distributional pattern o f a com pound is understood as the order
and arrangement o f the ICs that constitute a com pound word. A change
in the order and arrangement o f the same ICs signals the com pound
words o f different lexical meanings, cf.: a fr u it-m a r k e t (‘market where
fruit is s o ld ) and m a rk e t-fru it ( f r u it designed for selling). A change
in the order and arrangement o f the ICs that form a com pound may
destroy its meaning. T hus, the distributional pattern o f a com pound
carries a certain meaning o f its own which is largely independent o f the
actual lexical meaning o f their ICs.
T he m eaning o f the derivational p attern o f c o m p o u n d s can be
abstracted and described through the interrelation o f their ICs For
exam ple, the derivational pattern n + r r„ underlying the com pound
adjectives d u ty - b o u n d , w i n d - d r iv e n . m u d - s ta in e d conveys the
generalized meaning o f instrumental or agentive relations w hich can be
interpreted as 'don e by' or ‘w ith the help o f something'. Derivational
patterns in com pounds may be monosem antic and polysemantic. For
exam ple, th e p attern n + n —* N conveys th e following sem antic
relations: I ) o f purpose, e.g. bookshelf. 2) o f resemblance, e.g. n eed le­
fish : 3) o f instrument or agent, e.g. w indm ill, sunrise.
The lexical meaning o f com pounds is formed on the base o f the
com bined lexical meanings o f their constituents. The semantic center
o f the co m p o u n d is the lexical m eaning o f the second co m p o n en t
modified and restricted by the meaning o f the first The lexical meanings
o f both com ponents are closely fused together to create a new semantic
unit with a new meaning, which dominates the individual meanings of
91
the bases, and is characterized by some additional com ponent not found
in any o f the bases. For instance, the lexical meaning o f the com pound
word h a n d b a g is not essentially ‘a bag designed to be carried in the
hand' but a w om an's small bag to carry everyday personal items'

5 , C L A S S IF IC A T IO N O F C O M P O U N D W O R D S

C om pound words can be classified according to different principles


I. According to the relations between the ICs com pound words fall
into tw o classes: I) co o rd m a m e co m p o u n d s a n d 2) subordinative
com pounds
In coordinative compounds the two ICs are semantically equally
important. The coordinative com pounds fall into three groups:
a) reduplicative com pounds which are made up by the repetition of
the same base. e.g. p o o h -p o o h , fifty -fifty :
b) com pounds formed by joining the phonicallv \ariated rhythmic
twin forms, e.g. ch it-ch a t, zig zag (with the same initial consonants
but different vowels): w a lk ie -ta lk ie . cla p -tra p (with different initial
consonants but the same vowels):
c) additive com pounds w hich are built on stents of the independently
functioning words o f the sam e part of speech, e g. a cto r-m a n a g er.
qu een-bee.
In su b ord in ative com p ou n d s th e c o m p o n e n ts are n e ith e r
structurally nor semantically equal in importance but are based on the
dom ination o f the head - m em ber which is. as a rule, the second IC. e.g.
sto ne-deaf, age-long. The second !C preconditions the part of-speech
meaning ol the whole compound.
2 According to the part o f speech com pounds represent they tall into:
1>compound nouns, e.g. sunbeam , m a id sen ant:
2) compound adjectives, e.g. heart-free, far-reaching:
3) compound pronouns, e g som ebody, nothing:
4» compound adverbs, e g now here, inside:
M compound verbs, e.g. to offset, to bypass to m ass-produce.
From the diachronic point o f view many com po und verbs o f the
present-day language are treated not as com pound verbs proper but as
poly morphic verbs o f secondary derivation. They are termed pseudo-
com pounds and are represented by two groups: a) verbs formed by
m eans o f conversion from th e stem s o f c o m p o u n d n o u n s, e.g . to
spotlight (from spotlight): b) verbs formed by baek-derivation from the
stems o f com pound nouns, e g to babysit (from baby-sitter)
H ow ever s y n c h ro n ic a lly c o m p o u n d verbs c o r r e s p o n d to th e
definition o f a co m p o u n d as a word consisting o f two f ree stems and
functioning in the sentence as a separate lexical unit T hus. it seems
logical to c o n s id e r su ch w o rd s as c o m p o u n d s by right o f th e ir
structure.
92
3. According to the m eans ol com position co m p o u n d words are
classified into:
1) c o m p o u n d s c o m p o s e d w ith o u t c o n n e c tin g e le m e n ts , e .g .
h ea rta ch e. dog-house:
2) com pounds com posed w ith the help o f a vowel o r a consonant as
a linking element, e.g. h a n d icraft, speedom eter, statesm an:
3) c o m p o u n d s c o m p o s e d w ith th e h e lp o f lin k in g e le m e n ts
represented by preposition o r conjun ctio n stem s, e.g . s o n - in - la w .
p ep p e r- a n d -sa lt.
4. According to the type o f bases that form com pounds the following
classes can be singled out:
1) compounds proper that are formed by joining together bases built
on the stems or on the word-forms with or without a linking element,
e.g. door-step, street-fighting:
2) derivational compounds that are formed by joining affixes to the
bases built on the word-groups o r by converting the bases built on the
word-groups into other parts o f speech, e.g. long-legged —>(long legs) +
+ -ed: a tu r n k e y —* (to turn key) co n versio n . T hus, derivational
co m p o u n d s fall into two groups: a) derivational co m p o u n d s mainly
formed with the help o f the suffixes -e d and -e r applied to bases built,
as a rule, on attributive phrases, e.g. n a rro w -m in d ed . doll-faced, le ft­
h a n d e r. b) derivational com pounds formed by conversion applied to
bases built, as a rule, o n three types o f phrases — verbal-adverbial
ph rases (a b re a k d o w n ), v erb al-n o m in a l ph rases (a k i i i - j o y ) and
attributive phrases (a sw eet-to o th ).

6 . C O R R E L A T IO N A L T Y P E S O F C O M P O U N D S

There exists a regular correlation between the system o f free phrases


and com pound words. Correlation embraces both the structure and the
meaning o f com pound words. For example, com pou nd nouns o f the
pattern n + n (sto ry-teller. w a tc h -m a k e r) reflect the agentive relations
proper to free phrases o f the N w ho V + N type (o n e w ho tells stories,
one w ho m a kes w atches). Thus, c o rre la tio n is a regular interaction and
interdependence o f com pound words and certain types o f free phrases,
which condition the potential possibility o f appearance o f com pound
words, their structure and semantic type.
The description o f com pound words through the correlation with
variable free phrases makes it possible lo classify them into four major
classes: 1) adjectival-nominal: 2) verbal-nominal: 3) nominal: 4) verbal-
adverbial.
Adjectival-nominal com pounds com prise four subgroups o f com ­
pound adjectives: three o f them arc proper compounds and one subgroup
includes derivational compounds. The structural-semantic correlation of
compound adjectives with free phrases is presented in Table 5.
93
The compound The structural pattern The corresponding
adjective of the compound adjective free phrase

Compound

1) a) snow-white nf a a) as white as snow


b) care-free b) free from care

2) duty-bound n + bound by duty

3) two-day num + n two days

Derivational

4) long-legged (a + n) + *cd with long legs


one-sided (num * n ) + -cd with one side
doll-faced (n + n) *■-cd with the face of a doll

Г
The compound The structural pattern The corresponding
пенш of the compound noun free phrase

Compound

Verbal-nominal

1) peace-fighter n + (v +-er) to fight for peace


2) rocket-jiving n +• (v + -ing) to fly a rocket
3) price-reduction n + (v + -tion/-mcnt) to reduce prices
4) wage-cut n + (v + conversion) to cut wages

Nominal

ash-tray n: + n, trav for ashes


country-house house in the country

Derivational

Verbal-adverbial

a break-down (v + adv) + conversion to break down


a run-away to run away

94
Га Ы с 5

I hc structural type Semantic relations


of the corresponding free phrase

adjectives proper

a) as + A as + N a) of resemblance
Ы A + рф + N b) adverbial

Чп + РФ + N instrumental <locative, temporal, etc.)

Nuxn 4 N quantitative
.

compound adjectives

with/having + A + N possessive
with/having + Num -r N possessive
with + N + of ■+N possessive

T ab

The structural type


of the corresponding free phrase Semantic relations

nouns proper

compounds

V + рф + N agentivc
V+ N agentivc
V+ N agenlive
V+ N agentive

compounds
-- • - -....—..........—
------------------------- ------ — ---

com pound m m d s

compounds

V + Adv of result

95
The three o th e r types arc classed as compound nouns. Verbal-
nominal and nominal represent com pound nouns proper and verbal-
adverbial — derivational com pound nouns.
Tire structural-sem antic correlation o f com pound nouns with free
phrases is presented in Table 6.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

/. QUESTIONS

1. What is conversion?
2. In what way is a new word formed under conversion * What does
a converted word acquire?
3. What are the main varieties o f conversion?
4. What parts o f speech are especially affected by conversion?
5. What verbs are called dcnom inal? What may the converted verb
denote if the noun from which it is formed refers to some object o f reality?
6. W hat n o u n s arc called deverbal substantives? W hat m ay the
converted noun denote if the verb from w hich it is formed refers to an
action?
7. Why have nouns and verbs become identical in form?
8. What two groups of words identical in form should be distinguished
from the diachronic point o f view?
9. What is m eant by the term ‘reconversion’?
10. What arc the basic criteria o f semantic derivation in conversion?
11. What is word-composilion?
12. What ty pes o f bases d o the ICs o f com pound w ords represent?
13. What is the difference between com pound words and polymor­
phic words o f secondary derivation?
14. What com ponents does the meaning o f a com pound w ord consist
of?
15. What is meant by the structural meaning o f a com pound word?
16. What is the formation o f the lexical meaning o f com pounds based
on?
17. What classes o f com pounds can be singled out according to the
relations between the ICs that constitute them?
18. What groups d o com pound words fall into according to the part
o f speech they represent?
19. How can co m poun ds be classified according to the m eans o f
composition?
20. What classes o f com pound words can be singled out according
to the type o f bases?
21. What does correlation between the system o f free phrases and
com pound words embrace?
22. What four m ajor classes o f com pounds can be singled out on the
basis o f their correlation with free phrases?
96
23. What subgroups do adjectival-nominal com pounds comprise?
24. What structural patterns o f com pound adjectives can be singled
d u i ? W'hat sem antic relations may c o m p o u n d adjectives an d th eir

corresponding free phrases have?


25. Wliat types o f com pound nouns do you know?
26 What patterns and semantic relations with their corresponding
free phrases do verbal-nominal com pounds have?
27. What patterns and semantic relations with their corresponding
free phrases do nominal com pounds have?
28. What patterns and semantic relations with their corresponding
free phrases do verbal-adverbial com pounds have?

« 7J3WS

I.* D e fin e ihe part o f speech o f th e italicized word*. State what p a rts of
speech they are d e m e d from a n d what word form ation m e a n s is applied here.
Translate ihe sentences into Russian
V о d e .. Still water o f th e lake mirrors th e trees.
i f T h e w ord mirror is a verb which is derived from th e n o u n mirror by m eans
o f conversion. Н е п о д в и ж н а я п а д ь о з е р а о г р а ж а е ! деревья

1. T h a t fellow really w h a te c e r s m e. 2. S he m ad e a tw o -p a rt
docum entary about the war in Kosovo. 3. Local politicians were found
to p o cket the money o f fund-raisers. 4. This \ ideo is a m ust for everyone.
5. The story was in ail the dailies. 6. Will you h o lid a y in Switzerland?
7. He b usied himself with plans for the future. S. There is a great deal
of difference between before and after. 9. 1 asked him to m odem this
information tomorrow. 10. It was a good buy 11.1 don't like a chemistry
practical 12. His skin was w eathered almost black by his long outdoor
life 13. The path is steep and dangerous in the w et 14. 1 w o n t join your
plan There arc too many i/s and huts in it. 15. I he arm y's actions
dirtied its reputation.
2.* In th e given conversion pairs state the sem antic relations betw een the
den om ina! verb an d th e n oun it is derived from
\ l u i e l : coat to coat lo cover something with a coat'
.•£l T h e se m an tic relation betw een the w ords m aking up ih e con versio n p a n
coat — to coot is 'th e a d d itio n o f th e object".
1) b o n e — to bone ‘to remove the bones from (meat or fish) before
cooking i f ; 2) eye — to eye to watch carefully (with eyes)’: 3 1 c n u c d —
to c r o u d to come together m large num bers': 4) garage — to garage
to put or keep (a motor vehicle) in a garage': 5) n u t — to n u t ‘to gather
nuts*; 6) fo o l — to fo o t to act in a joking, frivolous, o r leasing wav';
7 ) sto n e — to stone to throw stones at' <k “to remove the stone from
(a fruit)’; 8) leather — to lea ther to cover with leather'; 9) skin — to
97
skin 'to remove the skin from (an anim al o r a fruit o r vegetable)’:
10) w o lf — to w o l f' to devour (food) greedily’: 11) la n d - to la n d to
put ashore: to com e down through the air and alight on the ground’:
12) grill — to g rill ‘to cook (something) using a grill*: 13) m ushroom —
to m ushroom ’to gather m ushroom s': 14) breakfast — to breakfast 'to
eat breakfast'.
3.* In the given conversion pairs state the semantic relations between the
dcvcrhal substantive and the verb it is derived from.
Vf» i] e I: to leak — leak a hole in a container or covering through which
contents, especially liquid or gas. may accidentally pass’
I1л
The semantic relation between the words making up the conversion pair to
teak — leak is "the place of Ihe action'
1» to flir t — f l i r t ‘a person who habitually flirts’: 2) to kn o ck
kn o ck a sudden short sound caused by a blow, especially on a door to
attract attention or gain entry ? 3) to cu t — c u t ‘damage from something
sharp': 4) to w atch — w atch a film or programme considered in terms
ol its appeal to the public? 5) to ch ea t — cheat *a person who behaves
dishonestly in order to gain an advantage? 6) to sta n d — sta n d a place
where or object on which someone o r something stands, sits, or resiv
in particular’: 7) to go — go an attem pt or trial at som ething? 8) to
like — likeis) ‘the thing(s) one likes or prefers’: 9) to tea r — rear a
h ole o r split in so m eth in g ca u sed by it having been pulled ap a rt
forcefully? 10) to w ail — w a it ‘a period o f waiting? 11) to forge Jorge
‘a blacksmith’s workshop? 12) to scold — scold ‘a woman who nags or
grumbles constantly? 13) to rea d — read ‘something o f the stated kind
to read? 14) to lift — lift a rise in price or am ount'.
4.* Analyze ihe origin of the given pairs of words. State whether ihe given
word-pairs from Ihe diachronic point of view are homonymous or they are
formed by means ol conversion
M o d e l : h a ivi — hit i n ) (OE hittan v i; hope (ni hope <v > <OE
hopa n. — hopiun v i
'.ill I he words hit <v) —hit nil form a conversion pair. 1he words hope <n) —
hope (v) are a homonymous pair.
I) sm oke i n) — sm oke (v) (OE smoca n. — smocian v ); 2) smile (v) —
smile (n) (Scan, smirk v.): 3)ux>rk (n) — u o rk (v) (OE wcore n. — wyrcan
v ): 4) note <n) — note <v ) (O F note n., noter v.): 5) dream <n) — dream
(v) (OE dream n.): 6) drink (v) — drink (n) (OE drincan v. — drinc n );
7 1 m ove (v) — m o te (n) (O F movier v.): 8) no.se (n) — nose (v) (OE nosu
n.): 9) rest (vi — rest (n) (OE restan/rrestan v. — rest/nest n ): 10) laugh
(v) - laugh in) (OE hkehhan. hhehhan v ); 11) change ( \ ) — change (n)
(O F change п.. changer v.); 12) p la ce (n) — p la ce <v) (I. platen n.):
13) a n su vr{n ) — a n s u v r is ) (OE andswaru n. andswarian v): 14) hand
(n) — h a n d (v) (OE hand/hond n.): 15) p ity (n) — p ity (v) (O F pile n.i:
98
16) hate ( \ ) — h ate (n) (OL hatian v. — hole n ); 17) praise (v) — praise
(n) (OF preisier to prize, to praise ); IS) point (n) — point (v) (O F point,
pointe n.. pointer v.); 19) ch a n ce (n) — ch a n ce (v) (O F cheance n.):
20) х о т ы ' (n) - sorrxMV (v) (OF si)rti/M>rg n — sotgian v).
5.* Apply the criterion o f derivational relations to define the derived m em b er
in th e given conversion pairs.
M o d e l : float i n. v): floatable, floater. floatation, floating
As th e derived w ords o f th e first degree o f derivation have affixes a d d e d to
the verba! base, ih c n o u n flm it is the derived member
Call (n. v). tim e (n. v ». break (n, \ ), age (n. \ ) . effect (n . v).
recover (n. v). harm <n. v), mix (n. v). sleep (n. v). wash <n. v).
6.* S tate th e difference in m e a n in g o f th e given c o m p o u n d s possessing
different distributional patterns. Find exam ples o f your ow n
X’ o; d e 1: finger-ring — ring finger
E Fh e c o m p o u n d w otd fin g er-rin g d e n o te s *a ring which is w orn o n a finger .
whereas the c o m p o u n d word ring-finger m ean s Ihe finger next to the little
finger, especially o f th e left h a n d , o n which th e wedding ring is w o rn ' The
different o rd er an d a rran g em en t o f the sa m e IC s (i.e. different distributional
pattern s) signal the difference in m eaning.
Boathouse — houseboat: play-boy — boy-play; poi-flower — flower­
pot; life-boat — boat-life; board-school — school-board: dog-house —
house-dog; pot-pie — pie-po t: boy-toy — toy-hoy, p lan t-h o u se —
house-plant.
7.* D istribu te th e given c o m p o u n d words a cc o rd in g to th eir derivational
patterns into three groups: 1) c o m p o u n d s o f the n - n —* N pattern: 2 1co m p o u n d s
ot th e a * a -» A pattern. 3) c o m p o u n d s o f the n * v t —* N pattern. D efine the
generalized m eaning o f these patterns.
Mode : greenhouse. sweetmeat. lazybones. lo u -cla ss. darkroom
L*l. T he derivational pattern a n ♦ \ expresses the generalized m eaning. 1) of
p u rp o s e : g reenhouse, d a r k r o o m : 2> o f c e r ta in q u a litie s o f a n o b je c t
sw eetm eat, lazy bones, low-class
Dog-flghiing. garden-party, white-hot. sum m er-house, south-east,
peace-loving, raincoat, breath-taking, light-green, sea-front, picture-
going. suitcase, blue-black, day-train. summer-flowering, dark-purple,
textbook, tea-teaching, season-ticket, awe-inspiring. red-hot. hath-robe.
8.* C h o o s e o n e ol the c o m p o u n d words from the box to fill in the gaps in
the sen ten ces given below. G ive lexical m eanings o f these c o m p o u n d words

to keyboard, a shareholder, л breakdown, awestruck, to blackball,


a plantswoman. an argy-bargy, lowbrow, pea-souper. a bodyguard,
a go-getter, a scatterbrain

99
1. Today's ... forced drivers to slow down that caused an enorm ous
traffic congestion. 2. All the data then has to be ... . 3. You are getting
on my nerves. I won’t discuss this matter with such a ... as you are. 4. She
moved to London after the ... o f her marriage. 5. Fred has been working
as a ... for the last few years. 6. He has to leave the club as all its
m em bers ... him 7 H er aunt is a ... o f a big prosperous company.
S. I c a n ’t stand many ... programmes showed on TV' every day. 9. She
has a reputation as a real ... . 10. We sat in ... silence hearing the truth
at last. II. We d idn ’t know how to plant these bushes and asked a ... to
consult us. 12. We became unintentional witnesses o f a bit ... between
actors and their director.
9.* Group the given compound words according to the relations between
the ICsinto: I ) coordinative compounds; b) su b o rd in ate compounds Within
the coordinative type of compound words single out; ni reduplicative
com pounds; hi phomcally varialed rhythmic twin form»; cl additive
compound».
M o d e l : tip-top. snow-white
Ihe compound tip-top meaning 'of the very best с Ias» or quality; excellent’
is a coordinative compound formed by joining the phomcally vanated
rhythmic twin forms (group b). The compound word snow-white meaning
'very white' is a subordinative compound
W olf-dog, d uty -free, b la h -b la h 1, secretary-sten ograph er, ticky-
tacky? road-building, chi ch i? wrist-waich, dark-brown, ping-pong.
ha-ha4, a baby-sitter. Anglo-Saxon. riff-rafF, know ledge-hungry (eyes),
willy-willy'? fighter-bom ber. w eek-long, rugger-bugger . fact-filled
(report), easy-peasy*. boy-friend, war-weary (people), hush-hush? iron-
poor (blood). h o b -n o b 1", home-sick, oak-tree, hand-m ade, willy-nilly1?
world -famous.

Hah hluh ‘ used lo ret or to som ethin g w hich is boring or without m eaningful
con ten t’
• tu k y -tm ky — '(c»peuaii> o f a building or h ou sin g d evelopm ent) made o f inferior
'n a le n al ch e ap or in poor taste'
c h i-c h t — 'a tt e m p tin g »t\li»h e le g a n c e hut a c hi e vi ng on!> an m e r - e l a h o r a i c
a ffc c tc d n c ss'
4 h a -h a a ditch with a wall o n its in n e r sid e below g ro u n d level, fo rm in g a
boundary to park o r garden without interrupting the view '
nfJ-raQ 'disreputable or undesirable p e o p le '
u itiy -u tily - 'a whi r l wi nd or du»t storm '
rugger-hugger — a b o o rish , .iggre»»ivelv m ascu lin e you n g m an win» 1» d e v o icd
lo spo*i'
’ rtrv y -pcasy — (inf) 'v e r s string hi forward a n d easy (used by or a» i f by children 1
4 h u s h -h u s h — '( e s p e c i a l l y o f a n o f f i c i a l p . a n o r p r o je c t 1 hi g hl y s e c r e t o r
co n fid e n tia l'
" hub nob 'to m ix socially, especially with those ot perceived higher social status'
u iily-n i/ly - 'w hether one hkes it or n o t'

MX)
10.* Distribute the given compound words according to the part ot'speech
they represent into five groups: I ) compound nouns; 2) compound adjectives;
3) compound pronouns; 4) compound adverbs; 5) compound verbs Make a
diachronic division of the compound verbs into: a) verbs formed by means of
conversion; b) verbs formed by means of back -derivation.
XI о 4 t*!: heartfree, to postcard
f—'
Hearrfree is a compound adjective (group 3). To postcard is a compound
verb (group 5) formed bv means of conversion from the noun a postcard
(subgroup a).
N ation -w ide, everyone, elsewhere, sleeping-car. to h oneym o on,
sweet-smelling, to vacuumclean. sunbeam , anybody, to finger-print,
tim e-server, upright, housekeeping, to care-tak e. som ething, sick-
making. to nickname, maidservant, to sightsee, reddish-brown, outside,
to whitewash, nobody, to type write, dog-tired, to week-end. downhill,
broad way. to fortune-hunt. everything, to hunger-strike, knee-deep,
indoors, to merry-make.
1 1.* Classify the given compound words according to the means of
composition into three groups: 1>compounds composed without connecting
elements; 2> compounds composed with the help of vowels or consonants as
linking elements: 3) compounds composed with the help of prepositions or
conjunctions as linking elements.
V J o d e l: Oxford-educated, electro-magnetic, up-and-up
— Oxford-educated is a compound composed without connecting elements
(group 11 . Electro-magnetic is a compound composed with the help of the
linking vowel о (group 2). ip -u n d -u p is a compound composed with the
help of the conjunction and as a linking element (group 3).
M ake-and-break, saleswoman, up-to-date, heart-beat. dow n-and-
o u t. electromotive, pale-blue, tragicom ic, m atter-of-fact, day-tim e,
handiw ork, u p -a n d -c o m in g , w ind-driven, m o th er-in-law . oil-rich,
craftsmanship, spokesman, sit-at-hom e. play-acting, good-for-nothing.
Anglo-Saxon, blacklist, bridesmaid, on e-to -o n e. water-mark. step-by-
step. politico-military, sunflower, Anglo-Catholic, door-handle, out-of-
town.
12.* Group the given compound words in accordance with the type of their
bases into; 1>compounds proper; 2) derivational compounds. Give derivational
patterns that will help you to distribute the derivational compounds into: a) those
formed by means of suffixation: b) those formed by means of conversion
X! о «1r It sky-blue, a show -off

Sky-blue is a compound proper (group 1). A shou -o ff is a derivational
compound (group 2). Its derivational pattern is | \ advi + conversion
(subgroup b).
Heavv-hcartcd. low-born, a buyout, a peace maker, a scatterbrain,
pea-souper, thoroughgoing, to blackball, a businesswom an, an old-
101
timer, a side-track, to keyboard, ill-mannered, awestruck, a baby-sitter,
a low-brow, bluish-black, a go-getter, a looking-glass, a getaway, a type­
w rite r. o n e - e y e d , a m ill-o w n e r. to b lu e - p e n c i l, h o m e - m a d e ,
a sportsman, a teenager, stone-deaf, a castaway, a videodisc.
13.* State the structural-semantic correlation between the given compound
adjectives and corresponding free phrases following the scheme that consists in
defining: I ) the structural pattern of a compound adjective; 2) the corresponding
free phrase; 3) the structural type of the corresponding free phrase: 4) the
semantic relations between a compound adjective and its corresponding tree
phrase
XI ?>d e l: home-made
l l n + v-tl
2) “made at home'
3) V„, - рф + N
4) semantic relations of place
Summer-flowering, noteworthy, black-haired, blood-red. awestruck,
k in d -h e a rte d , seven-year (p lan ), safety-tested, pitch-black, three-
coloured, sea-going, m an-m ade.
14 .* State the structural-semantic correlation between the given compound
nouns and corresponding free phrases following the scheme that consists in
defining: I) ihc type of a compound noun; 2) the structural pattern of a
compound noun: 3 ) the corresponding free phrase; 4) the structural type of the
corresponding free phrase; 5) semantic relations between a compound noun
and its corresponding free phrase.
M odel: maidseriHint:
!) a nominal compound
2 1 n: + n i
3) the servant is a maid'
4) N; * is + N.
5) oppositional relations
Make-up. door-handle, bottle-opener, getaway, pencil-case, shop-
owner, teach-in. office-m anagem ent, country-club, setback, m atch-
breakcr. football-playing, windmill, go-between, woman-doctor.
ETYMOLOGY
OF THE ENGLISH WORD-STOCK

1. Origin o f English Words


1. I. Words o f \ a t ivс Origi n
1.2. Borrowed Words
2. Assimi at ion o f Borrowings
3. Influence o f Borrowings

1. O R IG IN ОГ E N G L IS H W O R D S

According to their origin English words may be subdivided into two


main sets. The elements o f one are native words, the elements o f the
other are borrowed words.
A native word is a word which belongs to the original English word
slock, as known from the earliest available m anuscripts o f th e Old
English period. A borrowed word o r a borrowing is a word taken over
from a n o th e r language an d m odified in p h o n em ic shape, spelling,
p arad ig m o r m ean in g a c c o rd in g to th e s ta n d a rd s o f the English
language.

1 . 1 . W o r d s o f N a t iv e O rig in

Diachronicallv native words are subdivided into three main layers.


I. Words o f the Indo-European origin. These words have cognates
in the vocabularies o f different Indo-European languages and form the
oldest layer. Words belonging to this layer fall into definite semantic groups
and express the most vital, important and frequently used concepts:
— kinship terms, e.g. fa th e r , m o th er, son. daughter, brother.:
— words nam ing the m ost im portant objects a n d p henom en a of
nature, e.g. sun. m o o n . star, w in d , w a ter. ичннI. hid. stone:
— names o f animals and plants, e.g. goose, w olf. cow. tree, com :
— words denoting parts o f the hum an body. e.g. ear. tooth, eye.jito t.
heart, lip:
— words naming concrete physical properties and qualities (including
some adjectives denoiing colour), e.g. hard, quick. slou\ red. white, new:
103
— numerals from one to a hundred, e.g. o n e , tuny, twenty', eig h ty:
— pronouns (personal, demonstrative, interrogative), e.g. /. y o u .
he. m y . th a t. who.
— some o f the most frequent verbs, e.g. bear. d o . be. sit. s ta n d and
others.
2. Words o f Common Germanic origin. The C om m on Germ anic
stock includes words having parallels in G erm an. Norwegian. Dutch.
Icelandic. It contains a great number o f semantic groups some o f which
are the same as in the Indo-F.uropean group o f native words:
— nouns denoting parts o f the human body. e.g. head, arm , fin g e r.
—nouns denoting periods o f time. e.g. sum m er, w inter. tim e, u vek:
— words naming natural phenom ena, e.g. storm . ra in .J lo o d . ice.
g ro u n d , sea. earth.
— words denoting artefacts and materials, e.g. bridge, house, shop,
room . coal. iron. lead, d o th :
words naming different kinds o f garment, e.g. ha t. shirt, shoe:
— words denoting abstract notions, e.g. care. evil. hope. life. need.
— names o f animals, birds an d plants, e.g. sheep, horse, fo x . c n tu .
o a k , grass :
— various notional verbs, e.g. bake, b u m , buy. drive, hear. keep,
learn, m a k e . m eet. rise. see. send, shoot:
— adjectives, denoting colours, size and other properties, e.g. broad,
dead, d ea f, deep . grey, blue:
— adverbs, e.g. dow n, out. before.
3. E n g lis h w ords proper. English words p ro p e r d o not have
cognates in other languages. These words are few and stand quite alone
in the vocabulary system o f Indo-E uropean languages, e.g. bird. boy.
giri, lord. /adv.
Native words for the most part are characterized by:
1) a wide range o f lexical and grammatical valency and high frequency
value (e.g. the verb w atch (from OE u iv c c a n ) can be used in different
sentence patterns, with o r without object and adverbial modifiers and
can be com bined with different classes o f words: Do y o u m in d i f /
w atch ' H arriet w a tch ed him w ith interest. S h e 's a stu d e n t a n d has
to w a tch h e r b u d g et closely. A m e ric a n co m p a n ie s a re w a tch in g
Japanese developm ents closely. I fe e l like Г m being u-atched ):
2) a developed polysemy (e.g. the noun w a tch has the following
meanings: *a small clock to be worn, esp. o n the wrist, o r carried"; ‘the
act o f watching*; a person o r people ordered to watch a place or a
person' : ‘a fixed period o f duty on a ship, usually lasting four hours’: a
film o r program me considered in terms o f its appeal to the public’: e tc .):
3) a great w o rd -b u ild in g p o w er (e .g . w a tc h is th e c e n te r o f a
numerous word-family: w a tch -d o g . w atcher, w atchful, w atchfulness,
w a tc h -o u t, w atchw ord, u a tc h a b le . uarchfire. etc.);

1 F\ccpl ihe personal pronoun they which is a Scandinavian borrowing.


104
4) the capacity o f forming phraseological units (e.g. w atch enters the
structure and forms the semantics o f the following phraseological units:
to b e o n th e w a tc h . to keep w a tch , to w atch o n e 's b a c k , to w atch
o n e's step).

1.2. 3o r:o .v e d W o r d s

Borrowings enter the language in two ways: through oral speech


(by immediate contact between people) an d through written speech
(through books, newspapers, etc.). Oral borrowings took place in the
early periods o f history, whereas in recent limes written borrowings have
gained importance. Words borrowed orally arc usually short and they
undergo considerable changes du ring th e act o f ad o p tio n . Written
borrowings preserve their spelling and some peculiarities o f their sound
form, their assimilation is a long process.
Borrowings may be direct or indirect, i.e. through another language
Such languages-intermediaries were, for example. Latin through which
many Greek words came into the English language and French by means
o f which many Latin words were borrowed.
T hus, distinction should he m ade between the term ‘source o f
borrowing' and the term ‘origin o f borrowing’. The first should be
applied to the language from which th e loan w ord was taken into
English. The second refers to the language to which the word may be
traced. For exam ple, the word p a p e r < Fr p a p ie r Lat p a p y ru s <
G r p a p ym s has French as its source o f borrowing and Greek as its origin.
The fact that different languages served as sources o f borrowing at
d iffe ren t p erio d s o f the d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e E nglish language is
accounted for by purely historical causes and facts am ong which the
most important and the most influential are: the Roman invasion, the
introduction o f Christianity, the Danish and N orm an conquests, and.
in m odem times, direct linguistic contacts and political, economical and
cultural relationships with other nations. So English during its historical
development borrowed words from:
1) Celtic: 5lh - 6Ih c. A. D.;
2) Latin
Is1 group: Iм c. B.C.
2 ^ group: 7!h c. A. D.
3rd group: the Renaissance period ( I4!n — 16th c ):
3) Scandinavian: 8!h — l l ,h c. A. D.:
4) French:
Norm an borrow ings: l l Lh — 13tn c. A. D.:
Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period:
5) Greek: the Renaissance period;
6) Italian: the Renaissance period an d later:
7) Spanish: the Renaissance period and later:
105
8) Russian: the Renaissance period and later:
9) G erm an. Indian and other languages.
Alongside borrowings proper1, translation and semantic borrowings
c a n be d is tin g u is h e d . T ra n sla tio n borrow in gs a re w o rd s a n d
expressions formed from the material already existing in the English
language but according to patterns taken from another language, by way
o f literal m orphem e-for-m orphem e translation, e.g. w a ll new spaper
Russian ст ен н а я газет а. Semantic borrowing is understood as the
development in an English word o f a new meaning under the influence
o f a related word in another language. For example, the English word
p io n eer meant 'explorer' and ‘one who is am ong the first in new fields
o f activity*. U nder the influence o f the Russian word пионер it has come
to m ean a m em ber o f the Young Pioneers' Organization’.
Borrowing plays a very im portant role in the developm ent o f the
English language. Due to this process the English w ord-stock was
replenished by international words, i.e. words o f identical origin that
occur in several languages as a result o f sim ultaneous o r successive
borrow ing from o n e ultim ate source, e.g. a n te n n a , m u sic , radio.
in te rn a tio n a l w ords a re o fte n c o n fu se d w ith o t h e r w ords w hich
ultimately com e from the same source but have diverged in meaning.
Such words are called ‘false friends' o r false cognates, e.g. accurate
and а к к у р а т н ы й . c o n s e n ts and консервы .

2 . ASSIMILATION OF BORROWINGS

The term ‘assimilation o f borrowings' is used to denote a partial


or total conformation to the phoneticai. graphical and morphological
standards o f the English language and its semantic system.
According to the degree o f assimilation all borrowed words can be
divided into three groups:
1) completely assimilated borrowings:
2) partially assimilated borrowings:
3) unassimilated borrowings or barbarisms.
I. Completely assimilated borrowed words follow all m orpholo­
gical. phoneticai and orthographic standards They take an active part
in w ord-form ation. T he m orphological structure and m otivation o f
completely assimilated borrowings remain usually transparent, so that
they are morphologically analyzabk and therefore supply the English
vocabulary not only w ith free forms but also with bound forms, as affixes
are easily perceived an d separated in series o f borrowed words that
contain them (e.g. the French suffixes -age. -once and -m ent).

Borrow injp> proper arc words taken over from anoiher language and modified
in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according lo ihe standards of the
English language.
106
Completely assimilated words are found in all the layers ot older
borrowings, e.g. cheese (the word of the first layer o f Latin borrowings).
h u sb a n d (S cand). fa c e ( Fr>. a n im a l (the Latin word borrowed during
the revival o f learning).
It is im portant to m ention that a loan word never brings into the
re ceiv in g la n g u ag e th e w h o le o f its s e m a n tic s t r u c t u r e if it is
polysemantic in the original language. And even the borrowed variants
may change and becom e specialized in the new system. For example,
the w ord sp o rt had a m u ch w ider sco p e in O ld F ren c h d en o tin g
pleasures, making merry and entertainm ents in general. Being borrowed
into Middle English in this character it gradually acquired the meaning
o f outdoor games and exercise.
2. Partially assim ilated borrowed words may he subdivided
depending on the aspect that remains unaltered into.
a) borrow ings not completely assimilated graphically. These are. for
instance, words borrowed from French in which the final consonant is
not pronounced: ballet, buffet. Some may keep a diacritic mark: cafe,
cliche. Specifically French digraphs {ch. q u . ott. etc.) may be retained
in spelling: bouquet, b ritxh e:
b) borrowings not completely assimilated phonetically. For example,
som e o f French borrow ings keep the accen t on the final syllable:
m a c h in e , cartoon, police. Others, alongside the peculiarities in stress,
contain sounds o r com binations o f sounds that are not standard for the
English language an d d o not o ccu r in the native words, e.g . |з| —
bourgeois, prestige, regime:
c) borrowings not assimilated grammatically. For example, nouns
borrowed from l atin o r G reek have kept their original plural forms:
crisis :: crises, p h en o m en o n :: p hen o m en a . Some o f these also have
English plural forms, but in that case there may be a difference in lexical
meaning, as in indices r a n alphabetical list of names, subjects, etc. at
the back o f a book, w ith the numbers o f the pages where they can be
found ) :: indexes ( ‘a standard by which the level o f something can be
judged or measured ):
d) borrowings not assimilated semantically because they denote objects
and notions peculiar to the country from which they come. They may
denote foreign clothing (e.g. sari, som brero); foreign titles and professions
(e.g. sh a h , rajah, toreador); foreign vehicles (e.g. rickshaw (Chinese));
foreign food and drinks (e.g. pilau (Persian), sherbet (Arabian)); etc.
3. L nassimilated borrowings or barbarisms'. This group includes
words from other languages used by English people in conversation o r in
writing but not assimilated in any way. and for which there are correspond­
ing English equivalents, e.g. the Italian a d d io , ciao — 'good-bye*.

The third group i*. пей universal!) accepted, as u mav be argued that words not
changed at all cannot form a part o! the Fnglish vocabulary as they occur in speech
only, bill do not enter the language.
107
ITie changes a borrowed word has had to undergo depending on the
date o f its penetration are the main cause for the existence o f the so-
called etymological doublets. Etymological doublets are two o r more
words originating from the same etymological source, but differing in
phonetic shape and meaning. For example, the words w hole (originally
meant healthy? 'free from disease’) and h a le both com e from OE h a t:
one by the normal development o f OE a into d. the other from a northern
dialect in which this modification did not take place. Only the latter has
survived in its original meaning.

3 . IN FLU EN CE С - B O R R O W IN G S

The role o f borrowings was so great that they exerted much influence
on the development o f English and brought about different changes or
innovations practically on all the levels o f the language system. Borrowed
words have influenced: I ) the phonetic structure o f English words and
th e soun d system: 2) the w o rd -stru c tu re a n d th e system o f word-
building: 3) the sem antic stru ctu re o f English words: 4) the lexical
territorial divergence.
1. The influence o f borrowings on the phonetic structure o f
English words and the sound system resulted in:
1) the appearance o f a num ber o f words o f new phonetic structure
with strange sounds or familiar sounds in unusual positions, e.g. u a t(z.
p syc h o lo g y , so u ffle. The initial |p s |. |p n |. |p t | are used in English
alongside the forms without the initial sound |pj;
2) the appearance o f a new diphthong |oiJ w hich came into English
together with such French words as p o in t, jo in t, poise.
3) the reappearance o f the initial [sk] mostly due to Scandinavian
borrowings:
4) the development o f the Old English variant phonem es |f| and jv)
into different phonemes: jv | came to be used initially [vain, valley) and
[!] in the intervocal position (effect. affair):
5) the appearance o f the affricate |d>j at the beginning o f words? e.g.
ju n g le, jo u rn e y , gesture.
2. The influence o f borrowings on the word-structure and the
system of word-building resulted in:
I) the appearance o f a num ber o f new structural types in which some
highly-productive borrow ed affixes (e.g. r e - , in te r -, -er. -ism ) can
combine with native and borrowed bases. O ther borrowed affixes, not
so productive (e.g. с о -, d e - . -a n t. -ic). com bine only with Latinate
bases, i.e. bases o f Latin. G reek o r French origin, e.g. in fo r m -a n t

In the Middle E n g lis h period th e affricate |ф| *as found ai fhc end or in the
m iddle of words, с g bridge О Г brieу. singe —OE sencytran
108
(in fo rm - < Old French < Latin), d efen d a n t (d e fe n d - < Old French <
Latin);
2) the ousting o f native affixes by borrowed ones. e.g. the prefix pre-
has replaced the native prefix fo re - which was highly-productive in
Middle and Early New English;
3) the appearance o f a great num ber o f words with b o u n d m o r­
phemes. e.g. tolerate. tolerable, tolerance, toleration;
4) the change o f the very nature ol word clusters which now unite
not only words o f the root-m orphem es, but o f different synonymous
root-m orphemes, e.g. spring — vern a l; sea — m a ritim e
3. The influence o f borrowings on the sem antic structure of
English words resulted in;
1) the differentiation o f borrowed words and synonym ous native
words in meaning and use. cf.; fe e d (native) — nourish (L);
2) the narrow ing o f meaning o f native words due to the diff erentiation
o f synonyms. For instance, the word stool o f native origin in Old English
denoted any article o f furniture designed for sitting on'. U nder the
influence o f Ihc French borrow ing c h a ir the word stool cam e to be used
as the name for only one kind o f furniture, i.e. ‘a seat that has three or
four legs, but no back or arm s’:
3) the extension o f meaning o f native English words or the acquisition
o f additional o r new meanings, e.g. the political meanings o f shock and
deviation have come from the Russian уд а р н ы й and у к. ю н.
4 The influence o f borrowings on the lexical territorial
divergence resulted in:
1) the intensification o f the difference between the word-stock o f the
literary national language and dialects owing to the borrowing o f words
into the literary national language which arc not found in the dialects,
and vice versa:
2) the enlargement of ihc word-stock o f different dialects and national
variants o f English in the l.’K. For example. Irish English has the following
words o f Celtic origin: sh a m ro ck — т р и л и с т н и к . d u n — х о л м ,
colleen — девуш ка, etc. In the Northern and Eastern dialects there are
many Scandinavian borrowings, e.g. busk — gel ready "; т ип — ‘mouth';
3) the acquisition bv literary national words o f a status o f dialectal
words, e.g. h ea l скры ват ь, покры ват ь (OF helan).

О d t S i i О ‘J S AN О •A S K S

i. j l i f s F.'UiVS

1. What sets o f English words can be singled out according to their


origin?
2. What word is called native ?
3. What does the term ‘a borrowed w ord/a borrowing' mean?
4. What is the diachronic division o f native words’1
5. What semantic groups arc words belonging to the Indo-European
stock divided into?
6. What words docs the C om m on G erm anic stock include?
7. What semantic groups does the C om m on Germ anic slock contain?
8. What words refer to the English words proper?
9. What are native words characterized by?
10. What are the ways o f borrow ing?
11. What d o the terms direct borrowings' and indirect borrowings'
denote?
12. What is meant by the term source o f borrowing’?
13. What is meant by the term origin o f borrow ing ?
14. What historical facts an d events stipulated the great influx of
borrowings from different languages?
15. What languages did the English language borrow word» from *
16. What borrowings are called translation borrowings '
17. What is meant by ‘semantic borrowing ?
18. What words are called international?
19. What does the term ‘assimilation o f borrow ings' denote?
20. What degrees o f assimilation can be singled out?
2 1.1n what cases can borrowed words be considered completely assimilated?
What are the peculiarities o f completely assimilated borrowed words?
22. What borrowings are regarded as partially assimilated?
23. What is the principle o f the classification o f partially assimilated
borrowed words?
24. What words are called unassimilated words o r barbarisms?
25. What does the term ‘etymological doublets' imply?
26. What levels o f the language system were influenced by borrowings?
27. What did the influence o f borrow ings on the phonetic structure
o f English words and the sound system result in?
28. What did the influence o f borrowings on the word-structure and
the system o f word-building result in°
29. In what wav did borrowings influence the semantic structure of
English words?
30. In what way did borrow ings influence th e lexical territorial
divergence?

II. TASKS
I.* Subdivide the following words ol native origin into 1) word» of Indo-
European origin: 2) words of Common Germanic origin; English words
proper. In case of difficulty consult the Concise Oxford Dictionary o f English
Etymology.
M o d e i tell, sheriff , и hot
The name Fngli»h word tell i» ol Common Germanic origin (group 2>. 1he
name English word sheriff'belongs to the English words proper (group 5i
I he native English word и hat I» of Itido-Luropean origin (group 11
110
Woman, blast ( “gust o f wind or a i r ) , sister, glove, lady, tooth, always,
slow, green, know, daisy, sand. long, grass, flood, boy. seven, high. eat.
sheriff, widow, answer, life. lip. call, swine, small, bird. co m . silver, ten.
day. lord. ship. we. bench, sun. girl.
2. Analyze the original meanings ol the given native words of ihe English
language. State: ai the lexical and grammatical \alency of these words: hi ihe
semantic development of these words
\ f о d e 1. foot (n) • OF fin pan of the leg beyond the ankle'
0 a) the lexical as well as grammatical valency of the wordJoot (feet pi 11» very
high. The word can be used in different sentence patterns in various
meanings, e.g.: He stepped on и nut/, and his Joot is eery sore. Mary slid
her feel info her sandals She paused at the foot o f the stairs. There u as
an error message at the foot o f the page. -1young officer at the foot of the
table objected to the plan.
hi the word foot (feet pl.t lias extended its semantic structure by acquiring
new meanings and is now a polysemantic word: 'the pan ofn sock or stocking
that covers the toot', 'particular manner of walking; »iep? 'the bottom pan
or tower end', a device on a sew ing machine for holding the material steady
as it is sewn'. *a unit of leaner measure equal to 12 inches’, 'a division of a
line in poetry, in which there is usually a strong heat and one or two weaker
ones'.
I ) fa th er (n i < ОГ. f x d e r a male parent o f a child or anim al': 2) sing
(v ) < ОГ singan utter with musical inflexions of the voice': 3) lord {nl
< OE hla ford bread-keeper? 4) high (adj) < OE he ah “ofgrc.it vertical
extent’: 5) m a k e (v) < OE m acian ‘bring into existence, subject to an
operation? 6) book (n) < Of. Ык 'beech' (on which runes were carved);
7 ) silly (adj) < OE s x i i j deserving o f pity or sympathy? 8) s ta n d (v ><
ОГ. s ta n d a n assum e or m aintain an erect position on the feet, be
upright? 9) fj/r/(adj) < OE ea ld (aid) grown-up. adult? 10) h ea d (n>
• OE h ea fo d anterior (in man. upper) part o f the body, containing the
m outh, sense organs, and brain*.
3.* Give derivatives of ihe following word» of name origin in ease of
difficulty consult a dictionary.
\ I <*d e I: heat
The word hear has ihe following derivatives: to heat, heater, heated,
heatedly, heating, heatstroke, heatproof. heat-lightning
Lord. hat. red. grass, to feed, quick, stone, to feel, heavy, to look.
4 . * Write o u t phraseological unils formed with ihe help ol the italicized
words which arc of native ongin. Slate what these phraseological units denote
Translate the sentences into Russian
M o d e l : I am completely at one with Michael on this issue.
• Theph raseologic.il unit at one with smb. denotes in agreement or harmony
Я полностью согласен с Майклом н »гом вопросе.
1. Г т sure I can finish ihe article — I jusi need lo gel my h e a d
dow n Ihis afternoon. 2. I ’m afraid Lisa's family do not sta n d a chance.
1 doubt if their advisers w ill let them take it to court. 3. You know Jack.
He c a n 't help chatting up any pretty girl he meets. It d o e sn 't m ean
a thing, but if you d o n 't like it why not show him it s a gam e that
tw o can play. 4. T he sm a ll fry are soon going to be pushed out of
business by all these m ultinationals. 5. T he organization that looked
so solid an d d ep en d ab le tu rn e d out to be a h o u se o f cards. 6. It
really knocked me for s ix when my ex-boyfriend an n o u n ced he was
getting m arried. 7. M alcolm , w ho is a quiet but d eterm ined young
rider, has now m a d e his m ark on the international show jumping
front. 8. I swept the floor and polished the table, an d then, for .cooz/
measure. 1 cleaned the windows. 9. He was very m uch the blue-eyed
hoy in the office. 10. She criticized m em bers o f the com m ittee for
siltin g on the fence and failing to make a useful contribution to the
debate. II. T he legal difference between negligence an d recklessness
is a bit o f a g rey area. 12. If the insurance com pany won t pay for
the dam age. Г 11 be up a tree.
5.* State whether the given words were borrowed into the Fnglish language
directly or indirectly, i. e. through another language Define the source and origin
of Ihc given borrowed words
M о <1e I: sphinx < MF •' L < Gr Sphigx
0 The word sphinx was borrowed into the English language indirectly, i e
ihrough another language Ihc -source of borrowing is Laiin. whereas the
ongin of borrow ing is Greek.
I ) obelisk < L obeliscus < G r obelfskos: 2) please iv ) < MF plaisc.
plese < O F plaisir < I placcre; 3) easy < ME < O F aisfe: 4) character
< ME caracter < O F caractere < L character < G r kharaktcr: 5) p o o r <*
ME povere. pore O F povre < L pauper: 6) a ve rse '' L aversus:
7) c lim a te < (O )F clim at or I cITma. c lim at < G r klim a. klimat;
8 1 m ania < ME < L mania < G r mania, 9) hurricane < Sp huracan;
10) risk < F risque < It risco: 111 fa te < It fato < L latum: 12) d a m e <
(O )F dam ner < !. dam nare; 13) obese < I. obesus: 14) ten d er < O F
tender < L tener: 15) g nosis < G r gnosis; 16) alarm < ME < OF alarme
<■ It allarme.
6.* Write down in the space provided a letter, which indicates the language
from which the given words were borrowed In case of difficulty consult the
Concise Oxford Dictionary o f English Etymology
a Celtic с — Scandinavian e Greek g — Spanish i - German
b Latin d — French f Russian h - Italian
M o d e l : muzhik f
tobacoo ... g
s tr o ll. . . i
112
cup ... criterion ... wall ...
to cast ... armada eponvm ...
anemia ... Exe ... Kilbride .
samovar ... cosmonaut guerilla ...
Avon ... anger ... poodle ...
kindergarten ... motto lieutenant ...
banana ... power ... tornado ...
law ... candle ... the Downs ...
government ... mosquito kvass ...
violin ... waltz ... bandit ...
halt ... hormone ... interior ...
fellow ... plant ... restaurant ...
London ... verst ... tundra ...
promenade ... to take ... gondola ...
umbrella ... nickel ... anamnesis ...

7.* Identify the period of borrowing of the French, Greek. Russian and
German words given in task 6.
M o d e l : muzhik, stroll
E The word muzhik was borrowed from Russian in the 1" century. The word
stroll was borrowed from German in the century.
8.* Match the translation borrowings on the left with the original phrases
words on the right. State the origin of ihc latter
M o d e l : / / — h i Latin)
1. the moment o f truth a I infra dignitatem
2. word-combi nation Ы W'underkind
3. below o n e ’s dignity c ) попутчик
4. first dancer d ) el m o m c n t o d e la verdad
5. that goes without saying e) circulus vitiosus
6. fellow-traveller 0 колхоз
wonder child g) с л о в о с о ч е т а н и е
S. vicious circle h I su b ju d ic e
9. famous case i) cela va s a n s dire
10. collective farm j l ca u se celebre
11. u n d e r consideration k) prim a-b allerin a

9.* Write out international words from the given sentences


M o d e I: This music is bv Beethoven.
cl The word music is an international word.
1 He gave a false address to the police. 2. I’ve seen many good films
lately ?. D o you take sugar in your coffee'1 4 D o you play tennis"
5. Arrange the words in alphabetical order. 6 Charlotte Bronte wrote
under the pseudonym o f C'urrcr Bell. 7 He worked in radio for nearly
113
40 years. 8. Many people feel that their interests are not represented by
mainstream politics. 9. We’ve visited the open-air theatre in London's
Regents Park. 10. I'm w orried about my s o n ’s lack o f progress in
English. II. The government has promised to introduce reforms of
th e tax system . 12. He went on to stu d y m ed icin e at E dinburgh
University.
10.* Cine the false cognates ( false friends'» in the Russian language to the
given English words. State the difference in their meanings
М о е t I: argument
jlJ The false cognate of the word argument is the Russian word аргумент
The word argument mean» 'an angry disagreement between people', wherea.s
the word аргумент has the meaning reasoning'
Paragraph, baton, order, to reclaim, delicate, intelligent, revision,
artist, sympathetic, capital, fabric, ambitious, concourse, romance, to
pretend, command.
11.* State the etymology ol the given words Write them oui in three columns:
ai completely assimilated borrowings; м partially assimilated borrowings;
ei unassimilated borrowings or barbarism».
Torchere, wall, m ahanm i. a la mode, datum , perestroika, gate. let •
a tel. want, chalet, ad hoc. sheikh, parlando. nucleus, parquet, matter,
bagel, a la carte, kettle, chauffeur, form ula, p ari-m utu el, sham an,
finish, corps, alca/ar. com m edia dell'arte. money, souvenir, bacillus,
pas de deux. ill. spahi. stratum , noia bene, spaghetti, menage a trios,
odd. memoir, parenthesis, hibakuxha. padrona. incognito, thesis, coup
de mailre, tzatziki. sabotage, ad libitum, stimulus. Soyuz. alam eda.
s ire e t. b o u le v a rd , c r ite r io n , dcja \ u. to re ro , yin. l. b c rm e n s c h ,
m acaroni, tzigane, sensu iato. hypothesis, bngh. pousada. shiatsu.
shapka
12.* Study change» in the »cmantic structure of the completely assimilated
words given in task 11.
M . i d t l . anim al' a mammal, as opposed to a bird, reptile, fish, or insect’
Latin am та Us having breath'
13.* Iransenbe the following borrowings not completely assimilated
graphically and or phonetically Ray speeia attention to their spelling and
pronunciation
lorchere. chalet, parquet, chauffeur, corps, souvenir, spaghetti,
memoir, incognito, sabotage, boulevard, macaroni
14." Give the plural torm ot the nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek
Mode*!: sanatorium sanatoria: terminus — senium
D atum , nucleus, formula, bacillus, stratum , parenthesis, thesis,
stmiulu». criterion, hypothesis
114
15 .* G iv e m e a n in g s o f th e follow ing b o r r o w e d w o rd s n o t a s s im ila te d
sem an tically S tate the source o f borrow ing ot these words.
M o d e l : tsuba

-M T he m eaning o f th e borrow ing tsuba is a Ja pan ese sword g u a rd , typically


elaborately d e co rate d an d m ade of n o n o r leather*. T h e sou rce o f borrowing
is the Japanese language

M n h a ra n i. p e re s tro ik a , s h e ik h , b a g el, s h a m a n , a lc a z a r, s p a h i.
h i b a k u s h a . t z a tz i k i. S o y u z . t o r e r o , y i n . t z i g a n e . b a g h . s h i a ts u . s h a p k a .
1 6 .* Translate or give the Fngh*h equivalents to th e unassim tlaied words
w ord -com bin alions (or barbarism s) given in task 11. Stale the origin of these
words C onsult the Concise Oxford D ictionary o f English Etym ology
M o d e l : a p ie he
W. T he Fngiish cquivaient to the borrow ing a jjiche is p lacard I h c origin of
afficfw is the Italian language.

17.* In the given sentences find etym ological doublets Slate their origin
M o d e I: 1 -.pent the afternoon reading u n d e r the shade o f an umbrella
T he trees cast long, scary shadow s in the evening light.

Ш I h e etym ological doublets are th e words shade a n d shadow. They are of


G e rm a n ic origin: related to D utch schaduu a n d G e rm a n .Sc flatten (nouns),
from an I n J o European root shared by G re ek skoros darkness'.

1. W e tr ie d t o c a l m h e r. b u t s h e just s c r e e c h e d m o r e lo u d ly . 2. T h e
a u d i e n c e s h r ie k e d w ith la u g h t e r 3. Fie a lw a y s s ta y s in t h e b e s t hotel**
4. H e s p e n t a w e e k in h o s p i t a l w ith l o o d p o i s o n i n g 5. F o r b i r th ra te s
in t h e 1990s. see t h e c h a n o n p a g e 2 4 7. b. S h e s e n t m e a lovely c a r d o n
my b ir th d a y . “ 1 h e E d i t o r re s e rv e s t h e rig h t to a b r i d g e r e a d e r s le tte rs
5. I h is b o o k is a n a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r w o r k . 9. T h i s is
a d v ic e l o r t h o s e w h o w ish lo save g r e a t so rro w a n d tra v a il. 10. I h a v e a
j o b w h i c h in v o lv e s q u i t e a lot o f travel. 11. A n n e s ta y e d c lo s e e n o u g h to
c a tc h t h e c h ild if h e fell 12. T h e b a n d have o fte n b e e n c h a s e d d o w n th e
s tre e t by e n th u s ia s tic Ian s 13. 1 d i d n 't kn ow t h a t h is g r a n d f a t h e r w as a
c h ie f ta in o f t h e c la n . 14. S h e w a s c a p t a i n o f t h e O l y m p ic s w im m in g t e a m
1 8 .’ Write out trorn the given extract words borrow ed from: 1> L3tin. 2) Old
French French: Vi Old N orse Scandinavian. 4 | Spanish o r Italian C o m m en t
o n th e peculiarities o f their phonetic structure a n d w ord -stru ctu re. Speak on
the influence ot borrowing*, from the language-* m question o n the sou nd system
a n d the system of word building o f the English language

I n 1 922 w h e n A n s o n w e n t a b r o a d w i t h t h e j u n i o r p a r t n e r t o
in v e s tig a te s o m e L o n d o n lo a n s , t h e j o u r n e y i n t i m a t e d t h a t h e w a s t o be­
t a k e n in to t h e f ir m H e w a s t w e n t y - s e v e n n o w . a little heavy w i t h o u t
b e in g d e fin ite ly s t o u t , a n d w ith a m a n n e r o l d e r t h a n h is y e a r s O ld
p e o p l e a n d y o u n g p e o p le liked h i m a n d i r u s t e d h i m . a n d m o t h e r s felt
safe when their daughters were in his charge, for he had a wav. when he
came into a room , o f putting himself o n a footing with the oldest and
most conservative people there. "You and 1," he seemed lo say. “we're
solid. We understand."
H e had a n instinctive an d ra th e r ch a rita b le know ledge o f the
weaknesses o f men and women, and. like a priest, it made him the more
concerned for the maintenance o f outward forms. It was typical o f him
that every Sunday morning he taught in a fashionable Episcopal Sunday-
school - even though a cold shower and a quick change into a cutaway
coat were all that separated him from the wild night before.
(from Ih e Rich Boy. C h . V by F.S. Fitzgerald»
19.* State th e source o f borrow ing o f affixes a n d bases o f the following words
M o d e l; copilot
ic Hie prefix со- is l.atin; th e base pilot is French.

Endanger, citizenship, com putaholic. pan-A m erican, leatherette,


vice-chair, slavery, superm an, disobey, payable, foreleg, politeness,
befriend, outclass, childish.
20." Arrange ihe w ords from th e c o lu m n s so that they torm d o u b le or triple
sy n o n y m o u s senes. State the difference in m ean in g an d in use between words
in e ac h sy non y m o u s scries.
M o d e l ; to wish — to desire
0 T h e w ord to desire is a French borrowing. T h e difference in m eaning ol
these tw o verbs is th e following; to wish — to want som eth ing to hap pen
althou gh it is unlikely'; to desire — to w ant som ething'. 1 hese verbs are
used ditTercnllv as to desire is a m o re lorm al word.
Native English French Latin
words borrowings borrowings
1. guts 1. flame 1. lassitude
2. ask 2. sacred 2. felicity
3 fire 3. courage 3. ascend
4. house 4. attire 4. conflagration
5. kingly 5. mount 5. consecrated
6. weariness 6. mansion 6. interrogate
7. rise 7 question 7. regal
8. happiness N. rova!
9. holy
10. clothes
21 .* G ive adjectives o f L atin origin c o rre sp o n d in g to the following nouns.
M <* d e l : h a n d m anual
Tooth, sun. cat. youth, death, son. eye. uncle, dog. star. sea. nose,
town, sight
16
2 2 .* M atch th e w ords given in the lelt c o lu m n w ith their synonym s in the
right co lum n, Stale th e difference between them .
M o d e l : 15 — d
0 T he word fe m in in e is a Latin borrow ing. w hile the word w om anly is o f native
origin.
I. matutinal a. homely
2. filial b. bodily
3. paternal c. fatherly
4. nebulous d. w o m a n ly
5. benevolent c. early
6. infantile f. brotherly
7. annual g. daughterly
8. maternal h. friendly
9. corporeal i. earthly
10. celestial j. yearly
11. terrestrial k. heavenly
12. nocturnal 1. childish
13. fraternal m. elder
14. domestic n. cloudy
15. fe m in in e o. motherly
16. senior p. nightly
17. mortal q. deathly
2 3 .* S ta te th e m e a n in g o f th e follow ing S co ttish w o rd s b o rro w e d from
different languages. C on sult th e S e w O xford D ictionary o f English.
M o d e l : Inch (from G aelic)
0 T h e Scots w ord Inch m e a n s *a lake'

1) g len (from Gaelic): 2) to fa s h (from French): 3) ingle (from


Gaelic); 4) k irk (from Old Norse): 5) d o m in ie (from Latin): 6) pibroch
(from Gaelic); 7) brae (from Old Norse); 8) dram (from Old French
or Latin): 9) dreich (from Old Norse); 10) bo n n y (from Old French).
2 4 . * R e a d t h e p a ssa g e d e s c r i b i n g s o m e i m p o r t a n t h is to r ic a l fa c ts o f
Y orkshire1 that influenced th e d e velopm ent o f th e Yorkshire dialect in th e UK
Speak o n the influence o f borrow ings o n th e lexical territorial divergence. In
the table given below th e passage m atch Yorkshire dialectal w ords with: 1) Old
N o rse w ords from which they originated; b) their m eanings.
M o d e l : nang

S T h e O ld N o rse w ord from w hich th e Yorkshire w ord nang originated is angr.


T h e w ord nang m ean s ‘tro u b le so m e, painful, irritating’.

Yorkshire — a former county of northern England, traditionally divided into East.


West, and North Ridings Since 1996 the northern part «if ihe area has formed the
county o f North Yorkshire, while the rest of the Yorkshire area consists of unitary
councils.


T h e i n f l u e n c e o f V ik in g l a n g u a g e o n t h e re g io n a l s p e e c h v a rie tie s
o f n o r t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n E n g la n d is w e ll d o c u m e n t e d . It is n o t su rp risin g ,
t h e re f o re , th a t n u m e r o u s 'V ik in g le x ica l ite m s a r e t o h e f o u n d in th e
tr a d itio n a l d i a l e c t s o f p l a c e s s u c h a s , io r in s ta n c e , Y o rk sh ire .
Y ork h a s fo r m a n y c e n t u r i e s b e e n a n i m p o r t a n t p l a c e in t h e h isto ry
a n d g e o g r a p h y o f E ng land - R o m a n s , A n g le s, V ik in g s a n d N o r m a n s all
u s e d Y ork a s a c a p ita l to r g o v e r n i n g a n d k e e p i n g military' c o n tr o l o v e r
a la rg e p a r t o f n o r t h e r n E n g la n d . It a l s o w a s a n i m p o r t a n t r e l i g io u s
c en tre.
Eoforvxic1 Tell to S c a n d in a v ia n i n v a d e r s in A D 8 6 6 . T h e v e te r a n s of
t h e V ik in g G r e a t A rm y s e t tl e d , “ p r o c e e d e d t o p l o u g h a n d s u p p o r t
t h e m s e lv e s " , a n d m ix e d w ith t h e lo cal p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h m a rr ia g e . T he
V ik in g s , l ik e t h e R o m a n s a n d A n g le s b e f o r e t h e m , a p p r e c i a t e d t h e
i m p o r t a n c e o f j o r v ic 's lo c a tio n for c o n tr o l o f t h e r e g io n . It b e c a m e t h e
c a p i ta l o f a V ik in g k i n g d o m w i t h in t h e D a n e la w * , a k i n g d o m w h i c h
m o r e o r less e x t e n d e d o v e r w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n a s Y o rk sh ire ( M a p I ).
T h e V ik ing s s p o k e O l d N o r s e w h i c h , like O l d E nglish s p o k e n b y th e
A n g lo -S a x o n s, h a d a G e r m a n i c o r ig in . A tew h u n d r e d y e a r s b e f o r e th e
V ik in g A g e, t h e t w o l a n g u a g e s m u s t h a v e b e e n very sim ila r, p r o b a b ly
d i a l e c t s o f t h e « m e l a n g u a g e . By t h e V ik in g A g e th e y h a d d e v e l o p e d
in to t w o d is tin c t l a n g u a g e s , t h o u g h still sim ila r in m a n y w a y s .
In t h e D a n e l a w , w h e r e t h e V ik in g s s e ttle d a n d s ta rte d t o m e r g e w ith
t h e E n g lish , t h e r e h a d t o q u ic k ly d e v e l o p a fo rm o f l a n g u a g e w h i c h
e v e ry o n e c o u ld s p e a k a n d u n d e rs ta n d , so th a t p e o p le c o u ld
c o m m u n i c a t e w ith e a c h o t h e r e a s ily in m a tte r s o f w o r k , t h e h o m e , tr a d e
a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . If, fo r i n s t a n c e , a n O l d N o r s e s p e a k e r w i s h e d to
d i s c u s s t h e s a l e o f a h o r s e w ith a n O l d E n g lish s p e a k e r , t h e y w o u l d

1 E b o r a c u m — E o f o r w k : — J o r v k — Y o r k T o i h c R o m a n i it w as F h o r a e u m
It is s a id I h a t th is n a m e c o m e s f r o m t h e C e ltic p e r s o n a l n a m e . E h u ro s . f o r a l m o s t lo u r
h u n d r e d y e a rs t h e R o m a n s ke p t a s tr o n g m ilita ry p r e s e n c e in F h o r a e u m . l o h e ld c o n tr o l
o \ c r t h e Celtic* B ritish t r ib e s a n d t o p r o v id e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s for H a d r i a n s W alt t o t h e
n o r t h T h e R o m a n s b u i l t t h e f i r s t s t o n e w a l ls a r o u n d F b n r a c u m . s o it c o u l d b e
defended.
W h e n t h e a r e a w a s in v a d e d a n d s e ttle d by t h e A n g le s, f r o m t h e 5 th c e n tu r y o n w a r d s ,
it is s a id th a t they m i s t o o k **cbor“ fo r " e o f o r " . w h ic h in O l d E n g lis h m e a n t “ w ild b o a r "
T o t h i s th ey a d d e d t h e O l d E n g lis h " w i c " , g iving t h e n a m e E o f o rw ic . Eofitmic b e c a m e
t h e c a p i t a l o f i h c A n g iia n k in g s o f N o r t h u m b r i a a n d . w h e n t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s w e re
e v c n iu a lly c o n v e r t e d t o C h r i s t i a n i ty , it a ls o b e c a m e a c e n t e r for t h e new religion
T h e city tell t o S c a n d i n a v i a n in v a d e r s in A D X66 T h e first p a r t o f t h e n a m e wa*
s im p l if ie d t o " jo r ~ . p e r h a p s a resu lt o f t h e O l d E n g lis h a n d S c a n d i n a v i a n lan g u a g e *
b e in g c o m b in e d T h e O ld E n g lish " w ic " b e c a m e th e S c a n d in a v ia n ”v ik “ a n d th e
s e tt le m e n t s new n a m e . J o r v i k . e m e r g e d .
: F ive s e t t l e m e n t s b e c a m e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o n a n t a l t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f T h e
D a n e la w w h e n th e y b e c a m e fo rtifie d " b o r o u g h s " to h e lp d e f e n d ag ain st E n g lish
r e c o n q u e s l T h e s e w e r e L i n c o l n , N o t t i n g h a m . S t a m f o r d . L e ic e s te r a n d ( t h e o n l y o n e
r e n a m e d by t h e V ik in g s) D e rb y T h e s e h a v e b e c o m e k n o w n c o lle c tiv e ly a s T h e Five
B o r o u g h s ' o f t h e D a n e la w

1IX
ixjth u n d e r s t a n d th a t a h o r s e s a le w a s in v o lv e d bec a u s e t h e l a n g u a g e s
w e r e s im ila r e n o u g h to r th is. But b e c a u s e O l d N o r s e a n d O l d E nglish
h a d d iffe re n t ru le s o f g r a m m a r , it c o u l d le a d to c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n it
b e i n g o n e h o r s e , o r m o r e t h a n o n e h o r s e , th a t w a s fo r sale.
V ik in g s affec te d t h e l a n g u a g e > p o k e n t h r o u g h o u t E n g la n d , b u t in th e
D a n e l a w t h e e ffe c t w a s m u c h m o r e p o w e r f u l , g o i n g b e y o n d l o a n
w o r d s t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f n e w A n g l o N o r s e d ia le c ts w h i c h w e r e , in m a n v
w a y s , m o r e S c a n d i n a v i a n t h a n E n g li s h . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l ' d i a l e c t s ,
a m o n g s t o th e r s , o f Y o rk sh ire . L a n c a s h ire , T h e L ake D istric t a n d
L in c o ln s h ire e m e r g e d fro m th is p r o c e s s .
In Y o rk s h ire , t h e V ikin g ru le rs d i v i d e d t h e c o u n t y in to t h r e e s e p a r a t e
u n its f o r e a s e o t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e O l d N o r s e w o r d fo r a t h ir d o f
s o m e t h i n g ' U hrilhjungn b e c a m e m o d if i e d to r i d i n g ’, g iv in g rise to th e
E ast R i d i n g , N o r t h R i d i n g a n d W e s t R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e . T h e s e
a d m in is tr a tiv e R idings e x is te d right fro m t h e V ik ing a g e u n til 1 9 7 4 , w h e n
th e y w e r e d i s m a n t l e d b y t h e UK B o u n d a r y C o m m i s s i o n . S in c e 1 9 7 4 ,
Y o rk s h ire p e o p le c o n s c i o u s o f th e ir h e rita g e h a s p r e s s e d for th e
r e s to r a tio n o f t h e a n c ie n t V ik in g R id in g s, At t h e s u b - s h ir e c o u n t y level,
t h e V ik in g a d m in is tr a tiv e u n i t w a s t h e vapnatak . w h i c h is e x p r e s s e d
'w a p e n ta k e to d a y . T h e t e r m s u g g e s te d t h e f r e e m e n v o t e b y a sh o w
119
ot weapons, which w ere then counted at the periodic meetings ot the
wapentake (a kind of local parliament and court). The wapentakes still
exist today tor certain administrative purposes and they can be found
marked on local maps.
Yorkshire
O l d N o r s e
dialeci.il G e n e r a l l y a c c e p i e d m e a n i n g
s o u r c e w o r d
w o r d s

1 b arf bekkr way, street

2 yawd angr basket fo r h o lding grain; m etal bucket for coaJ

3 gate kista hill, e sp ec ially o n e w h ic h is lo n g a n d low

4. scu ttle g a ta m arsh y w o o d l a n d o r s h r u b la n d

5. m e n s e tja r n h o rs e o f in fe rio r b re e d
*-----*---
6. beck jald a lake o r p o n d (especially in a n u p la n d lo c a tio n )

7. c a rr b ja rd a s tr e a m , a b ro o k

8 nang skutill
. d e c e n c y ; n e a tn e s s , tid in e ss
f— -------
9. ta rn m ennska large b o x . c h e s t o r t r u n k

jlO. kist k jarr troublesom e, p a in f u l. irritating


WORD-GROUPS
AND PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS

Chapter 1

1. Lexical and Grammatical Valency'


7 Structure and Classification o f W ord-Groups
<

3, Types o f Meaning o f W ord-Groups


4. Motivation in W ord-Groups

1. L E X I C A L A N D G R A M M A T I C A L V A L E N C Y

I he aptness o f a word to appear in various combinations is described


as its lexical valency or coIlocabiliYy. The noun jo b , for example, is
often combined with such adjectives as backbreaking, difficult, hard,
full-tim e, part-tim e, summer.; cushy, easy: demanding, menial, etc.
The noun m yth may be a com ponent o f a num ber o f word-groups, e.g.
to create a m yth. to dispel a m yth, to explode a m yth , myths and
legends, etc. Lexical valency acquires special im portance in case o f
polysem y as th ro u g h th e lexical valency d iffe ren t m ean in g s o f a
polysemantic word can be distinguished, for instance, cf.; heavy table
(safe, luggage): heavy snow (ruin, storm): heavy drinker (eater): heavy
sleep (sorrow, disappointment); heavy industry• (tanks).
The range of the lexical valency o f words is linguistically restricted
by the inner structure o f the English word-stock. Though the verbs lift
and raise are usually treated as synonyms, it is only the latter that is
collocated with the noun question.
T he restrictio ns o f lexical valency o f w ords m ay also m anifest
themselves in the lexical meanings o f the polysemantic members o f word
groups. For exam ple, the adjective heavy in th e m eaning “rich and
difficult to digest" is combined with the words fo o d , meals, supper. But
it cannot be used with the words cheese отsausage (the words with more
or less the same com ponent o f meaning) implying that the cheese or
the sausage is difficult to digest.
Words habitually collocated in speech tend to constitute a cliche,
for instance, the noun arm s and the noun race. Thus, arms race is a
cliche.
12I
The lexical valency o f correlated words in different languages is
different, c f : In English pot flowers — in Russian комнатные цветы.
Grammatical valency is the aptness o f a word to appear in specific
grammatical (or rather syntactic) structures. T he minimal grammatical
context in which words are used w hen brought together to form word-
groups is usually described as th e pattern o f th e w ord-groups. For
instance, the verb to offer can be followed b> the infinitive ( to offer to
do sm th . ) and the noun (to offer a cup o f tea). The verb to suggest can
be followed by the gerund (to suggest doing smth.) and the noun (to
suggest an idea). The grammatical valency o f these verbs is different.
The adjectives Wetter and intelligent are seen to possess different gram­
matical valency as clever can be used in word-groups having the pattern:
adjective + preposition ‘a t’ + noun (clever at mathematics), whereas in­
telligent can never be found in exactly the same word-group pattern.
The grammatical valency o f correlated words in different languages
is not identical, cf.: in English to influence a person. a decision,
a choice (verb + n o u n ) in Russian влият ь н а человека, н а
решение, н а выбор (verb - preposition - noun).

2 . STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION


OF W ORD-GROUPS

The term ‘syntactic structure (form ula)’ implies the description


ol the order and arrangement o f member-words in word-groups as parts
o f speech. F or instance, the syntactic structure o f the word-groups
a clever m an, a red flow er may be described as made up o f an adjective
and a noun, i.e. A + N; o f the word-groups to take books. to build
houses — as a verb and a noun. i.e. V + N.
The structure o f word-groups may also be described in relation to
the head word. In this case it is usual to speak o f the pattern but not o f
formulas. For example, the patterns o f the verbal groups to take books,
to build houses are to take + N . to build + N . The term ‘syntactic
pattern' implies the description o f the structure o f the word-group in
which a given word is used as its head.
According to the syntactic pattern word-groups may be classified into
predicative and non-predicative. Predicative word-groups have a syntac­
tic structure similar to that o f a sentence, e.g. he went. John works. All
other word-groups are called non-predicative. Non-predicative word-
groups may be subdivided into s u b o r d in a te (e.g. red flower, a man o f
wisdom) and c o o r d i n a t e (c.g. women and children, do or die).
Structurally, all word-groups can be classified by the criterion of
distribution into two extensive classes: endocentric and exocentric.
Endocentric word-groups are those that have one central member
functionally equivalent to the whole word-group, i.e. the distribution
o f the w hole word-group and the distribution o f its central m em ber are
identical. For in s ta n c e , in the w o rd -g ro u p s red flo w e r , k in d to
people , the head-words are the nou n flo w er and the adjective kin d
correspondingly. These word-groups are distrihutionally identical with
th e ir c e n tra l c o m p o n e n ts . A c c o rd in g to th e ir c e n tr a l m e m b e rs
w o rd -g ro u p s may be classified into: n o m in a l g ro u p s o r p h ra se s
(e.g. red flower), adjectival groups (e.g. kin d to people), verbal groups
(e.g. to speak well), etc.
Exocenlric word-groups are those that have no central component
and the distribution o f the whole word-group is different from either of
its members. For instance, the distribution o f the word-group side by side
is not identical with the distribution o f its component - members, i.e. the
com ponent-m em bers are not syntactically substitutable for the whole
word-group.

3 . T Y P E S O F M E A N IN G O F W O R D - G R O U P S

The m eaning o f w ord-groups can be divided into: 1) lexical and


2) structural (grammatical) components.
1. T h e lexical m e a n in g o f the word-group may be defined as the
com bined lexical meaning o f the com ponent words. Thus, the lexical
meaning o f the word-group red flow er may be described denotationally
as the com bined meaning o f the words red and flower. However, the
term combined lexical meaning* is not to imply that the meaning of
the word-group is a mere additive result o f all the lexical meanings of
the co m p o n en t m em bers. T he lexical m eaning o f the w ord-group
predominates over the lexical meanings o f its constituents.
2. The structural meaning of the word-group is the meaning conveyed
mainly by the pattern of arrangement o f its constituents. For example, such
word-groups as school grammar ( шкальная грамматика) and gram m ar
school орамматическая шкала) are semantically different because of the
difference in the pattern o f arrangement o f the component words. The
structural meaning is the meaning expressed by the pattern o f the word-
group but not either by the word school or the word gram m ar. It follows
that it is necessary to distinguish between the structural meaning o f a given
type o f a word-group as such and the lexical meaning of its constituents.
The lexical and structural com ponents o f meaning in word-groups
are interdependent and inseparable. For instance, the structural pattern
o f the w ord-groups all day long, all night long, all w eek long in
ordinary usage and the word-group all the sun long is identical. The
generalized meaning o f the pattern may be described as “a unit o f time*.
Replacing day. night, u eek by another noun — the sun the structural
meaning o f the pattern does not change. The group all the sun long
functions semantically as a unit o f time. But the noun sun included in
the group, continues to carry the semantic value, i.e. the lexical meaning
123
that it has in word-groups o f other structural patterns, e.g. the sun rays.
African sun.
Thus, the meaning o f the word-group is derived from the combined
lexical meanings o f its constituents and is inseparable from the meaning
o f the pattern o f their arrangement.

4 S MOTIVATION IN W ORD-GROUPS

Semantically all word-groups can be classified into motivated and


non-motivated.
A word-group is lexically motivated if the combined lexical meaning
o f the group is deducible from the meanings o f its components, e.g. red
flower, heavy weight, reach a lesson.
If the com bined lexical meaning o f a word-group is not deducible
from the lexical meanings o f its constituent components, such a word-
group is lexically non-m otivated, e.g. red tape Г official bureaucratic
m ethods'), take place ( ‘occur').
The degree o f motivation can be different. Between the extremes of
com plete m otivation an d lack o f m otivation there are innum erable
intermediate cases. For example, the degree o f lexical motivation in the
nominal group Mack market is higher than in black death, but lower
than in black dress, though n o n e o f th e groups can be considered
completely non-motivated. This is also true o f other words-groups. e.g.
old man and old boy both o f which may be regarded as lexically motivated
though the degree o f motivation in old m an is noticeably higher.
It sh o u ld be n o te d th a t see m in g ly id en tical w o rd -g ro u p s are
sometimes found to be motivated o r non-m otivated depending on their
semantic interpretation. Thus, apple sauce is lexically motivated when
it m eans *a sauce made o f apples' but when used to denote ‘nonsense'
it is clearly non-motivated.
Completely non-motivated o r partially motivated word-groups are
described as phraseological units o r idioms.

Q U E S T I O N S A N D TASK5

/. QUESTIONS

1. What is lexical valency?


2. Why does lexical valency acquire special im portance in case of
polysemy?
3. What restricts the range o f the lexical valency o f words?
4. WTat are words habitually collocated in speech called?
5. Is there any difference in the lexical valency o f correlated words
in different languages? Give examples,
6. What is grammatical valency?
124
7. Is there any difference in the grammatical valency o f correlated
words in different languages? Give examples.
8. What does the term ‘syntactic structure (formula)” imply?
9. What does the term syntactic pattern” mean?
10. What kinds o f word-groups can be singled out according to the
syntactic pattern’.'
11. What classes o f word-groups can be singled out according to the
criterion o f distribution?
12. What word-groups are called endocentric?
13. What word-groups are called exocentric?
14. Wliat types o f meaning can be singled out in word-groups?
15. What is the lexical meaning o f the word-group?
16. What is the structural meaning o f the word-group'1
17. In what way do the lexical and structural types o f meaning of
word-combinations interact? What does the connection between lexical
and structural types o f meaning o f word-groups imply?
18. What is meant by the lexical motivation o f a word-group?
19. In what cases is a word-combi nation considered to be lexically
non-m otivated?
20 What degrees o f motivation can he singled out?

//. TASKS

I.* Fill in the blanks in the sentences with the correct form of the italicized
words. Pay special attention to the restrictions of their collocability What
conditions these restrictions.' Give meanings of the italicized words.
а) ю mend, to repair
I. These socks need to be ... . 2. It is difficult to find anyone who
knows how ... a clock. 3 The convicts were employed in ... the highway.
4. He had been ... a tiny hole in the lining o f his leather coat. 5. Please
have this typewriter ... . 6. The gate needs to be ... so it closes properly
7. I know how ... my car myself but 1 can t do w ithout necessary tools.
8. I cl me ... your shin. 9. In those days, all the farming equipment was
made an d ... in (he village. 10. I got into conversation with the man w ho
cam e ... the roof.
b) mistake, error
I. 1 was trying to dial my m other's number but I ended up phoning
my friend by ... . 2. G oods dispatched to your branch were in .... 3. The
crash was caused by human .... 4. She made the ... o f thinking they were
im p o rtan t. 5. It s lim e you poin ted out to him the ... o f his ways
6. Children learn from their ... . 7. Mrs S m ith’s huge phone bill was the
rcsull o f a com puter — 8. The accident was caused by a(n ) ... of
judgment on the p an o f the pilot. 9. He is an odd character and n o ...
10. If we d o n 't finish the job today they won t pay us: make no
aboul it. 11. I taught myself how to cook through trial and ... .
2.* Stale m ean ing s o f the given polysem antic adjectives o n th e basis of their
lexical valency, i.e with th e help o f n o u n s they arc c o m b in ed with.
X! mil e I: sm arr \ l shirt, car. garden, officer: 2) person, child, carpenter:
3) blow, rise tall, attack: 4) restaurant, set (society )
0 A c co rd in g to its lexica! valency t h e a d je ctiv e sm a rt has th e follow ing
m eanings: 11 neat an d stylish in a p p e a ra n c e ': 2> ‘good o r quick in thinking,
clever': 3) ‘quick a n d forceful : 4) being o r used by very fashionable p e o p le '

f u l l : I ) bottle. glass, train, drawer, mouth: 2) truth, name, address,


year, height; 3) speed, marks, force, gallop;
dry : I ) shirt, soil, paint; 2) climate, m onth, heat, summer; 3) sherry,
wine; 4) book, subject, lecture, text; 5) joke, answer, humour, thanks,
manners;
b ro a d . 1) shoulders, river, chest, staircase, smile; 2) lands, plains,
fields; 3) opinions, view, taste, ideas; 4) outline o f a plan (framework),
sense; 5) him. statem ent, purpose, distinction; 6) joke, laugh, story,
hum our;
ugly~ I ) face, man. houses, furniture, building, picture, surroundings;
2) scene, wound, confrontation, clouds. 3) ideas, feelings, rum ours,
moment;
u ide: I ) road. gate, river, gap. avenue, foot; 2) interests, experience,
support, variety, selection, choice.
3.* Analyze the lexical valency o f th e polysem antic w ords to run a n d u>
charge. Translate th e sentences into Russian
to ra n
1. The horse r u m . 2. The film ru n s for two hours. 3. The water ru n s
4. The tap ru n s. 5. His nose ru n s. b. The motor ru n s ". The wine ra n
over the floor. 8. The whole argument ru n s on this point. 9. She ra n
the water into the bath-tub. 10. He ra n his business well. II. The ice­
cream is beginning to ru n
to ch a rg e
I He c h a r g e d the man ten cents for the pencil. 2. He c h a r g e d the
battery. 3. He r/rr/^ e r/th e m to do their duty. 4. He c h a r g e d these goods
to the m an's account. 5. Ih e soldiers c h a r g e d the enemy, 6. 1 don't want
to c h a rg e my memory with trifles. 7. The judge c h a r g e d him with the
crime.
4 . 1.* tran sla te th e sentences into Russian paying special atten tion to the
g r a m m a tic a l valency o f th e ita lic iz e d w o rd s S ta te th e d if f e r e n c e in th e
gram m atical valency o f Russian a n d English words.
M o d e l : to die — to succum b These j n im a ls d ied of'starvation A b o u t

4on.oon A n te n c a n s succum b each year to sm oking-related illnesses.

л . л и н е й н ы е v viep
Г т и m to.io.ia.
o t к а гол о к о л о
ж д ы й 4 0 0 . 0 0 0 американ­
це» учшраЮ! u i iHiie ш е й . е ь я и н н ы ч с курен ием .

12b
Russian, умирать от чсго-.i. Fnglish to die of smth.: to succumb to smth.
1. to suffocate - to choke: The dog was suffocated by smoke. I broke
the windows for us not to be suffocated by the petrol. She was choked
with sobs. He was choked with angry emotion.
2. to ride —to g o My little daughter can ride a bike. He rides a horse
perfectly I don't want to # o by train. If we#> by bus we'll be in time there.
3. to cure — to trear. T h i s m e d i c i n e w ill cure y o u o f y o u r c o u g h
N o t h i n g s e e m e d t o cure h i m o f It is n e r v o u s n e s s . I n t h i s h o s p i t a l A n n is
treated f o r h e r h e a d a c h e s w ith q u i t e a new d r u g . T h e b o y s u ere treated
f o r c u t s a n d b r u i s e s r a t h e r lo n g .
4. to blame - to accuse. The investigator blam ed the driver for
meeting with the accident He blamed her sister for her child's death I
d o n 't want to accuse hint of telling lies. She said that her employers
accused her o f theft
5. to let - to allow: I et m e h a v e a l o o k at t h a t letter. S u e d o e s n 't
let h e r k id s e a t c a n d y . W e d o n o t allow p e o p l e t o s m o k e a n y w h e r e in
t h e b u ild in g . D o n ' t allow y o u r p r o b l e m s t o d o m i n a t e y o u r life.

4 .2 .* Slate th e difference in th e g ram m atical valency o f th e t h e pairs o f


words from task 4 . 1 . G ive their syntactic patterns
M o d e I: in care to interest: S h e 's never c a n ’ll very m u ch about her
a p p earan ce Sport has never really interested me.
[*1 T he syntactic pattern o f the verb iu r e is: can- - preposition ‘a b o u t' -*■noun
(pron oun ). The syntactic pattern ot th e verb interest is: inren’sr * p ro n o u n
(n o u n ).

5 .* Translate th e se n ten c es in to R ussian paying special a tte n tio n to the


gram m atical valency o f th e italicized words. State the difference in the grammatical
valency o f the corresponding words in the Russian a n d English languages.
M odel: H y o u 're n ot sure o f the answers, say so.
0 L e . i n n .i н е у в е р е н н о т л е т а х . ! а к и с к а ж и .

R u ssian : б ы т ь ч в е р е й н ы м в n e x t- I - E n g lish to b e s u re of sm th .
!. H e firm ly b e lie v e s th a t s h e is m w * < v / / o f t h e c r i m e . 2. I explained
t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e b a n k m a n a g e r a n d h e a r r a n g e d a l o a n 3 S e v e ra l
c h i l d r e n in t h e c la s s c a n n o t speak E n g lis h . 4 D i d t h e n e w s p a p e r s really
affect t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e e l e c t i o n " 5 R o b s o n s t r o n g ly objected t o th e
t e r m s o f t h e c o n t r a c t , b. I f ir s t encountered h i m w h e n s t u d y i n g at
C a m b r i d g e . 7 A 2 3 - y e a r - o l d w o m a n w a s f o u n d guilty o f * m u r d e r in t h e
C e n t r a l C o u r t t o d a y . S. H e r f a m i l y s t r o n g l y disapproi ed o f h e r
b e h a v i o u r 9 D o n ' t bother h i m w i t h y o u r 'c o m p l a i n t s . If) Г И stay h e re
a n d wait fo r Mi k e
6 . ’ R e a d th e p a s s a g e b e lo w . W rite o u t c o m b i n a ti o n * o t w o r d s d is tr ib u tin g
t h e m a m o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s . :i> p r e d i c a t i v e b» n o n - p r e d i c a t i v e In t h e
n o n - p r e d i c a t i v e g r o i p ' t n g l c o u t c o o r d i n a t e e w o r d _■ u n b m u t i o n s

12“
She was silent. Vaguely, as when you are studying a foreign language
and read a page which at first you can make nothing of. till a word o r a
sentence gives you a clue; and on a sudden a suspicion, as it were, of
the sense flashes across your troubled w its, vaguely she gained an inkling
into the working o f Walter s m ind It was like a dark and o m in ous
landscape seen by a flash o f lightning and in a m oment hidden again by
the night. She shuddered at what she saw.
(from The Painted Veil. XXVI by W S M augham )
7.* Taking into a c c o u n t th e criterio n o f distribution, from the passage given
in к ь к 6 . write ou t; I) e n d o c e n tric ; 2) cxocentric w o rd -c o m b in a tio n v What
subgroups o f e n d o ce n tric w o rd -c o m b in a tio n s can be singled out ?
M o d e l : tv study a language
И The w o rd -c o m b in a tio n to stu d y a language ь e n d o ce n tric. A ccording to its
central m em ber, i.e. the verb to study, this w o rd-co m b in atio n is verbal.
8.* Arrange the w o rd -g ro u p s according to the degree o f their m otivation,
starting wi t h th e highest

I) gay bird, beautiful bird, blackbird; 2) cold wind, cold feet, cold
war, cold hands; 3) light hand, light burden, light supper, light artillery;
4) blue funk (crpaM. blue skirt, blue stocking, blue fox; 5) big cheese,
delicious cheese, w hite cheese. Sw iss cheese; 6 1 w icked tongue, smoked
tongue, coated tongue; 7) big boy. big house, big m oney, big talk;
K) angry tone, high tone, mental tone.

Chapter 2

l. Free W ord-Groups versus Phraseological L nits versus Words


1 . 1 .; Structural Criterion
1.2. Semantic Criterion
13. Syntactic Criterion
2. [ Semantic Structure o f Phraseological Units
3. Types o f Transference o f Phraseological Units
4. , Classification o f Phraseological Units

1. FREE W ORD-GROUPS VERSUS PHRASEOLOGICAL


UNITS VERSUS WORDS

A phraseological unit can be defined as a reproduced and idiomatic


(non-m otivated) or partially motivated unit built up according to the
m odel o f free w o rd -g ro u p s ( o r s e n te n c e s 5 > an d sem antically and
P r u v c b » a n d s a v i n g »
syntactically brought into correlation with words. Hence, there is a need
for c rite ria exp osin g th e degree ol s im ila rity /d iffe re n c e betw een
phraseological units an d free w ord-groups. phraseological units and
words.

1 .1 . S t r u c t u r a l C r i t e r i o n

The structural criterion brings forth pronounced features which on


the one hand state a certain structural similarity between phraseological
units and free word-combi nations at the same time opposing them to
single w ords a), a n d o n th e o th e r h a n d specify th e ir s tru c tu ra l
distinctions (Ы.
(a) A feature proper both to free phrases and phraseological units is
the divisibility (pa эделыюоформл емкость) o f their structure, i.e they
co n sist o f sep arate s tru c tu ra l elem ents. T h is fact sta n d s th em in
opposition to words as structurally integral (и ел ь н о о ф о р м л ен н ы е)
units'. The structural integrity o f a word is defined hy the presence o f a
com m on grammatical form for all constituent elements o f this word- For
example, the grammatical change in the word shipwreck implies that
inflexions are added to both elem ents o f the word simultaneously —
ship-wreck-i ). ship-wreck -s. while in the word-group the wreck o f a
ship each element can change its grammatical form independently from
the other — (the) ureck-( ) o f the ship-s. (the) w re c k s o f (the) sh ip s.
Like in word-groups. in phraseological units potentially any com ponent
may be changed grammatically, but these changes are rather few, limited
and occasional and usually serve for a stylistic effect, e.g. a Black Maria
‘a van used by police for bringing suspected crim inals to the police
station': the Blackest M aria, Black Marias
tb) The principal difference between phraseological units and free
word-groups manifests itself in the structural invariability o f the former.
The structural invariability suggests no (or rather limited) substitutions
o f com ponents For exam ple, to give som ebody the cold shoulder
m eans *to treat somebody coldly, to ignore o r cut h im ', but a warm
sh o u ld er o r a cold elbow m ak es no sense. T here are also strict
restrictions on the com ponental extension and grammatical changes of
com ponents o f phraseological units. The use o f the words big, great in
a white elephant meaning ‘an expensive but useless thing' can change
o r even destroy the meaning o f the phraseological unit. T he same is true
if the plural form fe e t in the phraseological unit from head to fo o t is
used instead o f the singular form. In a free word-group all these changes
arc possible.

1 F o r m o r e d e r a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t 'd i v i s i b i l i t y ' o f p h r a s e o l o g i c a l u n i t s a n d
w o r d - c o m b i n a t i o n s a n d ‘in te g rity * o f w o r d s s e e A . I S m ir n ils k y . ' E n g l i s h
L e x ico lo g y ".

129
1.2. Se mantic Criterion

The sem an tic criterion is o f great help in stating the sem antic
dHTcrence/similarity between free word-groups and phraseological units,
(a), and between phraseological units and words (b).
(a) T he m ean in g in p h raseo lo g ical units is created by m utual
interaction o f elem en ts an d conveys a single co n c ep t T h e actual
m eaning o f a phraseological unit is figurative (tran sferred ) an d is
opposed to the literal meaning o f a w ord-combination from w hich it is
derived. T he transference o f the initial w ord-group can be based on
simile, m etaphor, metonymy, an d synecdoche. The degree o f tran s­
ference varies and mav affect either the whole unit or only one of its
constituents, cf: to skate on thin ice — *to take risks'; the small hours —
‘the early h o u rs o f th e m orn ing '. Besides, in the form ation o f the
semantic structure of phraseological units a cultural com ponent plays a
special and very important role. It marks phraseological units as bearers
o f cultural information based on a unique experience o f the nation. For
example, the phraseological unit red tape originates in the old custom
o f G overnm ent officials and lawyers tying up (п еревязы вать) their
papers with red tape. Heads or tails com es from the old custom o f
deciding a dispute or settling which o f two possible alternatives shall be
followed by tossing a coin (heads refers to the sovereign's head on one
side o f the coin, and tails means the reverse side).
In a free phrase the sem antic correlative ties are fundam entally
different. T h e m eaning in a w ord-group is based on the com bined
meaning o f the words constituting its structure. Each element in a word-
combi nation has a m uch greater semantic independence and stands for
a separate concept, e. g. to cut bread. to cut cheese, to eat bread. Every
word in a free phrase can form additional syntactic tics with other words
outside the expression retaining its individual meaning.
(b) The semantic unity, however, makes phraseological units similar
to words. T he semantic similarity between the two is proved by the fact
that, for instance, kick the bucket whose m eaning is understoinl as a
w hole an d not related to th e m eaning o f individual words can be
replaced within context by the word to die . the phraseological unit in a
brown study — by the word gloomy.

1 .3 . Syntactic Criterion

The sy ntactic criterion reveals the close tics between single words and
phraseological units as well as free word-groups. Like words (as well as
word-combinations), phraseological units may have different syntactic
functions in the sentence, e.g. the subject (narrou’ escape, fir s t night.
baker s dozen), the predicate (to have a good m ind, to play Russian
roulette, to m ake a virtue o f necessity), an attribute (high a nd mighty,
130
qu ick on the trigger, as ugly as sin), an adverbial (in f u l l sw ing, on
seco n d thoughts. o f f th e record). In accordance with the function they
perform in the sentence phraseological units c a n be classified into:
substantive, verbal, adjectival, adverbial, intcrjectional.
Like free w o rd-group s phraseological units c a n be divided into
coordinative (e.g. the life a n d soul o f som ething, fr e e a n d ea sy, neck
a n d crop) and s u b o r d i n a t e (e.g. long in th e tooth, a big fis h in a little
p o n d , th e villain o f the piece)
Thus, the characteristic features o f phraseological units are: ready­
m ade repro d u ctio n , stru ctu ral divisibility, m orphological stability,
perm anence o f lexical composition, semantic unity, sy ntactic fixity.

2. S E M A N T I C S T R U C T U R E C - P H R A S E O L O G I C A L J N t ГS

The semantic structure o f phraseological units is formed by semantic


ultimate constituents called m acrocomponcnts o f m eaning'. There are
the following principal m acrocom poncnts in the semantic structure o f
phraseological units:
1. Denotational (descriptive) macrocomponent that contains the
information about the objective reality, it is the procedure connected with
categorization, i.e. the classification o f phenom ena o f the reality, based
on the typical idea about what is denoted by a phraseological unit, i.e.
about the denotatum .
2. Evaluational macrocomponent that contains information about
the value o f what is denoted by a phraseological unit. i.e. what value
the speaker sees in this o r that o b ject/phen om en on o f reality — the
d e n o tatu m . The rational evaluation may be positive, negative an d
neutral, e.g. a hom e fr o m h o m e — ‘a place o r situation where one feels
completely happy and at ease’ (positive), the lio n 's den — 'a place of
great d an g e r’ (negative), in th e fle s h — ‘in bodily form ’ (neutral).
Evaluation may depend on empathy (i.e. a viewpoint) o f the speaker/
hearer.
3. M otivational macrocomponent that correlates with the notion
o f the inner form- o f a phraseological unit, which may be viewed as the
m otif o f transference, the image-forming base, the associative-imaginary
complex, etc. The notion ‘motivation o f a phraseological unit’ can be
defined as the aptness o f The literal reading’ o f a unit to be associated
with the denotational and evaluational aspects o f meaning. For example,
the literal reading o f the phraseological unit to h a ve b ro a d shoulders

1 T h e m a c fo c o m p o n e n ia ] m o d e l o f p h ra s e o lo g ic a l m e a n in g w as w o rk e d o u t by
V N .T c liy a | J9HX. 1990. I996|
: The inner form o f a p h ra se o lo g ic a l u n it is th e m e a n in g o f its p ro to ty p e o n th e
b a s is o f w h ic h p h ra s e o lo g ic a l m e a n in g is fo rm e d i К ум ин А В К урс ф р а l e a 'i o n o i
с о в р е м е н н о г о а н г л и й с к о г о я зы ка. — 1996. С . 1?3>

131
evokes associations connected with physical strength of a person. I he
idea that broad shoulders are indicative o f a person s strength and
endurance actualizes, becomes the base for transference and forms the
follow ing m e a n in g : to be ab le to b e a r th e full weight o f o n e 's
responsibilities'.
4. Em otive m acrocom ponent that is the co nten ts o f subjective
modality expressing feeling-relation to what is denoted by a phraseo­
logical unit within the range o f approval/disapproval, e.g. a leading
light in som ething — *a person who is important in a particular group'
(spoken with approval), to lea d a e a t a n d dog life — used to describe
a husband and wife who quarrel furiously with each other most of the
tim e ' (spoken with disapproval). Em otiveness is also the result o f
interpretation o f the imaginary base (образное основание) in a cultural
aspect.
5. S tylistic m a c r o c o m p o n e n t that points to the communicative
register in which a phraseological unit is used and to the social-role
relationships between the participants o f com m unication, e.g. sick a t
h ea rt — ‘very sad’ (formal), b e sick to dea th - ‘to be angry and bored
because so m e th in g u n p le a sa n t has been h a p p e n in g for to o lo n g '
(informal), p a ss b y o n th e o th e r sid e — to ignore a person w ho needs
help’ (neutral).
6. Grammatical m acrocom ponent that contains the information
about all possible morphological and syntactic changes o f a phraseo­
logical unit. e.g. to be in deep u a te r = to be in deep w aters: to ta ke
a w a y sm b 's breath = to ta k e sm b 's breath aw ay, A chilles' h eel = the
h e e l o f A chilles.
7. Gender m acrocom ponent1that may be expressed explicitly, i.e.
determined by the structure a n d /o r semantics o f a phraseological unit,
and in that case it points out to the class o f objects denoted by the p h ra ­
seological unit: m en. wom en, people (both m en and w om en). For
example, compare the phraseological units e tv r y Tom. D ick a n d Harry
meaning every o r any m an' and every Tom. D ick a n d S h eila which
denotes ‘every or any m an and woman'. G ender m acrocom ponent may
be expressed implicitly and then it denotes the initial (or historical)
reference o f a phraseological unit to the class o f objects denoted by ii
which is as a rule stipulated by the historical development, traditions,
stereotypes, cultural realia o f the given society, e.g. to w ash o n e's d irty
linen in public — ‘discuss or argue about one's personal affairs in public’.
The implicit presence o f the gender m acrocom ponent in this phraseo­
logical unit is conditioned by the idea about traditional women’s work
(cf. with Russian: вы н о си т ь cop и з избы ). G ender, implicitly as well
as explicitly expressed, reveals knowledge about such cultural concepts
as masculinity and femininity that are peculiar to this or that society.
The implicit gender m acrocom ponent is defined within the range of

1 T h e g en d er m a c ro c o m p o n c n l wa* * in g k d o u t by I V .Z y k m a |2 0 0 2 . 2003)

132
three conceptual spheres: masculine, feminine, intergender. Com pare,
for instance, the implicitly expressed intergcndcr m acrocom ponent in
to fe e l like roya lty meaning ‘to feel like a m em ber o f the Royal F am i­
ly. to feel majestic' and its counterparts, i.e. phraseological units with
explicitly expressed gender m acrocom ponent. to fe e l like a queen and
to fe e l like a king.

3 T Y P E S OF T R A N S F E R E N C E
C F P H R A S E O L O G IC A L U N ITS

Phraseological transference is a com plete o r partial change o f


meaning o f an initial (source) word-com bination (or a sentence) as a
result o f which the word-combinalion (or the sentence) acquires a new
meaning and turns into a phraseological unit. Phraseological transfer­
ence may be based on simile, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, etc.
o r on their combination.
I Transference based on sim ile is the intensification of some feature
o f an object (phenom enon, thing) denoted by a phraseological unit by
means o f bringing it into contact with another object (phenom enon,
thing) belonging to an entirely different class. Com pare the following
English and Russian phraseological units: (t/.s) p retty as a picture —
хорош а как к а р т и н к а , (as) f a t as a pig ж ирны й к а к св и н ь я . to
f i g h t lik e a lion — с р а ж а т ь с я к а к л е в . to su im lik e a f i s h -
п ш в а т ь к а к рыба.
2. Transference based on m e ta p h o r is a likening (уподобление) of
o n e object (p h e n o m e n o n , ac tio n ) o f reality to a n o th e r, w hich is
associated with it on the basis o f real or imaginable resemblance. Eor
example, in the phraseological unit to b e n d som ebody to o n e's bow
meaning to submit som eone' transference is based on metaphor, i.e.
on the likening o f a subordinated, submitted person to a thing (bow ) з
good com m and o f which allows its owner to do with it everything he
wants to.
M etaphors can bear a hyperbolic character: Jlog a d e a d horse —
‘waste energy on a lost cause o r unalterable situation' (б укв, стегать
дохлую лошадь). M etaphors may also have a euphem istic character
which serves to soften unpleasant facts: go to one s long rest, jo in the
m ajority — to die',
3. Transference based on m etonym y is a transfer o f name (перенос
наи м енования) from one object (phenom enon, thing, action, process,
etc.) to another based on the contiguity of their properties, relations, etc.
The transfer o f nam e is co n d itio n ed by close ties between the two
objects, the idea about one object is inseparably linked with the idea
about the other object f o r example, the metonymical transference in
the phraseological unit a silk stocking meaning "a rich, well-dressed
m an' is based o n the replacement ol the genuine object (a m an) by the
article o f clothing which was very fashionable and popular among men
in the past.
4 Synecdoche is a variety o f metonymy. Transference based on
synecdoche is nam ing the whole by its part, the replacement o f the
com m on by the private, o f the plural by the singular and vice versa. For
example, the com ponents fle sh and b h x td in the phraseological unit in
th e fle s h a n d blood meaning ‘in a material form’ as the integral parts
o f the real existence replace a person himself or any living being, see
the follow ing sentences: W e're been w riting to each o ther f o r ten years,
b u t n o w h e 's a c tu a lly g o in g to be h e re in th e fle s h a n d b lo o d
T housands o f fa n s flo c k e d to D ublin to see th eir heroes in the fle sh
a n d blood. Synecdoche is usually found in combination w ith other types
of transference, e.g. metaphor: to hold o n e's tongue - to say nothing,
to be discreet'

4 C l A SSIFJC A TIC N o - p h r a s e o l o g ic a l u n it s

According to the degree o f idiomaticity phraseological units can be


classified into three big groups: phraseological fusions (сращ ен и я),
phraseological unities (единства) and phraseological collocations (соче­
тания)'.
Phraseological fusions arc completely non-motivated word-groups.
e.g . a s m a d a s a h a tte r — ‘utterly m a d ’: w h ite e le p h a n t — ‘an
expensive but useless thing'.
Phraseological unities are partially non-motivated as their meaning
can usually be perceived through the m etaphoric meaning o f the w hole
phraseological unit. e.g. to b e n d the k n e e — to submit to a stronger
force, to obey submissively*: to w ash o n e's d irty linen in public — 'to
discuss or make public on e's quarrels’.
Phraseological collocations are not only motivated but contain one
c o m p o n e n t u sed in its d ire c t m e a n in g , w hile th e o th e r is used
metaphorically, e.g. to m eet the requirem ents, to attain success. In this
group o f phraseological units some substitutions are possible w hich do
not destroy the meaning o f the metaphoric element, e.g. to m eet the
needs, to m eet the d e m a n d . to m eet th e necessity, to h a te success, to
lose success. These substitutions are not svnonymical and the meaning
o f the w hole changes, w hile the meaning o f the verb m eet and the noun
success are kept intact.
The consideration o f the origin o f phraseological units contributes
to a better understanding o f phraseological meaning. According to their

t h is a p p ro a c h to E n glish ph raseo lo g y is b ased o n th e research work, c a rrie d ou t


in th e field o l R u ssian p h raseo lo g y by A cad em ician Y .\ \ in o g ra d o v

134
origin all phraseological units may he divided into two big groups: native
and borrowed.
The main sources o f native phraseological u n its arc:
l l term inological and professional levies, e.g. physics: c e n te r o f
gra vity (центр тяжести), specific w eight (удельный вес): navigation:
c u t the p a in ter (обрубить канат) — to become independent', lower
o n e's colours (спустить свой фла! I — to yield, to give in': military
sphere:.fa ll into line (стать в строй) - ‘conform with others':
2) British literature, e.g . th e g r c e n -e v e d m o n ste r - ‘jealousy '
(W .S h ak esp eare), lik e H a m le t w ith o u t th e p r in c e — ‘th e m ost
im portant person at event is ab sen t' (W .Shakespeare): fa ll on evil
days — ‘live in poverty after having enjoyed better times <J.Milton):
a sight fo r sore eyes — ‘a person o r thing that one is extremely pleased
or relieved to see’ (J.Swift): h o w goes th e e n e m y ? (Ch. Dickens) —
‘what is the time?*: n ever say d ie — ‘do not give up hope in a difficult
situation' (Ch. Dickens);
3) British traditions and customs, e.g. b a ker's dozen — ‘a group of
thirteen’. In the past British merchants o f bread received from bakers
thirteen loaves instead o f twelve and the thirteenth loaf was merchants
profit.
4) superstitions and legends, e.g. a black sheep — ‘a less successful
or more immoral person in a family o r a group'. People believed that a
black sheep was marked by the devil; the halcyon days a very1happy
or successful period in the past' According lo an ancient legend a halcyon
(зимородок) hatches/grows its fledglings in a nest that sails in the sea
and during this period (about two weeks) the sea is completely calm;
5) historical facts and events, personalities, e.g. as w ell be hanged
{or h u n g ) f o r a sheep a s a lam b — something that you say when you
are going to be punished for something so you decide to do something
worse because your punishment will not be any more severe'. According
to an old law a person who stole a sheep was sentenced to death by
hanging, so it was worth stealing something more because there was no
worse punishm ent: to d o a T h a tc h e r — to stay in power as prime
m inister for three consecutive term s (from (he form er Conservative
prim e minister Margaret Thatcher)':
6) p h e n o m e n a a n d facts ol everyday life. e .g . c a r r y coals to
N ew castle - ‘to take something to a place where there is plenty ol it
available' Newcastle is a town in Northern England where a lot o f coal
was produced; to get o u t o f w o o d — ‘to be saved from danger or
difficulty'
The main sources o f borrowed phraseological units are:
1) the Holy Script, e.g. th e left h a n d does n o t k n o w w h a t the right
h a n d is doing — 'com m unication in an organization is bad so that one
part does not know what is happening in an o th er p a rt': th e kiss o f
J u d a s - any display o f affection whose purpose is to conceal any act
o f treachery (Matthew XXVI: 49);
2) an cien t legends an d m yths belonging to different religious or
cultural traditions, e.g. to c u t th e G ordian k n o t — 'to deal with a
difficult problem in a strong, simple and effective wav' (from the legend
saying that G o rd iu s. king o f G o rd iu m . tied a n in tricate knot and
prophesied that whoever untied it would become the ruler o f Asia. It
was cut through with a sword by Alexander the G reat): a Procrustean
b ed — a harsh, inhum ane system into which the individual is fitted by
force, regardless o f his own needs and w ishes' (from Greek Mythology.
Procrustes - a robber who forced travelers to lie on a bed and made
them fit by stretching their limbs or cutting off the appropriate length
of leg):
3» facts and events o f the world history, e.g. to cross th e Rubicon
to d o something which will have very important results which cannot
be changed after' Julius C aesar started a war which resulted in victory
for him by crossing ihe river Rubicon in Italy; to m eet o n e's W aterloo —
"be faced with. esp. after previous success, a final defeat, a difficulty or
obstacle one cannot overcome (from the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo
IS 15 )*:
4) variants o f the English language, e.g. a heavy hitter — ’someone
who is powerful and has achieved a lot' iA m erican): a hole card — ‘a
secret advantage that is ready to use when you need i f iA m erican): be
h o m e a n d h o s e d — *to have c o m p le te d so m eth in g successfully'
(A ustralian):
5) other languages (classical and m odem ), e.g. second to none —
‘eq u al w ith any o th e r an d b e tte r th a n m ost (from L atin: n u lli
secundus): f o r sm b ' s f a i r eyes — 'because o f personal sympathy, not
be worth o n e ’s deserts, services, for nothing' (from French: p o u r fes
beaux yettx d e qn ): th e f a ir sex — ‘wom en’ (from French: le beau se x );
let th e ca t o u t o f th e bag — reveal a secret carelessly o r by mistake-
(from G erm an: d ie K atze a u s dem S a c k lassen): tilt a t w indm ills —
to waste time trying to deal with enemies or problems that do no exist'
(from Spanish: a co m eter nw linos de viento): e v e n dog is a lion at
h o m e — 'to feel significant in the familiar surrounding' (from Italian:
ogni ca n e e leone a casa s u a )

GUES TI ONS A HO T C S K S

I QUESTIONS

1. What is a phraseological unit ’


2. What does th e structural similarity between w ord-groups and
phraseological units consist in? Why arc they opposed to words on the
structural level?
3. What is the m ain difference between phraseological units and
word-groups according lo the structural criterion? What does the term
structural invariability' imply
4. W hat is th e s e m a n tic d ifferen ce betw een w o rd -g ro u p s an d
phraseological units based on?
5. What role docs a cultural component play in the semantic structure
o f phraseological units?
6. What do phraseological units and words have in com m on from the
point ol view o f their semantics?
7. What makes phraseological units similar to words on the syntactic
level?
8. What makes phraseological units similar to word-groups on the
syntactic level?
9. What are the characteristic features o f phraseological units?
III What is the semantic structure of phraseological units composed
of?
11. What is the denotatio nal m acro co m p o n en t o f m eaning o f a
phraseological unit?
12. What inform ation does the cvaluational m acro com po nent of
meaning contain? What types o f evaluation do you know0
13. What is the m otivational m acro co m p o n en t o f m eaning o f a
phraseological unit? In what way can motivation be viewed?
14. What does tiie emotive m acrocom ponent express?
15. What does the stylistic m acrocom ponent point to?
16. What is the gram m atical m acrocom po nent ol phraseological
meaning indicative of?
17 How can the gender m acrocom ponent be expressed? What does
it denote?
18. What is meant by phraseological transference?
19 What does the transference based on simile mean?
2d. What is the metaphoric transference?
21. What does the metonymical transference imply?
22. What is the transference based on synecdoche?
23. What types o f phraseological units can be distinguished according
to the degree of idiormticity? Characterize each type.
24. What types o f phraseological unit*, can be singled out from the
point ol view o f their origin?
25. What are the main sources o f origin o f native phraseological
units"
26. What are the mam sources o f origin o f borrowed phraseological
units"
II. TASKS

I . * S lats: w h ic h o f t h e ita lic iz e d u n i t s a r e p h ia s e o l o g is m * a n d w h ic h a r c free


w o rd -c o m b in a tio n s . C m с p r o o f o f y o u r a n sw e r

1. He asked to warm a glass o f juice but they left it rather cold on


the table. 2 Instrumental music, oddly enough, left me rather cold
3. Where do you think you lost y o u r purse 4 I couldn't stand that noise
any longer. I lost m y tem per. 5. Have a look a t the reierse side o f the
co a t. 6. T he reverse s id e o f th e m e d a l is that w e ’ll have to do it
ourselves. 7. K eep the b u tter in the refrigerator. 8. K eep th e eye on the
child. 9. He threw some cold w a ter on his face to wake up. 10. I didn't
expect that he would throw cold w a ter upon our project. 11. T he tourists
left the beaten track and saw a lot o f interesting places. 12. The author
leaves the beaten track and offers a new treatment o f the subject.
2.* Analyze the structural invambiiiiv of the given phraseological unns.
State cases when various changes (such as componcnta! extension, substi
tutions. or grammatical changes» arc possible (group a> and impossible
(group b)
M o 4 # 1 So you suv. hui anybody who evpenmenis with drugs is riding ч
tiger/panther
0 In ihe phraseological unit to nde a tiger the component tiger cannot be
replaced by the word panther without destroying the scmanuc integrity and
meaning of this idiom. This phraseoiogism belongs to group to.
I. 'I can take it or leave it." So you say. but anybody who experiments
with drugs is riding a tie e r /p a n th e r . 2. It was unbearable. Her behaviour
made me j i v o f f the h a n d le /h a ndles. 3 My father hated the idea o f me
joining the army. He always said it wasn't a suitable occupation for the
fair/fa irer sex. 4. When I saw the nurse s face, m y heart sank into m y
boots/into m y brotvn boots. 5. Jackson is a hot-tempered man: I wouldn’t
cross su'ords/a sw ord w ith him, if I were you. 6. His enemy was close
behind him. and the bridge over the ravine was rotten and swaying. Caught
betw een the devil a n d th e deep sea /th e deep blue sea. lie hesitated.
7. We can make our ow n decisions w ithout you putting/stick ing y o u r oar
in. 8. Our builder is raking his tim e/h is fre e rime, isn't he? He's been
three days on that job already 9 Politics is meant to be boring, and boring
people carry it out more competently than fla s h Harries/a flash H arry.
10. We mast make it a h a rd a n d f a s t/firm rule not to allow any parent to
enter a classroom without first speaking to the headmaster. 11. I could do
that w ith one arm /h a n d beh ind m y back 12 But when he teams that
officialdom has again w a n 'd its h ea d /its ugh head and is planning the
destruction o f his last home, his fighting spirit returns.
3.* Replace the italicized words by the corresponding phraseological units
from the box
the stronger sex. to get sm b's drift, as cool as a cucumber. Wood
and thunder, in two ticks, as green as grass, by leaps and bounds, to
get out o f hand, the apple o f discord, all at sea. to join hands, to hold
o n e ’s horses, hot under the collar, the upper crust, out o f a blue sky

1. She was n a ive when she was sixteen but other girls in the typing
pool taught her the ways of the world. 2. The girls had got on well to­
gether until the rivalry in the person of a handsome young apprentice
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appeared in their midst. 3. I u n d ersta n d you now, I think. If you mean
by 'integrity' what I would call 'consistency' then we’ve been arguing
at cross-purposes. 4. We must unite with o u r friends in Europe. 5. She
dropped upon me unexpectedly and began asking questions which I had
to answer. 6. I thought there would have been protestations and tears
when I told her I wanted to move out ol the Hat, but no. she stayed calm.
7. When his son was in Paris, the hoy ill-b e h a v e d and caused many
difficulties. 8. He got very angry when 1 suggested that he might be
mistaken. 9. After listening a few minutes to their conversation. 1 was
bew ildered. Botany is not my subject. 10. There were at least s i\ m ur­
ders in that violent story. 11. Joan belongs to th e aristocracy: you can
tell by the way she walks and talks. 12. Publishers are well aware that
rum ours ol possible prosecution o f a book are likely to send the scales
up rapidly 13. All the people involved in the Com monwealth Archi­
tects' competition were told to w ait — because time would be needed
to organize an exhibition in which the entries could be put o n show.
14. You should not exaggerate her attraction for m en. 15. I d o n 't like to
hear people sneering at positions and titles they'd have accepted im m e­
d ia tely if they'd got the offer
4.* С lassify the phraseological units given in task 3 according to the Junction
they perform in ihc sentence
M o d t S. as green as grass
0 I he phraseological unit as green as grow is an adjectival idiom It performs
the function of the predicative in the sentence
5.* What associations does the literal reading of the given phraseological
units evoke? Analyze the link between these associations and the figurative
meaning of the phraseological units
XI о (I e I: to get wind o f — ‘to receive early warning of imminent events,
often from a confidential source’: We got wind of his resignation a week before
it was announced in the newspapers.
0 Associations evoked by ihe literal reading of the phraseological unit to get
wind o fare connected with the idea of an animal whose acute sense of smell
allows it to scent danger in the wind
1. to rain cats a n d dogs — 'to pour w ith rain, to rain very hard": We
went to Ireland hut we can hardly say we saw it. It rained cats and dogs
every single day . 2. to cast a cloud over ‘to sadden, to fill w ith gloom,
to mar one's pleasure’: The news o f her father's illness cast a cloud ш
M ary ’s honeym oon 3. to sh o w o n e 4 teeth — ‘use o n e 's power or
a u th o rity in an aggressive o r intim idating way": M atro n looked a
comfortable, motherly soul but she soon showed her teeth if any o f the
inm ates gave signs o f having m inds o f their own 4. to m e n d o n e 's
m a nners — become more civil o r refined in speech and behaviour*: 1
will implement my promise to send you twenty-five ponds, but not until
139
you w rite to me in a proper and civil strain. So mend уощ цш ппегь and
send me something remotely publishable. 5. a sitting duck — ‘someone
who is vulnerable to attack from his o r her enemies? These tourists in the
shopping center are sitting ducks for the town s professional pickpockets.
6. to catch so m eo n e re d -h a n d e d — ‘to catch som eone in the act of
committing a crime, usually a theft': Caught you red-handed! I saw you
take the money out o f the box. 7. to run to seed — *to deteriorate in one s
habits and appearance, to become shabby ? When I called on him this
morning, he was unshaven and wearing an old. strained dressing-gown.
I am afraid he has run to seed. S. diam ond cut diam ond — a contest between
two equally sharp or cunning people?' The two experts argued fiercely with
each other the whole afternoon. It was diamond cut diam ond
6.* Identify t h e evaluational and emotive macrocomponents of meaning in
the given phraseological units. I h e contexts m w h i c h phraseological units a r e
used will be of help lo you
M u d e I: ha is oJJ la somebody — something that is said to express
admiration for someone? Hals off to her —it lakcs.i lot ot courage logo travelling
on vour own at that age
Fvaluation is positive, spoken with approval
I. a cuckoo in th e nest — ‘somebody w ho shares in or takes over
privileges, tasks that belong to others': You’ve gained a lot from this deal,
but that is not fair. You arc a cuckoo in the nest. 2. to give som ebody
c a n e b la n ch e — 'to allow or authorize smb. to do. or say as he likes,
make his own arrangements, use his own initiative? They employed an
intenor decorator and gave him ca n e blanche to d o up the place as it it
were his own. 3 to hit the r o o f — ‘to lose o n e ’s temper suddenly and
violently ? If I’m late again h e ’ll hit th e r o o f 4. to show one's m ettle -
'to prove to be good at doing som ething by succeeding in a difficult
situation? A relative newcomer to the game, he's certainly showed hi»
mettle in the last two games. 5. a f i n e k e ttle o f f i s h — ‘a difficult
situation? T hat's a fine kettle o f fish — the car w on’t sum and I have
to leave in five minutes. 6. to keep up w ith the Joneses — 'to try to
own all the same things as people you know in order to seem as good as
them ? Her only concern in life was keeping up with the Joneses. 7.
lead th e f ie ld to be more successful than anyone else in business or
in an activity ? There are some areas o f medical research where Russian
scientists still lead the field. 8. a fa ir-w e a th e r frie n d — someone who
is only your friend when you are happy and successful? I had a lot ol
money and I knew a lot o f people, but most o f them turned out to be
fair-weather friends.
7.* State the communicative register of ihe given phraseological units: formal,
neutral, irifomt.il
I. to get the m essage - 'to understand what someone is trying to
tel! you even if they are noi expressing themselves directly': Okay. 1 get
140
the message — you want to be alone 2. to m a k e a virtue o f necessity —
‘to change something you must do into a positive o r useful experience’:
It's a long way to drive so I thought I'd make a virtue o f necessity and
stop o i l at some interesting places along the way. 3. a tvet h ia n ket —
'som eone who does o r says som ething that stops o th er people Irom
enjoying themselves’: I d o n ’t want to be a wet blanket, but you really
must play m ore quietly or you'll disturb the people next door. 4. the
calm before the storm — ‘a peaceful and qutel period before a period
o f activity or trouble’: The family are arriving this afternoon so I'm just
silling down with a cup o f coffee, enjoying the calm before the storm.
5. let bygones b e bygones something that you say in order to tell
som eone to forget about unpleasant things that have happened in the
past’: Why ca n ’t you pul all that had feeling behind you and let bygones
be bygones. 6. to b e a ll sm iles — *to look happy and friendly, especially
when people are not expecting you to ’: She spent the whole o f yesterday
shouting at people and yet this m orning sh e ’s all smiles. 7. to give a
buzz — 'to telephone someone': Give me a buzz when you get home.
8. to rake um brage - ‘to become upset an d angry about something
som eone has said o r d o n e ’: The minister took umbrage when colleagues
queried her budget plans.
8.* Identify the gender macrocomponent of meaning of the given
phraseological units
M о d e 1: to thmu: dou n the gauntlet (glove), masculine
A lounge lizard, to lead a eat-and-dog life, to make eyes at someone,
a gentle giant, a big wig. to tell tales, to have a roving eye. to pour out
on e's heart.
9.* Analyze the meaning and the examples of the use of the given
phraseological units and state the form of expression of gender (implicit or
explicit). In ease of the implicitly expressed gender macrocomponent identify
factors determining its status as masculine, feminine or intergender.
M o d e l : to throw d o u n the gauntlet (ghne) — ‘to challenge someone to
a contest': He threw down the gauntlet, and I think I will participate in this deal
to prove him we arc equals.
0 The gender macrocomponent is expressed implicitly. The factor determining
the gender macrocomponent as masculine is a historic fact: in medieval
times, one knight would challenge another by throwing down his gauntlet
(glove).
I. a lounge lizard — ‘a m an w ho spends a lot o f time trying to meet
rich people, especially women, in bars and at social occasions': The bar
was empty except for the lounge lizard in the comer, who was obviously
waiting for someone 2 to le a d a c a t-a n d -d o g life — to lead a life ot
frequent or constant quarrelling’: You miss a woman when sh e’s been
living with you in the same house for six years, no m atter what sort of
141
cat-and-dog life you led together. 3. to m a k e eyes a t som eone — ‘to
look at som eone in a way that clearly indicates o n e ’s interest in them ?
This party was a great disappointm ent. Ann made eves at almost every
m an. except him. 4. a gentle g ia n t — *a man w ho is very tall and strong,
but has a very quiet, gentle character that does not match his appear­
ance': .As placid and amiable as he was tall, he becam e known as the
gentle giant. 5. a big wig — an important o r influential person? He
became a_big wig in the world o f politics. 6. to tell tales — ‘make know n
o r gossip about another person's secret, wrongdoings, o r faults? Jenny,
it's unfair. All we got was what we pinched out (of) the larder (кладовая)
and then you used to go and tell talcs to mother. 7. to h a ve a roving
e y e — to be always looking for a pretty face? It’s a pity. A n n e ’s
husband h av a roving eve and alway s seem to be w ith a pretty girl. If his
w ife wasn’t around, he had a roving eve. X. to p o u r o u t o n e's h ea rt —
*to confide all one's sorrows, fears, anxieties, hopes and joys to another
person': When we were alone, she poured out her heart to me about her
broken marriage.
10.* State the type of transference on which the meaning of the given
phraseological units is based.
M i» de- k in the ] lower o f one's age — the period of a person's greatest
success, popularity, activity or vigour, usually in his youth’
0 Phraseological transference is based on metaphor, i.e. on the likening of
one of the periods of a person’s life to one of the periods of plants’ life in
which their flowers develop and open. Transference is also based on
synecdoche: the period in which a person is young and vigorous is regarded
as an integral part of his whole life.

1) to go through fir e a n d w a ter to experience many difficulties


or dangers in order to achieve som ething? 2) to f i t like a glove — ‘to
fit perfectly? 3) to b u ry th e h a tc h e t — To come to friendly or peaceful
terms with somebody else, usually in arguments, disagreements': 4) to
lick o n e's tio u n d s — ‘brood, console oneself, o r to try to restore oneself,
after any form o f defeat, injury or loss’: 5) a big wig — an influential
an d im portant p e rso n ? 6) to p u t sm b . o u t to p a stu re — ‘to force
someone to retire? 7) to lie on sm b 's shoulders — ‘to be responsible
for, to have to answer for? 8) (as) gentle as a lam b — ‘very calm and
kind? 9) to talk Billingsgate — To use harsh, rude language, to swear
(Billingsgate is a London fish m arket)? 10) a dog in the m a n g er — ‘a
person who selfishly prevents others from using or enjoying something
which he keeps for himself, though he cannot use or enjov it?

11.* Classify the italicized phraseological units into: I) phraseological


fusions: 2) phraseological unities; t) phraseological collocations. Contexts will
help you to understand the meaning of phraseological units. In case of difficulty
consult a dictionary.
142
M o d e l , to spill the beans

hii The phraseological unit to spill the leans means 'to give awav information.
deliberately or unintentionally It is a phraseological fusion (group I ).
I. You can t keep a secret — you sec no reason why you shouldn't
spill th e beans. 2. 'I t's hard on Robert, o f course,' N ed went on: he
was trying to ignore th e red herring and get on with the story. 3. Well,
let's admit there were mistakes on both sides: we’ll b u ry th e p a st and
try to make a fresh start. 4. He produced a huge silver case containing
what looked a t fir s t sight like small cheap cigars. 5. But other than
dining out. which I like. I'm a hom e bird. I’m not one for a big social
whirl. 6. The boy is quite impossible. From now on I u a slt m y hands
o f him 7 ‘Can 1 go with you to this party.' ‘We sh a ll only be talking
business. You wouldn't be interested.’ 8. Billy's been such a good boy.
Mrs Smith — never once got out o f bed and look his medicine like a
lam b. 9. I ran to my father, waving the magazine and shouting. 'T his is
my home, look.* Dad fairly blew his top. He told me not to be silly:
that it was a building called a temple, in a country called Egy pt and that
I had never been there. 10. To say you lead a busy life is not an answer
to whether you lake enough exercise 11 In the face o f stiff competition
from rival firms we had to fig h t f i r e w ith f i r e an d slash o u r prices.
12. The grey colour is in fa s h io n in this season. 13. Гм» been w orking
m y fin g e rs to th e bone to get the dress ready in time for the w edding.
14. I d o n ’t believe he is a man to com m it m urder. 15. 17/ be hanging
up m y btxyts next year. I think I deserve a rest after running the business
for thirty years.
12.* Analyze the meaning of the given phraseological units. Group them
into: 11 native: 2) borrowed phraseological units. State the sources of their origin.
If in doubt consult dictionaries.
M о d e I: the be-all and end-all of — ‘the main purpose of. all that matters
in the life’
bl. Tile phraseological unit the be-all and end-all o f 'is of native English origin.
as it is from W.Shakespeare’s Macbeth
I) to h a n g up o n e's boot — ‘retire*; 2) to b u ry the h a tch et — ‘to
com e to friendly o r peaceful term s with som ebody else, usually in
arguments, disagreements': 3) a sacred cote — somebody /som ething
that is greatly respected and revered, csp. by a particular nation or group,
so that attack o r criticism is not tolerated': 4) a w hipping b o y — ‘a
person who is blamed or punished for the faults o r incom petence of
others*; 5) a n ugly d u cklin g — ‘a plain, unprepossessing child b o m less
attractive than his brothers and sisters who later surpasses them , grows
into a beautiful person'; 6) o f th e sa m e lea ven /b a tch — ‘about persons
who have very much in com m on, w ho are very similar in their way o f
life, behaviour, views, etc.*; 7) the law o f th e ju n g le — self-preservation.
143
the survival o f the strongest, or more unscrupulous'; 8) a n ap p le o j
discord - (somebody or something that is) a cause o f dispute, argument
or rivalry? 9) to h id e o n e's h e a d in the s a n d — ‘willfully to close o n e ’s
eyes to danger, to refuse to face reality? 10) a blue sto ckin g — ‘an
intellectual or literary w om an? 11) the h o t seat — The position o f a
person who carries full responsibility for something, including facing
criticism o r being answerable for decisions or actions? 12) a drop in
the b u cket/o cea n — ‘something o f inconsiderable value, importance,
esp. as compared w ith something larger in total o r in kind? 13) pig in
th e m id d le — ‘a person, or a group in a helpless position between, or
made use o f by. o th ers? 14) blue blood — a person o f noble birth?
15) a blue coat — a student at a charity school? 16) to d ie u ith one s
bttots on - To die while still at work? 17) to fid d le w hile Rom e b u m s —
'behave frivolously in a situation that calls for concern or corrective
action? 18) p e n n y w ise a n d p o u n d fo o lish — ‘careful and economical
in small m atters while being wasteful o r extravagant in large o n es?
19) th e iron curta in -- the notional barrier between people, nations,
countries, etc. leading to th e political, econom ical, etc. isolation?
20) th e R u ssia n so u l — ‘a vague, unfulfilled yearning for a better,
spiritual life which would bring consolation and relief to the suffering
masses? 21) to ru n th e g a u n tlet — To submit to a punishing ordeal *.
13.* Choose the correct phraseological unit from the box to fill in the gaps
in the sentences below.

dark horse, to work like a dog, sour grapes, to lord it over. Achilles
heel, to put o n e 's cards on the table, red tape, to see somebody in
the flesh, fat cats, around the clock

I. Workers are losing their jobs while the ... who run the company
are getting richer. 2. S tuart’s getting married? H e’s a ... - 1 never even
knew he had a girlfriend. 3. He was a gifted businessman, but greed was
his ... . 4. If! criticize her book, people will think it’s just .... 5. T here’s
so much ... involved in getting a visa. 6. Doctors and nurses worked ...
to help the people injured in the train crash. 7. She thought it was time
... and tell him that she had no intention of marrying him. 8. He likes
... the m ore ju nior staff in the office. 9. I knew his face so well from the
photographs that it felt a bit strange when 1 finally . ... 10. He ... all day
to finish the wallpapering.
VARIANTS AND DIALECTS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

1. T he Main Variants o f the English Language


L I . Variants o f English in the United Kingdom
1.2. | Variants o f English outside the British Isles
2. ! Some Peculiarities o f British English an d .American English
3. | Local Dialects in Great Britain
4. Local Dialects in the USA
5. Social Variation o f the English Language
5.1. j G ender Issues
5.2.! Occupational Varieties

1. T H E M A I N V A R I A N T S O F T H E E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E

In M odern linguistics the distinction is m ade between Standard


English and territorial variants and local dialects o f the English language.
Standard English may be defined as that form o f English which is
current and literary , substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable
wherever English is spoken o r understood. S tandard English is the
variety most widely accepted and understood either w ithin an English-
speaking country o r throughout the entire English-speaking world.
Variants o f English are regional varieties possessing a literary norm.
There are distinguished variants existing on the territory o f the United
Kingdom (British English. Scottish English and Irish English), and
variants existing outside the British Isles (American English, Canadian
English. A ustralian English. New Z ealand English, S o uth African
English and Indian English). British English is often referred to the
written Standard English an d the pronunciation known as Received
Pronunciation <RP).
L o c a l d ia le c ts are varieties o f English peculiar to some districts,
used as means o f oral com m unication in small localities; they possess
no normalized literary form.

1 . 1 . V a r i a n t s o f E n g l i s h in t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m

Besides British English which is often regarded as a collective term for


the forms o f English spoken on the British Isles, two other variants o f the
English language existing on the territory o f the Lnited Kingdom, Scottish
English and Irish English, can be singled out (M ap 2).
145
COUNTRIES
OF THE
BRITISH ISLES t H A . N S L L I S

M ap 2

Scottish English and Irish English have a special linguistic status as


compared with dialects because o f the literature composed in th em 1.
Scottish English is considered the variant o f the English language
spoken in Scotland. Scottish English has a long tradition as a separate
written an d spoken variety. Pronunciation, gram m ar and lexis differ,
sometimes substantially, from other varieties o f English existing on the
territory o f the British Isles-.

’ T h e n a m e o f R o b ert B u rm . Ihc g rcai n atio n al p o ci o f S c o tla n d , is k n o w n all over


ih c w orld T h e re is a w h o le g ro u p o l p o e ts in c lu d in g H u g h M a c D ia rm id w ritin g in th is
v a ria n t o f th e E n g lish lan g u ag e (sec .4 p n o . i t И В. Л е к с и к о л о г и я с о в р е м е н н о г о
английского язы ка. М . . 19?3. С 23Ь»
M uch of th e literary effect of A nglo Irish literature d ep en d s o n th e a u th o r's use o f Irtsli
E n g lish v o c a b u la ry . id io m s a n d s e m e n c e - s tr u c iu r e fro m th e ea rlie st u sag es in th e
fourteen !h -cen iu ry “ K ildare P o em s" lo ih e great n in eteen th an d tw entieth century w ntcrs
such as G eo rg e B ernard Shaw, S can O ’C asey. Jo h n M illington Synge. Ja m e s Joyce an d
Sam uel Beckett, an d o n to th e m ost recen t. E dna O 'B rie n . R oddy D ofvc, S eam us H eaney.
Jam ie O ’N eill. M acve Bmchcy. T o m Patilm an d G e ra rd S tcm b n d g c. an d so forth
- F o r e x a m p le , o n e o f th e g ra m m a tic a l d iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n S c o ttish a n d B ritish
E n g lish c o n c e rn s th e u se o f th e p ast p a rtic ip le in p lace o f ih e in g -fo rm in p h ra se s like
th e c h ild ren n e e d f e d (cf. th e c h ild re n n e e d fe e d in g in B ritish E n g lish ► .

146
The uniqueness o f Scottish English can be explained by its historical
development. For almost three centuries, Scottish English has shaded
into, and compromised with, both Scots o n one side and the usage o f
England and Ireland on the other. Most people range from kinds o f
urban and rural Scots through mixed usage to kinds o f Scottish Standard
English. In ad d itio n , three sources o f tension affected greatly the
development o f Scottish English: I ) the tension between Scotland and
England: 2) the tension between Highlands and Lowlands. Scotland and
Ireland: 3) the tension between Protestants and Catholics'.
The identity o f Scottish English reflects an institutionalized social
structure, as it is most noticeable in the realms o f law. local government,
religion, and education, and raises problems o f intelligibility that have
no parallel elsewhere in Britain.
A m ong lexical p e c u lia ritie s o f S co ttish English th e following
linguistic facts are o f importance: I >some semantic fields are structured
differently in Scottish English and in British English. For example, the
term m in o r in British English is used to denote a person below the age
o f 18 years, while Scottish law distinguishes between pupils (to age 12
for girls and 14 for boys) and m inors (older children up to 18); 2) some
words used in Scottish English have equivalents in British English, e.g.
(Sc E ) extortion — (BrE) b lackm ail. 3) a great deal o f the distinctiveness
o f Scottish English derives from the influence o f o th e r languages,
especially G aelic. N orw eigean. a n d F rench. For exam p le. G aelic
borrowings include: cairn — *a pile of stones that marks the top o f a
m ountain o r some o th er special place", sporran — ‘a small furry hag
that hangs in front o f a m an s kilt as part o f traditional Scottish dress';
4) there are also many words which have the same form, but different
meanings in Scottish English and British English. For example, the word
g a te in Scottish English m eans ‘ro a d ? 5) some Scottish words and
expressions are used and understood across virtually the whole country,
e.g. d in n a e ( 'd o n 't') , u v e (‘sm all'), k irk ('ch u rch '), lassie ( girl ).
Irish English is considered the variant o f the English language used
in Ireland. It is also widely referred to as H ib ern o -E n g lish or A nglo-
Irish. A n g lo -Irish is the oldest, long associated with people o f mainly
E n glish o rig in . As a resu lt th e te rm is socially a n d historically
ambiguous, an d Irish people arc often uncomfortable with it. It does
not therefore work well as a cover term for all usage in Ireland. The
term H ib ern o -E n g lish avoids this difficulty, but runs the oth er way:
it tends to exclude Ihe .Anglo-Irish an d the descendants o f Protestant
se ttle rs . A nd Ir is h E n g lish is tra n s p a re n t a n d is unlikely to be
misinterpreted.
Therefore Irish English subsumes all the Englishes of the island, and
o th er term s stand for subvarieties. The two main politico-linguistic
divisions are S o u th ern and N o rthern. within and across which farther

F o r m o re in lo r n u tio n see ih e O x fo rd G uide to M ur/d E nglish. — t 'S . 2IX»2

147
varieties are A n g lo -Irish . H iberno-E nglish. Ulster Scots, and the usage
o f the two capitals, D ublin and Belfast.
T he Irish English vocabulary is ch aracteriz ed by th e following
distinctive features: I ) the presence o f words with the same form as in
British English but different meanings in Irish English, e.g. backw ard —
'shy’: to d ou b t — ‘to believe strongly’; b o ld — ‘naughty’: 2) the use of
m ost regionally m arked w ords by o ld er, often ru ral p eo p le, c .g .
biddable — ‘obedient’; fe a s a n t — ‘affable’; 3) the presence o f nouns
taken from Irish which often relate either to food o r the supernatural,
e.g. banshee — ‘fairy wom an' from bean sid h e : 4) the Gaelic influence
on meanings o f some words, e.g. in to destroy and drenched. These
words have th e sem antic ranges o f their G aelic equivalents m ill to
injure, spoil’ and baite ‘drenched, drowned, very’ wet*; 5) the presence
o f words typical only o f Irish English (the so-called Irishisms), e.g.
begorrah —‘by G o d ': 6) the layer o f words shared with Scottish English,
e.g. ava — ‘at а 1 Г : # т 7 — ‘cry. weep’; brae — ‘hill, sleep slope'.
Besides distinctive features in lexis Irish English has grammatical,
phonetical and spelling peculiarities o f its ow n. e.g. the use o f ‘docs be/
do b e ’ construction in the following phrase: “ They do be ta lkin g on
th e ir m o b ile s a l o t ” . In Irish E nglish th e p lu ral fo rm o f .von is
distinguished from the singular, normally by using the otherwise archaic
English word y e to denote plurality, e.g.: “ Did y e all go to see if.’” .

1 . 2 . V a r i a n t s o f E n g l i s h o u t s i d e the British Isles

Outside the British Isles there are distinguished the follow ing variants
o f th e E ng lish language: A m e ric a n E n g lish . C a n a d ia n E nglish.
A ustralian English, New Z ealan d English. South African English.
Indian English and some others. Each o f these has developed a literature
o f its own. and is characterized by peculiarities in phonetics, spelling,
gram m ar and vocabulary.
A m eric an English is the variety o f the English language spoken in
the USA ( Map 3).
T he first wave o f English-speaking immigrants was settled in North
America in the 17th century’. In century, there were also speakers in
N orth A m erica o f the D u tch . F ren ch. G e rm a n , native A m erican.
Spanish. Swedish and R n n ish languages.
The vocabulary' used by American speakers, has distinctive features
o f its ow n. There are whole groups o f words w hich belong to American
vocabulary exclusively an d constitute its specific features. These words
arc called Americanisms.
T h e first g ro u p o f such w o rd s may be d e sc rib e d as h isto rical
Americanisms, e.g .f a l l ‘au tu m n ’, to guess ‘to think’, sick ‘ill. unwell*.
In American usage these words still retain their old meanings whereas
in British English their meanings have changed o r fell out o f use.
148
ИПМЛЧА

^VOVtfSij Г»лП{ 1

:-**Uov

FtVA»

M ap 3

I h e second group ot Americanisms includes words which are not


likely to be discovered in British vocabulary. These words may be called
proper Americanisms. They were coined by the early Americans which
had to find names for the new environment (flora and fauna) and new
conditions o f life, e g. redbud — ‘an American tree having small budlike
pink flowers, the state tree o f O klahom a': blue-gross - ‘a sort o f grass
peculiar to North America'
A nother group o f Am ericanism s consists o f words which may be
described as specifically American borrowings. These borrowings reflect
the historical con tacts o f the A m ericans with other nations on the
American c o n tin e n t, e g ra n c h , so m b rero (Spanish borrow ings).
toboggan, caribou {Indian borrowings).
O ne m ore g ro u p o f A m ericanism s is represented by A m erican
shonenings. These are shortenings which were produced on American
soil, but may be used in other variants o f English as well, e g dorm
(dormitory), m o (m om ent), cert (certainty).
Canadian English is the variety ol the English language used in
C anada (M ap 4)
In many respects, the spelling o f C anadian English is intermediate
between British English and American English. However, the spoken
language is much closer to American English than to British English. It
is also influenced by Canadian French, as C anada has both English and
French aso tfk i.il languages.
i 49
Map 4

Where C anadian English shares vocabulary with other variants ot


English, it tends to be closer lo American than to British English.
However, some terms in standard C anadian English are shared with
British, but not with American English, e.g. Tory for a Conservative
Party Canadian politician, bu sker fo ra street performer.
Canadian English also has its ow n words not found in other variants
o f English1. Specifically C anadian words are called Canadianisms. e.g.
p a rka d e ( parking garage ), chesterfield ('a sofa, couch ), to fa th o m
out (‘to explain ).
There may be also meaning differences in words and expressions used
in C anadian English and in other variants o f the English language. For
example, to table a d o cu m en t in Canada is to present it. whereas in
the United Stales it means to withdraw it from consideration
Australian English is the variety o f the English language used in
Australia. Australian English is similar in many respects to British English

: In |99X O x fo rd I n tic rs tis Ртеч» p ro d u c e d a C a n a d ia n tn g lU h d ic tio n a ry , alter


five y ears o f lex icographical research , c a lle d 77re (Canadian O x fo rd D ic tio n a ry : a 2nd
e d itio n w as p u b lish e d in 2<MM It listed uniquely C a n a d ia n w ords, w ords b o rro w ed from
o ih e r languag es a n d surveyed sp ellin g s, su c h as w h e th e r c o lo u r o r co lo r wa» th e m osi
p o p u la r c h o ic e in c o m m o n use
but it also borrows from American English, e.g. it uses truck instead of
lorry. It is most similar to New Zealand English. There are also influences
from Hiberno-English, as many Australians are o f Irish descent.
D ue to the predom inance of foreign mass m edia products in the
country, Australians are familiar with at least some o f the variants of
m o d ern English, a n d m any have a d o p te d so m e o f the distinctive
vocabulary and idioms o f those variants o f the English language. The
exposure to the different spellings o f British and American English leads
to a certain am ount o f spelling confusion, e.g. b ehaviour as opposed
to behavior. Generally, either variant i> accepted (though British spelling
is more prevalent)1.
Australian English also incorporates several uniquely Australian
terms, such as. for example, outback to refer to remote regional areas.
w a lka b o u t to refer to a long journey o f uncertain length and bush to
refer to native forested areas, but also to regional areas.
Australian English has a unique set of diminutives formed by adding
-o or -ie to the ends o f (often abbreviated) words, e.g. a n a (afternoon).
servo (service station, though the term is dying out), rego (annual motor
vehicle registration); barbie (barbecue), b ik k ie (biscuit). Occasionally,
a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal nam es where the first of
multiple syllables ends in an r \ e.g. Sharon becomes S h a z z a -
A very common feature o f traditional Australian English is rhyming
slang-, based on Cockney rhyming slang and imported by migrants from
London in the 19 h century . For example, Captain Cook rhymes with look.
so to have a captain cook, nr to h a te a captain, means to h a te a look.
New Zealand English is the variety o f the English language spoken
in New Zealand. New Zealand English is close to Australian English
in pronunciation. Possibly the only difference between New Zealand and
British spelling is in the ending -ise or -ize. New Zealanders use the
-ise ending exclusively, whereas Britons use either ending, and some
British dictionaries and style manuals prefer the -ize ending.
Many local words in New Zealand English, largely borrowed from the
Maori population, have arisen to describe the load flora, fauna, and the
natural environment, c.g. the names of birds (kiu i. tui). the names o f fish
( shellfish. hokiv. the names o f native trees (kauri. rimuV and many others.

In 19K1 th e M a cq u a rie D ictionary o f A u stra lia n E nglish w as p u b lish e d afte r i»l


years o f research a n d p la n n in g E dition* have b e e n p u b lish e d ever *ince T h e re is alsn
an O xfo rd d ictionary o f A ustralian tu g !is h
- R h y m in g sla n g w as o fte n u sed to c re a te e u p h e m is tic te rm s usually fo r o b scen e
w ords In reccn i year* ihi* featu re o f A u stralian E n g lisb ha* d e c lin e d u n d e r th e im p act
o f m ass p o p u la r cu ltu re
In 1994. O x fo rd I. n n c rs ity P ress p ro d u c e d a D ictionary o f Л еи Z e a la n d English
m at wa* based o r over 4u years research T h is research sta rte d w ith H arry O rsrru n V
1951 th e sis a n d c o n tin u e d w ith h is p u b lish in g th is d ic tio n a ry as th e e d ito r T o assi*i
w ith a n d m a in ta in th is *t>rk. th e \ e u Z e a la n d D ictionary C e n te r was fo u n d e d in
! 99"

151
M ap 5

There arc also a lot o f non-M aori words that are unique to New
Zealand English, or shared with Australian English, e.g. bach *a small
holiday h o m e , o ften w ith only o n e or tw o room s a n d o f sim ple
construction'. fo o tp a th ‘pavem ent? togs 'swimming costum e’.
It is in idioms, in different m etaphoric phrases that New Zealand
English has m ade most progress o r divergence. O ften they reflect
significant differences in culture For example, the expression up the
P uhoi w ithout a p a d d le means ‘to be in difficulties without an obvious
solution’ and the phrase sticky beak is used to describe someone unduly
curious about people s affairs. The latter idiom has the same meaning
in both New Zealand and Australia, but is used with a slightly different
emphasis. In Australia sticky beak is quite pejorative, to be called sticky
beak is definitely a criticism whereas in New Zealand it is used with
more affection and usually as a tease
South .African English is the variety o f the English language used
in S outh Africa an d su rro u n d in g coun tries, notably N am ibia and
Zimbabwe (Map 5).
South African English* is not unified in its pronunciation: this car
be attributed to the fact that English is the m other tongue for only 4<> fr

T he Puhot I» a river jusi north of ,-twi k la n d


- The four:n edr.ion of the Du n o n a ry oj S o u th A/ г ц ап t.ngtish w.r» released ir
1991 \nother -.mponanl source for distinctive vocabulary i> A Dictionary of South
\triKan l nfzh\h on flat<>ricai f-rincipU''- ( »
o f the while inhabiiants (the remainder mostly having Afrikaans as their
m o th er tongue) an d only a tiny minority o f black inhabitants o f the
region. South African English spoken by whites bears some resemblance
in pronunciation to a mix o f Australian English an d British English.
/Afrikaans has heavily influenced only those living in Afrikaans areas.
In South African English there arc words that d o not exist in British
o r A m erican English, usually derived from A frik aan s o r African
languages, e.g. bra. bru — 'male friend (prob. from Afrikaans word for
brother)*, dorp - a small rural town or village? sa t — ‘dead, passed
away*.
There are also a few unique words (or expressions) in South African
English, in which com m on English words take on new meanings, e.g.
b o y — a black m a n ' td e ro g ). to u n s h ip — 'u rb a n area for black.
Coloured or Indian South Africans under apartheid? book o f life —
‘national identity docum ent'
Several South African words, usually from A fricaans o r native
languages of the region, have entered world English, e.g. apartheid
‘a policy or system o f segregation or discrimination on grounds of race?
trek — a long arduous journey, especially one made on foot*
Indian English is the variety o f the English language spoken widely
in India <Map 6).

,OHGO^'

КАЯАО„4к

MUMBAI
Bombay)

CHENNAI
-Maera*!

SfelLANKA
» •Cqtomtoo

Map ь
The language that Indians are taught in schools is essentially British
English and in particular, spellings follow British conventions. However,
the British left India in 1947. and therefore many phrases that the British
may consider antique are still popular in India. Official letters continue
lo include phrases like please do th e n eedful, y o u w ill be in tim a ted
shortly, and y o u r o b edient s e n a /it. In addition. Indian English mixes
in various words from Indian languages, e.g. bandh or h a rta l for strikes.
challan for a monetary receipt or a traffic ticket. Such words have been
regularly entering the Oxford English Dictionary, indeed, some (jungle,
bungalow, p y ja m a ) became mainstream generations ago.
D espite th e fact that British English is an official language ol
Government in India (as a result spoken and written English in India
has not explicitly “ forked” away from the British variant o f the English
language), there are words and expressions that can be regarded as those
used only in Indian English, c.g. crorc ten millions', sch ed u led
tribe — 'a socially/economically backward Indian tribe, given special
privileges by the government', m ohalla — ’an area o f a town or village;
a community'.

2 . S O M E P E C U L IA R IT IE S O F B R IT IS H EN G LISH
AND A M E R IC A N EN G L ISH

G eo rge B ernard Shaw said that the l.n ite d S tates an d U nited
Kingdom are “ two countries divided by a com m on language” . A similar
com m ent is ascribed lo Winston Churchill.
The American variant of the English language differs from British
English in pronunciation, some m inor features o f gram m ar, spelling
standards and vocabulary .
The American spelling is in some respects simpler than its British
c o u n te rp a rt, in o th e r respects just different. S om e o f the spelling
differences are shown in Tabic 7
Speaking about lexical differences between the two variants o f the
English language, the follow ing cases are o f importance;
1. Cases w here there are no equivalent words in one o f the variants.
For example. British English has no equivalent lo the .American word
d r iie -in ( ’a cinema or restaurant that one can visit without leaving one's
car').
2. Cases where different words are used for the same denotatum ,
e.g. sweets ( BrE) — ca n d y (AmE); reception clerk (BrE) — desk clerk
(AmE).
3. Cases where some words are used in both variants but are much
com m oner in one o f them. For example, shop and store are used in both
variants, but the former is frequent in British English and the latter —
in American English.
154
T a b le 7

Words wmtcn w ith... Bnush Fnghsh American English j

-o e r /-o r colour color


honour honor

- 0 B -/-0 - favourite favorite

-r e /-« r centre center


theatre theater

catalogue catalog
dialogue dialog

- k e /- iz c realise realize
harm onise harmonize
-yse/-yze analyse analyze

-x k » e /-c tio e соппел/ол connection


rcflc.v/Vm ггПес//ол

oounsc/for counsc/or
modc/Лng modeling

1 encyclopaedia encyclopedia
anaemia anemia

4. Cases where one <or m ore) iexico-sem antic variant!s> is (are)


specific to either British English o r American English For example,
both British and American English have the word fa c u lty , but denoting
‘all the teachers and other professional workers o f a university or college'
this word is used only in American English. As a rule, such words may
have analogous oppositions to one o f these lexico-semantic variants in
another variant o f English or in Standard English, e g. AmE fa c u lty ■
ВгЕ / SE teaching s ta ff
5, Cases w here one and the same word in one o f its lexico-semantic
variants is used oftener in British English than in American English. For
example, the most com m on British meaning o f the w ord brew is a cup
o f te a ’ while in Am erican English this word is mostly used in the
meaning a beer or coffee drink'.
b. Cases where the same words have different semantic structure in
British English and American English. For example, the word hom ely
used to describe a person in British English m eans 'h o m e-lo v in g ,
dom esticated, h o u s e -p ro u d ? while in A m erican English this word
denotes ‘unattractive in appearance'.
In some cases the connotational aspect o f meaning o f such words
comes to the fore For example, the word politician in British English
possesses the m eaning ‘a person w h o is professionally involved in
155
politics’, thus it is rather neutral, whereas in American English this word
is derogatory as it m eans ‘a person w ho acts in a manipulative and
devious way, typically to gain advancement within an organisation'.
Besides, British English and American English have their own deri­
vational peculiarities that are usually confined to the frequency with
which a certain pattern o r a m eans o f w ord-form ation is used. For
example, some o f the affixes m ore frequently used in American English
are: -ее (d r a fte e — ‘a y o u n g m a n a b o u t to be e n liste d ), -s te r
( r o a d s te r — ‘m o to r - c a r fo r long jo u r n e y s by ro a d ), s u p e r-
<su p er-m a rket — ‘a very large shop that sells food and other products
for the home*). American English sometimes favours words that are
morphologically m ore complex, whereas British English uses clipped
forms, cf.: AmE transportation — BrE transport. In some cases the
formation o f words by means o f affixes is more preferable in American
English while in British English the form is a back-formation, cf.: AtnF
burglarize — BrE burgle (from burglar).

3 . LOCAL D IA L E C T S IN G R EA T BRITAIN

T here are five m ain g ro u p s o f local d ialects in G re a t Britain:


Northern. M idland. Eastern. Western and Southern The close links
existing between some o f the dialects make it possible to unite them into
two m ajor groups: I ) Southern dialects and 2) Northern and Midlands
dialects. See Map 7 o f traditional dialects.
One o f the best known Southern dialects is Cockney, the regional
dialect o f London. This dialect exists on two levels'. As spoken by the
educated lower middle classes it is a regional dialect marked by some
deviations in pronunciation but few in vocabulary and syntax. As spoken
by the uneducated. Cockney differs from Standard English not only in
pronunciation but also in vocabulary, morphology and syntax
Cockney is lively and witty and its vocabulary is imaginative and
colourful. Its specific feature is the so-called rhyming slang, in which
some words are substituted by other words rhyming with them. Boots.
tor instance, are called d a isy roots, h a t is tit f o r ta t 3nd w ife — trouble
a n d strife.
Some specifically Cockney words and phrases are: balm y, barm y.
noun or adjective meaning 'mentally unbalanced", to ff a person o f the
upper class', u p the p ole ‘drunk".
In recent decades a new dialect called Estuary English has been
gaining p rom in ence. Estuary English is the variety o f the English
language com m on in the South-East o f England, especially along the
river Thames and its estuary It is a hybrid o f Received Pronunciation

A ccording in F P;«nrid$c a n d H t W stdc

I >(>
S C O T S

NORTH

NORTHERN

C E N T R A L

SOUTHERN

SOUTH

Map 7

(R P ) an d a num ber o f S outh-E astern dialects, particularly from the


London and Essex areas. Among the most notable lexical features o f the
Estuary English dialect is the use o f Cockney words an d phrases as well
as words from American and Australian English.
Estuary English is very popular am ong the young probably because
it is said to obscure social origins — very often it is adopted as a neutral
d ialect. It increases "stre e t c r e d " a m o n g th e y o u n g from a n RP
background and young people with local dialects and accents adopt it
because it sounds more "sophisticated". Estuary English speakers are
to be found "grouped in the middle g round", but it can be heard in the
House o f C om m ons as well as being used by some o f the m em bers of
the Lords. It can be heard on the BBC and it is well established am ong
the businessmen in the City.
157
I f
мШштршГNнс*

§#-
IЛI

К I

Map 8

One o f the representatives o f the group o f Northern and Midlands


dialects is th e Yorkshire dialect. As Yorkshire is on the linguistic
border o f N orthern an d N orth-M idland varieties o f English, it shares
some o f their characteristics.
Yorkshire is the dialect spoken by the m ajority o f people in the
English county o f York. As there is much variation within the dialect it
is usually discussed in terms o f the three Ridings that correspospond to
the historical administration areas o f North. East and South Yorkshire
The prodigious variation in vocabulary arises from both the historical
settlem ent patterns o f the various E uropean invaders an d the later
linguistic changes following the settlem en t, ef.: a rm p it {Standard
English) — o xter (N orth Riding) — arm pit (East Riding) — arm hole
(West Riding) (M ap 8).
It was in Y orkshire th a t A n g lo -S a x o n sp e a k e rs m ixed w ith
Scandinavian settlers in the market places, etc.. during the period from
the 8,h to the 111,1 centuries, an d engaged in a simplified speech to make
themselves understood to each other, dropping gender, word endings,
complex conjugations, etc. T he result was the birth o f a simplified
Middle English that spread throughout England: a revolution speeded
up after the N orm an C onquest. These facts explain the remarkable
rese m b la n ce that so m e Yorkshire w ords have in relation to th e ir
Scandinavian counterparts, a testimony to their historical origins, c f :
c h ild {Standard English) — bairn (Yorshirc dialect) — b a m (M odem
Norwegian).

ач well as P e n n in e p a rts o f U tn ca> h ire. S taffo rd sh ire, a n d D erb y sh ire

158
Some words in Yorkshire dialect at first sight seem to be Standard
English but they have different meanings. For example, the word real
is used in the Yorkshire dialect to describe something good o r outstand­
ing, it has nothing to d o with genuineness as com pared with the m ean­
ing o f this word in Standard English. It is however not only purely words
which contribute to the distinctiveness o f the Yorkshire dialect but also
the variety o f idiomatic expressions, e.g. alius a t /* la st p u sh u p — ‘al­
ways at the last m om ent'; nob but a m ention — ‘just a small amount*.
D ialects are now chiefly preserved in rural com m unities, in the
speech o f elderly people. They are said to undergo rapid changes under
the pressure o f Standard English taught at schools and the speech habits
cultivated by radio, television and other m eans o f the mass media.

4 . LOCAL D IA LEC T S IN THE USA

The English language in the United States is characterized by relative


uniformity throughout the country. Written American English is fairly
standardized across the country . However, there is some variation in the
spoken language. T hree m ajor belts o f dialects, each with its ow n
characteristic features, are identified: Northern. Midland and Southern.
The N o r th e r n division includes the New England settlement. New
York, and The Hudson Valley, northern Pennsylvania and Ohio, and
beyond. The C onnecticut River is usually regarded as the sou thern /
western extent o f New England speech. C hief among the local variations
existing on the border between the Northern and Midland dialects are
those prevailing in and around New York City and northern New Jersey.
The New York dialect is famous worldw ide due to countless movies and
television programs. It is spoken by з significant portion o f native-born
residents o f New York City and its immediate vicinity in southeastern
New York State. The New Jersey dialect spoken in northern New Jersey
is simply a softer version o f the English language spoken by residents of
New York an d is very frequently m istaken for it. M ost colloquial
greetings an d expressions used in New York are also said by New
Jerseyans and with the same frequency.
A distinctive speech pattern was also generated by the separation of
C anada from the United States, centered o n the Great Lakes region.
This is the Inland North dialect — the “ standard Midwestern” speech
that is generally considered free from regional marking in the United
Stales o f America*. Standard Midwestern is the dialect used by many
A m eric an netw ork television b ro a d c a ste rs. In d iv id u als from the
M idw estern I S som etim es have difficulty in u n d ersta n d in g o th e r

1 M o st tra d itio n a l so u rc e s cite S ta n d a rd M id w estern A m erican L n g lish (altern ate!)


re fe rre d to as G e n e r a l A m e rica n \ a s th e u n o ffic ia l istjn d .m l a c c e n t a n d d ia le c t ot
A m e ric a n b n g lish

159
dialects o f English, because most o th er dialects, both in the US and
abroad, place less stress o n consonants an d on syllables in the middle
o f words. Since Slavic languages stress consonants even m ore heavily
than does Standard Midwestern, a Russian who learns English extremely
well often sounds almost M idwestern1. This is especially noticeable in
the speech o f interpreters for im portant Russian officials.
Midland speech is divided into two discrete subdivisions, the North
Midland and South Midland speech. The North Midland dialect extends
from so u th e rn New Jersey an d Pennsylvania, west into O h io an d
beyond The N orth Midland speech continues to expand westward until
it becomes the closely related speech o f California. The South Midland
speech starts from northern Delaware along the Blue Ridge Mountains
o f V irginia, follows the Ohio River in a generally southwesterly direction,
moves across Arkansas and Oklahoma west o f the Mississippi, and peters
out in western Texas. This is the dialect associated with truck drivers
on the Citizens’ band and country music.
T h e S ou th ern d ivision c o m p rise s th e s o u th e rn tw o -th ird s o f
Delaware, the eastern parts o f M aryland. Virginia. N orth C arolina.
S o u th C aro lin a, G eo rg ia a n d th e G u lf States (F lo rid a . A labam a,
Mississipi, Louisiana, and the south-east parts o f Texas).
T h ere is also o n e e th n ic variety in the U nited States. A frican-
American Vernacular English (also called Ebonics), that has gained
national prom inence an d influenced usage from coast to coast This
dialect is used in many African-American com m unities in the USA,
especially in urban areas. .African-American Vernacular English has been
widely used in p o p u la r en te rta in m e n t an d has spread in inform al
settings, especially am ong the young and with emphasis on trendy slang,
verbal games, an d such music-related activities as jazz and rap. It has
its origin in the culture o f enslaved Americans and also has roots in
England. African-/American Vernacular English is largely based o n the
Southern American English variety. There is m uch controversy over the
linguistic status o f African-American Vernacular English in the U nited
States. Opinions range from it deserving official language status in the
US lo it being dismissed2.

1 E.g. V lad im ir Pivsner


; T h e r e h a s o f te n in r e c e n t y e a rs b e e n in te n s e d e b a te a b o u t w h e th e r A fric a n -
A m eric an E ng lish s h o u ld b e a n a c c e p te d classro o m m e d iu m lead in g to a n d co -e x istin g
w ith A m e ric a n S ta n d a rd E n g lish , o r s o m e th in g s e p a ra te d otT a s at best c a su a l u sag e
a n d a t w o rst s la n g a n d s tre e t ta lk O ld e r A fric a n -A m e ric a n s h av e b e e n a m o n g th e
stro n g est o p p o n e n ts o f any suggestion o f th e c o -e q u a l use o f th e tw o varieties in sch o o ls,
usually b e c a u se it is reg ard ed as a brak e o n p e o p le ’s s o c io -e c o n o m ic p ro g ress (w h ich
in c lu d e s th e flu en t u se o f m a in s tre a m E n g lish ! T h e n a tu re , o rig in , a n d d e v elo p m en t
o f A frican -A m erican F n g lish have k in g b e e n co n tro v e rsia l m a tte rs a m o n g sc h o la rs, a n d
in d e e d th e ex isten ce o f su c h a d isc re te v ariety h a s b e e n fiercely q u e s tio n e d by a n u m b e r
o f A m erican a c a d e m ic s, reg ard less o f ih e ir o w n e th n ic b a c k g ro u n d I M c A rth u r Т.. I h e
O x fo rd G uide to W orld E nglish, p. 190)

160
The sounds ot American speech can he also identified with a number
o f public figures. For example. President John F Kennedy's speech is
associated with the Boston Irish dialect, while President Jimmy Carter spoke
w ith a Southern coastal dialect. The North Midlands speech is familiar to
those who have heard Neil Armstrong and John Glenn, while the South
Midland speech was the speech of President Lyndon Baines Johnson.

5. SOCIAL VARIATION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Regional language variation provides a geographical answer to the


question 'W here are you from, in the English-speaking society to which
you belong"' Social language variation deals w ith different identities
a person acquires participating in social structure. Hence social language
variation provides an answer to the questions ‘W ho are you? and What
are you?' People belong to different social groups and perform different
social roles. A person might be identified as ‘a w om an’, a parent’. *a
doctor’, ‘an apprentice’. *a political activist', or in many other ways. Any
o f these identities can have consequences for the kind o f language people
use. In d e e d , it is usually language — m u ch m o re th a n clo th in g ,
furnishing, o r o th e r externals — which is the ch ief signal o f both
permanent and transparent aspects ol a person's social identity.
Certain aspects o f social variation seem to be o f particular linguistic
consequence. Age. sex. and socioeconomic class have been repeatedly
shown to be o! importance when it com es w explaining the way sounds,
grammatical constructions, and vocabulary vary. Adopting a social role
invariably involves a choice ot appropriate linguistic forms.

5 . 1 . Gender Issu e s

Some o f the most important linguistic changes affecting English since


the I960* have arisen from the way society has com e to look differently
at the practices and consequences o f sexism 1. There is now a w idespread
awareness o f the way in which language displays (directly o r indirectly)
social attitudes towards m en an d women The criticism s have been
mainly directed at the biases built into English vocabulary and gram ­
m ar which reflect a traditionally male-oriented view o f the world that
reinforces the low status o f women in society. Thus, gender issues have
become part and parcel o f the problem o f political correctness (P C : ).

Sexism — d ^ s e n r r ’.n atio n again*! o n e sev. i\p ic a ll\ m en against w o m en


• Political correctness m e a n s ih a i o n e s h o u ld .n o n ! using lan g u ag e w h ich m ight
he in te rp re te d as щ Тспчч* e sp e c ia l!) lo g ro u p * o f p eo p le w h o ire c o n s id e re d to he
d isa d v a n ta g e d o r o p p re sse d Beside* *ex. th e п к ы s r n s iin o J o m a m * w h ere linguistic
d is c rim in a tio n can be o b serv ed are in d o with race age ccolivgv a n d p h y sical o r m enial
p e rs o n a l d e v e lo p m e n t

161
In vocabulary, attention has been tocused on the replacem ent of
m ale' words with a generic meaning by neutral items, for example.
ch a irm a n becomes ch a ir o r chairperson. salesm an — sales assistant
In certain cases, such as job descriptions, the use o f sexually neutral
language has become a legal requirement. The vocabulary o f marital
status has also been affected — notably in the introduction o f M s as a
neutral alternative to M iss or Mrs.
During the last decades gender issues have gained a serious scientific
ground and development not only in Britain and the USA but also in
other E uropean countries. O ne o f the m ost im portant present-day
problem s c o n n e c te d with th e in te ra c tio n o f language a n d g end er
(defined as a sociocultural category ) is concerned with answers to the
following questions: 'Why d o gender ideologies appear?*. ‘Why are
particular gender notions practiced through language?? ‘How arc gender
ideologies constituted/constructed in language?? and i n what way do
they shape discourse communities?*
T here exist many ap p ro ach es to the investigation o f g en d e r in
m odem linguistics. Among the most notable and authoritative ones there
can be mentioned Critical discourse analysis and C ultural practice th e ­
ory. Critical discourse analysis examines the interaction between lan­
guage and social structures, how social structures are constituted by lin­
guistic interaction. It aims to provide accounts of the production, in ­
ternal structure, and overall organization o f texts, to investigate the s o ­
ciopolitical and cultural presuppositions and implications o f discourse.
The second approach — Cultural practice theory — centers its atten­
tion not only on the constitution o f cultural meanings, but also on the
significance o f individual experience as a force in this process. The giv­
en approach examines members' everyday lived experiences as a whole
to demonstrate how they constitute gender ideologies. It reveals the c a t­
egories m en' and ‘women* by examining what people do to shape these
cultural categories, how individuals form cultural meanings and use
them on the basis o f their own gender practices and everyday activities.
A growing interest in linguistic aspects o f gender issues let them toim
an independent branch in linguistic science known as Lmguagenderoiogy.
and has given rise to a number of scientifically well-grounded works in such
fields o f the English language as phonetics, grammar, lexis, phraseology .
In Russia am ong the most significant investigations based on the
material o f different languages, works carried out by the members o f the
Laboratory o f G ender Studies o f Moscow State Linguistic University
deserve close attention and consideration.:
Gender social or vx'KX'uhura! ч-v - can be defined a» the .i^rceate ol’behavioral
norms whn.li are usually associated with men or women ut a particular society
S e e . k u p u n t n u A. В I c n . i e p - I t i m h i s : н ч е с к н е а с п е к т ы — M . 1999;
З ы к о / / В С п о с о б ы к о н с т р у и р о в а н и я н о м е р а и а ж .н и с к о и ф р а к ч е н ч и н —
М . 2<XlJ: а т а к ж е с б о р н и к и н а у ч н ы х гр у л о в .1а*‘ч 'р а г о р и и ic J » .;e p iiu \ н ссл сл о -
н а и и и M l .IV

162
5 . 2 . О С СЛiр о t :О П<31 VilllCtlOS

T h e term o ccu p a tio n a l dial ect ’ has long b ee n used for the
distinctive language associated w ith a particular way o f earning a living.
However, such varieties are not like regional or class dialects. Features
o f language w hich identify a person's geographical or social origin, once
established, tend not to vary, unless affected by m ajor cu rren ts of
language change. Occupational varieties o f language are not like that
The linguistic features may be just as distinctive as regional o r class
features, but they are only in temporary use. They are ‘part o f the job' —
taken up as a person begins work, and put dow n as he ends it.
All occupations are linguistically distinctive lo some degree, even if
all that is involved is a few items of specialized vocabulary. The more
specialized the occupation, and the more senior or professional the post,
th e m ore technical the language is likely to be. Also, the m ore an
occupation is pari o f a long-established tradition, the more it is likely
to have accreted linguistic rituals which its members accept as a criterion
o f performance. Among various occupational varieties o f the English
language the highly distinctive o n es are Religious English. Legal
English. News Media English and Advertising English. They provide the
clearest cases o f differences and peculiarities in phonology, grammar,
vocabulary , and patterns o f discourse.
Religious English is a variety in which all aspects o f structure are
implicated. There is a unique phonological identity in such genres as
spoken prayers, sermons, chants, and litanies, including the unusual case
o f unison speech. Graphological identity is found in liturgical leaflets,
biblical texts, and many other religious publications. There is a strong
grammatical identity in invocations, prayers, blessings, and other ritual
forms, both public and private. An obvious lexical identity pervades
formal articles o f faith and scriptural texts, w ith the lexicon o f doctrine
inform ing the whole o f religious expression. And there is a highly
distinctive discourse identity in such dom ains as liturgical services,
preaching, and rites ot passage (e.g. weddings, funerals).
Legal English has a great deal in com m on with Religious English
as it shares with religion a respect for ritual and tradition. This variety
o f language is so specific that it can hardly be applicable to individual
circum stances. A great deal o f Legal English lexical an d stylistic
peculiarities, its distance from everyday usage, can be explained by its
origins. The use o f legal varieties o f Latin and French, after the Norm an
Conquest, introduced a major barrier between the professional lawyer
and the ordinary person. When English eventually became the official
language o f the law m Britain, in the V 'r century, a vast am o u n t of
earlier vocabulary had already become fixed in legal usage. The reliance
on Latin phrasing (e g. m en s rea — the intention o r knowledge of
wrongdoing that constitutes par o f a crime, as opposed to the action or
conduct ot the accused ) and French borrowings (c.g. hen - ‘a right
163
to keep possession o f property belonging to anoth er person until a debt
owed by that person is discharged ) was supplem ented by ceremonial
phrasing (signed, sea led , a n d d e liv e re d ), conventional terminology
(a lib i, n eg o tia b le in stru m e n t), and o th er features which have been
handed down to form present-day legal language.
Legal English has several subvarieties, reflecting its different roles.
Eor example, there is the language o f legal documents, such as contracts,
deeds, insurance policies, wills: there is the language o f works o f legal
reference, with their complex apparatus o f footnotes and indexing: there
is the language o f case law. made up of the spoken o r written decisions
which judges make about individual cases.
News M edia English is a variety that includes newspaper language,
radio language, and television language. When the notion o f a language
variety is applied to the media, it suggests the necessity to look within
each product (a newspaper, a radio or TV' channel) for uses o f language
which have been shaped by the nature o f the medium , o r whose purpose
is to make use o f the capabilities provided by the medium. And here,
the com m unication and presentation o f news is dom inant.
News reports are characterized by the use o f the so-called ‘preferred'
forms o f expressions, lack o f stylistic idiosyncrasy, an d their consistency
o f style over long periods o f time. Once a publication o r channel has
opted a certain style in reporting news, it tends to stay with it. and
imposes it vigorously on its material. This has particularly been the case
with the press. There are several distinctive linguistic features o f news
reporting c h a ra c te ristic o f journalese: I) th e h e a d lin e is critical,
summarizing and drawing attention to the story. Its telegraphic style is
probably the best-known feature o f news reporting: 2) the first ( lead )
paragraph both summarizes and begins to tell the story : it is also the
usual source o f the headline: 3) the original source o f the story is given,
either in byline ( R euters) or built into the text (A senior W hite House
o fficia l sa id ...). 4) the participants are categorized, their names usually
being preceded by a general term (c h a m p , p riso n er, o ffic ia l) an d
adjectives (h a n d so m e French singer Jean Bruni...): 5) explicit time and
place locators are given t In Paris yesterday. .) as well as facts and figures
(6 7 p eo p le tvere k ille d in a b o m b b la st...), and direct or indirect
quotations (P M 'bungles', says expert: Expert says P M bungled).
The most striking features o f Advertising English can be observ ed
in com m ercial advertising. It uses deviant graphology (B e a n z M ea n z
H ein z), and strong sound effects, such as rhythm , alliteration, and
rhym e. C o m m e rc ia l ad vertising provides fertile soil for adjective
inflections, e.g . The result: sm o o th er, fir m e r skin: The tastiest fis h :
The la test in gas cooking. Advertisements also rely a great deal on
imperative sentences ( L ea rn a la n g u a g e on lo ca tio n , s ta y u ith a
w e lc o m in g lo c a l f a m i l y , m a k e J r ie n d s w ith o th e r v isito rs fr o m
a ro u n d th e uw rld). Lexically, this variety o f English tends to use words
which are vivid (new . bright), concrete (soft, w ashable), positive (safe.
164
e x tr a ) , a n d u n re se rv e d ( b e s t , p e r f e c t ) . A d v e rtisin g E n g lish is
characterized by the use o f highly figurative expressions, e.g. ta ste the
su n sh in e in K -Y p e a c h e s. Com mercial advertising can make effective
use o f word-play and is also characterized by a wide use o f slogans1,
e.g. E lectrolux brings lu x u ry to life ; ff e i n e k e n refreshes th e parts
o th e r beers ca n n o t reach.

OUES H O N S AND TASKS

/. Q U E S T I O N S

1. What does the term Standard English’ mean?


2. What is the difference between the term s ‘variants’ an d ‘local
dialects’ o f the English language"
3. What variant o f English is considered to be Standard English"
4. W hat variants o f English exist o n th e territory o f th e United
Kingdom?
5. Why d o Scottish English and Irish English have a special linguistic
status and cannot be referred to as dialects"
6. What are the main distinctive features o f Scottish English?
I. What are the main peculiarities o f Irish English?
8. What variants o f the English language outside the British Isles can
be singled out?
9. What distinctive features does the vocabulary' o f American English
have? W hat is m e a n t by: a) h isto ric a l A m e ric a n ism s; Ы p ro p er
A m ericanism s; c ) specifically A m erican borrow ings: d) A m erican
shortenings?
10. What does C anadian English have in com m on with: a) American
English; b> British English? What does the term ‘Canadianisms’ denote"
II. What varieties o f the English language does Australian English
have close ties with? What are the m ain peculiarities o f A ustralian
English?
12. What are the main distinctive features o f New Zealand English"
13. Where is South African English spoken? What variants o f English
and other languages does South African English have close links with
and w hy? What are the peculiarities o f the vocabulary o f South African
English?
14. What is meant by the term ‘Indian English’? What peculiarities
are characteristic o f this variant o f the English language?
15. In what way does the American variant o f English differ from
British Engbsh?
16. What are the spelling differences between American English and
British English words?

Slogan a sh o rt a n d strik in g o r m e m o ra b le p h ra s e u sed m ad v ertisin g .

165
17. What are the main lexical differences between British English and
American English?
18. W hat c a n y o u say a b o u t d e riv a tio n a l a n d m o rp h o lo g ic a l
peculiarities o f British and American English?
19. What groups o f local dialects in Great Britain can be singled out?
20. What are the main features o f Cockney?
21. What d o you know about Estuarv English?
22. What are the distinctive features o f the Yorkshire dialect?
23. W hat g rou ps o f local d ialects in th e U n ited S tates can be
identified?
24. What dialect do inhabitants o f New York City and southeastern
o f New York State speak?
25. What do you know about the New Jersey dialect?
26. What are the main peculiarities o f the S tandard Midwestern
dialect? What can you say about the linguistic status o f this dialect?
27. In what parts o f the United States do people speak the North
Midland and the South Midland dialects?
28. What d o you know about African- American Vernacular English?
29. What does social language variation deal with?
30. What is the most important linguistic change affecting English
since 1960s?
31. What d o two approaches in gender researches (Critical discourse
analysis and Cultural practice theory) investigate.’
32. What arc the main peculiarities o f such occupational varieties of
the English language as Religious English. Legal English. News Media
English and Advertising English?

f t. TASKS

1.* Match the italicized Scottish English words from the semences with the
corresponding Standard English words given in the box.
Xi ) Лe 1: She devoted her (anam) to helping others.
0 The corresponding Standard English word to the Scottish English word anam
is life: She devoted her life to helping others.

knot, conversation, packet, hole, journey, life.


window, stone, knowledge, dignity, coffee

I. I’ve heard you visited several European countries last summer. Did
you like your (tu rn s)? 2. Why did you throw a <a r ta n ) at the dog? It
could bite you. 3. Ann faced the news o f the catastrophe with (o noir).
4. C an you tic a is n a im ) in the end o f my thread? 5. D o n 't open the
<u in n ea g ). You can catch a cold. 6. D o you take sugar in your iu ilm )?
7. A ( p a s g a n ) o f b ro c h u res arrived in th e p o st. 8. T h e te a c h e r's
com m ents are designed to help improve your (fios) and understanding.
166
9. Later in the evening, the (ca ig ) turned to politics. 10. Workers dug a
30-foot (toll) in the ground. II. She devoted her (a n a m ) to helping
others.
2. Read and analyze the extract taken from R Bunts’ poem The I is ion i I7K6)
using the glossary given below the extract. Speak on the uniqueness and bright
expressiveness of Scottish English Translate this extract.
The sun had clos'd the winter day.
The curless quat their roarin play.
And hunger'd maukin taen her way.
Го kail-yards green.
While faithless snaws ilk step betray
Whare she has been
The thresher's weary flingin-tree.
The lee-lang day had tired me:
And when the day had clos’d his е е.
Far i the west.
Ben i the spcnce. right pensivelie.
I gaed to rest.
There, lanelv by the ingle-cheek.
I sat and ey'd the spewing reek.
That fill'd wi' hoast-provoking smeek.
The auld clay biggin:
An' neard the restless rations squeak
About the riggin.
All in this mottie, misty clime,
1 backward mus'd on wasted time.
How I had spent my youthfu' prime.
Arid done пае thing.
But stringing blethers up in rhyme.
For fools to sing.
Had I to g u id advice but harkit.
I might, by this, hae led a market.
O r strutted in a bank and clarkit
My cash-account;
While here, half-mad. half-fed. half-sarkil.
Is a' th' am ount.
Glossary:
I) quat — Iquit) quitted, maukin — a hare, taen — taken, kail-yard
a kitchen garden, snaws —snow. ilk. ilka —each, every, uiiar. whare — where:
2 1 fling in -tree - a piece of timber hung by way of partition, lee-lang —
live-long, i" - in. ben - a parlor Сie; the inner apartment); into ihe parlor.
spenee — the parlor, gaed - went;
3) lane — lone, ingle-cheek — fireside (properly ihc iamb of the fireplace».
reek — smoke, wi' — with, hoast — cough, smeek *moke. auld — old.
167
biggin —building, an' —and. rattan, rath ton — a rat. riggin — ihe roof-tree: the
roof;
4) mattie dusty, blethers — nonsense;
5 1 guid good, harkit — hearkened, hue have, clarkit — wrote, a —all
3." Replace the italicized Irish words with Standard English words from the box.
M n d t I; Will you sit on the to/g. please, and wait for Peler coming
0 The Irish word tolgcan be replaced by the Standard English word sofa Will
you sit on the so/a. please, and wait for Peter coming.

noise, basket, choice, thorn, distress (hardship).


sofa. rag. while, friend, wall, steam

I. I ll have to stop for a minute — I must have a dealg in my foot


2. Watt till you see the g a l ofTthe kettle and then wet (pour boiling water
on) the tea. 3. There is always some cruatan o r other in that family —
what is it with them? 4. There was a trap outside the door. 5. I haven't
seen him for a taniall. 6. He drove straight through the fa /la with the
new car Iasi night. 7. WTiere did you find that old bu feats'.? 8. G et me a
scib o f turf for the fire. 9. Hclga is a close vara o f mine. 10. These people
have the togha o f whether to buy a house o r rent one. II. Will you sit
on the to/g, please, and wait for Peter coming.
4. Read the poem written by one of the most famous and distinguished Irish
poets — Seamus Heaney. Discuss the following questions: I What stereoty pe
of Irishmen does this poem contain * 2 How does the poem explore ideas ot
heritage and family tradition? 3. In what way is the central extended metaphor
of digging and roots revealed .’ 4 What does the poem suggest about physical
labour? 5. What is the connection between the work done by the poet s ancestors
and his own work’’ Speak about the lexical peculiarities of the poem

Digging
Between my finger and my thum b
The squat pen rests; snug as a gun.
Under my window, a clean rasping sound
When the spade sinks into gravelly ground.
5 My father, digging. I look down
Till his straining rum p am ong the flowerbeds
Bends low. com es up twenty years away
Stooping in rhythm through potato drills
Where he was digging.
,„The coarse boot nestled on the lug. the shaft
Against the inside knee was levered firmly.
He rooted out tall tops, buried the bright edge deep
To scatter new potatoes that we picked.
Loving their cool hardness in o ur hands.
и By G o d . the old m an could handle a spade. Just like his old man.
168
My grandfather cut more tu rf in a day
Than any other man on l o n e r ’s bog.
Once I carried him milk in a bottle
Corked sloppily with paper. He straightened up
y, To drink it. then fell to right away
Nicking and slicing neatly, heaving sods
Over his shoulder, going dow n and down
For the good turf. Digging.
The cold smell o f potato mould, the squelch and slap
^ O f soggy peat, the curt cuts o f an edge
Through living roots awaken in my head.
But I’ve n o spade to follow m en like them.
Between my finger and my thum b
The squat pen rests.
4, I'll dig with it.

Glossary: squat —short and fat. snug —comfortably, rasping —scraping.


rump — backside, potato drills — holes where the potatoes will be planted.
fug — the projecting part of the spade, his old man his father, fe ll to right
way — begun working immediately after, sods — pieces of peat, mould — fungus
that grows on potatoes, squelch sucking sound, cun — abrupt, sharp.
5.* In the given sentences find words which are characteristic of American
English. State w hether they belong to the group of: a) historical
Am ericanism s; h) proper A m ericanism s; c) specifically Am erican
borrowings
M u d e E The truck pulled up near where two men were already standing
b\ the edge of a deep canvon.
г The wtmi truck belongs to the group of proper Americanisms (Ы. while the
word canyon is a specifically American borrowing (c».
I. D o you want to take the elevator o r use the stairs? 2. We haven’t
heard from him since last fall. 3. John has made his own pirogue and
now wants to show it to his friends. 4. If I am taie I’ll call you from a
telep h o n e b o o th . 5. I guess I ’ll never be able to explain what has
happened between us. 6 . 1 am very’ tired. I’d like to sleep in the hammock
in the garden. 7. He stayed at hom e caring for his sick wife. 8 . He left
the faucets running an d the bath overflowed. 9. Have you ever seen a
tomahawk used by N orth American Indians in war and hunting? 10. We
went to the m useum by subway.
6.* Distribute the words from the given series into three groups: a) words
used in American English; b> words used in British English; c) words used in
Australian English.
1 ) lollies — candy — sweets: 2) form — grade — year: 3) subway/
metro — railway station — underground: 4) the cinema — the movies -
th e p ic tu re s; 5) letterb o x — p o stb o x — m ailbox: 6 ) s n e a k e rs —
tra in e rs — runners; 7) sidewalk — footpath — pavement.
169
1.* Study the meanings of the given words. State which of these words arc
used in Canadian English ( I ), Australian English (2). New Zealand English (3).
South African English (4). Indian English (5) — five words in each group. In
case of difficulty consult the S ew Oxford Dictionary o f English
M •*t! e bobsy-die — ‘a great deal of fuss and trouble’
- Die word bobsy-die is used in New Zealand English (group 3).
I) schoolie — ‘a school pupil? 2) draegerm an — *a member o f a
crew trained for underground rescue work? 3 ) b a h a d u r — a brave man;
an honorable title, originally given to officers? 4) tvaka — “a traditional
Maori c a n o e? 5) b a ckveld — 'rem ote country' districts, especially when
considered to be unsophisticated o r conservative? 6) drottgo — ‘a stupid
o r in co m p eten t person*; 7) y a tr a — ‘a procession o r pilgrim age,
especially one with a religious purpose*; 8) b o b sy -d ie — a great deal
o f fuss and trouble? 9) voorskot — ‘advance paym ent? 10) bobskate —
‘an adjustable skate for a child, consisting o f two sections o f double
runners'; II) aroha love, affection? 12) a ch e h a — ‘okav, all right*.
13) b o d g ie — ‘a y o u th , especially o f the 1950s. an alo g o u s to the
British Teddy boy*; 14) iz z a t — h o n o u r, rep u tatio n , o r prestige?
15) p a r k a d e — *a multi storey car p a r k ? 16) a m b o — am bulance
o ffic e r? 17) in d a b a — *a co n feren ce betw een m em bers o f native
peoples*; 18) h a k a — ‘a M aori c e re m o n ia l w ar d a n c e involving
chanting, an imitation o f w hich is performed by rugby team s before a
m atch ’; 19) rid in g — ‘a political co n stituency /an electoral district*;
20) ka ra n g a — *a Maori ritual chant o f welcome'; 21) chaprasi — a
person carrying out ju n io r office duties, especially one w ho carries
messages'; 22) f u n d i — ‘an expert in a particular area'; 23) f i n e — ‘a
firefighter’; 24) reeve — the president o f a village o r town council*:
25) uxtrs — sausage?
8. Read the following passage. Discuss the influence over linguistic norm»
of Standard English exerted by cultures of different English-speaking countries

MARRIAGE LINES
In the culture o f India, religion, caste, colour, region, and economic
status traditionally play a major role in marriage arrangements. As a
consequence, newspaper matrimonial advertisements are very differ­
ent in style compared with the equivalent ‘lonely hearts' items in the
Western press, and use very different vocabulary. More importantly ,
many items which seem familiar need to be reinterpreted, if their
correct sense in the Indian context is to be appreciated.
A cultural reading o f the vocabulary' brings to light several points
o f semantic difference.
• bride w ith a n u d e c h ild is a widow or divorcee with a son,
mentioned in view o f the priority given in Indian society* to a male
heir, whether natural or adopted.
170
• divorcee is a strongly negative term, compared with its modern
Western use
• fullparticulars would be an astrological reference —a request
for a horoscope.
• good-looking has to be seen in contrast with other phrases used
in this context, such as exceptionally beautiful: it suggests average'
rather than (as in the West) above-average .
• respectable. ueUplaced, and weWestabUshed carry implica­
tions o f economic standing: a highly respectable fam ily is a rich
one.
• stable charactered and sincere suggest loyalty’ and devotion
to a marriage partner, despite a readiness to socialize with the
opposite sex,
• working girl and employed g irl have mixed connotations, as
some families w ill accept a bride w ho is working, whereas others
will not
(from the C am bridge Encyclopedia
o f th e English Language by David Crystal)

9.* Analy/c the meanings of the given words. Define: a) words/word-


combinations that have no equivalents in American English (Briticisms);
b) words/word-combinations that have no equivalents in British English
(Americanisms). In case of difficulty consult the New Oxford Dictionary• oj
English.
M p ' J f i congressman — 'a male member of the Congress’
Ej The word congressman has no equivalents in British English (group b).
1) p a r ish c o u n c il — ’the adm inistrative body in a civil parish";
2) co n g ressm a n — ‘a male m em ber o f the Congress’; 3) p riv y p u rse —
‘a n allow ance from th e public revenue for th e m o n a r c h ’s private
expenses'; 4) h o lid a y season — ‘the period o f time from Thanksgiving
u n til New Year, in clu d in g such religious a n d sec u la r festivals as
Christmas, Hanukkah. and Kwanzaa’; 5) Secret Service — *a branch
o f the Treasury Department dealing with counterfeiting and providing
protection for the President"; 6) th e ичю/яаск — ‘the position o f Lord
C hancellor’: 7) Iv y League — ‘a group o f long-established universities
having high academic and social prestige': 8) ju n io r college — ‘a college
offering courses for two years beyond high school, either as a complete
training o r in preparation for completion at a senior college'; 9) co u n ty
c o u n c il — ‘the elected governing body o f an administrative co u n ty ’:
10) b a r r io — ‘th e S p a n is h -s p e a k in g q u a r te r o f a to w n o r c i t y ’:
11) g ra m m a r school — ‘a state secondary school to which pupils are
adm itted on the basis o f ability (Since 1965 most have been absorbed
into the comprehensive school system)'; 12) foreign secretary* — ‘the
g o vernm ent m in ister w ho h ea d s th e Foreign an d C o m m o n w ealth
Office": 13) electoral college — ‘a body o f people w ho formally cast
171
votes for the election o f the President and Vice-President’: 14) school
inspector — ‘an official who reports on teaching standards in schools
o n beh alf o f Ofsted (Office for Standards in E ducation)’; 15) green
c a r d — a p e rm it allow in g a foreign n a tio n a l to live a n d work
permanently in the given country '; \b )p u b — ‘a building where alcohol
may be bought and drunk during fixed hours’; 17) G roundhog D ay —
*2 February , w hen the groundhog is said to com e out o f his hole at the
end o f hibernation. If the animal sees its shadow - i.e. if the weather
is sunny — it is said to portend six weeks m ore o f w inter w eather':
18) b a c k bench — ‘any o f the benches behind the front benches on
c ith e r side o f th e H ouse o f C o m m o n s , o c c u p ie d by M em bers ol
Parliament who d o not hold office in the government o r opposition'.
10 . R ead th e following passage. W rite o ut th e term s d e n o tin g th e university
teaching staff in th e I K a n d in th e USA. W hat are th e c o rre sp o n d in g Russian
term s?

With hierarchies in organizations, it is often impossible to give a


precise answer to the question ‘What's the equivalent o f a —in BrE/
AmE?' because there is no one-forone correspondence between the
different ranks, or at best only a partial correspondence. A good
example is the hierarchy’ o f university teaching, shown below.
A British p r o fe s s o r is not exactly equivalent to a US p ro fe sso r.
because the latter category divides into three levels:fu U p ro fe sso r (the
most senior), a s s o c ia te p ro fe sso r, and a s s is ta n t p ro fe sso r (the most
junior). In the UK, the rani» below professor are re a d e r, then se n io r
le c tu re r (though some universities treat these grades as equivalent in
salary, but different in function), then le c tu re r.
An a sso c ia te p ro fe sso r is roughly equivalent to a re a d e r, and lo w e r
g ra d e s o f le c tu r e r can be equated with a n a s s is ta n t p ro fe sso r. But it
is not possible to identify’ the AmE equivalent o f a se n io r le c tu re r, and
in the days when tenured positions were serious academic options,
there was even less equivalence, as a BrE lecturing post was usually
tenured, whereas an AmE assistant professorial position was usually
not (but rather, tcnure-track).

PROFESSOR

Professor

Associate Professor
Senior Lecturer - - г Г
Lecturer -— * Assistant Professor
(from th e C am bridge Encyclopedia
o f th e English la n g u a g e by David Crystal)

172
11.* D istribute th e given w ords into tw o groups: a ) w ords that arc used in
Am erican English. b> words that arc used in British English. Pay special attention
to their meanings.
AI о d $ 1 hill (for meal p a y m e n t» — *a 1ы ol things eaten showing the total
a m o u n t that m ust he p a id '
. j l The word bill is used in Bntish Fnghsh

1> tuxedo — a m a n ’s dinner jacket’: 2) b ill (for meal payment)


'a list o f things eaten showing the total am o u n t that must be p a id ’:
3) pram — a four-wheeled carriage for a baby, pushed by a person on
foot*: 4) zip code — a postal code consisting o f five o r nine digits':
5) chem ist — a person who is authorized to dispense medicine drugs';
6) vacation — ‘an extended period o f recreation, especially one spent
away from hom e or in traveling'; ?) p erio d — 'a punctuation mark (.)
used at the end o f a sentence or an abbreviation': 8) tram — *a passenger
vehicle powered by electricity conveyed by overhead cables, and running
on rails laid in a public road': 9) a p a rtm en t building — a large building
containing many apartments'; 10) d u st-b in — *a container for houshold
refuse, especially one kept outside'; 11) m otorw ay — "a dual-carriageway
road designed for fast traffic, with relatively few places for joining or
leaving’; 12) gasoline — ‘a liquid obtained especially from petroleum,
used mainly for producing power in the engines o f cars, aircraft, etc.';
13) trolley (for shopping) — *a low two-wheeled or four-wheeled cart
or vehicle, especially one pushed by h an d ': 14) fla sh lig h t — a small
electric light carried in the hand to give light'; 15) ca r p a rk — ‘an area
o r building where cars or other vehicles may be left temporarily’.
12.* ( iivс an alo g o u s opposition* in th e o th e r variant o f F n g h sh to th e words
from task 1 1.
M o d e l : bill
E T he a n alog ous oppo sition to the British F nghsh word bill is the A m erican
English word check
13.* T ranslate th e following words a n d w o rd-co rnbm aiion s giving b oth the
British an d A m erican variant
М л d e l : п о д зе м н ы й переход
LL. BrF. subway — A m E underpass ( tunneli

Words and word- British American


com binations English English
1. первый этаж
2. железная
дорога
3. л и ф г
4. персе п
5. автомобиль
6. бой (сражение)
7. га летный
киоскер
8. о ч ер ед ь
9. продавец
10. го с у д а р с т в е н н а я
ш кола
14 .*Analy ze th e sem antic structure o f the follow ing words. Stale what lexico-
sem antic variants o f th ese words arc specific to British Lnglish o r American
English. G iv e an alo g o u s o p p o sitio n s to these lexico-sem antic variants in the
o th e r variant o f English o r in S ta n d ard English.
M i i d e l : lea d er — I so m e o n e w h o is responsible for o r in co n tro l o f a
g roup, organization, cou ntry , etc. 2 a p erson, an im al, o r vehicle th at is w inning
at a particular tim e during a race o r c om petition 3 a person, com pany, o r product
that is m o re successful, popular, o r advanced than o th ers in a particular area of
activity 4 a piece o f writing in a new spaper giving th e p a p e r ’s o p in io n o n a
subject 5 so m e o n e w h o c on ducts. 5a th e m ain violin player in an orchestra.
6 so m e o n e w ho directs the playing o f a m usical group.
F Two lexico-sem antic variants o f th e w ord leader specific to British English
are 4 a n d 5a. T h e a n alo gou s o p p o sitio n to ‘a piece o f w riling in a new spaper
giving t h e p a p e r 's o p in io n o n a subject* in A m E /S E is editorial. T h e
an alo g o u s opp o sitio n to th e m ain violin player in a n o rc h e stra ' in A m E is
wncertmaster. T h e Icxico-sem am ic variant specific to A m erican English is
‘so m e o n e w h o directs th e playing o f a m usical g ro u p ' (6 ). Its a n alogo us
oppo sitio n in BrE is the w ord conductor

1) ca rav an — I a vehicle thal people can live and travel in on holiday,


l a a vehicle that R om anies live in. so m etim es pulled by a horse
2 a group o f people and vehicles travelling together, especially in a
desert;
2) interval — 1 a period o f lime between two events. 2 a short break
between the parts o f something such as a play or concert. 3 a space or
distance between two things. 4 {technical) a difference in pitch between
two musical notes:
3) cupboard l a tall piece o f furniture, usually attached to a wall
and used for storing things, with shelves inside and one or two doors at
the front. 2 a very small room with no windows used for storing things.
4) (in — l a soft light silver metal, often used for covering iron or
steel. 2 a closed metal container for a food o r drink product that you
open with a tin opener. 2a a metal container with a lid. used for storing
things. 2b a metal container used for cooking food in an oven;
5) flat - 1 a set o f rooms for living in. usually on o n e floor o f a
large building. 2 a flat surface o r part o f som ething. 3 a musical note
that is one semitone lower than a particular note. 3 a a written symbol
for show ing that you m ust play or sing a n o te a sem ito n e lower
174
4 | plural) a low Hat area o f land, usually wet land n ear a large area o f
water;
6) c o a c h — 1 a long comfortable vehicle for carrying a large number
o f passengers, especially on long journeys, la o n e o f the sections o f a
train. lb an old-fashioned vehicle that is pulled by horses. 2 someone
w ho trains a sports player o r team. 2a som eone w ho teaches a special
skill, especially one connected with performing such as singing or acting.
3 a less expensive type o f seal on a plane o r train;
7) guard — 1 som eone whose job is to look after a place or person
so that no one causes damage, steals anything, o r escapes. 2 a unit of
soldiers o r police officers, especially o n e that has a particu lar job.
3 s o m e th in g th a t h e lp s to sto p so m e th in g b a d from h a p p e n in g .
4 som eone o n a train whose job is to check tickets, a n n o u n c e the
stations, and look after the passengers. 5 an apparatus which covers and
protects. 6 in basketball, one o f two players who are responsible for
moving the ball around the court in order to create opportunities for
their team to score.
15.* H ere an.* th e exam ples o f C o c k n ey rhym ing slang. M atch th e words
given in th e left c o lu m n with the phrases given in th e n ght c o lu m n .
M o d e l : cousin (2) — baker's dozen (6>

1. believe 1. dog and bone


2. cousin 2. round the houses
3. phone 3. Tom and Dick
4. thief 4. Tomfoolery
5. sick 5. elephant's trunk
6. sister 6. b a ker s dozen
7. trousers 7. plates o f meat
8. talk 8. skin and blister
9. feet 9. north and south
10. nose 10. ones and twos
11 drunk 11. Adam and Eve
12. m outh 12. I suppose
13. shoes 13. two-and-eight
14. jewelry 14. tea leaf
15. state 15. rabbit and pork
1 6 . R ead m o re in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e a p p e a ra n c e o f L stuarv E n g l is h
D i s c u s s the reasons foi i t s fast spreading

T he estu ary in q u estio n is that o f th e R. T ham es T he term w as


c o in e d in th e 1980s to identify th e w ay features o f London regional
s p e e c h se e m e d to b e rapidly sp r e a d in g th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n tie s
a d jo in in g th e river (e sp e c ia lly E ssex and K ent) and b e y o n d It is
som eth in g o f a m isnom er, for th e in flu e n c e o f London sp e e c h has f«w
so m e tim e b een ev id en t w ell b eyond th e Tham es estuary, notably in
th e O xford — C am bridge — London triangle and in th e area to the
south and east o f London as far as the coast. Nonetheless, the phrase
estuary English' caught the public im agination, and received
considerable publicity, including a from page headline in The Sunday
Tim es (14 March 1993):
YER WOT? ‘ESTUARY ENGLISH 9 SWEEPS BRITAIN
...The factors governing the spread o f this variety arc only partly
explained by social mobility and new patterns o f settlement. For
example, there is the influence o f radio and telev ision, and o f English
media personalities w ho use a m odified form o f Cockney. But
certainly, after World War 11, thousands of London speakers did move
to outside the city, and to the new towns wiiich were being built
around the capital. Their move will have caused many to modify their
accents, and their numerical presence (as well as their econom ic
standing) may even have in flu en ced the original residents to
accommodate in their direction.
Estuary English may therefore be the result o f a confluence o f tw o
social trends: an up-market movement o f originally’Cockney speakers,
and a down-market trend towards 'ordinary' (as opposed to p osh 1)
speech by the middle class. There is certainly plenty o f anecdotal
evidence that many people these days wish to avoid the establishment’
connotations o f Received Pronunciation, and try to speak in a way
which they perceive to be more down to earth. In the 1993 debate
which accompanied the Sunday Times report one leading businessman
was explicit about this point Referring to a public school accent’ (RP)
he commented: If you were unlucky enough to have such an accent
you would lower it You would try’ to become more consumer friendly
(from the Cambridge Encyclopedia
o f the English Language by David Crystal)
17. R e a d t h e p o e m w r i t t e n h y R u t h H a r r i s o n D e n in t h e Y o r k s h ir e d i a l e c t
I N o r t h R i d i n g ) in 1988. S p e a k o n t h e p a r e n t a l t h o u g h t s a n d fee lin g s a s a y o u n g
d a u g h t e r sets o f f t o h e r first d a y at s c h o o l. D i s c u s s i h e lexical p e c u lia r itie s ot
ih e Y orkshire dialect. T ranslate th e p o e m

SKELL
Wi satchel on her back, she gans
Away doon't lane te t gate.
Tis fosi day off It skcul. tha knaas.
I hooape she wean't bi late.
Tis lonely Ah’ll bi w hen she's gone.
Ah's nut afeard ti say.
An Ah'll bi watchin' lahm cum roond
Ti lower o'clock tcdav.
' talk posh — t o ta lk ш а л а ч t h a t t*. ty p i c a l o t p e o p l e fr o m л h ig h m k u iI c la s s

176
Нею w ill she git on w i her sums?
Ah wunncr if t' milks pure?
These th ow tscu m tummlin li mi m ahnd
Aye. ihese and many more.
18. R e a d i h e p o e m w r i t t e n by F J \ e w b o u l t ' i n t h e Y o r k s h i r e d i a l e c t S p e a k
o n th e idea ot th e p o e m a n d o n th e im a g e s th e a u t h o r reveals m d escrib in g
n a t u r e a n d s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r D is c u s s t h e lexical p e c u lia ritie s o t th e Y orkshire
dialect

S P R I N G 11914)
Owd Winter gat notice to quit,
'Cause he'd made sich a pigsty о t' place.
An Sum m er leuked raand when he’d flit.
An' she suvs. It s a daanreyt disgrace'
Sich-like ways!
I niver did see sich a haase to come intul
i‘ all my born days!
But Spring says. “ Its my job. is this.
III sooin put things streyt. niver fear
Ye go off to t' Spaws a bit. Miss.
An' leave me to fettle up here'”
An* sitha!
Shoe's donned a owd appron. an tucked up her sleaves.
an set to. with a wit ha!
Tha can tell, when l' hail pelts tha like mad.
At them floors bides a bit of a scrub;
Tha knaws t' flegsnms nuin ha' been bad.
When she teems (1 ) aat all i' wotter i‘ Г tub.
M ind tin eyes!
When shoo gets hod o' t‘ long brush an sweeps aat them chamers.
I'll tel! tha. t'd u st flies'
Who! sh o o s threng (2 ) tha'll he best aat о t gate (3);
Shoo U care nowi for soft taw к an' kisses.
To tell her thy m ind, tha m un wait
Whol sh o o sg etten things ready fo rt' missis.
When sh o o s done.
Shoo II dofTher owd appron, an slip aat i* t' garden,
an call tha to come
Ave. Sum m er is t' roses' awn queen.
An shoo sits i' her state, grandly dressed;
But Spring’s twice as bonny agcan.

’ F. J N ew bo uit J c s c n c d h w on tam e as a p ro se wn tcr m d u lc e t nr* d i a l e d sketches


w hich a p p tor *omc \e a rs in I h e Yorkshire O bsvner
e a r e d lull n| broad hum our
, ( r c

a n d dram atic power, a n d his dainty little t\ric " S p r i n t" i* .* ч П к .lent u u I k .h io h that
he had also tl‘, e d o w e r «>t ih e pact
When shoo's donned hersen up T her best
G aan o' green.
An' stands all Г a glow. — wi‘ a smile on her lips
a n ’ a loot i her een.
To f tips o f her fingers sh o o s w ick (4)
Tha can see fi pulses heat i‘ her braa.
Tha can feel her soft breath cornin' quick.
An’ it thrills tha-tha duzn't knaw haa.
When >e part.
Them datTydaandillies sh o o s kissed an' then gicn
tha Ihex'll bloom i' thy heart!
I Pours 2. B u s y . >. W a y . 4 A l i v e

1 9 . * S t u d v t h e d i a l e c t a l m a p o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( M a p 9» S p e a k o n t h e
g eo g rap h ical b o rd e rs o t P S regional d ialects a n d dialect areas

Mode l : \ arthem
0 \o r th e r n : a n a ieu n o t Ю h e c o n fu s e d w ith th e political 'n o r th o! the
С m l W a r p e r i o d ( IK bl — 5» H i s t o r i c a l l y it is t h e a r e a o f N e w E n g l a n d ,
b u t it n o w e x t e n d s w e s t i n a n a r r o w n o r t h e r n s t r i p f r o m w e s t e r n V e r m o n t
t h r o u g h N e w Y o r k a n d a c r o s s j!1 t h e n o r t h e r n s t a t e s t o t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t
D i a l e c t s t u d i e s s h o w t h a t t h e r e is a n i m p o r t a n t b o u n d a r y I r o u g h lv a l o n g
t h e C o n n e c t i c u t River» s e p a r a ti n g w e s t e r n a n d e a s t e r n N e w E n g l a n d .

Map 9

Г S
20. R ead the inform ation about S o u th e rn e rs a n d th eir speech a n d th en read
t h e e x t r a c t f r o m t h e s t o r y The M an W ho S o u the F lood w r i t t e n b> R i c h a r d
W r i g h t . T h i s s t o r y is a s a m p l e o f t h e S o u t h e r n d i a l e c t o f t h e L S a s w e l l a s t h e
s p e e c h o f A fro- A m e ric a n s . S p e a k o n t h e lexical a n d g r a m m a t i c a l p e c u liaritie s
o f th e m a in characters' speech.

SOUTHERNERS
There are two main g rou ps o f Southerners: those descended from
w hite Lnglish. Irish an d Scottish colonists and immigrants, and those
descended from th e vast num bers of black Africans w h o w ere brought
in as slaves to work o n the plantations
Southern speech spread from Virginia and the Carol in as u> Georgia
and th e cotton lands o f th e Gulf States d u rin g the n in eteen th century,
and is now one o f the major regional variations in American English
th a t lin g u is ts have c o r r e l a t e d w ith g e o g r a p h ic a l lo c a tio n a n d
settlem ent history. S outhern speech is generally considered "softer
a n d lo w e r th a n N o r th e r n s p e e c h , a n d it c o n ta in s a n u m b e r ot
distinctive words as well as certain forms o f usage that are found only
in th e South
A m erican P atthu orkr 4 (nlh\tn> n
<f r o m
o f A m erican short SHtries by B c t t v K e e n e l a s k a t

THE MAN W HO SAW THF. FLOOD


RICHARD WRIGHT
At last the flood w aters had re­ high h e re . Every tree, blade of
ceded. A black father, a black moth­ g ra s s , a n d s tra y s tic k h a d its
er. an d a black c h ild tra m p e d flood mark: eakv. yellow m ud It
th ro u g h muddy fields, leading a c lu n g to th e g ro u n d , c r a c k in g
tired cow by a th in bit o f rope. thinly h e r e an d th e re in sp id e r
They stopped on a hilltop and shift­ w e b fa s h io n O v e r t h e s ta rk
ed the bundles on their shoulders. fields cam e a gusty sp rin g w ind
As far as they could see the ground T he sky w as high. blue, full of
was covered w ith flood silt Пн* w h ite clouds and sunshine. Over
little girl lifted a skinny finger and all h u n g a first-dav strangeness
pointed to a mud caked cabin " T h e h e n h o u s e is g o ne."
'Look. Pa! Ain tha o u r homer" sighed the woman
The m an. ro u n d -sh o u ld ered , *N t h e p i g p e n .' s ig h e d th e
c la d in b lu e , ra g g e d o v e ra lls, man.
lo o k e d w ith b e w ild e r e d eves. T h ey s p o k e w i t h o u t b i tte r
W ithout m oving a muscle, scar­ ness
ce ly m o v in g h is lips he said "Ah reckon them ch ick ens is
'Yeah " all d o n e drow ned
For five m inutes thev did not "Aeah
speak o r move Hu- flood waters Miz F lora's h o u s e is g o n e,
h ad b e e n m ore th a n eig h t feel too " said the little girl
174
T h e y lo o k e d at a c l u m p o f The steps w ere gone. Tom lifted
t r e e s w h e r e t h e i r n e i g h b o r 's May and Sally to the porch. They
house had stood sto o d a m o m e n t loo king at th e
"L aw dr h a lfo p c n c d d o o r He had shut it
“Yuh reckon anybody k now s w h e n h e left, b u t so m e h o w it
w h ere they is'" seemed natural that he should find
“Hard t tell." it o p en The planks in the porch
T h e m a n w a lk e d d o w n th e floor w ere sw ollen and w arp ed
slope and stood uncertainly Ihc cabin had two colors: near the
“T here w uz a road erlong here bottom it was a solid yellow; at the
somewhere*, he said to p it w as th e fam iliar gray It
But th e r e w as n o road now UHiked weird, as though its ghost
J u s t a w i d e s w e e p o f y ellow , were standing beside it.
scalloped silt The cow lowed
"Look. Torn1' called th e w o ­ “Tie Pat t the pos on the en of
man. “Here's a piece o f o u r gate! the porch. May."
Ilie gatepost w as half buried May tied the rope slowly, list­
in th e g r o u n d A ru s ty h in g e lessly. W h en they a tte m p te d to
sto o d stiff, like a lonely finger. o p en the front door, it w ould not
Tom pried it loose and caught it b u d g e It w a s n o t u n til Tom
firmly in h is h a n d T h e r e w as placed his shoulder against it and
no th ing particular he w anted to gave it a s t o u t s h o v e th a t it
d o with it. h e just stood holding s c ra p e d back jerkily T he front
it firmly Finally h e d r o p p e d it, room w as dark a n d silent The
looked up, and said; d a m p sm ell o f flo o d silt c a m e
~C. m on. Les go d o w n n sec fresh and sh arp to th eir nostrils.
w h ut w e kin do.' Only onc-haJf o f th e u p p e r w in­
B e c a u s e it sat in a slig h t dow was clear, and th rou gh it fell
depression, the ground about the a re c ta n g le o f dingy light. The
cabin w as soft and slimy floors swam in ooze Like a m ute
“(.m im e tha bag о lime. May.' warning, a w avering flood mark
he said. w en t h ig h a ro u n d th e w alls of
With his shoes sucking in mud. the room. A dresser sat cater-cor-
he went slow ly around the cabin, nerecL its draw ers and sides bulg­
s p re a d in g th e w h ite lim e w ith in g like a b lo a te d c o r p s e The
thick fingers. \Xhcn he reached bed. w ith th e m attress still on it.
the from again he had a litde left: was like a giant casket forged of
h e s h o o k t h e b a g o u t o n th e mud. Two sm ashed chairs lay in
porch The fine grains o f floating a corner, as th o u g h h u d d led t o
lime flickered in the sunlight. gcth cr for protection
“T ha o u g h t a h e p som e." he “Let s e e t h e k itc h e n ." said
said. Tom.
“Now. yuh be careful. Sal!" said H ie stovepipe w a> g o n e But
May. “I>on yuh go n fall d o w n in the stove stood in th e same place
all this mud. yuh h e a r '' ‘The stove's still good We kin
“Ycssum." clean it.
"Yeah.' He Mood looking at th e mud-
"But w h e re s th e table?" filled fields.
"Lawd know s.' "Yuh goin back t Burgess?'
'I t m ust vc w ashed crway w id "Ah reckon Ah have to."
the rest of the stuff. Ah reckon.' "Whut else kin yuh do?"
They opened the hack door and "Nothin." he said. "Laud, but
looked out. They missed the barn, Ah sh o h a te t start all over w id
the henhouse, and the pigpen tha w hite m an Ah d leave here cf
'T om . yuh b c tta h try th a ol Ah could. Ah ow es im nigh eight
p u m p n see el c m watah > there.' h u n d re d dollahs N we n eed s a
T h e p u m p w a s s till. Tom hoss. grub. seed, n a lot m o o th er
threw his w eigh t on th e handle things. F.f w e keeps on like this
an d carried it tip an d dow n. No tha w hite m an II ow n us body n
w a t e r c a m e . He p u m p e d o n soul."
T h e re w as a dry hollow cough. “But. Tom, th e r e ain n o th in
T h e n yellow w a te r trick led He else t do." she said,
caught his breath and kept p um p­ Ef w e tty t run crw ay th ey’ll
ing. The w ater flowed w hite. put us in jail."
"Thank Gawd* We s got some "It co u ld a b e e n w o rs e .” >hc
watah." said.
"Yuh b ettah boil it fo yuh use Sally cam e ru n n in g from th e
it.' h e said. kitchen. "Pa!“
"Yeah. Ah know ' "Hunh?"
“Look. Pa! Here's vo ax." called T here' a shelf in th e kitchen
Sally. th e flood d id n git!"
Tom to o k t h e ax fro m her. "Where?"
“Yeah. Ah II n eed this.' "Right u p over th e stove."
“N h e r e 's s o m e t h i n else." "B ut. c h ile , ain n o t h i n u p
called Salty, digging spoons out o f there." said May.
th e mud. “But th e re s so m e th in on it,"
“Waal. Ahm a git a b u c k e t n said Sally.
start clcanin.' said May. "Ain no "C num. Les sec ”
use in w aitin. c a u se w c s g o tta High and dry. untouched by the
sleep on them floors tonight." flood-water, was a box o f matches.
W h e n s h e w as fillin g t h e And beside it a half-full sack o f Bull
bucket from th e punip. Tom called Durham tobacco. He took a match
fro m a r o u n d th e c a b in . "May. fn>m the box and scratched it on
look! Ah done foun m ah plow !" his overalls. It burned to his fingers
Proudly h e d ra g g e d th e silt* before he dropped it.
caked plow to th e p u m p . “All'll “May!"
w ash it n it II be aw right." Hunh?"
“Ahm hungry." said Sally. "Look! Here's ma bacco n Mime
"Now. yuh jus w ait! Yuh et this matches!"
m aw n in .' said May She tu rn ed to S he s t a r e d u n b e lie v in g ly .
Tom. “Now, w h u tc h a gon n a do. “Lawd1" she breathed.
Tom?" Tom rolled a cigarette clumsily.
181
May w a s h e d t h e s to v e . room . It w as getting dark. From
g a th e re d som e sticks, an d a fte r th e b u n d les they took a kerosene
som e difficulty, m ad e a fire. T he la m p a n d li t it. O u t s i d e Pat
k itc h e n stove sm oked, an d th e ir lo w e d lo n g in g ly in to th e
eyes sm arted. May p u t w a te r on th i c k e n i n g g lo a m a n d t in k le d
to heat a n d w en t in to th e front h e r cow bell.

21. Read the follow ing jokes. Speak on the gender stereotypes they are based
on.

An English teach er was explaining to his stu d en ts th e concept of


g en d e r association in the English language He noted how hu rricanes
at one tim e were given only female names, and how ships and planes
w ere usually referred to as sh e . O ne o f th e stu d en ts raised h e r hand
and asked W hat g ender is a com puter?' The teach er w asn't certain
So he divided th e class into tw o groups: males in one. females in the
other, and asked th em to d ec id e if a co m p u ter should be m asculine
o r feminine. Both g ro u p s w ere asked to give four reasons for their
recom m cndations.
Thc g ro u p o f w om en concluded that com puters should he referred
to as m asculine because
1. In o rd e r to get th eir attention, you have to tu rn th em on.
2. They have a lot o f data hut are still clueless
3 They are su p p o sed to help you solve your problem s, but half the
time, they are the problem .
-I. As soon as you com m it to one, you realize that if you had w aited
a little longer, you could have had a b e tte r model.
T he m en, on th e o t h e r h a n d , d e c id e d th at c o m p u te rs s h o u ld
definitely be referred to as fem inine because:
I No o n e but th eir creato r u n d ersta n d s th e ir internal logic.
2. T h e n ativ e la n g u a g e th e y use to c o m m u n ic a te w ith o t h e r
com puters is incom prehensible to everyone else*.
3. Even your smallest mistakes are stored in long-term memory for
later retrieval.
i. As soon as you make a com m itm ent to one. you find yourself
sp en d in g half your paycheck on accessories for it.

lit ге е m en catch a m erm aid w h o begs to be set free in re tu rn for


granting each o f them a wish.
O n e o f th e m en just d o e sn 't believe and says. ‘Okay, if you can
really grant wishes, then d o u b le my I.Q.1'
The m erm aid savs. ■Done."

I .Q . — in te ll i g en c e q u o tie n t: л n u m b e r ih.«t r e p r e s e n t s a p e r s o n ' s i n te ll i g e n c e ,


b a s ed o n t h e r es ul ts o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f test

182
Suddenly, t h e m an s ta rts re c itin g S h ak esp e are flawlessly, and
analyzing w hat he's recited w ith great insight.
The second man is so amazed he says to the mermaid. "Triple my I.Q.'
The m erm aid says. "Done
T he m a n s ta r ts to give s o lu tio n s to p r o b le m s th a t have b e e n
stu m p in g ail th e great scientists o f th e world: th e m athem aticians,
physics, chemists, and so on.
The last m an is so enthralled w ith th e changes in his friends that
h e says to th e m erm aid. "Q uintuple my I.Q.'
Hie m erm aid looks at him and says. "You know. I normally don't
try to change I'eoplc s m inds w h en they make a w ish, but I really think
you should reconsider."
The man says. “No. I want you to multiply my I.Q tim es five, and
if you don't d o it. I w on't set you free.'
“Please." the m erm aid says, ‘you d o n 't k now what you're asking'
It'll c h a n g e y o u r e n tir e view o n th e u n iv e rs e W on't you ask for
som ething else, a million dollars, anything?’ But no m ailer what the
m erm aid says, the m an insists on having his I.Q. increased to five times
its usual power.
Finally, th e m erm aid sighs and says. "Done.’
And he tu rn s into a woman
22. R e a d t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e . S p e a k o n a g e n e r a l efTec i t h a t l a n g u a g e
p l a n n i n g policy d e c is io n s c a n have o n lan g u a g e aw aren ess.

GUIDELINES FOR NONSEXIST USAGE


Many organizations now issue guidelines to their staff on how to avoid
sexist language. The following points are adapted from the set of
recommendations issued in 1992 to its members by one organization
which ought to be among the best-informed on these matters: the
Linguistic Society of America. Of particular interest is the way sexist
considerations can enter into the use of linguistic examples.
• Avoid adding modifiers or suffixes to nouns to mark sex referents
unnecessarily. Such usage promotes continued sexual stereotyping in one
of two ways: by highlighting referent sex, modification can signal a general
presupposition that referent wH be of the other sex (lady professor, male
secreta ry), and thus that th ese referents are aberrant; and
conventionalized gender-marking ‘naturalizes’ the presumptive or
unmarked sex of the noun's referents (stewardess, cleaning lady).
• Use parallel forms of reference for women and men. e.g . do not
cite a male scholar by surname only and a female scholar by first name
plus surname.
• Avoid gender stereotyped or demeaning characterizations, e.g.
presenting men as actors and women as passive recipients of others’
actions. Men are frequently the agents, women the recipients, of violent
acts.
183
• Avoid peopling your examples exclusively with one sex.
• Avoid consistently putting reference to males before reference to
females. Not only does this order convey male precedence, in English it
will put males in subject position and women in object position.
• Avoid so-called masculine generics such as the pronoun he with
sex-indefinite antecedents or man and its compounds (except in
unambiguous reference to males).
• Avoid sexist (or otherwise derogatory) content in examples (e.g.
The man who beats his m istress wM regret Я sooner than the man who
beats his wife).
(from the Cambridge Encyclopedia
o f the English Language by David Crystal)
2 3 . R e a d (h e extract tak e n from th e L S C o n s titu tio n . W h a t are th e distinctive
lexical a n d g r a m m a t i c a l p e c u lia r itie s o f L egal E n g lis h '1

24.* Compare the following two versions of reporting on one and the
same event. In the first column the text is a sports story transmitted by
Australian Association Press — Reuter from Sydney: in the right column
the text is the version edited bv the New Zealand Press Association. Material
is deleted, altered, and added Make up a list of grammatical and lexical
184
differences between the two texts Speak on the distinctive features of News
Media English.

M o d e l : In the second \ersion the adverbial modifier of place at Bourda


is deleted.

T : ;e w a t e n o g g t d с <c . t i i i u v т '.ha: Л 1*• r I •vtged c o n d i t i o n - г J ; r d <1Л


rij c' J pi.- у v r v ’e r d j v stii Pi о t h i:- m o r n i n g , b u t lie m a t c h j
P" ati-.-d Bt lh.lt- П'.1'Г r'ihic: П.' <um i •d with l e s s t h a t th f e e
; .‘ПП 1T W L- Г. •1 u r r ! тI •,I(j —;i ft t •'Ti , n u h< urs* pinv r e m a i n i n g Ot t h e I.':.;. |
tit г r;u ; h г»-s t i r * ; >:, V

!.►. s s t h a n th Ю с h o u r s piCl I' W t s t I n d i e s s i v rn a k . r.g a t i i's ’


n- •n a m ed . i t w i t h t h e W r - l !:idie> .г. U ll g i r e p i v t o F a i g l a n d .- t r i a l
sT. U i:::ik :n g : h r -- hr:--'. :r.n :::g - t'fc'pjv o f -i-SS
'■ ' t.: K i j i . c s t<-t.ii • l i t rr» •n;
\v i ' n !. bar Cc •:! n - v .i it

.V. i h r ’A o ! l l i l ' - - - vs'* -1 v \ f r j th».- ’A 'e s r I i . O v - U t r-


rw 1• П >Г I 'V. о to* tvs . i;ur t h e : » r.
■i; a : v -iii"

25. Read t he follow ing commercial advertising texts devoted to three different
themes: WATCHES. P E R F l ML and CLOTHES. Make up a list of
a) grammatical peculiarities of Advertising English; b) lexical peculiarities of
Advertising English. Speak on the gender stereotvpes which these advertisements
are based on What traditional notions and associations concerning men and
women do these advertisements reveal?

WATCHES
, ..
Advertisements addressed to w om en A dvrnisem cnis addressed to men

1. Be late. T im e is lu x u r y (C o n c o r d 1. I X % sp o rt. I X % eleg a n ce.


w atch es). VThat are y o u m a d e of?
(T ag I le u e r — S w iss m ad e sin ce
2 . M au rice L a croix S w itz e r la n d —
18bC).
T o m o r r o w 's cla ssic. D is c r im in a tin g
w o m e n w ill w is h t o h a v e th ese 2. J a cq u es L em an o f S w itz e r la n d —
w a tc h e s w ith th e ir p erfec tly shaped C la ssics. S ty le . R elia b ility .
d esig n s, valu a b le crafted d ia ls, and
3. W h a t is m o r e im p ortan t:
fla tte r in g b racelets. T h e se are
su b sta n ce o r appearance? A n y o n e
n o t o n ly p ractical c o m p a n io n s th ey
w h o a v o id s th e garish an d prefers
are a lso e x tr e m e ly eleg a n t p ieces
th e e x c ite m e n t g en era ted ... M au rice
o f jew 'elrv.
L acroix.
У W .G .A b u s - 18Ъ8. “I ie le n ” -
a m o d e l t o reflect fe m in in e eleg a n ce
an d refin em en t.
PERFUME
Advertisements addressed to «■omra Advertisements addressed to men

1. N ew flow ers. N e w em o tio n s. !. Are y o u seeking adventure? (A von


E xciting N e w fragrance from Estee Fragrance).
: Lauder.
2 W hatever sh e rem em bers depends
2. F reed om ... Peace.. P u n ty ... H o p e is on y o u (Paco Rabannc).
in the air. I. air du tem p s (N ina Ricci).
3. Y our fragrance, y o u r rules. C o o l.
3. Sensual. P rovocative. Passionate. For M o d em . Irreverent. M en w h o wear
the w om an w h o revels tn th e night. H u go enjoy p layin g w ith the rules.
H u g o creates D eep Red. She d o e sn ’t T h ev are sp on tan eou s and original in
care what the cro w d d oes o r th inks. everyth in g th ev do. T h a t’s w h y they
' She's w iiiv , o u tsp o k en and tec Is tree to
I A
ch o o se H u g o . It’s the seem that says it
! express her passion and sexuahtv. A nd all. Perfect for w hatever I lu g o m en
! She’s u p lor rvcrvthtng. ! :ke D eep decide to get up t o (H u g o Boss).
' Red. (H u go D eep Red).

CLOTHES
1 Advertisements addressed to women Advertisements addressed to men
i
j 1 H ere’s w here th e p ow er w om an lets 1. Be a gen tlem an — Be in sto n e s n o w ...
her style shine (Jim m y C h o o shoes). Be o ffen sive... B e le g e n d a r y .. Sean
John it’s not just a label. , It’s a lifestyle
2. Y ou r clo th es m ay b e th e first th in g
(Scan John clothes).
people adm ire about y o u . But not the
last (T albots). 2. It to o k eight vcars to land on the
m oon . In just tw elv e m ore years we
3. T ak e a sleek , sexy, tailored suit and
m ade these sh oes (K enneth C o le.
soften any sharp edges w ith a pretty,
M en's footw ear).
fem in ine shirt. Perfect t o g o :rom day
to n igh t... and w o w him on a dinner 3 Flair T im e. Q u ie tly fb m b o v a n t. this
date (M ango clothes). ensem ble proves y o u can bring a bit o f
sheen to the o flicc and still lo o k like
the boss (D o lce & Gabbana). 1
PART
ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY
VIII

Classification and Types o f Dictionaries


Some o f the Main Problems in Lexicography
3. Types and C om m on Characteristics o f Learner's Dictionaries
4. M odem Trends in English Lexicography
4.1. Corpus- Based Lexicography
4.2 1 Computational Lexicography. Electronic Dictionaries

1 . C L A S S IF IC A T IO N A ND T Y P E S O F D IC T IO N A R IE S

L exicograp h y, th a t is th e th e o ry a n d p ra c tic e o f c o m p ilin g


dictionaries, is an im portant b ranch o f applied linguistics. It has a
com m on object o f study with lexicology as both describe the vocabulary
o f a language.
The term ‘d ic tio n a ry ' is used to denote a book that lists the words
o f a language in a certain order (usually alphabetical) and gives their
meanings, or that gives the equivalent words in a different language.
Dictionaries may be classified under different heads.
According to the choice o f items included and the sort o f information
given about these item s d ictio n aries may be divided in to two big
groups — encyclopedic and linguistic.
Encyclopedic dictionaries are scientific reference books dealing
with every branch o f knowledge, o r w ith one particular branch, usually
in alphabetical order, e.g . ihe O x fo r d P a p erb a ck E n c y c lo p e d ia .
R a n d o m H ouse W ebster's B iographical D ictionary. Encyclopedic
dictionaries are thing-books. that give inform ation about the extra-
linguistic world, they deal with facts and concepts. The best-know n
encyclopedias o f the English-speaking world are the E ncyclopaedia
B ritannica and the E ncyclopaedia A m ericana
L inguistic d iction aries are w o rd -b o o k s the su b je c t-m a tte r of
w h ic h is le x ic a l u n its a n d t h e i r lin g u is tic p r o p e r tie s s u c h as
p r o n u n c ia tio n , m e a n in g , o rig in , p e c u lia ritie s o f u se. a n d o th e r
linguistic information.
Linguistic dictionaries can be further divided into different categories
by different criteria.
187
1. According to the scope ot their word-list linguistic dictionaries are
divided into general and restricted.
General dictionaries represent the vocabulary as a whole with a
degree o f completeness depending upon the scope and the bulk o f the
book in question. Some general dictionaries may have very specific aims
and still be considered general due to their coverage They include
frequency dictionary, a rhyming dictionary, a Thesaurus, etc.. e.g. the
Collins C O B U IL D th esa u ru s.
R estricted dictionaries cover only a certain specific p a n o f the
vocabulary. Restricted dictionaries can be subdivided depending on
whether the words are chosen according to the sphere o f hum an activity
in which they are used <1), the type o f the units themselves (2) or the
relations existing between them (3).
The first subgroup registers and explains technical terms for various
branches o f knowledge (medical, linguistic, economical terms, etc 1.
e.g. the M erriarn-W ebster's Dictionary' o f L aw . The second subgroup
deals with specific language units, i.e. with phraseological units,
abbreviations, neologism s, borrow ings, toponym s. dialectal words,
proverbs and say ings, e.g. the O xford Concise D ictionary o f P rtnerbs
T h e th ird s u b g ro u p c o n t a i n s a fo rm id a b le array o f s y n o n y m ic
dictionaries, e.g. th e M erria rn -W eb ster's P o cket G u id e to S y n o ­
nym s.
2. According to the information they provide all linguistic dictionaries
fall into two groups; explanatory' and specialized.
Explanatory dictionaries present a wide range o f data, especially
with regard to the semantic aspect o f the vocabulary items entered, e.g.
the N ew O xford D ictionary o f English.
Specialized dictionaries deal with lexical units only in relation to
some o f their characteristics, i.e. only in relation to their etymology,
frequency, pronunciation, usage, e.g. the L o n g m a n P ronunciation
D ictionary.
3. According to the language o f explanations, i.e. w h eth er the
information about the items entered given in the same language or in
a n o th e r language, all dictionaries are divided into: m onolingual and
bilingual.
In monolingual dictionaries the words and the information about
them are given in the same language, e.g. the N e w S h o rte r O xfo rd
English Dictionary.
Bilingual dictionaries arc those that explain words by giving their
equivalents in another language, e.g. the E nglish-R ussian Phraseolo­
gical Dictionary■(by A.V.Kunin). They may have two principal purposes;
reference for translation and guidance for expression. Bilingual dictio­
naries must provide an adequate translation o f every item in the target
language and expression in the source language.
4. Diclionaries also fall into diachronic and synchronic with regard
to time.
188
Diachronic (historical) dictionaries reflect the development o f the
English vocabulary by recording the history o f form and meaning for
every' word registered, e.g. the O xford English Dictionary'.
Synchronic (descriptive) d ictionaries are co n cern ed with the
present-day meaning and usage o f words, e.g. the A d va n c ed L earner s
D ictionary o f C urrent English.
The boundary betw een th e m en tio n ed types o f d ictio n aries is.
however, not very rigid and the two principles may be blended as. for
e x a m p le , in th e C o n c ise O x fo r d D ic tio n a r y S o m e s y n c h ro n ic
dictionaries are at the sam e time historical when they represent the state
o f vocabulary at some past stage o f its development

2 SOME OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS IN LEXICOGRAPHY

The most important problems o f lexicography are connected with;


1) the selection o f lexical units for inclusion: 2) the arrangement o f the
selected lexical units: 3) the setting o f the entry : 4) the selection and
arrangement o f word-meanings: 5) the definition o f meanings; 6) the
illustrative material.
The selection o f lexical units for inclusion. The choice o f lexical
units for inclusion is the first problem the lexicographer faces. It is n e ­
cessary to decide: a) what types o f lexical units will be chosen for the
inclusion: b) the num ber ol these items; e> what to select and what to
leave out in the dictionary: d) which form o f the language, spoken or
written or both, the dictionary to reflect; e) whether the dictionary
should contain obsolete units, technical terms, dialectisms. colloquial­
isms. and some others.
The choice am ong different possible answers depends upon the type
to which the dictionary will belong, the aim the compilers pursue, the
prospective user o f the dictionary, the size o f the dictionary, the linguistic
concepts of the dictionary - makers and some other considerations. The
Longman Dictionary o f Contemporary English (1992). for example, aims
to provide advanced students and teachers o f English with appropriate
inform ation on the core vocabulary o f contem porary international
English Therefore this dictionary contains around 56,000 words and
phrases, including scientific a n d technical language, business and
computer terms, literary words, and informal and idiomatic usage. It
covers both the major varieties, American and British English, in particular.
The units for inclusion may be drawn either from other dictionaries
o r/an d from some reading matter o r/an d from the spoken discourse. Eor
example, in the \ e u O xford Dictionary' o f English the extensive use
has been made o f the British National Corpus
Corpus - а о»! k*cl>on o l' language d a ta b ro u g h t S'gL-ihoi tor 'in g n istic an aly sis
S ee also: M odern Trends in lexico g ra p h y

189
The arrangement o f the selected lexical units. There are two
m odes ot presentation o f entries, the alphabetical order and the cluster-
type. i.e. when the units entered are arranged in nests, based on this or
that principle. For example, in synonym-books words are arranged in
synonymic sets and its dom inant m em ber serves as the head-word of
the entry
Entries may be grouped in families o f words o f the same root as in
case of. for e x a m p le , so m e g en eral ex p lan a to ry an d tra n s la tio n
dictionaries. The basic units are given as main entries that appear in
alphabetical order while the derivatives and the phrases which the word
enters are given either as subentries or in the same entry as run-ons that
are also alphabetized The difference between subentries and run-ons
is that the former do include definitions and usage labels, whereas run-
on words are not defined as their meanings are clear from the main
entry.
The setting o f the entry. 1he most complicated type o f entry is that
found in general explanatory dictionaries o f the synchronic type. In such
dictionaries the entry usually presents the following data: accepted
spelling and pronunciation: grammatical characteristics including the
indication o f the part o f speech o f each entry word, whether nouns are
countable o r uncountable, the transitivity jntransitivity of verbs and
irregular grammatical forms: definitions o f meaning: m odem currency ,
illustrative examples: derivatives: phraseology: etymology : sometimes
synonyms and antonyms.
The compilers o f a dictionary o f the same ty pe may choose a different
setting o f a ty pical entry they may omit some o f the items or add some
others, choose a different order o f their arrangement or a different mode
ol presenting the same information Com pare the setting of the entries
in the M a c m illa n ln g li s h D ictio n a ry fo r A d v a n c e d I.e a rn e rs ( 1) and
the L o n g m a n D ictionary o f C o n tem p o ra ry E n g lish (2):
( I>
excel iksel, |lj to d o something extrcmelv well lie aim lo give
eiery student the opportunity to excel ♦ - excel in/at Hohhie had
always excelled at \[>ort
excel yourself I to do something much better than you usually d o
2 humorous used when someone has in fact done even worse than they
usually do
<2)
excel /ik.se]. i excelled, excelling I |l. not in progressive) to do
something very well, or much better than most people: | — at in| Rick
has always excelled orforeign languages 2 excel yourself BrE lo do
something better than von usuallv do: Graham has excelled himself udh
the new exhibition.
The selection and arrangement o f word-meanings. There are at
least three different ways in which the word meanings are arranged: a) m
m
ihe historical order, i.e. in ihe sequence ol their historical development;
b) in th e em pirical o r a c tu a l o rd e r, i.e. 111 c o n fo rm ity w ith their
frequency o f use. i.e. with the most com m on meaning first; с ) in the
logical order, i.e. according to their logical connection.
In different d ictio n aries the pro blem o f arra n g e m e n t is solved
differently. For example, the general principle on which meanings in the
Xeu O xford Dictionary' o f English are organized is that each w ord has
at least one core meaning, to which a num ber o f submeanings can be
attached. Core meanings, as the authors o f the dictionary point out.
represent typical, central uses o f th e word in qu estion in m od ern
Standard English. It is the meaning accepted by native speakers as the
one that is most established as literal and central.
In many dictionaries meanings are generally organized by frequency
o f use. but so m etim es the prim ary m ean in g co m es first if this is
considered essential to a correct understanding o f derived meanings
The definition o f m eanings. Meanings of words may be defined
in different ways: a) by m eans o f linguistic definitions that are only
concerned with words as speech material. They are used in the majority
ol entries: b) by means ol encyclopedic definitions that are concerned
with things for which the words are names; c) by means o f synonymous
words and expressions; d) by means o f cross-references.
Tile choice o f this or that type o f definition depends, as a rule, on
the nature ol the word. i.e. usually the p a n o f speech the word belongs
to. an d on the aim of th e dictionary an d its size. E n cyclo ped ic
definitions, for example, are typical o f nouns, especially proper nouns
and terms They play a very important role in unabridged dictionaries.
Synonyms are used most often to define verbs and adjectives. They are
used in shorter dictionaries usually for econom izing space. Cross-
references arc resorted to define some derivatives, abbreviations and
variant forms.
The illustrative material. I hc presentation of illustrative material
depends on the type of the dictionary and on the aim the compilers set
themselves I hey can illustrate the first and the last known occurrences
o f the entry word, the successive changes in its m eaning, a s well as
graphic and phonetic forms, the typical patterns and collocations: they
place words in a context to clarify their meanings and usage.
Illustrative exam ples can be draw n from different sources, e.g.
literature classical or contem porary, or can be co n stru c te d by the
compilers themselves, f o r example, in the L ongm an D ictionary of
Contemporary English 1 1992) illustrative examples are based on analysis
o f the authentic language in the Longman Citation Corpus, especially
the recent citations from American and British newspapers.
Some dictionaries indicate the author, the work, ihe page, verse, or
line, and the precise date of the publication, some indicate only the
author to give at least basic orientation about the tune when the word
occurs
3 . T Y P E S AND C O M M O N C H A R A C T E R IS T IC S
O F L E A R N E R S D IC T IO N A R IE S

Traditionally the term ‘learner's dictionaries' is confined to dictionaries


specifically compiled to meet the demands o f the learners for w hom Lnglish
is not their m other longue. Learner s dictionaries may be classified in
accordance with different principles, the main of which are: I ) the scope of
the word-list. and 2) the nature o f the information afforded. Depending
on what the scope o f the word-list and the nature o f the information
afforded are all learner’s dictionaries are usually divided into: ai elementary ,
basic/pre-intermediate learner's dictionaries: b) intermediate learner's
dictionaries: e) upper-intermediate — advanced learner's dictionaries.
1. The scope o f Ihe word-list. The difference in the scope ol the
w ord-list betw een th e th ree types o f le a rn e r's d ictio n aries is that
ele m e n ta ry /b a sic /p re -in te rm e d ia te learn er's dictionaries as well as
intermediate learner s dictionaries contain only the most essential and
im p o rta n t, the so-called key words o f English (see the L o n g m a n
E le m e n ta ry D ic tio n a ry ), whereas upper-interm ediate — advanced
learner's dictionaries contain all lexical units that the prospective user may
need (see A .S .H o rn b y's O xford A dvanced L earner s Dictionary).
The com m on purpose o f learner's dictionaries is to give information
on what is currently accepted in m odem Lnglish. Therefore not only
obsolete, archaic and dialectal words arc excluded, but also technical
and scientific terms, substandard words and phrases. Colloquial and
slang words as well as foreign words o f com m on occurrence in English
are included only if they are o f sort likely to be met by students either
in reading or in conversation.
For the selection o f entry words into learner's dictionaries frequency
criterion is widely used. Frequency value, an important characteristic
o f lexical units, enables the compiler to choose the most important, the
m ost frequently used w ords T h e selection o f item s for learn er's
d ic tio n a r ie s may also be b ased o n o th e r p rin c ip le s: th e w o rd 's
collocability. stylistic reference, derivational ability, semantic structure
and ю т е others.
2. The nature o f the information afforded. As to the information they
provide all learner's dictionaries may be divided into two groups: I ) those
giving equal attention to the word's semantic characteristics and the way it
is used in speech (learner s dictionaries proper); 2) those presenting different
aspects o f the vocabulary: presenting the syntagmatic relations between
words and the word's lexical and grammatical valency (dictionaries ot
collocations), providing information about the word's structure (derivational
dictionaries), supplying synonymous and antonymous words (dictionaries
o f synonyms and antony ms) and many others.
The structure and content o f the entry in learner’s dictionaries also
have some peculiar features that usually differ depending on a learner's
192
level in th e study o f English. E le m e n ta ry /b a s ic /p re -in tc rm e d ia tc
learner's dictionaries together with intermediate learner's dictionaries
differ, sometimes greatly, from advanced learner's dictionaries in the
num ber o f meanings given and the language used for the description of
these meanings I hc former present the semantic structure o f the words
in a simplified form and give usually the most frequently used meaning
or meanings. Great importance is also attached to the language in which
the definition is couched. The simplest terms are used in elementary/
basic/pre-interm ediate learner's dictionaries and intermediate learner s
dictionaries as the language must be com m oner and more familiar to
the learner, especially to a beginner, than the words defined.
In most learner’s dictionaries pictorial material is widely used as a
m eans ol sem antization o f the words listed. Pictures can define the
meanings o f different nouns as well as adjectives, verbs, and adverbs.
F or exam p le, th e m eaning o f the w ord e sru a r v in th e L ongm an
Dictionary o f Contem porary English is defined with the help o f the
map;
estuary cstfuan. Цлп ' n the wide lower London
p a r t o r m o u t h o f л r iv e r , in t o w h ic h t h e s e a
enters at high tide the Thames estuary
Щ
The order of arrangement o f meanings in - . - r - -

learner’s dictionaries is usually empiric, i.e. Ihe Thames estuary


beginning with the main meaning to m inor
ones. Besides, the following principles o f
arrangement are considered proper for language learners: literal uses
before figurative, general uses before special, com m on uses before rare
and easily understandable uses before difficult.
In some learner s dictionaries alternative spellings and pronunciation
are avoided, certain derivatives and com pounds are omitted.
ITie supplementary matenal in learner’s dictionaries may include lists
o f irregular verbs, com m on abbreviations, geographical names, common
forenames, numerical expressions giving help in the reading, speaking
and writing o f num bers and expressions which contain them , lists o f
military ranks, lists o f word-formation prefixes and suffixes, tables of
weights and measures, a list o f colleges and universities, special signs
and symbols used in various branches o f science.

4 . MODERN TRENDS IN ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY

M odern trends in English lexicography are co n n e c te d with the


appearance and rapid development of such branches o f linguistics as
corpus to r corpus-based) linguistics and computational linguistics.
Corpus (or corpus-based) linguistics deals mainly with compiling
various electronic corpora lor conducting investigations in different
193
linguistic fields such as phonetics, phonology', gram m ar, stylistics,
graphology, discourse, lexicon and many others. Corpora arc large and
systematic enterprises: w hole texts or w hole sections of text are included,
such as conv ersatio n s, m agazine articles, brochures, new spapers,
lectures, sermons, broadcasts, chapters o f novels, etc. A well-constructed
general c o rp u s en ab les investigators to m ake m o re objective an d
confident descriptions o f usage o f words, to make statem ents about
frequency o f usage in the language as a whole, as well as comparative
statements about usage in different varieties, permits them to arrive at a
total account ot the linguistic features in any o f the texts contained in
the corpus: provides investigators with a source o f hypotheses about the
wav the language works.
Computational linguistics is the branch o f linguistics in which the
techniques of com puter science are applied to the analy sis and sy n t h e s i s
of language and speech.
Гhe use o f language c o rp o ra a n d th e a p p lic a tio n o f m o d e rn
computational techniques in various lexicographical researches and in
dictionary-m aking in particular, have stipulated the appearance of
corpus (or corpus-based) lexicography and computational lexicography.

4 .1 . C o r p u s -B a s e d Lexicography

C o rp o ra occupy a special place in the study o f language. T he


importance of corpora lor language researches is aligned to the importance
of empirical data. Empirical data enable the linguist to make objective
statements, rather than those winch are subjective, or based upon the
individual's ow n internalized cognitive perception of language. A large and
well-constructed corpus g o e s excellent information about frequency,
distribution, and typicality ol linguistic leatures — such as words,
collocations, spellings, pronunciations, and grammatical constructions
The recent developm ent o f corpus linguistics has given birih to
corpus-based lexicography and a new corpus-based generation of
dictionaries f o r example, the C O B L IL D English Dictionary used
the Bank o f English the corpus ol 2d million words in contemporary
English developed at th e B irm ingham University. Ih e L o n g m a n
D ictionary o f C o n tem p o ra ry E nglish and the O x fo rd A d v a n c e d
L earner's D ictionary o f C urrent English used the British National
Corpus.
fh e British S a tio n a l Corpus is a very large (over 100 million words»
corpus o f m odern English, both spoken and written. The C orpus is
designed to represent as wide range o f m od ern British English as
possible. The written part ( 4 0 1<i includes, for example, extracts from
regional and national newspapers, specialist periodicals and journals for
all ages and interests, academic books and popular f iction, published
and unpublished letters and m emoranda, school and university e s s a y s .
144
am ong many o th er kinds o f text. Texts arc selected for inclusion in the
corpus according to three independent selection criteria: dom ain (75
o f texts from informative writings, e.g. from the fields o f applied sciences
o r art. etc.: 25 T from imaginative writings — literary and creative
works), time (mostly texts since 1975) and medium (60 cc o f written texts
are books. 25 T — periodicals).
The spoken part ( 1 0 rc) of the British National Corpus includes a
large a m o u n t o f u n s c rip te d in fo rm al c o n v e rsa tio n , re c o rd e d by
volunteers selected from different age. region an d social classes in a
demographically balanced wav. together with spoken language collected
in all kinds o f different contexts, ranging from formal busines* or
government meetings to radio shows and phone-ins.
The use of corpora in dictionary-making practices gives a compiler
a lot o f o p p o r tu n itie s : a m o n g th e m o s t im p o r ta n t o n e s is the
opportunity:
1) to produce and revise dictionaries much more quickly than before,
thus providing up-to-date information about language:
2) to give m ore com plete and precise definitions since a larger
num ber o f natural examples are examined;
5) to keep on top o f new words entering the language, or existing
words changing th eir m eanings due to the o p e n -e n d e d (constantly
growing) m onitor corpus;
4) to describe usages o f p a rtic u la r words o r phrases typical o f
particular varieties and genres as corpus data contains a rich am ount of
textual information — regional variety, author, date, part-of-speech lags,
genre, etc.:
5) to organize easily examples extracted from corpora into m ore
meaningful groups for analysis and describe, present them lay ing special
stress on their collocation. For exam ple, by sorting the right-hand
context o f the word alphabetically so that it is possible to see all instances
o f a particular collocate together. See a concordance o f some of the
instances of the word first from a selection o f text I Illustration I );
6) to treat phrases and collocations more systematically than was
previously possible due to the ability to call up woal-combinations rather
than words and due to the existence o f mutual information tools which
establish relationships between co-occurring words;
7) to register cultural connotations and underlying ideologies which
a language has.
Some o f lexicographical giants have their own electronic text archives
which they use depending on the type o f dictionary com piled. For
example, the Longm an Corpus Network is a diverse, far-reaching group
o f d a ta b a s e s c o n s is tin g o! m any m illio n s o f w ords. Five highly
sophisticated language databases form the nucleus of the Network: the
Longm an Learners Corpus (comprised of 10 million words o f writing
in English by learners o f the language from over 125 different countries),
the L ongm an W ritten A m erican Corpus (comprised o f 140 million
Illustration I

words o f American newspaper and book text): the L ongm an S p o ken


A m erican Corpus (a unique resource of 5 million words o f everyday
A m eric an sp ee ch ); th e S p o k e n B r itis h C o rp u s (gives o b jectiv e
information for the first time on what spoken English is really like and
how it differs from w ritten British E nglish); a n d the L o n g m a n /
L a n ca ster Corpus (with over 30 million words it covers an extensive
range of w ritten texts from literature to bus timetables).

4 . 2 . C o m p u ta tio n a l L e xico gra phy. Electronic Dictionaries

Computational lexicography deals with the design, compilation,


use and evaluation o f electro n ic (electronically re ad ab le/m ach in e
readable) dictionaries. Electronic dictionaries fundamentally differ in
form, content, and function from conventional word-books. Among the
most significant differences are; I >the use o f multimedia means: 2) the
navigable help indices in windows oriented software; 3) the use o f sound,
an im a tio n , audio an d visual (pictures, videos) elem ents as well as
interactive exercises and games; 4) the varied possibilities o f search and
access m ethods that allow the user to specify the output in a num ber of
ways; 5) th e access to a n d retrieval o f in fo rm atio n are no longer
determined by the internal, traditionally alphabetical, organization of
1%
the dictionary, but a n o n -lin car structu re o f th e text; 6) the use o f
hyperlinks which allow easily and quickly to cross-refer to words within
an entry o r to other words connected with this entry.
In case o f electronic dictionaries the dem ands on the user become
greater as the emphasis is less on following a predetermined path through
the dictionary structure and more cm navigating relationships across and
w ithin entries via a choice o f links. So before using an electron ic
dictionary it is necessary to acquire certain navigational and searching
skills apart from the ’conventional dictionary skills*. T h e difference
between the m inim al skills acquired for the use o f conventional and
electronic dictionaries is given in Table K.
T ab le S

Dictionaries in book form Electronic dictionaries

1. Understanding the structure o f 1. Understanding the presentation


paper-based dictionary' in windows on a computer screen
2. Knowing how to use the G uide 2. Knowing how to use the H elp
to the book dictionary facility
3. Understanding o f typographical 3. Knowing how to use hyperlinks
conventions and the use o f symbols (e.g. to display the full term shown
and punctuation in pop-up windows)
4. Deciding what to look up 4. Deciding on the type o f search:
headword, tittered or mil text
search; and understanding how
advanced searches work
5. Knowing how to interpret the 5. Knowing how to use the A udio
international phonetic alphabet facility
(I PA) and pronunciation o f words
6. Distinguishing relevant from 6. Knowing how to confine searches
irrelevant information to the information required
7. Scanning dictionary entries 7. Restricting search to particular
sections. С-g. to idioms and phrasal
verbs
8. Knowing how to can y out cross- 8. Knowing how to use hypertext
references links
9. Referring to additional 9. Referring to additional
information in front matter or information in various sections
appendices presented on the screen
10. Recording the dictionary Ю. Recording the dictionary
information information in electronic form using
the link to M icrosoft W ord and the
C opy-function

197
There are distinguished two main types o f electronic dictionaries: o n ­
line dictionaries and C D -R O M dictionaries. To use on-line dictionaries
it is necessary to have access to the Internet. To install C D -R O M
dictionaries on a com puter it is necessary to ensure that a com puter
meets the m inim um system requirements that are usually enumerated
in the User Guide.
Among the on-line dictionaries there are the following: the Oxford
English Dictionary Online, the Merriarn- Webster O nline Dictionary .
the Cam bridge D ictionaries O nline (including Cam bridge A dvanced
L earner s Dictionary\ Cambridge International Dictionary o f Idioms.
C a m bridge D ictio n a ry o f A m e ric a n E n g lish . etc.). the A m erica n
Heritage D ictionary o f the English language and many others. Each
dictionary has its own benefits an d differs, sometimes greatly, in the
interface, material available, contents area, number o f options, organization
o f entries, search capabilities, etc. from other dictionaries of such kind.
The O xford English Dictionary' O nline, for instance, contains the
material o f the 20-volume O xford English D ictionary and 3-volume
A dditions Series. Besides more revised and new entries are added to
the online dictionary every quarter. The layout o f a typical entry window
is given below (Screenshot 1).
T he O x fo rd E nglish D ic tio n a ry O n lin e is characterized by the
following main features: 1) the display o f entries according to a user’s

Screenshot
198
need s, i.e . e n trie s c a n be d isp lay ed by tu r n in g p r o n u n c ia tio n s ,
etymologies, variant spellings, and quotations on and off; 2) the search
for pronunciations as well as accented and other special characters: 3) the
search for words which have come into English via a particular language;
4) the search for quotations from a specified year, o r from a particular
author a n d /o r work: 5) the search tor a term when a user knows only
meaning; 6) the use o f wildcards' if a user is unsure o f a spelling: 7» the
restrictions of a search to a previous results set; X) the search for first cited
date, authors, and works: 9) Lhe case-sensitive searches; and some others.
Among the C D - R O M d ic tio n a r ie s there are the following: the
L o n g m a n D ictionary o j C ontem porary English on C D -R O M . the
C am bridge In tern a tio n a l D ictionary oj English on C D -R O M . the
Collins C O B U IL D on C D -R O M . the Concise O xford Dictionary on
C D -R O M . and many others.
In most cases C D -R O M dictionaries are electronic versions o f the
prim ed reference books supplem ented by m ore visual inform ation,
pronunciation, interactive exercises and games and allowing the user to
carry out searches impossible with the book dictionaries.
The Longm an D ictio n a ry'of C ontem porary English on C D -R O M .
for example, differs from the paper dictionary in the following way:
1) everyr word is pronounced in British and American English. A user can
also record his/her own pronunciation and compare it with the accepted
form : 2) it gives 15.000 word origins o r etym ologies an d co ntain s
7000 encyclopedic entries for people, places, and things, taken from the
L ongm an D ictionary o f English Language a n d Culture: 3) there are
80.000 additional examples given in the Longman Examples Bank: 4) over
a million corpus sentences are included for very advanced learner» and
teachers o f English: 5) it contains 150,000 extra words (collocates) that
are used with the headword; 6) it hits the Activator section which is very
helpful in choosing the right word in this or that context and provides essay
writing technique: 7) there are a lot o f interactive activities in grammar,
vocabulary, culture, as well as exam practice exercises.
T he Longm an D ictionary o f C ontem porary English on C D -R O M
has its own distinctive features th at m ake it p ro m in en t a m o n g the
dictionaries o f this kind. There are three m ain functions in the C D -
ROM dictionary, each opening in the main window but with a slightly
different look. These three functions are the D ictionary. A ctivator, and
Exercises. EJsers can choose the full sized display, o r “ P op-U p M ode”
T he dictionary interface includes a search bar. an area for viewing
entries, and windows for the Phrase B a n k . E xam ples B a n k , and the
A ctivate Your L anguage tool. See the dictionary interface screenshot
(Screenshot 2).

1 W ild c a r d s arc u sed lo se a rc h fo r w o rd s w hen n o i at! Id le rs in th e m a rc k now n


T h e w ild c ard sy m b o l “ 7 - rep resen ts any sin g le c h a ra c te r an d ih c w ik k a r d sy m b o l
re p re se n ts any strin g o f c h a ra c te rs.

199
Screenshot 2

In the entry display (left side o f the screen), the word is presented
along with links to pronunciation, usage note, word origin, verb form,
and word set. but not all links are active for ail entries. The Phrase B ank
includes phrases that use the search word, as well as words that are
com m only used with the search word. The E xam ples B ank presents
samples o f the w ord's usage from “ Extra dictionary exam ples” and
"Sentences from books, newspapers, etc." The A ctivate Your Language
section, which does not have entries for all words, allows a user to
continue the search in the Activator.
In lexicography the developments in electronic instrumentation and
com puter science have revolutionized the dictionary-m aking process,
shown new perspectives in this field, supported lexicographical studies
in different directions.

QUESTIONS AND TASKS

I. Q U E S T IO N S

1. What is lexicography?
2. What is the term ‘dictionary ’ used to denote?
200
3. What are the main principles o f classification o f dictionaries? What
types o f dictionaries can be singled out according to these principles?
4. What d o you know about encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries?
5. What is the difference between general and restricted dictionaries0
6. What inform ation do explanatory an d specialized dictionaries
provide?
7. A c c o rd in g to w hat p rin c ip le arc d ic tio n a r ie s d iv id e d in to
monolingual and bilingual0
S. What dictionaries are called (a) diachronic and (b) sy nchronic0
9. What are the most important problems o f lexicography?
10. What questions are necessary to consider while choosing lexical
units for inclusion?
11. What are the two modes ol presentation o f entries?
12. What is the most complicated type o f entry ?
13. What are the three different ways in which the word meanings
can be arranged?
14. In what ways may meanings o f words be defined?
15. What can illustrative material clarify? What are the sources o f
illustrative examples?
16. W hat are th e tw o m ain p rin c ip le s o f classifying le a rn e r s
dictionaries?
17. In what way d o dictionaries com piled to meet th e needs o f
learners o f different levels o f the study o f English differ in the scope o f
th eir w ord-list? What words are usually excluded an d included in
learner s dictionaries? What criteria are used for the selection o f words
in learner's dictionaries?
18. What types o f learner's dictionaries can be singled out according
to the information afforded in them ? What are the peculiar features of
the structure and content o f the entry in learner's dictionaries?
19. What can you say about the order o f arrangement o f meanings
in learner’s dictionaries?
20. W hat does the su p p lem en tary m aterial include in le a rn e r’s
dictionaries?
21. What are m odern trends in lexicography connected with?
22. What is corpus (or corpus-based) linguistics?
23. What is computational linguistics?
24. What is the importance o f corpora aligned to? Why?
25. What has the recent development o f corpus linguistics given birth
to?
26. What do you know about the British National Corpus?
27. What opportunities does a compiler get due to corpora?
28. What does computational lexicography deal with?
29. What are the most significant differences between electronic and
conventional dictionaries?
30. What is the difference between the minimal skills acquired for
the use o f conventional and electronic dictionaries?
201
31. What types o f electronic dictionaries can be singled out?
32. W hat are th e d is tin c tiv e fe a tu re s o f th e O x fo r d E n g lish
D ictionary O nline?
33. In what way does the L ongm an D ictionary o f C ontem porary
English on C D -R O M differ from the printed-paper dictionary?
34 What are the distinctive features o f the L ongm an D ictionary oj
C ontem porary English on C D -R O M ?

II TASKS
1.* Classify the given dictionaries into two groups: a) encyclopedic
dictionaries; hi linguistic dictionaries.
M o d e l : Die Concise Oxford Dictionary
-*L 77w Concise Oxford Dictionary is a linguistic dictionary (group hi.
N T C ’s Dictionary o f American Spelling. The C ham bers Book o f
Facts. The Collins Dictionary o f Allusions. The Longman Dictionary of
the English Language. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Ilie
Dictionary o f Literary Terms. The Concise O xford D ictionary. Brewer's
Dictionary o f 2U,h-century Phrase and Fable, The Collins C O B U IL D
Roget's International Thesaurus. I hc Merriam-Webster’s Geographical
D ic tio n a ry . T h e C a m b rid g e G u i d e to F ic tio n in E n g lish , T h e
Cambridge International Dictionary o f Idioms. The Penguin Dictionary
o f English G ram m ar. The Cassell C om panion to 20Ih-century Music.
Random House Webster’s Dictionary o f American Slang.
2.* State which type the given linguistic dictionaries refer to: general —restricted,
explanatory — specialized, monolingual — bilingual, diachronic - synchronic.
M o d e I: Die l.ongman Dictionary o f Phrasal Verbs
0 Die Longman Dictionary o f Phrasal ler/is is a restricted, explanatory.
monolingual, synchronic word-book
1) the C oncise Oxford D ictionary o f English Etymology; 2 1 the
Penguin Dictionary o f English Idioms; 3) the New Oxford Dictionary
o f English: 4) the M odem English-Russian Dictionary : 5) th e Longm an
D ictionary’ o f P h ra sa l Verbs'. 6) the Longman Language Activator;
7) the English-Russian Dictionary o f Linguistics and Semiotics; 8) the
English P ronouncing Dictionary1; 9) the Longm an Business English
Dictionary *. 10) the New Oxford Thesaurus o f English: 11) a Dictionary
o f Neologisms; 12) the BBI Combinatory Dictionary o f English.
3. Choose any three dictionaries and describe the principles of the selection
of lexical units for inclusion in these dictionaries.
M o d e l : The Longman Idioms Dictionary
Ш Die Longman Idioms Dictionary aims at reflecting the wide range of idiom*
that are being used in British and American English today. Using the
202
Longman Corpus Network, the Internet, the media, the editorial team has
gathered information about the newest idioms being used, as well as giving
complete coverage of idioms at the core of the language. In addition to many
new idioms the dictionary includes a range of the most frequently used idiom»
in the language. It covers idioms with metaphoric meanings that are fairly
easy to understand, such as put your heads together Уwork together in order
to solve a problem), to those that are less obvious, like face the music 4'to
accept responsibility for your actions and give people the chance to criticize
you’I. Many two-word phrases, like a dd card. are included, as are phrases
with pragmatic uses, such as ju st like that. The dictionary also includes
many frequently used similes, such as like run peas in a pod
4 . State the mode of presentation of entries in the following dictionaries
The Longman Language Activator (I99J) (Illustration 2); The New Oxford
Dictionary of English <1998) (Illustration 3): The Cambridge Advanced
Learner's Dictionary (2003) <Illustration 4). What information is given in the
subentries and run-ons of these dictionaries?
5. State in which way the setting of the entry for the word sm art differs
in the given dictionaries (Illustrations 5, 6). What data docs the entry present
in these dictionaries?
6. Analyze the entries of the word smart given in Task 5. Describe: a) the way in
which the meanings of the word smart are arranged; b) the wav in which the
meanings of the word smart are defined; c) the presentation of the illustrative
material.
7.* Analyze the nature of the information presented in the given entries.
Classify the learner's dictionaries from which these entries were taken into:
I) those giving equal attention to the word's semantic characteristics and
the way it is used in speech. 2) those presenting different aspects of the
vocabulary
M o d e l : freelance fb ih tn s S 'fn:la*ns adjectiie. adverb someone who
is freelance works for several different organizations: Г m a freelance writer ,
Г m thinking o f going freelance.
0 According to the nature of the information presented in this entry the
learner's dictionary from which it was taken can be referred to those giving
equal attention to the word’s semantic characteristics and the way it is used
in speech (group I ).
1)
d e s p a ir п. I. to overcome - 2. deep, sheer, total, utter ~ 3. the depths of -
4. in - (in utter -} 5. out of - (todosm th out of - >
2)
a r m a m e n ts / ' ma.mants/ US fa it-t plural noun weapons or military
cl

equipment: the country's armaments programme


armament Ar ma mant/ US /'air-/ noun | L | (he prtn ess of increasing the
number and strength of a country s weapons: .As the country prepares for war.
more and more money is being spent on armament
203
Ulusiraiion 2
lllusiraiion 3
llliis ira lio n 4
I i i l i v t r .l l l O n

:u '
208
2 A realm or territory
-d o m also combines with titles or names to refer to the land that someone
controls, f or example, a ’kingdom’ is the land or country that a king rules over;
"Christendom’ is an old-fashioned word that refers to the countries and peoples
that are Christian and follow Christ’s teachings.
llw kingdom had shrunk, it had been reduced to a handful o f villages.
...a princedom by the sea.
Here is a list of words with this meaning:
Christendom kingdom
dukedom princedom
earldom
5)
d ic ta tio n dikteijbn/ n I (C| when you say words for someone to write
down: There were no secretaries aiaitable to take dictation I—wriie down
what someone is saying). 2 |C| a piece of writing that a teacher reads out to test
your ability to hear and write the words correctly: / hate doing French
dictations.
6)
d e e d /dud/ noun |C | * *
1 literary something that someone does 2 |usually plural| legal an official
document that gives details of a legal agreement, especially about who owns a
building or piece of land
sb’s good deed for the day humorous something good and helpful that
someone docs
8 .Analyze the structure and content of the given entries taken from the
dictionaries which were compiled to meet the needs of English learners of
different levels Choose the correct letter indicating a certain dictionary and
write it down in the space provided Speak on the difference in: a) the setting of
the given entries, b) the semantic structure of the words; c) the order of
arrangement of meanings; d u h c language in which the definitions are couched;
e) the illustrative material.
1. The Oxford Elementary Learner's Dictionary (a) - 77te Cambridge
A d telneed Learner's Dictionary (b)
handsom e а ттк а о ту^ >u»n н т оф 1 d e m b e 1 handsom e »феси»е good-looking a
a man » b c 15 physically anractrve in * traditional. Hamhome man ' at b am tiral
mawmlme way She i Jhetuning th e U be wtuxkrJ riff
her J t с oy a UtA d a r t hanJf о т / m o n g er 2 Orttnfces
а тхпвл w ho » a t l r a c m e b u t ia » s £ n * n j w a y a
hands lw b плам я in her fffims
h a n d s o m e ГлЁк.# ллаХ У Г > m s e m аф I before
l | Я 1 targe amount THn made a handsome profit an
th e s h ju tr к а ш Ь о в с К >.*л tem U He tm d if
hit 'crulis « (г *ic »'•».',/ rew ard ия
handium eh
2. The Macmillan English Dictionary fo r Advanced Learners (a)
The Longm an И'ordWise Dictionary. P re-interm ediate — In term e­
diate (b)

5. The M a c m illa n E sse n tia l D ictio n a ry (a) — The L ongm an


Dictionary>o f Contem porary English {for advanced level students oj
English) (b)
_ " I
t r e a r ч ! [C j somctmr.f sp c tu l й ш ytva & \z tre a t tn 1 ОСЧЛ1
■кчрерпс ot do for them because you know they will
enjoy it: as • tre a t Л о г » to o t h a ian to j cricket 1 |crv*w| a very enjoyable event ct occasion ft < л ’c.::
m a tc h a s j [singula*] an event that
b irth d a y t r r j t 2 t * ? ,(i ■ « * . « * * Т Ы hanJ J ‘ r ( M - "~>u ’ e
gives you a lot o f pleasure and в usually unexpected я r<* a tneutt=yoti will c n y y it;
When w e w ere tu b a trip to Л е beach w ar о re a l j 2 ,»»■■>■»; an occasion when you pas foe something
trees 3 |C ] a special food that tastes good, especially 1 s p « u i lor soctjeone e b c ! d L ie Л а lunch tr. be en
one that sou do not eat scry often The .a te serve* on treat ~¥ TXJL'k
disgirtment o f gourmet treats 4 lay tre a t ««Am used

to lei! someone d u i sou will pay for something such as


a meal for them L e t i g o . a t to s u n c h - ms п е л 5 go
dow n a tre a t H*f r i m if something goes down а
treat, people like it scry much: That new vegetarian i
•tst.turam teem s t> tv gcurtg down j treat 6
look.*work a tre a t fwf wtiraa; to look s e r. good or
work very well The s p .r t s g 'c m n d l.uskej a tree*, w ith
л , the flags th in g

210
9.* Analyze the peculiarities of the setting, arrangement and definitions
of meanings of the entry for the word advanced. State from which of the
following learner's dictionaries it was taken; th e Cam bridge Advanced
Learner's Dictionary (2003); Random House Roger's College Thesaurus
(20001; the Longman Language Activator (1993); the Merriam- Webster's
Elem entary Dictionary ( 2 0 0 0 ) ; the Collins C O B V tL D English L'sage
Intermediate (1998); the Chambers Dictionary o f Phrasal Verbs (1998);
the Oxford Learner's Wordfmder Dictionary: intermediate to Advanced
(1998). Speak on the practical value of this dictionary and the kind of the
intended user.

ADVANCED
words for describing machines, systems, countries etc that use the
most modem equipment, ideas, and methods
1 words for describing advanced machines, systems etc.
2 words for describing advanced countries

1 words for describing advanced machines, systems etc.


advanced be ahead of its time
sophisticated at the leading edge of/
high-tech/hi-tech cutting edge of
state-of-the-art

ad v a n ced /^d’vanst I ad\;enst/ Iadj)


The factory has installed advanced m achinery at enormous expense. |
M odem armies now consist o f few er soldiers and more advanced ueapons
systems. \ In fact. Soviet technology was much more advanced than Western
analysts realized at the time.
s o p h is tic a te d /w'fislikcitid/ very advanced, and more cleverly designed or
skillfully made than other things of the same type |adj]
ih e dei'elopment o f computers and other sophisticated machines has made
industry’ much more efficient. ! The missile has a sophisticated guidance
system. | highly sophisticated Operations o f this type often involve the use o f
highly sophisticated equipment.

high-tech/hi-tech / hai тек/ high-tech industry / company / equipment /


age, etc. (=using very advanced electronic equipment and machines, especially
computers) \adj\
The city has become a popular location fo r high-tech industries. | The baby
was bom in the high-tech surroundings o f the local hospital. | On display at
the exhibition will be a range of'hi-tech homes o f the future'.

state-of-th e-a rt sicit di 'a t / using the most advanced and recently-
developed methods, materials, or knowledge \adj\
211
The movie uas made with slate-of-the-an camera equipment. \ Increasingly,
adiertising relies on inventive graphic design and state-of -the -art technology .
Ihe sta te o f the a rt (л phrase] Opus 111 represents the state o f the art (=the
most advanced type) in word processing packages.
be ahead o f its time /bi: э hed its taim/ if something is ahead of its time, it
is so new and different that people do not understand or like it at first, but later
realize how good it is j v p/irase|
The Vortex graphic system was ahead o f its time. Few were sold hut strongly
influenced later designs. \ Her educational theories were way ahead o f their
lime and uere widely misunderstood
at the leading edge of/cu ttin g edge o f t d a h:din ed> d\ . kstm е ф m / in
a more advanced position than other organizations, companies etc. in developing
and using new methods, systems, equipment etc \prep\
The company is trying to regain its position at the leading edge o f electronics
research. \ These developm ents really are at the cutting edge o f the
technological revolution.
lead ing-edge/cut ting-edge | adj only before noun] an exciting new project,
using cutting-edge technology

2 words for describing advanced countries:


advanced
developed
advanced /adNunst I ad'vienst/ using advanced industrial methods, equipment
etc. and having a modem economic and political system \adj\
There is no reason why China should not become as advanced as Taiwan or
Korea in 5 to 10 years, i High lei els o f unemployment are a feature o f many
advanced capitalist countries, i Slowly these nations have come to rely on
their more technologically advanced neighbours.
developed /di\el?pt, having modem industries, equipment, buildings etc Iadj]
In del d o p ed countries, workers' pay is relatively high. \ This disease has
mostly been eliminated, at least in the developed nations. | White the war
continues there is little hope o f the area becoming developed.
10. Study the interface screenshots of the M erriam -W ebster Online
Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Online Thesaurus (Screenshots 3 and
4). Speak on the main peculiarities of these electronic dictionaries of the Internet
paving special attention lo:
I >their structure and content;
2) access and search systems;
3) information given for each entry ;
4) their reference systems.

11. Do the follow ing tasks: a) Study the interface screenshots of the Cambridge
Advanced Learner s Dictionary on CD -RO M (CALD) and the Macmillan
Lnglish Dictionary on CD-ROM (MED) (Screenshots 5 and 6).
Screenshot 3

S creenshot 4
i* w d i m\«* out

Screenshot 5
Screenshot b
b) Fill in the table describing the distinctive features of these electronic
dictionaries in accordance with the singled out parameters.
M o d e l : the parameter 'Display modes'
’x l The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary on CD-ROM (CALDi has
two display modes: Full Display mode and Q U lC K find mode. The
Macmillan Lnglish Dictionary on CD-ROM (MED) has also two display
modes: fu ll Display mode and Quick Search mode. The Q LICKfind mode
and the QuickSeanch mode use a smaller window and provide quick access
to the dictionaries and selected features. These modes are very useful while
browsing the Internet or writing reading texts on the screen
I

Parameters CALD \lfcD

1 F u n c tio n s o f the
dictionary o p e n in g in the
m en u b a r o r in the m ain
window

2. Display m od es f ull Display mode lu ll Display mode


and Ql fC kfind and QuickSearch
mode mode

3 Search capabilities ...

4 T h e p ro ce d u re o f ...
looking up a w ord a n d the
presentation o f entries

v T h e inform ation
afforded for each entry

6. Buttons a n d links within


entries giving additional
inform ation a b o u t them
Test

1. Lexicology is the branch o f linguistics dealing with ... .


a) grammatical employment oflinguistic units
b) various lexical means and stylistic devices
О different properties of words and the vocabulary o f a language
1. Lexicology has close ties with ... .
a) phonetics and grammar
b) p h o n e tic s , g ra m m a r, h isto ry o f a lan g u ag e , sty listics an d
sociolinguistics
c) literature, history and sociology
3. T h e syn chron ic a p p ro ach to th e studs o f language m aterial is
concerned with ...
a) the use o f various words and phrases in particular communicative
situations
b) the evolution o f the vocabulary items
c> the vocabulary o f a language as it exists at a given period o f time
4. The diachronic approach to the study o f language material deals
with ... .
at the changes and the development o f vocabulary in the course of
time
h )th e structural and sem antic entity o f language units within the
language system
c) the influence o f extra-linguistic factors over the development o f a
language system as a whole
5. The words happiness denoting 'the state of being happy* and Miss
meaning ‘a feeling o f very deep happiness and extreme pleasure’ differ
in the following co m p o n en ts) o f the eonnotational aspect o f their lexical
meaning; ... .
a) emotive charge and imagery
b> expressiveness
c) emotive charge, evaluation and expressiveness
(>. The meaning ol the verb to drag in the sentence ‘D o n 't try to drag
m e into y o u r plans is based on the image o f ...
ai someone pulling something along with difficulty, often because n
is too heavy
hi someone moving something in a particular direction bv pulling it
gently
c) someone carrying something from one place to another
". The association involved in the semantic change o f the word sh a rk
in the sentence ‘ People w h o n e e d a p la c e to live c a n o ften f i n d
them selves a t the m ercy o f local property sh a rks' is based on ... .
a) m etaphor
b) metonymy
N. The result o f semantic change m the w ord sport that meant pastim e,
e n te r ta in m e n t' an d now d en o tes a n a c tiv ity in v o lv in g p h y s ic a l
exertion a n d s k ill in w hich a n in d ivid u a l or team com petes against
a n o th er o r others f o r en terta in m en t' is ... .
a) the deterioration o f meaning
b) the specialization o f meaning
c) the amelioration o f meaning
d) the generalization o f meaning
§. Which meaning o f the polysemantic adjective barbaric is its primary
meaning ....
a) very cruel and violent
b) primitive; unsophisticated
c) uncivilized and uncultured
d) foreign
10. The words h e ir — a ir refer to ... .
a) homographs
b) homonyms proper
c) hom ophones
1 I . In the sentence M y auntie (uncle/cousin >has bought (purchased/
h ire d ) a re d (green/ Ы а с к ) a u to m o b ile (c a r /F o r d )' the possible
substitutions o f the words that com po se it are indicative o f the ...
relations between words.
a) syntagma!ic
b) paradigmatic
12. The synonyms teenager (‘someone who is between 13 and 19 years
o ld') and y o u th (‘a young man between about 15 and 25 years old used
especially about groups of young men who behave badly or do something
illegal') refer to ... .
a) stylistic synonyms
b) ideographic synonyms
c) ideographic-stylistic synonyms
I J . The antonyms happy — sa d refer to .. .
a) contraries
b) contradictories
c) incompatibles
14. The word a n tip a th y consists of ... .
a) the root. tree m orphem e + the root, bound morpheme
2 1S
b) the affixational, bound m orphem e + the combining form which
is a bound root
c) the affixational. bound morpheme + the root, free m orphem e

i 5. The word u n eom fortability refers to ... .


a) polymorphic, monoradical. preflxo-radical-suffixa! words
b) m onom orphic. prefixo-radical-suffixal words
cl polymorphic, polyradical words
lo . The segmentation o f the word exhale (b re a th e out in a deliberate
m anner ) into m orphem es i s __
a) conditional
b) complete
c) defective

I ” . The structural class to which the derivational base o f the adjective


fe e l-g o o d refers is the class consisting o f bases ... .
a) that coincide with word-forms
b) that coincide with morphological stems
e) that coincide with word-groups

18. The structural pattern o f the word h e a iy -h e a r te d is ... .


a) a + (n + -ed)
b) (a * n) + -ed
c) (a n) + -sf

19. The result o f the historical change of the morphological structure


o f the noun h u sb a n d that consisted of has- house' + -bundi ‘occupier
and tiller o f the soil' is that ... .
a) a com pound word became a simple one
b) a derived word became a simple one
c) a com pound word became a derived one

2M. The word globesity is a(n) ... .


a) shortening
Ы blend
c> acronym

2 1. The suffix - in found in the words cruelty, oddity, p u rity . stupidity


is a ... .
a) denominal suffix
b) deverbal suffix
c) noun-lorm ing suffix

22. The prefix fo re - in the word fo r e к пои /edge means ... .


a) ‘before'
b) placed at the front'
c) ‘inside, within
219
25. The semantic relation between the denom inal verb b a n k meantng
'put or keep money in a ban k’ and the noun b a n k from which it was
derived is that o f ... .
a) location
b) place o f the action
c) action characteristic o f the object

24. The noun lo o k-see meaning 'a brief look or inspection’ is a ... .
a) com pound proper
b) reduplicative com pound
e) derivational com pound

25. The word red-brick is a(n) ... .


a) nominal com pound
b) adjectival-nominal com pound
с 1 verba!-nominal com pound

26 The word three is ... .


a) of the Indo-European origin
b) the English word proper
c) o f the C om m on G erm anic origin

2*\ The origin and source o f borrowing o f the word carat a unit of
weight for precious stones and pearls; a measure o f the purity o f gold
(< French < Italian carato < Arabic k ira t < Greek keration) are ... .
a) French and Greek
b) Greek and French
c) Arabic and Greek

28. I he word p iro sh ki was borrowed from ... .


a) the French language
b) the Japanese language
c) the Russian language

2 4 . I he word souffle | ‘su:flei| is a(n> ... .


a) unassimilated borrowing, a barbarism
b) partially assimilated borrowing
c) completely assimilated borrowing

5b. Hie verbs drag — drau (- O E dragan) are ... .


a) etymological doublets
b) international words
c) semantic borrowings

.11 According to its lexical valency, i.e. the aptness to com bine with
the words to give, to leave. to send, to d e l h e r . to take, to pass on.
220
urgent. clear. coded, garbled-, support. congratulation, sym p a th y, the
noun message has the meaning ... .
a) information about something that has happened recently'
b) *a piece o f w ritten o r spoken in fo rm a tio n th a t you sen d to
someone, especially when you cannot speak to them directly’
c ) ‘the most important idea in a book, film or play*
3 2 . T he syntactic pattern o f the w ord-com bination surp rised a t th e
new s is ... .
a) A + preposition + N
b) V + preposition a t + N
c ) surprised + preposition + N
33. The word-combination jea lo u s o f sm b 's success is ... .
a) endocentric. adjectival
b) exoccntric
c) endocentric. nominal
3 4 . T h e w o rd -co m b in atio n a b itte r p ili m eaning ‘so m ething very
unpleasant that one must accept' is ... .
a) completely motivated
b) completely non-motivated
c) partially motivated

35. T he phraseological unit to g et sm b 's b a c k up means ....


a) to be popular with smb.
b) to annoy smb.
c) to sympathize with smb.

3 6 . The phraseological transference in the idiom to be a ll ears meaning


‘to be very eager to hear what someone is going to sav’ is based o n ... .
a)synecdoch e
b) simile
c) m etaphor

37. The phraseological unit to g e t o n e's claw s into sm b. meaning ‘to


find a way o f influencing o r controlling som eone’ is a ... .
a) phraseological fusion
b) phraseological collocation
c) phraseological unity

38. T he source o f the borrowed phraseological unit th e curse o f Cain


meaning ‘the lot o r fate o f smb. w ho has to live a vagabond life, who
wanders o r is forced to move from place to place in a profitless wav’
i s ....
a) facts and events o f the world history
b) the Bible
c) classical languages
221
39. The Scottish English noun leid used in the sentence 'Linguistics
is th e stu d y o f leid a n d how people use it' means ....
a) speech
b) language
c ) syntax

4u The Irish English verb to cog used in the sentence / w o u ld n 't let
ju s t a n yb o d y cog m y exercise' denotes ... .
a ) to do
b) to translate
c) to cheat, especially b> copying

-41. The word sm o ko meaning 'a work break* is used in ... .


a) Australian English
b) Canadian English
c) Indian English

42. The .American English word ja wom an's! p u rse corresponds in


British English to the word ....
a) suitcase
b) folder
c) handbag

43. The Lancashire dialectal wordju d y used in the sentence *There are
12 boys a n d IS ju d ie s in m y so n 's class' means ... .
a) woman
b) girl
c) pupil

4 4 . T he analysis o f lexical m eanings o f the gender opposed terms


go i'em o r a man with territorial and administrative power’ — governess
*a woman employee with limited authority over children' points to the
existence o f the . .. in the language.
a) masculine implications
b) inadequate naming techniques
c) gender semantic asymmetry

45. The lexical and grammatico-syntactical peculiarities o f the text *The


w aiting is over. Your tim e has come. N IB . Nurses In B lue' are ty pical
o f... .
a) Advertising English
b) News Media English
c) Legal English
46. I h e O xford C om panion to T w entieth-C entury /b e r r y is a ( n ) ... .
a I linguistic dictionary
b) encyclopedic dictionary
222
4 7 . The E nglish-R ussian D ictionary o f S yn o n ym s is ... .
a) generai. specialized, bilingual, diachronic
b) restricted, explanatory, monolingual, syncronic
c) restricted, explanatory, bilingual, synchronic
4.S. If a learner’s dictionary includes only key words o f English, presents
the semantic structure o f words in a simplified form (i.e. only the most
frequently used meanings are presented), and gives simple and clear
definitions, such a dictionary is most likely to refer to ... .
a) advanced learner’s dictionaries
b) pre-intermediate learner’s dictionaries
c) upper-intermediate learner’s dictionaries
Answ er K e y to the Test and Results

1 с 9 d Г с 25 b 33 a 41 a

2 b 10. с 18. b 26. a 34. с 42. с

3. с II. b 19. a 27 b 35 b 43 b

4. a 12 с 20 b 28, с 36. a 44 с

5 b 13. a 21. с 29. b Г. с 45. a

6. a 14. b 22. a 30 a 38. b 46. b

7. a 15. a 23. a 31 b 39 b 47 e

8. b 16. с 24 с 32. с 40. с 48. b

1. 48 — 44 right answers: excellent


2. 43 - 38 right answers: good
3. 37 — 30 right answers: satisfactory'
4. 29 — 1 right answers: belou passing
Answer K e y to the Tasks

PA RT S E M A S IO L O G Y

C h a p te r '
*>

W o rd - 1 M ean in g S ense

diM rreet . careful an d Closing th e noiseless d o o r with


' circum spect a short sharp tknid» so u n d implies
a stron g irritation, a n n o y a n c e , anger
or even fun. o f a person perform ing
th e action; creates the atm o sp h ere
o f hostility an d intensity.

pang a very strong, sudden, T h e w ord conveys the p e rs o n 's deep


an d unp leasant pain d isa p p o in tm e n t, spiritual tin n e r)
disorder, dissatisfaction with the
present stale o f affairs (situation»
that m ad e her suffer as if from
a physical pain.

to lean to stand o r be set at an T h e expression implies that the


against angle against person was feeling ill to r bad»
so m ething for support probably because of a high nervous
instead of being upright tension he had suffered quite recently.

to leave to put so m eth in g T h e word im plies that the young


som ew here wom an felt disgust for the p ool girl's
clothes.
. ..
to insist to say firmly that T he w ord im plies that th e person
som ething m ust co u ld n o t stay because o f different
hap pen o r be d o n e probable reasons: she was in a hurry:
had a previous eng ag em ent, did not
want to c o m m u n ic a te with th e people
in q uestion; had a lot to do.

to move to go at a slow speed I h e phrase may imply that;


slowly 1) the person was suffering acute
nervous tensio n, was leeling deep
anxiety expecting som ething bad
might happ en or 2» was scry ill

*>*»
E n d o f the Table
,
1 Wonts Meaning Sense

to d o se lo shut w ithout noise T h e phrase im plies a perfect sclf-


quietly c o n tro l. c o o l-m in d e d n e ss. self-
possession. c o m p o su re displayed
by the w om an in th e given situation,
which are indicative o f the fact that
she w on th e a rg u m e n t, she was the
mistress o f the situation.
1
I to puli to move som ething T h e word im plies th at th e girl tried
towards o n e se lf using to attract h er fath er's attentio n
th e hands to herself in o rd e r to sav som ething
to him o r w anted to take him a w a y

to begin to start doing The word im plies that the person


som ething h a d n 't been generous before perhaps
because o f tw o reasons that was
not in his character o r he could ,
not afford it as. for exam ple, he did
not have m oney, opportunity, etc

red o f th e co lo u r o f blood T h e word im plies th at the person was


o r fire a m an u al labourer w hose job involved
physical work c o n n e c te d m ostly with i
cleaning H er h a n d s were red because
, o f the c o n sta n t co ntact w ith water
L

1) a lio n -h u n ter — hosts or hostesses who seek out celebrities with


w hom to impress their guests; to have a heart like a lion —- to have great
courage; to fe e l like a lion — to be in the best o f health; to roar like a
Hon to shout very loudly: to lionize som eone - to make a celebrity ol
someone by lavishing praise and hospitality on him or her; to beard the
lion in his den — to challenge a formidable enemy on his own ground:
to be throw n to the lions — to he in a situation where you are criticized
strongly or treated badly and be unprotected; th e lion's share - much
more than on e's fair share, almost everything; to p u t o n e's h e a d in
lio n s m o u th - to put oneself needlessly at the mercy of an enemy
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : dangerous, very strong, courageous (fearless),
dignified, leader iguider), im portant-looking, unyielding, audacious,
ferocious, roar loudly and threateningly.
2) g rea t o a k s fr o m little acorns grow som ething o f small or
modest proportions may grow into something very large o r impressive;
a heart o f oak — someone loyal and brave on whom one can rely; oaks
m a y f a l l w hen reeds sta n d the storm
226
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : very stron g, solid (h a rd ), willing to su p p o rt,
powerful, mighty, very big.
4.

Grammatical meaning I cxical meaning Part-of-speech meaning

1. th e case o f nouns : 1. thin k , thinking. 1. nouns :


hov 's thought m an
ship's table
2 went, ко
friend's box
3. box's, boy. boys lam p
2. the degree oj co m ­
parison o f adjec tives: 4. nearest, near, nearer 2. adject п е с
nearest 5. at. for. during beautiful
th e m ost beautiful (with th e m ean in g o f tre m e n d o u s
V th e tense of lerbs ‘t i m e ) near
h andsom e
wrote b. beautiful, th e most
went beautiful 3. verbs:
thought think
drift
go
4. prepositions:
at
for
during

C omponents of the conno-


Den*Manorial Sl wonnotational r.nional aspect of lexical
Words
aspects meaning which speeds the
difference between the word»

1 to deal with to take action in ord er to find evaluation (positive)


a n answ er to a problem or
im prove a difficult situation

2 to grapple to try h ard to deal with a intensity -+ evaluation


with difficult problem or situation, (negative) * duration
especially for a long p erio d o f
tim e

1. sophisticated having a lot o f knowledge and evaluation (positive)


experience o f clever,
fashionable things, an d
show ing this by the way
so m e o n e talks a n d behaves

227
E n d o f th e Table
Components of the con-
Denotation;]) A cormoutnmai not.itional aspect of lexical
Words
aspects meaning which specify the
difference between the wonts
2 hardened very h ard a n d strong mentally em otive charge +
as a result o f regularly dealing -+■evaluation t negative) - ,
with difficult situations 1- intensity + du ratio n
1. adventure a n experience w here interesting, em otive charge
exciting, a n d som etim es d a n g e ­ ♦ evaluation (usually
rous things h a p p en to so m eo ne positive)
2. ordeal a tim e in which so m eon e em otive charge -
experiences great suffering, - evaluation (negative) •
anxiety, an d often danger ♦ duratio n
1. perfect having n o faults or weaknesses evaluation (positive)

1. Паи less completely perfect, with n o evaluation (positive) -


mistakes * intensity
1 to glance lo look som ew here quickly a n d du ratio n
then look away
2. to glare to look at so m e o n e or em otive charge -
som ething in a very angry way * intensity
1. adulation great love and ad m iratio n for higher degree o f
so m e o n e, especially for intensity - evaluation
so m eo n e fam ous (positive)
2 respect the feeling that so m e o n e is lower degree
good because they have high o f intensity - evaluation
standards a n d g o o d personal (positive)
qualities
1. ugh extremely unattractive, with a intensity - evaluation
face th at is not at all nice to (negative)
look at
2 repuhire very ugly and extremely unplea­ intensity - evaluation
sant to look at. especially so (negative) * emotive
th at people d o n o t like to look charge
at you
! to m u rm u r to say so m ething in a soft low emotive charge -
voice, that is difficult to hear + evaluation (positive)
clearly
2 to m utter to say so m eth in g quietly, e sp e ­ em otive charge *
cially w hen you are anno yed - evaluation inegative t
but d o not want so m e o n e to
hear you com plainin g

22b
ь.
I. The meaning o f the verb с r u n ! is based o n the image o f Som eone
moving along on o n e 's hands and knees with o n e 's body close to the
ground". C raw l to m eans 'to behave very humbly towards (someone,
usu. in power) in order lo w in favour, etc.*. 2. The meaning o f the verb
f i r e is based on the image o f someone shooting bullets or bom bs’. Fire
(questions) a t means to ask someone a lot o f questions quickly, often
in order to criticize them ? 3. The meaning o f the verb f r o u n is based
on the image o f ’som eone making an angry, unhappy, o r confused
expression, moving o n e ’s eyebrows to geth er’. Frown on so m eth in g
m eans ‘to disapprove o f someone or something, especially som eone's
behaviour* 4. T he meaning o f the vcib ta ke is based on the image of
‘s o m e o n e m ov in g so m e th in g from o n e place to a n o t h e r '. T a ke
(som ething one sa id ) ba ck means ’to admit that you were w rong to say
som ething’. 5. The meaning o f the verb f l y is based on the image of
something moving through the air using wings'. Fly a b o u t means to
spread actively’. 6. The meaning o f the verb seize is based on the image
o f someone taking hold o f something suddenly and violently’. S eize on
m eans ’to be eager to take and use'. 7. The meaning o f the verb d ice is
based on the image o f ‘som eone jum ping into deep water with o n e ’s
head and arms going in first’. D u e into som e p la ce means to enter a
place suddenly and often secretively'. 8. T he meaning o f the verb catch
is based on the image o f ’someone taking hold o f something, especially
som ething that is moving through the air’. C atch in means ‘to find
someone by chance at home, in the office, etc.’. 9. The meaning o f the
verb lay is based on the image o f som eone putting something down
carefully into a flat position'. L a v dow n (one's office) means to stop
working, esp. after having had power’. 10. The meaning o f the verb p in
is based on the image o f someone fastening something somewhere using
a pin’. Pin on means ‘to blame someone for something, often unfairly'.

--------- ----------------

Regreter of Role* which


P a rtic ip a n ts tenors of
Words co m m u m
of the communicaiise situation discourse are
cation
based on
certainly neutral h u sb an d — wife family roles

unquestion­ formal speaker — a u d ie n ce social roles


ably ( reporter/journalist — new spaper
re a d e r/ radio listener)
dough informal close fn en d s social roles

m oney neutral e m plo yer — em ployee (superior - social roles


inferior)
-

picture neutral friends social roles

229
E nd o f the Table
------------------------r
Roles which
Register of
Participants tenors of
Words a m im u n i •
of ihe communicative situation discourse are
cat ton
based on
photograph form al people working in th e m useum social roles
visitor» o f the m useum
. ,
skirt informal m en w ho are close friends social roles

girl neutral close people: friends o r relatives social/fam ily


roles
1quality form al people interested in the subject o f social roles
conversation (probably, lecturer —
\ student, specialists in th e field o f
literature, etc)
thing informal close people: friends o r relatives social/fam ily
roles

Chapter 2

B u zz — a low. continuous humming o r murmuring sound, made by


o r similar to that made by an insect: click — a short sharp sound as ot
a switch being operated o r o f two hard objects com ing smartly into
contact: hang — a sharp knock o r blow, sizzle — a hissing sound, as of
food fry ing o r cooking, boom — a loud. deep, resonant sound; qu a ck —
the characteristic harsh sound m ade by a duck.
2
S p - at the beginning o f the words has the association with water or
other liquids;
-a sh at the end o f the words suggests something fast and violent;
gl- at the beginning o f the words conveys brightness and light.
3.
Morphologically motivated words: driver, careless, singlehood,
hand-m ade, blue-eyed, streamlet.
Sem antically motivated words: leg. horse, wall, piggish, sound
bite, leaflet.
4.
1) m etaphor. 2) metonymy; 3) metonymy; 4) m etaphor. 5) m eta­
p h o r; 6 ) m e to n y m y : 7) m e ta p h o r : 8) m e to n y m y ; 9) m e ta p h o r;
10) metonymy.
230
cam p — extension o f meaning, generalization;
g irl — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
bird — extension o f meaning, generalization;
arrive — extension o f meaning, generalization;
d eer — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
rug — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
b a m — extension o f meaning, generalization;
glid e — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
m o m — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
f l y — extension o f meaning, generalization:
artist — restriction o f meaning, specialization;
cham pion — restriction o f meaning, specialization:
cam paign — extension o f meaning, generalization.

cu n n in g — deterioration o f meaning;
kn ig h t — amelioration of meaning:
fo n d — amelioration o f meaning:
gang — deterioration o f meaning;
m a rsh a l — amelioration o f meaning:
coarse — deterioration o f meaning;
m in ister — amelioration o f meaning:
en thusiasm — amelioration o f meaning:
violent — deterioration o f meaning;
gossip — deterioration o f meaning.
s.
sim ple: 1) easy to understand, solve, o r do; 2) plain an d without
d e c o ra tio n : 3) not involving an y th in g else o r not co m p licated by
anything else: 4) with only one or very few parts: 5) honest and ordinary;
6) easily tricked; foolish; 7) weak-minded.
w.
1) In m odem English the central meaning is ‘probable*. Thus, in the
present-day language the primary meaning o f the word lik e ly remains
central.
2) In m odem English the central meaning is ‘a forcible overthrow
o f a government o r social order, in favour o f a new system'. Thus, in
the present-day language the primary meaning o f the word revolution
is no longer central, it has become a marginal meaning.
3) In modern English the central meaning is ‘suffer death, typically
in a violent, sudden, or untimely way*. Thus, in the present-day language
the primary meaning o f the word to perish remains central.
4) In m odem English the central meaning is *a call to som eone tc
participate in a competitive situation, game, or tight to decide w ho is
su p erio r in term s o f ability o r strength*. T hus, in th e present-day
231
language the p rim ary m eaning o f the word c h a lle n g e is n o longer
central, it has become a marginal meaning.
5) In m odern English the central meaning is ‘only one: not one of
several’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning o f the
word single is no longer central, it has become a marginal meaning.
b) In m odem English the central meaning is to be disloyal'. Thus,
in the present-day language the primary meaning o f the word to betray
remains central.

1) Homonyms proper:
seal (n,l seal i n )
a large sea a n im a l th at eats fish a n d th e official m ark o f a governm ent,
lives m ainly in cold parts o f the com pany, etc.. often m a d e by
world pressing a pattern into red wax.
w hich i s fixed to certain form al and
official writings

band < n ) band i n. )


a com pany o f m usicians a trip o r lo op o f som ething
(свигка. лента, полоса)

fall ( n i fall (v)


th e act o f falling, d ro p p in g o r to m ove to a lower position o r level
co m in g dow n

base (и I base (v)


bo tto m to build o r place up on

corn ( n ,l corn (n-,)


a hard, h o m y thickening o f the skin, th e seed o f w heat an d sim ilar plants
esp. o n th e foot

2) H om ophones:

m ade (a d j)|m e id | maid t n ) jm eidj


form ed a fem ale d o m estic servant I

week |w ck| weak |wLk|


a p erio d o f seven days Jacking physical strength
and energy

bread ( n ) (bred| bred la d j) (bred)


a c o m m o n fo o d m a d e o f baked reared in a specified en vironm ent
flour o r way

sum (n ) |s \ m | some ( p r o n ) [ s \m | ,
a particular a m o u n t o f m oney a n unspecified a m o u n t or n u m b e r o f j

232
hm re ( n) |htN>| h a i r (n ) |hcal
a fast-ru n n in g , lo n g -ea red m am m al any o f th e fine thread-like stran d s
that resem bles a large rabbit, having growing from th e skin o f h u m an s
very long h ind legs a n d typically
found in grassland o r open woodland

3) Homographs:

row ( n ) | mu| row ( n ) | rau |


a n u m b e r o f persons or things a noisy a c rim o n io u s quarrel
in a line

tear i v ) |t£A| tear <n) |u a |


to pul! by force a d r o p o f clear salty liquid secreted i
from gland s in a p e rs o n 's eye w hen
they cry o r w hen th e eye is irritated

wind <n ) |w m d | wind ( v )


|w aind|
air in m otion m ove in o r take a twisting or spiral
course
*
desert (v ) Idi'/Tt) desert <n> | dezat|
to leave e m p ty o r leave completely a large sandy piece o f land w here
there is very little rain an d not
m u c h plant life

sewer (n ) Isooaj sewer (n) |sjua|


a person that sews a n u n d e rg ro u n d c o n d u it for
carry ing o ff drainage water an d
waste m atter

11.
1. sight 2. horse 3. pours 4. sweet 5. hare 6. fair 7. die 8. horse

Chapter 3

I.
1) w a g e /sa la ry /p a y /fe e /in c o m e
com m on feature: ‘a sum o f money paid for something'.
differentiating features: 'th e type o f work for w hich it is p a id ',
‘regularity/irregularity o f payment*, 'th e pen o d o f time for which it is
paid', ‘the qualification level and specialization o f the person doing the
work', ‘o th er sources o f receiving money (besides work)'.
2) rep u ta tio n /im a g e /n a m e/p restig e/sta tu re
com m on feature: the idea or opinion about somebody/something',
differentiating features: ‘the reasons for forming an opinion o r idea',
‘ways o f forming an idea o r opinion', ‘deliberateness/undelibcrateness
o f a person (group o f people/organization) lo form a certain opinion
(idea)*, the relation to the person (group o f people/organization) caused
by (o r resulted from) the opinion/idea formed (e.g. respect, admiration,
dislike, antipathy, malice, etc.)'.

I) vehicle

bicvclc car train bus lorrv motorcycle

cabriolet estate car three-door hatchback


r" * »
light lorry heavy lorry three-way
dum p truck

2) animal

m am m al reptile
—- " ' 0 ! x * «. * 0 S »
squirrel feline seal fox wolf bear turtle lizard iguana snake
ж ! %
tiger leopard panther

1. H e gave h e r a ring w ith Five p r e c io u s s to n e s as a b irth d ay


present. — He gave her a ring with Five em eralds as a birthday present
2. The m an was m urdered. — The m an was poisoned.
3. She lo o ked at him. — She stared at me.
4. He heard a b ird singing. — He heard a nightingale singing.
5. He is an officer. — He is a colonel.
6. It’s an old vehicle. — It’s an old c a r
7. She was wearing a d a rk dress. — She was wearing a M ack dress.
8. They built a boat. — They built a yacht.
9. They bought flo w ers in the shop. They bought lilacs in the shop
10. She has got a child. — She has got a daughter.
i

confidenc e — a firm belief in oneself without a display Evaluation is


of arrogance or conceit different
assurance — more surcncss of one’s own abilities,
often to the point o f offensive boastfulness
............ - J
to satisfy — to meet the expectations, needs, or desires Emotive charge &
of someone expressiveness are
different
j to delight — to please greatly
i-------- -------- —
■ ----------------------- —
——
234
alone - having no one else present F.motive charge &
evaluation arc
lonely — sad because one has no friends or company
different
to create — to cause something new to existence: Evaluation is
produce something new different
to manufacture — to produce in л mechanical way
without inspiration or originality
|
to blush — become red in face from modesty, shame Emotive charge &
or embarrassment evaluauon are
to redden — to turn red from anger or indignation different I
t
to tremble — lo shake involuntarily, typically Emotive charge &
as a result of excitement, or frailty expressiveness
to shudder - to shake convulsively, typically (intensity)
arc different
as a result of tear or repugnance

s.
C ar — autom obile (fm l); refreshm ent — bite (infm l); soldier —
warrior (fml); to begin — to com m ence (fml); face — puss (infml): to
leave — to abandon (fml): hearty — cordial (fml). hand — fin (infml):
cry — weep (fml).
f>.
Stylistic synonyms:
1) to m eet — to en co u n ter (tml): ’to see som eone without planning
to';
2) m u m (infml) — m other, ‘a female parent*:
3) to fo r e te ll (fml) — to p re d ic t: *to say what will happen in the
future’;
4) h e a iv n (fml) — sky: ‘the region o f the atmosphere and outer space
seen from the ea rth ’:
5) a ffa ir - business (infml): ‘a person's concern o r responsibility*.
Ideographic synonyms:
1) in fo rm a tio n ( ‘facts o r details th at tell you som ething about a
situation, a person, an event, etc.’) — d a ta ( ‘facts an d details that have
been collected and stored, especially on a com puter’);
2) in fectio u s ( ‘(of a disease) liable to be tran sm itted to people,
organism s, etc. through th e env iro n m en t, esp. ab o u t the agent or
organism which carries th e disease') — co n ta g io u s ( ‘(o f a disease)
spread from o n e person o r organism to another by direct o r indirect
contact, esp. about the person o r animal affected by the disease*);
3) fa c u lty ( ‘a natural o r acquired ability for a particular kind o f
action*) - ta le n t ( “an exceptional natural ability o r ap titu d e in a
particular field');
235
4) blem ish (“a surface defect that mars the appearance ) — fla w ( ‘a
structural defect o r weakness that mars the quality o r effectiveness’).
Ideographic-stylistic synonyms:
1) a s s o c ia te ( ‘a person w h o is often in one s com pany, usually
because o f some work or pursuit ( *анятне) in co m m o n ’) — p a l (infml.
‘a close friend with whom som eone usually spends his leisure tim e'):
2) to a sk С to request information from s o m e o n e ) — to interrogate
(fml. ‘to question formally for a special purpose, csp. for a long time
and perhaps with the use o f threats or violence’);
3) to recko n (infml. ‘establish by counting o r calculation ) — to
estim a te (‘roughly calculate o r judge the value, number, quantity, or
extent o f ) :
4) to w a lk (‘to move along on foot in a natural wav’) — to prom enade
(fml. ‘to move slowly up and down along a place, street, etc
5) intelligent (‘having or showing powers o f learning, reasoning, or
understanding, esp. to a high degree’) — sm a rt (infml. ‘good o r quick
in thinking, clever*).

to cry; to think; to look; strange: fear: angry: to shine


.4.
Lexical sets:
o f dogs): wire-haired fox terrier, bull terrier, Scottish
terrier. Bedlington terrier. Pekinese;
duelling: detached house, multi storey block o f flats, terraced house,
high-rise block o f flats, weekend house, cottage, semi-detached house.
Terminological sets:
: c lim b in g ro b e , h o rs e (v a u ltin g h o rse ).
trampoline (батут), floor, landing m at. asymmetric bars, springboard,
beam:
com puter, disk, hardware, monitor, mainframe, interface, software,
server.

Lexico-semantic groups:
1) ‘education’: (a) book, classmate, college, dav-student. exercise,
reader, k n o w led g e , tu itio n , c o u rs e ; (b) in tellig e n t, p ed a g o g ic al,
disciplined, methodological; (c) to teach, to coach, to repeat a year, to
write, to supervise, to develop habits, to sm atter o f (in);
2) feeling’: (a) indifference, affection, hatred, passion, satisfaction,
jealousy, unrest, shock: (b) displeased, frustrated, in a tem per, calm
(adj). wrathful, happy, angry ; (c) to bear malice, to adore, to infuriate,
to hurt.
Semantic fields:
1) ‘e d u c a tio n ’: b o o k , to teach, intelligent, classm ate, to coach,
pedagogical, college, day-student. to repeat a year, exercise, reader.
236
to w rite, knowledge, tuition, course, to supervise, disciplined, to develop
habits, methodological, to smaller o f (in);
2) feeling’: to b e a r m alice, displeased, indifference, to adore,
affection, frustrated, hatred, in a tem per, passion, calm (adj). satis­
faction. wrathful, jealousy, to infuriate, happy, unrest, shock, to hurt,
angry.
10.
a) antonyms o f the same root:
happy — unhappy, careful — careless, obedience disobedience,
regular - irregular, polite - impolite, artistic - inartistic, appear
disappear, prewar - postwar, logical — illogical, known - unknown;
b) antonyms o f different roots:
dwarf — gigantic, criticism — praise, above — below, asleep - awake,
back forth, trium ph — disaster, hope — despair, far — near, love —
hate.
1 I.
Conn.id iclone» C o n t r a r i e s I n c o m p a t i b l e *

poetry — prose o ld — young inch — fo o t


m an — w om an i middle-aged) (not yard, not hand,
teacher — pupil beautiful — ugly not pace, etc )
to accept to reject (pretty /'good- looking/plain I M onday Sunday
creditor — debtor to adore — to loathe (not Wednesday, not
clever - stupid ( t o lo v e to lik e to d is lik e Thursday, not Friday,
inside — outside to hate to abhor/to despise; etc.)
evil good trem endous - tiny one — thousand
(big/sm all) (no! two. not ten. not
im m aculate - Ji/thy hundred, etc )
(clean/dirtv > iron — copper
boy — m an (not silver, not steel,
(young m an)
not bronze, etc.)
ro u n d — square
a n d - au ash
(not triangular, not
(dry wet)
rectangular, not
open — shut rhombic, etc )
(semi-open semi - s h u t . d a y — night
half-open , half-shut)
(not morning, not
evening, etc )
nui brown
(not black, not green,
not yellow, etc )
\ m em ber March
i not February, not
\pnl. not June. etc.)
р а н т hi. v v o r q -s t r u c t u r t

l.
Beggarly: beg{g)~ (root, free) + -o r- (affixational. b o u n d ) + -ly
(affixational. bound);
postm an: post- (root, free) 4- -m a n (affixational. semi-bound):
shorten: short- (root, free) + -en (affixational. bound);
destabilize: d e - (affixational. bound) + -sta b il- (root, free) - -ize
(affixational. bound);
sympathy: sy m - (affixational, bound) -p a th y (combining form,
bound root):
fruitfulness: fr u it- (root, free) + -fu l- (affixational. bound) + -ness
(affixational, bound);
maltreatm ent: т а /- (combining form, bound root) -treat- (root,
free) 4- -m e n t (affixational, bound):
disaffected: d is- (affixational, bound) + -affect- (root, free) + -e d
(affixational. bound);
overrule: over- (affixational. sem i-bound) + -rule (root, free);
p h o to g rap h ic: p h o to - (com bining form , b o u n d root) + -g r a p h -
(combining form, bound root) + -ic (affixational, bound);
half-eaten: h a lf- (affixational. sem i-bound) + -eat- (root, free) -
-en (affixational. bound):
theory': theor- (pseudo-root, bound) + -v (affixational. bound):
rent-free: rent- (root, free) - -free (root. free).
\_
Eyelet: eye- (‘body part for seeing’) - -let (‘a small kind o f ) = глазик,
dehouse: de- ( the removal o f ) — house f a building for hum an
habituation’) = в ы ж а т ь и з л о м а : л и ш и ть жилья;
neurosis: ncuro- {“o f nerves’) * -osis (‘illness or disease ) = невроз:
hostess: host- Ca person who receives o r entertains other people as
guests’) + -ess f a female ) - хозяйка;
betrayal: betray- ( be disloyal to ) - -al (‘the action ) = предатель­
ство. измена;
a n tip a th y : an ti- ( 'a g a i n s t ') + -p a th y ( ‘fe elin g ’) = а н т и п а т и я
(отвраш ен и е);
briefly: brief- ( ‘o f short d u r a t i o n ) + -ly f i n the stated w a y ) -
коротко:
horsem anship: horse- f a large animal that people ride ) * -m an-
( 'occupation o r interests’) + -ship ( ‘the a n o r skill o f ) - и скусеi во
верховой езды;
p rew a r: pre- ( 'b e f o r e ') - -w ar f a state o f arm ed c o n f lic t') -
предвоенный, довоенный;
238
fa m o u s: fam(e)- ( ‘the condition o f being known o r talked ab o u t') +
-ous ( possessing sm th.') = зн а м е н и ш й . известный.
-*1.

!) note-, copy-, exercise-, text-; 2) -roads, -legged, -wind, -current;


3) city-, hospital-, ocean-, foreign-; 4) -foot, -head. - p a n . -ground.
5) rasp-, elder-, straw-, cran-.

Nouns; suitabil/Yy. combi nation, boyhood, bureaucracy, breakage;


Verbs; befriend, hospital/ze. e/ilarge, clan/v. weakc/r;
Adjectives; hat less, congra tula ton*. spacious, quarrelsome. drinkoWe;
Adverbs: accordingA. \\d eu a ys. northwards.

b.

M o n o m o rp h ic : house, black, cry. good, go


P o ly m o rp h ic. M onoradical:
1) radical-sufTixal: effectin ', historian. m anageability:
2) radical-prefixal: uncover. m istrust. ex-w ife:
3) p re fix o -ra d ic a l- s u ffic a l: d is a p p o in tm e n t. u n a n s w e r a b le .
unfortunately.
Polym orphic. PoIvradical:
d a r k - b r o u n ( I ) , b o o k - k e e p e r ( 2). h o m e - s ic k (1). la u g h te r -
fille d (2). age-long ( I ). short-sightedness (2).

C om p lete segm en tab ility: nameless, feminist, overload, u n d er­


estimate. amoral, unfriendly, carefulness.
C onditional segm entability: perceive, discuss, contain, proceed,
pretend, assist, obsess, attract.
D e fe c tiv e seg m e n ta b ility : hostage, fraction, pocket, pioneer,
athlete, mirror, gooseberry, manic, budget.
7 .1 .

p e r c e iv e — p er-fect. co n ceive; d isc u ss — d is -c o rd . p e r cuss:


c o n ta in — c o n -c e iv e . d e - ta in : p r o c e e d p r o - m o te , su c -c e e d :
p r e te n d — p re-tex t, at tend : a s s is t — a s-se n t, рег-sist. c o n -sist.
obsess — ob-struct. po-sess; attract — at-tain. ab-lsHract.
7 7
Words o f defective segmentability:
hostage: -age — ‘the product/result of an action’:
fra ction: -lion — ‘the result o f the action';
pocket: -et — ‘diminutiveness*;
pioneer, -ecr - ‘ a person, who has a specified attribute (the first in
sm th .)’:
athlete: -ete — a person o f a certain occupation an d o f a specified
attribute (proficient in sports)*:
mirror, -or — ’an object used as an implement, a tool*;
gooseberry: - h e m — ‘a fruit*;
m anic: -ic — possessing/showing a certain slate (feeling, emotion)*:
budger. -et — ‘diminuibeness*.

in d ep en d e n ce:
1) in- (in a b ility . in ju stice) <I C / L C ) + -dependence ( IC),
2) depend- ( I C /L C ) + -ence (insistence, existence) ( I C / L C )
The word consists o f three 1X 4
b ea u tifu ln ess:
1) beautiful- (IC) + -ness (sadness, u gliness» (IC /L C ):
2) beauty- (IC /L C ) + -ful (joyful. graceful) (IC /IJC ).
The word consists o f three LCs.
unforgettable:
1) un- (unclear, u n im portant) ( I C / L C ) + -forgettable (IC):
2) forget- ( I C / L C ) + -able (irritable, d esira b le> ( IC, UC).
The word consists o f three L Cs.
u /trp -crxa liie
1) ultra- <u ltr a -r ic h . u ltra m o d e rn ) ( I C /L C ) + -creaiive (IC):
2) creat(e)- ( I C /L C ) - -ive (effective. d ec isive) (IC /L C ).
l*he word consists o f three L Cs.
spotlessness:
1) spotless- (IC ) + -ness (darkness, rudeness) (IC /l/C );
2) spot- ( I C / L C ) ■+■ -less (tactless, airless) (IC /L C ).
The word consists o f three LCs.
disresp e c tfu l
1> disrespect- (IC) + -ful (pow erful, deceitful) (IC /L C ):
2) dis- (disjavour. disbelief) ( I C '/ L O + -respect (IC L C).
The word consists o f three l. Cs.
u n la d ylike:
1) un- (u n fa ir. u n tid y) ( I C /L C ) + - ladylike (IC):
2) lady- ( I C /L C ) + -like (b ird like, c b u d lik e ) ( I C 'L C ) .
The word consists o f three LCs.

1) dis- (disservice, discom fort) ( I C / L C ) + -arm am ent (IC);


2) arm - (1C7LC) + -m em (m o v e m e n t. agreem ent) (IC /L C ).
The word consists o f three L C s
in ju stice:
I > in- (insecurity, in a d eq u a cy) ( I C / L C ) + -justice (1C):
2) just- ( I C / L C ) - -ice (a v a ric e ) (IC /L C ).
The word consists o f three LCs.
240
1) dis- (d isco u rtesy. d ish a rm o n y) ( R / U C j + obedience (IC):
2) obedient- (IC ) -ence (e m in e n c e . p a tie n c e ) (IC /U C ):
3) obey* (IC /U C ) + -ent (existen t. respondent) (IC /U C ).
The word consists o f four UCs.

Chapter 2

i.
SufTixal derivatives: discourage-ment, impassion-ed. befriend-ed.
discover-y. irr.press-ion, disguise-m ent. accoun t-able, outrage-ou s,
renew-able. endangcr-m ent.
Prefixal derivatives: in-scnsible. un-w om anly. a-system ic. u n ­
imaginable. ir-responsible, dis-hearten, in-defensible, un-friendly. im ­
personal, under-developed.
2
a) bases that coincide with morphological stem s o f different
d eg rees o f com p lexity: illitcra ten ess. frie n d lin ess, im p o ssib le,
landlordism, brainless, broaden, livelihood, acceptability, unimportance,
familiarity, weekender;
b) bases that coincide with word-forms: u n p ro tec te d , pain s­
taking. u n d erstan d in g ^ , w eather-beaten, heart-breaking, seemingly,
uninspiring, laughingly, unnam ed, snow-covered, long-running;
c ) bases that coincide with word-groups: waterskicr. brainstruster.
three-cornered, allrightnik. green-eyed, absent-m inded, long-legged,
freesiyter. back-bench er, d o-goodixm . d o -it-yo urselfer, o n e-sid ed ,
allatonccness. whitcfeathery, idletalker.
3.
a) ‘no tV ’witho u t’ or ‘opposite o f :
nameless, anti-war. disapprove, depopulated, nonsmoker, apolitical,
lifeless, mistrust, unhappiness, childless, disorder, am oral, inattention,
anticlimax, duty-free;

hyperactive, oversleep, priceless, outgrow, m uch-w orn, superrich,


m ulticolored, hypercreativc. ageless, ultram odern, overwork, super-
clever, multitalented, extra-soft, outlive, countless, megabucks;

sneaky, c u b o id , p a ra p ro fe ssio n a l. fie n d ish , feathery, ladylike,


babyish, flowerlike, hum anoid, sub-Victorian, paramilitary, clockwise:
d) ‘(very) small' o r ‘not enough*:
microsurgery, booklet, whitish, spherule (=small sphere), duckling,
underdevelopment, mini-market, kitchenette, microfilm, undercooked,
miniskirt, hypothermia, greyish, lambkin, starlet;
c) liking for’:
241
f r o lic s o m e , b ib lio p h ile , ta lk a tiv e . F r a n c o p h ili a . q u a r r e ls o m e ,
creative.
4.
To paper: n -*♦ V (a co n v ersio n );
speechless : n + -s f —>A (a sufTixal derivative);
p en -h o ld er, n + (v +• -sf) —* N (a c o m p o u n d w o rd ):
irreplaceable: p rf- + (n -sf) —* A (a prefixal derivative);
nothingness: pn + -sf —> N (a sufTixal derivative);
to w inter, n —> V (a co n v ersio n );
age-long : n -*• a —* A (a c o m p o u n d w o rd );
fearsom ely: (n + -sf) + -sf —э D (a sufTixal derivative):
sharpen: a + - s f —» V (a sufTixal derivative);
w ind-driven: n +• \ ..n —» A (a c o m p o u n d w o rd ):
independence: p rf- + (v + -sf) -* N (a prefixal derivative):
ex-housew ife: p rf- + (n - n> -+ N (a prefixal derivative).

Yearly: n -ly —* D . T h e D P signals a set o f adverbs w ith th e lexical


m e a n in g o f ‘fre q u en cy ';
engineer: n *■ -e e r —» N . T h e D P sig n als a set o f n o u n s w ith th e
lexical m e a n in g o f ‘occupation*;
diseased: n -e d —* A. T h e D P signals a set o f ad jectiv es w ith th e
lexical m e a n in g ‘affected by’:
com pletion : v + -ion —> N . T h e D P signals a set o f n o u n s w ith th e
lexical m e a n in g o f ‘a p ro cess';
incurable: in - + (v + - a b le ) A. T h e D P sig n als a set o f adjectives
w ith th e lexical m e a n in g o f ‘im possibility*:
to ape: n -> V. T h e D P signals a set o f verbs w ith th e lexical m e an in g
o f ‘a n a c tio n c h a ra c te ristic o f th e o b je c t':
fa ir-h a ired : (a + n ) - -e d -» A . T h e D P sig n als a set o f adjectives
w ith th e lexical m e a n in g o f having/possessing*;
custom ary ". n - -a ry -> A . T h e D P sig n als a set o f adjectives w ith
th e lexical m e a n in g o f ‘c o n n e c te d to . involves':
overtime: over- + n —* D . T h e D P signals a set o f adverbs w ith th e
lexical m e a n in g ‘a d d itio n a l';
miscalculation: m is- ♦ (v + -ion) —> N . T h e D P signals a set o f n o u n s
w ith th e lexical m e a n in g ‘w ro n g /w ro n g ly '.
f».
1) L ondoner, villager , N ew Yorker, tow ner. n + -e r — > N . In th e
D P th e n o m in a l b ases a re c o n fin e d to n o u a s d e n o tin g places. T h e suffix
- e r c o m b in e d w ith t h e s e b a s e s p o s s e s s e s th e m e a n in g *a p e r s o n
belonging to a sp ecified place*:
2) ta ll ish, rhinnish. biggish . longish. lowish: a + -ish -> A. In th e
D P th e ad jectiv al b ases a re c o n fin e d to a d jectiv es d e n o tin g d iffe re n t
d im e n sio n s. T h e suffix -ish c o m b in e d w ith th e se bases p o sse sse s th e
m ean in g ‘fa iry ';
242
3) lu n g fu l. a rm fu l, m o u th ful, handful: n + -f u l —►N. In the DP
the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting organs o r parts o f the
body. The suffix -fu l combined with these bases possesses the meaning
the am ount needed to fill the specified c o n ta in e r :
4) savagery .fo o le r y , snobbery, roguery: n + -e ry —» N. In the D P
the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting a person o f a certain
character, disposition o r certain abilities. T he suffix -e ry com bined with
these bases possesses the meaning behaviour’;
5) decency. com placency, obstinacy, hesitancy: a + -cy -> N. In the
D P the adjectival bases are confined to adjectives denoting a person’s
traits o f character or state. The suffix -cy combined with these bases
possesses the meaning ‘behaviour ;
b) advocacy, accountancy, presidency, consultancy: n + -c y —> N.
In the D P the nominal bases are confined to nouns l e n d i n g different
professions o r occupations. The suffix -c y com bined with these bases
possesses the meaning ‘a professional practice, position, rank’;
7) dem ist, defrost. deice. dew ater, degas, d e- + n —►V. In the D P
the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting natural phenom ena
and substances. The prefix d e - com bined with these bases possesses the
meaning ‘the removal o f ;
8) rapidly, slow ly, gradually, q u ickly: a + -ly -» V. In the D P the
adjectival bases are confined to adjectives denoting speed o r movement.
The suffix -ly- com bined with these bases possesses the meaning ‘the
manner/way o f doing’:
9) schoolm ate, с lubm ate, fla tm a te , room m ate: n + -m a te —> N. In
the D P the nom inal bases are confined to n ou as denoting different
places. The semi-affix -m a te combined with these bases has the meaning
‘a person who shares a place with som eone’:
10) jo y fu l, delightful, hateful, cheerful, sorrow ful: n + -fu l —> A.
In the D P the nominal bases are confined to nouns denoting various
em o tio n s a n d feelings. T he suffix -fu l com b ined with these bases
possesses the meaning ‘full o f o r experiencing sm th \

1) island: ca- (‘water*, a river') + -lond ( ‘solid portion o f the earth’s


surface; ground*). T he c o m p o u n d word underw ent th e process of
sim plification o f the m orphological structure and becam e a simple
word:
2) world: wer- ( ‘m an. warrior') + -a id Cold age'). T he com pound
word underw ent the process o f simplification o f the m orphological
structure and shortening. It becam e a non-motivatcd. simple word;
3) frien d ly, fre o n d - (‘friend’) + -lie (‘appearance, form, body*). The
root-m orphem c -lie lost its lexical meaning and became the suffix -ly,
Ilie com pound word became a derived word;
4) c a b in e t cabin- ( ‘hut, tent') + -et ( ‘small’). The suffix -e t lost its
lexical meaning. The derived word became a simple one:
243
5) always: a H -/e a ll(d i\) + -u eg es Г road, path; distance travelled*).
The com p o u n d word underw ent the process o f simplification o f the
morphological structure and became a non-m otivated, simple word;
6) careful: caru- (‘g r ie f ; ‘burdened state o f m i n d ) + -fu ll (‘full o f ) .
T h e lexical m e a n in g o f th e r o o t - m o r p h e m e - f u l l w e a k e n e d to
‘characterized by'. The com pound word becam e a derived one;
7) freed o m : fr c o - (‘not subject to control from outside ) + -d a m
( judgm ent, choice, honour'). The root-m orphem e -dom lost its lexical
meaning and became the suffix -dom . The com pound word became a
derived word;
8) childhood: c i/d - ( ‘child ) + -h a d (‘condition, title, quality ). I he
root-m orphem e -h a d lost its lexical meaning and becam e the suffix
-hood. The com pound word becam e a derived word;
9) reckless: recce- (c o n c e rn , care') + -leas ( ‘devoid o f ) . The lexical
meaning o f the root-m o rp h em e -lea s was weakened. It became the
suffix -less. As a result the com pound word becam e a derived one;
H)> linen: fin - ('flax') + -en ( ‘m ade o r consisting o f , o f the nature
o f ). The suffix -en lost its lexical meaning. The derived word underwent
the process o f simplification o f the morphological structure and became
a simple word:
11) hatred, hate- ('sutTering', ‘anger, insult, trouble ) - -n e d e n i advice,
rule, condition ). The root-m oiphem e -n e d en lost its lexical meaning
and turned into the suffix -red which later became unproductive. As a
result o f this process the com pound word became a simple word;
12)fo reh ea d : fo r e - (‘before’) ■*- -h ca fo rd ('anterior part o f the body,
containing th e m outh, sense organs, and brain'). T h e derived word
underwent the process o f simplification o f the morphological structure
a n d s h o rte n in g w h ich were a c c o m p a n ie d by c e rta in p h o n e tic a l
changes — |'fbnd|. As a result the derived word becam e a simple one.

PART IV. W O R D - F O R M A T I O N

Chapter 1

1.
I) Initial shortenings (aphcsis): p lane — aeroplane, bus — omnibus.
sport — disport, ch u te — parachute, te n d — attend, gator — alligator;
2) medial shortenings (syncope): hols — holidays. Frisco — (San)
Francisco, m iss — mistress, circs — circumstances. A line — Adeline.
m a n — market, p rep -sch o o l — preparatory-school;
3) final shortenings (apocope): va c — vacuum cleaner, curio —
curiosity, fa n — fanatic, c e n — certainty, coke — coca-cola, cuss —
customer;
4) both initial a n d final shortenings: tec — detective, q u iz —
inquisitive, soccer — Association Football, L iz - Elizabeth.
244
1) additive type: b ru n c h — breakfast an d lunch; a b so tiv e ly —
absolutely and positively; flu s h — flash and blush: tu'iri — twist and
w hirl; m ingy — mean and stingy: transceiver — transmitter and receiver:
crocogator — crocodile and aligator: w in d o o r — window and door:
glu m p y — gloomy and grumpy: s/naze — smog an d ha/e: O xbridge
Oxford and Cambridge;
2) restrictive type: positron — positive electron: m ote! - motorists'
hotel; spam — spiced ham; slanguage slang language: bit — binary
digit: paratroops — parachute troops: oilitics — oil politics: dipu4ird —
diphtheria ward: neu topia — new utopia; cablegram -- cable telegram:
flextim e — flexible time.
“V
s
Netiquette. Internet + etiquette ( t h e polite way o f expressing yourself
with people on the Internet ):
em oticon: em otion icon Га symbol such as or that you
type in an e-mail o r text message to show how you are feeling’):
netiz.cn: Internet - citi/en ( “someone w ho spends a lot o f time using
the Internet’):
technophobe: technology - -phobe (“som eone who does not like to
use new technology, especially computers').
4.
1) acronyms read as ordinary English words;
NATO ( neitaul — N orth Atlantic Treaty Organization;
I N O |'ju:nao| United Nations Organization;
BUPA 1Ъи.рл 1 - British United Provident Association:
UCAS |'ju:kics| — Universities and Colleges Admissions Service:
NASA [ mesa| — National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
SALT [s.Ylt) - Strategic Amis I imitation Talks:
I E LA [ ill j;fa| — Union o f European Football Associations;
NAAFI j'mefi] Navv. Armv. and Air Force Institutes;
TEFL 1'tefll — teaching o f Lnglish as a foreign language;
U N R R A Jan roil - U nited N atio n s R elief a n d R ehabilitation
Administration:
FIFA [Tufa) - Federal International Football Association;
2) acronyms with the alphabetic reading:
WHO J'dvbalju; eitf'aul — The World Health Organization:
A GM j'ei cfci: 'emj — annual general meeting;
W | j'dvbalju; a 1 1 — Women s Institute;
IRA |Til a: er[ Irish Republican Army:
C I O [ si 'at di:] — Criminal Investigation Department;
IQ fat kju:| — intelligence quotient:
M RBM fern a: bi. ‘e m | — medium-range ballistic missile;
FBI | “e f *bi: aij — Federal Bureau o f Investigation;
U FO 1'ju: e f a u j — unideniified Hying object;
VIP |Vi: ai 'plj - very important person;
G l I'dji; ai| — government (or general) issue.

1) v o w e l- in te r c h a n g e (& suffixation): long (adj) — length (n),


strike tv) — stroke (n). full (adj) — fill (v). knot (n) - knit (v). sing <v) —
song in ) , bite (v) — bit (n ). abide (v) — abode (n ). deep (adj) —
depth (n>, ride (v) — road (n):
2) c o n s o n a n t-in te rc h a n g e : speak (v) — speech (n). wreathe (v ) —
wreath tn), house (n) — house (v), believe ( \ ) — belief (n). prove <v) —
p ro o f (n). shelve (v > shelf (n ). loathe (v) - loath (n), use (v) —
use (n). halve (v > — half (n). serve (v) - serf in);
3) v o w e l- & c o n s o n a n t - i n t e r c h a n g e : bake (v) — b a tc h (n ).
breathe (v) — breath (n), lose (v) - loss (n>, glaze (v) - glass (n).
wake (v) — watch (n). clothe <v) — cloth (n). bathe (v) bath <n).

6.
П иск cheep; тук-тук. н ам оеш ь тяжелый удар — thump-thump;
баю-бай, убаюкивать — hushaby /hush: лепет — babble; ш ипение —
fizz; ворчать — grumble: хихикать — to giggle: кудахтать — to cackle:
куко
« вать — to cuckoo; жуж * жать — to buzz, м ы чать — to m oo:
квакать — to croak: ш амкать — to mumble; свист — whiz; бах. баи;
с и л ь н ы й удар — bang; м я у к а т ь — to mew; ш и к а т ь — to boo:
кряканье - quacking; ржание - neigh; хлоп, хлопнуть — pop.

I. e n th u se (v) < e n th u sia sm (n) 2. frivol (v> < frivolous (adj)


3. greed <n) < greedy (adj) 4. edit (v) ^ editor (n) 5. burgle (v) <
burglar in ) 6. televise (v) < television (n) 7. butle (v) < butler (n)
8. o b s o le s c e (v) < o b s o le s c e n t (a d j) 9. o ra te <v> < o ra tio n (n )
10. peeve (v) < peevish (adj) 11. intuit (v) < intuition <n> 12. classify (v)
< classification (n).

S.
I) ’com pound (n. adj) - co m p o u n d (v>; 2) 'perfect (adj) — perfect
(v): 3) perm it in ) - p e rm it (v); 4) progress (n) — p ro g ress (v);
5) 'frequent (adj) fre q u en t <v): 6) affix (n) — affix (v): 7) c o n ­
tact (n) - c o n ta c t (v); 8) insult (n) — insult (v>; 9) absract (adj) —
a b s tra c t (v); 10) 'decrease (n ) — d e c re a se (v): 11) 'protest <n) —
protest (v); 12) 'produce (n) - produce (v); 13) ‘survey (n) — surVey (v);
14) conflict (n) — conflict (v): 15) subject (n. adj) — subject (v).
246
Derivational base SuUiv ' Deris ed nouns

a m v ici- •al arrival

a b u n d an t tl- -(an )ce abundance


_ i
1
co n stan m - -CV constancy

king- -d om kingdom

m dependenm - -<en)ce in d ep e n d en c e i

m outh- -ful m outhful

bov - -hiH>d boy h o o d


г
d a n c(cl- -ing dancing

invem- -ion invention

cr incize -ism criticism

scn»i(iN(ei- •ну sensitivity

ugrcc • -m ent agreem ent

happy- -ness happiness

owner- -»hip o w nership

m usic- -ian m usician

a) deverbal suffixes: -al. -ion. -ing. -ism . -m ent.


b> dcnominal suffixes: -dom . -fid. -hood. -ship. -ia n .
с ) deajectival suffixes: (an)ce. -cy. -(en)ce. -ity. -ness.
III.
1) 'skills or ability' w orkm anship, m usicianship, show m anship,
sportsmanship, salesmanship:
2) “position o r occupation*: chairmaaship, professorship, lectureship,
studentship, doctorship:
3) “relationship o r c o n n e c tio n betw een p e o p le ’: co m ra d esh ip ,
friendship, kinship, acquaintanceship, partnership
1 1.
1) suffixes denoting people o f different professions or o f different
kinds o f activity: -a n t (assistant), -е е (trainee), -ess (actress), -e r
(painter), -ian (hisionan). -isr (scientistI, -n r «supervisor).
2) suffixes denoting collectivity o r collection of: -ship (membership,
read ersh ip ), -h o o d (sis te rh o o d ), -e r y (m ac h in e ry , fin ery ), -d o m
(yuppicdom). -cy (aristocracy);
3) suffixes denoting diminuliveness: -ette (lecturette). -let (piglet).
-y (aunty), -ling (duckling), -kins (babykins). -ic (nightie).
12.
I) ex h au stin g work — exhaustive answer; 2) historic victory —
historical film: 3) h o n o ra ry citizen — h o n o u ra b le duty; 4) respectful
silence — re sp e ctab le person. 5) skilled worker — skilful surgeon:
b) c u ltu ra l life — c u ltu re d p erso n ; 7) to u c h in g w ords — to u c h y
person: 8) delighted audience — delightful holidays: 9) ec o n o m ic
crisis — e c o n o m ic a l sp en d in g ; 10) c o n te m p tib le tra ito r - c o n ­
te m p tu o u s smile.
■я
I Л.
dis-\ disability, dishonour, disagreement, disobedience:
//-: illegal, illogical, illiterate;
non-, non-paym ent, non-smoker, non-verbal, non-academic:
//•-; irrelevant, irresponsible, irrational, irresistible:
un- unhappy, unlearn, unlock, untie, unclean:
im - immature, impatient, impossible, impractical:
in-: informally, independently, inadequately:
de-: deregulate, destabilize, declassify, demystify:
a-: amoral, atypical, asensual. aseptic.
а) deverbia! & verb-forming prefixes un-. de-:
h) denominal & noun-forming prefixes, dis- . non-:
c) deajectiva) & adjective-forming prefixes; //-. non-, ir-. un-.
i/n-. a-:
d) dcadverbial &. adverb-forming prefixes; in-.
14.
1) ‘excess*: overdevelop (v). ovcram bitious (adj). overprotective
tadj). overdose in), overcareful (adj), overdress (v);
2) time (age)'; over-forty (n), over-seventeen (in, ovcr-twcniy (in:
3) 'position or place": overhang tv ), overhead tadvi. overfly tv к
overleaf (adv). overside (adv). overground (adj):
4) ‘addition": overprint <v>. overtime (adv>. overdub (v>:
5) outer, covering": overlay (\. rn. overcoat (n). overstitch tn ).
overcast (v). overlap (v). overboot tn). overall (n):
б) a person engaged in a certain activity or an agent o f an
action": over-king (n ). overreacher <n). overm an <n), overseer tn).
overnighter (n). overlooker (ni. overlander (n).

1. X 3Y 5. V ?. Y 9 X
2 Y 4. X 6. X S. X 10. X
16.
W o rd s with pro d u ctiv e affixes: unpeople: pubbers. clubbers: ex­
provincial: alphabetism: snoopings; tabooish: singlely; cupboardfuls,
unwearable: revisit, refeel: wrongish.
248
W o rd s with n o n -p ro d u c tiv e affix es tirstships; iconists; peepfu!;
hataholic: Celebritocracy.

17.
I ) the suffix -(e )te ria m eans a place where there is an element
o f self-service': 2) the suffix -d o m denotes “d o m ain , status’ o r “a class
o f people or the attributes associated with th e m ’; 3) the prefix un-
denotes “the absence o f a quality or state' o r ‘the reverse o f : 4» the
suffix -fu l m eans ‘full o f : 5) the suffix -a b le m eans “possible'; 6) the
suffix - e r denotes 'a g e n t' (e h a n n e le r — “m edium , som ebody who
c o m m u n ic a te s with sp irits ’; b a g g er — ‘o n e w ho p uts c u sto m ers'
purchases into paper bags at the c h e ck o u t’ i: 7) ihe suffix -th m eans
‘state o r quality’: 8) the suffix -iz e m eans ‘to m ak e’ (o r to cau se’ );
9) (he prefix e x - denotes form er’; 101 the suffix -a c h o lic denotes
'to be addicted to ': II) the prefix re- m eans ‘ag ain ’; 12) the suffix
-ism m eans ‘d iscrim in atio n ag ainst': g e n d e rism — discrim ination
a g a in st p eo p le o f e ith e r sex; a b le is m — d is c rim in a tio n against
disabled: h eig h ryism — d isc rim in a tio n on the g ro u n d s o f height,
specifically unfair treatment of tali women and short men; a/phaberism —
discrim ination on the grounds o f the alphabetical place o f the first
letter o f one s surname.

18.
I ) -n ik — Russian and Yiddish: 2) p m — Greek: 3) - able — Latin;
4) - m e n t - F rench: 5) fo r e - — Old English. 6) -a g e - French;
0 n o n - — L a tin ; S> -is m G re e k ; 9) o v e r O ld E ng lish ;
10) -a n ce — French: II) -a n t — Latin: 12) p a ra Greek.

19.
1) the adjective-forming affixes added to the nominal bases: -ful
(sh am e ful), -o u s (hum or o u s), - a r v (com plim ent a r y ). -a t
(accidental», -v <prick!(e) -y>. -ish (fool(ish):
2) the adjective-form ing affixes added to the verbal bases: -ive
( p r o t e c t - i v e ) . - ib le ( c o l l a p s ( e ) - i b l e ) . - e d ( r e t i r ( e ) - e d ) . -ib le
(perm i(t)ss-ible), -ive (altem at(e )-iv e).
3) the adjective-forming affixes added to the adjectival bases, -al
(ironic-al. coim c-afi.-A /i (sm all-ish). -ly (dead ly)

2ft.
I) The verbal bases combined with Ihe noun-forming suffixes: -m ent
( e n c o u ra g e m e n t) , - e r (a m a n a g e r). - io n (th e in v e n tio n ), -e n c e
iinsistence), -a l (dismissal), -ее (appointees)
2» The verbal bases com bined with the adjective-forming suffixes
-fu l (useful), -ire (attractive), -able (avoidable >. -som e (tiresome), -ing
(annoying). -ar\ (imaginary).
244
C h a p te r 2
1.
I. adverb > verb 2. adjective > nou n 3. noun > verb 4. verb > noun
5. adjective > noun 6. noun > verb 7. adjective > verb 8. adverbs >
nouns 9. no un > verb 1ft. verb > noun 11. adjective > no un 12. noun
> verb 13. adjective > noun 14. conjunctions > nouns 15. adjective >
verb
У
1) deprivation o f the object; 2) in stru m en tal use o f the object;
3) action characteristic o f the object: 4) location: 5) acquisition or
addition o f the object; 6) action characteristic o f the object; 7) instru­
mental use o f the object & deprivation o f the object; 8) addition o f the
object: 9) deprivation o f the object: 1ft) action characteristic o f the
object: 11) location: 12) instrumental use o f the object: 13) acquisition
or addition o f the object: 14) deprivation o f the object.
3.
1) agent o f the action: 2) instance o f the action: 3) result o f the
action: 4) object o f the action: 5) agent o f the action; 6) place o f the
action: 7) instance o f the action: 8) object o f the action: 9) result o f the
action: 10) instance o f the action; II) place o f the action: 12) agent of
the action; 13) object o f the action; 14) result o f the action
4.
Homonymous pairs:
sm o ke (n) — sm o ke (v) (OE smoca n. — smocian v );
июгк in ) - tcork |v) <OE weorc n. — wyrcan v.);
note (n) — n ote (v> (O F note n.. noter v. > note n.. v. >;
d rin k (v) — drink (n) (O F drincan v. — drinc n.|:
rest (v) — rest (n) (OE restan neslan v rest/nest n,);
change (v) — change (n) (O F change n., changer v. > change v.. n ) ;
answ er (n) — a n s u e r ( \ ) (OE andswaru n. — andswarian v ):
hate (v) - h ale (n) (OE hatian v. — hete n.);
p a in t (n) — p o in t (v ) (O F point, pointe n.. pointer v. > point n.. v.»;
sorrow (n) — sorrow (v) (OE sorh/sorg n. sorgian v.).
Conversion pairs:
sm ite (v) — sm ite (n) (Scan, smirk v.);
dream (n) — dream (v) (OF. dream n.l;
m ove (v) — m o te (n) (O F movier v );
nose (n) — nose (v) (OE nosu n .);
laugh (v) — laugh (n) (OE hkehhan. hliehhan v );
place (n) - p la ce <v ) (L platea n ).
h a n d (n) — h a n d (v ) (OE hand/hon d n ):
p ity (n) — p ity (v) (O F pile п.);
praise (v) — praise (n) (OE preisier to prize, to praise ):
cha n ce <n) — ch a n ce <v \ (O F cheanee n ).
25ft
*,
Nouns derived from verbs:
call ( n .v ) — calling, called, caller;
break (n. v) — breakable, breaker, breaking, breakage;
recover (n. v) — recoverable, recovery, recoverer. recovering;
mix (n. v) — mixer, mixed, mixable. mixture;
wash (n. v) - washer, washed, washable, washing.
Verbs derived from nouns:
lime (n. v) — timeless, timely. timeous;
age (n. v) — ageism, ageist. ageless:
effect (n. v) — effective, effectual. etTcctless;
harm (n. v ) harmful, harmless;
sleep (n. v) — sleepless, sleepy.
6.
1) boathouse (‘a shed at the edge o f a river or lake used for housing
boats') — houseboat Г а boat which is o r can be m oored for use as a
dwelling*):
2 )p la y -b o y Га man who is rich and spends his time enjoying himself
instead o f w orking) — bo y-play ( t h e activity o f playing that is done
by boys');
3) p o t-flo w er (‘a (lower that grows in a p o t') - Jlow er-pot Г а small
c o n ta in e r, typically w ith sloping sides a n d m ade from plastic, o r
earthenware, used for growing flowers in');
4) life-boat ( ’specially constructed boat launched from land to rescue
people in distress at sea’) — bo a t-life (‘life on board the ship ):
5) board-school r a n elementary school under the management o f
a S ch o o l Board ) — s c h o o l- b o a r d Г а local b o a rd o r a u th o rity
responsible for the provision and m aintenance of schools');
6) dog-house г a house (kennel) where dogs live) — h o use-dog (’a
dog kept to guard a house );
7 >pot-pie Га savoury pie baked in a deep dish, typically w ith a top crust
only*) — pie-pot (“a small container in which a pie is cooked or kept);
S) b o y-to y Га toy for b o y s') — to y-b o y ( ‘an object for a child to play
with, designed as a miniature replica o f a real boy ).
9) p la n t-h o u se f a house for plants / where plans are grow n’) —
h o u se-p la n t Га plant which is grown indoors )

1. The derivational pattern n + n —►N expresses the generalized


m eaning: I) o f locative relations (g a r d e n - p a r ty . s e a -fr o n t): 2) o f
temporal relations <s u m m e r -h o u s e . d a y -tra in , sea so n -tick et): 3) o f
purpose or function (raincoat. suitcase, textbook, bath-robe).
2. T he derivational pattern a + a —» A conveys the generalized
meaning: 1) o f locative relations (so u th -e a st); 2) of colour or shades of
colour (light-green. b lu e-b la ck, dark-purple): 3) o f ihe degree o f some
quality (w h ite -h o t. red-hot).
251
3. The derivational pattern n + v ^ —> N expresses the generalized
meaning: 1) o f agentivc relations (dog-fighting, p ea ce-lo vin g . breath­
taking. tea -tea ch in g . au e-inspiring): 2) o f locative relations (picture-
going): 3) o f temporal relations (su m m e r-flo u e rin g \.
8.
1. Today's p e a -so u p e r forced drivers to slow dow n that caused an
eno rm ous traffic congestion (p e a -so u p e r — a very thick yellowish
fog'). 2. All the data then has to be k e y b o a rd e d (k e y b o a rd — *to put
inform ation into a com puter using a keyboard*). 3. You are getting
on my nerves. I w on't discuss this m atter with such a scatterbrain
as you are (sca tterb ra in — *a person who tends to be disorganized
and lacking in c o n c e n tra tio n ’). 4. She m oved to L o n d o n after the
b re a k d o w n o f her m arriage (b re a k d o w n — ’a situatio n in which
so m e th in g has failed o r is b e g in n in g to fail*). 5. F red has been
w orking as a b o d y g u a r d for th e last few years (b o d y g u a rd — a
p e rs o n o r g r o u p o f p e o p le e m p lo y e d to e s c o rt a n d p r o te c t an
im portant o r fam ous p e rso n ’). 6. lie has to leave the club as all its
m em bers b la c k b a lle d him ( b la c k b a ll — 'to reject (a c a n d id a te
applying to becom e a m em ber o f a private club ), typically by means
o f a secret ballot ) 7 H er aunt is a sh a re h o ld e r o f a big prosperous
com pany (sh a re h o ld e r — ‘an ow ner o f shares in a com pany ). 8. I
c a n 't stand m any lo w b ro w p ro g ra m m e s show ed on TV every day
(lo w b ro w — not c o m p lic a te d , intellectu al o r difficult to u n d e r ­
s t a n d ) . 9. S he has a re p u ta tio n as a real g o -g e tte r (g o -g e tte r
som eone w h o is determ ined to succeed an d works hard to achieve
t h is ') . 10. We sat in a w e s tr u c k silence h e a rin g th e tru th at last
(a u v s tn u k — ‘filled with o r revealing awe*) 11. We didn't know how
to p lan t th e s e b u s h e s a n d asked a p l a n t s u o m a n to c o n s u lt us
(p la n rsw o m a n — ‘a female expert in garden plants and gardening )
12. We becam e unintentional witnesses o f a bit a rg y -b a rg y between
actors and their director {a rg v-b a rg y — ‘noisy argum ents').
9.
Coordinative compound words:
a) reduplicative compounds:
b /a h -b la h used to refer to something which is boring or without
meaningful content*: c h i-c h i ‘attempting stylish elegance but achieving
only an over-elaborate affectedness': h a -h a ‘a ditch with a wall on its
inner side below ground level, forming a boundary to park o r garden
without interrupting the view*; w illy-w illy *a whirlwind or dust storm ':
h u sh -h u sh ‘(especially of an official plan or project) highly secret or
confidential':
b) phonically variated rhythmic twin forms:
tic k y -ta c k y ‘(especially o f a building o r housing development) made
o f inferior material: cheap or in poor taste': p in g -p o n g table tennis';
riff- raj] ‘disreputable or undesirable people': rugger-bugger'a boorish.
252
aggressively masculine young man who is devoted to sport'; easy-peasy
(inf) very straightforward and easy (used by or as if by children)': h o b ­
nob ‘to mix socially, especially with those o f perceived higher social
status': w illy-n illy ‘whether one likes it or n o t’;
c) additive compounds:
w o lf-d o g . s e c re ta ry -s te n o g ra p h e r. d a r k -b ro w n . A n g lo -S ax o n ,
flghter-bomber. boy-friend, oak-tree.
Subordinative compound words:
Duty-free, road-building, wrist-watch. a baby-sitter, knowledge-
hungry (eyes), week-long, fact-filled (report), war-weary' (people), iron-
poor (blood), home-sick, hand-m ade, world-famous.

Iff.
Compound nouns: sleeping-car. sunbeam , tim e-server, h o u s e ­
keeping. maidservant, broadway.
Compound adjectives: nation-w ide, sweet-smelling, sick-making.
reddish-brown, dog-tired, knee-deep.
Compound pronouns: everyone, anybody, som ething, nobody,
everything.
Compound adverbs: elsewhere, upright, outside, downhill, indoors.
Compound verbs: a) to honeym oon, to finger-print, to nickname,
to whitewash, to week-end, to hunger-strike: b) to vacuumciean (from
v a c u u m -c le a n e r ). to care-take (from c a r e -ta k e r ). to sightsee (from
sightseeing), to typc-write (from typew riter), to fortune-hunt (from
fo r tu n e -h u n te r), to merry-make (from merry m a k in g ).

11.
1) compounds composed without connecting elements:
heart-beat. pale-blue, day-time, wind-driven, oil-rich, play-acting,
blacklist, water-mark, sunflower, door-handle;
2) compounds composed with the help o f vowels or consonants
as linking elements:
saleswoman, electromotive, tragicomic, handiwork, craftsmanship,
sp o k e sm a n . A n g lo -S a x o n , b rid e sm a id , p o litic o -m ilita ry . A nglo-
Catholic;
3) com pounds com posed with the help o f p rep osition s or
conjunctions as linking elements;
m ake-and-break. up-to-date, d o w n -a n d -o u t, m atter-of-fact, up-
and-com ing, m other-in-law . sit-at-hom e, good-for-nothing, o n e-to -
one. step-by-step, out-of-town.

12.
Compounds proper: low -born, a peace maker, thoroughgoing,
a businesswoman, a side-track, awestruck, a baby-sitter, bluish-black,
a looking-glass, a type-writer, a mill-owner. hom e-m ade, a sportsm an,
stone-deaf, a videodisc.
253
Derivational compounds:
a) heavy -hearted', (a + n) + -ed: a pea-souper, (n + n) + -er: an old-
timer. (a + n) + -cr. Ш-m annered: (a + n) + -ed: a go-getter, (v + v) -
-e n one-eved: (num •+ n) * -ed: a teenager, (n ■+• n) + -er;
b> a b u yo u t: (v + adv) ♦ conversion; a sca tterb ra in : (v + n) *
conversion: to blackball: (a - n) + conversion; a low -Ь т ик (a + n) -
conversion: to keyboard: (n + n ) + conversion; a getaw ay. <v + adv)
conversion: to blue-pencil: (a + n) + conversion: a castauoy: (v + adv) -
conversion.
1.1
su m m er-flo w erin g :
1) n + \ tng
2) ‘flowering in sum m er’
3) V,„ + prp + N
4) temporal relations
notew orthy:
1) n + a
2) ‘worthy o f note’
3) A + р ф + N
4) objective relations
black -haired:
1) (a + n) + -ed
2) ‘with/having black hair’
3) with/having + A - N
4) possessive relations
blood-red:
1) n + a
2) ‘as red as blood*
3) as + A * as + N
4) relations o f resemblance
aw estruck:
1) n + vfn
2) ‘struck by awe*
3) 4 n t- рф +■N
4) instrumental relations
kin d -h ea rted :
1) (a + n) + -ed
2) ‘with/having kind heart’
3) with/having + A + N
4) relations o f possession
seven -yea r (plan):
1) num + n
254
2) seven years'
3) N um т N
4) quantitative relations
saferi-tested:
1) n + v,„
2) ‘tested for safety'
3) У ^ + р ф + N
4) relations o f purpose
p itch -b la ck:
1) n - a
2) ‘a* black as pitch*
3) as - A + as * N
4) relations o f resemblance
three-coloured:
1) ( n u m n ) + -ed
2) ‘with/having three colours'
3) with/having + N um + N
4) possessive and quantitative relations
sea-going:
1) n + v1Il?
2) ‘going to the sea*
- > Vr* ♦ РФ + N
4) locative relations
m a n -m a d e:
1) n + v „
2) ‘made by man*
31 \'cn - р ф + N
4) agentivc relations

m a ke-u p :
1) a verbal-adverbial com pound
2) {v + adv) ж conversion
3) to make up
4) V + Adv
5) semantic relations o f result
do o r-handle:
1) a nominal com pound
2) n? + n.
3) ‘the handle o f the d o o r’
4) N, р ф - N :
5) partitive relations
255
bottle-opener.
1) a verbal-nominal com pound
2) n + (v + -er)
3) 4 o open a boll Ic'
4) V + N
5) agentivc relations
g eta w a y:
1) a verbal-adverbial com pound
2) (v + adv) + conversion
3) ‘to gel awav*
4) V + Adv
5) semantic relations o f result
pencil-case:
1) a nominal com pound
2) n : + n
3) *a case for pencils'
4) N, + р ф - N :
5) semantic relations ol puф ose
shop-ow ner.
1) a verbal-nominal com pound
2) n + (v + -er)
3) ‘to own a shop'
4) V + N
5) agemive relations
tea ch -in :
1) a verbal-adverbial com pound
2) (v + adv) - conversion
3) ‘to teach in'
4) V - Adv
5) semantic relations o f result

office-m a n a gem ent:


1) a verbal-nominal com pound
2) n + <v-*-m ent)
3) ‘to manage an office'
4) V + N
5) ageniive relations

country-club:
1) a nominal com pound
2) n2 + n,
3) ‘a club in the country'
4) N. + р ф + N :
5) semantic relations o f place
256
setback:
1) a verbal-adverbial com pound
2) (v adv ) + conversion
3) 'to set back'
4) V + Adv
5) semantic relations o f result
m a tch -b rea ker.
1) a verbal-nominal com pound
2) n - (v + -er)
‘to break a m atch'
4) V - N
5) agentivc relations
fo o tb a ll-p la yin g :
1) a verbal-nominal com pound
2) n - t\ + -mg)
3) to plav football’
4) V N
5) agentive relations
w in d m ill:
1) a nominal com pound
2) n: - n
3) *a mill worked by the w ind’
4) N - worked by + V
5) instrumental relations
go-betw een.
1) a verbal-adverbial com pound
2) (\ + adv) + conversion
3) ‘to go between’
4) Y ^ A d v
5) semantic relations o f result
w o m a n -d o cto r.
1) a nominal com pound
2) n : +■ n
3) ‘the doctor is a w om an’
4) N; + is - V
5) appositional relations

PART V. ETYMQ l OG ' OF Ting ENGLISH WORD-STOC

1 >words of Indo-European origin sister, tooth, slow, know


seven, cat. widow, lip. swine, corn, ten. we. sun:
2) words o f Common Germanic origin: blast, glove, green, sand,
grass, llood. high, answer, life, small, silver, day. ship, hench:
3» English words proper: woman, lady, always, daisy, boy. sheriff,
call, bird, lord. girl.
3.
Lord, to lord, lord less, lord-like, lordling. lordly, lordliness, lordship,
lordy:
h a t to hat. hatful, hatless. hatted, hatband, hatbox, hat-block.
r e d : reddish, reddy. redly, redness, re d -b lo o d ed , re d -h o t. re d ­
headed. redwood:
g rass to grass, grasslcss. grass-like, grassy, grassing, grass-green,
grassland:
to fe e d feed, feeder, feeding, fccdahle. feed-pipe, feedlot. iecdsiulT:
q u ick quickly, quickness, quicken, quickening, quickie, q u ick ­
witted. quick-tempered.
sto n e : to sto n e , slo n eless. stony, s to n e d , sterner, s to n e - c o ld ,
stonework:
to fe e l: feel, fcelable. feeler, feeling, feelingly, feelingless. feel­
good:
heavy: heavily, heaviness, heavy ish. heavyweight, heavy-hearted,
heavy-footed:
to look: a look, looker, looky. lookable. look-sec. lookalike. look in
•,

1) to g et one's h ea d dow n — 'to work hard at something that involves
reading and writing’:
2) to sta n d a cha n ce — to have the possibility o f achieving sm th.'.
3> a g a m e that tu o can p la y - unpleasant, or hurtful behaviour or
action which can lead to retaliation ol the same kind-:
4) sm a ll tr\ — ’people, organizations, or activities that are not large
or important':
5) a house o f cards - an organization or a plan that is very weak
and can easily be destroyed':
6) to kn o ck sm b. fo r six to surprise and upset somebody a lot’:
7) to m a k e o n e 's m a rk — ’to become successful and well-known
generally o r in certain circles; esp. contribute to or influence an art.
science, sport, etc.':
H) fo r g o o d m easure — as an extra am ount to something or as an
additional item':
9» a b lu e-eyed boy — “a man who is liked and admired by someone
in authority
1U) to sir on the fence — ‘to delay making a decision when you have
to choose between two sides in an argument o r a competition':
I l i a grot area — *a subject or problem that people do not know
how to deal with because there are no clear rules':
12) to be up a tree ‘to be in a very difficult situation'.
258
"Ч.
1) indirectly: the source o f borrow ing is Latin, whereas the origin o f
borrowing is Greek:
2) indirectly: the source of borrowing is Old French, whereas the
origin o f borrow ing is Latin.
3) directly: the source & the origin o f borrowing is Old French:
4) indirectly: the source o f borrowing is Old French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Greek:
5) indirectly: the source o f borrowing is Old French, whereas the
origin o f borrowing is Latin.
6) directly: the source &. the origin o f borrow ing is Latin:
7) indirectly: the source o f borrow ing is (Old) French o r Latin,
whereas the origin o f borrowing is Greek;
S) indirectly: the source o f borrowing is Latin, whereas the origin o f
borrowing is Greek:
9) directly: the source & the origin o f borrowing is Spanish:
НИ indirectly : the source o f borrow ing is French, whereas the origin
of borrowing is Italian:
11) indirectly: the source o f borrowing is Italian, whereas the origin
of borrowing is Latin:
12) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is (Old) French, whereas the
origin of borrow ing is Latin;
13) directly; the source &. the origin o f borrow ing is Latin:
14) indirectly : the source o f borrowing is Old French, whereas the
origin of borrowing is Latin;
15) directly; the source & the origin o f borrowing is Greek:
16) indirectly; the source o f borrowing is Old French, whereas the
origin o f borrow ing is Italian.
o.

a) Celtic: Avon. London. E \c. Kilbride, the Downs;


b) Latin: cup. candle, plant, wall, interior;
c) Scandinavian: to cast, fellow, anger, to take, law:
d) French: government, prom enade, power, lieutenant, restaurant;
e) Greek: anemia, criterion, horm one, eponym. anamnesis.
f) Russian: samovar, cosm onaut, verst, kvass, tundra;
g) Spanish: banana, armada, mosquito, guerilla, tornado:
hi Italian: violin, umbrella, motto, bandit, gondola;
i ) G erm an : kindergarten, halt, waltz, nickel, poodle.

F r e n c h : g o v e rn m e n t I6"‘ een.: p ro m e n a d e — mid 16"' cen.;


pouer 13"‘ cen.: lie u te n a n t — 14" cen.. resta u ra n t — early 19"
cen.;
G r e e k : a n e m ia — early 19" cen.; c riterio n — early 17" cen..
h o rm o n e — early 2 0 " cen.: eponym — mid 19"cen.. anam nesis late
16" cen.;
259
R u ssia n : sa m ovar — 19th cen.: cosm onaut — mid 20th cen.; verst —
16th cen.; kva ss — 16!k cen.: tu ndra — 19th cen.;
G e r m a n : k in d e r g a r te n — mid 19’h cen.; h a lt — late 16" cen.;
w altz — late 18"’ cen.; n ic k e l — mid 18" cen.: poodle — early 19" cen.
M.
1 - J (Spanish): 2 — g ( R ussian): 3 — a (L a tin ). 4 - к (Italian):
5 - i <F rench): 6 — с ( R u ssia n ): 1 — b <G erm a n ): 8 - e ( L atin): 9 —
i (French): 10 — 1 ( R ussian)
o.
1. address 2.film s 3. coffee 4. tennis 5. alphabetical 6 pseudonym
7 radio 8. interests, politics 9. theatre 10. progress II. reform s, system
12. m edicine. L niversity
10 .
1) paragraph ( ‘a section o f a piece of w riting that begins on a new
line and contains one o r m ore sentences’) — параграф ( clause (ol
law); section m ark’):
2) baton ( ‘a stick that a conductor o f an orchestra o r choir uses’ >—
бат он ( ‘white bread o f an oval fo rm );
3) order ( the way in which a set o f things is arranged or done, so
that it is clea r which thing is first, second , th ird , e tc .’ ) — ордер
( ‘warrant*);
4) to reclaim П о get something back that someone has taken from
you ) — рек-гам ироват ь ( to advertise );
5) d e lic a te ( ‘easily broken or dam aged: weak a n d often ill ) —
д ели ка т н ы й ( tactful, polite’):
6) intelligent ( good at thinking clearly and quickly, at understanding
difficult ideas and subjects, and at gaining and using knowledge (syn.
clever)’) - и н т еа ш ген т н ы й (‘well-educated, characterized b\ refined
taste and m anners'):
7) ret ision r th e process o f changing, improving, or making addition* to
something such as a plan. law. or piece ofwiiting ) —ревизия ( inspection ):
8) a r tis t ( so m eo n e w ho m akes paintings, scu lptu res, etc. )
арт ист ( ‘an actor*):
9» sym pa th etic (‘kind to someone who has a problem and willing to
understand how they feel ) — си м п а т и ч н ы й ( pretty, pleasant, good-
looking’):
10) ca p ita l {‘the city where a country or region has its govern­
m ent’ ) — к о п ы т а i (‘money, wealth’):
11) fa b ric (‘cloth, especially when it is used for making things such
as clothes or curtains (svn. materia!)’) — </*абрика ( ‘a factory*):
12) am bitious (‘determined to be successful, rich, famous, etc.*) —
ам бициозны й (‘pretentious, pom pous ):
13) concourse ( a large area in an airport o r railway station, o r in front
o f a p u b lic b u ild in g , w h ere p e o p le c a n w a lk ’) — к о н к у р с ( a
com petition’);
260
14) r o m a n c e ( ‘an ex c itin g a n d u su a lly s h o r t ro m a n tic
r e la tio n s h ip ) — р о м а н с ( ‘a vocal-poetic co m p o sitio n w ith music
a c co m p an im en t);
15) to p re te n d ( to behave in a particular way because you want
s o m e o n e to b eliev e th a t s o m e th in g is tr u e w h e n it is n o t ) —
прет ендоват ь n o claim a right to possess something ):
16) co m m a n d (‘an official order*) — ком ат кз (‘sports team. crew ).

--------------------------------------------------------
Completely ParoalK truss imitated borrowings
assim ilated assim ilated
of b arb arism s
bo rrow ings b orrow ings

| wall. gate. torchere, niaharam. datum, pe­ a la mode, tet-a-tet.


want, matter. restroika. chalet, sheikh, nucleus. ad he c. pariando. a la
kettle, finish. parquet, bagel, chauffeur, for­ carte, pari-mutuel.
money, ill. mula. shaman, corps, alcazar. commcdia dell’artc.
odd. street souvenir, bacillus, spahi. stra­ pas de dcuv. nota
tum, spaghetti, memoir, paren­ bene, menage a trios.
thesis. hihakusha. incognito. padrona. coup de
thesis, tzatziki. sabotage, stimu­ maitre. ad libitum.
lus. Soyuz. boulevard, criterion. alamcda. deja vu.
torero, yin. macaroni, tzigane. Cbcrmcnsch. sensu
hypothesis, bagh. shiatsu. shapka iato. pousada

12.
C hanges in the sem antic structure o f the completely assimilated
borrowings:
1) wall ‘an upright side o f a room inside a building’ < Latin vallum
ram part':
2) gate ‘a door in a fence o r wall that you go through to enter or
leave a place’ < Dutch g a t ‘gat. hole, breach’;
3) w a n t to feel that you would like to have. keep, or do som ething’
< Old Norse vanta ‘be lacking’;
4) matter something that you are discussing, considering, or dealing
with’ < via Old French from Latin m ateria ‘timber, substance':
5) kettle ‘a container that is used for boiling water < Old Norse kerill
< Latin caiidus. diminutive o f catinus ‘deep food-vessel’:
6) finish ‘to do the last part o f som ething so that it is complete* <
Old French fe n is s < Latin fin ir e ‘end*:
7) money ‘what you earn. save, invest and use to pay for things*<
Old French m o n ei < Latin m o neta ‘mint, m oney’ (originally a title o f
the goddess Juno, in whose temple in Rome money was minted):
8) ill ‘not healthy, because o f a medical condition o r an injury’ <
Old Norse illr ‘evil, difficult’;
9) odd ‘different to what is usual o r expected; strange’ < from Old
Norse o d d a - in o d d a -m a th r ‘third m an. odd m an ’, from o d d i ‘angle’;
261
10) s tr e e t ‘a road in a town or city with houses o r other buildings
along it’ < from Latin strata (via) ‘paved (way), feminine past participle
a is te m e r e lay down*.
I1 J1.
1) torchere (tajc:): 2) chalet | j«elci|: 3) parquet [ picket); 4) chauffeur
I'Jaufo); 5) corps \'kx] (a m ain subdivision o f an arm y in the field,
consisting o f two or more divisions); 6) souvenir |,яи.лзтз); 7) spaghetti
IspagetiJ; 8) m em oir {’mem wo:); 9) incognito l.inkDg’nitao. in’kognitoul:
10) sabotage (ЧаЬа.игз]; I!) boulevard I'buila.vadJ: 12) m acaro ni
fmieko’ra u n if

14.
Datum — data: parenthesis — parentheses;
nucleus — nuclei; thesis — theses:
formula — formulae; stimulus - stimuli:
bacillus — bacilli; criterion - criteria;
stratum — strata; hypothesis — hypotheses.

15.
M a h a ra n i — ‘an Indian prince’s wife or widow’ (Hindi):
perestroika — ‘(in the former Soviet Union) the policy or practice
o f re stru ctu rin g o r reform ing th e e c o n o m ic an d political sy stem ’
(Russian):
sh eikh — ‘an Arab leader, in particular the chief or head o f an Arab
trib e , fam ily, o r v illa g e ’; a le a d e r in a M uslim c o m m u n ity or
organization’ (Arabic);
bagel — ‘a dense bread roll in the shape o f a ring, characteristic ol
Jewish baking’ (Yiddish):
sh a m a n — ‘a person regarded as having access to. and influence in.
the world o f good and evil spirits, especially am ong some peoples of
northern Asia and North America* (G erm an/R ussian);
a lca za r — a Spanish palace or fortress o f Moorish origin’ (Spanish):
sp a h i — *a m em ber o f the Turkish irregular cavalry’ (Turkish):
h ib a ku sh a — ‘(in Japan) a survivor of cither o f the atomic explosions
at Hiroshima o r Nagasaki in 1945* (Japanese);
tza tzik i — *a Greek side dish o f yogurt with cucumber, garlic, and
often mint* (Greek):
Soyuz *a scries o f m anned Soviet orbiting spacecraft, used to
investigate the operation o f orbiting space stations* (Russian);
torero — ‘a bullfighter, especially one on foot* (Spanish);
y in — ‘(in Chinese philosophy) the passive female principle o f the
universe, characterized as female an d sustaining and associated with
earth, dark, and cold* (Chinese);
tzigane — ‘a Hungarian gypsy* (Hungarian);
bagh — ‘a large garden o r orchard* (Hindi);
262
sh ia tsu — a form o f therapy o f Japanese origin in w hich pressure is
applied to certain points on the body using the hands* (Japanese);
sh a p k a — a brimless Russian hat o f fur o r sheepskin' (Russian).
16.
1) a la m ode — in fashion, up to d u e ; from French:
2) ter-a-tet — a private talk: from French;
3) a d hoc — formed, arranged, or done for a particular purpose only;
from Latin;
4) parla n d o — speaking: from Italian:
5) a la carte — according to the menu: from French:
6) p a r i-m u .u e l — mutual stake; from French;
7) com m edia d e lf arte — an improvised kind o f popular comedy in
Italian theaters in the 16" 18" centuries, based on stock characters;
from Italian;
S) pas d e d e u x — a dance for two people, typically a m an and a
woman: from French;
9) n ota ben e — take special notice; from Latin:
10) m enage a trios household o f three: from French;
11) p a d ro n a — a female boss or proprietress: from Italian:
12) coup d e m aitre — a master stroke: from French;
13) a d libitum — at pleasure: from Latin;
14) a la m ed a — a public walkway o r prom enade, shaded with trees;
from Spanish:
15) deja vu — a feeling o f having already experienced the present
situation; from French:
16) V berm ensch — the ideal superior man o f the future w ho could
rise above conventional Christian morality to create and impose his own
values, originally described by Nietzche in Thus S p a k e Z a ra th u stra
(1883-5); from G erm an (literally superman );
17) sensu lata — in the broad sense: from Latin;
18) p o u sa d a — an inn o r hotel, especially one o f a chain o f hotels
administered by the state (literally ‘resting place ): from Portuguese.
17.
1) screech — shriek < Old Norse sk r x k ja :
2) h o te l — hospital < Old French hostel < medieval Latin hospitdle:
3) ch a rt — ca rd < Old French c h a rie /c a rte < Old Latin c h a r ta /
carta < Greek kh a rtes ‘papyrus le a f ;
4) abridge — ahhrei iate < late Latin ahbreviare ‘cut short* < Latin
brevis ‘sho rt’;
5) travail — tr a ie l < via Old French from medieval Latin rrepalium
‘instrum ent o f torture’:
6) ca tch — ch a se < Old French c h a rie r (verb), ch a c e (no un) <
Latin capture 'try to take*, from capere ‘take’;
7) ch ieftain — captain < Old French ch evetaigne/capitain < late
Latin capiraneus 'c h ie f < Latin ca p u t. cap it head’.
263
IS .

L a tin O l d F re n c h . T re n c h O ld N u r s e , S c a n d . S p a n is h o r Italian

ju n io r p a rtn e r lo a n s firm
to in v estig a te jo u rn ey tak e n
in tim a te d sto u t tru sted
d efin ite ly m anner th eir
c o n se rv a tiv e p e o p le seem ed
s o lid safe
1 in stin c tiv e ch arg e
concerned c h a rita b le
ty p ic a l concerned
episcopal m ain te n a n c e
Sunday fo rm s
school fa sh io n a b le
se p a ra te d episcopal
change
coat

®9.
endanger, en- (Latin), -danger (Old French);
citizenship, citizen- (Anglo-N orm an French), -ship (Old English:
o f G erm anic origin):
com putaholic: com put- (French/L atin), -aholic (French):
p a n -A m e ric a n : pan- (G reek). -American (Latin);
leatherette: leather- (Old English: o f G erm anic origin), -cite (Old
French):
vice-ch a ir, vice- (Latin), -chair (French):
slavery, slave- (Old French), -ery (French);
superm an, super- (Latin), -m an (Old English: o f G erm anic origin):
disobey: dis- (Latin), -obey (Old French);
payable: pay- (Old French), -able (French/Latin);
foreleg-, fore- (Old English: o f G erm anic origin), -leg (Old Norse):
politeness: polite- (Latin), -ness (Old English: o f G erm anic origin):
befrien d : be- (Old English), -friend (O ld English: o f G erm an ic
origin):
outclass: out- (Old English: o f Germ anic origin), -class (Latin);
childish: child- (Old English: o f Germ anic origin), -ish (Old English:
o f G erm anic origin).
20.
I. guts — courage (French) 2. ask — question (French) — interrogate
(Latin) 3. fire — flame (French) - conflagration (Latin) 4. house —
m a n s io n ( F r e n c h ) 5. kingly — royal ( F r e n c h ) — regal (L a tin )
6. weariness — lassitude (Latin) 1. rise — m ount (French) — ascend
(Latin) 8. happiness — felicity (Latin) 9. holy — sacred (French) —
consecrated (Latin) 10. clothes — attire (French)
264
21.
Tooth — dental, sun — solar, cat — feline, youth —juvenile, death —
mortal, son — Filial, eye — optical, uncle — avuncular, dog — canine,
star — astral, sea — marine, nose — nasal, town — urban, sight — visual.

L — e. 5. — h. 9. -- b. 13. - f.
2 - £ 6. - 1. 10. - k. 14. - a.
3. c. 7 .- j . II. — i. 16. —m
4. — n. 8. — o. 12. - P- 17. - q.

1) glen (from G aelic) — ‘a narrow valley*;


2) to fa s h (from French) — ’to feel upset o r worried';
3) ingle (from Gaelic) — a domestic fire or fireplace*;
4) k irk (from Old Norse) — a church*;
5) dom inie (from Latin) — ‘teacher*;
6) p ib ro c h (from G a e lic ) — *a form o f m usic for th e Scottish
bagpipes involving elabo rate variations o n a th e m e , typically o f a
material or funerary character’:
7) brae (from Old Norse) - *a steep bank or hillside*;
8) d ra m (from Old French or Latin) - *a small drink o f whisky or
other spirits';
9) dreich (from Old Norse) — ‘dreary’;
10) b o n n y (from Old French) — attractive or beautiful*.
24.
!. b a r f — bjard. hill, especially one which is long and low’;
2. y a iv d — ja ld a : horse o f inferior breeding*:
3. g a te — gata. ‘way. street*;
4. scuttle — skutiU : ‘basket for holding grain: metal bucket for coal*;
5. m en se — m e n n s k a ; ‘decency: neatness, tidiness*:
6. beck — b ekkr. *a stream, a brook’;
7. carr — kjarr. marshy woodland or shrubland’;
8. n a n g — ungr. ‘troublesome, painful, irritating*;
9. tarn — tja m : ‘lake o r pond (especially in an upland location)*:
10. k is t — kista: ‘large box, chest o r trunk*.

PART VI. W O R D -G R O U P S AND PH RA SEO LO G ICA L UNITS

C h a p te r 1

i.
a)
1. m ended 2. to repair 3. repairing 4. mending 5. repaired 6. mended
7. to repair 8. m end 9. repaired 10. to m end
265
Го m e n d — До repair something that is broken o r damaged, especially
something that has a hole (or tear) in it’
ro rep a ir — *to d o work o n something that is broken, damaged, or
not working properly, in order to make it work again o r look the way it
looked before’

h)
1. mistake 2. error 3. error 4. mistake 5. error 6. mistakes 7. error
8 error 9. mistake 10. mistake II. error
m ista ke - something that is wrong or incorrect, which you do by
accident’
error — a mistake, especially one that you do not realize that you
are making, that can cause usually serious problems for someone'
у
Meanings:
f u l l — I) filled completely; 2) complete, whole; 3) the highest or
greatest possible;
d r y — 1) having n o w ater o r liqu id in side o r on the surface;
2) without rain o r wetness; 3) not sweet; not fruity in taste; 4) dull and
uninteresting; 5) subtle, expressed in a matter-of-fact wav;
b ro a d — I ) large o r larger than usual; w ide; 2) stretching out far and
wide, large in area; 3) not limited; 4) general; w ithout detail; 5) clear,
open; not subtle; 6) rather rude, not acceptable in polite society;
ugly - 1) extremely unattractive: 2) threatening and frightening or
violent; 3) very unpleasant:
w id e — I ) measuring a large am ount from side to side o r edge to
edge; 2) covering o r including a large range o f things.
3.
to run
I. Эта лош адь участвует в скачках. 2. Продолжительность фтезь-
ч а два часа. 3. Вода течет. 4. Этот кран течет. 5. У него насморк.
6. Мотор работает. 7. Вино растеклось по полу. 8. Этот вопрос я в­
ляется центральным в споре. 9. Она налила воду в ванну. 10. Он ус­
пеш но управлял сытим бизнесом. II. Мороженое начинас! таять.
to charge
I. Он ваял с мужчины десять центов аа карандаш . 2. Он заря-
лил батарейку. 3. Он требовал от них вы полнения своих о б я за н ­
ностей. 4. Он записал эти покупки на счет мужчины. 5. Войска
атаковали неприятеля. 6. Я не хочу забивать свою голову пустя­
ками. 7. Судья обвинил его в соверш ении этого преступления.
4 .1 .
1. С о б ак а задохнулась от дыма. Я выбил о к н а , чтобы мы не
задохнулись от паров бен зи н а. О на задыхалась от рыданий Он
задыхался от злости.
266
Russian: задыхаться о т чего-л. — English: lo suffocate by smth.;
to choke w ith smth.
2. Моя м азенькая дочка умеет ездить на велосипеде. Он пре­
восходно С1 ДИ1 верхом на лошади. Я не хочу ехать на поезде. Если
мы поедем на автобусе, мы будем там вовремя.
Russian: езлить/ехать на чем-л. — English: to ride smth.; to go by
smth.
3. Это лекарство вылечит тебя от каш ля. Ничто, кажется, не
вылечит его иг нервозности. В этой больнице Анну лечат от го­
ловной боли соверш енно новым препаратом. Матьч и ков доволь­
но долго лечили от порезов и синяков.
R ussian: в ы л еч и в ат ь /л еч и ть от чего-л. — E nglish: to cure of
smth.; to treat for smth.
4. Следователь обвинил водителя в аварии. Он обвинил сестру
в смерти своего ребенка. Я не хочу обви нять его в том. чго он го­
ворит неправду. О на сказала, что работодатели обвиняю т ее в кра­
же (воровстве).
Russian: о б в и н я т ь в чем-л. — English: to Ыапте for sm th.: to
accuse o f smth.
5. П озволь мне взглянуть на это письмо. С ью не разреш ала
детям есть сладости. М ы не разреш аем никому курить в гтании.
Me позволяй проблемам управляй, iboch жизнью.
Russian: разреш ать/п о зволш ь кому-л. делать что-л. — English:
to let smb. d o smth.; to allow smb. to do smth.
4 .2 .
1. suffocate (in the passive) + preposition ‘by* + noun
ch o ke tin the passive) preposition with' + noun
2. ride + noun
go - preposition ‘by* + noun
3. cure + nou n/p ro n o u n + preposition ‘o f - noun
treat (in the passive) + preposition ‘for* - noun
4. b lam e * no un/p ro n o u n preposition ‘for' + gerund; to b la m e -
noun /pron oun -*• preposition ‘for* + noun
accuse + noun /p ro n o u n + preposition o f • gerund; to accuse +
n oun /p ro n o u n preposition ‘o f + noun
5. let + pronoun./noun + infinitive without the particle ‘to*
allow + noun/pronoun + infinitive with the panicle ‘to ’
5.
1. Russian: быть невиновным в чем-л. - English: to be innocent
o f smth.
2. Russian: объяснять что-л. кому-л. — English: to explain smth.
lo smb.
3. Russian: говорить н а како м -л . язы ке — English: to speak a
language.
4. Russian: влиять на что-л. — English: to affect smth.
5. Russian: возражать п р о ти в чего-л. — English: to object to smth.
6. Russian: встретиться с кем*л. - English: to encounter smb.
7. Russian: бы ть ви н овны м в ч см -л. — English: to be guilty o f
smth.
8. Russian: не одобрять что-л. — English: to disapprove o f smth.
9. Russian: беспокоить/тревож ить кого-л. чем-л. — English: to
bother smb. with smth.
10. Russian: ждать кого-л. — English: to wait for smb.
6.
Predicative: she was silent, you are studying, you read, you can
make, a w ord/a sentence gives, a suspicion flashes, she gained, it was
like a landscape, she shuddered, she saw.
N on-predicative, coordinative: to study an d read, a word o r a
sentence, dark and om inous, seen and hidden.

Endocentric word-groups:
verbal: to study a language, to read a page, to make nothing of. to
give a clue, to flash across sm th., to gain an inkling, to gain vaguely, to
shudder at smth.:
n o m in a l, a foreign language, a suspicion o f the sense, troubled w its,
an inkling into the working, the working o f sm b’s m ind, a dark/om inous
landscape, a flash o f lightning.
Exocentric word-groups: on a sudden, in a m om ent, at first.
s.
I) beautiful bird, black bird (дрозд), gay bird (весельчак): 2) cold
wind, cold hands, cold war. cold feet (трусость); 3) light burden, light
artillery, light supper, light hand (ловкость: деликатность); 4) blue skirt,
blue t'ox. blue funk (паника), blue stocking: 5) delicious cheese. Swiss
cheese, white cheese (творог), big cheese (важная персона): 6) coated
tongue, smoked tongue (копченый язык (кул.)). wicked tongue: 7) big
house, big boy (взрослый), big money, big talk (хвастовство): 8) high
tone, angry tone, mental tone (душевное равновесие).

Chapter 2

1.
I. a word-com bination 2. a phraseological unit 3. a w ord-com bi­
nation 4. a phraseological unit 5. a word-combination 6. a phraseological
u n it 7. a w o rd - c o m b in a tio n 8. a p h ra se o lo g ic a l u n it 9. a w ord-
c o m b in a tio n 10. a p h ra s e o lo g ic a l u n it II. a w o r d - c o m b in a tio n
12. a phraseological unit
2
(a) 3 , 6 . 7 ,9 . II, 12
(b) 1. 2. 4. 5. 8. 10
268
3.
I. She was ад green as grass when she was sixteen but o th er girls
in the typing pool taught her the ways o f their world. 2. T he girls had
got on well together until th e a p p le o f d isc o rd in the person o f a
handsom e young apprentice appeared in their midst. 3. 1 get y o u r drift
now. I think. If you m ean by integrity' what I would call ‘consistency’
then we've been arguing at cross-purposes. 4. We must jo in h a n d s with
o u r friends in Europe. 5. She dropped upon me o u t o f a blue sk y and
began asking questions which I had to answer. 6. 1 thought there would
have been protestations and tears when I told her I wanted to move out
o f the flat, hut no. she stayed as coo! as a cucum ber. 7. When his son
was in Paris, the boy,got o u t o f h a n d and caused many difficulties. S. He
got very h o t u n d e r th e c o lla r w hen I suggested that he might he
mistaken. 9. After listening a tew minutes to their conversation. 1 was
a ll a t sea. Botany is not my subject. 10. There were at least six murders
in that blood a n d th u n d e r story. II. Joan belongs to th e upper crust:
you can tell by the way she walks and talks. 12. Publishers are well aware
that rum ours o f possible prosecution o f a book are likely to send the
scales up by lea p s a n d b o u n d s. 13. All the people involved in the
C o m m o n w e a lth A rc h ite c ts’ c o m p e titio n were told to h o ld th e ir
horses — because time would be needed to organize an exhibition in
which the entries could be put on show 14 You should not exaggerate
her attractio n for th e stro n g er sex. 15. I d o n ’t like to hear people
sneering at positions and titles they’d have accepted in tu o ticks if they’d
got the offer.

4.
1 ) substantive phraseological units: the stronger sex. the apple of
discord, the upper crust;
2) verbal phraseological units: to get smb's drift, to get out o f hand,
to join hands, to hold o n e ’s horses;
3) adjectival phraseological units: as cool as a cucumber, blood
and thunder, as green as grass, all at sea. hot under the collar;
4) a d v e rb ia l p h r a s e o l o g ic a l u n its : in two ticks, by leaps and
bounds, out o f a blue skv.

5.
1. Associations evoked by the literal reading of the phraseological unit
to rain cats a n d dogs are connected with the idea o f the raindrops as
cats and dogs fighting fiercely one another.
2 Associations evoked by the literal reading of ihe phraseological unit
to cast a clo u d o ver are connected with the idea o f some changes of
n a tu re m anifesting th e w orsening o f w ea th er a c c o m p a n ie d by an
im pending darkness and gloom that can be regarded as symbols of
misgivings and apprehension, o f som ething unpleasant that spoils, e.g.
m ood, inner state o f a person, sm b's activity, situation, etc.
269
3. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to shtMi' o n e's teeth are connected w ith the idea o f a certain anim al's
behaviour. Showing its teeth an anim al tries to frighten its victim, tl
shows its strength (as teeth are one o f an anim al's strongest ‘w eap o n s').
as well as its readiness to attack its victim.
4. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to m e n d one's m anners are connected with the idea o f repairing a tear or
hole in a piece o f clothing. The correction o f the defect improves the thing.
5. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
a sitting d u ck are connected with the idea that it is easy to shoot a duck
which is sitting still.
6. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to catch som eone re d -h a n d e d are connected w ith the idea o f the blood
still on the hands o f the criminal .after stabbing his victim to death.
7. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
to ru n to seed are connected with the idea of a plant which, instead of
developing new shoots ( nooei м. ростки >. only produces seeds and loses
its beauty.
S. Associations evoked by the literal reading o f the phraseological unit
d ia m o n d c u t d ia m o n d are connected with the idea o f the diam ond as
o n e o f the hardest substance in the world, so it can only be cut by
another diam ond.
6.
1. Evaluation is negative, spoken with disapproval. 2. Evaluation
is positive, spoken with approval. 3 . Evaluation is negative, spoken
w ith disapproval. 4. Evaluation is positive, spoken with approval.
5. Evaluation is negative, spoken with disapproval. 6. Evaluation is
neutral/negative, spoken with disapproval. 7. Evaluation is positive,
s p o k e n w ith a p p ro v a l. N E v a lu a tio n is n e g a tiv e , s p o k e n w ith
disapproval.

1 informal 2. formal 3. inform al 4. neutral 5. formal 6. neutral


7. informal 8. formal
Ш.
a lounge liza rd (m asculine), to le a d a c a t-a n d -d o g life ( inter -
g e n d e r), to m a k e e y e s a t s o m e o n e (fe m in in e ) , a g e n tle g ia n t
(masculine), a big wig (m asculine), to tell tales (fem inine), to hare
a roving eye (masculine), to p o u r o u t o n e's heart (feminine)
IS
1. 1Ъе gender macrocomponent is expressed explicitly (in semantics
2. The g en der m acroco m pon ent is expressed implicitly. I he factor
determining the gender m acrocom ponent as intergender is a traditional
understanding o f the negative side o f a married o r jo in t life. 3 Ih e
gender macrocomponent is expressed implicitly. Ih e factor determining
270
the gender m acrocom ponent a %fe m in in e is a stereotyped perception of
a w om an’s behaviour in case she wants to show a m an that she likes him.
4. T he gender m acrocom ponent is expressed explicitly (in semantics).
5. I he gender m acro co m p o n cn t is expressed implicitly. T he factor
determining the gender m acrocom poncnt as m a scu lin e is an activity in
which historically men were involved, i.e. to decide cases in law courts.
6. T he gender m acrocom ponent is expressed implicitly. The factors
determining the gender m acrocom poncnt as fe m in in e are: 1) a tradi­
tional women s activity, i.e. to tell fairy tales to small children, and
2) a stereotyped perception about a typically female feature, i.e. a liking
for casual and unconstrained conversations about other people's private
life, typically involving details w hich are not confirmed to be true. 7. H ie
gender m acrocom ponent is expressed implicitly. The factor determining
the gender m acrocom poncnt as m asculine is a traditional idea about
behaviour o f a man o f a certain character, i.e. women-lover. 8. The
gender macrocomponent is expressed implicitly. The factor determining
the gender m acrocom ponent as fe m in in e is a stereotyped perception
about a typically women's behaviour
10.
T ogo through fir e a n d w ater, metaphor * antithesis (fire and water
are two opposite nature elements (стихии):
to f t like a glove: simile:
to b u n th e h a tc h e r m etaphor + metonymy:
to lick o n e's w ounds: metaphor:
a big wig: metonymy + metaphor:
to p u t sm b. o u t to p a stu re: metaphor;
to lie on sm b 's shoulders: m etaphor * synecdoche;
(ax) gentle as a la m b : simile:
to talk Billingsgate: metonymy:
a dog in th e m anger, m etaphor + oxymoron, i.e. com bination of
apparently contradictory notions — a dog and m anger (‘a long open
box for horses and cows to eat from').
II.
1) p h r a s e o l o g i c a l fu s io n s : to sp ill th e b e a n s ( to give away
in fo rm a tio n , deliberately or u n in te n tio n a lly ), a r e d h e r r in g Г а
diversionary topic, incident, e tc .) . to w ash o n e s ha n d s o f С to absolve
oneself from responsibility'), to blow o n e 's top (’to express o n e 's anger,
one's dislike of. one's alarm about, smb. smth. in a forceful, unrestrained
wav'), to hang up o n e's boots CIO retire*);
2) p h ra s e o lo g ic a l u nities: to b u ry th e p a st ( deliberately forget
about, cover or break o n e ’s connections with smth. or everything that
has happened in the past ), a h o m e b ird ( som eone w ho chooses to
spend most of his lime at home because he is happiest there ), like a
lam b ('obediently; submissively; without protest or c o m p la in ), to fig h t
fir e w ith f i r e r t o attack someone with a lot o f force because they arc
attacking you with fo rc e ), to ux?rk o n e's fin g e rs to th e hone (‘to work
veryr hard for a lot o f tim e'):
3) phraseological collocations: a t f i r s t sight ( ‘when first seen or
considered’ ), to ta lk b u sin ess ( discuss, have a conversation about
b u s in e s s a f f a ir s ’ ), to le a d a b u s y life ( to be c o n tin u o u s ly , o r
characteristically, o r for a particular period, a busy p e rso n ), in fa sh io n
( ‘p o pular a n d considered to be sm art at the tim e in q u e stio n '), to
co m m it m u rd e r (‘to kill somebody ).

12.
1. Native phraseological units:
I > to h a n g u p o n e 's boot: (from professional sports lexics) the
football player hangs up his boots after the match;
2) to b u ry th e hatcher, (custom) in the past to bury a hatchet was a
gesture to signify the end ot hostility between two tribes, groups, people:
4) a w hipping boy: (tradition) formerly a hoy educated with a young
prince o r another royal person and punished — whipped instead o f him
for his misbehaviour:
7) the law o f the jungle: (literature) from R. Kipling's <British novelist
and short-story writer) tale The Jungle B<ntk (1894):
10) a b lu e sto ckin g : form erly th e term d en o ted a p erso n who
attended the literary assemblies held in 1750 by three London society
ladies, w here some o f the men favoured less formal dress:
13) pig in th e m iddle: from a children s game where the pig tries
to catch a ball tossed from one to another o f a pair or ring o f people: if
succeeds, the thrower becomes ‘pig’:
15) a blue coar. in Britain students at charity schools wear a blue
uniform;
16) to d ie w ith o n e's boots on: from a military term meaning to die
in battle’:
18) p e n n y w ise a n d p o u n d fo o lish : penny is a British bron/e coin
and monetary unit equal to one hundredth o f a pound, pound is the
basic monetary unit o f the l/K . equal to 100 pence;
19) the iron curtain the phraseological unit has been widely used
in the m eaning ‘the W esternmost boundary o f the group o f Eastern
European states politically and economically dom inated by the Soviet
I n io n \ The phrase was popularized by Sir Winston Churchill in his
Fulton Speech in 1946: “ From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across E urope’’;
21) to run the gaunrler. from the custom in the army and public
schools o f making an offender run between two lines o f soldiers or
schoolboys who would beat him with straps, sticks, etc.. in order to
dem onstrate their disapproval ol his misconduct.
2. Borrowed phraseological units;
3) a sa cred cow: from the H indu belie! that th e cow is a sacred
animal that must not be killed for food:
272
5) a n ug/у duckling, from Hans .Andersen's (D anish author) fairy
talc T he Ugly D uckling in which an ugly duckling, after m uch ridicule,
grows into a beautiful swan:
6) o f th e sa m e lea ven /h a tch : (from the Bible) "Your glorying is not
good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge
out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lum p, as ye are
unleavened. For even Christ o u r passovcr is sacrificed for us: therefore
let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of
malice and w ickedness; but w ith the unleavened bread o f sincerity and
tru th ” (The Holy Bible: King Jam es Version. 2000);
H) an apple o f discord: from the Greek myth o f a golden apple which
was to be given to the most beautiful o f three goddesses:
9) to h id e o n e's h ea d in th e sand: (a belief that cam e from Australia
or Africa) according to this belief ostriches hide their heads in the sand
in order to escape the danger:
i 1) the h o t sear. (Am erican) the electric chair as a means o f executing
criminals;
12) a dro p in th e b u c k e t/o c e a n : (from the Bible) "B eho ld, the
nations are as a drop o f a bucket, and are counted as the small dust o f
the balance” (Isaiah XL: 15):
14) blue blood: from Spanish sangre azul:
17) to fid d le w h ile R o m e bum s: the Roman emperor. Nero, played
a v iolin while his capital was being devastated by fire;
20) th e R u ssia n soul: (from R ussian literature) described an d
dramatized in the works o f Dostoyevsky and other Russian novelists o f
the 19th century.
1.1,
I. fat cats 2. dark horse 3. Achilles heel 4. sour grapes 5. red tape
6. around the d o c k 7. to put her cards on the table 8. to lord it over 9. to
see somebody in the flesh 10. to work like a dog

P A R T Vli VARIANTS A N D DIALECTS O F THE ENGLISH


LANGUAGE

1.
1. turns — journey 2. a rtan — a stone 3. o n o ir — dignity 4. sn a im —
a knot 5. u in n ea g — window 6. u ilm —- coffee 7. p a sg a n — packet
8. f to s — knowledge 9. caig — conversation 10. toll — hole II. a n a m —
life
3.
1. a dea/g — th o m 2. thс g a l — steam 3. cru a ta n — distress, hardship
4. a im p — noise 5. a ta m a ll — while 6. the fa lla — wall 7. balcais —
rag 8. a scib — basket 9. a c a m — friend 10. the togha — choice 11, the
to/g — sofa
273
7».
a) h isto ric a l A m erican ism s: fall, guess, sick:
b) proper Am ericanism s: elevator, telep h o n e b o o th , faucets,
subway:
c) sp e c ific a lly A m erican borrow ings: p iro g u e , h a m m o c k ,
tomahawk.
6.
American English British English Australian English
11) candy sweets lollies
2 ) grade form year
3) subway /m e t r o un derg roun d railway station
4) th e m ovies the c in e m a th e pictures
5) m ailbox postbox letterbox
6 i sneakers trainers runners
I ~ > sidewalk pavem ent toot path

(1) Canadian English: draegerm an. bobskate. parkade. riding,


reeve:
(2) Australian English: schoolie. drongo. bodgie, am bo. fine:
( 3> N ew Z e a la n d English: waka. bobsy-die. aroha, haka. karanga;
(4) South African English: hackveld. voorskot. indaba. fundi, wors:
(5) Indian English: bahadur. yatra. achcha. izzat. chaprasi.
9.
a ) w ord s/w ord-com b ination s that have no equivalents in
Am erican English (B riticism s): parish c o u n c il, privy p u rse, the
woolsack, county council, gram m ar school, foreign secretary, school
inspector, pub, back bench;
b) words/word-combinations that have no equivalents in British
English (Americanisms): congressman, holiday season. Secret Service.
Ivy League, ju n io r college, b a rrio , electoral college, green c a rd .
G roundhog Day.
11.
(a) words that are used in American English: tuxedo, zip code,
vacation, period, apartm ent building, gasoline, flashlight;
(b) words that are used in British English: bill. pram, chemist,
tram , dust-bin, motorway, trolley, car park.

American English British English American English British English

1. tuxedo d in n e r jacket 5. a p artm e n t block o f flats


2 . zip co de postcode building
3. vacation holiday 6. gasoline p e tr o l
4. period full stop 7. flashlight torch
S. check bill

274
E n d o f th e Table
.... .. — 1

A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h B r i t i s h f n g i i s h A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h B r i t i s h E n g l i s h

9 . b a b y c a r r i a g e p r a m 1 2 . t r a s h c a n d u s t - b i n

1 0 . d r u g g i s t c h e m i s t 1 3 . f r e e w a y m o t o r w a y

1 1 . s t r e e t c a r . t r a m 1 4 . s h o p p i n g c a r t t r o l l e v

t r o l l e y c a r 1 5 . p a r k i n g l o t c a r p a r k

13
B r i t i s h A m e r i c a n
W o r d s a n J w o r d - c o m b i n a t i o n s

F n g ! i \ b F n g h s h

1 п е р в ы й э т а ж g r o u n d f l o o r f i r s t f l o o r

2 . ж е л е ш л я a o p o i a r a i l w a y r a i l r o a d

3 . л и ф т l i f t e l e v a t o r

4 п е р с е и l e v e l c r o s s i n g g r a d e c r o s s i n g

5 . а в т о м о б и л ь m o t o r - c a r a u t o m o b i l e

| (> . б о й ( с р а ж е н и е ) f i g h t ( a c t i o n ) c o m b a t

( а я ч н ы и к и о с к е р n e w s a g e n t n e w s d e a l e r

S . о ч е р е д ь q u e u e l i n e

9 . п р о д а в е и s h o p a s s i s t a n t s a l e s c l e r k

1 0 . г о с у д а р с т в е н н а я ш к о л а s t a t e s c h o o l p u b l i c s c h o o l

14.
1) c a ra v a n the lexico-semantic variant 'a vehicle that people can
live and travel in on holiday' (1 ) is specific to British English. Its
analogous opposition in American English is trailer.
2) interval: the lexico-semantic variant ‘a short break between the
parts o f something such as a play o r concert’ (2) is specific to British
English. Its analogous opposition in .American English and in Standard
English is interm ission:
3) c u p b o a rd : the lexico-semantic variant ‘a very *mall room with no
windows used for storing things* (2) is specific to British English. Its
analogous opposition in American English is closer.
4) tin: the lexico-semantic variants *a closed metal container for a
food or drink product that you open with a tin opener’ (2) an d ‘a metal
container used for cooking food in an oven* (2b) are specific to British
English. Their analogous oppositions in American English are can and
p a n correspondingly:
5) flat: the lexico-semantic variant ‘a set o f room s for living in.
usually on one floor o f a large building* (1) is specific to British English.
Its analogous opposition in American English is apartm ent.
6) c o a c h : the lexico-semantic variants ‘a long comfortable vehicle
for carry ing a large num ber o f passengers, especially on long journeys*
( I) an d o n e o f th e sections o f a train* ( l a ) are specific to British
275
English. T heir analogous oppositions in American English are bus and
c a r correspondingly. The lexica-semantic variant ‘a less expensive type
o f seat o n a plane o r tra in ’ (3 ) is specific to A m erican English. Its
analogous opposition in British English is eco n o m y/to u rist class;
7) g u ard : the lexico-semantic variant 'som eone on a train whose job
is to check tickets, announce the stations, and look after the passengers’
( 4 ) is specific to British English. Its analogous opposition in American
English is conductor.
15 .
1. believe — Adam and Eve
2. cousin — baker’s dozen
3. phone — dog and bone
4. thief — tea leaf
5. sick — Tom and Dick
6. sister — skin and blister
7. trousers — round the houses
8. talk — rabbit and pork
9. feet — plates o f meal
10. nose — 1 suppose
11. drunk — elephant’s trunk
12. m outh — north and south
13. shoes — ones and twos
14. jewelry — Tomfoolery
15. state — (wo-and-eight
If.
Southern', the coastal and piedm ont areas o f Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, the Carolinas. Georgia, the G u lf Slates (the states bordering
on the G u lf o f Mexico: Florida. Alabama. Mississippi. Louisiana), and
extending into the eastern p a n o f Texas.
M id la n d : a very large area extending across alm ost the whole
country, from southern New Jersey an d Pennsylvania an d northern
D elaw are, d o w n th ro u g h th e m o u n ta in o u s areas o f V irginia, the
C a ro lin a s, a n d G e o rg ia , w estw ard across T ennessee a n d w estern
Arkansas, then spreading into the whole o f the western United States.
Northern and Southern dialect subregions can be identified. It is the vast
size o f the M idland area that accounts for the impression o f general
uniformity in American English speech.
24.
• Time adverbials yesterd a y and still are deleted.
• M ain verb p reva iled is deleted.
• Relative clause that... yesterday made a main clause.
• Relative pronoun th a t and associated th e are deleted.
• Cleft structure 'it... r e s ta r te d replaced by a subjecl-predieaie
clause, th e m atch resum ed...
• Time adverbial n o t u n til m id -a ftern o o n is deleted.
276
• resum e replaces restart.
• but replaces a nd.
• Part o f the next sentence added: less ... rem aining.
• Change o f finiteness: rem a in ed becomes rem aining.
• New time adverbial is introduced: f o r th e f i n a l day.

P A R T VIII. E N G L I S H L E X IC O G R A P H Y

i.
a) Encyclopedic dictionaries:
The Chambers Book o f Facts
The Collins Dictionary o f Allusions
Ihe Oxford Com panion to English Literature
Brewer s Dictionary of 2b'h-century Phrase and Fable
The Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary
The Cambridge Guide to Fiction in English
The Cassell C om panion to 20lh-century Music
Ы Linguistic dictionaries:
N T C ’s Dictionary o f American Spelling
The Longman Dictionary o f the English Language
The Dictionary o f Literary Terms
The Concise Oxford Dictionary
The Collins C O B IT L D R ogefs International Thesaurus
ГЬе Cambrtdge International Dictionary o f Idioms
The Penguin Dictionary o f English G ram m ar
Random House Webster's Dictionary of American Slang
2
1) th e Concise O xford D ictionary o f English Etym ology: general,
specialized, monolingual, diachronic:
2) th e P e n g u in D ic tio n a r y oj E n g lis h id io m s : re stric te d ,
explanatory, monolingual, synchronic:
3) th e X etc O xfo rd D ictionary o f English: general, explanatory,
monolingual, synchronic diachronic:
4) the M o d e m E nglish-R ussian D ictionary: general, explanatory,
bilingual, synchronic:
5) th e L o n g m a n D ic tio n a r y o f P h r a s a l Verbs re s tr ic te d ,
explanatory, monolingual, synchronic:
b) th e L o n g m a n L a n g u a g e A c tiv a to r restricted, explanatory,
monolingual, synchronic:
л the E nglish-R ussian Dictionary o f Linguistics a n d S em io tics:
restricted, explanatory, bilingual, synchronic:
•M th e E n g lish P ro n o u n cin g D ictio n a ry , general, specialized,
monolingual, synchronic:
9) th e L o n g m a n B u s i n e s s E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y re s tr ic te d ,
explanatory, monolingual, synchronic;
HJ> th e N e w O xfo rd Thesaurus o f English: general, specialized,
monolingual, synchronic;
11) a D ictionary o f N eologism s: restricted, explanatory, m o n o ­
lingual. synchronic;
12) th e B B l C o m b in a to r y D ic tio n a r y o f E n g lish : g e n e ra l,
specialized, monolingual, synchronic.

1) group 2: 2) group I ; 3) group 2: 4) group 2: 5) group 1. 6) group I,


f .
The L ongm an Language A ctivator 11993): Lpper-interm ediate —
Proficiency.
al3U 0G R A PH Y

Б роуди А'., М а лга р е т т и Ф . 0 6 ю р а н г л и й с к о й и а м е р и к а н с к о й


л и тер ату р ы - Focus o n English a n d A m erican Literature — М .. 2003.
А нт руш ииа Г Б . А ^ю нисьева O R.. М орозова Н .Н . Л с к с н к о л о ш я
а н п н н с к о г о язы к а: Учеб. п о с о б и е . - М .. 1999.
Аракин В .Л И сто ри и а н г л и й с к о г о я зы к а . М .. 2003.
Аракин В .Л О ч е р к и п о и с т о р и и а н г л и й с к о г о язы к а : п о с о б и е для
п р е п о ш п а т е л е й а н м и й с к о г о я зы к а — М .. 1955.
Арнольд И. В. Л е к с и к о л о г и я с о в р е м е н н о г о а н гл и й с к о г о я тыка — М .
197.3.
Б еляелекая Е.Г. Те кеч лек ш гп п о с е м а ш и к с а н г л и й с к о г о я з ы к а
М .. 19S5.
Бе.ы евская Е Г С е м а н т и к а с л о в а Учеб. п о с о б и е. — М .. 1987
Т и т п ур г Р. 3. и л р. Л е к с и к о л о г и я а ж л и й с к о г о я з ы к а У ч еб н и к .
2-е изд., исир. и д о п . — М .. 1979.
З ы к о в а И . В. С п о с о б ы к о н е г р у и р о п а п и я г е н д е р а п а н г л и й с к о й
ф р а з е о л о г и и . — N1.. 2003.
Карпова О. Л/. С л о в а р и с о в р е м е н н о г о а н гл и й с к о го я зыка: Ь и б .ш о ф а -
ф и ч е с к и й указатель. С П б . 2002.
К учин А . В К урс ф р а з е о л о г и и с о в р е м е н н о г о а н г л и й с к о г о я з ы к а
Уч е б н и к : п я и н ст и т у то в и ф ак у л ь тето в и н о с т р а н н ы х я зыков. — 2-е и и . ,
п е р е р а б — М .. Д у б н а . 19%.
М анерка Л . А Д и тм о л оти я а ж .1и Некого я зыка ч ер е з и с т о р и ю народа
В ел и к о б р и т ан и и Учеб п о с о б и е. — Р я зан ь, 1998.
М едникона Э. М. П р а к т и к у м п о л е к с и к о л о г и и а н г л и й с к о г о я зы к а
Учеб п о с о б и е дл я и н -т о в и ф а к . и н о с ф . яз. М . 1978.
Расторгуева Т А. И с т о р и я а н г л и й с к о г о » зыка* Учебник. — М .. 2тЮ1. —
на a m л яз.
С ч и р н и и к и и А И. Л е к ц и и п о и с т о р и и а н г л и й с к о г о я з ы к а - М..
2000
Телия В Н С е м а н т и к а м т и о м в ф у н к ц и о н а л ь н о - п а р а м е т р и ч е с к о м
и зображ енн и Ф р л гео граф и я в м а ш и н н о м ф о н д е русского я зы к а . М..
1990
1елия В .Н Русская ф р а з е о л о г и я С е м а н т и ч е с к и й , п р а г м а т и ч е с к и й
и ти н гв о к у л ьгу р зсю ги ч е ск и и а сп е к ты . — М .. 1996
П /неииер А .Л . Л и те р а ту р н ы й л ж л и н с к и н я з ы к в С Ш А и А ж л н и .
2-е изд.. с т е р е о т и п н о е . Ч . 2003.
B eiiy Keene Таska A m erican P atchw ork: A C o lle ctio n o f A m erican Short
S to n e s tor Advanced S tu d e n ts o f Fn glish as a f o r e ig n 1 anguage. — I S A .
1495
C rystal I) T h e C am bridg e Fncycfopcdia o f the Fnglish Language — 2-nd
edition - I K . 2004
H a n e y P.. Jones R. Britain Explored. I K. 2<W2.
M t Arthur T 1 he Oxford G u id e to W orld English — L SA, 2<>02
Palm er E R. Sem antics A New O u tlin e Прслмсл. и к о м м е н г М. В Н и ­
к и ти н а. — М .. .9X2.
2 79
Dictionaries

Симш рь соврем енного английского я тыка В 2 - \ г. — М .. 1992.


The Cam bridge A dvanced Learner's Dictionary. — I К. 2003
The Cam bridge InternationaI D ictionary o f Idioms. - I K. I99S.
The Collins C O B L '/L D English Guides: 2 W ord Formation. G re at
Britain. 1993.
The Collins G em Irish D ictionary — G re at Britain. 2003.
The Collins Gem Scots D ictionary. G re at Britain, 2003
The Longm an D ictionary o f Contemporary English — t k . 2003
The Longm an Idiom s D ictionary — U K . 2000.
I he Longm an Language Activator. I K . 1993
The Longm an WordW 'ise D ictio n a ry — I K. 2003
The M a c m illa n E n g lish D ic tio n a r y f o r A d v a n c e d L e a rn e r s —
International student edition — U K . 2002.
The S e u O xford D ictionary o f the English Language. N .Y . 190S
The O xford Concise Dictionary o f English Etymology — I K . 1993
Ih e O xford Dictionary o f English Idioms - U K , 2002
The O xford Elem entary I .earner's D ictionary U K . 2003.
The Penguin D ictionary o f English Idioms. — 2~IL' edition — L K. 200!
P hilip' v M odern School Allas. — 94 ’ edition — G re at Britain. 20o4,
Random House Roget's College Thesaurus USA. 2000

In tern et

http; en.w ikipedia org. wiki M ain Page


http: wwv, bartlehy corn reference
h t i p , . o n lin e .m u ltile 4.ru.
h up: , h o m ep a g es tversti.ru, - ips D ictionaries him
ЗН А КИ И С И М В О Л Ы . И С П О Л Ь З У Е М Ы Е Б ПОСОБИИ

2 — о б р а з е н в ы п о л н е н и я п р а к т и ч е с к о г о задания
* н а л и ч и е к лю чей к п р а к т и ч е с к и м .заданиям
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

П р е д и с л о в и е ....................................................................................................................... 3
P a r t I. I n t r o d u c t i on .................................................................................. 6
1 The O bject o f Lexicology Links o f Lexicology w ith O th e r Branches
o f L in g uistics................................................................................................................ 6
2 Tw o A pproaches to Language S tu d y ...................................................................... 8
3 T h e C o u rse o f M o d e m E nglish Lexicology ........................................................ 9
Q u e s t i o n s ............................................................................................. 9
P a r t I I S e m a s i o l o g y ................................................................... 11
C h a p te r 1 .............................................................................................................................. 11
1 M eaning as a Linguistic N o tio n .............................................................................. 11
LI. Referential o r Analytical D efinitio ns ol M e a n i n g .....................................12
1.2. F u n c tio n a l o r C o ntextu al D efinitio ns o f M e a n i n g ................................ 14
1.3. O perational o r In fo rm a tio n -O rie n te d D efinitions o f M eaning 14
2 I wo A pproaches to th e C o n te n t Facet o f Linguistic U nits N a m in g ............15
5 Types o f M eaning ...........................................................................................................17
4 Aspects o f Lexical M e a n i n g ........................................................................................18
Q uestions an d T a s k s ........................................................................................... 21
C h a p te r 2 ............. 25
1 W o rd -M e a n in g an d M o tiv a tio n ........................................................................ 25
2. C auses. N a tu re an d Results o f S em antic Сhange ............................. 27
3. P o l y s e m y ............................................................................................................. 29
3.1. D iachro nic a n d S ynchronic A pproaches to Polysemy............ ................ 30
3.2. H istorical Changeability of S em antic S t r u c tu r e ....................................... 31
3.3. Polysemy a n d C ontext. Types o f C o n t e x t ................................................ 32
4 H om onym y. Classification o f H o m o n y m s 33
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ........................................................................................... 34
C h a p t e r 3............................................................................................. 39
1. Intralinguistic Relations o f W o r d s ........................................................................ 39
2. T ypes o f S em an tic R e la ti o n s ................................................................................ 40
2.1. Proximity .................................................................................. 41
2.2 Eq uiva l e n c e ................... 41
2. 3 Inclusion H ypo nym ic S t r u c tu r e s ................................................................. 41
2.4 O p po sition ............................................................................................................42
3 S em antic Classification o f W o r d s ...................................................... 43
3.1. Synonymy. Classification o f S y n o n y m s ................................ 43
3. 2. Lexical a n d Terminological Sets. Lexic o -S e m a n tic G ro u p s and
Sem antic F ie ld s, 44
3. 3 Antonymy. Classification o f A n to n y m s ....................................................... 45
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ........................................................................................... 46

P a r t III W o r d - S t r u c t u r e 52
C hap ter 1 ................. 52
1 M orphem es. Classification o f M o r p h e m e s ......................................................... 52
2 Types o f M ean in g in M o r p h e m e s ........................................................................... 53

282
3. M o rp h e m ic Types o f W o r d s ..................................................................................... 55
4. T y p e o f W ord-Segm entability .................................................................................. 55
5 P ro ced ure o f M o rp h e m ic Analysis ......................................................................... 56
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ............................................................
C h a p te r 2 ............................................................................................................................... 61
1. Derivational S tru c tu re .................................................................................................61
2. Derivational Bases ....................................................................................................... 62
3. Derivational A ffix es...................................................................................................... 63
4. Derivational P a t t e r n s ................................................................................................... 64
5. H istorical Changeability o f W o rd -S tru c tu re ....................................................... 65
Q uestions a n d T a s k s .....................................................
P a r t I V W o r d - F o r m a t i o n ....................................................
Сh a p te r 1 .................................................................................................................................70
1. Various Types a n d Ways o f F orm ing W o r d s ........................................................ 70
2. A ffix atio n ................................................................................................................... 71
2. 1 S u ffixa tion. Classification o f S u ffix es......................................................... 7 2
2. 2 Prefixation Classification o f P r e f ix e s .......................................................... 73
3 Productive a n d N o n -P ro d u c tiv e A f f ix e s ............................................................. 74
4 Etym olo gy o f Derivational Affixes...........................................................................75
5. Valency o f Affixes a n d B a s e s .................................................................................. 77
Q uestions and T a s k s .......................................................................................... 78
C h a p te r 2 ..........................................................................
1 C o nversion Typical S em antic Relations in C o nversion ..................................87
2 D ia ch ro n ic Approach to C o n v e rs io n ...................................................................... 89
3. Basic C riteria o f S em an tic Derivation in C o n v e r s i o n .......................................89
4. W o rd -C o m p o sitio n . Types o f M eaning o f C o m p o u n d W ords. 91
5. Classification o f C om p o u n d Words ........................................................ 92
6 . C orrelational Types o f C o m p o u n d s .........................................................................93
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ............................................................................................. 96
P a r t V E ty m o lo g y o f t h e E n g lis h W o r d - S t o c k ........................................... 103
1. O rigin of English W o r d s ........................................................................................... 103
11. Words o f N a m e O r i g i n ................................................................. 103
1 2 Borrowed W ords ..................................... 105
2. Assimilation o f B o rro w in g s.................................................................................... 106
3. Influence o f Borrowing.............................................................................................. 108
Q uestions an d T a s k s ....................................................................................... 109
P a r t VI W o r d - G r o u p s and P h r a s e o l o g i c a l U n i t s ......................................121
C h a p te r I .............................................................................................................................. 121
1 Lexical a n d G ra m m a tic a l V alen cy.......................................................................... 121
2. S tru c tu re a n d Classification o f W o r d - G r o u p s ................................................ 122
3 Types o f M ean in g o f W o rd -G ro u p s ...................................................................... 123
4 . M otivation in W o rd -G ro u p s ................................................................................. 124
Questions a n d T a s k s .............................................................................. 124
C h a p te r 2 ..............................................................................................................................128
1. F ree W o rd -G ro u p s versus Phraseological U nits versus W o rd s .................. 128
1.1. Structural C r ite r io n ................................................................................ 129
1 .2 Sem antic C riterion .................................................................
1 .3 Syntactic С riterion ......................................................................................... 130

283
2. Sem antic S tru c tu re o f Phraseological U n i t s ........................................................ 131
3- T ypes o f Transference of Phraseological U n i t s .................................................. 133
4. Classification o f Phraseological U n i t s .................................................................. 134
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ........................................................................................ 136
P a r t V I I Variants and D ialects o f the English L a n g u a g e ................... 145
1. T h e M am Variants o f th e English Language .......... 145
1.1. Variants o f English in the U nited K i n g d o m ..............................................145
1.2. Variants o f English ou tside th e British I s l e s ............................................ 145
2. Som e Peculiarities o f British English a n d A m erican E n g lis h ....................... 154
3. Local D ialects in G re at B r ita in ............................................ 156
4 Local D ialects in th e U S A ........................................................................................159
5 Social Variation o f th e English L a n g u a g e .................... ................ .................... 161
5 I G e n d e r Issues ....................................................................................................161
5 2 O c cu p a tio n a l V arieties ....................................................................... 163
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ....................................................................................... 165
P a r t V I I I . English Lexicography........................................................... 177
1 Classification and Types o f D ic tio n arie s..................................................... 177
2. Som e o f the M am Problems in Lexicography.................................................179
3. T ypes a n d C o m m o n C haracteristics o f L earner's D ic tio n a rie s....................192
4. M o d e rn T rends in English Lexicography ............. 193
4.1 C o rp u s-B a se d le x ico g ra p h y ..................................................................... 194
4.2 C o m p u ta tio n a l Lexicography Electronic D ictionaries ................... 196
Q uestions a n d T a s k s ....................................................................................... 200
T e s t ........................................................................................................................................217
Answer Key to th e Test an d R e s u l ts .............................. 224
Answer Key to th e T a s k s ............................................................................................. 225
Part II. S e m asio lo g y ........................................................................................ 2 2 5
C hap ter 1 ................................................................................................................... 225
C hap ter 2 .............................................................................................................. 230
C h a p te r 3 ...................................................................................................................2 3 5
Part I I I . W o rd -S tru ctu re .............................................................. 238
C h a p te r 1 ................................................................................................................ 238
C h a p te r 2 .......................... 241
Part IV W o rd -F o rm atio n ........................................................................... 244
C hap ter 1 .................. 244
C h a p te r 2 ............................................................................................................... 250
P a n V. Etym ology o f the English W o r d - S t o c k ..........................................255
Pan VI. W o rd -G ro u p s a n d Phraseological U nits ..................... 265
C h a p te r 1 ................. 2 65
Сhapte r 2 ............................................................................................................... 265
Part VII. Variants and Dialects o f the English L a n g u a g e .................... 273
Part V I I I English Lexicography......................................................... 279
Bibliography....................................................................... .................................279
D ic tio n a rie s..................................... 280
Internet ............................................................... 250
Знаки и с и м в о л ы , используем ы е в п о с о б ии ....................................................28 1
Уч ебное и зд а ни е

Зыкова Ирина Владимировна


П рактически й курс английской лексикологии
A Practical Course in English Lexicology
Учебное пособие
Редактор М. В. Миронова
Ответственный редактор И. П. Галкина
Технический редактор О. Н. Крайнова
Компьютерная верстка; Н. В. Протасова
Корректор Е. И. Полякова